WorldWideScience

Sample records for single philosophical viewpoint

  1. Harold Stannet Williams and Nagasaki--from the viewpoint of philosophical anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 博

    2010-01-01

    From the viewpoint of philosophical anthropology, this paper will consider the true character of Harold Stannet Williams. In his book, The Story of HOLME RINGER and CO., LTD. IN WESTERN JAPAN 1868-1968, H.S. Williams indicates that he felt a great interest in Nagasaki. Williams rates Frederick Ringer's work highly. As a historian, Williams attached importance to a search for historical facts. At the same time, however, Williams emphasized the importance of 'soul’ in his writings. This paper w...

  2. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short Viewpoint paper considers the role and value of conference recommendations in shaping the field of environmental education. It explores the social politics, and often contested nature, of conference recommendations and their institutional histories, arguing that the act of producing conference recommendations ...

  3. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-10-03

    Oct 3, 2004 ... I find myself asking what do these statements really mean, what. Viewpoint. Education, Ethics and Values: A response to Peter Blaze Corcoran's keynote address,. EEASA 2003. Ursula van Harmelen. Rhodes University, South Africa. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education,Vol. 20, 2003.

  4. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the terms of reference for the Forum was to develop detailed recommendations for policies on environmental education and communication. This activity required the full support of government as well as. Viewpoint. Environmental Education Policy Development in Zimbabwe: An educational experience. Soul Shava.

  5. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    This viewpoint paper is written in response to a South African National Roads Agency (SANRAL) advertorial ... relevant literature on media studies, and we also look at the construction of the advertorial and the language and ..... Katie Farrington is currently an Environmental Education Masters student at Rhodes. University ...

  6. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The small-scale research study reported on in this Viewpoint paper was conducted to determine the extent to which experiential .... factors such as intellect – it includes emotional intelligence, social interaction and classroom ... of concepts and skills during fieldwork, an important goal is also that they become responsible.

  7. Can One Learn to Think Critically? – A Philosophical Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Within nursing, critical thinking is a required skill that educators strive to foster in their students’ development for use in complex healthcare settings. Hence the numerous studies published measuring critical thinking as a terminal outcome of education. However, an important comparison between different philosophical underpinnings such as person, truth and the nature of nursing, and how one defines and utilizes critical thinking in practice, has been absent from discussions about critical thinking and learning. When one views critical thinking with varying philosophical lenses, important questions are raised and discussion is expanded. These questions illuminate different perspectives of critical thinking and attempt to explore whether critical thinking can be learned in nursing. The implications of taking a single philosophical viewpoint and a pluralistic approach to understanding critical thinking and learning are explored. PMID:21760871

  8. Water drops kinematic analysis: the classic-quantum and single-multiparticle viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrachien, Daniele; Lorenzini, Giulio

    2013-03-01

    One of the most challenging modelling problems in science is that of a particle crossing a gaseous mean. In sprinkler irrigation this applies to a water droplet travelling from the nozzle to the ground. The challenge mainly refers to the intense difficulty in writing and solving the system of governing equations for such complicate process, where many non-linearities occur when describing the relations and dependences among one influential parameter and another. The problem becomes even more complicate when not just a single droplet alone is assessed but a multi-droplet system is accounted for as, in addition to the inter-parameter dependencies, it is also observed an inter-droplet reciprocal affection, mainly due to electrical interactions between the hydrogen and the oxygen atoms of the different water molecules. An alternative to traditional classic approaches to analyse water droplet dynamics in sprinkler irrigation have been recently proposed in the form of a quantum approach, but the whole classic-quantum and single-droplet versus multi-droplet alternatives need to be discussed and pinpointed and these are among the main aims of the present paper which focuses on the theoretical part of the issue, thus highlighting the new perspectives of a deeper comprehension in the spray flow related phenomena.

  9. Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophical Papers is a generalist journal of philosophy edited in the Department of Philosophy at Rhodes University. The journal appears three times a year; the November issue of every year is topic-based and guest-edited. The journal is published by Routledge (Taylor & Francis). Information regarding submissions ...

  10. Understanding philosophical animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Una

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the Predrag Krstić's book Philosophical Animal author is trying to find hers way through a broad and complex web of philosophies and roles that different animals play in them. The main question is how to understand philosophy itself in a present day context, which philosophy is supposed to think and rethink through. Animals as presented in concepts, more precisely philosophical contexts, open one interesting and innovative way to deal with this question, balancing between tradition of philosophy and its presence, structure of philosophical arguments and questioning of language of philosophy, abstract and individual. In this frame philosopher as the true philosophical animal is revealed as the main symbol that requires analysis in his philosophical strategies.

  11. Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the 21st Century. George N. Ngugi ... The relevance of planning education is questioned from the theoretical and philosophical perspectives on one hand, the professional and practical stance on the other. Its goals are scrutinized and its structure argued about.

  12. Philosophical Papers: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As all correspondence will be carried out electronically, authors are requested to include a current e-mail address with their submissions. Submission of critical notices. Philosophical Papers welcomes critical notices of recent philosophical works. Unless invited, critical notices are treated as original articles. We prefer critical ...

  13. Is Proust a philosopher?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Fraisse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different philosophers pondered on Proust’s novel, including those who formulated a subtle hypothesis that philosophical thought that emerged from the novel went beyond the passages of philosophical character that could be found in Proust’s work. It is difficult to determine precisely Proust’s approach towards the novel which he, alternately, favors or disdains. A hypothesis has been formulated that In Search of Lost Time shapes the fiction in the style of Shelling’s and Schopenhauer’s philosophy; it is pointed out that the novelist developed a kind of rivalry between him and his second cousin Bergson. Proust received a thorough education in philosophy yet philosophy is only present in his novel in an anecdotal form. The debate that he starts between idealism and philosophical realism in his prose takes the form of a discussion between symbolism and naturalism. The reconstruction of Proust’s philosophical culture leads to the observation that it is, without a doubt, significantly influenced in different ways by two philosophers: Leibniz and Kant. Still, the writer does not admit to being impacted by any particular thinker; therefore, his narrator’s line of thought is constantly changing in such a way that any school of philosophical thought that appears in the novel is present only for a short while.

  14. Philosophical Hermeneutic Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.

  15. ON EVIDENCE: APPROACH FROM THE PHILOSOPHICAL HERMENEUTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo García Rillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the term analytical evidence to reveal the original meaning of its application to account for hermeneutical situations in the world of life, the study was conducted from philosophical hermeneutics stating the following: viewpoint, understanding horizon and fusion of horizons. In the viewpoint uses of evidence are described. The horizon of understanding traces the history of the concept of evidence highlighting the perspective of Husserl. In the fusion of horizons evidence described in three levels of reality: perceived (evidence from beliefs, known (evidence from knowledge and constructed (deliberative evidence. We conclude that the historicity of the world allows rehabilitate the tradition and gives meaning to the evidence as the fact that it gets in the eyes through the original experience of hermeneutics situation that exists in practice.

  16. A puzzle for philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Lo Guercio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper I tackle a puzzle by Goldberg (2009 that challenges all of us as philosophers. There are three plausible thesis, separately defensible, that together seem to lead to a contradiction: 1 Reliability is a necessary condition for epistemic justification. 2 On contested matters in philosophy, philosophers are not reliable. 3 At least some philosophical theses regarding contested matters in philosophy are epistemically justified. In this paper I will assess the status of the puzzle and attempt to solve it. In the first section, I'll present the puzzle with a little more detail. Secondly, I'll provide some general arguments to show that the alleged puzzle is not a legitimate one. Finally, in section 3, I will argue that even assuming that the puzzle can be coherently formulated, Goldberg's arguments in favor of premise (2 are either unsound or too limited in their scope in order to represent a significant or interesting problem for philosophers.

  17. Autobiographies of philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lubas-Bartoszyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article Autobiographies of philosophers is composed of three parts. The first part presents the history of philosophic autobiography since antiquity and spiritual autobiography of Saint Augustine, through “Confessions” of J.J. Rousseau – the creator of modern autobiography, Pascal, G. Berkeley and S. Kierkegaard, back to “Ecce homo” of Nietzsche. The second part presents selected autobiographies of philosophers of the 20th century like an autobiography of B. Russell (three volumes, M. Bierdiaev, K. Jaspers. The third part is an interpretation of the intellectual autobiography of P. Ricoeur, in which the author reproduces history of intellectual and philosophic development and shows the dissimilarity of “idem” to his own identity.

  18. Introduction | Voice | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophical Papers. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 35, No 3 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Introduction | Metz | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophical Papers. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34, No 3 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Philosophical theories of probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gillies, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. Philosophical Theories of Probability is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.

  1. The Concept of Philosophical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyum, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Strangely, the concept of philosophical education is not much in use, at least not as a "philosophical" concept. In this essay, Steinar Boyum attempts to outline such a philosophical concept of philosophical education. Boyum uses Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Rene Descartes's life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics as paradigms…

  2. Philosophical Toys Today

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2013), s. 173-196 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : philosophical toys * scientific instruments * modern visual culture Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  3. PHILOSOPHERS BEFORE AND AFTER SPACEFLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Grigenti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In my contribution, I will show the ways by which philosophers have treated the topic of space-travel before and after its implementation. I will discuss the following points: a Introduction: the human condition. b Philosophers before spaceflight: the Astolfo Protocol. c Philosophers after spaceflight: the Promethean suspect. In this paper I will emphasize the elements of two different and alternative visions of spaceflight that can be found in the Western tradition of philosophical thought.

  4. YHWH and the God of philosophical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J W Gericke

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In popular orthodox Christian philosophical theology, it is often taken for granted that the divine philosophised about is none other than the Hebrew deity YHWH himself. Moreover , it is often assumed that the Old� Testament depicts YHWH as being, inter alia, single, omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, and eternal. Now while it is to be admitted that there are indeed depictions of YHWH in the Old Testament in which his profile might be thought of as corresponding more or less to the popular philosophical ideal, it is also true that there are many representations that contradict it. In this article, the author looks at how the popular profile of� YHWH in the Old Testament as reconstructed by some philosophical theologians claiming to be �biblical�� is deconstructed when it is juxtaposed with alternative renderings of the divine in the same texts.

  5. Viewpoint-based ambient occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Francisco; Sbert, Mateu; Feixas, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    A new ambient occlusion technique builds a channel between various viewpoints and an object's polygons, providing the information needed to create an occlusion map with multiple application possibilities.

  6. Viewpoint A Viewpoint of Personal Aesthetic Preferences and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viewpoint A Viewpoint of Personal Aesthetic Preferences and Aesthetic Education, Landscape Theory and Survival in the Kalahari Region of South Africa: Implications ... of what aesthetic education might have required from their ancestors in prehistoric times and what this might imply for educationalists in the 21st Century.

  7. Joseph Hooker: a philosophical botanist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-04-24

    Apr 24, 2008 ... Keywords. History of botany; Hooker Joseph Dalton; imperial science; philosophical botany ... However, he preferred to refer to himself as a philosophical botanist, rather than a professional. This paper explores the reasons for this choice, and analyses Hooker's imperial approach to plant classification, the ...

  8. On Harold's "Translucent Reality": A Philosophical and Religious Interpretation of "Harold and the Purple Crayon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, one of the most popular children's picture books, Harold and the Purple Crayon, is examined in terms of philosophical and religious viewpoints. Harold, a young inquisitive boy, seemingly travels in his world in which he finds himself dealing with various situations. Harold's adventure with his purple crayon reminds us the…

  9. Is Odysseus a philosopher?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Irina J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author attempts to demonstrate that certain philosophical questions are articulated in Homer's Odyssey, especially those that consider the relationship between truth, probability, and falsehood. First, the author discusses the following two assertions: 'Nobody is my name' and 'Nobody will I eat last among his comrades.' When asked by the one-eyed giant Polyphemus what his name really is, Odysseus replies that his name is 'Nobody'. Thereon, Polyphemus says that he will eat 'Nobody', considering 'Nobody' to be 'Somebody'. What appears to be a word-game is in fact an indicator of the necessity to determine the role of negative pronouns in a language, as well as to question their referential status. The negative pronouns like nobody or no one imply the non-existence of someone who can be described as 'nobody' or 'no one'. They can only designate, but they are non-referential. Because Polyphemus does not understand the sense of the negative pronouns, he believes that there is such a man, who is called 'Nobody', and whom he will eat. Therefore, one may claim that Homer's Odysseus discovers the meaning and role of the negative pronouns in a natural language, as well as how the misuse of these words can become a generator in lying and deceiving. Homer distinguishes two types of lies: 1 the absolute falsehoods, which are lies under all circumstances, and 2 the falsehoods which 'seem like the truth'. Most of Homer's Odysseus fantastic tales are of that kind - they are neither true nor false, but they 'seem like the truth'. The truth status of fiction as resembling the truth is one of Homer's discoveries, since he held that his main protagonist's narrations are neither true nor false, but they resemble the truth. The narrations should be as consistent and plausible as possible, in order to describe not what really happened, but 'what could have been happened', as Aristotle would claim. In the course of the paper, the author has

  10. Philosophical aesthetics and cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskin, Aaron; Robson, Jon; Ichino, Anna; Goffin, Kris; Monseré, Annelies

    2018-01-01

    Philosophical aesthetics is the branch of philosophy which explores issues having to do with art, beauty, and related phenomena. Philosophers have often been skeptical about the place of empirical investigation in aesthetics. However, in recent years many philosophical aestheticians have turned to cognitive science to enrich their understanding of their subject matter. Cognitive scientists have, in turn, been inspired by work in philosophical aesthetics. This essay focuses on a representative subset of the areas in which there has been fruitful dialog between philosophical aestheticians and cognitive scientists. We start with some general topics in philosophical aesthetics-the definition of art and the epistemic status of aesthetic judgments. We then move on to discussing research concerning the roles that imagination and perception play in our aesthetic engagement. We conclude with a discussion of the emerging field of experimental philosophical aesthetics. WIREs Cogn Sci 2018, 9:e1445. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1445 This article is categorized under: Philosophy > Value. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. La voix du philosophe Laruelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Kieffer

    2018-03-01

    (Abstract   What is a voice in the context of the arts and philosophy? In the space of the philosopher's voice, in the complex grammar of his language is played his philosophical timbre, his own space, his particular voice, composed of concepts, articulated by the laws of coherence of the common philosophical language, with hypnotic specificities. These specificities are precisely the fruit of processes formerly called rhetoric, which I call non-hypnotics (of generalized hypnotic space, one of whose functions is just to speak in a double space: the common reference space of the reader or listener, and the conceptual virtual space peculiar to the philosopher. To the extent that the reader must pay increased and permanent attention to this double space, the philosophical trance effect, equivalent to the Ericksonian hypnotic trance, is facilitated. The difficulty of this double reading is the incessant passage from one code to another, which is also a hypnotic fascination. Heidegger prolongs and renews its structures and draws some effects from them, which provoke in the mind of the reader as an over-flow, a saturation effect, which itself favors the philosophical trance. Thus, each voice seeks to captivate the mind by confusing it with concepts, which seem at first sight familiar, but which reveal themselves with the use which is made, like formidable concepts to the power of unaccustomed fascination. One of the pleasures of reading Lareuelle's philosophy is due to this type of fascination with the philosophical voice and its language.

  12. Perspectives and reconciliation of viewpoints on risk assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    It is important to recognize the distinction between risk assessment and its components which include risk analysis, perspectives study, and decision analysis. Divergence of opinion within the scientific community as well as the public at large is a characteristic of issues related to nuclear power. The divergent opinions can largely be characterized as either optimistic or pessimistic in nature. Reconciliation of divergent viewpoints presents some difficult challenges. It is doubtful that issues which have an emotional or philosophical basis can be resolved through technical efforts. Public education on the technical issues might prove helpful

  13. Book Review | Pleasants | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Judging and Understanding: Essays on Free Will, Narrative, Meaning and the Ethical Limits of Condemnation, edited by Pedro Alexis Tabensky, Ashgate 2006. Philosophical Papers Vol. 37 (1) 2008: pp. 177-184 ...

  14. The philosopher and the phenomenologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Valli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the relation between philosophy and philosophical practice in the husserlian paradigm of phenomenology. The role and the method that Husserl conceives for the philosopher are related unavoidably to his theoretical system. During his long and hard work, he deals with the question of the genesis of logic in the platonic-aristotelic dichotomy, with the connection between philosophy and objective sciences and with the problem of phenomenology as descriptive practice. Thanks to this reflections, in The crisis of european sciences he conceives the role of the philosopher with a precise historical and ethical function. This new model represents one of the last philosophical systems as a universal theory.

  15. The idea of philosophical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernilo, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  16. Ergological viewpoint in real-life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H

    1997-12-01

    I think that real-life studies on human work must be done, if possible, not objectively, but subjectively from an ergological viewpoint. Essentially, I consider ergology as the biology of human living and work, along German biologist Haeckel's idea. He considered ergology a field of anthropology. The instinctive (genetic) element and the learned (environmental) element constitute human behavior. It is conceivable that the adaptation by human learnability has today brought about high-tech society, and genetic human attributes (human nature) have been adapted to the living environment of hunters and gatherers, which has been long-lasting in human history. Hunters-gatherers form a band consisting of about 50 (30-100) persons and move in a more or less vaguely defined territory (1,000-3,000 km2). The unsuitableness of human nature for modern scientific civilization has caused various problems. Always keeping human nature in mind when considering human living and work is the philosophical background of human ergology. Two real-life working conditions in agriculture, the packing of leeks and promoting a system for securing employees in strawberry production, are presented.

  17. Epicureanism as a Foundation for Philosophical Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Fatić, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the manner and extent to which Epicurean ethics can serve as a general philosophy of life, capable of supporting philosophical practice in the form of philosophical counseling. Unlike the modern age academic philosophy, the philosophical practice movement portrays the philosopher as a personal or corporate advisor, one who helps people make sense of their experiences and find optimum solutions within the context of their values and general preferences. Philosophical counse...

  18. Teens at Risk: Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egendorf, Laura K., Ed.; Hurley, Jennifer A., Ed.

    Contributions in this collection present opposing viewpoints about factors that put teens at risk; illustrate how society can deal with teenage crime and violence; show how to prevent teen pregnancy; and present the roles of the media and government in teen substance abuse. The following essays are presented: (1) "A Variety of Factors Put Teens at…

  19. Philosophic foundations of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Reichenbach, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Physics concerns direct analysis of the physical world, while philosophy analyzes knowledge about the physical world. This volume combines both disciplines for a philosophical interpretation of quantum physics - an interpretation free from the imprecision of metaphysics, offering a view of the atomic world and its quantum mechanical results as concrete as the visible everyday world.Written by an internationally renowned philosopher who specialized in symbolic logic and the theory of relativity, this approach consists of three parts. The first section, which requires no background in math or p

  20. Philosophical Foundations of Intuitionistic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nabavi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Intuitionistic logic, as a non-classical logic, encompasses the principles of logical reasoning which were used by L. E. J. Brouwer in developing his intuitionistic mathematics. Brouwer rejected the principle of the excluded middle on the basis of his philosophy. In his philosophical view, logic is the application of mathematics to the language of mathematics. In other words, logic studies the patterns that characterize valid inference. The resulting linguistic system of logic may be studied mathematically, even independently of the mathematical activities that it was originally abstracted from. In this paper, the philosophical basis of Brouwer’s view about Logic and Mathematics is explained.

  1. Philosophical Foundations of Intuitionistic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nabavi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intuitionistic logic, as a non-classical logic, encompasses the principles of logical reasoning which were used by L. E. J. Brouwer in developing his intuitionistic mathematics. Brouwer rejected the principle of the excluded middle on the basis of his philosophy. In his philosophical view, logic is the application of mathematics to the language of mathematics. In other words, logic studies the patterns that characterize valid inference. The resulting linguistic system of logic may be studied mathematically, even independently of the mathematical activities that it was originally abstracted from. In this paper, the philosophical basis of Brouwer’s view about Logic and Mathematics is explained.

  2. Juvenile Crime. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, A. E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explores many aspects of juvenile crime. It is a commonly held view that the number of crimes committed by juveniles is…

  3. Illegal Immigration. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of illegal immigration. Contrary depictions of the aspirations and attitudes of illegal immigrants fuel…

  4. In Defense of Philosophical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Donnie J.

    1977-01-01

    Self defends his August, 1976 article (EJ 152 757) which is a philosophical analysis of John Dewey's pragmatist value theory as found in"Theory of Valuation". His comments are in response to Burnett's criticism in this month's issue (AA 526 451). (Author/RK)

  5. Moral Cognitivism | Lillehammer | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explicates a set of criteria the joint satisfaction of which is taken to qualify moral judgements as cognitive. The paper examines evidence that some moral judgements meet these criteria, and relates the resulting conception of moral judgements to ongoing controversies about cognitivism in ethics. Philosophical ...

  6. Religion as a philosophical matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albinus, Lars

    Is it philosophically enlightening to regard religion as a kind of world-relation? How does philosophy itself relate to the world? And how is philosophy related to religion? In this book, Lars Albinus fleshes out these questions by trying to conceptualize human concerns with naming the world, mak...

  7. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  8. Joseph Hooker: a philosophical botanist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-04-24

    Apr 24, 2008 ... The nineteenth-century British botanist, Joseph Dalton Hooker, was one of the people whose career became a model for that of the modern, professional scientist. However, he preferred to refer to himself as a philosophical botanist, rather than a professional. This paper explores the reasons for this choice, ...

  9. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  10. Philosophical explorations on energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Robert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel

  11. Life Lessons from the Philosophers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott; Novick, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A Boston school for grades 6-12 is making a deliberate effort to help students develop ethical minds. Each year, all students take an ethical philosophy class in which they discuss the school's core values and how these values are addressed in the writings of such philosophers as Aristotle and Rousseau. Through these classes, students develop a…

  12. Special Needs: A Philosophical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmas, Simo

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to illuminate a central concept and idea in special education discourse, namely, "special needs". It analyses philosophically what needs are and on what grounds they are defined as "special" or "exceptional". It also discusses whether sorting needs into ordinary and special is discriminatory. It is argued that individualistic…

  13. SUPERNATURALISM AND THE PHILOSOPHICAL CHARACTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    philosophy or, rather, the exploitation of such positions by philosophers. In this essay, I do not intend to discuss the often-cited exclusion of. Africa in Hegel's philosophy of history from the historical races of the world, neither do I intend to look at views expressed earlier by Hume and Kant about Africans. “Hume, Kant and ...

  14. Choosing a Methodology: Philosophical Underpinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As a university lecturer, I find that a frequent question raised by Masters students concerns the methodology chosen for research and the rationale required in dissertations. This paper unpicks some of the philosophical coherence that can inform choices to be made regarding methodology and a well-thought out rationale that can add to the rigour of…

  15. Demystifying Meaning | Longworth | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some philosophers find linguistic meaning mysterious. Two approaches suggest themselves for removing the felt mystery, or demystifying meaning. One involves providing a substantive account of meaning in meaning-free terms. Although this approach has come under serious attack in recent years, Paul Horwich has ...

  16. Curriculum Development: A Philosophical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, William H.

    Presenting models based on the philosophies of Carl Rogers, John Dewey, Erich Fromm, and Jean-Paul Sartre, this paper proposes a philosophical approach to education and concludes with pragmatic suggestions concerning teaching based on a fully-functioning-person model. The fully-functioning person is characterized as being open to experience,…

  17. The scientist as philosopher philosophical consequences of great scientific discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Weinert, Friedel

    2005-01-01

    How do major scientific discoveries reshape their originators’, and our own, sense of reality and concept of the physical world? The Scientist as Philosopher explores the interaction between physics and philosophy. Clearly written and well illustrated, the book first places the scientist-philosophers in the limelight as we learn how their great scientific discoveries forced them to reconsider the time-honored notions with which science had described the natural world. Then, the book explains that what we understand by nature and science have undergone fundamental conceptual changes as a result of the discoveries of electromagnetism, thermodynamics and atomic structure. Even more dramatically, the quantum theory and special theory of relativity questioned traditional assumptions about causation and the passage of time. The author concludes that the dance between science and philosophy is an evolutionary process, which will keep them forever entwined.

  18. John Dewey--Philosopher and Educational Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Kandan

    2015-01-01

    John Dewey was an American philosopher and educator, founder of the philosophical movement known as pragmatism, a pioneer in functional psychology, and a leader of the progressive movement in education in the United States.

  19. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As awareness grows that social justice and the protection of nature are closely related. (see Brechin, et al., ... human organisation, than of formal, empirical ecological science; and the sociopolitical realm is seen as ... some political ecologists stress not only a 'post-structuralist sensibility to discourse' (Berglund. & Anderson ...

  20. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domain of the two RCE communities of practice is a response to environment and sustainability concerns through ESD. This domain was also characterised by supporting sustainable living choices and health and nutrition in the community. one of the principal defining factors of community is having a shared interest, ...

  1. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper highlights efforts during this period to provide relevant education and enhance development of environmental education skills as well as life skills for school candidates and community members.This paper provides background information and highlights several issues associated with current policies in operation ...

  2. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Briefly, this landscape type includes these elements: • Open spaces of low (or mown) grasses interspersed with thickets of bushes and ..... pleasures of playing video games or listening to fugues derive from instinctive processes that were in place tens of thousands of years ago?' What about movies that are so freely ...

  3. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10% of green house gas emissions while using fossil fuel contributes the remaining 80-90%. So by funding and supporting REDD, ..... Sue must buy me lunch for one week for promoting her work in ..... were explaining the work of ABN and the new initiative of connecting Asia, Africa and Latin. America to the people around ...

  4. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    construction of the Kariba Dam between Zambia and Zimbabwe, and informal settlements in South Africa. It examines ... are caused by natural phenomena such as floods, droughts, fire, storms, landslides and volcanic eruptions. ..... a response to the risks of road traffic accidents, one of the major causes of deaths in Zambia,.

  5. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    Natural resource management (NRM) education has the potential to improve the quality and relevance of rural education in South ... NRM into the curriculum of rural schools in the Eastern Cape, as a strategy towards improving the quality and .... Finding information on local nature reserves or game parks. The syllabus and ...

  6. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imperative of education as encapsulated by the Global Education for All Monitoring Report of. 2005 which states that not only cognitive understanding, but also the promotion of values and attitudes/skills are central to responsible behaviour (2005:17). Among scholars of environmental education and LO, there is widespread ...

  7. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    the extent to which they 'value' and act on this input that matters the most. Richter (1998:2) further states that as a ... The company values input from all stakeholders... and is proudly South African. ... for example, is highly unlikely to be working within the same discourse as a journalist writing for. Enviro-Teach, or a dramatist ...

  8. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESD aims to develop an understanding of the interdependence of life on earth for effective use of resources – to achieve a balance between ecology, economy and society's needs. It helps develop ... question is whether universities are managing to develop responsible citizens who can take charge of their lives and ensure ...

  9. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    There seems to be an emerging dislocation in views on environment. This is manifesting in a tendency to separate out the social from the biophysical and social becomes an environmental issue in its own right, and because social issues are so prominent and dominant in society, the biophysical seems to be...

  10. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work became over-emphasised in schools, as a result of which pupils grew to dislike self- reliance activities and all other ... develops school curricula under the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC), revisited the school curricula and updated them after .... It is hoped that the end result will be development of appropriate ...

  11. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    Now, as we enter a 'Decade of Education for Sustainable Development', we run the danger of finding environmental ... in the wake of a movement to re-direct environmental education activities to focus on the dire personal and social problems affecting ..... 'psychological' is a dangerous form of reductionism. It ignores, for ...

  12. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall the paper aims to offer new insights and perspectives and to contribute towards ... Tania katzschner, University of Cape Town, South Africa ... meaning of human learning in the context of our turbulently changing planetary society as distinct from the much more linearly conceived world of the past. I propose that new.

  13. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental slogans such as 'Caring for the Earth' (IUCN & UNEP, 1991), also called. 'Earth stewardship' (Chapin et al., 2011) can be powerful memes. A call to voluntary, unselfish actions, where everyone shows leadership and takes responsibility to promote the long-term sustainability of Earth (Barendse et al., 2016), ...

  14. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    it was to be some time still before the need for women's participation in environmental matters was overtly recognised in international deliberations. Rodda points out that even the landmark. Brundtland report of 1987 (Our Common Future) made only passing reference to women, and that it was not until UNEP's 1988 State ...

  15. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    All that is unhuman is not un-kind, outside kinship … (Haraway1 in Goodeve,. 2002, page ... There are problems with seeing the discourse and practice of educators as 'skills' (Fairclough,. n.d.). First, it assumes that a skill can .... but black Zimbabweans are, as a result, facing food shortages and starvation. Hurting the 'other'.

  16. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge bases developed over time, environmental education does not, and is also less easy to integrate into teacher education programmes. In this paper, the policy framework for teacher education in South Africa is explored so as to develop ideas for knowledge selection and inclusion in environmental education for ...

  17. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reciprocal visits to each others' classrooms and participation in video conferences together. Once completed, the materials will ... importantly of all, it is intended for joint use in Grades 4-6 classrooms in the two countries. An important secondary aim of ... teaching over the internet using video-conferencing. Research Focus.

  18. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    key principles supporting South Africa's recently implemented National Curriculum Statement. Despite ... movement are: '1. the civil rights movement as led by African-Americans and other disenfranchised people of colour; .... National Congress (ANC), the Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO), the Pan African. Congress ...

  19. Consistency in multi-viewpoint architectural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Dijkman, Remco Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework that aids in preserving consistency in multi-viewpoint designs. In a multi-viewpoint design each stakeholder constructs his own design part. We call each stakeholder’s design part the view of that stakeholder. To construct his view, a stakeholder has a viewpoint.

  20. Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    philosophy to business ethics and the ethics of organizations. Although the book covers a wide range of philosophers and philosophical movements, there is a core and deep unity of the book. This is the demonstration of how the conceptual resources of contemporary French philosophy from the early 20th Century...... to the present day can be applied to give us new perspectives on business ethics and the ethics of organizations.......This article gives an overview of my book French Philosophy and Social Theory. A Perspective for Ethics and Philosophy of Management, published by Springer 2014. As an extension of my earlier work on French philosophy, this book provides an application of important concepts from contemporary French...

  1. Three Religious Philosophic Models of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Pivovarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  The research paper deals with the concept of creativity and is aimed at demonstrating the paradoxical nature of the creative action. Generally, in modern world, creativity is defined as the «newness creating». However, this is not the only viewpoint, as in different cultures there traditionally compete three generalized definitions of creativity: 1 newness is a recurrence of the old; 2 newness is a unique synthesis of old forms; 3 newness arises from nothing. It has been demonstrated that the above formulas of creativity originate from the three equally strong religious traditions – pantheism, panentheism and monotheism. According to the author, the pantheistic scheme, being applied to human creativity, explains the specificity of scientific theoretical activity. In scientific sphere, as it is well-known, the highest creative achievement is related to discovery (not invention of fundamental laws of nature dissimilated in a variety of natural phenomena, and predeter- mining them. From the panentheistic model, on the other hand, the secular philosophy deduces the special theory of human creativity, viewed as a free construction and invention, rather then simple discovery of something that already exists. Evidently, the given model appeals to the engineering sphere providing the basis for a number of theories related to inventions and rationalizations. Therefore, the mechanism of inventions is quite simple, and the mass creativity training is possible. Whereas, according to monotheism, creativity is necessarily related to mystery, and therefore, this sort of training is impossible, and the pedagogic technology of creativity is regarded as non- sense. However, such opposing views are quite lawful being proved by the numerous facts of innovations in human history. Using the method of philosophic dialectics, the author achieves a paradoxical synthesis of the above mentioned alternative positions. In author’s opinion, the paradox of creativity

  2. Three Religious Philosophic Models of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Pivovarov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  The research paper deals with the concept of creativity and is aimed at demonstrating the paradoxical nature of the creative action. Generally, in modern world, creativity is defined as the «newness creating». However, this is not the only viewpoint, as in different cultures there traditionally compete three generalized definitions of creativity: 1 newness is a recurrence of the old; 2 newness is a unique synthesis of old forms; 3 newness arises from nothing. It has been demonstrated that the above formulas of creativity originate from the three equally strong religious traditions – pantheism, panentheism and monotheism. According to the author, the pantheistic scheme, being applied to human creativity, explains the specificity of scientific theoretical activity. In scientific sphere, as it is well-known, the highest creative achievement is related to discovery (not invention of fundamental laws of nature dissimilated in a variety of natural phenomena, and predeter- mining them. From the panentheistic model, on the other hand, the secular philosophy deduces the special theory of human creativity, viewed as a free construction and invention, rather then simple discovery of something that already exists. Evidently, the given model appeals to the engineering sphere providing the basis for a number of theories related to inventions and rationalizations. Therefore, the mechanism of inventions is quite simple, and the mass creativity training is possible. Whereas, according to monotheism, creativity is necessarily related to mystery, and therefore, this sort of training is impossible, and the pedagogic technology of creativity is regarded as non- sense. However, such opposing views are quite lawful being proved by the numerous facts of innovations in human history. Using the method of philosophic dialectics, the author achieves a paradoxical synthesis of the above mentioned alternative positions. In author’s opinion, the paradox of creativity

  3. Philosophical introduction to set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The primary mechanism for ideological and theoretical unification in modern mathematics, set theory forms an essential element of any comprehensive treatment of the philosophy of mathematics. This unique approach to set theory offers a technically informed discussion that covers a variety of philosophical issues. Rather than focusing on intuitionist and constructive alternatives to the Cantorian/Zermelian tradition, the author examines the two most important aspects of the current philosophy of mathematics, mathematical structuralism and mathematical applications of plural reference and plural

  4. IMPLIED AUTHOR IN PHILOSOPHICAL NOVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Senkāne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article falls within a number of papers about research on specification of philosophical novels. The aim of this article is to analyze author’s function as a narrative category in classical philosophical novels (Franz Kafka "The Trial" (1925, "The Castle" (1926, Jean-Paul Sartre "Nausea" (1938, Hermann Hesse "The Glass Bead Game" (1943, Albert Camus "The Plague" (1947 and a novel of Latvian prose writer Ilze Šķipsna "Neapsolītās zemes" ["Un-Promised Lands"] (1970. The analysis is based on theoretical ideas of structural narratologists Gerard Genette, William Labov, Seymuor Chatman, Wolf Schmid, as well as philosophers Edmund Husserl, Jean-Paul Sartre, Paul Ricouer and semioticians Yuri Lotman (Юрий Лотман and Umberto Eco. The real author can ”enter” the text only indirectly—as an image, with the help of the storyteller, and the way how this ”entry” happens is determined by the narration of the real author or narrative (communication skills of the author. Thus, the author and implied author are functionally different concepts: author as a real person develops the concept idea, his intention is to define the concept under his original vision; narrator, in its turn, communicates with the reader, representing the concept, and his aim is to select appropriate means of communication with regard to reader’s perceptual abilities.

  5. Mario Bunge: Physicist and Philosopher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in the final year of the First World War.He learnt atomic physics and quantum mechanics from an Austrian refugee who had been a student of Heisenberg. Additionally he taught himself modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater. He was the first South American philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise on Philosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of the Enlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planks of the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, rationality, and respect for individuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy of science, educational research and science teaching are recognised - it is salutary to see the fruits of one person's pursuit of the Big'' scientific and philosophical picture.

  6. Philosophical Rationalism in Shia Kalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ali Dibaji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One important question that the emergence of philosophical or rational Kalam has raised is what rationalism in the so-called Kalami (theological schools actually means. This paper investigates the answers to the aforementioned question in Shi’a Kalam. Also, we have a comparative look at the philosophical Kalam and the rational one, concluding the identity of Shi’a Kalam with Shi’a philosophy. In this work, we have referred to three types of rationalism: personal, Vahmi (imaginal, and Hikmi (philosophical rationalism. In short, our answer to the above question would be that, Shi’a Kalam – specially in Khaje Nasir’s works – is based on Hikmah (philosophy, and so, rationalism in this school does not refer but to this approach. This type of rationalism is in contrast to the personal or Vahmi rationalism. As a matter of fact, Those Mutakalims (theologians, who use Hikmi rationalism, don’t try to criticize philosophy or elicit from it; they just try to employ the principles, foundations, and results of Hikmah to explain, justify, and defend their religious beliefs

  7. Considerations on Legal and Philosophical Problems in Experimental Botany: The case of plant in vitro cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kleszcz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper consists of two parts. In the first, some issues related to the character of biological experiments conducted under in vitro cultures are portrayed. The relevant aspects of these procedures are explicated from the viewpoint of the experimental botanist. It is a case study for the considerations in the second part, which presents selected philosophical and legal issues involved in biological experiments from the general perspective of philosophical investigations concerning the problem of plants’ axiology. Obviously, the nature of the considerations is limited; not all important questions from the perspective of biology and philosophy have been raised. Nevertheless, the authors hope that the analyzed issues may be interesting for both biologists and philosophers.

  8. A New Philosophical Underpinning of Macromarketing Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new philosophical foundation for analyzing macromarketing issues, and for further development of macromarketing theory, building on the language philosophy developed by the German/British philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. The building blocks are a number philosophical thoughts...... and concepts: “language is autonomous”, “concept”, “seeing as”, “language-games”, etc. In this paper these philosophical thoughts and concepts combine so that they over time form recursive processes which spiral. These processes are taken as the philosophical foundation for researching the language and actions...

  9. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  10. INFORMATIZATION: PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosolapov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Computerization and informatization in recent decades gave the mankind automated electronic document management systems, automated process of production, Internet and network information resources WWW, expanded the communications capabilities and led to the globalization of the information society. At the same time gives rise to a number of processes of informatization philosophical and anthropological problems, that has become an existential character. It is necessary to identify and understanding of these issues on the basis of the gnoseological model of the evolution informatization paradigms and determine their main characteristics. Methodology. The system-activity approach was used; it allowed identifying and analyzing the impact of the main components of information and communication technologies (ICT for educational activities. And further to present them as a unified system of human activity in conditions computerization/informatization. The philosophical principles: a comprehensive review of the subject, the unity of the logical and historical, ascending from the abstract to the concrete was used. The general scientific principles: unity and development of the system, the decomposition hierarchy, individualization and cooperation, diversity and taxonomy were applied. Findings.The three-stage gnoseological model of the paradigms computerization/informatization evolution was proposed by the author. It is based on three information system characteristics: speed, interface and data access. The seven-bar anthrop-centric model, which is called the architecture of information systems (AIS, which describes the changes in their types of procuring, was proposed for each paradigm. The philosophical-anthropological problems that affect negatively its progress were formulated for each stage of modern information society transformation. Originality. The gnoseological model of development processes of informatization in the form of three

  11. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  12. Philosophical aspects of modern cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Cosmology is the attempt to understand in scientific terms the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. This ambition has been with us since the ancient Greeks, even if the developments in modern cosmology have provided a picture of the universe dramatically different from that of Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle. The cosmological thinking of these figures, e.g. the belief in uniform circular motion of the heavens, was closely related to their philosophical ideas, and it shaped the field of cosmology at least up to the times of Copernicus and Kepler.

