WorldWideScience

Sample records for single parents private

  1. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...

  2. Privatized Child Welfare Services: Foster Parents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Larry D.

    2001-01-01

    Foster parents were surveyed concerning their attitudes toward the privatization of family foster care services in Kansas. Respondents reported their current level of satisfaction, opinions about privatization, and their experiences with new community-based treatment teams. Responses indicated that satisfaction remained high, but also variances in…

  3. assessment of factors determining parents' preference for private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UMOINYANG

    This paper explored the underlying factors determining parents' choice of sending their children/wards to private secondary schools, using Cross River State rural communities as a case study. Sixty (60) private secondary institutions in the state were selected through stratified sampling technique. A total of 720 respondents ...

  4. Assessment of Factors Determining Parents' Preference for Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explored the underlying factors determining parents' choice of sending their children/wards to private secondary schools, using Cross River State rural communities as a case study. Sixty (60) private secondary institutions in the state were selected through stratified sampling technique. A total of 720 respondents ...

  5. Perceptions of Parent School Collaboration within Single Parent Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josafat, Jason Marc

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding the involvement levels of single parents in their child's education or what schools can do to support the collaborative involvement with single parents. This is important, because parent involvement is crucial for student success, and schools play an important part in garnering this role towards parent involvement; single…

  6. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  7. Quantum private comparison employing single-photon interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Xiao, Di; Huang, Wei; Jia, Heng-Yue; Song, Ting-Ting

    2017-07-01

    As a typical quantum cryptographic task between distrustful participants, quantum private comparison (QPC) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Here we propose two QPC protocols employing single-photon interference, a typical and interesting technology for quantum communications. Compared with the previous QPC protocols employing normal single states or entangled states, the proposed protocols achieve lower communication complexity utilizing the characteristics of single-photon interference. And we also proved the security of the proposed protocols in theory.

  8. Private Middle School Parents' Perspectives Regarding School-Located Immunization Programs (SLIPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Sheila R.; Acosta, Amy B.; Middleman, Amy B.

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of parents of private middle school students regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIPs) are unknown. Parents of private middle school students in a large, urban setting were surveyed "N" = 1,210) regarding their willingness to use SLIPs. Analyses included frequencies and chi-square analyses. Data…

  9. Prevalence for Private Tuition among Parents, Teachers and Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Machakos County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigwi, Lucy Wambui; Maithya, Redempta

    2016-01-01

    Private tuition refers to tutoring offered outside mainstream teaching. The study sought to establish the difference in prevalence for private tuition among parents, teachers and pupils in public primary schools in Machakos County. The study employed descriptive survey design. The target populations were all teachers, parents and pupils of public…

  10. Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Private Tuition regarding Educational Attainment of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Amer Atta; Shabnam Razzaq Khan; Shehla Sheikh; Fahmida Akbar

    2014-01-01

    This research work was focused on the “comparative study of parental involvement and private tuition regarding educational attainments of students at secondary school level”. A sample of 80 students of 10th class from ten different secondary schools was taken. To analyze the results t-test was used. In this comparison it was conducted that parental involvement turn out significant effect on student educational attainments as compared to private tuition. On the bases of results researcher has ...

  11. Training for Transracial Adoptive Parents by Public and Private Adoption Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, M. Elizabeth; Angaran, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    This study sought to determine aspects of training provided to transracial adoptive parents by public and private U.S. adoption agencies. Responses to a survey of a random sample of public and private agencies indicated that about half of the agencies that facilitate transracial adoption provide relevant training. Findings pose implications for…

  12. A Case Study of Private Middle School Principals' and Parents' Perceptions of Student Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David

    2013-01-01

    Student bullying is an ongoing educational, social, and public health phenomenon facing countless students, parents, and educators. Educators and parents are challenged with distinguishing student bullying from normal student conflict. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to compare private middle school principals' and middle…

  13. Causes of Private Tutoring in English: Perspectives of Saudi Secondary School Students and Their Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Ghazi N

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined and described the views of secondary school students and their parents on the causes of private tutoring in English. These views were obtained through two group interviews with the students and parents separately. Several causes were brought up during the two interviews. These causes included difficulty of the English language, weak teacher performance, the need to pass exams with high marks, lack of parents' follow-up of student school performance, social pressure,...