  13. Dementia: sociological and philosophical constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J

    2004-01-01

    This analysis presents a challenge to the biomedical view of dementia as a disease. This view is critiqued from two perspectives: those of sociology and philosophy. Because these domains inform the creation of the medical discourse, their analysis provides an important refinement to the apprehension of the phenomenon of dementia. From the work of Foucault, and in particular his analysis of the historical origins of modern medicine, the sociological construction of dementia is considered. Following this, the philosophical question of Being is discussed, considering particularly the positions of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Lastly aspects of dementia nursing that are damaging to those relatives forced to take on the role of primary carer are isolated, in the context of Kitwood's view that it is possible to maintain personhood at the extremes of this condition. It is suggested that this critique of sociological and philosophical foundations of dementia might offer a way of approaching the dismantling of the self and revise current conceptions of dementia care for the better.

  14. Evaluating the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mardiana; Pujiati Suyata

    2017-01-01

    The study was to: (1) identify the interpretation toward the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum; and (2) evaluate the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum. In order to achieve these objectives, the researchers implemented the method of philosophy interpretation, namely a method that might discover an individual’s paradigm through the texts or the articles that he or she composed. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum the researchers ...

  15. Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Maurita

    2015-12-01

    is a conception developed by Merleau-Ponty, especially in his later ontology of nature, and one that is shared by American pragmatist philosopher of science, C.S. Peirce (1839-1914). For both philosophers, meaning must be understood in terms of an ontology which is relational rather than atomistic, and dynamic or processual rather than static and substance-based. For Merleau-Ponty this is an experientially-derived ontology; for Peirce it is a more conceptually-based one. In this paper, I explore this connection between these two philosophers in two stages. The first is by reference to Peirce's theory of signs or semiotics. More specifically, I look at the application of this theory to the study of biological processes as developed in Peirce-inspired biosemiotics. In the light of this, I suggest that Merleau-Ponty's account of intentional relations in nature might be articulated as semiotic relations, and can serve as a philosophical basis for a non-reductive biological science. I then turn to questions relating to the ontology of nature. I explore Merleau-Ponty's experientially-based "ontology of flesh" and Peirce's distinctive form of naturalism to show affinities at this ontological level. These affinities consist in commitments to a reality that includes possibility, meaning, temporality, and final causation - that is, an ontology which is far more inclusive than that of conventional positivistic science. Peirce's broader scientific metaphysics enables us to extend Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological naturalism beyond the biological to the physical sciences. Whilst Merleau-Ponty's ontology of nature provides the experiential basis necessary for a critique of scientism, Peirce establishes the relevance of that ontology for a re-conceived empirical science. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  17. The Philosophical Foundations of Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Aristotle

    The current lifelong learning movement, the new force toward global education, owes much to the League of Nations and the United Nations that sponsored an expanded multiracial "polis." Its philosophical foundations go back, however, to ancient China, India, and especially Greece, where philosophers and scientists got their creative…

  18. Human Freedom and the Philosophical Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to describe the essential features of the Western philosophical tradition can often be characterized as "boundary work", that is, the attempt to create, promote, attack, or reinforce specific notions of the 'philosophical' in order to demarcate it as a field of intellectual inquiry. During the last century, the dominant tendency…

  19. Understanding Philosophical Counseling | Sivil | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    philosophical counseling by exploring its points of convergence to and deviation from its complimentary parts – philosophy and counseling. The practical and applied orientation of philosophical counseling seems worlds apart from what many consider to exemplify philosophy – theoretical, intellectual and abstract concern ...

  20. Two Forms of Philosophical Argument or Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, James D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the author looks at two forms of philosophical argument or critique. These are derived by himself from the work of the late Kantian scholar, Stephan Korner who, in his book "What is Philosophy?" (1969), draws a number of distinctions between different forms of "philosophical" argument or critique. The two forms of derived argument,…

  1. The historical and philosophical origins of normativism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh Novaes, C.

    2011-01-01

    Elqayam & Evans' (E&E's) critique of normativism is related to an inherently philosophical question: Is thinking a normative affair? Should thinking be held accountable towards certain norms? I present the historical and philosophical origins of the view that thinking belongs to the realm of

  2. Ethical issues in radiology: A philosophical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, S.

    2009-01-01

    Given that there is much disagreement as to what constitutes 'philosophy', even among philosophers, it is a challenge to provide a philosophical perspective. There are, however, at least two areas that most philosophers would regard as coming within the terrain of philosophical thinking: (1) the clarification of issues and (2) providing some sort of a foundation on which further thinking can take place. Thus, by way of contributing a philosophical perspective to the discussion, this paper will clarify some of the more fundamental issues regarding ethical debates in the hope of establishing some kind of theoretical foundation on which to base the discussion of the more specific issues and of widening the scope of the discussion. (authors)

  3. Philosophical foundations of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C O

    1993-08-01

    Although new and still emerging for us, qualitative research approaches have been receiving considerable attention for some time in other disciplines. Along with philosophical debates, there are debates about whether there needs to be a debate. On a philosophical level, there is irreconcilable conflict between the quantitative and qualitative paradigms. It is important to recognize this conflict, avoiding illogical compromise. Yet, proponents of each paradigm need to applaud both the existence of the other and the hybrid paradigms that inevitably are born of conflict. An apt beginning would be broader definitions of what constitutes science and research in nursing, eliminating the sense-organ bias that is so contrary to our philosophy for practice. This alone would provide qualitative nurse researchers with the sanction they need to progress in their exploration of various approaches to creating a science and a body of knowledge in, for, and about nursing practice. In the chapters to follow, readers will be introduced to several qualitative research approaches. Each approach represents an interpretation of the qualitative paradigm in nursing research, grounded in the general perspective of phenomenological philosophy. This perspective focuses on phenomena as they appear and recognizes that reality is subjective and a matter of appearances for us in our social world. Subjectivity means that the world becomes real through our contact with it and acquires meaning through our interpretations of that contact. Truth, then, is a composite of realities, and access to truth is a problem of access to human subjectivity. This perspective guides the qualitative researcher in nursing to the subject matter of lived experiences, which are the original contacts with a world, and of the processes and content of interpretation--the meaning attributions that constitute realities and perspectives for a future of possibilities in the world. Other consequences of a phenomenological

  4. Teaching respect: a philosophical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. van Rooyen

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available According to a Zulu proverb a human being can only become truly human because of others. Each person can only become more human, more himself- regardless of his sex - through the co-involvement of others. It is the love for one’s neighbour and the respect one has for him/her as a person which makes one consider the other party's feelings, viewpoints and circumstances. In order to arrive at a situation of peaceful coexistence it is important to realize that human attitudes and a mature life style evolve through a process of learning and interaction with others. It is a timeconsuming and costly process which starts at infancy and continues throughout someone's life. Instruction concerning interpersonal relations and the teaching of respect cannot be confined to individual lessons or working sessions at home or in school. Discussions and conversations concerning interpersonal relations need to form an integral and natural part of a child’s life within the home environment and throughout the pupil's school career. It is senseless if educators talk about the importance of teaching respect only to reveal disrespectful behaviour themselves, or to talk about the importance of self-esteem in the paying of respect whilst causing children to feel negative about themselves. To be able to express respect to other human beings, one needs to be respected. A child needs to experience how it feels when homage is paid. The following rule of life applies in this regard: one can never give if one has never received respect.

  5. Whose Ethics? Which Wittgenstein? | Richter | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . I argue that we should distinguish not only between Wittgenstein's personal opinions and his philosophy, but also, within his philosophical work, between broadly methodological remarks and what Wittgenstein might call genuinely ...

  6. Philosophical Enquiries into the Science of Sensibility

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeir, Koen; Deckard, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This chapter places Burke's Philosophical Enquiry in its broader context of a culture of sensibility. The three sections of this introductory essay broadly correspond to the three sections of this book. The first part, 'Science and sensibility', provides a background to the writing of Burke's Philosophical Enquiry and how it fits into the medical and scientific study of sensibility. The writing of this text in its particular eighteenth-century culture reflects both a reaction to overly mechan...

  7. Philosophical anthropology, anthropologic of philosophy and after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This expose deals, first of all, with suppositions, structure and range of human thinking that has been undertaken, very ambitiously, by "philosophical anthropology" at the beginning of the twentieth century. And then, through philosophical critique and self-critique of its status and limitations of this "discipline", it is indicating the orientation of recent controversy regarding the possibilities and characters of radical dismissal and/or reaffirmation of philosopheme "man".

  8. The Lublin Philosophical School: Founders, Motives, Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław A. Krąpiec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the Lublin Philosophical School; it explains its name, presents its founders, reveals the causes of its rise, and introduce the specific character of the School’s philosophy.It starts with stating the fact that in the proper sense, the term “Lublin Philosophical School” describes a way of cultivating realistic (classical philosophy developed in the 1950s by a group of philosophers at the Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. The Lublin Philosophical School is characterized by cognitive realism (the object of cognition is really existing being, maximalism (taking up all existentially important questions, methodological autonomy (in relation to the natural-mathematical sciences and theology, transcendentalism in its assertions (its assertions refer to all reality, methodological-epistemological unity (the same method applied in objectively cultivated philosophical disciplines, coherence (which guarantees the objective unity of the object, and objectivity (achieved by the verifiability of assertions on their own terms, which is achieved by relating them in each instance to objective evidence. The term is the name of the Polish school of realistic (classical philosophy that arose as a response to the Marxism that was imposed administratively on Polish institutions of learning, and also as a response to other philosophical currents dominant at the time such as phenomenology, existentialism, and logical positivism.

  9. Spatial and viewpoint selectivity for others' observed actions in monkey ventral premotor mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranesi, Monica; Livi, Alessandro; Bonini, Luca

    2017-08-15

    The spatial location and viewpoint of observed actions are closely linked in natural social settings. For example, actions observed from a subjective viewpoint necessarily occur within the observer's peripersonal space. Neurophysiological studies have shown that mirror neurons (MNs) of the monkey ventral premotor area F5 can code the spatial location of live observed actions. Furthermore, F5 MN discharge can also be modulated by the viewpoint from which filmed actions are seen. Nonetheless, whether and to what extent MNs can integrate viewpoint and spatial location of live observed actions remains unknown. We addressed this issue by comparing the activity of 148 F5 MNs while macaque monkeys observed an experimenter grasping in three different combinations of viewpoint and spatial location, namely, lateral view in the (1) extrapersonal and (2) peripersonal space and (3) subjective view in the peripersonal space. We found that the majority of MNs were space-selective (60.8%): those selective for the peripersonal space exhibited a preference for the subjective viewpoint both at the single-neuron and population level, whereas space-unselective neurons were view invariant. These findings reveal the existence of a previously neglected link between spatial and viewpoint selectivity in MN activity during live-action observation.

  10. Street food on the move: a socio-philosophical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloni, Marina

    2013-11-01

    In the last decade social and hard scientists have increasingly analysed the issue of street food, which is now become a question of common concern in international public discourse. However, considering present literature and investigations, a socio-philosophical approach to the issue under examination has been until now not properly developed. For this reason, this paper is not aimed at improving an empirical research on street food. Rather, it is interested in developing an innovative methodological approach, which assumes transcultural, intersectional, diachronic and interdisciplinary viewpoints in the analysis of the phenomenon. Taking as a background the very rich theoretical and empirical literature on food (which is difficult to be summarised in a few pages), the paper intends to strengthen a conceptual analysis of street food as a social construction and historical symbol, opening up new theoretical, comparative, sociological and pragmatic perspectives. The normative and critical content of street food refers thus ex negativo to the right to the quality of food and to have a decent and peaceful existence in both post-colonial and post-industrial societies in an interconnected global age. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. A Philosophical Perspective on Evolutionary Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Soyer, Orkun S; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-03-01

    Evolutionary systems biology (ESB) is an emerging hybrid approach that integrates methods, models, and data from evolutionary and systems biology. Drawing on themes that arose at a cross-disciplinary meeting on ESB in 2013, we discuss in detail some of the explanatory friction that arises in the interaction between evolutionary and systems biology. These tensions appear because of different modeling approaches, diverse explanatory aims and strategies, and divergent views about the scope of the evolutionary synthesis. We locate these discussions in the context of long-running philosophical deliberations on explanation, modeling, and theoretical synthesis. We show how many of the issues central to ESB's progress can be understood as general philosophical problems. The benefits of addressing these philosophical issues feed back into philosophy too, because ESB provides excellent examples of scientific practice for the development of philosophy of science and philosophy of biology.

  12. [On the philosophical genealogy of Freud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, C T

    1975-06-01

    The origins of psycho-analysis, like those of every other medico-psychological study, have their own particular scientific and specific social, historical and philosophical-theoretical presuppositions. Freud's philosophical genealogy is closely linked to classical german philosophy and subsequent philosophical movements. I. Kant, J.-F. Herbart, A. Schopenhauer, F. Nietzsche, E. v. Hartmann, G. T. Fechner, E. Mach, W. Ostwald, L. Feuerbach and others did not only emphasise the significance of drives and the unconscious in human behaviour, they also described many psychological mechanisms from depth psychology, (for example repression, condensation, substitution, sublimation). Some false theoretical trends in psycho-analysis (biologism, psychologism and simplifying psycho-energetics to simplify) can be explained to some extent by the influences mentioned above.

  13. The philosopher in Plato’s state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s political theory rests on metaphysical principles that are understandable to only a few. It is assumed that only a narrow group of philosophers is able to put this theory into practice, and using repressive measures. The fewer the initiated the greater the repression. It is assumed that those who do not know the truth can neither predict their destiny nor do anything to make it better because they are unable to understand the goal and purpose of the repression. It is demonstrated that, in the imagined use of force, the sophists, who do acknowledge it, resort to repression to a much lesser extent than Plato’s philosopher. At first, Plato’s philosopher rejects the use of force as virtue, but it turns out to be indispensible, and in incomparably more aspects than it was in the sophists’ case. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179049

  14. Kantian Turning Point in Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bosáková

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is treating the theme of a Kantian turning-point in the philosophical hermeneutics of H.- G. Gadamer based on of the harmonic relationship between metaphysics and science in Kantian philosophy from the point of view of the philosophical hermeneutics of Gadamer. The philosophical work of Kant had such an influence on Gadamer that without exaggerating we can talk about the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics. Grondin, a former student of Gadamer, is talking about Kantian turning-point on the field of aesthetics, but in reality Kantian turning-point means much more than a mere change in the reception of the concept of judgement. It is a discovery of harmonical relationship between the beauty and the moral, between the reason and the sensitivity, between the modern sciences and the metaphysical tradition in the Kantian philosophy, made by Gadamer. This is what we call the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics.

  15. Two Philosophical Views upon Morality and Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Ilyas Abdulrahman, Wazir; Krabbe Krogholt, Mathilde; Simonsen, Anne Marie; Raun Westh, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Herein is the project entitled “Two Philosophical Views upon Morality and Religion”. The content of this project will include an introduction to the two philosophers, Immanuel Kant and Henri Bergson, which is followed by a close account of their ideas upon morality and religion in Kant’s works, The Critique of Pure Reason and The Critique of Practical Reason, and Bergson’s The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Furthermore, there will be a discussion of the major differences and similariti...

  16. Viewpoint (Gustav-Adolf Voss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Retiring after a distinguished f i career, including 14 years at the Cambridge (Massachusetts) Electron Accelerator and 22 years as Head of the Accelerator Department at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg (March/April, page 6), Gustav-Adolf Voss was invited to give a 'Personal Perspective of High Energy Accelerators' at the Particle Accelerator Conference in Dallas, Texas, in May, of which we publish an abbreviated version. At the beginning of this year I retired as Head of the Accelerator Department at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, DESY, in Hamburg, a position I had held for 22 years. An invitation to talk gives me a chance to thank my teachers, colleagues and friends from the 37 years I have been working in the accelerator field. My first teachers were Stanley M. Livingston, Ken Robinson and Tom L. Collins. It is widely known that Livingston built the first working cyclotron as his PhD thesis under Ernest Lawrence. It is also known that Lawrence was inspired with the cyclotron idea by reading Rolf Wideroe's pioneer linear accelerator paper in 1927. Rolf Wideroe, although 93 now, is still full of ideas, which he sometimes tries out on me. Accelerator science does not have a long history. Ken Robinson was the legendary genius who developed most of the theory of electron synchrotrons and storage rings single-handed and in whose unpublished papers, found after his death, the basics of the free electron laser had been developed, a full 10 years ahead of time. Tom Collins was Assistant Director at the Cambridge Electron Accelerator (CEA), my first real workplace. He developed the 'Collins Straight Section' and furthered my technical education. Among my CEA colleagues and friends were also Karl Strauch, John Rees, Ewan Paterson, Herman Winick and Albert Hofmann. When I started in the accelerator field, life was different. The first atomic bomb had been exploded not much more than a decade earlier and the prestige of the nuclear physicist was

  17. Viewpoint Working with Environmental Education Pedagogies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this viewpoint paper is to generate interest in working with environmental education pedagogies in order to enhance the quality imperative of social and environmental responsibility for South African learners through the fundamental subject, Life Orientation. Drawing on our own experiences as Life Orientation ...

  18. CS Smith's Development of a Viewpoint

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 6. C. S. Smith's Development of a Viewpoint - Complex ideas and their Demonstration in the 2D Soap Froth. Denis Weaire. General Article Volume 11 Issue 6 June 2006 pp 31-41 ...

  19. Viewpoint Reading Conference Recommendations in a Wider ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short Viewpoint paper considers the role and value of conference recommendations in shaping the field of environmental education. It explores the social politics, and often contested nature, of conference recommendations and their institutional histories, arguing that the act of producing conference recommendations ...

  20. Regeneration beyond austerity: a collective viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pugalis, L.; Liddle, J.; Deas, I.; Bailey, N.; Pill, M.; Green, C.; Pearson, C.; Reeve, A.; Shipley, R.; Manns, J.; Dickinson, S.; Joyce, P.; Marlow, D.; Havers, I.; Rowe, M.; Southern, A.; Headlam, N.; Janssen-Jansen, L.; Lloyd, G.; Doyle, J.; Cummings, C.; McGuinness, D.; Broughton, K.; Berkeley, N.; Jarvis, D.

    2014-01-01

    This collective viewpoint concludes the special issue investigating austerity era regeneration by weaving different threads from each published article together with further insights. It is a collaborative effort -- a synthesis of some diverse views and opinions -- that seeks to extract some key

  1. Forces on Architecture Decisions – A Viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, Uwe van; Avgeriou, Paris; Hilliard, Rich

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the notion of forces as influences upon architecture decisions is introduced. To facilitate the documentation of forces as a part of architecture descriptions, we specify a decision forces viewpoint, which extends our existing framework for architecture decisions, following the

  2. Fiction and Conviction | Blackburn | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I claim that there is nothing so unusual in the interleaving of myth or fiction and history that Williams finds in Herodotus. I also reflect on the difficulty of separating acceptance of truth from acceptance of myth, metaphor, and model, not only in history but also in science. Philosophical Papers Vol.32(3) 2003: 243-260 ...

  3. Why Old Testament prophecy is philosophically interesting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-04

    Mar 4, 2013 ... Comparative philosophical perspectives on Old Testament predictive prophecy are rare. Yet whilst the Old Testament is not explicit in its views on the relation between God and time, its narratives do contain implicit metaphysical assumptions regarding the nature of divine foreknowledge. In this article the ...

  4. Moral Attention: A Comparative Philosophical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The notion of moral attention allows the recognition of fundamental aspects of ethical life ignored or neglected by mainstream ethical theories. It is central to the theories of several notable female ethicists and many of them identify the French philosopher Simone Weil as the source of the contemporary use of this concept which invites…

  5. Seneca's theology in its philosophical context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houte, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at a better understanding of the theological views of the Roman Stoic Seneca and the status of these views in relation to those of the earlier Stoics, and in the context of various other factors, such as the views of other philosophical schools and the purpose of Seneca's work.This

  6. A comprehensive philosophical approach to Qohelet's epistemology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-23

    Apr 23, 2015 ... to find a suitable philosophical profile for Qohelet's concept of knowledge whilst ignoring a whole array of topics and ... drafting in the wake of the epistemological turn in 20th-century, right-wing analytic philosophy of religion (see ..... For what advantage has the wise man over the fool? And what does the ...

  7. Nietzsche, science, and philosophical nihilism | Bamford | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nietzsche offers us a critique of modern culture as threatened by a nihilistic crisis in values. Philosophy is specifically incorporated into Nietzsche's critique, resulting in the claim that modern philosophy, as well as modern culture, is nihilistic. But why should contemporary philosophers give this view credence? In this paper, I ...

  8. Forging national integrarion through philosophic interrogation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that the recipe is philosophical re-orientation towards instituting liberalism (in the original sense of the word) as national ethos. It is also argued that liberalism is a philosophy of freedom and justice upon which anvil great civilizations have been forged and great civilizations broken when they turned ...

  9. Choice and Culpability | Futter | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I take exception with a widely held philosophical doctrine, according to which agents are morally responsible only for actions they have intentionally done, or chosen to bring about. I argue that there are positive duties of consideration and proper regard that make sense of holding persons responsible in the ...

  10. Friendship and Belief | Keller | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I intend to argue that good friendship sometimes requires epistemic irresponsibility. To put it another way, it is not always possible to be both a good friend and a diligent believer. Philosophical Papers Vol.33(3) 2004: 329-351. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  11. Social space: Philosophical reflections | Strauss | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our analysis of the phrase 'social space' first of all concentrates on the modal or functional nature of the different aspects of reality, including the social and spatial aspects. Subsequently this leads to an analysis of the problem of modal analogies – one way in which an answer is given to the perennial philosophical problem ...

  12. Philosophical dimensions of Aliu Babatunde Fafunwa's educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Philosophical dimensions of Aliu Babatunde Fafunwa's educational ideas. AOI Gabriel. Abstract. No Abstract. SOPHIA: An African Journal of Philosphy and Public Affairs Vol. 10 (1) 2007: pp.

  13. A comprehensive philosophical approach to Qohelet's epistemology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increasing number of studies have seen the light over the last few decades concerning the epistemology of the book of Ecclesiastes. The extant research seems to be limited to try to find a suitable philosophical profile for Qohelet's concept of knowledge whilst ignoring a whole array of topics and theories in contemporary ...

  14. The Philosophical Foundations of Modern Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dr Keekok

    2011-01-01

    An exploration of the philosophical foundation of modern medicine which explains why such a medicine possesses the characteristics it does and where precisely its strengths as well as its weaknesses lie. Written in plain English, it should be accessible to anyone who is intellectually curious, lay persons and medical professionals alike.

  15. Software theory a cultural and philosophical study

    CERN Document Server

    Frabetti, Federica

    2014-01-01

    This book engages directly in close readings of technical texts and computer code in order to show how software works. It offers an analysis of the cultural, political, and philosophical implications of software technologies that demonstrates the significance of software for the relationship between technology, philosophy, culture, and society.

  16. Introduction Robin Melrose The French philosopher Jacques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Robin Melrose. The French philosopher Jacques Derrida has exercised an enourmous influence on French thought over the last twenty years, particularly with his technique of deconstruction, and more recently the influence has spread to English-speaking countries, in fields as diverse as literary theory, the study of popular ...

  17. A Philosophical Look at the Higgs Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2014-01-01

    On the occasion of the recent experimental detection of a Higgs-type particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the paper reviews philosophical aspects of the Higgs mechanism as the presently preferred account of the generation of particle masses in the Standard Model of elementary particle

  18. Some Ondo Philosophical Proverbs for Practical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    understands the behaviour of their gods, reflects the ethics of society and philosophizes concerning life and death ... behavior of his gods, the facts of life, and death, the ethics of his society, the way to success and happiness, the ..... It is the tortoise one finds around that one puts fire under its bottom. The above proverb talks ...

  19. A philosophical investigaton into African values: towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on her traditional values, hence, devaluing those cherished and veritable autochthonous values that have the power to better her conditions. In this piece, through the method of philosophical investigation, a case is made to the effect that, in the devalued African values, among others, lie solutions to Africa's predicament.

  20. Introduction Robin Melrose The French philosopher Jacques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The French philosopher Jacques Derrida has exercised an enourmous influence on French thought over the last twenty years, particularly with his technique of deconstruction, and more recently the influence has spread to English-speaking countries, in fields as diverse as literary theory, the study of popular culture, feminist ...

  1. Virtue Ethics and Elitism | Svensson | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virtue, according to Aristotle, is something that we acquire gradually, via a developmental process. People are not just stuck with their characters once and for all, but can always aspire to become better (more virtuous). And that is plausibly the basic normative requirement of virtue ethics. Philosophical Papers Vol.

  2. Temporal Parts and Superluminal Motion | Balashov | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I accept Hudson's conditional but contend that his modus ponens is less plausible than the corresponding modus tollens. Reversed in this way, the argument stemming from the scenario raises the cost of mereological liberalism and advances the case for a principled restriction on diachronic composition. Philosophical ...

  3. A Rigorous Approach to Relate Enterprise and Computational Viewpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Quartel, Dick; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    Multiviewpoint approaches allow stakeholders to design a system from stakeholder-specific viewpoints. By this, a separation of concerns is achieved, which makes designs more manageable. However, to construct a consistent multiviewpoint design, the relations between viewpoints must be defined

  4. Viewpoint adaptive display of HDR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Mantel, Claire

    2017-01-01

    In this paper viewpoint adaptive display of HDR images incorporating the effects of ambient light is presented and evaluated. LED backlight displays may render HDR images, but while at a global scale a high dynamic range may be achieved, locally the contrast is limited by the leakage of light...... through the LC elements of the display. To render high quality images, the display with backlight dimming can compute the values of the LED backlight and LC elements based on the input image, information about the viewpoint of the observer(s) and information of the ambient light. The goal is to achieve...... the best perceptual reproduction of the specified target image derived from the HDR input image in the specific viewing situation including multiple viewers, possibly having different preferences. An optimization based approach is presented. Some tests with reproduced images are also evaluated subjectively...

  5. Singularity hypotheses a scientific and philosophical assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.

  6. Shirakatsi Astronomical and Natural Philosophical Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, Lilit

    2016-12-01

    Our work is aimed at presenting Shirakatsi astronomical and natural philosophical views. Karl Anania Shirakatsi is classified as one of the world-class intellectual geniuses. He was endowed with exceptional talent and analyzing scientific understanding of natural phenomena. He refers his philosophical works to almost all fields of science, cosmography, mathematics, calendarology, historiography, etc. Shirakatsy's earnings of natural science and natural philosophy in medieval is too big He was the first prominent scholar and thinker of his time, creating a unique, comprehensive gitapilisopayakan system that still feeds the human mind. The scientific value of Shirakatsi has great importance not only for Armenians but also for the whole world of science, history, culture and philosophy. Shirakatsi can be considered not only national but also universal greatness.

  7. Challenges in reading the Greek philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Aghili Dehkordi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Presocratics in 600 B.C founded new research ways in science and philosophy, wrote the first scientific essays, introduced basic conceptions of deduction, and abandoned mythological explanations, all we have of their works is but the fragments in the works of further doxographers, biographers, historians or philosophers who brought their statements between their own words. This would sometimes result in misunderstanding the presocratics’ purposes. Hermann Diels in his Doxographi Graeci raised a new method for dealing with doxography tradition. Diels’ new approach to doxography returned all this tradition to Aristotle’s pupil, Theophrastus. Some scholars like Jaap Mansfield criticized his disregard for the sophists like Gorgias and Hippias, and the successions of philosophers. According to his criticism, some matters like the Sophists’ influence on Plato, Aristotle’s definition of Doxa in the Placita and the influence of the succession and interpretation tradition on doxogtaphy are more noteworthy than Diels has thought.

  8. Naming Being - or the Philosophical Content of Heidegger's National Socialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2012-01-01

    This contribution discusses the philosophical meaning of the Martin Heidegger’s Rectoral address. First of all, Heidegger’s philosophical basic experience is sketched as the background of his Rectoral address; the being-historical concept of “Anfang”. Then, the philosophical question of the Rectoral

  9. Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry II: Nosology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    by the editors and is followed by a commentary, resulting in a dynamic discussion about the nature of psychiatric disorders. This book will be valuable for psychiatrists, psychologists and other mental health trainees and professionals with an interest in the questions and problems of psychiatric diagnosis......, as well as philosophers and philosophy students interested in the problems posed by psychiatry, particularly those working in the philosophy of science....

  10. Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry II: Nosology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric and psychological practice and research is critically dependent on diagnosis. Yet the nature of psychiatric diagnosis and the rules by which disorders should be created and organized have been highly controversial for over 100 years. Unlike simple medical disorders (like infectious di......, as well as philosophers and philosophy students interested in the problems posed by psychiatry, particularly those working in the philosophy of science....

  11. Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry II: Nosology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    Psychiatric and psychological practice and research is critically dependent on diagnosis. Yet the nature of psychiatric diagnosis and the rules by which disorders should be created and organized have been highly controversial for over 100 years. Unlike simple medical disorders (like infectious di......, as well as philosophers and philosophy students interested in the problems posed by psychiatry, particularly those working in the philosophy of science....

  12. EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Alilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to consider the relationship of philosophy and education; the article also reviews the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, a global model for a special educational activity. We also discuss the features of the philosophical approach to the issue of sustainable development. Discussion. In research, we use the method of socio-natural approach, a new educational paradigm that combines the theory and concept of training and education within the anthropocentric approach based on humanistic philosophical ideas which laid the basis for understanding the person as the subject of life, history and culture. We analyzed environmental and educational aspects of sustainable development in the current context. In order to address these challenges, philosophy produces new concepts, theories and paradigms. It is necessary to work on people's motivation and values, develop their cooperation skills, teach civic engagement and democratic by action rather than words. Only a highly educated society can generate environmental paradigm and implement the strategy of sustainable development. Conclusions. We recommend transferring research outcomes into practice in schools starting with elementary school, as well as in vocational schools and universities. Clarifying the essence of the concept of education for sustainable development is possible through philosophical understanding of its genesis and ideas.

  13. Basic philosophical texts in Medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Boris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Medieval Serbian philosophy took shape mostly through the process of translating Byzantine texts and revising the Slavic translations. Apart from the Aristotelian terminological tradition, introduced via the translation of Damascene’s Dialectic, there also was, under the influence of the Corpus Areopagiticum and ascetic literature, notably of John Climacus’ Ladder, another strain of thought originating from Christian Platonism. Damascene’s philosophical chapters, or Dialectic, translated into medieval Serbian in the third quarter of the fourteenth century, not only shows the high standards of translation technique developed in Serbian monastic scriptoria, but testifies to a highly educated readership interested in such a complex theologico-philosophical text with its nuanced terminology. A new theological debate about the impossibility of knowing God led to Gregory Palamas’ complex text, The Exposition of the Orthodox Faith. Philosophical texts were frequently copied and much worked on in medieval Serbia, but it is difficult to infer about the actual scope of their influence on the formation and articulation of the worldview of medieval society. As a result of their demanding theoretical complexity, the study of philosophy was restricted to quite narrow monastic, court and urban circles. However, the strongest aspect of the influence of Byzantine thought on medieval society was the liturgy as the central social event of the community. It was through the liturgy that the wording of the translated texts influenced the life of medieval Serbian society.

  14. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.

  15. Social-philosophical practices of success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Karpenko

    2017-01-01

    Is social-philosophical experts of success represent the complicated system of various world outlook, speech, mental factors and events in life of the various professional, age and subcultural bunches producing assessments under different visual angles, from positions of various social installations and identity in what the social philosophy of success expresses. In the course of forming social an expert (both in daily, and in an institutional discourse are shaped also theoretical ideas success: instrumental, is social-philosophical, is social-psychological, world outlook, historical and cultural, etc., characterising thereby various systems of a social discourse. Examination is social-philosophical the success expert shows the real complexity and ambiguity of the given appearance. Besides the presented typology constructed as the most approximate abstract plan, in each separate case probably build-up of typological models according to a principle ad hoc. It looks quite justified, considering that circumstance that representations about success and the successful person are constantly transformed and acquire new performances. Efficiency of the further examinations of a discourse and a success expert will depend on accepting of new heuristic approaches, capable to consider multidimensionality and ambiguity of the given phenomenon.

  16. Philosophical behaviorism: a review of things that happen because they should: a teleological approach to action, by Rowland Stout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1999-09-01

    Mentalistic terms such as belief and desire have been rejected by behavior analysts because they are traditionally held to refer to unobservable events inside the organism. Behavior analysis has consequently been viewed by philosophers to be at best irrelevant to psychology, understood as a science of the mind. In this book, the philosopher Rowland Stout argues cogently that beliefs and desires (like operants such as rats' lever presses) are best understood in terms of an interaction over time between overt behavior and its overt consequences (a viewpoint called teleological behaviorism). This book is important because it identifies the science of the mind with the science of overt behavior and implies that the psychologists best equipped to study mental life are not those who purport to do so but those who focus on the experimental analysis of behavior.

  17. Philosophical behaviorism: a review of things that happen because they should: a teleological approach to action, by Rowland Stout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1999-01-01

    Mentalistic terms such as belief and desire have been rejected by behavior analysts because they are traditionally held to refer to unobservable events inside the organism. Behavior analysis has consequently been viewed by philosophers to be at best irrelevant to psychology, understood as a science of the mind. In this book, the philosopher Rowland Stout argues cogently that beliefs and desires (like operants such as rats' lever presses) are best understood in terms of an interaction over time between overt behavior and its overt consequences (a viewpoint called teleological behaviorism). This book is important because it identifies the science of the mind with the science of overt behavior and implies that the psychologists best equipped to study mental life are not those who purport to do so but those who focus on the experimental analysis of behavior. PMID:10503301

  18. Philosophical, logical and scientific perspectives in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Zekâi

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights and explains the significance of philosophical, logical, and scientific principles for engineering education/training and engineering works. In so doing, it aims to help to rectify the neglect of philosophy and logic in current education and training programs, which emphasize analytical and numerical methods at the expense of the innovative practical and creative abilities so important for engineering in the past. Individual chapters examine the relation of philosophy, logic, and science to engineering, drawing attention to, for example, the significance of ethics, the rel

  19. The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, P.

    2015-05-01

    The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.

  20. C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physicist, philosopher, visionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goernitz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The 20th century with its political, social, and scientific aspects bundles itself in the life of Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker. As comprehensive thinker of the presence he led natural science, philosophy, and spirituality to a unity. In the public the grandson of last in Germany enobled minster and brother of the senior federal president achieved by his engagement for peace and disarmament a global effect. Competently and understandably his visionary and prospective physical ideas and his philosophical considerations are explained by his long standing coworker and close confident.

  1. Radiation protection: Some philosophical and ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, Santiago; Chhem, Rethy K.; Czarwinski, Renate

    2010-01-01

    The ethical issue of justification has become an urgent issue in radiology. There has been a shift in emphasis in the discussion from what has been regarded as a rather paternalistic attitude of practitioners to one that stresses the rights of the individual patient. This article comments on this current move on the part of the profession by offering certain relevant philosophical considerations. Using a medical scenario as the context to comment on this shift, it discusses important and fundamental issues, such as the autonomy and the rights of the patient in addition to the question of consent on the patient's part.

  2. The Talmudic philosophical conception of business ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Talmud is considered to be one of the cornerstones of Judaism, Jewish business ethics and Jewish wisdom for business success. The Talmud has been the guide and main nerve center of the Jewish people. This article examines the philosophical conception of business ethics from a Talmudic perspective. The article used a conceptual approach as well as a review of related literature. It was found out that the road of the Talmud led not to philosophy and theology but to ethics, law and justice; it pursued not the abstract but the concrete. This article has therefore business and academic value.

  3. Multimodal character viewpoint in quoted dialogue sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmiri Stec

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the multimodal production of character viewpoint in spoken American English narratives by performing complementary qualitative and quantitative analyses of two quoted dialogues, focusing on the storyteller’s use of character viewpoint gestures, character intonation, character facial expression, spatial orientation and gaze. A micro-analysis revealed that the extent of multimodal articulation depends on (i the quoted speaker, with different multimodal articulatory patterns found for quotes by the speaker’s past self vs. a third-person character, and (ii the position of the quoted utterance within the quoted dialogue, with mid-dialogue utterances garnering less co-articulation than initial or final utterances within the quoted dialogue. We further investigated these observations using a quantitative approach, which was based on 'generalized additive modeling' (GAM. The GAM analysis revealed different multimodal patterns for each quoted character, as indicated by the number of co-produced multimodal articulators. These patterns were found to hold regardless of the quote’s position within the narrative. We discuss these findings with respect to previous work on multimodal quotation. This article is part of the special collection: Perspective Taking

  4. [Neuroethics and Human Vulnerability in Philosophical Perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This article tries to assess the potentials and limits of neuroethics. It argues that neuroscience and ethics should collaborate each other with mutual respect and preservation of their respective identities, scientific in the first case and philosophical in the second one ( neuroethics as cooperation). The text develops also a criticism in front of any attempt to replace the philosophical ethics by the neurosciences ( neuroethics as substitution). Consequently, the most appropriate ontological and anthropological foundations are explored to develop a cooperative neuroethics. These foundations refer to the Aristotelian hylomorphic conception of the substances. On such foundations it is possible to develop a collaborative neuroethics which includes two aspects: on the one hand, we have an ethics of neuroscience and, on the other one, a neuroscience of ethics. The first one shows us how to conduct neuroscience while preserving human dignity. The second one teaches us about the neurobiological basis of our moral agency. These bases enable our moral behavior without determining it. By studying them our vulnerability as moral agents emerges as evidence. This vulnerability, which is rooted in the very human nature, must be, as it is argued along the last pages of the text, recognized as well as mitigated.