  14. Students Achievements in English at Jordanian Private and Public Schools and Parents Attitudes Towards Teaching Their Children at Private Ones: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, Amal; Hijazi, Dima

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing private and public schools in terms of students' achievement in English Language and parents' attitudes towards teaching their children in private schools. To achieve the aim of the study the researchers conducted a test to measure students' achievements in English language and they also distributed a questionnaire…

  15. Visible Pedagogic Work: Parenting, Private Tutoring and Educational Advantage in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprakash, Arathi; Proctor, Helen; Hu, Betty

    2016-01-01

    This article explores parents' use of private tutoring services for their primary school children in Sydney, Australia's largest city. Using Bernstein's theories of invisible and visible pedagogies, we look, through the eyes of a small group of middle-class Chinese-background interviewees, at the tensions between certain pedagogic forms associated…

  16. Perceptions of Parents on the Practice of Private Tuition in Public Learning Institutions in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebi, Robert B.; Maithya, Redempta

    2016-01-01

    The practice of private tuition outside normal class hours is a phenomenon which has prevailed in Kenyan basic learning institutions despite the repeated ban by the government. The purpose of the study was to establish parental perceptions on extra tuition in public schools in Kenya. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 40…

  17. 34 CFR 300.130 - Definition of parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of parentally-placed private school children with disabilities. 300.130 Section 300.130 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  18. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities. 300.131 Section 300.131 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 34 CFR 300.132 - Provision of services for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities-basic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... school children with disabilities-basic requirement. 300.132 Section 300.132 Education Regulations of the... Eligibility Children with Disabilities Enrolled by Their Parents in Private Schools § 300.132 Provision of services for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities—basic requirement. (a) General. To...

  20. Mental health among single and partnered parents in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Ae Kong

    Full Text Available This study compares the mental health of single parents relative to partnered parents and assesses the contribution of the social and demographic factors to this difference, examining the gender difference in it.We analyzed 12,024 single and partnered subjects, aged 30-59 years, living with children, aged 0-19 years, drawn from the 4th, 5th, and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES dataset in South Korea conducted from 2007-2013. Mental health was evaluated by self-reported questionnaires including depressive mood for recent two weeks, presence of suicidal ideation, and the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Covariates included age, physical illness, socioeconomic status (family income, recipient of national basic livelihood guarantees, educational level, house ownership, job, and residential area, family structure, and support (co-residence of another adult. Multiple logistic regression was carried out and the explained fractions of each covariate was calculated.Single parents had significantly poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with odds ratio (OR of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.56-2.63 for depressive symptoms, 1.69 (95% CI 1.27-2.25 for suicidal ideation, and 1.74 (95% CI 1.38-2.20 for any of the three mental health statuses (suspicious depression, suicidal ideation, and alcohol dependence after controlling for the covariates. The odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.50-3.93 and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.97-3.17 among both single fathers and mothers were higher than partnered parents. However, the odds of alcohol dependence were 3.6 times higher among single mothers than partnered mothers (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.81-7.08 and were 1.4 times greater among single fathers than partnered fathers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.81-2.25. Socio-economic status explained more than 50% (except for substance use disorders of the poorer mental health in

  1. Collaborative Research with Parents and Local Communities: Organizing Against Racism and Education Privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Lipman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses her collaborative research with parents and communities against neoliberal education policies in Chicago. The paper summarizes several projects that challenge racism and educational privatization: using social science data to challenge public school closings, collaboration with a community organization to tell the story of the effects of school closings and disinvestment on African American students and schools from their own perspective, and research for a city-wide coalition for an elected school governance board. The author uses these projects to illustrate multiple forms of activist scholarship and some of their complexities and contradictions.

  2. Effectiveness of Parental Skills Training on Worry, Anxiety and Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Single-Child and Multi-Child Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hajigholami Yazdi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Each family utilizes specific methods for personal and social education of their children. These methods that are called “Parenting style” are affected by various factors such as biological, cultural, social, political, and economic factors. The present study intends to investigate the effectiveness of parental skills training on worry, anxiety and self-efficacy beliefs of single-child and multi-child parents. Methods: In this experimental study, two private girls' school located in the city of Karaj, were randomly selected as the control and experimental groups. Parents of experimental group’s students (54 couples with a voluntary assignment participated in 8 training sessions. Data were obtained by General Self-efficacy Beliefs Questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ which were then analyzed by t-test and ANOVA. Results: Results showed that there was not any significant difference in the pretest between single-child and multi-child parents. Regarding control and experimental groups, a significant difference has been detected between the pretest and posttest between two groups. Multifactor ANOVA test results also showed that the effect of parental skills training is significant on fear, anxiety and self-efficacy. But the number of children does not have any significant effect on the fear, anxiety and self-efficacy. Conclusion: Findings emphasize the necessity and importance of parental skills training to facilitate children nurture, decrease stress and worry resulting from parenting responsibility.