  5. THE PRINCIPLES OF LAW. PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Any scientific intercession that has as objective, the understanding of the significances of the “principle of law” needs to have an interdisciplinary character, the basis for the approach being the philosophy of the law. In this study we fulfill such an analysis with the purpose to underline the multiple theoretical significances due to this concept, but also the relationship between the juridical principles and norms, respectively the normative value of the principle of the law. Thus are being materialized extensive references to the philosophical and juridical doctrine in the matter. This study is a pleading to refer to the principles, in the work for the law’s creation and applying. Starting with the difference between “given” and ‘constructed” we propose the distinction between the “metaphysical principles” outside the law, which by their contents have philosophical significances, and the “constructed principles” elaborated inside the law. We emphasize the obligation of the law maker, but also of the expert to refer to the principles in the work of legislation, interpretation and applying of the law. Arguments are brought for the updating, in certain limits, the justice – naturalistic concepts in the law.

  6. Conjoined Twins: Philosophical Problems and Ethical Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian; Persson, Ingmar

    2016-02-01

    We examine the philosophical and ethical issues associated with conjoined twins and their surgical separation. In cases in which there is an extensive sharing of organs, but nevertheless two distinguishable functioning brains, there are a number of philosophical and ethical challenges. This is because such conjoined twins: 1. give rise to puzzles concerning our identity, about whether we are identical to something psychological or biological; 2. force us to decide whether what matters from an ethical point of view is the biological life of our organisms or the existence of our consciousness or mind; 3. raise questions concerning when, if ever, it is morally acceptable to sacrifice one of us to save another; 4. force us to reflect on the conditions for ownership of organs and the justification of removal of organs for transplantation which causes the death of the donor; 5. raise questions about who should take decisions about life-risking treatments when this cannot be decided by patients themselves. We examine and suggest answers to these questions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A Philosophical Treatise of Universal Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rathmanner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding inductive reasoning is a problem that has engaged mankind for thousands of years. This problem is relevant to a wide range of fields and is integral to the philosophy of science. It has been tackled by many great minds ranging from philosophers to scientists to mathematicians, and more recently computer scientists. In this article we argue the case for Solomonoff Induction, a formal inductive framework which combines algorithmic information theory with the Bayesian framework. Although it achieves excellent theoretical results and is based on solid philosophical foundations, the requisite technical knowledge necessary for understanding this framework has caused it to remain largely unknown and unappreciated in the wider scientific community. The main contribution of this article is to convey Solomonoff induction and its related concepts in a generally accessible form with the aim of bridging this current technical gap. In the process we examine the major historical contributions that have led to the formulation of Solomonoff Induction as well as criticisms of Solomonoff and induction in general. In particular we examine how Solomonoff induction addresses many issues that have plagued other inductive systems, such as the black ravens paradox and the confirmation problem, and compare this approach with other recent approaches.

  8. Theories of Social Media: Philosophical Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Qi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although many different views of social media coexist in the field of information systems (IS, such theories are usually not introduced in a consistent framework based on philosophical foundations. This paper introduces the dimensions of lifeworld and consideration of others. The concept of lifeworld includes Descartes’ rationality and Heidegger’s historicity, and consideration of others is based on instrumentalism and Heidegger’s “being-with.” These philosophical foundations elaborate a framework where different archetypal theories applied to social media may be compared: Goffman’s presentation of self, Bourdieu’s social capital, Sartre’s existential project, and Heidegger’s “shared-world.” While Goffman has become a frequent reference in social media, the three other references are innovative in IS research. The concepts of these four theories of social media are compared with empirical findings in IS literature. While some of these concepts match the empirical findings, some other concepts have not yet been investigated in the use of social media, suggesting future research directions. Keywords: Social media, Lifeworld, Consideration of others, Rationality, Historicity, Instrumentalism, Being-with, Presentation of self

  9. How to transform economics? A philosophical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kellecioglu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten years after the global financial crisis there is hardly any evidence that the theories, teaching and policies of mainstream economics have changed. This paper is an attempt to contribute to the greater understanding of this persistence, but also to the discussion on what the requirements are to materialise a transformation in economics, given the dismal outcomes in the world economy. The analytical approach of the paper is to utilise relevant philosophical accounts that point out attributes of dominant discourses, and methodological requirements to supersede an already dominant discourse. The objective is to contribute to an improved understanding of factors that obstruct or construct transformations in a knowledge field such as economics; and thereby contribute to transformation efforts, preferably for a more pluralist and emancipatory economics. Given the complexities and the tensions between different philosophical positions, the conclusions of this appraisal are summarised into five criteria that appear essential to realise a successful transformation in economics: critical juncture; dissimilarity; scholar validation; sensibility; and external power. It is suggested to revise efforts to fulfil these criteria as much, and as soon as possible, given the importance and urgency of changing the trajectory of our economies and societies.

  10. The Philosophical Problem of “Existence”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Djakhaia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Historically known for three major types of philosophy, that developed in parallel in every hu- man civilization, and therefore do not exclude each other, and in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity only complement each other in many different respects: scientific philosophy, anthro- pology and religious philosophy. The more we come to know and deeply immense world around us, the more clearly and insistently arises the main philosophical question: why something exists? After all, it would be easier if there was nothing at all, including the people asking this tricky question. Nevertheless, the world still exists (according to the “anthropic principle”, but, I ask, why? It does not matter, the existence of which there is a speech: the “matter”, “God”, “absolute spirit” or some- thing completely different. That search for an answer to this question (why should something there? Is the true purpose of philosophy, if at all, the problem is solvable (in the sense of Kant’s “metaphys- ics”. And then there is a special philosophical category “existence”, which requires a special study.

  11. [The role of child psychiatry from viewpoint of adult psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    The raison d'etre of child psychiatry is the child's future adulthood. A clinical attitude that focuses on a child's development from this viewpoint is required. Development is understood from such a viewpoint; how a psychiatric disorder of a juvenile progresses to adulthood is described. In other words, an adult's psychiatric disorder reflects insufficient progression during mental development or a latent psychiatric disorder during childhood. The psychiatrist who looks at an adult patient from such viewpoints, would have insight into child psychiatry.

  12. Fundamental understanding of matter: an engineering viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, H.S.; Cort, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of matter is a continuous process that should produce physical data for use by engineers and scientists in their work. Lack of fundamental property data in any engineering endeavor cannot be mitigated by theoretical work that is not confirmed by physical experiments. An engineering viewpoint will be presented to justify the need for understanding of matter. Examples will be given in the energy engineering field to outline the importance of further understanding of material and fluid properties and behavior. Cases will be cited to show the effects of various data bases in energy, mass, and momentum transfer. The status of fundamental data sources will be discussed in terms of data centers, new areas of engineering, and the progress in measurement techniques. Conclusions and recommendations will be outlined to improve the current situation faced by engineers in carrying out their work. 4 figures

  13. Philosophical analysis of virtualization educational space problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Kolomiets

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Categorical imperative of the new spatial organization of education through its integration in the media space is its virtualization. It is possible in principle, given that both spaces are characterized by adaptability, ease transfer from one semiotic system to another, mobility, functionality, flexibility, allowing for their continuous restructuring. On the philosophical and educational perspective, for us it is important to note that the «idea» of media education space sets the goal of education, understanding of the complex and multi­level organization of information relations of the educational process is a simple link between empirical concepts and ideas about education space as integrity within the information society. Virtual dimension issues of educational space formed within one of the major philosophical and educational issues ­ problems of socio­cultural nature of education as a mechanism of becoming human in man. Today feature virtual philosophical analysis is understanding not just a technical phenomenon, but as a space of human existence, and therefore its educational space. It is in this sense the philosophy of education is important to apply the methodology of media philosophy in the development problems of media education space as a space of life, self­development and self­knowledge of man. Crisis and negative phenomena in postmodern education is not the result of the process of formation of modern electronic media and virtual media space. However, this specific problem requires analysis of education is in the context of new technologies of mass communication. The spread of the crisis of education in terms of media reality should be seen as a crisis of a man who fell into the information system, which is the media model and simulated education and awareness of life. Education in terms of media consumerism acts as a social technology and media culture «escape from thinking.» The transition from education information and

  14. The enigma of energy: A philosophical inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro-Franceschi, Vidette

    1998-06-01

    A philosophical inquiry was undertaken to examine the enigma of energy in an attempt to clarify and further illuminate the basic ideas of energy. Beginning with the origin of the concept-Aristotle's conceptualization of energeia-and continuing through to the present day with an overview of the historical conceptual development of energy in Western science, an analysis and interpretation of the scientific and philosophic literature was performed. Literature regarding aspects of human sentience was also examined for underlying ideas of energy. And, finally, selected medical and nursing science theoretical frameworks were analyzed with the hope of further grasping the philosophical underpinnings related to the phenomenon of human energy. Certain ideas of energy became evident. Energy can be viewed as a process and this view works well within the physical science domain. When energy is viewed as a process it falls within the mechanistic tradition: things are viewed as particulate, and cause and effect related. However, energy can also be viewed as a phenomenon, a thing. As a phenomenon, energy is continually transforming and actualizing inherent potentials in a communal process. When energy is recognized as the sole phenomenon responsible for everything in existence, it becomes evident that all is essentially one. In addition, when energy is viewed in this manner it becomes increasingly difficult to deny the purposive character underlying all nature. It is argued that the mystery ultimately leads to something far beyond what we know exists. One of the intuitive feelings of this researcher was that there were at least two different ideas of energy in the sciences of medicine and nursing, which, while different, shared some common elements as well. An examination of Hippocrates', Nightingale's, Selye's, Levine's, and Rogers' ideas, as well as the basic tenets of alternative health care, revealed two distinct worldviews regarding human energy which are congruent with the

  15. The philosophical dialogue as a tool of inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cosentino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the tools of philosophical work, the dialogue, as form of live "transaction" between two or more persons, seems to have its beginning and its end with Socrates. Along the subsequent development of our philosophical tradition the dialogue reappears only as literary genre. The essay aims to suggest that the live philosophical dialogue, if offered in new forms as a distributed social practice arranged and supported by the professional skills of philosopher, shows some promise of widening the boundaries of the examined life.

  16. Social inequality: philosophical and sociological reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Victorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social inequality is the phenomena that is hypothetically the base for first human communities genesis. Modern model for capitalist society as market relations form fails to satisfy the needs of society’s social development, and strongly requires to create new social knowledge structure and new approach for inequality sociology theory development. Our study conceptual logic comprises routine, philosophic and ideological reflexions analysis to create new social inequality definition in the context of new sociologic knowledge structure. Social inequality is the one of key problems in global sociology; the need is obvious to extract social inequality into separate discipline. Inequality sociology target is the decision of theoretical and practical problems in the formation of comprehensive knowledge about inequality phenomena in modern community, and in the development of common and specialized theoretical-methodological base for inequality study.

  17. A philosophical approach to quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2015-01-01

    This text presents an intuitive and robust mathematical image of fundamental particle physics based on a novel approach to quantum field theory, which is guided by four carefully motivated metaphysical postulates. In particular, the book explores a dissipative approach to quantum field theory, which is illustrated for scalar field theory and quantum electrodynamics, and proposes an attractive explanation of the Planck scale in quantum gravity. Offering a radically new perspective on this topic, the book focuses on the conceptual foundations of quantum field theory and ontological questions. It also suggests a new stochastic simulation technique in quantum field theory which is complementary to existing ones. Encouraging rigor in a field containing many mathematical subtleties and pitfalls this text is a helpful companion for students of physics and philosophers interested in quantum field theory, and it allows readers to gain an intuitive rather than a formal understanding.

  18. Notion of Identification: A Philosophical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human life should be good life in the real world which is not merely a function of objective facts but also a function of subjective factors like hopes, fears, interests, etc. Goodness, or excellence, is an ethical notion. The factors of good life cannot be identified solely by using the so-called factual (descriptive methods of identification. This means that the identification cannot be fully “objective” or fully “public”. Furthermore, there is a need for other methods of identification that also take into account certain “subjective” aspects of the object of identification. Following Jaakko Hintikka we call these methods contextual (perspectival methods of identification. Here ethics is not a set of ethical rules but rather the practical study of human life. How should we live our unique life? A philosophical-conceptual study is thus practical for this purpose. This is what Aristotle called practical wisdom (phronēsis.

  19. A philosophical approach to quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2017-01-01

    This text presents an intuitive and robust mathematical image of fundamental particle physics based on a novel approach to quantum field theory, which is guided by four carefully motivated metaphysical postulates. In particular, the book explores a dissipative approach to quantum field theory, which is illustrated for scalar field theory and quantum electrodynamics, and proposes an attractive explanation of the Planck scale in quantum gravity. Offering a radically new perspective on this topic, the book focuses on the conceptual foundations of quantum field theory and ontological questions. It also suggests a new stochastic simulation technique in quantum field theory which is complementary to existing ones. Encouraging rigor in a field containing many mathematical subtleties and pitfalls this text is a helpful companion for students of physics and philosophers interested in quantum field theory, and it allows readers to gain an intuitive rather than a formal understanding.

  20. A Comparative and Critical Study on the Proofs of God's Existence from the Viewpoint of Mulla Sadra and Thomas Aquinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakaee,Gh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thinking and reflecting on God is one of the most important foundations of human knowledge according to theologians and philosophers. Therefore, proofs for the God’s existence a very important theological and philosophical issue. Each thinker, according to his/her system of thought, has tried to establish a valid proof for the God’s existence of God throughout history. Mulla Sadra, founder of Hekmat Motealiye and Thomas Aquinas, philosopher of the middle ages, are two such important contributors. Though they both consider the God’s existence as given, they still proceeded to establish a proof of the God’s existence. This article, first, explains Mulla Sadra’s and Thomas Aquinas’ viewpoints on the evidence of the existence of God, then presents a comparative analysis of some of their proofs for such existence. This article contends that Mulla Sadra enriches Thomas’ proof of possibility and necessity by adding emkan faghri to it. Further, it states that Mulla Sadar also completes Thomas’ proof of movement by incorporating essential movement in to it. Finally, this paper shows that Mulla Sadar gives reasons for the necessity of being with the proof of Seddighin

  1. A Comparative and Critical Study on the Proofs of God's Existence from the Viewpoint of Mulla Sadra and Thomas Aquinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Kakaee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking and reflecting on God is one of the most important foundations of human knowledge according to theologians and philosophers. Therefore, proofs for the God’s existence  a very important theological and philosophical issue. Each thinker, according to his/her system of thought, has tried to establish a valid proof for the God’s existence of God throughout history. Mulla Sadra, founder of Hekmat Motealiye and Thomas Aquinas, philosopher of the middle ages, are two such important contributors. Though they both consider the God’s existence as given, they still proceeded to establish a proof of the God’s existence. This article, first, explains Mulla Sadra’s and Thomas Aquinas’ viewpoints on the evidence of the existence of God, then presents a comparative analysis of some of their proofs for such existence. This article contends that Mulla Sadra enriches Thomas’ proof of possibility and necessity by adding emkan faghri to it. Further, it states that Mulla Sadar also completes Thomas’ proof of movement by incorporating essential movement in to it. Finally, this paper shows that Mulla Sadar gives reasons for the necessity of being with the proof of Seddighin

  2. Philosophical Approaches of Religious Jewish Science Teachers Toward the Teaching of 'Controversial' Topics in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, Jeff; Dayan, Aliza; Orion, Nir

    2010-07-01

    This research examines the problems that religious Jewish science teachers in Israeli high schools have in coping with science subjects (such as geological time) which conflict with their religious beliefs. We do this by characterizing the philosophical approaches within Judaism that such teachers have adopted for dealing with such controversy. Thus, we surveyed 56 religious teachers using a Likert-type questionnaire developed for this research, as well as interviewed 11 teachers to more deeply probe their approaches. In addition, we surveyed 15 religious scientists, so that we could both contrast their views with our teacher samples as well as to better understand their coping strategies when confronted by scientific topics that challenge their beliefs. Results indicated that no single philosophical approach earned overwhelming support from the teachers or scientists. Instead, most of the subjects relate separately to each source of possible conflict in accordance with the philosophical approach that appears to be the most fruitful for resolving such conflicts. Moreover, both the scientists and the teachers felt less conflicted toward the specific subject of geological time, in comparison to issues connected to creation of the earth and (especially) evolution. The teachers did differ from the scientists in their preference toward philosophical approaches which help them better integrate the domains of science and religion. Based on our findings, we are able to suggest a set of strategies to help teachers overcome their difficulties in teaching 'controversial' science topics to a religiously oriented student population.

  3. Philosophical foundations of education and its impact on teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student's poor performances in learning situations are often traced to a number of factors one of which is teacher ineffectiveness. This paper examines the concept of philosophical foundation of education and its impact on teachers' effectiveness. The paper stresses on the study and proper understanding of philosophical ...

  4. Anarchism and the nature of man: a philosophical appraisal | Ogan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work with the title “Anarchism and the Nature of Man: a Philosophical Appraisal” holds that Anarchism as a belief, movement or school of thought boils down to the age long philosophical problem of the relationship between authority and individuals or put differently, the problem of the justification of constituted authority ...

  5. Peirce and Rationalism: Is Peirce a Fully Semiotic Philosopher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    While Peirce is a seminal figure for contemporary semiotic philosophers, it is axiomatic of a fully semiotic perspective that no philosopher or philosophy (semiotics included) can provide any final answer, as signs are always interpreted and the context of interpretation always varies. Semiosis is evolutionary: it may or may not be construed as…

  6. Philosophical and methodological analyses in Japanese particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardos, G. (Kossuth Lajos Tudomanyegyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Elmeleti Fizikai Tanszek)

    1984-01-01

    The history and philosophy of the Japanese school of dialectical materialism and its influence on nuclear and particle physicists are discussed. The ideas of main characters of this philosophical school are summerized. Parallel physical and philosophical works of Sakata are analyzed.

  7. Philosophical counselling: Towards a 'new approach' in pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... and counselling. In this article it was argued that philosophical counselling opens up new avenues for pastoral care and counselling. Philosophical counselling ... was proposed in order to detect the impact of the Christian spiritual schema of interpretation .... Personal self-esteem, for a male, required public.

  8. Ortega y Gasset as a philosopher of development | Ukutsemuya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, just as Ortega is qualified to be called a philosopher of culture, he is also by that token qualified to be philosopher of development; as culture and development are two concepts that speak of sustenance of the human person. Key Words: Ortega y Gasset, Development, The Human Person, Sustainable Societal ...

  9. Possible objections to a philosophical approach to ancient Israelite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exists a certain consensus amongst biblical scholars that involving philosophy in the attempt to understand ancient Israelite religion is hermeneutically fallacious. A philosophical approach to ancient Yahwism is considered out of place, given the non-philosophical nature of the Hebrew Bible, the normative concerns of ...

  10. Is it possible to do theology without philosophical presuppositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particularly in connection with the doctrine of God the unavoidability of philosophical presuppositions becomes apparent. The uncritical theological practice to speak about a concept of God is in need of the epistemological distinction between concept and idea, which is philosophical in nature. If this foundational distinction ...

  11. Recovering the Philosophical Anthropology of Max Scheler for Leadership Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    During the first half of the twentieth century, a handful of German speaking scholars examined leadership through the lens of what came to be known as philosophical anthropology, a field of study inaugurated by Max Scheler. Not only do their contributions belong in the history of leadership studies, but the findings of philosophical anthropology…

  12. Philosophic sagacity and intercultural philosophy : beyond Henry Odera Oruka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosima, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, I attempt to contribute to the future of African and intercultural philosophy. This is undertaken by a comparative appraisal of the late lamented Kenyan philosopher Henry Odera Oruka's (1944-1995) philosophic sagacity, and intercultural philosophy as conceived by Dutch intercultural

  13. [Different philosophical traditions for knowledge development in nursing sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ariane; Khadra, Christelle; Le May, Sylvie; Gendron, Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    doctoral studies in nursing engage a critical reflections about philosophical traditions inherent to knowledge development. critical realism, hermeneutics, postmodernism and poststructuralism refer to philosophical traditions that are generally less explored in nursing, although they are attracting greater attention. this paper offers an introductory presentation to these traditions as the authors also reflect upon their contribution to nursing knowledge development in. for each tradition, ontological and epistemological properties are presented to provide an overview of their main features. Contributions to nursing knowledge development are then discussed. ontology refers to stratified, fixed and changing, or multiple realities, depending on the philosophical tradition. Likewise, epistemology emphasizes the explanatory power of knowledge, intersubjectivity, or inherent power dynamics. the diversity of philosophical traditions represents an asset that can significantly contribute to the advancement of the nursing discipline. clarification of the philosophical dimensions that underlie knowledge development is essential for doctoral nursing students in the process of developing their research projects and future programmes of research.

  14. Philosophical midwifery and the birthpangs of modern cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, George; Urani, John

    1993-01-01

    Philosophical considerations sometimes direct developments in physics. Such influence most frequently operates during the genesis of new fields. The birth of modern cosmology provides clear evidence of the interaction between philosophical issues and the shape and direction of a new physical discipline. Philosophical controversy between E. A. Milne and other astrophysicists, including A. S. Eddington, James Jeans, and H. P. Robertson, directly affected the models, methods, and very nature of cosmological science for future generations. Today's standard space-time metric, for example, resulted from responses by Robertson and A. G. Walker to philosophical challenges presented in Milne's proposals to scrap the very idea of expanding ``space.'' Analysis of published works, unpublished manuscripts and correspondence, and personal interviews illustrates the role philosophical considerations played in development of this new field in physics.

  15. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

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    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church. Korrupsie het verstommende afmetings in Suid-Afrika aangeneem. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n bydrae te lewer tot filosofiese benaderings wat daarop gemik is om korrupsie te bestry. By die oorweging van strawwe vir korrupte dade word die mees algemene benadering gebaseer op die teorie van konsekwensialisme, wat slegs die gevolge van korrupte dade oorweeg. Ideaal-gesproke behoort ook kennis geneem te word

  16. SOCIALISM FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF ECONOMICS

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    Klistorin V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to discuss the role the socialist ideas played in the development of economic thoughts. The paper considers a brief history of socialist thought, fundamental ideas of the scientists and publicists who made the greatest contribution to development of socialist concepts; common principles at a huge variety of such concepts; and criticism of socialist ideas made by representatives of alternative schools. A special focus of the paper is the discussion held in the period between the world wars on whether socialism could take place. In the critics’ opinion, socialization of the economy resulted in corrupted economic information which made economic calculations impossible in socialism and abolition of private ownership - in both eliminated freedom of choice and lower economic growth. In response, economists-socialists insisted on positive impacts through lower transactional costs and they proposed different types of market socialism. The author also makes an attempt to formulate what the socialist theories contributed to modern economics from the viewpoint of its research subject and definitions.

  17. Intuitive Experiences from Sohrevardi’s Viewpoint

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    Heydarinoori, R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The truth of intuitive experiences and how to fulfill them are among theissues that all people, cultures and rituals have faced with and expressedviews about. There are two major approaches; the essence-oriented notionwhich has emphasized on the cohesion and commonality of these experiencesbetween individuals and people, and construction-oriented perspective whichhas considered more important roles for the discovery ideas and thoughts inthe development and shaping of these experiences, so there are essentialdifferences of them between people and cultures. Intellectual system ofIllumination, which has been developed according to Sohrevardi’sdiscussions, has unique and valuable view in this regard. It asserts thatunion with light underlies mystical revelation and the specificself-centeredness is involved in the realization of these experiences alongwith illumination, observation, union, and inexistence. Althoughcharacteristics of illumination and talent are essential in this system ofthought, the collection of features regarding spiritual experiences,according to Sohrevardi, represents a kind of essence-orientation inmystical revelation. The personal unity of experiences based on thethinking of each individual does not mean to separate experiences. Rather,they all have common grounds. The present study first, refers to the viewsexpressed in this regard, and then explains what and how of spiritualexperiences from the viewpoint of Sohrevardi. It finally, provides answersto some unknown issues.

  18. Intuitive Experiences from Sohrevardi’s Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heydarinoori

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The truth of intuitive experiences and how to fulfill them are among the issues that all people, cultures and rituals have faced with and expressed views about. There are two major approaches the essence-oriented notion which has emphasized on the cohesion and commonality of these experiences between individuals and people, and construction-oriented perspective which has considered more important roles for the discovery ideas and thoughts in the development and shaping of these experiences, so there are essential differences of them between people and cultures. Intellectual system of Illumination, which has been developed according to Sohrevardi’s discussions, has unique and valuable view in this regard. It asserts that :::::union::::: with light underlies mystical revelation and the specific self-centeredness is involved in the realization of these experiences along with illumination, observation, :::::union:::::, and inexistence. Although characteristics of illumination and talent are essential in this system of thought, the collection of features regarding spiritual experiences, according to Sohrevardi, represents a kind of essence-orientation in mystical revelation. The personal unity of experiences based on the thinking of each individual does not mean to separate experiences. Rather, they all have common grounds. The present study first, refers to the views expressed in this regard, and then explains what and how of spiritual experiences from the viewpoint of Sohrevardi. It finally, provides answers to some unknown issues.

  19. QUALITY FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF TOURISM DESTINATION

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    Liliana ELMAZI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Service quality initiatives are high priorities in many tourist destinations, with expenditure seen as long-term investment for future growth and profitability. My study’s goal is to explain the quality dimensions from the viewpoint of tourism destination. When we start to discuss about tourism quality supply, the main problem we have to consider is the structure of tourism supply as a complex of tangible and intangible elements. Analysis of the quality problem, their measuring and monitoring and marketing strategies based on quality, needs to be built on the specificity of tourist offer, regarding the level of goods and services. Because of this, the level of quality and customer satisfaction of quality is very hard to measure and to control. The first major feature of quality programs development is typically, to identify the key components or dimensions of quality from customer and employee research, i.e. their needs and expectations.

  20. Regulation of biogenerics: a survey of viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Outi; Nordström, Katrina

    2004-01-01

    'Biogenerics' regulation has brought about a heated debate within the EU as the first biopharmaceuticals are going off patent. This study aims to examine the opportunities and challenges offered by biogenerics by surveying the viewpoints of experts in regulatory agencies and in companies developing novel biopharmaceuticals and biogenerics. Oral interviews were conducted in 2002 and 2003 with experts including representatives of the European Generic Medicines Association (EGA) and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) in Brussels, three innovator biotech companies, and five other experts in Finland. Additionally, four biogenerics companies and one innovator company abroad answered a structured, written questionnaire. According to this study, biogenerics should be regulated on a case-by-case basis. The interviewees were not unanimous as to whether comparability can be addressed and which are the most challenging areas for proving comparability. Immunogenicity was considered to be a major problem for biogenerics. Therefore, a requirement for an intensified monitoring of the safety profile during post-marketing was thought to be justified in many cases.

  1. PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE NATURE OF VIOLENCE

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    N. M. Boychenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In order to consistently distinguish between violence, which is always primarily a destructive force, and the civilized use of force that involves constructive, creative goals, one should explore the main possible philosophical approaches to understand the nature of violence and try to give it a systematic outline. Methodology. This study uses a systematic approach to identify the internal relationship between different forms of violence and, accordingly, the counteraction against violence. Also, the author uses an axiology to identify the values that are the basis for distinguishing violence from its prototypes, as well as for the distinction between violence and coercion, as well as different types of coercion. Originality. This article presents significant clarifications on the classification of types of violence, in particular, it is clearly established that certain types of violence can not have ethical relevance, since they belong to the sphere of biology (expansion, aggression or social anthropology (cultural, institutional coercion. Actually violence or violence in the narrow sense implies the existence of will, consciousness and destructive purpose. Accordingly, counteraction against violence should include the formation of a certain non-violent type of will, non-violent culture and creative, constructive goals. This requires both personal effort and institutional support and the availability of appropriate moral traditions. Ethical theory is intended to clarify and systematize these efforts. In this sense, ethics is the core of practical philosophy. To the extent that the influence of ethics on changes in human culture and sociality in the counterfactual regime is increasing, one should also speak of the anthropological significance of ethics. Conclusions. From the socio-philosophical point of view, it is necessary to specify exactly which social institutions and in which constellation generate violence. The ethical aspect of

  2. Anania Shirakatsi's Cosmographical and Natural Philosophical Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielyan, Eduard

    2014-10-01

    The observation of the heaven and celestial bodies has taken place since ancient times in the Armenian Highland. The notions of the sphericity of the Earth and celestial bodies, and other theses (about elements, comparative sizes of celestial bodies, antipodes, earthquakes, criticism of astrology, etc.) were reflected and elaborated in "Cosmography" of Anania Shirakatsi (VII century AD), as well as "Ashkharhatsoyts" ("Geography") of Movses Khorenatsi (V century AD) and his continuer Anania Shirakatsi. The road of observation and study of the Milky Way - the fundamental kernel of the development of astronomy - has led the human mind to galaxies, the cognition of the infinite capabilities of the development of matter, that is to say, from the studies of the elements constituting the Earth and other spherical bodies in the Universe (studied by Aristotle) to the Heliocentric system by Copernicus (1473-1543), from the cosmogonic ideas of Democritus (460-370 BC) about the multitude of worlds and the character of the Milky Way and their reflection in natural philosophic views of Anania Shirakatsi to the discovery of non-stationary objects and processes in the Universe owing to the activity of the nuclei of galaxies, according to the cosmogonic conception of academician Victor Ambartsumyan. Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage greatly contributed to the development of Armenian and world natural scientific thought.

  3. [Worldviews and philosophical basis of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowska, A T

    2001-01-01

    The article presents three standpoints on the question of moral permissibility of human cloning and shows the philosophical principles of it. 1. The moral consent to human cloning with the purposes of reproduction and therapy. The followers of human cloning refer to materialistic anthropology also to subjectivistic, relativistic and utilitarian ethics. 2. Those, who are adverse to human cloning with the purpose of reproduction, but they acquiesce to the so-called therapeutic cloning. They reject that human embryos and foetuses are individuals who come under protection of law. 3. Those, who reject human cloning for the purposes of reproduction and therapy alike. They assent to a personalistic anthropology and Christian ethics. A human being was created by God and human life begins at the moment of insemination. All three groups use various argumentation. The arguments for and against cloning are extracted from biology as well as psychology, philosophy, law and religion. The author of the article takes the last standpoint, but she does not see such arguments, that might convince the opposite parties to a suit.

  4. LEGAL AID IN INDIA: RETUNING PHILOSOPHICAL CHORDS

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    S. Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid in India has evolved over the last few decades since 42nd Amendment to the Indian Constitution. This paper attempts to provide philosophical underpinnings suggesting how legal aid model has evolved over the years and excogitate a newer trajectory for its future evolution. It delves into weighing Kant’s imperfect duty justifying a charity based regime and marks a transition to utilitarian model suggesting requirement of institutional need to address issues of basic liberty of ‘access to justice.’ It also spells out Rawls’ principles of justice and attempts to explore their applicability in the Indian context, to chart out a road map for future. While contrasting different models on legal aids, it makes a finding that, India doesn’t accord priority to liberty of access to justice. The Indian Supreme Court has emerged as a bastion of liberty but the finer details of the enactment has been messed up by the Indian lawmakers. The lower compensation to lawyers and lack of alternative incentives in attracting established litigators, testifies this. There is a convergence in Kantian duty of benevolence and Rawls’ liberty principle but in the world of moral relativism, a fair compensation must precede before imposing any obligation on lawyers to take up pro bono matters, as doing so, is likely to compromise their ‘true needs.’

  5. Viewpoints: a framework for object oriented database modelling and distribution

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    Fouzia Benchikha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The viewpoint concept has received widespread attention recently. Its integration into a data model improves the flexibility of the conventional object-oriented data model and allows one to improve the modelling power of objects. The viewpoint paradigm can be used as a means of providing multiple descriptions of an object and as a means of mastering the complexity of current database systems enabling them to be developed in a distributed manner. The contribution of this paper is twofold: to define an object data model integrating viewpoints in databases and to present a federated database system integrating multiple sources following a local-as-extended-view approach.

  6. C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physicist, philosopher, visionary; C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physiker, Philosoph, Visionaer

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    Goernitz, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The 20th century with its political, social, and scientific aspects bundles itself in the life of Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker. As comprehensive thinker of the presence he led natural science, philosophy, and spirituality to a unity. In the public the grandson of last in Germany enobled minster and brother of the senior federal president achieved by his engagement for peace and disarmament a global effect. Competently and understandably his visionary and prospective physical ideas and his philosophical considerations are explained by his long standing coworker and close confident.

  7. The Philosopher In The Newspaper: Serhiy Krymsky As A Public Intellectual

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    Melnyk Andriy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of philosophical and journalistic spheres, mediatization of philosophy are main problems of this article. Author considers public philosophy of contemporary Ukrainian philosopher Serhiy Krymsky and determines a role of philosophical journalism in modern media discourse.

  8. Specifics of methodology historical and philosophical researh of hesychasm

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    A. B. Klimenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research methodology of  Hesychasm ­ one of the most important schools of the Byzantine philosophy, which played a significant role in the development of modern civilization. However, to date it remains a kind of «terra incognita» for the world historical and philosophical thought. Hesychasm is a kind of Christian mystical worldview that is embodied in a certain spiritual practices that form the basis of Orthodox asceticism. Even half a century ago, history of philosophy left without attention of philosophical and theological teachings of the authors of the late antiquity and the early middle ages, be they Christian thinkers or the neo­Platonists. The era of post­Plotins philosophers Neoplatonists or commentators on Aristotle considered as a period of decline of this philosophy and the time of the rise of irrationality. For the same reason it was considered that the system of Christian thinkers cannot and should not be subject to the historical and philosophical science. This fully relates Hesychasm. However, on the basis of works of the French philosopher P. Ado, the paper argues that philosophy in late antiquity when there is Hesychasm is first of all a way of life, and therefore Hesychasm can be considered as a specific philosophical school of Christian asceticism. The main modern method of historical and philosophical studies is the hermeneutical reconstruction of cultural meaning of the philosophical texts, however, Hesychasm cannot be reduced to the «amount of texts» or rational philosophical discourses. When learning is impossible not to take into account the existing experience, what is behind the lyrics: the experience of the inner purification, «the noetic prayer, which often has verbal reflection. Therefore, along with the use of hermeneutic and semiotic principles of research work with the texts, there is a problem of the analysis of the experience of spiritual practices. This requires the use

  9. Philosophical and Ethical Foundations of Systems Thinking

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    Debora Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on more than a decade of research on the social implications of systems thinking, as well as practical experience in integrative, community-based approaches to education, this paper is an inquiry into philosophical and ethical considerations growing out of recent developments in systems thinking. In his foundational work on general system theory, Ludwig von Bertalanffy distinguishes between three general developments in the systems field: systems technology, systems science, and systems philosophy. These three dimensions of systems thinking each nurture distinct and often widely divergent theoretical and practical orientations. In his abstract for this session, Gary Metcalf asks whether the systems approach really has anything to offer. Science is a form of social feedback; it has created an enormous body of knowledge about the world and shaped humanity’s understanding of the nature of our collective reality. Knowledge then informs action. Assumptions built into scientific frameworks condition certain kinds of actions, as Bertalanffy has noted. Systems thinking as science nurtures a way of thinking that engenders a different kind of practice; systems as philosophy cultivates an ethic of integration and collaboration that has the potential to transform the nature of social organization. Although humanity still has a lot to learn about living more harmoniously and sustainably, systems thinking has made significant contributions in this direction in many fields, both theoretical and practical. The challenge is to integrate what we have learned, to communicate these insights to a larger audience, and to nurture institutional practices that honor the ethical principles inherent in the systems view.

  10. Poincaré, philosopher of science problems and perspectives

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    DiSalle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of papers from the Poincaré Project of the Center for the Philosophy of Science, University of Lisbon, bringing together an international group of scholars with new assessments of Henri Poincaré's philosophy of science—both its historical impact on the foundations of science and mathematics, and its relevance to contemporary philosophical inquiry. The work of Poincaré (1854-1912) extends over many fields within mathematics and mathematical physics. But his scientific work was inseparable from his groundbreaking philosophical reflections, and the scientific ferment in which he participated was inseparable from the philosophical controversies in which he played a pre-eminent part. The subsequent history of the mathematical sciences was profoundly influenced by Poincaré’s philosophical analyses of the relations between and among mathematics, logic, and physics, and, more generally, the relations between formal structures and the world of experience. The papers in this col...

  11. 'Epistemological break' and 'philosophical revolution' - a critique of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    philosophical revolution”. Implied in this taxonomisation of Althusser is the claim that objective and factual factors alone characterize science whereas philosophy is the theoretical field for class struggle and subjective factors. However, this ...

  12. Humanistic Psychology: Theoretical-Philosophical Overview and Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamachek, Don E.

    1982-01-01

    Provides a theoretical and philosophical overview of humanistic psychology which emphasizes self-concept, self-fulfillment, and self-realization. Discusses the contributions of phenomenology, existential psychology, and the strengths of humanistic psychology. (JAC)

  13. The Transcendence in Lucian Blaga’s Philosophical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Stelian Manolache

    2016-01-01

    On the occasion of the conference on Transcendence and Immanence - a topic buiding on the dialogue between philosophy and theology in the modern and post-modern time -, among the produced subjects, a discussion was held on the role played in respect with this dailogue by the inter-war famous philosophers, such as Lucian Blaga and Dumitru Stăniloaie. Below, we will present the issue of Transcendence according the the philosopher-poet Lucian Blaga’s vision; his vis...

  14. The Vienna Roundabout. On the Significance of Philosophical Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hrachovec, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    There are three sentimental centres of 20th-century philosophical geography: Todtnauberg, Frankfurt and Vienna. Their exceptional status results not only from having given rise to decisive philosophical movements but also from the weight of stories about victimization and exile lacking with regard to Paris, Berkeley and Cambridge. Each of these centres is compromised in its own way: the Schwarzwald cottage from which Heidegger emerged to take over the Rektorat of Freiburg University and to wh...

  15. The philosophical terrain of behavior analysis: a review of B. A. Thyer (Ed.), The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamal, P A

    2000-09-01

    The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism, edited by Bruce A. Thyer, is a set of original contributions, each dealing, from a behavioral stance, with one of the following major topics of philosophy: epistemology, ethics, consciousness, language, free will and determinism, and self-control. Confusions about radical behaviorism and its similarities to, and differences from, other behavioral and non-behavioral approaches are described in the book, which provides a state-of-the-art description of the philosophical underpinnings of behavior analysis.