  3. Supporting children after single-incident trauma: parents'views.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.; Boeije, H.R.; Jongmans, M.J.; Kleber, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To strengthen trauma-informed health care by exploring parents’ experiences of assisting their child after single-incident trauma (eg, violence, accidents, and sudden loss). Method. Semistructured interviews with parents (N = 33) of 25 exposed children (8-12 years). Results. Responsive

  4. Treating the Changing Single Parent Family: A Return to Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the concept of boundaries--drawing of emotional lines between family subsystems, and between "family" and the outside world--in assessment and intervention with single parent families. Argues that clear, flexible boundaries are needed for healthy family functioning; that coalitions, rigid or unclear boundaries, and triangulation…

  5. Immune overload: Parental attitudes toward combination and single antigen vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Ella; Bland, Tami

    2015-05-21

    Parental concerns have led to a recent decline in immunization coverage, resulting in outbreaks of diseases that were once under control in the US. As the CDC vaccination schedule continues to increase in complexity, the number of required injections per office visit increases as well. Some parents perceive that there is trauma associated with the administration of multiple injections, and research shows that having multiple vaccines due in a single visit is associated with delays and lower immunization rates. Combination vaccines make vaccination more efficient by incorporating the antigens of several different diseases into a single injection, but many parents worry that they may overload the child's developing immune system and leave him or her susceptible to secondary infections. This literature review synthesizes current evidence regarding the parental fear of vaccine-induced immune system overload and the fear of vaccine-associated trauma, in an attempt to understand the scope and nature of these fears. Despite the wealth of knowledge about each of these fears individually, it is still unknown which is of greater concern and how this affects parental decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Single parent households and increased child asthma morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrief, Terri; Beck, Andrew F; Simmons, Jeffrey M; Huang, Bin; Kahn, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    To characterize whether single parent households are associated with pediatric asthma-related repeat healthcare utilization and to examine family-level psychosocial variables that may explain this relationship. We analyzed a prospective cohort of 526 children aged 1-16 years hospitalized for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing whose caregivers self-reported their marital status. Those reporting being "single" were considered the at-risk category. The outcome was repeat asthma-related utilization (emergency room (ER) revisit or hospital readmission) within 12 months. We assessed, a priori, four psychosocial variables (household income, caregiver risk of psychological distress, ratio of in-home children to adults, and regular attendance at childcare or a secondary home). Among all children enrolled in the cohort, 40% returned to the ER or hospital for asthma within 12 months. Of all caregivers, 59% self-identified as single. Single status was significantly associated with each psychosocial variable. Children in households with lower incomes and higher ratios of children to adults were both more likely to return to the ER or hospital than children with higher incomes and lower ratios, respectively (each p asthma from single parent households were more likely to have asthma-related reutilization within 12 months than children from homes with married parents. This was driven, in large part, by underlying differences in household income.

  7. Quantum private comparison with d-level single-particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chao-Hua; Guo, Gong-De; Lin, Song

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol with d-level single-particle states is proposed. In the protocol, a semi-honest third party is introduced to help two participants compare the size relationship of their secrets without revealing them to any other people. It is shown that the protocol is secure in theory. Moreover, the security of the protocol in real circumstance is also discussed. (paper)

  8. Effects of single-family rooms on nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction in neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Mirka; Lehtonen, Liisa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Axelin, Anna

    Single-family rooms in neonatal intensive care unit can provide longer interaction between family and staff. On the other hand, separation in private rooms has been shown detrimental to child development if parents are not present. To examine the effects of single-family rooms on nurse-family, nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction time in neonatal intensive care unit. A quantitative, comparative, observational study was conducted before and after a move to a neonatal intensive care unit with single-family rooms. A total of 194 observation hours were conducted before the move and 194h after the move. The differences were analyzed using a hierarchical linear mixed model. Nurses working in one neonatal intensive care unit were recruited to study. The duration and number of nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction episodes were recorded. The nurse-family and the nurse-parent interaction were longer in the unit with single-family rooms compared with the unit before the move (mean 261 vs. 138min per shift, pintensive care unit with single-family rooms supported an increase in nurse-parent interaction time. Importantly, nurse-infant interaction time did not decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Need to Change Army Policies Toward Single Parents and Dual Military Couples With Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    ... and to best manage our single parent service members and dual-military couples. There is a need to address the Army regulations that are ambiguous and contradictory toward enlisting and retaining single parents...