  16. Viewpoints of Patients in Qazvin Towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine

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    Barikani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background We have little information on the degree of individuals’ in Iran and their use of complementary and alternative medicine, its variations and the causes of people’s tendency towards the treatments used in the methods mentioned above. Objectives In 2012, we set out to study the viewpoints of patients in Qazvin, Iran, examining how they feel about complementary and alternative medicine. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, data were collected through the use of a questionnaire. A total of 293 patients who had been referred to the complementary and alternative medicine centers were surveyed. These centers practice methods such as cupping, homeopathy and acupuncture. The questionnaire was divided in two parts, demographic questions and main questions, in this particular study. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 19 with P < 0.05. Results The mean age of the participants was 37.2 ± 13.3, and 60.8 percent of them were men. In all, 70.6 percent and 24.4 percent of respondents were married and single, respectively. About 58 percent had completed their undergraduate education. The cause of 31.3 percent of the participants’ visits was mental sicknesses, 20.2 percent attended due to rheumatologic diseases, and 8.2 percent applied to the mentioned treatment centers seeking relief from skin-related diseases. Ninety-one percent of the participants reported using alternative and complementary medicine for its efficiency. The levels of high satisfaction they reported gaining from the center’s homeopathy, acupuncture, and phlebotomy services were 17.2%, 16.5%, and 18.2%, respectively. In addition, 70 percent of the patients found the new treatment method to be quite successful, while 27 percent found it to be less effective than other approaches they had tried. Conclusions The people were receptive to the use of alternative and complementary medicine and their satisfaction level was high.

  17. The Viewpoint Paradigm: a semiotic based approach for the intelligibility of a cooperative designing process

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    Pierre-Jean Charrel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of viewpoint is studied in the field of the modelling and the knowledge management concerned in the upstream phases of a designing process. The concept is approached by semiotics, i.e. in dealing with the requirements so that an actor gives sense to an object. This gives means to transform the intuitive concepts of viewpoint and relation between viewpoints into the Viewpoint Paradigm: the sense of an object is the integration of the viewpoints which exert on it. The elements of this paradigm are integrated in a general model, which defines two concepts formally: Viewpoint and Correlation of viewpoints. The Viewpoint Paradigm is then implemented in operational concerns which are related with the intelligibility of the designing process. Two models of viewpoint and correlation are proposed. They raise of viewpoints management such as one can identify them in the written documents of a project.

  18. The Centrality of Philosophical Anthropology to (a Future) Environmental Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gare, Arran

    2016-01-01

    While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology. However, it is suggested that current defenders of philosophical anthropology have not done it justice. To appreciate its importance it is necessary accept that we are cultural beings in which the core of culture is the conception of what are humans. This is presupposed not only in thought but in social practices and forms of life. This was understood by Aristotle, but modernity has been straightjacketed by the Seventeenth Century scientific revolution and Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, identifying knowledge and with techno-science and eliminating any place for questioning this conception of humans. The only conception of humanity that could successfully challenge and replace Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, it is argued, is Hegel's philosophical anthropology reformulated and developed on naturalistic foundations. This involves subordinating science to a reconceived humanities with a fundamentally different role accorded to ethics, placing it at the center of social life, politics and economics and at the centre of the struggle to transform culture and society to create an ecologically sustainable civilization.

  19. Repetition blindness for natural images of objects with viewpoint changes

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    Stephane eBuffat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When stimuli are repeated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP, observers sometimes fail to report the second occurrence of a target. This phenomenon is referred to as repetition blindness (RB. We report an RSVP experiment with photographs in which we manipulated object viewpoints between the first and second occurrences of a target (0-, 45-, or 90-degree changes, and spatial frequency content. Natural images were spatially filtered to produce low, medium, or high spatial-frequency stimuli. RB was observed for all filtering conditions. Surprisingly, for full-spectrum images, RB increased significantly as the viewpoint reached 90 degrees. For filtered images, a similar pattern of results was found for all conditions except for medium spatial-frequency stimuli. These findings suggest that object recognition in RSVP are subtended by viewpoint-specific representations for all spatial frequencies except medium ones.

  20. Joint Rendering and Segmentation of Free-Viewpoint Video

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    Ishii Masato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a method that jointly performs synthesis and object segmentation of free-viewpoint video using multiview video as the input. This method is designed to achieve robust segmentation from online video input without per-frame user interaction and precomputations. This method shares a calculation process between the synthesis and segmentation steps; the matching costs calculated through the synthesis step are adaptively fused with other cues depending on the reliability in the segmentation step. Since the segmentation is performed for arbitrary viewpoints directly, the extracted object can be superimposed onto another 3D scene with geometric consistency. We can observe that the object and new background move naturally along with the viewpoint change as if they existed together in the same space. In the experiments, our method can process online video input captured by a 25-camera array and show the result image at 4.55 fps.

  1. A Brief Philosophical Encounter with Science and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues. PMID:24596845

  2. A Brief Philosophical Encounter with Science and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ehsan Karbasizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  3. A brief philosophical encounter with science and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-08-01

    We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  4. The ‘Philosophical paintings’ of the Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharoula A. Petraki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine Plato’s appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato’s adaptation of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy’s response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato’s hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans’ place in it.

  5. Turing's three philosophical lessons and the philosophy of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2012-07-28

    In this article, I outline the three main philosophical lessons that we may learn from Turing's work, and how they lead to a new philosophy of information. After a brief introduction, I discuss his work on the method of levels of abstraction (LoA), and his insistence that questions could be meaningfully asked only by specifying the correct LoA. I then look at his second lesson, about the sort of philosophical questions that seem to be most pressing today. Finally, I focus on the third lesson, concerning the new philosophical anthropology that owes so much to Turing's work. I then show how the lessons are learned by the philosophy of information. In the conclusion, I draw a general synthesis of the points made, in view of the development of the philosophy of information itself as a continuation of Turing's work.

  6. Time, chance, and reduction philosophical aspects of statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hüttemann, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Statistical mechanics attempts to explain the behavior of macroscopic physical systems in terms of the mechanical properties of their constituents. Although it is one of the fundamental theories of physics, it has received little attention from philosophers of science. Nevertheless, it raises philosophical questions of fundamental importance on the nature of time, chance and reduction. Most philosophical issues in this domain relate to the question of the reduction of thermodynamics to statistical mechanics. This book addresses issues inherent in this reduction: the time-asymmetry of thermodynamics and its absence in statistical mechanics; the role and essential nature of chance and probability in this reduction when thermodynamics is non-probabilistic; and how, if at all, the reduction is possible. Compiling contributions on current research by experts in the field, this is an invaluable survey of the philosophy of statistical mechanics for academic researchers and graduate students interested in the foundat...

  7. Mathematical Processes: A Viewpoint-oriented Manipulation Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2008-01-01

    View-point oriented manipulation of concepts can be helpful for generating new ideas in basic sciences and in the meantime, justifying the processes that are principally meaningful to the related disciplines. Mathematics, as a major ground for basic sciences, seems to be an appropriate exemplar...... consistent. In this paper, having reviewed the principles of view-point oriented manipulation, mathematical processes will then be discussed in this regard and an example will be presented showing the way it works for transforming a formalism into a new one....

  8. Status of the human embryo: Philosophical Foundations from Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilia de Oliveira Schpallir Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulty in demonstrating the moment of ontogenesis in which personalization takes place, we sought to define, from a philosophic point of view, the nature of the human embryo regarding its individuality, using Phenomenology, specifically reflections of philosophers Bourghet and Merleau-Ponty on the embryo. Although the statement of their individuality does not entail ethical content in itself, from the point of view of ethical responsibility, it is an extremely important fact to be considered in the bioethical reflection about the moment of ontogeny from which human life must (ethical duty be protected.

  9. Philosophical engineering toward a philosophy of the web

    CERN Document Server

    Halpin, Harry

    2013-01-01

    This is the first interdisciplinary exploration of the philosophical foundations of the Web, a new area of inquiry that has important implications across a range of domains. Contains twelve essays that bridge the fields of philosophy, cognitive science, and phenomenologyTackles questions such as the impact of Google on intelligence and epistemology, the philosophical status of digital objects, ethics on the Web, semantic and ontological changes caused by the Web, and the potential of the Web to serve as a genuine cognitive extensionBrings together insightful new scholarship from well-known an

  10. Addressing the Philosophical Confusion Regarding Constructivism in Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Pedro J.

    2006-02-01

    In the Chemical Education Today section of the May 2003 issue of this Journal , Eric Scerri wrote about the consequences of what he regards as a philosophical confusion in the work of constructivist chemical education researchers. This issue has important implications for both the teaching and practice of science. I offer a view of the confusion that places the emphasis on the careless use of philosophical terms that Scerri noted and on the tendency of psychological constructivists to go from psychological premises to unwarranted epistemological conclusions.

  11. A Comparative and Critical Study on the Proofs of God\\\\\\'s Existence from the Viewpoint of Mulla Sadra and Thomas Aquinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Kakaee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thinking and reflecting on God is one of the most important foundations of human knowledge according to theologians and philosophers. Therefore, proofs for the God’s existence  a very important theological and philosophical issue. Each thinker, according to his/her system of thought, has tried to establish a valid proof for the God’s existence of God throughout history. Mulla Sadra, founder of Hekmat Motealiye and Thomas Aquinas, philosopher of the middle ages, are two such important contributors. Though they both consider the God’s existence as given, they still proceeded to establish a proof of the God’s existence. This article, first, explains Mulla Sadra’s and Thomas Aquinas’ viewpoints on the evidence of the existence of God, then presents a comparative analysis of some of their proofs for such existence. This article contends that Mulla Sadra enriches Thomas’ proof of possibility and necessity by adding emkan faghri to it. Further, it states that Mulla Sadar also completes Thomas’ proof of movement by incorporating essential movement in to it. Finally, this paper shows that Mulla Sadar gives reasons for the necessity of being with the proof of Seddighin

  12. Viewpoint Fieldwork in Ecology as a Form of Experiential Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The small-scale research study reported on in this Viewpoint paper was conducted to determine the extent to which experiential learning in the form of fieldwork contributes to learning in Biology. The participants in the study were 36 first-year students registered for a module on Ecology. The conceptual framework that ...

  13. How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local community in Malawi. ... model that resists dependence on external aid, empowers community development, and provides opportunities to sustain development activity through local initiative, can be employed to increase social capital leading to sustainable growth.

  14. An approach to relate viewpoints and modeling languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Quartel, Dick; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Duddy, K.

    The architectural design of distributed enterprise applications from the viewpoints of different stakeholders has been proposed for some time, for example, as part of RM-ODP and IEEE 1471, and seems now-a-days to gain acceptance in practice. However, much work remains to be done on the relationships

  15. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  16. Children's Participation in Slovene Preschools: The Teachers' Viewpoints and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorec, Marcela Batistic

    2015-01-01

    This article presents part of the research performed in a project from 2008 to 2013, regarding the introduction of the Reggio Emilia approach to Slovene preschool educators. The study's aim was to recognize the possible influence of the training--from 2009 to 2011--in this project on educators' viewpoints and the promotion of children's…

  17. Viewpoint: Transatlantic Scholarship on Victorian Literature and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Armstrong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This viewpoint offers a comparison of recent British and American criticism of Victorian literature and culture, encompassing Dickens, Tennyson, the epic and ethical criticism. Discussion centres on recent studies by Sally Ledger, Rosemarie Bodenheimer, Cornelia Pearsall, Kirstie Blair, Simon Dentith, Herbert Tucker, Andrew Miller and Mike Sanders.

  18. Mathematical Processes: A Viewpoint-oriented Manipulation Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2008-01-01

    View-point oriented manipulation of concepts can be helpful for generating new ideas in basic sciences and in the meantime, justifying the processes that are principally meaningful to the related disciplines. Mathematics, as a major ground for basic sciences, seems to be an appropriate exemplar t...

  19. Viewpoint Developing Modules on the Topic of Education for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viewpoint Developing Modules on the Topic of Education for Sustainable Development: A Cross-cultural Approach for Engaging in International Collaboration ... The project is an international collaboration between teachers in primary schools in Cape Town (South Africa) and Toyko (Japan), supported by researchers at two ...

  20. Traditional Moral Values of the Oromo of Ethiopia: A Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of my PhD dissertation titled “Traditional Moral Values of the Oromo of Ethiopia: A Philosophical Appraisal of Gada System”. The dissertation ventures to accomplish three missions – one is the mission of bringing the traditional moral values of the Oromo people to light, the other is to critically evaluate the ...

  1. Lipman, Dewey, and Philosophical Inquiry in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Nadia Stoyanova

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses Matthew Lipman's approach to inquiry as shaped and fashioned by John Dewey's model of scientific inquiry. Although Lipman's program adopted the major aspects of Dewey's pedagogy, at least two characteristics of that program stand out as radically different--his use of relatively free-form philosophical discussions to teach…

  2. Odera Oruka's Philosophic Sagacity: Problems and Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the implications and challenges of Odera Oruka's conversation approach to the study of contemporary African philosophy as enunciated in his “Philosophic sagacity”. In Oruka's method, African philosophy is conceived as a joint venture and product of both the ancient (traditional) and modern African

  3. Functional Democracy In Nigeria: A Philosophical Evaluation Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper centres on a philosophical evaluation of democratic ethics vis- a- vis its functionality in Nigeria. It outlines the qualities of a genuine democracy having adequately conceptualised the term and its associated problems in the Nigerian context. The paper concludes with suggestions that would improve the ...

  4. Philosophical Thinking and the Concept of Security in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper seeks to unpack the essentially contested concept of security, exposing its deep philosophical bases, for a better understanding of the concept by theorists involved in its interrogation. Relying on analytic and reflectively interrogative methods of social inquiry, the study has two inter-related objectives. First ...

  5. A discourse on moderation as a philosophical concept | Airoboman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a contemporary attempt to revivify interest in the ancient philosophical concept of moderation. It attempts a conceptual analysis of the concept of moderation as virtue. It examined this concept hand in hand with sensual desire and holds that appetites and passions need not be eradicated completely, but instead, ...

  6. Oral tradition in African philosophical discourse: a critique of Sophie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to discuss the place of oral tradition in African philosophical discourse. In doing this, the nature of oral tradition as well as its forms is critically discussed taking into cognizance Sophie Oluwole‟s scholarship on oral tradition in African philosophy. Oluwole defends the thesis that oral tradition almost ...

  7. Ethics in the Light Of Wittgenstein | Mulhall | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines a number of ways in which Wittgenstein's later philosophical method has been appropriated for moral philosophy. The work of Paul Johnston, Sabina Lovibond and Cora Diamond is discussed in relation to the following questions. Is there a sustainable distinction between ethics and meta-ethics (in the ...

  8. The philosophical aspect of learning inverse problems of mathematical physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Семенович Корнилов

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes specific questions student learning inverse problems of mathematical physics. When teaching inverse problems of mathematical physics to the understanding of the students brought the information that the inverse problems of mathematical physics with a philosophical point of view are the problems of determining the unknown causes of known consequences, and the search for their solutions have great scientific and educational potential. The reasons are specified in the form of unknown coefficients, right side, initial conditions of the mathematical model of inverse problems, and as a consequence are functionals of the solution of this mathematical model. In the process of learning the inverse problems of mathematical physics focuses on the philosophical aspects of the phenomenon of information and identify cause-effect relations. It is emphasized that in the process of logical analysis applied and humanitarian character, students realize that information is always related to the fundamental philosophical questions that the analysis applied and the humanitarian aspects of the obtained results the inverse problem of mathematical physics allows students to make appropriate inferences about the studied process and to, ultimately, new information, to study its properties and understand its value. Philosophical understanding of the notion of information opens up to students a new methodological opportunities to comprehend the world and helps us to reinterpret existing science and philosophy of the theory related to the disclosure of the interrelationship of all phenomena of reality.

  9. A practical approach to product design from a philosophical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Clarke, A.

    2008-01-01

    “Buy an identity or surprise your senses” are in short a few from the results of the course “Design for a specific Theme” by 4th grade students Industrial Design Engineering at Twente University. The theme in the title of this course is philosophical, based on the theory of globalization of German

  10. Some Ondo Philosophical Proverbs for Practical Living | Akinmade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eye and alert the unheeding ear to the marvels of everyday realities, this paper conceptualizes philosophy and African philosophy, bringing to the fore how in Ondo society man abstracts on events, make generalizations, understands the behaviour of their gods, reflects the ethics of society and philosophizes concerning life ...

  11. Should psychology be ‘positive’? Letting the philosophers speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Femi

    2014-01-01

    This is a brief commentary on the value of optimism in therapy. It draws on the philosophical writings of Schopenhauer and Aristotle. It suggests that the modern preoccupation with optimism may be as extreme as the bleak pessimistic outlook favoured by Schopenhauer. PMID:25237498

  12. A Philosophical Wish List for Research in Music Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2006-01-01

    Within a framework provided by the traditional trio consisting of metaphysics, epistemology and ethics, a first stab is made at a wish list for MIR-research from a philosophical point of view. Since the tools of MIR are equipped to study language and its use from a purely sonic standpoint, MIR re...

  13. Philosophizing about Teacher Dissatisfaction: A Multidisciplinary Hermeneutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Doris A.

    2015-01-01

    In this methodological reflection, I describe the multidisciplinary hermeneutic process of philosophizing about teacher dissatisfaction. I discuss how philosophy serves as a starting point for interpretive work based on interviews with former teachers and readings of qualitative and quantitative research on teacher attrition and dissatisfaction.…

  14. A Philosophical Perception Of Emotion In Morality | Omoyefa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In answering the question what is the standard of morality, some philosophers argue that reason is the moral standard. By reason, they mean whatever action is in accordance with reason is morally right and whatever action is opposed to reason is morally wrong. The rationalists contend further that morality is the function of ...

  15. The Wenzi : creation and manipulation of a Chinese philosophical text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Els, Paul van

    2006-01-01

    The Wenzi is a Chinese philosophical text that is traditionally ascribed to a disciple of Laozi, the alleged founder of Daoism. The text was read, discussed, quoted and admired by the lettered class in imperial China for centuries, until the Northern Song dynasty. From the Southern Song dynasty,

  16. Daring to Question: A Philosophical Critique of Community Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Community music is a successful concept in the world of music and music education. Based on ethnomusicological research, community music tries to implement the notion of music for all that transforms societies and people. While celebrating informal learning and the musical amateur, community music has never really been philosophically challenged…

  17. What the Philosophical Interpretation of Quantum Theory Can Accomplish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Martin

    I argue that philosophical reflection can contribute to a better understanding of physical theories by performing conceptual clarification, epistemological analysis and ontological exploration. I begin by reconstructing early ontological interpretations of quantum theory, i.e., by explaining Copenhagen instrumentalism and the shift toward a quantum realism. I turn to entanglement, whose chief philosophical challenge is to understand which deeper property of nature it reveals. The trouble is that the EPR-correlations it gives rise to are not produced by common causation. Conceptual analysis shows that this failure is due to the violation of separability in quantum theory. In entangled states, it is the composite state that is primary since it cannot be neatly divided into two states that unambiguously pertain to the partial systems. As a result, total states are not produced by an interaction among the parts. This feature can be interpreted in ontological terms as suggesting a holist picture of nature. Another question of philosophical import concerns the quantum measurement problem and the contribution decoherence makes to its solution. The conceptual point is what, precisely, this problem amounts to and what we require considering it settled. The issue that divides the philosophical factions is whether a solution needs to show that superpositions are actually destroyed or whether it suffices to demonstrate that superpositions become unobservable.

  18. Is 'Education' a Thick Epistemic Concept? | Siegel | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is 'education' a thick epistemic concept? The answer depends, of course, on the viability of the 'thick/thin' distinction, as well as the degree to which education is an epistemic concept at all. I will concentrate mainly on the latter, and will argue that epistemological matters are central to education and our philosophical ...

  19. Philosophical foundations of human rights: the Yoruba example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some foundations have been provided for the social validity of human rights in Western philosophical literature. Some African scholars have also sought to ground the notion of human rights within the traditional African cultural beliefs and practices. There is, however, a dearth in literature on the Yoruba notion of human ...

  20. John Locke: A Philosopher of Liberty or Slavery? | Hassan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    John Locke: A Philosopher of Liberty or Slavery? M Hassan. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  1. Philosophical enquiry as a pedagogical tool to implement the CAPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... In this paper, we argue that philosophical enquiry, as practised using community of enquiry pedagogy, is an appropriate ... final-year student group consisted of seventy-four students, of whom 30 volunteered to participate in focus group discussions at the end of ..... of disrespect on the social media sites …

  2. Religion and Societal Development: A Philosophical Appraisal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Obi: Religion and Societal Development: A Philosophical Appraisal of African Situation. 150 ... concerning the existence, nature, and worship of a deity or deities and divine involvement in the universe and human life. Societal development, on the other, involves the process ... that the present stage of the less developed ...

  3. Human Dignity: Concept, Discussions, Philosophical Perspectives : Interdisciplinary Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duwell, Marcus

    The following introduction aims at an overview of relevant conceptual and philosophical distinctions and questions that discussions about human dignity are confronted with. I will mainly focus on questions about ‘human dignity’ that are relevant within the context of the human rights framework.

  4. The Effective Education Professional: Politician, Psychologist, Philosopher, Professor, and Parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratter, Barbara I.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims crisis in education, in part, has been caused by the rigidity of the education professional to continue in a traditional role. Contends for the school to become more responsive to the psychosocial-educational needs of students, the education professional must expand the pedagogical role to the five Ps: politician, psychologist, philosopher,…

  5. Has Adult Education any Philosophical Basics? | Akpama | Sophia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to prove that the emerging discipline of Adult Education has philosophical basics which form the hub of its theory and practice. Skeptics and some non-professionals widely ridicule and misjudge the discipline of adult education as lacking intellectual depth and value assumptions to befit the status of a ...

  6. Philosophical and Pedagogical Principles of Transnational Higher Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchenko, Maria; Avshenyuk, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical and pedagogical principles of transnational higher education development in the second half of the XX--at the beginning of the XXI century are revealed based on the authentic scientific research sources and reflections of prominent scientists. Review of scientific works, devoted to the problems of education transnationalization,…

  7. Integrating philosophical and bioethical perspectives in life sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article attempts to contextualise and highlight the need for integration of philosophical and bioethical perspectives in curriculation for courses at tertiary level in order to provide students with opportunities to engage with these issues in preparing them to be responsible teaching facilitators. To arrive at norms and values ...

  8. Citizenship Education and Philosophical Enquiry: Putting Thinking Back into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Dean; Piper, Heather

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we argue for a purposeful re-introduction of philosophical enquiry to the process and pedagogy of citizenship education. We suggest the development of philosophy and critical thinking skills may usefully improve social and political awareness in young people. Moving beyond the boundary of the formal curriculum, we encourage the…

  9. A Philosophical Inquiry into the Nature of Computer Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Holle

    2003-01-01

    The most important step in leading students in an exploration of the philosophical issues regarding art created with a computer is first to guide them in exploring ontological concepts and questions asked about the nature of art and computer art, before investigating related issues of epistemology, value, and criticism. Students need to understand…

  10. A Philosophical Approach to Claims about Vaccinations and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Isidoro

    2017-01-01

    By highlighting the critical thinking that (1) analyzes and evaluates arguments for claims about vaccinations and autism, and (2) engages in a form of methodological skepticism that systematically and continuously asks Critical Questions, a philosophical approach is introduced to deal directly and systematically with students' (and publicly…

  11. More than "Mere Ideas": Deweyan Tools for the Contemporary Philosopher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    John Dewey was born into a world ripe for philosophical reconstruction, as scientific advancement, technological innovation, and social reinterpretation reconfigured the intellectual landscape. Dewey rendered his world intelligible through three important "moral ideas": (1) The voice and the perspective of "the other" is an essential source for…

  12. Opportunities and Possibilities: Philosophical Hermeneutics and the Educational Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrey, Loren G.

    2014-01-01

    The opportunities that philosophical hermeneutics provide as a research tool are explored and it is shown that this qualitative research method can be employed as a valuable tool for the educational researcher. Used as an alternative to the standard quantitative approach to educational research, currently being the dominant paradigm of data…

  13. Prisoners' Right to Education: A Philosophical Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhaus, John

    2014-01-01

    Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares: "Everyone has the right to education." This implies that the right to education and training applies to all persons, including all persons in prison. This position is considered here from a philosophical point of view and it will receive some support. Yet it is not obvious…

  14. Scientific attitude in political inquiry: A philosophical appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... what “man” aims for are peace, happiness and development. There is also an imperative need for integration of methodological individualism (a derivative of scientific attitude) and the methodological holism (a derivation of the artistic attitude) and for this to be successful has to rest on philosophical ontology and ethics.

  15. Why People are Atypical Agents | Ross | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I argue that the traditional philosophical approach of taking cognitively and emotionally competent adult people to be the prototypical instances of agency should be revised in light of current work in the behavioral sciences. Logical consistency in application is better served by taking simple goal-directed and ...

  16. Social research design: framework for integrating philosophical and practical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kathryn Burns

    2014-09-01

    To provide and elucidate a comprehensible framework for the design of social research. An abundance of information exists concerning the process of designing social research. The overall message that can be gleaned is that numerable elements - both philosophical (ontological and epistemological assumptions and theoretical perspective) and practical (issue to be addressed, purpose, aims and research questions) - are influential in the process of selecting a research methodology and methods, and that these elements and their inter-relationships must be considered and explicated to ensure a coherent research design that enables well-founded and meaningful conclusions. There is a lack of guidance concerning the integration of practical and philosophical elements, hindering their consideration and explication. The author's PhD research into loneliness and cancer. This is a methodology paper. A guiding framework that incorporates all of the philosophical and practical elements influential in social research design is presented. The chronological and informative relationships between the elements are discussed. The framework presented can be used by social researchers to consider and explicate the practical and philosophical elements influential in the selection of a methodology and methods. It is hoped that the framework presented will aid social researchers with the design and the explication of the design of their research, thereby enhancing the credibility of their projects and enabling their research to establish well-founded and meaningful conclusions.

  17. New Perspectives in Special Education: Contemporary Philosophical Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This book should be read by everyone who wants to understand special education today. "New Perspectives in Special Education" opens the door to the fascinating and vitally important world of theory that informs contemporary special education. It examines theoretical and philosophical orientations such as "positivism", "poststructuralism" and…

  18. Higher education and general studies in Nigeria: A philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher education and general studies in Nigeria: A philosophical investigation. ... Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies ... national policy on education on tertiary or higher education reveals a startling chasm of gap between the goals of the policy through General Studies Programme and their expected actualizations.

  19. The summer school students’ viewpoints about important factors in learning, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA BAZRAFCAN

    2014-04-01

    practical skills, and management were considered as the least influential factors in learning in the 21st century. Conclusion: It seems that the students philosophically tend to approve constructivism and cooperative learning which is learner-centered as compared to conventional education which is teacher-contended. According to experts, this type of viewpoint is in the same line with new approaches to teaching and education in the present era. Moreover, it impacts the reforms, complementation and expansion of methodology greatly.

  20. Sea level change: a philosophical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinfelder, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1993-07-01

    , land vegetation and carbonate platforms are major CO2 buffers which may both take up and release CO2. CO2 can be released from the ocean due to changes in the pCO2 caused by growth of coral reefs and by uptake of CO2-rich freshwater from karst provinces. Efficient sinks of CO2 are the weathering products of silicate rocks; long-term sinks are organic deposits caused by regional anoxic events which preferrably develop during sea level rises and highstands; and coal-bearing strata. Deposition of limestone also removes CO2 from the atmospheric-hydrospheric cycle at a long term. Biotic crises are often related to either sea-level lows or sea-level highs. Long-term sea-level lows, characteristic of glacial periods, indicate cooling as major cause of extinction. During verly long-lasting greenhouse episodes the sea level is very high, climate and circulation systems are stable and biotic crises often develop as a consequence of oxygen depletion. On land, niche-splitting, complex food web structures and general overspecialization of biota will occur. Whether the crisis is caused by a single anoxic event (e.g. in the Late Devonian) or a disturbance by an asteroid impact (e.g. the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary), it will only trigger total collapse of an ecosystem if a large part of it was already in decline. The regulatory mechanisms and buffers are thermodynamically extremely efficient if they are given sufficient time in which to deploy their power. However, after major catastrophes the re-establishment of successful ecosystems will take millions of years. The present rate of sea level and associated temperature rise is much too fast to be compensated and buffered by the network of natural controls. It is likely that the transitional time towards a new steady state will be an extremely variable and chaotic episode of unpredictable duration.

  1. Ukrainian thinkers on philosophical and religious ideas of revelation and transfiguration: metodological prinsiples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Timenyk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article has been based on legacy of Ukrainian thinkers of 1840s-1960s. The author has highlighted how the discussed ideas function in close proximity to analogous ideas. For instance, the idea of God has been reviewed from the viewpoint of human and world structure, with the idea of interaction between good-evil, light-darkness. While interpreting the topic of the article, the reasonable interdependence of principles, ratios and other constructs has been justified by researcher. A complex of such processes creates a so-called “cascade” in which elements of (interreligious communications and multidisciplinary space become a reality through harmonized temporhythmics from various dimensions. At the same time, essential features of the revelation of nature and God on the borderline of paganism and Christianity have been distinguished in a systemic manner. Under the above-mentioned circumstances, “religious logics” demonstrates its possibilities. It is indispensable during the analysis of given ideas. When we think about the regularity of stage-by-stage transformation of the very concepts “revelation”, “transfiguration” comes to the said borderline. Big attention has been paid by the researcher to manifestations of partiality or wholeness of these notions from the standpoint of their harmony. Real functioning of “religious logics” gave ground to the introduction of such new notions as “inter-religious consciousness”, “revelation studies”. Not only their expediency have been justified. They are also used directly to elicit philosophical and religious ideas. One of the arguments in favor of these ideas is the necessity to expand terminological lexis, which is insufficient in modern studies. The introduction of new terms with the terms which were had not been used for a long time, has been combined by the author. This is, namely, the aforementioned “religious logics” as well as “divine dialectics”. Due to this

  2. Social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes : the Ukrainian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Skalatskaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to consider the prospects of social and philosophical analysis of the product (clothes of fashion brand. In social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes, its fashion shows there is a range of discursive questions: the use and the definition of the concepts «designer» and «brand»; thematic focus of the brand (fabrics, colors, prints, shapes its semantics; format of representation of fashion collection in dependence; and a number of other structural elements. In the analysis of fashion trends or seasonal collections the concepts designer or brand are used. The concept «brand» contains an economic component, certain calculations, and intangible assets (goodwill; design work is subject to market needs and the interests of consumers (for analysis of the individual designer the biographical method is used. Theoretical analysis of fashion cannot be made apart from empirical material. A performative approach of K. Wolfe can be the methodology of the social and philosophical research of fashion show. The advantages of this method of the research are to determine fashion as performative space, staging ideas of the designer in the fashion show and making clothes. Implementation of performative approach allowed considering thematic focus of the brand of clothes and format of its representation in seasonal fashion shows on the example of Ukrainian brand «Domanoff». Social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes can be divided into the following main components, excluding aesthetic and economic aspects: the use of the concepts designer and brand (a set of aesthetic, economic, social and subjective components and design`s view; review of the semantics of clothes and staging (by providing clothes in the form of seasonal fashion shows of collections. For complex social and socio­philosophical analysis of fashion brand it necessary to have: the press release (description, designer`s interview (disclosure of early

  3. Cosmos of science philosophical problems of the internal and external worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Earman, John

    1998-01-01

    The inaugural volume of the series, devoted to the work of philosopher Adolf Grünbaum, encompasses the philosophical problems of space, time, and cosmology, the nature of scientific methodology, and the foundations of psychoanalysis.

  4. Radiation and chemotherapy from the viewpoint of radiochemist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moebius, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fundamentals of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer treatment are presented from the viewpoint of radiochemistry. Properties and mechanism of chemotherapy, especially of platinum compounds are explained. The present state of radiation therapy is shown and possibilities for future reduction of the patients dose burden are discussed. Promising ways are the radiation sensitization of tumor cells by oxygen or the use of particle radiation instead of γ-quants. (orig.) [de

  5. Radiation protection: precedents, principles and practices - a regulatory viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.H.

    1986-06-01

    Radiation protection in its broadest sense is a multidisciplinary human function exemplifying in all meaningful respects the innate ability of dedicated persons to apply with both general and specialized expertise knowledge derived from a great many scientific and technical fields. The aim of this address is to outline from a regulatory viewpoint the precedents, principles and practices of radiation protection, a very essential human function

  6. Impact of the Clean Air Act - Industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the industry viewpoint of the impact of the implementation of the Clean Air Act through legislation originating in the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee. The topics of the paper include industry commitment to environmental responsibility, the costs of compliance, actions required of the electric utility industry and the petroleum industry, and the need for sensible, economically sound methods to meet the requirements

  7. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. Th...

  8. Some viewpoints on reference biospheres in Finnish performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Kattilakoski, E.; Suolanen, V.; Vieno, T.; Vuori, S.

    2002-01-01

    Viewpoints are presented concerning biosphere studies in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal. The points are based on experiences from several Finnish performance assessments. The latest performance assessment for spent fuel disposal, TILA-99, was considered in the Decision in Principle process for the site selection of the repository. The points given are also based on experiences from participation in international projects dealing with biosphere modelling, for instance BIOMOVS and BIOMASS. (author)

  9. The Very Basics of Sustainability - an Alternative Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the context and meaning of the term ‘sustainability’, the factors that determine and govern climate on Earth, the population of the Earth and its trends and influencers, the requirements for sustaining life and the options that are available to humankind. Some viewpoints are presented that are alternative to ‘conventional alternative’ thinking. The author advocates keeping an open mind on all available options, including the use of oil, gas, coal, tar sands, carbon capture...

  10. Philosophical and cultural perspectives on acoustics in Vedic Hinduism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M. G.

    2004-05-01

    Acoustics plays a very important multi-faceted role in Vedic Hinduism. Vedas, that is an infinitely large collection of chants (mantras) in ancient Sanskrit language, form the foundational literature of Vedic Hinduism. The Vedic chants have specific acoustical qualities and intonations. The Vedic literature describes the various aspects of acoustics, namely, philosophical, spiritual, and cultural. The use of sounds from conch-shell, bells, cymbal in addition to the Vedic chants in rituals shows the spiritual aspects. Vedic literature discusses the role of sound in the philosophical understanding of our world. Music, both vocal and instrumental, plays an important role in the cultural aspects of Vedic Hinduism. It can be seen that certain musical instruments such as ``mridangam,'' a percussion drum, reflect scientific principles underlying in their design. This paper presents an overview of the various important and interesting roles of acoustics in Vedic Hinduism.

  11. Structure and unity. Trancendence-philosophical interpretation of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Since their beginnings at the begin of the 20th century quantum physics in the ontological and epistemological interpretation of their results is facing persistent difficulties, which could not be satisfactorily solved to this day. Some quantum phenomena are beyond of both our everyday understanding of the world and the classical-physical picture of the world, which is essentially based on the mechanics of Isaac Newton. They exceed our imagination and seem at least partly contradict logical and space-time laws. Transcendence-philosophical thinking, which exhibits a close structural relation to the logics of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and to the philosophical systems analysis, provides a set of methodological instruments, which can help to avoid some problems of quantum-theoretical interpretation, which are in striking contrast to the mathematically consistent formulation of quantum theory. This is paradigmatically shown by selected main themes of the quantum-theoretical discussion.

  12. Philosophical Hermeneutics and the Ethical Function of Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kidder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Karsten Harries’ book, The Ethical Function of Architecture, raises the question of how architecture can be interpretive of and for our time. Part of Harries’ pursuit of this question is done in dialogue with the philosophy of Martin Heidegger, whose evocatively expressed ontology of building and dwelling recovered, in philosophical and poetic terms, the power of buildings to symbolize and interpret the most fundamental truths of being and human existence. The present essay identifies contributions to this hermeneutic and ontological approach to architecture drawn from the philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer, emphasizing Gadamer’s notions of play (Spiel, symbol, and the relation of the present to the past. While Gadamer expanded upon Heidegger’s hermeneutic, he also diverged from Heidegger in ways that mitigate some of the difficulties that Harries and others have found with Heidegger’s archaism, rural romanticism, and singularity of philosophical focus.

  13. The quantum world philosophical debates on quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zwirn, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    In this largely nontechnical book, eminent physicists and philosophers address the philosophical impact of recent advances in quantum physics. These are shown to shed new light on profound questions about realism, determinism, causality or locality. The participants contribute in the spirit of an open and honest discussion, reminiscent of the time when science and philosophy were inseparable. After the editors’ introduction, the next chapter reveals the strangeness of quantum mechanics and the subsequent discussions examine our notion of reality. The spotlight is then turned to the topic of decoherence. Bohm’s theory is critically examined in two chapters, and the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics is likewise described and discussed. The penultimate chapter presents a proposal for resolving the measurement problem, and finally the topic of loop quantum gravity is presented by one of its founding fathers, Carlo Rovelli. The original presentations and discussions on which this volume is based t...

  14. The Philosophical Anthropology of José Manzana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gómez Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main focus and interest of José Manzana’s philosophical anthropology is centred on the human condition, the sense of man’s action, the possibility of knowledge… and all that refers to «vertical transcendence», towards the Absolute, which finally culminates in God. With his philosophical anthropology, Manzana aims to ground on a transcendental method of reflection the conditions of man and his different options as a human being. The objective of this author is to clarify human existence by identifying his moment of creation. The aforementioned reflection brings us to three main dimensions of the individual: the human being as an inquiring entity, his interpersonal dimension and his awakening to the Transcendental.

  15. Bayesians versus frequentists a philosophical debate on statistical reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Vallverdú, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    This book analyzes the origins of statistical thinking as well as its related philosophical questions, such as causality, determinism or chance. Bayesian and frequentist approaches are subjected to a historical, cognitive and epistemological analysis, making it possible to not only compare the two competing theories, but to also find a potential solution. The work pursues a naturalistic approach, proceeding from the existence of numerosity in natural environments to the existence of contemporary formulas and methodologies to heuristic pragmatism, a concept introduced in the book’s final section. This monograph will be of interest to philosophers and historians of science and students in related fields. Despite the mathematical nature of the topic, no statistical background is required, making the book a valuable read for anyone interested in the history of statistics and human cognition.