  10. The Circle Of Security Parenting and parental conflict: a single case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara ePazzagli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Circle of Security Parenting (COS-P is an early attachment based intervention that can be used with groups, dyads, and individuals. Created in the USA and now used in many countries, COS-P is a visually based approach that demonstrates its central principles through videos of parent/child interactions. The core purpose of the COS-P is to provide an opportunity for caregivers to reflect on their child’s needs and on the challenges each parent faces in meeting those needs. Even though there is a wide range of clinical settings in which child/parent attachment is an important component of assessment there is limited empirical data on when and how attachment based interventions are appropriate for specific clinical profiles and contexts. The aim of this paper is to present a clinical application of COS-P in order to explore and reflect on some specific therapeutic tasks where it works and on some clinical indicators and contexts appropriate for its application. A single case study of a father, M. (43 yrs. old in conflict for the custody of his 5yrs old daughter is reported. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP, the Parenting Stress Index, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Parental Alliance Measure, were administered pre- and post-intervention. The clinical significance analysis method revealed that numerous changes occurred in the father. The AAP showed improvements in the level of agency of self. M. made gains in his capacity to use internal resources and to increase his agency of self. M. was classified as recovered in his perception of the child’s functioning and as improved in his parenting stress and parenting alliance with the mother. Considerations on specific contexts and clinical indicators for the application of COS-P are proposed.

  11. How Do Parents Choose Schools, and What Schools Do They Choose? A Literature Review of Private School Choice Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes Erickson, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    I review the literature on how parents select schools when participating in private choice programs in the United States. I address two sub-questions. First, do parents have the incentives and motivation needed to participate in a schooling market? Second, when selecting a school, what school characteristics do parents consider? I find three…

  12. Single Parenting and Child Behavior Problems in Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P; Preston, Kathleen S J; Franke, Todd M

    2010-03-01

    Two waves of data from a sample of 89 poor and near-poor single black mothers and their preschool children were used to study the influences of parenting stress, physical discipline practices, and nonresident fathers' relations with their children on behavior problems in kindergarten. The results indicate that higher levels of parent stress, more frequent spanking, and less frequent father-child contact at time 1 were associated with increased teacher-reported behavior problems at time 2. In addition, more frequent contact between nonresident biological fathers and their children moderated the negative effect of harsh discipline by mothers on subsequent child behavior problems. Specifically, when contact with the father was low, maternal spanking resulted in elevated levels of behavior problems; with average contact, this negative effect of spanking was muted; and with high contact, spanking was not associated with increased behavior problems in kindergarten. The implications of these findings for future research and policy are discussed.

  13. Robust QKD-based private database queries based on alternative sequences of single-qubit measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YuGuang; Liu, ZhiChao; Chen, XiuBo; Zhou, YiHua; Shi, WeiMin

    2017-12-01

    Quantum channel noise may cause the user to obtain a wrong answer and thus misunderstand the database holder for existing QKD-based quantum private query (QPQ) protocols. In addition, an outside attacker may conceal his attack by exploiting the channel noise. We propose a new, robust QPQ protocol based on four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states. In contrast to existing QPQ protocols against channel noise, only an alternative fixed sequence of single-qubit measurements is needed by the user (Alice) to measure the received DF states. This property makes it easy to implement the proposed protocol by exploiting current technologies. Moreover, to retain the advantage of flexible database queries, we reconstruct Alice's measurement operators so that Alice needs only conditioned sequences of single-qubit measurements.

  14. 45 CFR 261.35 - Are there any special work provisions for single custodial parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... custodial parents? 261.35 Section 261.35 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...? § 261.35 Are there any special work provisions for single custodial parents? Yes. A single custodial parent or caretaker relative with a child under age six will count as engaged in work if he or she...