  16. Reach for Reference. No Opposition Here! Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center Is a Very Good Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    "Opposing Viewpoints" and "Opposing Viewpoints Juniors" have long been standard titles in upper elementary, middle level, and high school collections. "Opposing Viewpoints Juniors" should be required as information literacy/critical thinking curriculum tools as early as fifth grade as they use current controversies to teach students how to…

  17. Time-aware multi-viewpoint summarization of multilingual social text streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Zhaochun; Inel, Oana; Aroyo, Lora; De Rijke, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    A viewpoint is a triple consisting of an entity, a topic related to this entity and sentiment towards this topic. In time-aware multi-viewpoint summarization one monitors viewpoints for a running topic and selects a small set of informative documents. In this paper, we focus on time-aware

  18. The Transcendence in Lucian Blaga’s Philosophical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Manolache

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the conference on Transcendence and Immanence - a topic buiding on the dialogue between philosophy and theology in the modern and post-modern time -, among the produced subjects, a discussion was held on the role played in respect with this dailogue by the inter-war famous philosophers, such as Lucian Blaga and Dumitru Stăniloaie. Below, we will present the issue of Transcendence according the the philosopher-poet Lucian Blaga’s vision; his vision is tructured into a Trilogy in his work: The Trilogy of Knowledge - The Dogmatic Aeon, The Luciferic Knowledge, The Transcendental Censorship - The Trilogy of the Culture - Horizon and Style; The Mioritic Space; The Genesis of the Metaphor and The Meaning of Culture - and The Trilogy of Values - Science and Creation; Magic Thinking and Religion; Art and Value. In these trilogies, the philosopher - poet elaborates, from an original metaphysical point of view, on the dimension of the knowledge of Transcendence - which he would define in in The Horizon of Mystery and Revelation. His vision will be addressed in a new theory of knowledge, which the philosopherpoet Lucian Blaga would distinguish as Paradisiac knowledge and Lucifer knowledge, within a new Metaphysics that would allow access to Transcendence and to the wonders beyond. Postulating the existence of certain faculties of Conscience, his Metaphysics would become, according to the Theory of Transcendence, a must for the human spirit; a proof for his approach would be the great philosophical systems of the world, from the antique to the modern.

  19. Euthanasia in South Africa: Philosophical and theological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Mojalefa L.J. Koenane

    2017-01-01

    Debates on euthanasia (or �mercy killing�) have been a concern in moral, philosophical, legal, theological, cultural and sociological discourse for centuries. The topic of euthanasia inspires a variety of strong views of which the �slippery slope� argument is one. The latter warns that the principle(s) underlying any ethical issue (including euthanasia) may be distorted. Scholars� views on euthanasia are influenced mainly by cultural, personal, political and religious convictions. In South Af...

  20. Philosophical dissertation: a didactic strategy between orality and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Jazmin Barreto Bernal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of the didactics of philosophy has been marked by different theoretical and practical positions. This article attempts to further the theorization on the use of philosophical dissertation as a practical strategy, reconstructing the ideas of professor Miguel Angel Gomez Mendoza. Likewise, we propose dissertation as an oral practice, based on the educational practices and argumentative field that pertain to philosophy.

  1. Can One Learn to Think Critically? – A Philosophical Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Within nursing, critical thinking is a required skill that educators strive to foster in their students’ development for use in complex healthcare settings. Hence the numerous studies published measuring critical thinking as a terminal outcome of education. However, an important comparison between different philosophical underpinnings such as person, truth and the nature of nursing, and how one defines and utilizes critical thinking in practice, has been absent from discussions about critical...

  2. The adaptation nature and content: a philosophical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Попович, О. В.

    2014-01-01

    Philosophical analysis of the phenomenon of adaptation is urgently needed, as the scientific discourse confirms the diversity within the meaning of adaptation and missing not only an integrative concept, but consistency in terminology of allied sciences. According to etymological definition of "adaptation" (from the latin words "adaptatio" (adaptation) and "adaptio" (adapt) allows to interpret it as a process and as a result of adjustment. In the development of the science of great importance...

  3. Revisiting Mary Daly: Towards a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelie Wood

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available I was a tenderfoot in feminist discourse when I started my research on patriarchy, feminism, and Mary Daly. In my thesis, one aspect I engaged was Daly’s battle with gender issues in Christian theology. From the beginning I was troubled by Mary Daly’s views on God, men, and women in her discourse on Christianity. Daly undoubtedly contributed to the discussion on gender issues in the Christian faith, but her focus on androcentrism and her interpretations of Scripture led her to abandon the Christian faith. Mary Daly has written extensively on patriarchy as it is found in religion – particularly in the Christian faith – and how it filters through society. In her critique of patriarchy she set her course to dismantle the facade of a patriarchal and misogynistic God as the root of patriarchy. Daly did not see any positive qualities of the Christian faith and completely rejected other interpretations of a God whose person embraces both male and female qualities. Against this background I will evaluate Daly’s post-Christian feminist theological and philosophical paradigm. I propose that Daly has a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm wherein there are four main players. The ‘Who is who’ in Daly’s quadripartite patriarchal theological and philosophical paradigm are the patriarchal male, the patriarchal female, the patriarchal God and the biophilic woman.

  4. Spirituality in the Philosophical Thought of Seyyed Hossein Nasr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhilah Khunaeni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality for Seyyed Hossen Nasr is an inner reality that becomes a religious central in Islam. It is the esoteric dimension hidden in the reality of exoteric Islam. That view on spirituality brings Nasr to the philosophical thought that cannot be separated from religious metaphysical doctrine. Nasr argues that philosophy is more than just a ratio but also the activity of intellect that can reach the meta-cosmic nature to find the essence of truth namely the universal and eternal truth that lies behind the physical and relative truth. The philosophical efforts to find this truth are a combination of the optimizing potential of reason and intellectual intuition. Nasr refers to ḥikmah or wisdom as a kind of philosophy that combines logic and intellectual intuition. That philosophical view brings Nasr on a dualistic view of nature which not only has a cosmic dimension as such but also has a meta-cosmic dimension. This dualistic view is his fundamental reason in formulating the concept of metaphysical cosmology as a solution to the crisis of modern science that has caused a variety of ecological damage due to the secular vision.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v20i2.812

  5. Mario Bunge: Physicist, philosopher and defender of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Matthews

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in the final year of the First World War. He learnt atomic physics andquantum mechanics from an Austrian refugee who had been a student of Heisenberg. Additionally he taughthimself modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater. He was the first SouthAmerican philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology,sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise onPhilosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of theEnlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planksof the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, rationality, and respect forindividuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy ofscience, educational research and science teaching are recognised – it is salutary to see the fruits of one person’spursuit of the ‘Big’ scientific and philosophical picture.

  6. Learning a Deep Model for Human Action Recognition from Novel Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Hossein; Mian, Ajmal; Shah, Mubarak

    2018-03-01

    Recognizing human actions from unknown and unseen (novel) views is a challenging problem. We propose a Robust Non-Linear Knowledge Transfer Model (R-NKTM) for human action recognition from novel views. The proposed R-NKTM is a deep fully-connected neural network that transfers knowledge of human actions from any unknown view to a shared high-level virtual view by finding a set of non-linear transformations that connects the views. The R-NKTM is learned from 2D projections of dense trajectories of synthetic 3D human models fitted to real motion capture data and generalizes to real videos of human actions. The strength of our technique is that we learn a single R-NKTM for all actions and all viewpoints for knowledge transfer of any real human action video without the need for re-training or fine-tuning the model. Thus, R-NKTM can efficiently scale to incorporate new action classes. R-NKTM is learned with dummy labels and does not require knowledge of the camera viewpoint at any stage. Experiments on three benchmark cross-view human action datasets show that our method outperforms existing state-of-the-art.

  7. Isócrates, professor de philosophía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Sidnei Pagotto-Euzebio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo apresenta o magistério de Isócrates (436-338 a.C., autor ateniense contemporâneo de Platão, e suas concepções acerca da forma e dos propósitos da paideía ou educação, que ele denominava, em seu conjunto, philosophía. Para tanto, descrevem-se o rol dos alunos que Isócrates teria tido, a popularidade de sua escola e o testemunho, por outros autores da Antiguidade, de sua influência educativa. Em seguida, discute-se a definição isocrática de philosophía, apresentada, por vezes, como um empenho intelectual conjugado à experiência; em outros momentos, como a cultura ou paideía criada por Atenas, cidade em que o lógos, em seu duplo sentido de razão e discurso, ocupava lugar de excepcional importância. Por fim, passa-se dessa definição geral de philosophía para aquela que a apresenta como um procedimento educativo deliberado, sendo que o professado por Isócrates em sua escola seria, segundo ele, o único a merecer, de todo direito, o título de philosophía. Descreve-se, então, a philosophía de Isócrates, com seus princípios mais importantes, a dóxa, ou opinião; a empeiría, ou experiência, e o kairós, ou ocasião, indicando as justificativas para essa opção e os resultados esperados de tal programa educativo, e de que modo tais princípios estariam presentes no que chamaríamos de seus métodos pedagógicos, dos quais se destaca a prática de Isócrates de submeter suas próprias obras à crítica de seus alunos, em um formato de discussão ou debate próximo do que denominaríamos, hoje, de seminário.

  8. MARTIN HEIDEGGER’S BLACK NOTEBOOKS AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHICAL CRITIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Karpenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the key strategies of philosophical criticism of Heidegger’s Black Notebooks, whose achievement is realized in the following tasks: 1 to identify the body of texts that represent the discourse of philosophical criticism of Heidegger notes; 2 to reveal the typological features of the different strategies of interpreting Black Notebooks; 3 to reconstruct a thematic horizon of Heidegger studies, opened up by discussion on published notes. The methodology combines elements of discourse analysis with traditional methods of historical and philosophical criticism. Scientific novelty is expressed in the following: 1 philosophical discourse of the Notebooks’ reception includes texts of narrowly specialized character (Gatherings collection of articles, as well as reflections of key philosophers (A. Badiou, J.-L. Nancy 2 basic strategies in philosophical critique of Black Notebooks convey the overall structure of the discourse of interpretation of Heidegger’s legacy, distributed between apologetics and ideological criticism; 3 Black Notebooks have exacerbated the problem of architectonics of Gesammtausgabe and formed the textual basis for the study of "silence" period in philosophical life of Heidegger. Conclusions. The discourse of philosophical critique of Heidegger’s notes proves evidence for ideological charge of philosophizing and justifies socially oriented approaches of historical and philosophical studies examining philosophizing as a special cultural practice, not as a form of sublime creativity.

  9. Nutrition education, behavioral theories, and the scientific method: another viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A

    2005-01-01

    In a previous viewpoint in this journal, David Buchanan suggested that the scientific model is inappropriate, ineffective, and possibly unethical in nutrition education research and championed the use of a more humanistic model. The purpose of this article is to provide a counterpoint to Buchanan's views. More specifically, this article will provide another interpretation of the current status of the scientific method in the social and behavioral sciences, will examine how the field of nutrition education has benefited from the use of the scientific method to evaluate behavioral theories, and will discuss what we are trying to achieve by using theory in nutrition education.

  10. Explorations of fungal biosynthesis of reduced polyketides - a personal viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vederas, John C

    2014-10-01

    This viewpoint on biosynthesis of reduced polyketides in fungi traces evolution of the research area over more than 4 decades. It is a companion to the related articles by two personal and scientific friends with whom there has been free exchange of ideas for over 30 years. Beginning with very rudimentary knowledge about assembly of such natural products, developments using stable isotope labelling and subsequently identification of biosynthetic genes, led to understanding of the processive nature of polyketide formation. Recent expression and isolation of fungal iterative polyketide synthase enzymes has enabled more detailed exploration of the mechanisms of these fascinating molecular machines.

  11. Review of Public Safety in Viewpoint of Complex Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai Chengcheng; Weng Wenguo; Yuan Hongyong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a brief review of public safety in viewpoint of complex networks is presented. Public safety incidents are divided into four categories: natural disasters, industry accidents, public health and social security, in which the complex network approaches and theories are need. We review how the complex network methods was developed and used in the studies of the three kinds of public safety incidents. The typical public safety incidents studied by the complex network methods in this paper are introduced, including the natural disaster chains, blackouts on electric power grids and epidemic spreading. Finally, we look ahead to the application prospects of the complex network theory on public safety.

  12. Inventory of present verification techniques. Viewpoint of EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeckner, W.; Eecken, D. Van der; Gmelin, W.

    1998-01-01

    Starting from the role of Euratom as an established regional safeguards system, an overview is given of verification techniques currently practised by Euratom. In the stage-light of a rapidly changing and complex international safeguards scene, Euratom considers it has an important role to play. Having in mind the possibilities created by accelerating modern technology, recommendations are given for an enhanced use of technological means in safeguards. The viewpoint of Euratom is that the majority of methodologies and techniques in place may very well be copied to or used for a cut-off verification system currently under discussion

  13. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun

    2017-01-05

    In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.

  14. PHILOSOPHIC AND CLINICAL DISCOURSE OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Skyrtach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to identify common and distinctive features of concepts and methodology of the problem of subject within different discourses, implicitly or explicitly relevant to the definition of "clinical" mode of human existence. The research methodology combines techniques of discourse analysis and basic principles of historical and philosophical studies. Originality of the research lies in definition of the clinical philosophical discourse as a special communicative process, where utterances not only focus on disease syndromes, and reveal phenomenology of inner experience of a pathological self, but also structure a certain type of sociality. Clinical discourse represents the space where the patient is treated not as a subject but as an object of disease. Ontology of clinical discourse prevails over ontology of disease, since its structures determine the notion of disease as such. Categorization of the disease, the idea of disease as a phenomenon subdued to professional authority leads to the idea of the need for patient’s isolation from the natural environment and removing him to special social institutions. The clinicist doctrines share the intention to reduce the patient’s self to its bodily dimension, while ignoring social determinants of psychological deviations. Conclusions of the study are summarized in the following positions: the current clinical discourse is based on the positivist-biological trend in humanitarian knowledge and it is the basis for the production and reproduction of medical and pharmaceutical repressive ideology; criticism of philosophical clinical discourse opens the possibility of overcoming the dominance of purely clinicist discourse; such a transformation is possible only after a paradigm shift in understanding the category of subject.

  15. A Mythological, Philosophical and Astronomical approach of our solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivas, Sotirios; Kastanidou, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    Teaching Geography in the first Class of Gymnasium - secondary education we will focus in Solar System: Astronomical approach: Students will look and find the astronomical data of the planets, they will make comparisons between the sizes of their radius, they will find the distance from the Sun, they will search the relative motion, they will calculate the gravity on each planet, etc. Mythological approach: We will search the names and meanings of the planets based on Greek mythological origin. Philosophical approach: Regarding the philosophical approach of the "solar system" we will look and find: • Why planets are called so? • How did planets get their names? • What are the periods of Greek astronomy? • What were the astronomical instruments of ancient Greeks and who did built them? • What were the Greek philosophers and astronomers? When did they live and what did they discover? • Which method did Eratosthenes of Cyrene apply about 206B.C. to serve a real measurement of the earth's radius? • What was the relationship between science and religion in ancient Greece? Literature approach: At the end of the program students will write their opinion in subject "Having a friend from another planet" based on the book of Antoine de Saint - Exupéry "The little prince". Law approach: A jurist working in Secondary Education will visits our school and engages students in the Space Law. Artistic approach: Students will create their own posters of our planetary system. The best posters will be posted on the school bulletin board to display their work. Visit: Students and teachers will visit the Observatory of Larissa where they will see how observatory works and talk with scientists about their job. They will look through telescopes and observe the sun.

  16. Identity in Physics A Historical, Philosophical, and Formal Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    French, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Can quantum particles be regarded as individuals, just like books, tables and people? According to the 'received' view - articulated by several physicists in the immediate aftermath of the quantum revolution - quantum physics itself tells us they cannot: quantum particles, unlike their classical counterparts, must be regarded as 'non-individuals' in some sense. However, recent work has indicated that this is not the whole story and that the theory is also consistent with theposition that such particles can be taken to be individuals, albeit at a metaphysical price. Drawing on philosophical acc

  17. The Trichotomy of Processes: a philosophical basis for information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Widmeyer

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of trichotomy from the American philosopher Charles S. Peirce can be used to categorize processes into the triad of transactional, relational, and informational. The usefulness of these categories is explicated by a comparison with structuration theory and control theory, and elaborated with a consideration of democracy in a knowledge economy. These three example applications of the process triad show the generality of the conceptual categories and provide a natural way of bringing ideas from social and ethical theories into information systems design. Modeling the world and understanding business applications through the use of the Trichotomy of Processes should facilitate the development of more valuable information systems.

  18. Philosophical Reflections made explicit as a Tool for Mathematical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Sune; Andresen, Mette

    2009-01-01

        A new construct, ‘multidiciplinarity', is prescribed in the curricula of Danish Upper Secondary Schools by governmental regulations since 2006. Multidisciplinarity offers a good chance to introduce philosophical tools or methods in mathematics with the aim to improve the students' learning...... for making students reflections in the mathematics class explicit to themselves. In our paper, we present a combination of two stratifications of reflections which were developed recently in works by other authors. The paper outlines our model and exemplifies its use on the teaching of mathematical models...

  19. About the principle of dignity: philosophical foundations and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ricardo Staffen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2017v38n75p43 This paper, starting from deductive method, aims to analyze the coexistence mechanisms of the philosophical foundations of the principle of human dignity by the legal practice, both in legislative documents as judicial decisions. On the metaphysical aspects that keeps in its wake, the principle of human dignity opens spaces for criticism of the consistency and coherence of that principle in legislative works, notably, in judicial decisions. Finally, it is concluded that while the reputation based on dignity is a universal virtue, its content depends largely on social, religious and traditional of certain communities.

  20. Three philosophical approaches to the study of spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinley, Susan T; Kinney, Anita Y

    2007-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, there has been an expanded interest in the place that spirituality has in nursing practice, education, and research. The purpose of this article is to examine the study of spirituality from the perspective of 3 philosophical paradigms: empiricism, interpretivism, and poststructuralism. The strengths and weaknesses of the paradigms are identified through a review of an exemplar article for each. Each paradigm provides a unique approach to the development of knowledge, and thus makes its own contribution to the understanding of spirituality. It is the researcher's responsibility to identify the appropriate paradigm for the question.

  1. On a Philosophical Motivation for Mutilating Truth Tables

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    Marcos Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons colours, or better the conceptual organisation of the colour system, could be relevant to the philosophy of logic is that they necessitate some mutilation of truth tables by restricting truth functionality. This paper argues that the so-called ‘Colour Exclusion Problem’, the first great challenge for Wittgenstein’s Tractatus, is a legitimate philosophical motivation for a systematic mutilation of truth tables. It shows how one can express, through these mutilations, some intensional logical relations usually expressed by the Aristotelian Square of Oppositions, as contrariety and subcontrariety.

  2. A Philosophical vs. a Psychological Perspective on Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2016-03-01

    This paper questions to what extent borders are to be understood from a philosophical or a psychological perspective. This is done by investigating the distinction between philosophy and psychology that comes up as a result of Immanuel Kant's investigation of the pure reason. Ontology is found as a demarcation criterion between the two fields in the sense that it is of crucial importance in philosophy, but not of certain interest from a psychological point of view. An investigation of three assumptions in the perspective of affective loading follows this up, which confirms the efficiency of borders in psychological meaning production.

  3. Restaging Descartes. From the Philosophical Reception to the national Pantheon

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    Stéphane Van Damme

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In his book, Esquisse des Progrès de l’humanité published in 1793, the French philosopher Condorcet underlined the strength of the cartesian Revolution as one of a basement of the mondernity. By this analysis, Condorcet closed the black box of one century and a half of science wars in the Republic of Letters in Europe. In fact, if the learned circles displayed deeply contrasting attitudes concerning the Cartesian question from the Descartes’death in 1650, beginning in the 1740s references to ...

  4. Arendt on Hobbes as the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie

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    Adriano Correia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In The Origins of Totalitarianism, when examine the elements and origins of total domination, Hannah Arendt devotes special attention to the political emancipation of the bourgeoisie. For Arendt imperialism is the truth of the bourgeois understanding of politics, according to which politics should not be more than a well-organized police force. The truth of bourgeois politics is the reduction of politics to mere force. Our purpose is to reconstruct this movement from the vantage point of arendtian appropriation of Hobbes, "the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie."

  5. The theme revenge in the cinema: a literary philosophical approach

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    Fábio José de Queiroz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the focus is revenge, taking as a starting point two cinematographic works –Once upon a time in this article is revenge, taking as a starting point two cinematographic works­ once upon a time in West, by Sergio Leone, and also colors: White by Krzysztof Kieslowsk. Without the direct influence of a purely artistic appreciation of both movies, this is about a study of literary­ philosophical lineage by relying on classical seeks to provide an theoretical analyze of the theme, avoiding falling into an empiricist interpretation, trivial and shallow of the object.

  6. Philosophical and methodological aspects of the Schroedinger paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juha, L.; Krajca, R.; Smatera, M.

    1989-01-01

    Methodological aspects of the foundations of quantum theory are dealt with in relation to the quantum description of macroscopic systems, biological in particular. Attention is paid to the philosophical content of the problems of 1) the logical status of the reduction postulate in quantum mechanics, and 2) the paradox of Schroedinger's cat, whose physical solution has not yet been attained. The problem of the quantum description of complex macroscopic systems is also treated, as is Herbert Froehlich's important concept of the excitation of dominant modes in biological systems. (author). 61 refs

  7. Understanding the Sustainability of Fuel from the Viewpoint of Exergy

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    Yaning Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At the same time of providing a huge amount of energy to the world population (social sustainability and global economy (economic sustainability, the fuel itself also releases a great amount of emissions to the environment the world people live in in the forms of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, CO, CO2, CH4, etc. and ash compositions (Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, P2O5, SO3, SiO2, TiO2, etc., seriously impacting the environment (environmental sustainability for the world population and global economy. Sustainability generally encompasses economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social sustainability, and all of these are significantly related to the energy/resource sustainability. This study addresses the sustainability of fuel from the viewpoint of exergy. It is demonstrated that the energy of a fuel is best evaluated by its chemical exergy, and the environmental impact of a fuel can be assessed through the chemical exergy of its emissions (the specific impacts such as toxicity or greenhouse effect are not detailed. Then, the sustainability of fuel can be understood from the viewpoint of exergy through three ways: (a high chemical exergy of the fuel, (b high exergy efficiency of the fuel conversion process, and (c low chemical exergy of the emissions.

  8. Philosophical and Pedagogical Principles of Transnational Higher Education Development

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    Leshchenko Maria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical and pedagogical principles of transnational higher education development in the second half of the XX - at the beginning of the XXI century are revealed based on the authentic scientific research sources and reflections of prominent scientists. Review of scientific works, devoted to the problems of education transnationalization, allowed concluding that in the late XX century the traditional relationship of pedagogy and philosophy changed under the influence of globalization and internationalization of education. On the basis of determinant analysis it has been found that postmodernism (J. Derrida, M. Foucault, J. Lyotard, R. Panvit and postnonclassical science (H. Haken, I. Prihozhyn, V. Stepin serve philosophical grounds for transnational higher education formation. The article proves that the “philosophy of global problems” as a set of ideas based on the objectivity of the total global relations, serves as the basis for building a modern educational paradigm that is reflected in the concept of global education. The fundamental idea of global education is to develop a holistic vision and human perception of the world, awareness of its place in the interconnected and rapidly changing environment, by filling content of educational process with human values. Practical implementation of these ideas is made by the introduction of multicultural education approach, critical pedagogy, global education and formation of intercultural educational content, which reflects the cultural and historical specificity of population.

  9. The oblique perspective: philosophical diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2017-12-01

    This paper indicates how continental philosophy may contribute to a diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research, as part of a "diagnostics of the present" (envisioned by continental thinkers, from Hegel up to Foucault). First, I describe (as a "practicing" philosopher) various options for an oblique (or symptomatic) reading of emerging scientific discourse, bent on uncovering the basic "philosophemes" of science (i.e. the guiding ideas, the basic conceptions of nature, life and technology at work in contemporary life sciences research practices). Subsequently, I outline a number of radical transformations occurring both at the object-pole and at the subject-pole of the current knowledge relationship, namely the technification of the object and the anonymisation or collectivisation of the subject, under the sway of automation, ICT and big machines. Finally, I further elaborate the specificity of the oblique perspective with the help of Lacan's theorem of the four discourses. Philosophical reflections on contemporary life sciences concur neither with a Master's discourse (which aims to strengthen the legitimacy and credibility of canonical sources), nor with university discourse (which aims to establish professional expertise), nor with what Lacan refers to as hysterical discourse (which aims to challenge representatives of the power establishment), but rather with the discourse of the analyst, listening with evenly-poised attention to the scientific files in order to bring to the fore the cupido sciendi (i.e. the will to know, but also to optimise and to control) which both inspires and disrupts contemporary life sciences discourse.

  10. The cosmology of the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    The views of the ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosophers from Ionia opened new paths for the study of nature using human logic. Starting from the worship of the Earth as a goddess, they proceeded to examine its position in the Cosmos (Universe), proposing a spherical shape for our planet. They pioneered the unifying approach for the physical world, assuming one element as the basis for everything in the Universe (this was water for Thales, air for Anaximenes, infinity for Anaximander, fire for Heraclitus). The genesis and the decay of worlds succeed one another eternally. Anaximenes believed, like Anaximander, that our world was not the only one that existed. Heraclitus believed that, of the vast richness of the natural creation with its unpredictable changes, nothing remains stable and motionless. There is not constancy, but only an eternal flow, a perpetual motion. This is exactly what we accept today in quantum physics; the apparent stability and immobility is an illusion of our limited senses. According to Heraclitus, matter is constantly transformed. All the natural philosophers of Ionia distanced God the Creator from nature and history, keeping always a respect for the beliefs of their fellow people; most probably they, too, kept a form of God in an area of their minds, in his spiritual and moral dimension.

  11. The Dialogue of Heidegger with Pre-Socratic Philosophers

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    Antonio M. Martín Morillas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1898-1976 attempted to outline in his second philosophy a hermeneutics of the thought of some philosophers (Anaximander, Parmenides and Heracleitus prior to the metaphysical development of Western thought. In several of his second work’s writings, Heidegger delimits, examines and reinterprets certain primitive Greek notions, which were especially appropriate for the jump from the «first beginning» of philosophy in Greece to the «other beginning» (not a metaphysical one of a «thinking of being» (Seinsdenken as «appropriating event» (Er-eignis. They are the pre-Socratic notions of Chreón (necessity, Lógos (thought-word, Móira (fate, Alétheia (truth y Ph?sis (nature-reality. Within the context of his long ontological research on the «essencing of being» (Seinswesen, Heidegger offers a reading in terms of an overcoming (Überwindung of metaphysical thought in general, understood as onto-theo-logy and marked by its «forgetfulness of being».

  12. READING LITERATURE, TAKING PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND OBTAINING CHARACTERS

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    Siti Maisaroh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the philosophical ideas and characters containing in trilogy of 'RaraMendut's' novel by YB Mangunwijaya. The method used is the knowledge archeology of Michel Foucault. The research proves that the philosophical ideas as follows: 1 wife's faithfulness contains characters of wife’s strong determination and true faithfulness sense; 2 The women seizing fate's  contains the character of high struggle spirit;3 women as a glory’s symbol contains character of self-actualization ability; 4 women and a country's defense contains a character of clever to take on the role / responsive; 5 women and their benefits contains the character as a source of love and life spirit; 6 women as good mothers contains the character of conciliatory, reassuring, joyful, sincere, and full of love; 7 the anxiety to old age contains the character of religious and strong self-awareness; 8 the glory contains the character of the glory of battle with themselves; 9 the child's nature contains the character of belief in the skill/ creativity of children and believe to God the Evolver; And 10 the essence of wisdom and usefulness of life contain  the characters of uniting the scattered things, receiving and embracing sincerely things bad/ broken/ waste, understanding and forgiving, voice sincerity and excitement, not easy to complain.

  13. Philosophical Creationism: Thomas Aquinas’ Metaphysics of Creatio ex Nihilo

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    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All philosophers, beginning with the pre-Socratics, through Plato and Aristotle, and up to Thomas Aquinas, accepted as a certain that the world as a whole existed eternally. The foundation for the eternity of the world was the indestructible and eternal primal building material of the world, a material that existed in the form of primordial material elements (the Ionians, in the form of ideas (Plato, or in the form of matter, eternal motion, and the first heavens (Aristotle. The article outlines the main structure of the philosophical theory of creation ex nihilo developed by St. Thomas Aquinas and indebted to his metaphysical thought. It shows the wisdom-based and ratiocinative foundation of the rational cognition of reality—reality that comes from the personal creative act of God. It concludes that the perception that the beings called to existence by the personal act of God the Creator are intelligible is the ultimate rational justification for the fact that our human cognition, love, and spiritual creativity are rational.

  14. The Hole Argument and Some Physical and Philosophical Implications

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    John Stachel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a historical-critical study of the hole argument, concentrating on the interface between historical, philosophical and physical issues. Although it includes a review of its history, its primary aim is a discussion of the contemporary implications of the hole argument for physical theories based on dynamical, background-independent space-time structures. The historical review includes Einstein’s formulations of the hole argument, Kretschmann’s critique, as well as Hilbert’s reformulation and Darmois’ formulation of the general-relativistic Cauchy problem. The 1970s saw a revival of interest in the hole argument, growing out of attempts to answer the question: Why did three years elapse between Einstein’s adoption of the metric tensor to represent the gravitational field and his adoption of the Einstein field equations? The main part presents some modern mathematical versions of the hole argument, including both coordinate-dependent and coordinate-independent definitions of covariance and general covariance; and the fiber bundle formulation of both natural and gauge natural theories. By abstraction from continuity and differentiability, these formulations can be extended from differentiable manifolds to any set; and the concepts of permutability and general permutability applied to theories based on relations between the elements of a set, such as elementary particle theories. We are closing with an overview of current discussions of philosophical and physical implications of the hole argument.

  15. The Hole Argument and Some Physical and Philosophical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, John

    2014-01-01

    This is a historical-critical study of the hole argument, concentrating on the interface between historical, philosophical and physical issues. Although it includes a review of its history, its primary aim is a discussion of the contemporary implications of the hole argument for physical theories based on dynamical, background-independent space-time structures. The historical review includes Einstein's formulations of the hole argument, Kretschmann's critique, as well as Hilbert's reformulation and Darmois' formulation of the general-relativistic Cauchy problem. The 1970s saw a revival of interest in the hole argument, growing out of attempts to answer the question: Why did three years elapse between Einstein's adoption of the metric tensor to represent the gravitational field and his adoption of the Einstein field equations? The main part presents some modern mathematical versions of the hole argument, including both coordinate-dependent and coordinate-independent definitions of covariance and general covariance; and the fiber bundle formulation of both natural and gauge natural theories. By abstraction from continuity and differentiability, these formulations can be extended from differentiable manifolds to any set; and the concepts of permutability and general permutability applied to theories based on relations between the elements of a set, such as elementary particle theories. We are closing with an overview of current discussions of philosophical and physical implications of the hole argument.

  16. Stakeholder confidence: observations from the viewpoint of ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Discussions among the participants of this Forum on Stakeholder Confidence Workshop as well as the Canadian Context and field trip to the Municipality of Port Hope and Clarington often turned to foundational social concerns in radioactive waste facility siting. Intertwined in these topics were less obvious but persistent ethical concerns. Below I articulate some of these ethical issues. I do this by describing four observations I made throughout the week. I suggest that these observations be examined from the viewpoint of ethics and reflect on their complexity. I initiate this paper with a preliminary discussion of the expression 'ethical assessment' referred to throughout the workshop. This expression is key to Canada's new Nuclear Waste Fuel Act (NWFA) requiring proof that this type of assessment occurs in the consideration of potential concepts and hosts for the disposal of nuclear waste. (author)

  17. A regulatory science viewpoint on botanical-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstein, Manuela; Huang, Shiew-Mei

    2018-04-01

    There is a continued predisposition of concurrent use of drugs and botanical products. Consumers often self-administer botanical products without informing their health care providers. The perceived safety of botanical products with lack of knowledge of the interaction potential poses a challenge for providers and both efficacy and safety concerns for patients. Botanical-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when botanical constituents modulate drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters impacting the systemic or tissue exposure of concomitant drugs. Examples of pertinent scientific literature evaluating the interaction potential of commonly used botanicals in the US are discussed. Current methodologies that can be applied to advance our efforts in predicting drug interaction liability is presented. This review also highlights the regulatory science viewpoint on botanical-drug interactions and labeling implications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Quantitative evolution of global strings from the Lagrangian viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2003-01-01

    We clarify the quantitative nature of the cosmological evolution of a global string network, that is, the energy density, peculiar velocity, velocity squared, Lorentz factor, formation rate of loops, and emission rate of Nambu-Goldstone bosons, based on a new type of numerical simulation of scalar fields in Eulerian meshes. We give a detailed explanation of a method to extract the above-mentioned quantities to characterize string evolution by analyzing scalar fields in Eulerian meshes from a Lagrangian viewpoint. We confirm our previous claim that the number of long strings per horizon volume in a global string network is smaller than in the case of a local string network by a factor of ∼10 even under cosmological situations, and its reason is clarified

  19. A regulatory science viewpoint on botanical–drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Grimstein

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a continued predisposition of concurrent use of drugs and botanical products. Consumers often self-administer botanical products without informing their health care providers. The perceived safety of botanical products with lack of knowledge of the interaction potential poses a challenge for providers and both efficacy and safety concerns for patients. Botanical–drug combinations can produce untoward effects when botanical constituents modulate drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters impacting the systemic or tissue exposure of concomitant drugs. Examples of pertinent scientific literature evaluating the interaction potential of commonly used botanicals in the US are discussed. Current methodologies that can be applied to advance our efforts in predicting drug interaction liability is presented. This review also highlights the regulatory science viewpoint on botanical–drug interactions and labeling implications. Keywords: Drug interaction, Botanical product, St. John's wort, Fruit juices, Regulatory science

  20. Accreditation of qualification testing organizations: the industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roby, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the industry viewpoint on the program for the Accreditation of Qualification Testing Organizations, which has been proposed for rulemaking by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The IEEE has agreed to establish the program content, and would administer its requirements in accordance with an agreement between the NRC and IEEE of September 30th, 1981. Presented in this paper is the industry perspective, developed and prepared through the AIF, identifying the serious concerns which the accreditation program has raised. Discussed are the disadvantages of the program and those present benefits which would be lost if the program was adopted. The value of greater emphasis on current regulation to improve the qualification process is presented and the paper details areas where the NRC proposals do not provide adequate justification for the accreditation program

  1. Euthanasia in South Africa: Philosophical and theological considerations

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    Mojalefa L.J. Koenane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Debates on euthanasia (or �mercy killing� have been a concern in moral, philosophical, legal, theological, cultural and sociological discourse for centuries. The topic of euthanasia inspires a variety of strong views of which the �slippery slope� argument is one. The latter warns that the principle(s underlying any ethical issue (including euthanasia may be distorted. Scholars� views on euthanasia are influenced mainly by cultural, personal, political and religious convictions. In South Africa, the issue of euthanasia has arisen from time to time, but the question of whether it should be legalised was not seriously considered until it recently attracted attention because of a particular case, that of Cape Town advocate Robin StranshamFord. Although euthanasia is still illegal (this is because the Stransham-Ford ruling is confined to this particular case only, as stated in the ratio decidendi by Judge Hans Fabricius of the High Court in Pretoria, the Court granted leave to appeal its April 2015 judgement regarding euthanasia in the application lodged by Stransham-Ford. In considering the contentious nature of the issue of euthanasia, this article adopts a multidisciplinary approach which includes historical, legal, theological, philosophical, theoretical and analytic frameworks, discussing euthanasia from philosophical and theological perspectives, in particular. We conclude by recommending that the subject of applied ethics, which helps to educate citizens about contemporary moral problems such as euthanasia, be introduced at school level. Exposing young people to the debates around thorny issues such as this would familiarise them with the discourse, encourage them to engage with it and empower them as mature citizens to make informed, reasonable decisions, obviating confusion and conflict which might otherwise arise. The problems surrounding the issue of euthanasia are multidimensional and have the capacity to polarise the nation and

  2. Interpersonal relations in nursing: a philosophical-ethical analysis of the work of Hildegard E. Peplau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, C

    1998-12-01

    Nursing typically has been viewed as a moral practice, for instance by new developments in the ethics of care. Nevertheless, many philosophical-ethical presuppositions of nursing theories remain to be clarified. This paper presents a philosophical-ethical analysis of the work of Hildegard E. Peplau. Analysis of the philosophical-ethical background of Peplau's works illuminates a view on nursing practice that is relevant today. Three main components are analysed more deeply, i.e. the professionalization of nursing, the philosophical underpinnings of Peplau's view on nursing science, and the nurse-patient relationship as the central event in nursing.

  3. Jung as psychologist of religion and Jung as philosopher of religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Robert A

    2010-06-01

    Is it possible to be both a psychologist and a philosopher? Is it possible for a psychologist, or more generally a social scientist, to use social scientific findings to make philosophical claims? Specifically, is it possible for a social scientist to use social scientific findings to determine the existence of God? Did Jung profess to be only a psychologist or also a philosopher? If he professed to be both, did he enlist his psychological findings to make philosophical claims? Specifically, did he enlist his psychological findings to determine the existence of God?

  4. The Use of Philosophical Practice in Lifelong and Self-Directed Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2001-01-01

    In this article I invite the reader to reconsider philosophical counselling and practice first of all as a pedagogical practice. Recent research in adult education and especially in the area of "self-directed learning" reveals a growing interest in the existential and philosophical dimensions...... of learning and guidance in the adult education setting. I suggest that we use philosophical counselling to strengthen the adult´s capacity for lifelong and self-directed learning and that philosophical practice in general could be connected to a new kind of "existential adult pedagogy"....

  5. Teaching of social and philosophical background to atomic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühl, Jutta

    1992-06-01

    The history of atomic theory is outlined from earliest times up to the orbital model, and a corresponding teaching method described. The first, historical part of the paper emphasizes social and philosophical aspects in the development of atomic theory. The following milestones are dealt with: the development of the concept of matter from Greek mythology up to the atom; the spreading of Arab philosophy to the Occident during the Middle Ages; the conflict between the church and its opponents in the Middle Ages about the nature of the individual and society; and the status of atomic theory at the time of Newton, and its final acceptance after Dalton. The second part of the paper describes a method for teaching this material at secondary level, in which students are encouraged to make their own conclusions from the range of material offered.