  15. The Mental Health Status of Single-Parent Community College Students in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Divya P; Lee, Christine; Trieu, Sang Leng

    2016-01-01

    Single-parenting students face unique challenges that may adversely affect their mental health, which have not been explored in community college settings. The authors conducted secondary analysis of Spring 2013 data from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment to examine difficulties facing single-parent community college students and the association between single parenting and negative mental health (depression, self-injury, suicide attempt). Participants were 6,832 California community college students, of whom 309 were single parents. Demographic and mental health data were characterized using univariate descriptive analyses. Bivariate analyses determined whether single parents differed from other students regarding negative mental health or traumatic/difficult events. Finances, family, and relationship difficulties disproportionally affected single parents, who reported nearly twice as many suicide attempts as their counterparts (5.3% vs. 2.7%; p students face a higher prevalence of mental health stressors than other community college students.

  16. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i) for...

  17. [Comparison of the factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to compare factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families. The participants were 692 children aged 11 to 13 yr (388 in two parent families and 304 in single parent families) recruited from 20 community agencies and 5 elementary schools in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul City, South Korea. Data were collected from May to July, 2007 using a survey questionnaire containing items on self-esteem, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, family hardiness, parent-child communication and social support. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 program and factors affecting children's self-esteem were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression. Scores for the study variables were significantly different between the two groups. The factors influencing children's self-esteem were also different according to family type. For two parent families, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.505, pself-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.444, pself-esteem.

  18. Dating and sexual behavior among single parents of young children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R; Crosier, Benjamin S; Fisher, Helen E

    2015-01-01

    Theory and research on partnered parents suggests trade-offs between parenting and sexuality, with those trade-offs most pronounced among mothers of young children. However, little research has focused on how a growing demographic of single parents negotiates dating and sexual activity. The current study drew upon a 2012 nationally representative sample of 5,481 single Americans 21 years of age and older, of whom 4.3% were parents of a child age five or younger. Dependent variables were sexual thoughts, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners in the past year, dates during the previous three months, and whether one was actively seeking a relationship partner. Covariates included parental age, sex/gender, sexual orientation, education, and income. Using the entire sample of singles, we found no main effects of number (0, 1, 2+) of children aged five years and younger or number of children aged two years and younger on dating and sexual behavior variables. Next, using analyses restricted to single parents (n = 2,121), we found that single parents with a child aged five years or younger, adjusting for covariates, reported greater frequency of sexual activity and first dates but no differences in other outcomes compared with single parents of older children.

  19. Smoke-free homes among single-parent families: Differences associated with parental race/ethnicity and smoking behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Mai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed differences in the rates of smoke-free homes among single-parent households with regard to parental race/ethnicity and smoking status. We identified two cohorts representative of the U.S. single-parent households with underage children (children under the age of 18 based on the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey: 2010–11 (n = 6474 and 2014–15 (n = 6114. The interviews were conducted by phone and in-person. Statistical analysis was performed in 2017. The overall rate of smoke-free homes was 82% in 2010–11 and 86% in 2014–15. The rate of a smoke-free home was highest for Non-Hispanic (NH Asian (94% and Hispanic (92% parents and lowest for NH Multiracial (77% in 2010–11 and 82% in 2014–15 in both survey periods. However, 2014–15 model-based comparisons relative to NH Whites indicated only one significant difference: the rate was lower for NH Blacks (OR = 0.46, 99% CI = 0.32:0.66. The smoke-free homes were least prevalent among daily smokers, followed by occasional smokers, followed by former smokers, and most prevalent among never smokers in each survey period. The 2010–11 and 2014–15 rates were 45% and 54% for daily, 64% and 72% for occasional, 89% and 91% for former, and 93% and 94% for never smokers. The gap in the rates of smoke-free homes for diverse parental racial/ethnic groups observed in 2010–11 decreased by 2014–15. While smoke-free homes became more prevalent in 2014–15, the rates remain drastically different among families with different parental smoking behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home remains common among single-parent households where the parent smokes.

  20. Privatization and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  1. Relationship among the Parenting Styles and the Social Competence and Prosocial Behaviors of the Children Who are Attending to State and Private Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Fatma Basak; Gure, Aysen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of social competence and prosocial behaviors of the boys and girls who are attending to private or state preschools with the parenting styles of mothers' perception. Participants of the research were 344 children's (ranging from 35 and 75 months of age) teachers and mothers.…

  2. [Being raised by lesbian parents or in a single-parent family is no risk factor for problem behavior, however being raised as an adopted child is].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C

    1997-03-01

    Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings.