  6. Homo religiosus : philosophical anthropology Viktor Emil Frankl 's .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius da Costa Meireles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work, entitled The Homo religiosus: the philosophical anthropology of Viktor Emil Frankl, is rooted in the anthropology of Frankl and aims to understand Frankl’s anthropology and its spiritual dynamic in religious experience. Using theoretical-bibliographical research with these main works—The Ignored Presence of God (1948, The Unconditioned Man (1949, Patient Man (1950, and The Search for God and Questions about the Meaning of Life (1984—this work traverses through Frankl’s anthropology, the spiritual dimension, the search for meaning, and one’s relationship with God. The work is divided into three parts. The first part consists of contextualization and critique. The second part puts forward a proposal, and the third part discusses the experience of the Homo religiosus.

  7. Boscovich's philosophical meditations in the history of contemporary thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, P.

    The content of Boscovich's Theoria philosophiae naturalis was well-known to his contemporaries, but both scientists and philosophers chiefly discussed it during the 19th century. The observations that Boscovich presented in this text, and that he himself defined as ``philosophicas metitationes", soon showed their being a good programme for the forthcoming atomic physics, and contributed to get rid of the mechanistic paradigm in science. In this paper I will go back to some meaningful moments of the history of Boscovich's reception in the era of contemporary philosophy, by referring to what authors such as Popper, Cassirer, Nietzsche and Fechner wrote about him. These thinkers, indeed, particularly stressed the importance of the Theoria in the history of Western thought, and showed that it can easily be evaluated beyond the plane of a pure scientific investigation.

  8. MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL CRITIQUE OF RELIGION

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    Jowita Guja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a synthetic overview of main problems of the philosophical critique of religion. In the beginning I identify and characterize three general threads of the critique: the enlightenment, the alienational and the thread which focuses on the problem of theodicy. The greater part of my article is devoted to the alienational critique of religion n its two types: atheistic (Feuerbach, Marx, Freud, Nietzsche, Sartre and theistic (Barth. The subjects of my analysis are the sources and foundations of the alienational critique of religion and the most important problems implied by it: the essence of religion, the ideal of the irreligious man, the prospect to remove religion. The analysis presents troubles and confusions connected to these subjects: they emerge in atheistic type of alienational critique of religion.

  9. Developing nursing knowledge: practice issues raised from four philosophical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C L

    1995-01-01

    Analysis and comparison of emerging perspectives in nursing on some of the key issues of practice theory can create an enhanced vision of the discipline. Four philosophy-of-science perspectives--realism, relativism, interpretivism, and humanism--are catalysts for fruitful insights about practice. However, together they generate more questions than they answer, both from each perspective and from the intersection of the assumptions of the four philosophies about the nature of knowledge. The nature of knowledge for practice emerges from examining how the philosophical basis and the derived practice theories address such issues as the phenomena of the discipline, environment, teleology, and nursing theoretical frameworks. This is the time for good debate and collaborative knowledge-building among scholars of various persuasions within a milieu of ethos, pathos, and logic.

  10. Philosophical analysis of models of engineering education in Russia

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    Fadeeva V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article defines the principles of the philosophical approach to the problems of engineering education. Ontological, epistemological and axiological components of the proposed approach are distinguished. Assessment criteria of engineering education models are specified. Basing on the presented principles and criteria, the analysis of Russian engineering education models is performed. The authors distinguish the following models: classical (tsarism, soviet transitional, soviet industrial, physicotechnical model, soviet mass (reproductive and Russian transitional models. In addition among developing models it is possible to recognize the following ones: methodological (creative and outrunning (advanced models. On the basis of the performed analysis, positive and negative aspects of the distinguished models are determined, and, it is possible to make a conclusion that every accomplished model emergence was reasoned by particular issues raised in the state at the particular period of time. The talking point of the necessity to design a proactive model of engineering education is formulated.

  11. A social-philosophical perspective on Danish prisoners’ education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita Holm

    In my ongoing research project, I am looking into whether – and if so then how – education of inmates and former inmates of Danish prisons may contribute in a positive manner to the self-perception of the persons in question. By “positive” I am alluding especially to a self-perception, which...... consists so far of ten qualitative interviews with prisoners and former prisoners who have responded to questions pertaining to the personal, rights-related and social dimensions of their respective educations. The social-philosophical perspective of Axel Honneth theoretically inspires this division...... behaviour behind. This hope is in itself only one example of the fact that the learning involved cannot be considered separately of an array of fundamental – and fatal – conditions. At the conference, I intend to focus on the interviewee’s hard struggle for an identity as “students”. Prison culture...

  12. PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS VALUE LEVEL OF PERCEPTION OF THE WORLD

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    S. I. Nekrasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the philosophical understanding of the problem of perception of values and antivalues. Beliefs, recognized among the people regarding the purposes to which it is important to strive for life, named values. They are the Foundation for moral principles and provide people with their human existence despite the fact that different cultures hold different principles. In the tribe Yanomami cruelty is considered a value. The expectation that men will defend their honor in combat, is to be the norm corresponding to this value. Anyway, the principles followed by the personality, are accounted for morality. Principles justify the norms and standards that support human being in his desire to be honest and sincere for that society in which he lives, and be worthy of its representative.

  13. Philosophers assess randomized clinical trials: the need for dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miké, V

    1989-09-01

    In recent years a growing number of professional philosophers have joined in the controversy over ethical aspects of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Morally questionable in their utilitarian approach, RCTs are claimed by some to be in direct violation of the second form of Kant's Categorical Imperative. But the arguments used in these critiques at times derive from a lack of insight into basic statistical procedures and the realities of the biomedical research process. Presented to physicians and other nonspecialists, including the lay public, such distortions can be harmful. Given the great complexity of statistical methodology and the anomalous nature of concepts of evidence, more sustained input into the interdisciplinary dialogue is needed from the statistical profession.

  14. Philosophical analysis and its value to the nurse teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, W; Chadwick, R

    1989-06-01

    Philosophy is often regarded as a subject which is only of interest to those engaged in academic pursuits. This paper suggests that it can be of practical value to nurse teachers. Indeed never more so than today, with the current emphasis on change and decision making, be it in relation to curriculum development or the future of professional education. Change is occurring at such speed, that we have little time to ponder and, therefore, cannot afford 'faulty logic'. The article commences with a description of the processes involved in philosophical analysis, including linguistic and conceptual analysis, asking different types of questions and determining the validity of arguments. It goes on to consider why nurse teachers should adopt this approach and finally the necessity of its inclusion in curricula for basic nurse education.

  15. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  16. The quantum universe: philosophical foundations and oriental medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, Menas C; Yang, Keun-Hang

    2016-12-01

    The existence of universal principles in both science and medicine implies that one can explore their common applicability. Here we explore what we have learned from quantum mechanics, phenomena such as entanglement and nonlocality, the role of participation of the observer, and how these may apply to oriental medicine. The universal principles of integrated polarity, recursion, and creative interactivity apply to all levels of existence and all human activities, including healing and medicine. This review examines the possibility that what we have learned from quantum mechanics may provide clues to better understand the operational principles of oriental medicine in an integrated way. Common to both is the assertion that Consciousness is at the foundation of the universe and the inner core of all human beings. This view goes beyond both science and medicine and has strong philosophical foundations in Western philosophy as well as monistic systems of the East.

  17. A social-philosophical perspective on Danish prisoners’ education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita

    is not associated with crime. By virtue of exactly the linking together of self-perception and education, the focus of my study relates closely to the concept of “transformative learning” in which changes within the learner’s identity constitute a central focus. The empirical methods of this research project......In my ongoing research project, I am looking into whether – and if so then how – education of inmates and former inmates of Danish prisons may contribute in a positive manner to the self-perception of the persons in question. By “positive” I am alluding especially to a self-perception, which...... consists so far of ten qualitative interviews with prisoners and former prisoners who have responded to questions pertaining to the personal, rights-related and social dimensions of their respective educations. The social-philosophical perspective of Axel Honneth theoretically inspires this division...

  18. The Philosophical Magazine and the Periodic Table of Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2012-05-01

    The history of the Periodic Table of Elements covers almost 300 years: from the discovery of phosphorus in 1669 to that of Lawrencium in 1961. Before that period, only elements such as copper, silver, gold, mercury, lead and of course carbon were known, which already had accompanied the history of mankind for millennia. The first "wave" of discoveries of new metals occurred at the close of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries and was almost entirely based on "wet chemistry". Because this period, in which no physics-related techniques of identification were available, seems to be now so remote, it is worthwhile to recall these discoveries in the context and style of their time by making use of the Philosophical Magazine archives.

  19. Sameness and the Self: Philosophical and Psychological Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan eKlein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the concept of cross-temporal personal identity (diachronicity. This particular form of identity has vexed theorists for centuries – e.g., how can a person maintain a belief in the sameness of self over time in the face of continual psychological and physical change? I first discuss various forms of the sameness relation and the criteria that justify their application. I then examine philosophical and psychological treatments of personal diachronicity (for example, Locke’s psychological connectedness theory; the role of episodic memory and find each lacking on logical grounds, empirical grounds or both. I conclude that to achieve a successful resolution of the issue of the self as a temporal continuant we need to draw a sharp distinction between the feeling of the sameness of one’s self and the evidence marshaled in support of that feeling.

  20. Reassembling mathematical practices: a philosophical-anthropological approach

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    Karen François

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first explore h ow Wittgenstein ’ s philosophy provides a conceptual tools to discuss the possibility of the simultaneous existence of culturally different mathematical practices. We will argue that Wittgenstein ’ s later work will be a fruitful framework to serve as a philosophical background to investigate ethnomathematics ( Wittgenstein 1973 . W e will give an overview of Wittgenstein’s later work which is referred to by many researchers in the field of ethnomathematics . The central philosophical investigation concerns Wittgenstein’s shift to abandon ing the essentialist concept of language and therefore deny ing the existence of a universal language. Languages — or ‘language games’ as Wittgenstein calls them — are immersed in a form of life, in a cultural or social formation and are embedded in the totality o f communal activities. This gives rise to the idea of rationality as an invention or as a construct that emerges in specific local contexts. In the second part of the paper we introduce, analyse and compare the mathematical aspects of two activities known as string figure - making and sand drawing, to illustrate Wittgenstein ’s ideas . Base d on an ethnomathematical comparative analysis , we will argue that there is evidence of invariant and distinguishing features of a mathematical rationality , as expressed in both string figure - making and sand drawing practices, from one society to another . Finally, w e suggest that a philosop hical - anthropological approach to mathematical practices may allow us to better understand the interrelations between mathematics and cul tures. Philoso phical investigations may help the reflection on the possibility of culturally determined ethnomathematics, while an anthropological approach, using ethnographical methods, may afford new materials for the analysis of ethnomathematics and its links to the cultural context. This combined approach will help us to better

  1. Should laptops be allowed in the classroom? Two viewpoints: viewpoint 1: laptops in classrooms facilitate curricular advancement and promote student learning and viewpoint 2: deconstructing and rethinking the use of laptops in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Heiko; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2014-12-01

    This Point/Counterpoint article discusses the pros and cons of deploying one aspect of instructional technology in dental education: the use of laptops in the classroom. Two opposing viewpoints, written by different authors, evaluate the arguments. Viewpoint 1 argues that laptops in classrooms can be a catalyst for rapid curricular advancement and prepare dental graduates for the digital age of dentistry. As dental education is not limited to textual information, but includes skill development in spatial relationships and hands-on training, technology can play a transformative role in students' learning. Carefully implemented instructional technology can enhance student motivation when it transforms students from being the objects of teaching to the subjects of learning. Ubiquitous access to educational material allows for just-in-time learning and can overcome organizational barriers when, for instance, introducing interprofessional education. Viewpoint 2 argues that, in spite of widespread agreement that instructional technology leads to curricular innovation, the notion of the use of laptops in classrooms needs to be deconstructed and rethought when effective learning outcomes are sought. Analyzing the purpose, pedagogy, and learning product while applying lessons learned from K-12 implementation leads to a more complex picture of laptop integration in dental classrooms and forms the basis for questioning the value of such usage. For laptop use to contribute to student learning, rather than simply providing opportunity for students to take notes and access the Internet during class, this viewpoint emphasizes that dental educators need to think carefully about the purpose of this technology and to develop appropriate pedagogical strategies to achieve their objectives. The two viewpoints agree that significant faculty development efforts should precede any introduction of technology into the educational process and that technology alone cannot change education

  2. Diego Velázquez's Kings, Buffoons and Philosophers in the Context of His Religious Paintings: the View from Russia (Philosophical-Anthropological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Silantieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of philosophic anthropology of the great Spanish artist of the 17th century Diego Velazquez. This anthropology is considered through the prism of the problems that set the life of contemporary Russia and its "reflections" in the present-day Russian artists' works. At that Velazquez's philosophical anthropology is reconstructed on the basis of his works. As a consequence, significant part of attention is paid to the method that allows performing such reconstruction. The author proceeds from the belief according to which not only written texts can be considered philosophically. The visual "texts" connected with certain world outlook component of art creative work undoubtedly possess definite semantics. Expressed by the language of art, such image lines contain intelligible sense component reconstruction of which can be subjected to strict scientific and philosophical analysis and corrected with its help. At that one should not think that the images are "translated" into "the text of words" - on the contrary, philosophical reconstruction implies not as "verbalization" of visual line as coherent to it logical mastering of the picture's sense (in this case against the background of historical and historical-philosophical "scenery". The urgency of turning to this problem is brought about by the fact that a number of questions that found vivid and coherent (as philosophical-anthropological research shows embodiment in Velazquez's creative work are extremely interesting for contemporary thinkers speaking the language of contemporary fine arts. "The topic of mirror" is among such questions and it deals with correlation of intellectual and rational in a person's consciousness, and, finally, there is the issue of the man as a bearer of moral principles. Comparison of attitudes shown by contemporary painting with Velazquez's ideas enables to trace the development of philosophical anthropology and in the area of its

  3. A Business Studies Oriented Taxonomy for Assessing Viewpoint Change through Sustainability Education: Messages, Measures and Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Russell; Hagerup, Clare

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores and deploys a business oriented taxonomy of decisions from which to ascertain change in student viewpoint regarding the study of sustainability modules. A review of conceptual and empirical studies to date on business cohorts' viewpoints regarding sustainability study notes the lack of business contextualization and the…

  4. Teacher Viewpoints of Instructional Design Principles for Visuals in a Middle School Math Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; Cooper, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional design principles for visuals in student materials have been developed through findings based on student-level measures. However, teacher viewpoints may be a rich source of information to better understand how visuals can be optimized for student learning. This study's purpose is to examine teacher viewpoints on visuals. In a…

  5. Discipline: Student Teachers' Preferred Philosophical "Face" and Classroom Discipline Problems Encountered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdusamy, Atputhasamy; Divaharan, Shanti; Huan, Vivien; Wong, Philip Siew Koon

    2001-01-01

    Examined the philosophical model that fit a group of students enrolled in the postgraduate diploma in education program at Singapore's National Institute of Education, noting the most common discipline problems encountered during the practicum. Overall, most student teachers leaned toward the rules and consequences philosophical model.…

  6. Critics to Metaphysics by Modern Philosophers: A Discourse on Human Beings in Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederikus Fios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have entered the 21st century that is popularly known as the era of the development of modern science and technology. Philosophy provides naming for contemporary era as postmodern era. But do we suddenly come to this day and age? No! Because humans are homo viator, persona that does pilgrimage in history, space and time. Philosophy has expanded periodically in the long course of history. Since the days of classical antiquity, philosophy comes with a patterned metaphysical paradigm. This paradigm survives very long in the stage history of philosophy as maintained by many philosophers who hold fast to the philosophical-epistemic claim that philosophy should be (das sollen metaphysical. Classical Greek philosopher, Aristotle was a philosopher who claims metaphysics as the initial philosophy. Then, Immanuel Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, Marx even Habermas offer appropriate shades of metaphysical philosophy versus spirit of the age. Modern philosophers offer a new paradigm in the way of doing philosophy. The new spirit of modern philosophers declared as if giving criticism on traditional western metaphysics (since Aristotle that are considered irrelevant. This paper intends to show the argument between traditional metaphysical and modern philosophers who criticize metaphysics. The author will make a philosophical synthesis to obtain enlightenment to the position of human beings in the space of time. Using the method of Hegelian dialectic (thesis-antiteses-synthesis, this topic will be developed and assessed in accordance with the interests of this paper. 

  7. Emotions and Human Concern: Adult Education and the Philosophical Thought of Martha Nussbaum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Donovan

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that philosopher Martha Nussbaum's reflections on the role of the emotions in human flourishing can contribute in important ways to our understanding of the emotions in adult education contexts. The article summarises Nussbaum's exploration of the contributions of classical philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and…

  8. Aktywnośc filozoficzna kobiet w Grecji okresu klasycznego (WOMEN'S PHILOSOPHICAL ACTIVITY IN CLASSICAL GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Ramian

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss in this paper the matter of philosophical activity of women in classical Greece. Hardly ever can characters of women philosophers be found in textbooks concerning history of ancient philosophy. This is relevant to the social situation in Greece of that time, where women existed on the margins of public life. To show this, they refer to Aristotle's work, as much as to non-philosophical sources. In spite of the fact that women's activity was reduced to the private sphere, a number of woman philosophers appear in the history of Greek thought. Circumstances which enabled them to take up activity on this ground were varied. Some of the women were members of philosophical schools, in case of others it seems that a particular personal situation played a key role, as they were either daughters or wives of philosophers. Regardless of the reasons, taking up philosophical activity must have required great courage and determination. Without any doubt, women philosophers must have been uncommon characters and their development on this ground can be seen as overcoming the social role imposed on them.

  9. Measuring Music Education: A Philosophical Investigation of the Model Cornerstone Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial attention to measurement and assessment in contemporary education and music education policy and practice, the process of measurement has gone largely undiscussed in music education philosophy. Using the work of physicist and philosopher Karen Barad, in this philosophical inquiry, I investigated the nature of measurement in…

  10. Applying Syundz's Philosophical Concepts to Teaching Leadership in Higher Education and Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hsin Chi

    2016-01-01

    Syundz (c. 314-237 BC), born in China during the Warring States Period, was a realist philosopher who contributed to the Hundred Schools of Thought, a period of cultural and philosophical development that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC. Syundz commented on many ideas, particularly those of Confucius and Mencius, and a collection of…

  11. Philosophic Thinking in Social Work: An Analysis of 30 Years of "Social Work" Editorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.; Zorita, Paz M-B

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at 30 years of editorial perspectives and trends in social work as a profession through the analysis of editorials from the journal "Social Work." It identifies the wax and wane of philosophic (intellectual or scholarly) questions in social work thinking in the past three decades. It defines what philosophic thinking…

  12. Can a Rabbit Be a Scientist? Stimulating Philosophical Dialogue in Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lynda; de Schrijver, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    Philosophical dialogue requires an approach to teaching and learning in science that is focused on problem posing and provides space for meaning making, finding new ways of thinking and understanding and for linking science with broader human experiences. This article explores the role that philosophical dialogue can play in science lessons and…

  13. Toward a New Philosophical Anthropology of Education: Fuller Considerations of Social Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Stephen; Garrison, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Philosophical anthropology is philosophical inquiry into human nature that seeks to answer the fundamental question of what generally characterizes human beings and differentiates them from other creatures and things. Political theories considerably influence educational theories. We call attention to the fact that the three main political…

  14. Do Historians (of Education) Need Philosophy? The Enlightening Potential of a Philosophical Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masschelein, Jan; Simons, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Do historians (of education) need philosophy? The paper suggests that historians do not need philosophical doctrine or (meta-)theory, or philosophical method, but that in so far as historians (as Koselleck states) are "writing their own time anew" and are "rewriting the past" (and so enlighten their present), they might find some help in a…

  15. Current Status of Research in Teaching and Learning Evolution: I. Philosophical/Epistemological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship that addresses teaching and learning about evolution has rapidly increased in recent years. This review of that scholarship first addresses the philosophical/epistemological issues that impinge on teaching and learning about evolution, including the proper philosophical goals of evolution instruction; the correlational and possibly…

  16. Object appearance and picture-specific viewpoint are not integrated in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakin, D Alexander; Loschky, Lester

    2010-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that visual long-term memory (VLTM) stores detailed information about object appearance. The current experiments investigate whether object appearance information in VLTM is integrated within representations that contain picture-specific viewpoint information. In three experiments using both incidental and intentional encoding instructions, participants were unable to perform above chance on recognition tests that required recognizing the conjunction of object appearance and viewpoint information (Experiments 1a, 1b, 2, and 3). However, performance was better when object appearance information (Experiments 1a, 1b, and 2) or picture-specific viewpoint information (Experiment 3) alone was sufficient to succeed on the memory test. These results replicate previous work demonstrating good memory for object appearance and viewpoint. However the current results suggest that object appearance and viewpoint are not episodically integrated in VLTM.

  17. Distribution of the Object Oriented Databases. A Viewpoint of the MVDB Model's Methodology and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Pompiliu CRISTESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In databases, much work has been done towards extending models with advanced tools such as view technology, schema evolution support, multiple classification, role modeling and viewpoints. Over the past years, most of the research dealing with the object multiple representation and evolution has proposed to enrich the monolithic vision of the classical object approach in which an object belongs to one hierarchy class. In particular, the integration of the viewpoint mechanism to the conventional object-oriented data model gives it flexibility and allows one to improve the modeling power of objects. The viewpoint paradigm refers to the multiple descriptions, the distribution, and the evolution of object. Also, it can be an undeniable contribution for a distributed design of complex databases. The motivation of this paper is to define an object data model integrating viewpoints in databases and to present a federated database architecture integrating multiple viewpoint sources following a local-as-extended-view data integration approach.

  18. SPIRITUALITY AS PHILOSOPHICAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DE-VELOPMENT PROBLEM

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    V. E. Gromov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to regard the essence and phenomenon of spirituality in connection with ontological foundation of human being existence. The author suggests the concept of new cosmo-theocentric paradigm of human world outlook, as a ground of perspective transformation of social life activity on the contrary to anthropocentric view, which dominates in present society consciousness. The author gives the characteristics of the ideal sage and underlines the importance of spiritual teachers in cultural development of society. Methodology. The method of philosophizing is connected with the unity of mind, sensuality, belief, will in integral body and mental organization of a man. Such point of view takes into consideration not only aspects of objective determination, but includes senses of existence and world outlook ideas in culture on particular and universal levels of social experience. The author considers a special ontological disposition of the human being in the world as a “transcendent project” with “metaphysic responsibility”. Scientific novelty. In the history of social culture the problem of its spiritual attitude towards reality is a basic problem, but now it becomes especially up-to-date and important. Now the survival of the civilization depends on the development of spirituality. From metaphysical point of view it means how spiritual the human being may be. The author connects the consideration of spirituality with particular human being ontological status in the world and provides his reflection with speculative character. Conclusions. The transition of modern civilized society to the cosmo-theocentric paradigm is prepared by contradictions of its technological and cultural development. In historical circumstances when the conscious influence of society on itself is growing, the realization of this process depends on spiritual trend of human beings cultural activity and mental quality of social leaders

  19. Meaningful Human Control over Autonomous Systems: A Philosophical Account

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    Filippo Santoni de Sio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Debates on lethal autonomous weapon systems have proliferated in the past 5 years. Ethical concerns have been voiced about a possible raise in the number of wrongs and crimes in military operations and about the creation of a “responsibility gap” for harms caused by these systems. To address these concerns, the principle of “meaningful human control” has been introduced in the legal–political debate; according to this principle, humans not computers and their algorithms should ultimately remain in control of, and thus morally responsible for, relevant decisions about (lethal military operations. However, policy-makers and technical designers lack a detailed theory of what “meaningful human control” exactly means. In this paper, we lay the foundation of a philosophical account of meaningful human control, based on the concept of “guidance control” as elaborated in the philosophical debate on free will and moral responsibility. Following the ideals of “Responsible Innovation” and “Value-sensitive Design,” our account of meaningful human control is cast in the form of design requirements. We identify two general necessary conditions to be satisfied for an autonomous system to remain under meaningful human control: first, a “tracking” condition, according to which the system should be able to respond to both the relevant moral reasons of the humans designing and deploying the system and the relevant facts in the environment in which the system operates; second, a “tracing” condition, according to which the system should be designed in such a way as to grant the possibility to always trace back the outcome of its operations to at least one human along the chain of design and operation. As we think that meaningful human control can be one of the central notions in ethics of robotics and AI, in the last part of the paper, we start exploring the implications of our account for the design and use of non

  20. The philosophical implications of quantum non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Paul Christopher

    2000-07-01

    The overarching metaphysics encompassing almost all of science incorporates notions readily recognizable as basic intuitions, such as the separability of nature into parts, and a causal architecture necessitating that influences going from one place to another transit every point in between. Astonishingly, developments in quantum mechanics have all but proven this metaphysics false. An overview of Bell's Theorem sets the stage for a discussion of the philosophical significance of quantum non-locality. An account of the overarching metaphysics of Western science explicates why the violation of the Bell Inequalities is so astonishing, drawing particular attention to the historical and metaphysical issues surrounding action-at-a-distance, and the demands for causal continuity and a finite propagation speed for causal influences. The Chapter Three exegesis of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument contends that a modified version of their ``reality criterion'' side-steps the impression that the argument only goes through under an overly strong realist position, but the truly surprising story underlying the EPR correlations-unforeseen by Einstein and Bohr-comes in the next chapter's examination of Jon P. Jarrett's analysis of non-locality into two composite conditions associated with Einstein's underlying metaphysical principles. This in turn leads to a deeper analysis of the philosophical basis for Einstein's resistance to quantum mechanics. Having seen that a range of ordinary causal and common- cause explanations for the EPR correlations are excluded or burdened with untoward implications, Chapter Seven proposes an information-theoretic analysis of the holistic connection exhibited in quantum phenomena, helping us to better understand in what way constraints on relational holism are responsible for the world appearing to be causally classical. These constraints lead to ``local locality'': the apparent manifestation of a local causal structure when the domain is

  1. Morality and longevity in the viewpoint ofSasangmedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Shin, Seung Won; Hwang, Min-Woo

    2015-03-01

    The concepts of morality and health of humans are discussed from the viewpoint of Sasang medicine, as described by Je-Ma Lee in his books Donguisusebowon and Gyeokchigo . Sasang medicine suggests that human beings exist with qualities of "heavenly loom," "humanly affair," and "nature and conduct in following parts." In addition, Sasang medicine classifies people into the following four Sasang types: Tae-Yang, So-Yang, Tae-Eum, and So-Eum. This classification is based on the following traits: benevolence-righteousness-propriety-wisdom, manifestations of sorrow-anger-joy-pleasure ( Seong and Jeong ), and largeness and smallness of lung-spleen-liver-kidney. Human diseases are always caused by the excessive mind action of sorrow-anger-joy-pleasure. Mind action affects the body unilaterally and makes it ill. According to Sasang medicine, both good health and illness in human beings originate from morality. Therefore, realizing and acting in accordance with the right moral behavior are essential to lead a healthy life.

  2. A viewpoint on the approval context of strategic environmental assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontić, Branko; Kontić, Davor

    2012-01-01

    A reflection on the last report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the application and effectiveness of the Directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is provided. It covers the inadequacies of the approval/permitting context of SEA, which appears to be increasingly applied by a significant number of Member States in recent years. A viewpoint is provided on the main deficiencies of such praxis. As a practical defence of the planning context of SEA, the authors propose that the EC should consider a clear recommendation to Member States to cease performing SEA in the approval/permitting context until proper amendments to the SEA Directive are made and implemented. - Highlights: ► Administrative and permitting context of SEA, has ousted the primary environmental impact assessment goal. ► The approval context moves from the environmental protection to the area of political power and economy. ► SEA and EIA are misused. ► Environmental evaluations should be used for improving the projects/plans/programmes and not for permitting them.

  3. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy.

  4. Morality and longevity in the viewpoint of Sasang medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of morality and health of humans are discussed from the viewpoint of Sasang medicine, as described by Je-Ma Lee in his books Donguisusebowon and Gyeokchigo. Sasang medicine suggests that human beings exist with qualities of “heavenly loom,” “humanly affair,” and “nature and conduct in following parts.” In addition, Sasang medicine classifies people into the following four Sasang types: Tae-Yang, So-Yang, Tae-Eum, and So-Eum. This classification is based on the following traits: benevolence–righteousness–propriety–wisdom, manifestations of sorrow–anger–joy–pleasure (Seong and Jeong, and largeness and smallness of lung–spleen–liver–kidney. Human diseases are always caused by the excessive mind action of sorrow–anger–joy–pleasure. Mind action affects the body unilaterally and makes it ill. According to Sasang medicine, both good health and illness in human beings originate from morality. Therefore, realizing and acting in accordance with the right moral behavior are essential to lead a healthy life.

  5. Age management in Slovenian enterprises: the viewpoint of older employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žnidaršič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to highlight age management within Slovenian enterprises from the viewpoint of older employees by finding out what influences older employees to decide “should I stay or should I go”. The empirical research methodology is based on mixed strategy of approaching organizations (employees, which means that the quantitative (factor analysis, cluster analysis, correlation, regression, descriptive statistics and frequency distributions and qualitative parts (in-depth interviews analysis of research were conducted simultaneously. The results of the research indicate that there are in fact two groups of older employees, which can be referred to as “susceptible” and “insusceptible” in terms of how the employer can affect their decisions. “The unsusceptible” have already decided to retire as soon as possible and they cannot be influenced by any employer measure. On the other hand, “the susceptible” employees are sensitive to employers’ measures aimed at prolonging their working lives. Besides, a regression analysis confirmed a statistically significant correlation between the inclination towards extending one’s employment period and the susceptibility to the employer measures. It can thus be concluded that, through age management measures, an employer has an impact on an extended employment period of older employees. However, employers should be interested primarily in those employees who are inclined towards extending their working lives.

  6. Intuitive Experiences from Sohrevardi’s Viewpoint

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    Reza Heydarinoori

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The truth of intuitive experiences and how to fulfill them are among the issues that all people, cultures and rituals have faced with and expressed views about. There are two major approaches the essence-oriented notion which has emphasized on the cohesion and commonality of these experiences between individuals and people, and construction-oriented perspective which has considered more important roles for the discovery ideas and thoughts in the development and shaping of these experiences, so there are essential differences of them between people and cultures. Intellectual system of Illumination, which has been developed according to Sohrevardi’s discussions, has unique and valuable view in this regard. It asserts that :::::union::::: with light underlies mystical revelation and the specific self-centeredness is involved in the realization of these experiences along with illumination, observation, :::::union:::::, and inexistence. Although characteristics of illumination and talent are essential in this system of thought, the collection of features regarding spiritual experiences, according to Sohrevardi, represents a kind of essence-orientation in mystical revelation. The personal unity of experiences based on the thinking of each individual does not mean to separate experiences. Rather, they all have common grounds. The present study first, refers to the views expressed in this regard, and then explains what and how of spiritual experiences from the viewpoint of Sohrevardi. It finally, provides answers to some unknown issues.

  7. Eurasian Union on the Viewpoint of China: Geopolitical Perspective

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    Guo Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about geopolitical strategic analyze of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s “Eurasian Union” strategy from Chinese viewpoint. The article describes historical background of Eurasian Union, its geopolitical purposes, achievements and weakness, particularly from China's national strategic design and stance of Central Asia in Eurasian Continent. The geopolitical analysis of possibility for Sino-Russian Alliance and realistic difficulties of it are provided. Different point of Chinese experts on Russia-West relations are given. Some of them believe that he Warsaw Pact and the Cold War revival in the CIS, its purpose is to play as geopolitical blunders against the Western countries under the leadership of NATO, IMF and the United States. While others, take into consideration the US-Russian Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, and Russia’s actively participation in the former Group of Eight, accession to WTO and other initiatives that indicates the current Moscow is not the Soviet Union, and does not exclude cooperation with existing international system dominated by the Western world. And finally, China's own Eurasian strategy design is represented, especially China’s foreign policy options on Central Asia as solutions to some current existing geopolitical differences between China and Russia’s own Eurasian Strategy in order to achieve mutual win-set goal.

  8. Head Transplants and Personal Identity: A Philosophical and Literary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    The criterion of personal identity is clearly called into question by the project to perform a human head transplant. Is identity provided by psychological continuity alone, or does it depend on bodily continuity as well? And how do these different perspectives interface with our notion of mind and mind-body relationship? The reader will be provided with a discussion concerning these problems, together with a philosophical and literary survey about the conception of body-mind relationship from the Greek thought to contemporary philosophy. The analysis will conclude with a discussion concerning the possibility to consider the issue of personal identity from a statistic point of view, which privileges the general perception of identity, so as it has been shaped by the cultural trends of the last four centuries. It could hence be argued that personal identity is not something which can be defined once and for all. On the contrary, the general perception of identity is subject to significant alterations resulting from one's cultural environment. However, the cultural environment itself can be changed by particularly notable events, such as, hypothetically, the successful outcome of a human head transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Strategy of Media Education: Philosophical and Pedagogical Aspects

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    Evgeniya Mikhailovna Nikolaeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern requirements for educational activities have a binary nature. Thus, on the one hand, educational practice established in the form of a social institution is one of the most conservative areas of social space. On the other hand, comfortable adaptation of a person to the processes occurring in the modern world is impossible without taking into account the phenomena of digital nature. The article provides a philosophical and pedagogical strategy aimed at the development of critical and creative thinking skills and competent reasoning, which can act as a basis for media education. The paper shows that the community of researchers is an interactive form of lesson organization, which makes it possible to develop rationality and ethical-and-democratic behaviour and, thus, to promote information and media literacy among students. The article also presents theoretical justification of the strategy, as well as techniques and materials for its empirical assessment. These can help arrange a lesson according to the principle of research community, which will contribute to the development of both cognitive and ethical-and-social skills in students.

  10. Literary work in the measurements of philosophical and anthropological analysis

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    N. V. Kozyryeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the specific features of literary work in the understanding of human existence. The essential features of anthropological turn in the European humanitarian thought of the XX century are analyzed. These features are notable for their attempt to determine the specificity; fundamentals and spheres of human existence itself; human individuality; creative abilities; basing on a person himself; for the attempt to explain not only its own nature but also the meaning and nature of the world around us; at the same time these features accumulate heuristic; philosophical; scientific; socio­economic and humanitarian ideas. The article explains the role of modern literary anthropology in understanding the spiritual; humanistic principles regarding human existence in the society of global changes. It’s proved that literature is a creative product that is able to define new areas of human existence and to “write them down” in an existing “topography of culture”. The theory of literary anthropology as a separate field of knowledge can’t be reduced to a universal method of research of literature’s development. The modern society of dynamic changes encourages not only to reevaluate relatively established human values but also to rethink place and role of human in the dynamic socio­economic practices and its ability to cultural transformation that characterizes the literary work.

  11. Crisis discussions in psychology--New historical and philosophical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Thomas; Mülberger, Annette

    2012-06-01

    In this introductory article, we provide a historical and philosophical framework for studying crisis discussions in psychology. We first trace the various meanings of crisis talk outside and inside of the sciences. We then turn to Kuhn's concept of crisis, which is mainly an analyst's category referring to severe clashes between theory and data. His view has also dominated many discussions on the status of psychology: Can it be considered a "mature" science, or are we dealing here with a pre- or multi-paradigmatic discipline? Against these Kuhnian perspectives, we point out that especially, but not only in psychology distinctive crisis declarations and debates have taken place since at least the late 19th century. In these, quite different usages of crisis talk have emerged, which can be determined by looking at (a) the content and (b) the dimensions of the declarations, as well as (c) the functions these declarations had for their authors. Thus, in psychology at least, 'crisis' has been a vigorous actor's category, occasionally having actual effects on the future course of research. While such crisis declarations need not be taken at face value, they nevertheless help to break the spell of Kuhnian analyses of psychology's history. They should inform ways in which the history and philosophy of psychology is studied further. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an increasingly philosophical debate

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    Christian A Bowers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following publication of NASCIS II, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS was hailed as a breakthrough for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI. MPSS use for SCI has since become very controversial and it is our opinion that additional evidence is unlikely to break the stalemate amongst clinicians. Patient opinion has the potential to break this stalemate and we review our recent findings which reported that spinal cord injured patients informed of the risks and benefits of MPSS reported a preference for MPSS administration. We discuss the implications of the current MPSS debate on translational research and seek to address some misconceptions which have evolved. As science has failed to resolve the MPSS debate we argue that the debate is an increasingly philosophical one. We question whether SCI might be viewed as a serious condition like cancer where serious side effects of therapeutics are tolerated even when benefits may be small. We also draw attention to the similarity between the side effects of MPSS and isotretinoin which is prescribed for the cosmetic disorder acne vulgaris. Ultimately we question how patient autonomy should be weighed in the context of current SCI guidelines and MPSS′s status as a historical standard of care.

  13. A responsible agenda for applied linguistics: Confessions of a philosopher

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    Albert Weideman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available When we undertake academic, disciplinary work, we rely on philosophical starting points. Several straightforward illustrations of this can be found in the history of applied linguistics. It is evident from the history of our field that various historically influential approaches to our discipline base themselves upon different academic confessions. This paper examines the effects of basing our applied linguistic work on the idea that applied linguistics is a discipline concerned with design. Such a characterisation does justice to both modernist and postmodernist emphases in applied linguistics. Conceptualisations of applied linguistics that came with the proposals for communicative language teaching (CLT some thirty to forty years ago propelled the discipline squarely into postmodern times. To account for this, we need to develop a theory of applied linguistics which shows what constitutive and regulative conditions exist for doing applied linguistic designs. A responsible agenda for applied linguistics today has as its first responsibility to free the users of its designs from toil and drudgery, as well as from becoming victims of fashion, ideology or theory. Secondly, it should design solutions to language problems in such a way that the technical imagination of the designer is not restricted but supported by theory and empirical investigation, and that the productive pedagogical fantasy of the implementers of such plans is set free. Thirdly, it must seek to become accountable by designing theoretically and socially defensible solutions to language problems, solutions that relieve some of the suffering, pain, poverty and injustice in our world.