  3. Adolescents’ Self-Esteem in Single and Two-Parent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents’ self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (...

  4. Single Custodial Fathers' Involvement and Parenting: Implications for Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Scott, Mindy E.; Lilja, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 3,977 youths from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), this study examines the unique characteristics of single-custodial-father families with adolescents and the effects of single fathers' involvement and parenting on outcomes in emerging adulthood. Findings suggest that single-custodial-father families are…

  5. Single session email consultation for parents : An evaluation of its effect on empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof.dr. Jo Hermanns; prof.dr. Ruben Fukkink; dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of single session email consultation on empowerment of parents. Practitioners in a control group (N = 19) received no training; practitioners in an experimental group (N = 21) were trained to use empowerment oriented techniques in online consultation. Parental

  6. Single Session Email Consultation for Parents: An Evaluation of Its Effect on Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwboer, Christa C.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of single session email consultation (SSEC) on empowerment of parents. Practitioners in a control group (n = 19) received no training and practitioners in an experimental group (n = 21) were trained to use empowerment-oriented techniques in online consultation. Parental empowerment was measured (n = 96) through a…

  7. The Need to Change Army Policies Toward Single Parents and Dual Military Couples With Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the key challenges with current Army personnel policies and to provide recommendations that would reduce the impact of single parents on Army unit readiness...

  8. Caregiving, single parents and cumulative stresses when caring for a child with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, L; Rosenberg-Yunger, Z R S; Dix, D; Klaassen, R J; Sung, L; Cairney, J; Klassen, A F

    2014-03-01

    Single parents whose children have cancer are a marginalized group who report less family centred care, and therefore, less quality cancer care for their children. As such, the aims of this study were to explore how single parents of children with cancer describe their caregiving experiences and to understand their contextual life stressors. A constructivist grounded theory method was used. Qualitative interviews with 29 single parents of children with cancer who were at least 6 months post-diagnosis were recruited between November 2009 and April 2011 from four hospitals across Canada. Line-by-line coding was used to establish codes and themes and constant comparison was used to establish relationships among emerging codes and conceptual themes. The first set of findings report on caregiving duties including: emotional tasks, informational tasks and physical tasks. The second set of findings report on the contextual picture of parent's lives including their living conditions, their physical and mental health and their family histories of disruption, trauma and disease. Single parents caring for children with cancer were found to experience several cumulative stressors in addition to the current strain of caring for a child with cancer. The synergy of these cumulative stresses with the added strain of caregiving for a child with cancer may have long-term health and financial implications for parents. Broad-based policy interventions should focus on relieving the chronic strains associated with being a single parent of a child with cancer. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Adolescents' self-esteem in single and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme

    2014-04-01

    Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents' self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (2001) perceived parenting styles questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 18. To assess the relationship between participants' self-esteem and parenting styles and dimensions, Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test was used to adjust the effect of potential confounder variables. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. From a total of 370 questionnaires, 356 questionnaires were completed. The mean±SD of the participants' self-esteem score was 38.49±6.55. Mean±SD of self-esteem score among the two-parent and single-parent students was 39.06±6.36 and 37.42±7.28, respectively (P=0.034). Dominant parenting style in both families was authoritative style. There were significant associations between the respondents' self-esteem and their perceived parenting styles, after matching sex, family income, level of education, and parents job (Pself-esteem. Therefore, considering the relationship between child-rearing style and adolescent self-esteem, assessing other relating factors with adolescent self-esteem especially in single-parent family, such as father absence stigma, is suggested.

  10. Adolescents’ Self-Esteem in Single and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents’ self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (2001) perceived parenting styles questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 18. To assess the relationship between participants’ self-esteem and parenting styles and dimensions, Mantel–Haenszel Chi-square test was used to adjust the effect of potential confounder variables. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: From a total of 370 questionnaires, 356 questionnaires were completed. The mean±SD of the participants’ self-esteem score was 38.49±6.55. Mean±SD of self-esteem score among the two-parent and single-parent students was 39.06±6.36 and 37.42±7.28, respectively (P=0.034). Dominant parenting style in both families was authoritative style. There were significant associations between the respondents’ self-esteem and their perceived parenting styles, after matching sex, family income, level of education, and parents job (Pself-esteem. Therefore, considering the relationship between child-rearing style and adolescent self-esteem, assessing other relating factors with adolescent self-esteem especially in single-parent family, such as father absence stigma, is suggested. PMID:25349847

  11. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the... secondary school settings, including area vocational education schools, and community-based organizations... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced...