  14. Viewpoints of students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical

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    Sh Mojahed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Academic advisors have been proven important in students’ success. Insufficient guidance and counseling can delay professional and educational achievements. Proper counseling can provide opportunities for educational success and also positive change students’ behavioral models. This study was accomplished with the purpose of assigning the function of advisors from the viewpoint of the students. Methods: This descriptive study was done on 385 students of Shahid Sadoughi University. Randomized stratified sampling was used. The data were collected by completing the self-reported questionnaire and then were analyzed by SPSS software. Advisors’ functions in each of the items were evaluated. The significance level of 0.05 was considered. Results: The majority of samples were from Nursing, Midwifery, and Public Health School and a few from Faculty of Medicine. The majority of students (41.8% agreed to have the same advisor from the first term to the last. Also the results showed that the functions of advisors were poor in the areas of constant supervision and monitoring of students’ educational status (35.8%, preparing the timetable for performing the personal or group counseling (41.8% and providing counseling sessions according to the timetable (42.3%. But their functions were fair in the areas of acceptable guidance of students in the educational problems (35.1%, and the advisor’s familiarity to educational regulations (43.9%. It is necessary to note that the advisor's ability in making the intimate relationship with students (37.1%, and the advisors’ motivation and tendency to guidance and counseling (30.1% were the two items evaluated excellent by students. Conclusion: It is necessary that advisors make the students familiar with educational regulations at the first semester of higher education. Also, the policies and regulations for advisors will clarify their activities and will help them to perform better.

  15. The students' viewpoint on the quality gap in educational services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim Khanli, Marziyeh; Daneshmandi, Hadi; Choobineh, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    Students and university community are social and human resources of the country. The students' viewpoints about the quality of educational services can be considered as a basis for planning quality promotion and improving organizational performance. This study was conducted to determine the quality gap in educational services by the students of Health and Nutrition School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, 140 students participated voluntarily (age range=19 to 40 years). The service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire measured the quality gap in 5 dimensions of educational service including assurance, responsiveness, empathy, reliability, and tangibility. The students' perception about the current conditions and their expectations as to optimal conditions can be determined, using this questionnaire. The score of the gap in quality of educational services is calculated from difference between perception and expectation scores. Due to non-normality of data, non-parametric tests were used. To this end, data were analyzed by statistical tests including Wilcoxon, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whiteny tests in SPSS 14. The results showed that there was quality gap in all 5 dimensions of educational services. The largest and the smallest gaps were observed in "responsiveness" with a mean±SD of -0.94±0.74 and in "reliability" with a mean±SD of -0.76±0.69, respectively. There was a significant difference in quality gap between the 5 dimensions (pservices their expectations were not met. It is recommended that workshops on customer services, communication skills and personnel's technical skills development should be planned and held. Also, allocating more resources for improving educational facilities and physical environment is recommended.

  16. The students' viewpoint on the quality gap in educational services

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    MARZIYEH RAHIM-KHANLI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Students and university community are social and human resources of the country. The students’ viewpoints about the quality of educational services can be considered as a basis for planning quality promotion and improving organizational performance. This study was conducted to determine the quality gap in educational services by the students of Health and Nutrition School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 140 students participated voluntarily (age range=19 to 40 years. The service quality (SERVQUAL questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire measured the quality gap in 5 dimensions of educational service including assurance, responsiveness, empathy, reliability, and tangibility. The students’ perception about the current conditions and their expectations as to optimal conditions can be determined, using this questionnaire. The score of the gap in quality of educational services is calculated from difference between perception and expectation scores. Due to non-normality of data, non-parametric tests were used. To this end, data were analyzed by statistical tests including Wilcoxon, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whiteny tests in SPSS 14. Results: The results showed that there was quality gap in all 5 dimensions of educational services. The largest and the smallest gaps were observed in "responsiveness" with a mean±SD of -0.94±0.74 and in "reliability" with a mean±SD of -0.76±0.69, respectively. There was a significant difference in quality gap between the 5 dimensions (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results, the students’ expectations were higher than their perceptions of current conditions; also, in all aspects of the services their expectations were not met. It is recommended that workshops on customer services, communication skills and personnel’s technical skills development should be planned and held. Also, allocating more resources for

  17. Waste management '76 nuclear overview session industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    Lack of firm policy decisions and implementing regulations and program plans related to nuclear fuel cycle by-product wastes has become a major deterrent to progress in the constructive utilization of fission energy. In any event, the mismatch between waste management program accomplishments and perceived requirements has increased rather than decreased over recent years. Multi-agency programs and industry participation as well, at higher levels of effort than in the past, are required and are being initiated, but useful and lasting decisions still are some time off. From industry's viewpoint, all of the agency and industry programs related to waste management must be based on (a) a common view that no constructive activity is going to have zero personnel or environmental impact and that there generally will be a finite level of impact or risk to public health and safety that can be considered acceptable, and (b) consistent and rational consideration of what the levels of impact or risk are that can be considered acceptable in various circumstances. Regulatory requirements finally imposed must be related in some rational way to actual effects and their acceptable levels. Sound bases for timely decisions also require recognition of the fact that ''full and complete demonstration'' is not often really practical or necessary. Demonstration requirements for particular circumstances must be clearly defined and related to functional importance, extent of supporting technology and experience and other such rational factors. Finally, it is recognized that there are nontechnical issues the resolution of which are just as necessary to progress as the technical ones. However, such issues should not be allowed to lead to decisions or actions which are phenomenologically unsound or technically unsupported. After all, you might as well fall flat on your face as lean too far over backward

  18. The Students' Viewpoint on Quality of Educational Services in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamian, Hasan; Rostami, Farideh; Ghara, Aliasghar Nadi; Abedi, Ghassem

    2017-03-01

    Recently, focusing on higher education quality has got increasingly critical. The novel managerial attitudes have defined the customer-demanded quality. Based on this, recognizing the receivers' perception of the quality of the services offered and evaluating the quality of the service is considered of the basic measures taken in order to develop quality promotion programs. Therefore, this is a qualitative research conducted for students' viewpoint on quality of educational services. This qualitative study has been performed by the phenomenological method. The samples have been selected based on goal-oriented approach. In this qualitative research, the required data have been collected in two phases (90 individual interviews and 30 focus group discussions) at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences during which the participants have conveyed their experiences and expectations encountering the educational quality topic. All the interviews have been recorded and implemented. The interviews analysis has been carried out simultaneously with the implementation and using theme analysis by Smith method. According to the findings regarding the definition of quality, the students have emphasized two important aspects including "educational services standards by the teacher "and "the students' satisfaction". Thus the final education quality resulted from the students' experiences and perception is this way: "Presenting the students educational services in class and out of class compatible with the educational services standards so that it results in the students' satisfaction". When a person views her/him-self rightful as a customer, whatever seems necessary to them appears like a requirement. Then regarding paying attention and reflecting on the customers' perceived needs, it is possible to determine their expectations limit to some extent. Therefore, designing educational quality standards in order to evaluate the teachers' function without taking the stakeholders

  19. The students’ viewpoint on the quality gap in educational services

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAHIM KHANLI, MARZIYEH; DANESHMANDI, HADI; CHOOBINEH, ALIREZA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Students and university community are social and human resources of the country. The students’ viewpoints about the quality of educational services can be considered as a basis for planning quality promotion and improving organizational performance. This study was conducted to determine the quality gap in educational services by the students of Health and Nutrition School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 140 students participated voluntarily (age range=19 to 40 years). The service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire measured the quality gap in 5 dimensions of educational service including assurance, responsiveness, empathy, reliability, and tangibility. The students’ perception about the current conditions and their expectations as to optimal conditions can be determined, using this questionnaire. The score of the gap in quality of educational services is calculated from difference between perception and expectation scores. Due to non-normality of data, non-parametric tests were used. To this end, data were analyzed by statistical tests including Wilcoxon, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whiteny tests in SPSS 14. Results: The results showed that there was quality gap in all 5 dimensions of educational services. The largest and the smallest gaps were observed in "responsiveness" with a mean±SD of -0.94±0.74 and in "reliability" with a mean±SD of -0.76±0.69, respectively. There was a significant difference in quality gap between the 5 dimensions (p<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results, the students’ expectations were higher than their perceptions of current conditions; also, in all aspects of the services their expectations were not met. It is recommended that workshops on customer services, communication skills and personnel’s technical skills development should be planned and held. Also, allocating more resources for improving

  20. On two heuristic viewpoints concerning the study of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Siwen

    2015-02-01

    It has been a debatable problem that what the essence of light is, and how it is produced. Since the modern times, as James Clerk Maxwell setting the theory of electromagnetic up, the mainstream consciousness was occupied gradually by the wave theory of light. But at the end of 19th century, a series experimental phenomenon weren't precisely explained by the wave theory of light such as photoelectric effect experiment. Then Albert Einstein published his famous paper "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light", which laid the foundation of light quantum hypothesis. While solving these problems perfectly, a new problem was caused that because the wave theory and the quantum theory are both applicable to interpret some of the experiment of light, what is the essence of light. This paper first outlines the history of optical development and current status, and states the difficulties and deficiencies of the study of light. Then we put forward the key concept of the paper called lightstring which consults some points of the theory of modern optics and physics which called the optical frequency comb and the string theory, then presents the essence of light based on the light string concept in order to make the concept of photons specific. And then we put forward the production mechanism of light ---- the String-Light effect based on the concept of light string. In this paper, we attempt to put forward a new idea of the study of the essence of light and the production mechanism of it.

  1. ON TRANSLATION OF SOME PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTS IN KARL MARX’S WORKS

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    Mr. Pyotr N. Kondrashov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers, that in Russian-speaking editions of K. Marx's works some philosophical concepts (produktiv, erzeugen, Erzeugung, Äußerung, Aneignung, Genuß, Arbeit, Verkehr, Gebrauchswert were translated as words with the productive and economic sense while Marx put philosophical, anthropological and existential connotations into these words in various contexts. It led to incorrect understanding of Marx's philosophy. The author of the article draws a conclusion about indispensability of new adequate translation of Marx's works and about radical reconsideration of its philosophical system.

  2. Mixed Methods for the Interpretation of Longitudinal Gerontologic Data: Insights From Philosophical Hermeneutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ness, Peter H; Fried, Terri R; Gill, Thomas M

    2011-10-01

    This article's main objective is to demonstrate that data analysis, including quantitative data analysis, is a process of interpretation involving basic hermeneutic principles that philosophers have identified in the interpretive process as applied to other, mainly literary, creations. Such principles include a version of the hermeneutic circle, an insistence on interpretive presuppositions, and a resistance to reducing the discovery of truth to the application of inductive methods. The importance of interpretation becomes especially evident when qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single clinical research project and when the data being analyzed are longitudinal. Study objectives will be accomplished by showing that three major hermeneutic principles make practical methodological contributions to an insightful, illustrative mixed methods analysis of a qualitative study of changes in functional disability over time embedded in the Precipitating Events Project-a major longitudinal, quantitative study of functional disability among older persons. Mixed methods, especially as shaped by hermeneutic insights such as the importance of empathetic understanding, are potentially valuable resources for scientific investigations of the experience of aging: a practical aim of this article is to articulate and demonstrate this contention.

  3. Researching pharmacist managerial capability: philosophical perspectives and paradigms of inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    In successful community pharmacy business enterprises suitably responsive actions to meet ever-increasing change require capable pharmacy managers who readily learn and adapt. Capability as a concept is generally understood to be the ability of a manager to identify and act to solve unfamiliar problems in unfamiliar situations. Capability is characterized by adaptability and flexibility. However, different understandings of the concept 'capability' and what it means to be 'capable' are indirect and incomplete. This paper aims to clarify current theories regarding the concept of 'capability' at the level of the individual, and through this to make more explicit what is known about the phenomenon, but more particularly, how we know what we know. The analysis includes the concept of 'competence' because explanations of capability include competence, and the two concepts are not clearly separated in the literature. By probing the epistemological origins of current theory concerning both concepts, the limiting taken for granted assumptions are revealed. Assumptions about context and time, and the psychological theory through which individuals are assumed to perceive, know and learn, are illuminated. The analysis, in connection with the literature, shows how the interpretive philosophic research approach may reveal a different and useful theoretical perspective for explaining capability as a dynamic performance. It is suggested that such a perspective may narrow the gap between the theory of capability and its practice. The interpretive perspective holds potential to reveal how capability, as performed by successful community pharmacy managers, might be further researched and strengthened. This paper supports the challenging suggestion that pharmacy social research needs to rebalance the dominance of purely empirical research by exploring interpretive methodologies to better understand human actions and relations in the context of pharmacy. Crown Copyright © 2015

  4. Bioethical and Other Philosophical Considerations in Positive Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by asserting the need for bioethical and related philosophical considerations in the emerging subspecialty Positive Psychiatry. Further discussion proceeds after offering operational definitions of the concepts fundamental to the field – Bioethics, Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Positive Mental Health - with their conceptual analysis to show their areas of connect and disconnect. It then studies the implications of positive and negative findings in the field, and presents the Positive Psychosocial Factors (PPSFs) like Resilience, Optimism, Personal Mastery, Wisdom, Religion/Spirituality, Social relationships and support, Engagement in pleasant events etc. It then evaluates them on the basis of the 4-principled bioethical model of Beneficence, Non-malfeasance, Autonomy and Justice (Beauchamp and Childress, 2009[5], 2013[6]), first offering a brief clarification of these principles and then their bioethical analysis based on the concepts of ‘Common Morality’, ‘Specific Morality’, ‘Specification’, ‘Balancing’ and ‘Double Effects’. The paper then looks into the further development of the branch by studying the connectivity, synergy and possible antagonism of the various Positive Psychosocial Factors, and presents technical terms in place of common terms so that they carry least baggage. It also takes note of the salient points of caution and alarm that many incisive analysts have presented about further development in the related field of Positive Mental Health. Finally, the paper looks at where, and how, the field is headed, and why, if at all, it is proper it is headed there, based on Aristotle's concept of the four causes - Material, Efficient, Formal and Final. Suitable case vignettes are presented all through the write-up to clarify concepts. PMID:28031624

  5. Tolerance as dialogical universals: philosophical aspects of cultural area enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Troitska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Non­violence world forming requires the polycultural world dialogueness which becomes the necessary tool of interaction subjects’ relationship harmonization. On the basis of research result analysis the author reveals the significant possibilities of tolerance in modern intercultural interaction and emphasizes its potential for dialogue. By analysis logics it is proposed to transfer tolerance into the area of dialogical universals which consist of general definitions, ideas in the philosophical meaning and also have life­oriented sense for a man. In the article dialogue and tolerance are considered as natural features of a man and tolerance meaning is explicated in cultural universals, and praxeological area of spiritual­practical perception and re­construction of the world. The article aim realization with the help of the phenomenological approach, the theoretical re­construction and the analytics concerning tolerance make possible the search of useful constructs of its more efficient implementation in scientific­educational and social­cultural area as in the modern philosophy universals are often considered as universals of culture. As the basis of the world comprehension, as the conceptual foundation of its remaking by a human or its adaption to him they are formed implicitly in the personality’s cultural­educational area and they become, on the one hand, an orientation basis in choosing the life strategies and a certain tool of reality phenomena perception and, on the other hand, an intellectual combination of images into the integral picture of the universe.

  6. Treatment of uncertainties in the IPCC: a philosophical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebeile, J.; Drouet, I.

    2014-12-01

    The IPCC produces scientific reports out of findings on climate and climate change. Because the findings are uncertain in many respects, the production of reports requires aggregating assessments of uncertainties of different kinds. This difficult task is currently regulated by the Guidance note for lead authors of the IPCC fifth assessment report on consistent treatment of uncertainties. The note recommends that two metrics—i.e. confidence and likelihood— be used for communicating the degree of certainty in findings. Confidence is expressed qualitatively "based on the type, amount, quality, and consistency of evidence […] and the degree of agreement", while likelihood is expressed probabilistically "based on statistical analysis of observations or model results, or expert judgment". Therefore, depending on the evidence evaluated, authors have the choice to present either an assigned level of confidence or a quantified measure of likelihood. But aggregating assessments of uncertainties of these two different kinds express distinct and conflicting methodologies. So the question arises whether the treatment of uncertainties in the IPCC is rationally justified. In order to answer the question, it is worth comparing the IPCC procedures with the formal normative theories of epistemic rationality which have been developed by philosophers. These theories—which include contributions to the philosophy of probability and to bayesian probabilistic confirmation theory—are relevant for our purpose because they are commonly used to assess the rationality of common collective jugement formation based on uncertain knowledge. In this paper we make the comparison and pursue the following objectives: i/we determine whether the IPCC confidence and likelihood can be compared with the notions of uncertainty targeted by or underlying the formal normative theories of epistemic rationality; ii/we investigate whether the formal normative theories of epistemic rationality justify

  7. Social-philosophical analysis of legitimacy conditions of state power

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    O. V. Antonov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Social­philosophical analysis had displayed the next conditions of state power legitimacy: 1 realistic progressiveness – definition of social unacceptable innovations; 2 absorption in national consciousness – policy, which conforms to local cultural­historical peculiarities of such predisposition; 3 moderate liberal views – balance between insufficient and excessive harshness; 4 observance of contractual discipline – social­contractual essence of relationships between direction of a country and its population; 5 pretended accountability, which shows oneself in dual nature of state power, that must look clear for retention of legitimacy, on the one hand, and has to make a secret of ones immoral practices, on the other hand; 6 democratic policy, which conquers recognition of majority by means of execution of their will; 7 scientific integration – countercollision, system making factor for state power and, through state power, for whole society; 8 openness, which provides intrasystem synthesis of  all other factors thanks to incessant renewal of state power stuff by the best cadres; 9 absolute meritocracy – stuffing of state elite by figures, who have professional characteristics, which conform to people’s txpectations; 10 observance of natural rights – is based on knowing of this permanent principle of social­state  relations and on empathy of its temporal modifications; 11 actualization of natural low idea in concrete acts of transindividual interplay; 12 dosated non­interference into privacy – preventive satisfaction of human individualism; 13 organization of power instinct sublimation – policy, which fund oneself  on knowing of the fact, that this aspiration is an all people’s way, and which consists in peacemaking management of aspiration realization.

  8. Arrow physicians: are economics and medicine philosophically incompatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sandro

    2015-06-01

    Economics is en route to its further expansion in medicine, but many in the medical community remain unconvinced that its impact will be positive. Thus, a philosophical enquiry into the compatibility of economics and medicine is necessary to resolve the disagreements. The fundamental mission of medicine obliges physicians to practise science and compassion to serve the patient's best interests. Conventional (neoclassical) economics assumes that individuals are self-interested and that competitive markets will emerge optimal states. Economics is seemingly incompatible with the emphasis of putting patients' interests first. This idea is refuted by Professor Kenneth Arrow's health economics seminal paper. Arrow emphasizes that medical practice involves agency, knowledge, trust and professionalism, and physician-patient relation critically affects care quality. The term Arrow Physician is used to mean a humanistic carer who has a concern for the patient and acts on the best available evidence with health equity in mind. To make this practice sustainable, implementing appropriate motivations, constitutions and institutions to enable altruistic agency is critical. There is substantial evidence that polycentric governance can encourage building trust and reciprocity, so as to avoid depletion of communal resources. This paper proposes building trusting institutions through granting altruistic physicians adequate autonomy to direct resources based on patients' technical needs. It also summarizes the philosophy bases of medicine and economics. It, therefore, contributes to developing a shared language to facilitate intellectual dialogues, and will encourage trans-disciplinary research into medical practice. This should lead to medicine being reoriented to care for whole persons again. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A philosophical approach to the 'religion - national mythology' synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomilova Nonka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the philosophical aspects of the 'religion - national mythology' synthesis. The main directions of the study are as follows: 1. Both on the individual and social plan, the orientation of the transcending universalizing power of religion could vary depending on the macro-social movements a community /or an individual/ is involved in. For the individual as for the community, religion could be a cultural position transcending ego and ethno-centrism, mono-cultural tendencies; in situations of internal differentiation and disintegration of these entities, the universalizing binding role of religion is partialized and determined by various social groups, who are often in opposition to each other due to their economic political, ethnic, psychological features; 2. This process is usually related to the invalidation of universally uniting religious-moral bonds and values and intensification of differences: power, property, doctrinal differences to a shift of the weight center from internal spiritual movements /particularly typical of mysticism, asceticism, priesthood/ on to practical social action - reformist heresies, the various practical theologies of revolution, liberation, the religious-motivated wars; 3. When reduced to an ethnic, political, or state emblem, religious affiliation to Judaism, Islam Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Protestantism has become and still remain a tool for the sacralization of military and political conflicts. In religion-motivated conflict situations, opposing parties de-sacralize their Sacred Books as their acts contradict the books' moral content; 4. The power of historical mythologies is in reverse proportion to the capacity of a nation to periodically renew its social life world - its psychological attitudes labour relations, political stereotypes; 5. In this type of situation religion is usually reduced to 'belonging', as G. Davie put it, at the expense of 'believing' and a corresponding moral behavior. The

  10. Geothermal Electric Projects from a User's Viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, James M.

    1980-12-01

    insurance. No attempt has been made to include the viewpoint of municipal utilities in this report. While they and their ratepayers may have the same concerns about the increased economic risks, the sources of financing are substantially different; thus, the risk of loss to the stockholders is not a concern.

  11. Advantages and Limitations of Integrated Management System: the Theoretical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Giedrė Raišienė

    2013-08-01

    integrated management systems implementation studies in Lithuanian scientific literature. That hinders the possibility to frame specific recommendations to the practicians in Lithuania.Practical implications and value. In the contemporary world, coordination and supervision of management systems is a complex aim, which needs constant redesigning and innovations; organizations are challenged to optimize their management constantly. One of potentialities can be implementing an integrated management system. Traditionally, it consists of the quality management, employees’ health and safety management, social responsibility management and environmental protection management migration to one management system. As there is no international standard, that would submit unambiguous recommendations about ensuring the management system integration, every organization copes with this assignment on it‘s own. The paper gives value both to managers and to scientists who are interested in advantages and limitations of integrated management systems in general because of a generalized systemic approach to the research issue.Research type: viewpoint and conceptual paper.

  12. Spiritual Health in Nursing From the Viewpoint of Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh; Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2016-06-01

    In order to gain a more detailed insight into the concept of spiritual health, a hybrid model of concept analysis was used to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of spiritual health in Islamic and Iranian contexts. The purpose of this study was to clarify the meaning and nature of the spiritual health concept in the context of the practice of Islam among Iranian patients. The current concept analysis was undertaken according to the modified traditional hybrid model, which consists of five phases: theoretical phase, initial fieldwork phase, initial analytical phase, and final fieldwork and final analytical phase. In the theoretical phases of the study, the concept of spiritual health was described based on a literature review of publications dealing with the Islamic viewpoint (years: from 2013 to 2014, Databases and search engines: Pubmed, SID, Magiran, Noormax, Google Scholar, Google and IranMex, Languages: English and Persian, Keywords: spiritual health AND (Islam OR Quran), spirituality AND (Islam OR Quran), complete human AND Islam, healthy heart (Galb Salim) AND Islam, healthy life (Hayat tayebeh) AND Islam, calm soul (Nafse motmaeneh) And Islam and healthy wisdom (Aghle Salim) AND Islam). Purposive sampling was conducted and nine participants were selected. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted periodically for data collection after obtaining informed consent. Observational, theoretical, and methodological notes were made. Then, using MAXQUDA 7 software, the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The relevant literature in the theoretical phase uncovered the attributes of the concept of spiritual health, including love of the Creator, duty-based life, religious rationality, psychological balance, and attention to afterlife. These attributes were explored in depth in later stages. Finally, the definition of spiritual health was developed. Islam has a unique perspective on spiritual health as it

  13. Kierkegaard - le Philosophe, le Juge et le Droit (Kierkegaard – the Philosopher, the Judge and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Le fameux théologien et philosophe Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855 dans son oeuvre souvnt utilize expressions et metaphors pris du monde judiciare. Il pare, quíl est bien au courant quant´au monde des jurists de son age et place. La plupart des expressions sont pris du droit penal et de la procédure pénale. Le criminel comme individu ou l’objet de línterrogation et comme coupable es tun des ses images favorites. Dans ses oeuvres Ou-bien … Ou bien et Etapes su la chemin de la vie nous encontrons un juge danois avec la possibilité de suivre ses reflections sur son travail et l’éthique d’un repésentant de la justice locale. Le juge est une des masques sous lesquelles Kierkegaard s’adresse a nous. Les oeuvres de Kierkegaard et l’utilisation des expressions prises du monde du droit sont ici présentées dans un contexte contemporaire du doit et vie á Copenhague dans les années entre 1840 et 1855 en contrastant les différances entre le narrative de Kierkegaard selon lequel le doit peut server comme example et sur l’autre côté son concept transcendental de l’être coupable. The famous Danish theologian and existentialist philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855 in his work often used expressions or metaphors taken from judicial life, which reveals him as familiar with the legal world of his time and place. Most expressions are taken from penal law and penal procedure. The criminal as individual or the object of interrogation and guilt is one of his favorite images. In his Enten-Eller (Either/or and Stadier paa Livets Vej (Stages on Life’s Way we even meet a Danish judge and follow his reflections on his work and the ethics of a representative of local Justice. The judge is one of the masks under which Kierkegaard presents his thinking. Kierkegaard’s works and his use of expressions taken from the legal world are presented in the contemporary context of law and life in Copenhagen in the 1840ies however contrasting the

  14. The Philosophical and Mathematical Context of Two Gerbert's Musical Letters to Constantine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otisk, Marek

    -, č. 8 (2015), s. 19-38. ISBN 2038-3657 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Gerbert of Aurillac * mathematical basis of music * philosophical context of music Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  15. Catharsis – Philosophical and Spiritual Aspects of Long-Distance Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.

  16. Why more is different philosophical issues in condensed matter physics and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The physics of condensed matter, in contrast to quantum physics or cosmology, is not traditionally associated with deep philosophical questions. However, as science - largely thanks to more powerful computers - becomes capable of analysing and modelling ever more complex many-body systems, basic questions of philosophical relevance arise. Questions about the emergence of structure, the nature of cooperative behaviour, the implications of the second law,  the quantum-classical transition and many other issues. This book is a collection of essays by leading physicists and philosophers. Each investigates one or more of these issues, making use of examples from modern condensed matter research.  Physicists and philosophers alike will find surprising and stimulating ideas in these pages.

  17. Freud's philosophical inheritance: Schopenhauer and Nietzsche in Beyond the Pleasure Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwade, Robert

    2012-06-01

    This essay explores the possible significance of Freud's references to Schopenhauer and Nietzsche in Beyond the Pleasure Principle. It attempts to reveal two sides of Freud's philosophical inheritance and explores the structure of Freud's ambivalence toward his intellectual predecessors.

  18. Temporal Contiguity Training Influences Behavioral and Neural Measures of Viewpoint Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayenne Van Meel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans can often recognize faces across viewpoints despite the large changes in low-level image properties a shift in viewpoint introduces. We present a behavioral and an fMRI adaptation experiment to investigate whether this viewpoint tolerance is reflected in the neural visual system and whether it can be manipulated through training. Participants saw training sequences of face images creating the appearance of a rotating head. Half of the sequences showed faces undergoing veridical changes in appearance across the rotation (non-morph condition. The other half were non-veridical: during rotation, the face simultaneously morphed into another face. This procedure should successfully associate frontal face views with side views of the same or a different identity, and, according to the temporal contiguity hypothesis, thus enhance viewpoint tolerance in the non-morph condition and/or break tolerance in the morph condition. Performance on the same/different task in the behavioral experiment (N = 20 was affected by training. There was a significant interaction between training (associated/not associated and identity (same/different, mostly reflecting a higher confusion of different identities when they were associated during training. In the fMRI study (N = 20, fMRI adaptation effects were found for same-viewpoint images of untrained faces, but no adaptation for untrained faces was present across viewpoints. Only trained faces which were not morphed during training elicited a slight adaptation across viewpoints in face-selective regions. However, both in the behavioral and in the neural data the effects were small and weak from a statistical point of view. Overall, we conclude that the findings are not inconsistent with the proposal that temporal contiguity can influence viewpoint tolerance, with more evidence for tolerance when faces are not morphed during training.

  19. A practical implementation of free viewpoint video system for soccer games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Ryo; Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Tezuka, Tomoyuki; Panahpour Tehrani, Mehrdad; Takahashi, Keita; Fujii, Toshiaki

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a free viewpoint video generation system with billboard representation for soccer games. Free viewpoint video generation is a technology that enables users to watch 3-D objects from their desired viewpoints. Practical implementation of free viewpoint video for sports events is highly demanded. However, a commercially acceptable system has not yet been developed. The main obstacles are insufficient user-end quality of the synthesized images and highly complex procedures that sometimes require manual operations. In this work, we aim to develop a commercially acceptable free viewpoint video system with a billboard representation. A supposed scenario is that soccer games during the day can be broadcasted in 3-D, even in the evening of the same day. Our work is still ongoing. However, we have already developed several techniques to support our goal. First, we captured an actual soccer game at an official stadium where we used 20 full-HD professional cameras. Second, we have implemented several tools for free viewpoint video generation as follow. In order to facilitate free viewpoint video generation, all cameras should be calibrated. We calibrated all cameras using checker board images and feature points on the field (cross points of the soccer field lines). We extract each player region from captured images manually. The background region is estimated by observing chrominance changes of each pixel in temporal domain (automatically). Additionally, we have developed a user interface for visualizing free viewpoint video generation using a graphic library (OpenGL), which is suitable for not only commercialized TV sets but also devices such as smartphones. However, practical system has not yet been completed and our study is still ongoing.

  20. A Philosophical reflection on European integration : Aristotelian subsidiarity versus Kantian universalism

    OpenAIRE

    Bielskis, Andrius

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to show how contemporary Aristotelian political philosophy can be utilised in our reflections on European integration. It argues that changes in international relations after the end of the Cold War and a growing cultural divide between Europe and the US makes Europe's Western identity untenable. Through a brief philosophical sketch of the history of 'the West' it argues that Europe needs to return to its European rather than Western roots. The philosophical emphasis on nation...

  1. Biomedicine or Holistic Medicine for Treating Mentally Ill Patients? A Philosophical and Economical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2007-01-01

    Today we have two scientific medical traditions, two schools or treatment systems: holistic medicine and biomedicine. The two traditions are based on two very different philosophical positions: subjectivistic and objectivistic. The philosopher Buber taught us that you can say I-Thou or I-It, holding the other person as a subject or an object. These two fundamentally different attitudes seem to characterize the difference in world view and patient approach in the two schools, one coming from p...

  2. Historical and philosophical foundation of the interdependence of gender and environmental ideas

    OpenAIRE

    K. I. Karpenko

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the historical and philosophical background of the interdependence of modern gender and ecological ideas in the context of philosophical concepts of F.V. J. Schelling, M. Scheler, L. Mumford, J. Lotman, J. Habermas and others. Study emphasized that the perception of women and natural world as the passive resources is rooted in the neoclassical approach. The gender approach overcomes the negative ecological trends. It reinvents the correlation between instrumental and comm...

  3. Reception of N. S. Leskov's Religious and Philosophical Worldview in English-speaking Critic

    OpenAIRE

    Girfanova, Kseniya Andreevna; Cheremisina Harrer, Inna Aleksandrovna; Bobrova, Galina

    2015-01-01

    The monograph of American researcher Irmhild Christina Sperrle ‘The organic worldview of Nikolai Leskov’ focuses on the philosophical foundations of the writer's worldview. The aim of this article is to clarify religious and philosophical aspects of literary works of the writer, which allows obtaining a complete picture of the Leskov's work as an integral literary system. Journalistic and artistic creativity of the writer contains a wealth of material to prove the thesis of organicity in Lesk...

  4. Development of MPEG standards for 3D and free viewpoint video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolic, Aljoscha; Kimata, Hideaki; Vetro, Anthony

    2005-11-01

    An overview of 3D and free viewpoint video is given in this paper with special focus on related standardization activities in MPEG. Free viewpoint video allows the user to freely navigate within real world visual scenes, as known from virtual worlds in computer graphics. Suitable 3D scene representation formats are classified and the processing chain is explained. Examples are shown for image-based and model-based free viewpoint video systems, highlighting standards conform realization using MPEG-4. Then the principles of 3D video are introduced providing the user with a 3D depth impression of the observed scene. Example systems are described again focusing on their realization based on MPEG-4. Finally multi-view video coding is described as a key component for 3D and free viewpoint video systems. MPEG is currently working on a new standard for multi-view video coding. The conclusion is that the necessary technology including standard media formats for 3D and free viewpoint is available or will be available in the near future, and that there is a clear demand from industry and user side for such applications. 3DTV at home and free viewpoint video on DVD will be available soon, and will create huge new markets.

  5. The relative contributions of various viewpoint oscillation frequencies to the perception of distance traveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, Martin; Mestre, Daniel R

    2018-02-01

    Humans and most animals are able to navigate in their environment, which generates sensorial information of various kinds, such as proprioceptive cues and optic flow. Previous research focusing on the visual effects of walking (bob, sway, and lunge head motion) has shown that the perception of forward self-motion experienced by static observers can be modulated by adding simulated viewpoint oscillations to the radial flow. In three experimental studies, we examined the effects of several viewpoint oscillation frequencies on static observers' perception of the distance traveled, assuming the assessment of distance traveled to be part of the path integration process. Experiment 1 showed that observers' estimates depended on the frequency of the viewpoint oscillations. In Experiment 2, increasing the viewpoint oscillation frequency actually led to an increase in the global retinal flow. It also emerged that simulated viewpoint oscillations enhance the sensation of self-motion: In a specific low-frequency range (<4 Hz), they improved subjects' estimates of the distances traveled. Lastly, in Experiment 3, observers were presented with two different simulated viewpoint oscillation patterns, both involving the same amount of global retinal motion, but in one case, the pattern simulated the visual effects of natural walking, and in the other case, the pattern was not biologically realistic. Contrary to the predictions of a previous ecological hypothesis, the subjects gave similar responses under both conditions. The global retinal motion may be mainly responsible for these effects, which were found to be optimal in a specific fairly low-oscillation frequency range.

  6. Is a new version of philosophical pragmatism necessary? A reply to Barnes-Holmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Barnes-Holmes (2000) discussed certain issues regarding philosophy, pragmatism, and behavior analysis, and offered a “behavioral pragmatism” based on or derived from behavior-analytic perspectives. In a comparison of certain philosophical views, Quine's concept of observation sentences was employed for representing pragmatism, but this concept is not sufficiently representative of the literature of philosophical pragmatism to warrant the broad conclusions drawn by Barnes-Holmes. Further, although the extensive and diverse literature of philosophical pragmatism has been shown by a number of writers to have various themes and perspectives in common with Skinner's radical behaviorism, it is unnecessary to extract a limited, generic version of pragmatism because (a) the latter cannot match the range and depth of the various extant versions and (b) the problems raised by Barnes-Holmes in justification for the new version yield readily to the current versions in philosophy. A set of philosophical views may provide additional verbal support for a given system of science, and the science of behavior analysis may eventually contribute to philosophical discourse. The latter, however, will not be achieved by proposing new versions of old philosophy, but rather by approaching established philosophical issues in new ways. PMID:22478409

  7. PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF AESTETICS IN POST-CLASSICAL EPOCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariia M. Skalska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To understand the dynamics of aesthetic conception as representative of the main directions of philosophical anthropology, identifying their contribution to the development of aesthetics and expand its research field. The condition of the study of the problem is the evolutionary process of adequateness, authenticity and alternativeness in determination of both the phenomenon of "aesthetic" and its role in philosophical and anthropological  convention. Methodology. Both the measurements of aesthetic as a unique, peculiar, specific and aesthetic dimensions of philosophical anthropology /systems of philisophy/ have in sight  the necessity to solve the same problem - the identification of new methodological basis. Theoretical results. The experience of theoretical researches of contemporary domestic and foreign philosophical and aesthetic schools іs generalized. The content of phenomenological and existential breakthrough in  modern age  of aesthetics іs revealed. The essence of "anthropological turn" in European philosophy of 20th century  as philosophical paradigm of the modern age and its impact on development of aesthetic theories of post-classical period was investigated. Conclusion. Philosophical and anthropological studies have amounted the "methodological synthesis" that appeared as the theoretical principles of the understanding of aesthetics due to its polystylistics.

  8. Visuospatial viewpoint manipulation during full-body illusion modulates subjective first-person perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christian; Schmutz, Valentin; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    Self-consciousness is based on multisensory signals from the body. In full-body illusion (FBI) experiments, multisensory conflict was used to induce changes in three key aspects of bodily self-consciousness (BSC): self-identification (which body 'I' identify with), self-location (where 'I' am located), and first-person perspective (from where 'I' experience the world; 1PP). Here, we adapted a previous FBI protocol in which visuotactile stroking was administered by a robotic device (tactile stroking) and simultaneously rendered on the back of a virtual body (visual stroking) that participants viewed on a head-mounted display as if filmed from a posterior viewpoint of a camera. We compared the effects of two different visuospatial viewpoints on the FBI and thereby on these key aspects of BSC. During control manipulations, participants saw a no-body object instead of a virtual body (first experiment) or received asynchronous versus synchronous visuotactile stroking (second experiment). Results showed that within-subjects visuospatial viewpoint manipulations affected the subjective 1PP ratings if a virtual body was seen but had no effect for viewing a non-body object. However, visuospatial viewpoint had no effect on self-identification, but depended on the viewed object and visuotactile synchrony. Self-location depended on visuospatial viewpoint (first experiment) and visuotactile synchrony (second experiment). Our results show that the visuospatial viewpoint from which the virtual body is seen during FBIs modulates the subjective 1PP and that such viewpoint manipulations contribute to spatial aspects of BSC. We compare the present data with recent data revealing vestibular contributions to the subjective 1PP and discuss the multisensory nature of BSC and the subjective 1PP.

  9. The Possibility of Inductive Moral Arguments | Nelson | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is it possible to have moral knowledge? 'Moral justification skeptics' hold it is not, because moral beliefs cannot have the sort of epistemic justification necessary for knowledge. This skeptical stance can be summed up in a single, neat argument, which includes the premise that 'Inductive arguments from non-moral premises ...

  10. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION FROM POLAND’S VIEWPOINT. SELECTED ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Iwona M. Pawlas

    2014-01-01

    It has been ten years since Poland joined the European Union in May 2004. Integration with the EU structures resulted in considerable economic, social and political advantages. On the other hand membership in the EU created new challenges for Poland, the Polish companies and the Polish citizens. The paper reviews selected issues of Poland’s integration with the European Union with special focus on net financial effect of membership, competitiveness of Polish goods on single European market, p...

  11. A Dialogic Vaccine to Bridge Opposing Cultural Viewpoints Based on Bakhtin's Views on Dialogue and Estrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Today, we face global conflicts between opposing ideologies that may be described in terms of cultural viewpoints and value judgments. It is difficult for individuals to determine whether ideologies are right or wrong because each ideology has its own worldview and sense of justice. Psychologists have an urgent mission to defuse the likelihood of fatal clashes between opposing cultural perspectives (ideologies), and to propose paradigms for peaceful coexistence. This paper examines the series of papers (Oh, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 51, 2017; Sakakibara, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 51, 2017; Watanabe, Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 51, 2017) contributed to this volume that investigate the effects of high school and university educational programs promoting productive dialogue aimed at bridging, or transcending, conflicting perspectives among Japanese, Chinese, and Korean students. Here, I have evaluated the capacity of these educational programs to coordinate opposing cultural ideologies using the framework of Bakhtin's theories of dialogue and estrangement. Bakhtin viewed discourse with others who had opposing viewpoints as an opportunity to learn to overcome the one-sidedness of ideology, which ensues from automatic value judgments made by each speaker according to their culture, and he affirmed the value of flexible attitudes toward opposing viewpoints. In this paper, I review Bakhtin's theories relating to communication in a context of different cultural viewpoints, assess the general values of the educational practices mentioned above, and propose new concepts for applying these methods to other educational fields in the future using Bakhtin's theoretical viewpoints.

  12. The Story-Presenting Method: a Method for Constructing Multiple Viewpoints to Understand Different Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadaharu

    2017-09-01

    This study will show the results of four dialogical cultural exchange classes, which were held between Japanese and Chinese high school students, and examine the shifts in students' viewpoints and changes in cultural understandings that occurred during those classes. In the first cultural exchange class, students of both countries read a story which described an older student who carelessly wore a T-shirt inside out, and younger students passed by without greeting him. Students of both countries were then asked to write their comments about it. From the second to the fourth class, students discussed the story with each other through exchanging their comments. By presenting another story, which introduced the viewpoint of a third person, and asking them questions that allowed them to reflect on their lives, students also experienced four different viewpoints during these cultural exchange classes. At the beginning of the cultural exchange, students of both countries tended to focus on the similarities in each other's comments, which led to the closing down of the discussion. However, through discussions and experiencing the four different viewpoints, they found there are some essential differences between them around 'ways of greeting' and 'hierarchical relationships between older and younger students', which motivated them to understand their counterparts' culture. Moreover, in the last comments of these cultural exchange classes, it was found that they acquired the viewpoints of cultural others. Given the results of these classes, it is shown that it is effective to present various stories to stimulate cultural understanding.

  13. About social and cultural aspects of human nature in the context of philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kostiuchkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the approaches to socio­cultural understanding of human nature in the context of philosophical anthropology, analyzes the essence of human nature contradictions inherent in the contradiction between biological and social components; author focuses attention on the concept of «identity» in the context of philosophical anthropology and characterization of the status of human life; put forward a reasoned statement that outlook, as the level of philosophical understanding of the world, combining both biological and social components of human nature. It is emphasized that universal principle transistorychnym public attitudes towards human life is the recognition of its absolute value in different dimensions ­ religious, philosophical, scientific. The author notes that religious, especially biblical doctrine emphasizes the value of human life that flows from dignity of man, created in God’s image, a rational being who comes to Earth as, in a sense, a representative of God. The article stresses the urgency of a new philosophical paradigm as an important ideological guideline that requires perceive and understand the biological basis of man is not as indispensable, but neutral background of social life, but as a basis upon which and through which a person is transformed into a cultural and civilized being.

  14. A licensee's viewpoint of Europe and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.

    2010-01-01

    In the 1950's, one could have been forgiven for believing that the first civil applications of atomic energy would be international. The 'Atom for peace' speech by President Eisenhower, which opened up American nuclear technology to the free world, the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency and, in Europe, the signing of the EURATOM Treaty, which along with the coal and steel treaty was one of the foundation stones for the construction of Europe, should have enabled the development of widespread international cooperation. Nothing could have been further from the truth and for the next thirty years nuclear power was a purely national affair with a strong nationalistic flavour. The countries which borrowed water reactor technology from the United States adapted it to their national situations and even if the principles and basic concepts of nuclear safety were common to all the countries concerned, they rapidly began to implement them differently. The late 1980's revealed the limits of these purely national strategies: the Chernobyl accident, which clearly showed that no country could remain indifferent to what was happening beyond its borders, the cost of construction and of installation licensing processes that were everywhere different, allied with a significant fall in the price of oil, thereby affecting the competitiveness of nuclear energy, led to the closure of nuclear programs in a large number of countries, in any case in the United States and Europe. Practically the only exception was France, where a strategy of standardisation in the design, construction and operation of a single model developed by a single manufacturer, Framatome, in a series of incremental plant designs, an overall architect and single licensee, EDF, ensured the success of the French nuclear programme, in terms of both safety and economic competitiveness. (author)

  15. Diffusion of Electric Vehicles and Novel Social Infrastructure from the Viewpoint of Systems Innovation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takaaki

    This paper describes diffusion of electric vehicles and novel social infrastructure from the viewpoint of systems innovation theory considering both human society aspects and elemental technological aspects. Firstly, fundamentals of the systems innovation theory and the platform theory are mentioned. Secondly, discussion on mobility from the viewpoint of the human-society layer and discussion of electrical vehicles from the viewpoint of the elemental techniques are carried out. Thirdly, based on those, R & D, measures are argued such as establishment of the ubiquitous noncontact feeding and authentication payment system is important. Finally, it is also insisted that after the establishment of this system the super smart grid with temporal and spatial control including demand itself with the low social cost will be expected.

  16. The Similarities and Differences of Ghazali’s and Tomas’s Viewpoints on Sight God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadmahdi Meshkati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available   There are always input and output of Thoughts and beliefs among scientists that they include similarities and differences. The argument under consideration on the Islamic theology and in the Christianity is the sight of God that the commentators of the two books Quran and gospel expressed their opinions on it. Mohammad Gazeli ’ s and Tomas ’ s viewpoint investigated in this study. It is criticized the similarities and dissimilarities between them.   The results of this study strengthen the discussion of the religions in the Epistemology domain. The similarities of Ghazali and Tomas ’ s viewpoints are:1. They both believe in narration and wisdom in thrie discussion   2. both of them believe in the role of Gnosticism in Epistemology comprehension of religion. The mentioned examples and clarification on each subject in the text are to the readers familiar more fluently with the viewpoints.

  17. The Similarities and Differences of Ghazali’s and Tomas’s Viewpoints on Sight God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkati, M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are always input and output of Thoughts and beliefs among scientists that they include similarities and differences. The argument under consideration on the Islamic theology and in the Christianity is the sight of God that the commentators of the two books Quran and gospel expressed their opinions on it. Mohammad Gazeli’s and Tomas’s viewpoint investigated in this study. It is criticized the similarities and dissimilarities between them.The results of this study strengthen the discussion of the religions in the Epistemology domain. The similarities of Ghazali and Tomas’s viewpoints are:1. They both believe in narration and wisdom in thrie discussion2. both of them believe in the role of Gnosticism in Epistemology comprehension of religion. The mentioned examples and clarification on each subject in the text are to the readers familiar more fluently with the viewpoints.

  18. Aesthetics of the Human Image in Life and Iconography of the Ancient Philosophers in Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeev, Daniil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic and visual understanding of man is a hotly debated issue in contemporary culture. I found it important therefore to look at certain historical, cultural, aesthetical, philosophical and anthropological peculiarities of human image in Antiquity as reflected in the arts. The following aspects deserve special attention: the visualization of sense and values; the interaction of “ethos” (character and “soma” (body; the influence of the plastic images on the narrative ones; a normative typology of man; the significance of visual and acoustic perception. In this context, I studied ancient physiognomic; Aristotelian understanding of the acoustic and plastic arts; genesis, evolution and significance of the sculptural portrait image of man and the image of philosopher in Antiquity. I also pay attention to some methodological aspects of the study. As a result, there emerges an integral image of philosopher, which allows looking at the Greek culture from a fresh angle.

  19. How to put your darlings on a diet. Philosophical practice as an epistemological practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Today, health care organizations are changing in several ways. New technologies, new audit regimes and new relationships with clients of various kinds all contribute to altering what it takes to perform in health care organizations. Consequently, one of the characteristics of health care...... that is spreading, but also ways of engaging with knowledge, historically associated with research communities. This contribution to the 5th Nordic Conference on Philosophical Practice describes how Philosophical Practice can enter the epistemic practices in health care organizations by inviting an open...... and critical attitude towards knowledge in health care practice. Drawing on the concept of philosophy as a way of “situating reason” (McCumber, 2005, a.o.), this paper explores the potential of Philosophical Practice with regards to opening up common conceptions of “knowledge management” in health care...

  20. How cool is Nietzsche – an aid to remove the fear of great philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ester

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900 is far more accessible than many of his contemporaries. He has a tremendous sense of humour, plays with words and expressions,and he is not scared of attacking other philosophers like Hegel and Schopenhauer. Nietzsche’s use of figures is very significant thanks to the variations of these figures. The result of his style is a sort of inclusiveness towards the reader. Nietzsche seduces the reader to become a member of the select group of chosen thinkers. His central work “Thus spoke Zarathustra”, shows this strategy of conquering the reader or listener in a clear way. Nietzsche’s courage to ask other philosophers or “Geisteswissenschaftler” what their essence is can encourage us to ask essential questions. However, Nietzsche’s central value of life is too vague to be acceptable and caused a lot of political confusion during the previous century.

  1. Journeying from the philosophical contemplation of constructivism to the methodological pragmatics of health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jane V; King, Lindy

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents our journey through a contemplation of the philosophical origins of constructivism to consider its role as an active methodology in qualitative research. The first part of the paper summarizes the philosophical background of constructivism and the five principles underpinning this paradigm as described through the works of Guba and Lincoln. The philosophical roots of constructivism are then compared with postpositivism, critical realism and participatory inquiry. The paper moves on to consider their common methodological steps, before examining how the constructivist research strategy is being adopted and adapted within the pragmatics of health service research. Recent studies will be drawn upon to illustrate the use of constructivist methodology. Questions are raised about the role of philosophy and the extent to which it should or does underpin or influence qualitative research strategies. We believe that if researchers gain an understanding of both philosophy and methodology a richer and more robust study is likely to result.

  2. CONSERVATIVE ATTITUDES TO OLD-ESTABLISHED ORGANS: OLIVER LODGE AND PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Imogen; Mussell, James

    2015-09-20

    In 1921 Oliver Lodge defended Philosophical Magazine against charges of mismanagement from the National Union of Scientific Workers. They alleged that its editors performed little editorial work, the bulk being done by the publishers, Taylor & Francis. Lodge reassured Nature's readers that the journal did consult its editors, and suggested 'a conservative attitude towards old-established organs is wise; and that it is possible to over-organise things into lifelessness.' The paper explores Lodge's response by considering the editorial arrangements at Philosophical Magazine. Founded in 1798, it remained remarkably unchanged and so appeared old-fashioned when compared with its closest rivals, Proceedings of the Royal Society and Proceedings of the Physical Society. We argue that for Lodge the management of Philosophical Magazine gave it the flexibility and independence required to sustain the kind of physics, also open to accusations of obsolescence, in which he believed.

  3. How can one be both a philosophical ethicist and a democrat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    How can one be both a philosophical ethicist and a democrat? In this article I conclude that it can be difficult to reconcile the two roles. One involves understanding, and reconciling, the conflicting views of citizens, and the other requires the pursuit of truth through reason. Nevertheless, an important function of philosophy and ethics is to inform and improve policy. If done effectively, we could expect better, and more just, laws and policies, thereby benefiting many lives. So applying philosophical thinking to policy is an important job. However, it comes with substantial difficulties, not least in reconciling, or choosing between, competing philosophical theories. Despite the importance of the task, and the apparent obstacles, there is relatively little literature on how to apply ethics to real-world policy-making. Democracies need ethicists who can engage in democratic debate and bridge the gap between philosophy and public policy. I offer some tactics here.

  4. HANS BELLMER, UN ARTISTE PHILOSOPHE OU L'IDENTITE EN QUESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARYVONNE PERROT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available If the surrealist group has attracted the interest of philosophers, one can also note that some of these artists have attempted to develop their own philosophical reflection. This was the case of Hans Bellmer obsessed with the themes of desire, body and metamorphosis and, through that, with the games of identity and otherness. The anatomy of the image, one of Bellmer’s essential books, also shows the role of the artistic creation in the efforts to illuminate the “enigma of existence”.

  5. Socio-philosophical preconditions of formation of the concept of security in protosociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kalashnikova

    2016-08-01

    The development of the theory of security is impossible without taking into account the foundations of social and philosophical heritage in this area, which is often out of sight of researchers. Socio-philosophical prerequisites of security concept creates the necessary conditions for the formation of general ideas about it as an objective reality, the study of which with the use of scientific and special methods of knowledge allows us to formulate the basic laws, scientific system of safety management principles that will ensure the safe existence of the person, the effective functioning of society and the state.

  6. The concept of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible � A comparative-philosophical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief comparative philosophical clarification of the concept of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible. Utilising the format of a presentation presented by Ryan (2008, four philosophical definitions of wisdom were compared with similar sentiments in ancient Israelite religion: (1 wisdom as epistemic humility, (2 wisdom as factual knowledge, (3 wisdom as useful knowledge, and (4 wisdom as successful living. Cumulatively the four criteria might approximate a functional list of individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for instantiating the property of being wise.

  7. María Zambrano: a woman, a republican and a philosopher in exile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA PALOMAR GALDÓN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this presentation is an attempt to understand the concept of exile in terms of the works of Spanish philosopher María Zambrano, a woman who left her country after the Spanish civil war and lived the life of an exile. This work focuses on the difficulties encountered by thinkers when they try to reflect on the experience of exile, and it aims to bring Zambrano’s thought on exile closer to her main philosophical concepts.

  8. The rigorous concept of aesthetics as philosophical discipline and its critics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gutiérrez Pozo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article’s aim is to clarify the philosophical sense of the term ‘aesthetics’, which hasboth an ontological dimension and a cognitive dimension. ‘Aesthetics’ has a rigorous meaning assensation, and the modern philosophical discipline of aesthetics emerged in relation with it. It was developed by Baumgarten and Kant. This concept of aesthetics meant an aesthetics understanding ofart. The reflection about art developed by Hegel, Heidegger and Adorno involves a critic against that rigorous concept of aesthetics, and the need of increasing the notion of aesthetics if we expect to continue being able to call ‘aesthetics’ their reflection about art.

  9. Parks and gardens in poetic reminiscences used to deliver philosophic ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdova Maria Sergeevna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analyzing the image of parks and gardens that helps to deliver philosophic ideas in fiction. The research bases on the novel “The French Lieutenant’s Woman” by John Fowles. The literary hermeneutics and reception-aesthetics methods are used. The paper deals with the reminiscences from Alfred Tennyson’s and Thomas Hardy’s poetry. The author draws a conclusion about their meaning for understanding the sense of the novel and John Fowles’s philosophic ideas as a whole.

  10. What makes a control system usable? An operational viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay, M.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the generally accepted successes and shortcomings of the various computer and hardware-based control systems at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) from an operator's standpoint. LAMPF currently utilizes three separate control rooms that, although critically co-dependent, use distinct operating methods. The first, the Injector Control Room, which is responsible for the operation of the three ion sources, the 750 keV transport lines and the 201.25 MHz portion of the linac, uses a predominantly hardware-based control system. The second, the LANSCE Control Room, which is responsible for the operation of the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center, uses a graphical touch-panel interface with single-application screens as its control system. The third, the LAMPF Central Control Room, which is responsible for the overall operation of LAMPF, primarily uses a text-oriented keyboard interface with multiple applications per screen. Though each system provides generally reliable human interfacing to the enormously complex and diverse machine known as LAMPF, the operational requirements of speed, usability, and reliability are increasingly necessitating the use of a standard control system that incorporates the positive aspects of all three control systems. (orig.)

  11. Exemplarity in Mathematics Education: From a Romanticist Viewpoint to a Modern Hermeneutical One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patronis, Tasos; Spanos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a setting of "exemplarity" different from the already known one, which is basically a Romanticist philosophical setting. Our general aim is to describe and explore the nature of some "exemplary themes" and "interpretive models" in advanced mathematics teaching and learning. In order to do so, we…

  12. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality's Constant Individual Traits Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…

  13. Defining Execution Viewpoints for a Large and Complex Software-Intensive System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callo Arias, Trosky B.; America, Pierre; Avgeriou, Paris

    2009-01-01

    An execution view is an important asset for developing large and complex systems. An execution view helps practitioners to describe, analyze, and communicate what a software system does at runtime and how it does it. In this paper, we present an approach to define execution viewpoints for an

  14. Viewpoint: The History Manifesto and the History of Science. Editor's Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H Floris

    2016-06-01

    This "Viewpoint" section takes up the question of what, if anything, historians of science can learn from The History Manifesto, initially published in the fall of 2014. One summary, two essay reviews, and nine short comments are followed by remarks by the authors of the manifesto, Jo Guldi and David Armitage.

  15. Sociological Duality in Era of Three Qajar Kings in Viewpoints of English Female Itinerary Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jamili Kohneh Shahri

    2016-06-01

    This study has tried to answer the mentioned question using typology approach, theory of Morton about kinds of psychological and sociological duality, and techniques of historical investigation and content analysis. The result of this study shows 5 kinds of cultural and social duality among Iranians from viewpoint of English female travelers.

  16. Defining and Documenting Execution Viewpoints for a Large and Complex Software-Intensive System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callo Arias, T.B.; America, P.H.M.; Avgeriou, P.

    2011-01-01

    An execution view is an important asset for developing large and complex systems. An execution view helps practitioners to describe, analyze, and communicate what a software system does at runtime and how it does it. In this paper, we present an approach to define viewpoints to guide the

  17. Defining and documenting execution viewpoints for a large and complex software-intensive system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callo Arias, Trosky B.; America, Pierre; Avgeriou, Paris

    An execution view is an important asset for developing large and complex systems. An execution view helps practitioners to describe, analyze, and communicate what a software system does at runtime and how it does it. In this paper, we present an approach to define and document viewpoints that guide

  18. Regularity of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations with viewpoint of 2D flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeong-Ohk

    2018-04-01

    The regularity of 2D Navier-Stokes flow is well known. In this article we study the relationship of 3D and 2D flow, and the regularity of the 3D Naiver-Stokes equations with viewpoint of 2D equations. We consider the problem in the Cartesian and in the cylindrical coordinates.

  19. CS Smith's Development of a Viewpoint -RE-SONANCE--IJu-ne

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Smith's Development of a Viewpoint. Complex Ideas and their Demonstration in the 20 Soap Froth. Denis Weaire. Cyril Smith's distinguished career in industrial metallurgy was wonderfully transformed into his masterful engage- ment with the history of science and technology. These two phases were bridged by a piece ...

  20. 75 FR 27119 - ViewPoint Financial Group, Inc., Plano, Texas; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-37: OTS No. H-47111] ViewPoint Financial Group, Inc., Plano, Texas; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on May 6..., Plano, Texas, to convert to the stock form of organization. Copies of the application are available for...

  1. Evaluation of the Changes in the Regulation of Secondary Education Institutions According to Teachers' Viewpoints (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Mucahit; Sozen, Erol

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate teachers' viewpoints about the changes made in the regulation of passing lesson at schools, which became active in 2013 to 2014 academic year. The pass grade applied depends on this regulation, common exams, shortening of the absenteeism durations, and assigning students with performance tasks according to…

  2. An Analysis of English Pronunciation of Japanese Learners: From the Viewpoint of EIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to detect effective factors in English pronunciation teaching from the viewpoint of EIL (English as an International Language). This research is based on the data of the Successful Pronunciation Learners (SPL) selected by the raters, Japanese and native speakers of English (NSE), in Tominaga (2005). On the grounds…

  3. Re-identification of persons in multi-camera surveillance under varying viewpoints and illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Borsboom, A.S.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Landsmeer, S.H.; Worring, M.

    2012-01-01

    The capability to track individuals in CCTV cameras is important for surveillance and forensics alike. However, it is laborious to do over multiple cameras. Therefore, an automated system is desirable. In literature several methods have been proposed, but their robustness against varying viewpoints

  4. Neuroscientific Studies of Mathematical Thinking and Learning: A Critical Look from a Mathematics Education Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaffel, Lieven; Lehtinen, Erno; Van Dooren, Wim

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary we take a critical look at the various studies being reported in this issue about the relationship between cognitive neuroscience and mathematics, from a mathematics education viewpoint. After a discussion of the individual contributions, which we have grouped into three categories--namely neuroscientific studies of (a)…

  5. Beyond Behavioural Management Strategies: An Alternative Viewpoint from the Pupil Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The article begins by discussing the literature as it relates to the perceived effectiveness of behavioural management approaches, as well as the author's experiences of implementing a behavioural approach. The second part highlights an alternative viewpoint, as derived from an empirical study, as it relates to the pupil perspective of effective…

  6. Massive Open Online Courses in Dental Education: Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Massive Open Online Courses Offer Transformative Technology for Dental Education and Viewpoint 2: Massive Open Online Courses Are Not Ready for Primetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Rachel C; Premaraj, Sundaralingam; Smith, Becky M; Olson, Gregory W; Williamson, Anne E; Romanos, Georgios

    2016-02-01

    This point/counterpoint article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of incorporating Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) into dental education, focusing on whether this relatively new educational modality could impact traditional dental curricula. Viewpoint 1 asserts that MOOCs can be useful in dental education because they offer an opportunity for students to learn through content and assessment that is delivered online. While specific research on MOOCs is limited, some evidence shows that online courses may produce similar learning outcomes to those in face-to-face courses. Given that MOOCs are intended to be open source, there could be opportunities for dental schools with faculty shortages and financial constraints to incorporate these courses into their curricula. In addition to saving money, dental schools could use MOOCs as revenue sources in areas such as continuing education. Viewpoint 2 argues that the hype over MOOCs is subsiding due in part to weaker than expected evidence about their value. Because direct contact between students, instructors, and patients is essential to the dental curriculum, MOOCs have yet to demonstrate their usefulness in replacing more than a subset of didactic courses. Additionally, learning professionalism, a key component of health professions education, is best supported by mentorship that provides significant interpersonal interaction. In spite of the potential of early MOOC ideology, MOOCs in their current form require either further development or altered expectations to significantly impact dental education.

  7. Philosophical Hermeneutics and Critical Pedagogy in Environmental Education Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iared, Valéria Ghisloti; Di Tullio, Ariane; Payne, Phillip G.; Torres de Oliveira, Haydée

    2015-01-01

    The contributions and challenges of Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics and Freire's critical pedagogy to research and practice in environmental education are considered. We present the authors' main concepts and relate them to the principles of critical environmental education that have guided our work in Brazil. Although a raft of current…

  8. Social Justice and the Philosophical Foundations of Critical Peace Education: Exploring Nussbaum, Sen, and Freire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauwaert, Dale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to philosophically explore a "realization-focused" capabilities theory of social justice, as articulated by AmartyaSen and Martha Nussbaum, as foundational to a theory of critical peace education. Paulo Freire's philosophy of critical pedagogy has had and continues to have a profound influence on the theory and…

  9. Contesting the African Public Sphere: A Philosophical Re-imaging of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Crow is to situate them within broader analytical frameworks. By adopting the basic methods of philosophical inquiry – exposition, critical analysis and reconstruction – the issues are lifted from the domain of fiction to the space of systematized knowledge directed at presenting a comprehensive notion of the African public ...

  10. Philosophical instruments and toys: optical devices extending the art of seeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2004-03-01

    Philosophical instruments were designed to examine phenomena experimentally, rather than by naturalistic observation alone. In the nineteenth century, some instruments were called philosophical toys because they provided popular amusement as well as experimental assistance. They were applied widely in natural philosophy, but attention here is directed particularly to manipulations of perceived space and time and their influence on art. One of the earliest instruments, which had a profound impact on art as well as science, was the camera obscura. It assisted image formation in art before it was applied as an analogy to the eye at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Later philosophical toys were used to address visual perception of motion and depth. Development was initially driven by the need for stimulus control so that the methods of physics could be applied to the study of perceptual phenomena. The principal instruments were invented in the first half of the nineteenth century, and they consisted of simple contrivances that manipulated time and space in ways that had not previously been appreciated. They included thaumatropes, phenakistoscopes, stroboscopes, anorthoscopes, stereoscopes, tachistoscopes, and chronoscopes. Several of these philosophical toys proved to be phenomenally popular, particularly when combined with photography.

  11. Logic in 3D: Operating With Words in Philosophical Investigations 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this brief essay, I explain the peculiar actions of the shopkeeper described in Philosophical Investigations 1 (the shopkeeper has been given an order and has gone on to fill it). I also shed light on why and how Wittgenstein wants us to notice the peculiarity of the actions. Wittgenstein wants us to watch the shopkeeper so ...

  12. [Terhi Kiiskinen. Sigfrid Aronus Forsius : Astronomer and Philosopher of Nature] / Liivi Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aarma, Liivi, 1948-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Kiiskinen, Terhi. Sigfrid Aronus Forsius : Astronomer and Philosopher of Nature. Europäische Studien zur Ideen- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte / Europaen Studies in the History of Science and Ideas. Hrsg. von / edited by Georg Gimpi und Juha Manninen. Frankfurt am Main, 2007. Sigfrid Aronus Forsius on tuntuim Põhjamaade renesanssi aegne Rootsi kuningriigi teadlane

  13. The Philosopher and the Lecturer: John Dewey, Everett Dean Martin, and Reflective Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael; Harbour, Clifford P.

    2013-01-01

    Adult education scholars have not yet examined the connections between the philosopher, John Dewey, and the lecturer on adult education, Everett Dean Martin. These scholars generally portray Dewey as indifferent to their field. However, Dewey's correspondence with a New York newspaper editor in 1928, recommending Martin's The Meaning of…

  14. Straw Men and False Dichotomies: Overcoming Philosophical Confusion in Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    Constructivism has been widely considered the most influential perspective in science education research for some decades, and has been the basis of widespread pedagogic advice in many educational contexts. Yet it has been claimed in this "Journal" that the philosophical basis of constructivist thought in chemical education is confused, and…

  15. Belief in the Spirits of the Dead in Africa: A Philosophical Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... view that in this rapidly changing world, philosophy should inquire not only in to theoretical problems, but also into practical ones. Plato and Aristotle's theories of the soul being some of the most carefully discussed philosophical theories on immortality or lack of it, will provide the background of deliberation in this paper.

  16. Biomedicine or Holistic Medicine for Treating Mentally Ill Patients? A Philosophical and Economical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today we have two scientific medical traditions, two schools or treatment systems: holistic medicine and biomedicine. The two traditions are based on two very different philosophical positions: subjectivistic and objectivistic. The philosopher Buber taught us that you can say I-Thou or I-It, holding the other person as a subject or an object. These two fundamentally different attitudes seem to characterize the difference in world view and patient approach in the two schools, one coming from psychoanalysis and the old, holistic tradition of Hippocratic medicine. Holistic medicine during the last decade has developed its philosophical positions and is today an independent, medical system seemingly capable of curing mentally ill patients at the cost of a few thousand Euros with no side effects and with lasting value for the patient. The problem is that very few studies have tested the effect of holistic medicine on mentally ill patients. Another problem is that the effect of holistic medicine must be documented in a way that respects this school's philosophical integrity, allowing for subjective assessment of patient benefit and using the patient as his/her own control, as placebo control cannot be used in placebo-only treatment. As the existing data are strongly in favor of using holistic medicine, which seems to be safer, more efficient, and cheaper, it is recommended that clinical holistic medicine also be used as treatment for mental illness. More research and funding is needed to develop scientific holistic medicine.

  17. Biomedicine or holistic medicine for treating mentally ill patients? A philosophical and economical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2007-12-18

    Today we have two scientific medical traditions, two schools or treatment systems: holistic medicine and biomedicine. The two traditions are based on two very different philosophical positions: subjectivistic and objectivistic. The philosopher Buber taught us that you can say I-Thou or I-It, holding the other person as a subject or an object. These two fundamentally different attitudes seem to characterize the difference in world view and patient approach in the two schools, one coming from psychoanalysis and the old, holistic tradition of Hippocratic medicine. Holistic medicine during the last decade has developed its philosophical positions and is today an independent, medical system seemingly capable of curing mentally ill patients at the cost of a few thousand Euros with no side effects and with lasting value for the patient. The problem is that very few studies have tested the effect of holistic medicine on mentally ill patients. Another problem is that the effect of holistic medicine must be documented in a way that respects this school's philosophical integrity, allowing for subjective assessment of patient benefit and using the patient as his/her own control, as placebo control cannot be used in placebo-only treatment. As the existing data are strongly in favor of using holistic medicine, which seems to be safer, more efficient, and cheaper, it is recommended that clinical holistic medicine also be used as treatment for mental illness. More research and funding is needed to develop scientific holistic medicine.

  18. Should psychology be 'positive'? Letting the philosophers speak: Commentary on... Hope, optimism and delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Femi

    2014-04-01

    This is a brief commentary on the value of optimism in therapy. It draws on the philosophical writings of Schopenhauer and Aristotle. It suggests that the modern preoccupation with optimism may be as extreme as the bleak pessimistic outlook favoured by Schopenhauer.

  19. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  20. Philosophic-educational intelligence analysis as a subject of marketing management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Litvinenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of Education creates conceptual and methodological prerequisites for distribution to the field of marketing management in education as a portion of the general laws of development of scientific knowledge. Marketing management education facilitates the implementation of a sociologically principles, adapting to their needs sociocentrical priorities developed within the philosophy of education. The most significant factor in social development has been the ability of society to the creation and innovation through the use of their intellectual potential. The concept of intellectual capacity within the philosophical and educational research marketing management should be used primarily in view of its importance for personal development needs analysis in the context of the needs of social and economic development, that is a combination of the characteristics of carrier capacity (human and its socio­cultural environment. For marketing management education is most important composition of individual intellectual potential. The most heuristic value for philosophical and educational analysis of marketing management has its creative cognitive component that directs people to the practical application of knowledge and mental abilities. Intellectual potential can be seen within the philosophical and educational analysis of marketing management is quite close to the economic category of «human capital» and the philosophical category of «personal capacity».

  1. Incorporating the Philosophical Dimension in Technology Education: A Case Study from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Georgios; Papadourakis, George M.; Karasavoglou, Anastasios; Hope, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology constitute very important parameters in social evolution. The unprecedented rapidity of their development since the last century, in combination with the absence of a philosophical approach and the presence in some cases of criminal usage, poses a danger for humanity and for the planet. In contrast to the classical…

  2. Quantum theory and the flight from realism: philosophical responses to quantum mechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norris, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    ... chapters, Norris examines the premises of orthodox quantum theory, as formulated most influentially by Bohr and Heisenberg, and its impact on various later philosophical developments. These include various proposals advanced by W V Quine, Thomas Kuhn, Michael Dummett, Bas van Fraassen, and Hilary Putnam. In each case, Norris argues, these thi...

  3. Confucian "Creatio in Situ"--Philosophical Resource for a Theory of Creativity in Instrumental Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical essay, I propose a theory of creativity for instrumental music education inspired by Confucian "creatio in situ" ("situational creativity"). Through an analysis of three major texts from classical Confucianism--the "Analects," the "Zhongyong" ("Doctrine of the Mean"), and the…

  4. Transformative Education? A Philosophic-Augustinian Response to the 2010 Albertan Reform Initiatives in "Inspiring Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The Alberta Government's 2010 "Inspiring Education" reform proposals claim to be "transformational" in nature. This paper examines these proposals in light of ancient philosophy and various among the world's wisdom traditions. Drawing particularly on the philosophic reflections of St. Augustine in his "Confessions",…

  5. Philosophical Presentation in Ptolemy’s Harmonics: The Timaeus as a Model for Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tolsa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ptolemy’s self-representation as philosopher is conventional in the Almagest but not so in Harmonics, which emulates Plato’s Timaeus and makes philosophy the result  of understanding harmonics rather than the premise.

  6. Reply to Lebech or the ontological humility of the lawyer faced with philosophical consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, J C

    1998-10-01

    Replying to the criticisms of Lebech, the author tries, regarding the issue of embryo research, to draw a line between what could be an international legal approach and what is a philosophical ontological quest. It is then up to the reader to decide if, and how far, these two different approaches can be complementary.

  7. Greener through grey? Boosting sustainable development through a philosophical and social media analysis of ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carella, V.; Monachesi, P.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable development is challenged by the exponential growth of the older population, which threatens available resources. In this paper, we question current negative views in the ageing debate by considering the ageing process from a philosophical perspective. By focusing on frailty, a feature

  8. Johannes Kinker. A Kantian Philosopher Teaching Dutch Language, Literature and Eloquence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der M.J.

    2018-01-01

    The cosmopolitan citizen and Kantian philosopher Johannes Kinker, who had played a leading role in many institutions and societies of the northern Netherlands, held the newly founded Dutch chair in Liège for more than a decade. The present chapter addresses the questions why he accepted this post,

  9. Philosophical Approaches of Religious Jewish Science Teachers toward the Teaching of "Controversial" Topics in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, Jeff; Dayan, Aliza; Orion, Nir

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the problems that religious Jewish science teachers in Israeli high schools have in coping with science subjects (such as geological time) which conflict with their religious beliefs. We do this by characterizing the philosophical approaches within Judaism that such teachers have adopted for dealing with such controversy.…

  10. Human Capital, Education and the Promotion of Social Cooperation: A Philosophical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2009-01-01

    Although since the 1960s human capital theory has played a major role in guiding educational policy, philosophical issues that stem from this development have rarely been discussed. In this article, I critically examine how the idea that human capital should serve as a guide to educational policy making stands in relation to the role assigned to…

  11. A Christian philosopher's view of recent directions in the abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    From the standpoint of a Christian philosopher, heeding the teaching and exhortations of Pope John Paul II and previous popes, I examine three directions in which the recent philosophical debate has developed. In the last seven or eight years there has been 1) a renewed focus on the biological issue of when a human individual comes to be, 2) new arguments for the proposition that personhood is a characteristic acquired after birth, and 3) refinements of the early argument of Judith Thomson. Replying to these developments, I defend, on philosophical grounds, the pro-life position. I argue that a distinct, whole (though immature) human individual comes to be at conception, that he or she is a person, with full moral worth, from the moment he or she comes to be, and the mothers and fathers have a special responsibility to their children which entails (at least) that they ought not to choose to abort them. I conclude by briefly indicating, from the standpoint of Christian faith, why Christian philosophers should vigorously pursue this debate.

  12. Belief in the Spirits of the Dead in Africa: A Philosophical Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reginald M. J. Oduor

    This paper offers a philosophical interpretation of belief in the spirits of the dead in. Africa, with a view to identifying rational grounds for accepting or rejecting them. This endeavour is premised on the view that in this rapidly changing world, philosophy should inquire not only in to theoretical problems, but also into practical.

  13. The philosophical premises of the second King Report on corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the philosophical presuppositions of the second King Report on corporate governance for South Africa (hereafter referred to as the King II Report. Especially in the “Introduction and Background” section of the King II Report it is clear that the Report is premised upon a specific understanding of the present-day corporation and its moral obligations. The purpose of this article is to commit what Charles Taylor called “an act of retrieval” in which the philosophical premises of the King II Report will be unearthed and exposed. It will be argued that the view of the present-day corporation that underlies the King II Report could be related back to a number of debates on the notion of the comtemporary corporation and its moral responsibilities that have been played out since the 1970s. It will be indicated how these debates provide the philosophical foundations for the view of the comtemporary corporation and its moral obligations that is espoused in the King II Report. The claim made in the Report that the African world view and culture influenced the Report’s notion of corporate governance will also be critically reviewed. Finally it will be attempted to evaluate to what extent the recommendations of the King II Report live up to its own philosophical premises.

  14. The Humanistic Psychology-Positive Psychology Divide: Contrasts in Philosophical Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the fields of humanistic and positive psychology has been marked by continued tension and ambivalence. This tension can be traced to extensive differences in the philosophical grounding characterizing the two perspectives within psychology. These differences exist with respect to (a) ontology, including the ways in which…

  15. What Do Philosophers of Education Do? An Empirical Study of Philosophy of Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    What is philosophy of education? This question has been answered in as many ways as there are those who self-identify as philosophers of education. However, the questions our field asks and the research conducted to answer them often produce papers, essays, and manuscripts that we can read, evaluate, and ponder. This paper turns to those tangible…

  16. Between Religion and Science: Integrating Psychological and Philosophical Accounts of Explanatory Coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Christine H.; Visala, Aku

    2011-01-01

    Examining the relationship between religion and science has until recently been considered a philosophical exercise and, as a consequence, theories of how natural and supernatural explanations are related tend to be highly abstract and operate at the level of ideal rationality rather than in the psychological reality of actual believers. Although…

  17. Understanding the "Other": Rethinking Multiculturalism in South Korea through Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee; So, Kyunghee

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we interrogate the current state of multiculturalism and multicultural education in South Korea and offer a possible theoretical framework that is lacking in the field of multicultural education. We provide three principles of multicultural understanding grounded in Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics to inform multiculturalism in…

  18. Transformation of philosophical and educational resources in the context of a globalized and internationalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Nevmerzhitska

    2015-04-01

    Taking into account that the Ukrainian philosophy study period is poorly understood, poring over the source of modern philosophical thought in Ukraine, the author concludes that the life of the Ukrainian people most subordinated pursuit of beauty, which covers all spheres of Ukrainian man as in material and spiritual dimensions of life.

  19. Head and Heart: the Pauline Corpus and its Medical and Philosophical Backdrop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I examine what exactly is implied by (deutero-)Pauline references to the head as well as the heart in well-known statements from the Graeco-Roman background, i.e. the brain versus heart controversy as it arose and developed among medical scientists and philosophers. Two key passages

  20. The philosophical concept of “Ubuntu” as dialogic ethic and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The philosophical concept of “Ubuntu” as dialogic ethic and the transformation of political community in Africa. ... OGIRISI: a New Journal of African Studies ... The finding of this paper supports the thesis that universalism remain an ethical ideal on which the African state remain viable to trans-cultural or dialogic ethical ...