  12. Single-parent households and children's educational achievement: A state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R; Patterson, Sarah; Beattie, Brett

    2015-09-01

    Although many studies have examined associations between family structure and children's educational achievement at the individual level, few studies have considered how the increase in single-parent households may have affected children's educational achievement at the population level. We examined changes in the percentage of children living with single parents between 1990 and 2011 and state mathematics and reading scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Regression models with state and year fixed effects revealed that changes in the percentage of children living with single parents were not associated with test scores. Increases in maternal education, however, were associated with improvements in children's test scores during this period. These results do not support the notion that increases in single parenthood have had serious consequences for U.S. children's school achievement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  14. Analisis Pengaruh Jumlah Tanggungan Keluarga, Umur, Pendidikan Dan Status Pekerjaan Terhadap Pendapatan Keluarga Wanita Single Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabrina Umi Rahayu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Women have significant roles in development, such as women as human resources in development, women as a subject in development, and women as a family builder. This study focused on how women’s role as a family builder in a single parent status. The variables used in this study are number of dependents, age, education, and employment status to be analyzed its impact on income of single parent women. This research took a place in Sesetan Village, South Denpasar with the number of samples taken were 84 samples with the purposive sampling method. The data was collected by questionnaires and interviews. Multiple linear regression analysis with quantitative and qualitative independent variables was used as the analysis technique. Based on the analysis result had found that variables of number of dependents, age, education, and employment status had a positive impact as a partial to the income of single parent women. The government’s efforts for all the kinds of women coaching are important to be developed, with the aim to the community prosperity especially single parent women who have heavier burden of life. The attention of education, health, and economy is necessary to improved to ease the burden for the families of the single parent women.

  15. The Individual Limited Liability Company in the Brazilian Legal System and Portuguese Experience of Single Shareholder Private Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Duarte Vasques

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this essay is to analyze aspects of individual limited liability company in the Brazilian legal system, which raises the issue of the requirement of minimum capital contribution to the company’s constitution. Therefore, we seek to expose initially the historical responsibility of the individual entrepreneur, and then the current context of Portuguese single shareholder private companies. After these considerations, we focus on addressing the situation of the individual entrepreneur in Brazil and the creation of a new species of corporation that guarantees the limitation of liability to the individual entrepreneur in a manner similar to the Portuguese experience.

  16. Relationships between psychosocial factors and abusive parenting attitudes in low-income single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, Melanie

    2002-01-01

    Linkages among family violence, maternal mental health, and parenting attitudes are not clearly understood. To investigate the relationships of abuse (childhood and/or partner), everyday stressors, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anger with abusive parenting attitudes. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in interviews with 53 low-income, single mothers from wave two of a 3-wave study. A conceptual framework and bivariate correlations guided a series of multiple regressions to identify the best predictors for each variable. A high prevalence of abuse, depressive symptoms, and abusive parenting attitudes was found. Few women had ever received mental health treatment. Abuse (partner and childhood physical) predicted higher everyday stressors which in turn predicted lower self-esteem. Childhood abuse and lower self-esteem predicted more depressive symptoms. More depressive symptoms were related to higher levels of state anger. More everyday stressors and more depressive symptoms predicted higher levels of trait anger. Higher levels of anger expression were associated with higher everyday stressors and lower self-esteem. The presence of partner abuse best predicted higher levels of overall abusive parenting attitudes and more parent-child role reversal. Less parental empathy was associated with higher levels of state anger. This study partially explains the relationships of maternal abuse history and mental health status with parenting attitudes. Other predictors of parenting attitudes remain to be identified. The findings underscore the need for healthcare providers to consider the mental health status and abuse histories of low-income, single mothers. The potential disturbance in the parenting process of single mothers in abusive relationships warrants further investigation.

  17. Social Aspects Regarding the Single-Parent Families Vulnerability - The Case Of Arad County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marţian Iovan

    2016-07-01

    single-parent families must rely on the complete knowledge of this social phenomenon, with the need to establish databases and map the dispersion of single-parent families within administrative-territorial units. The decrease in the number of families with a high social risk over time is the result of correlated and harmonized public policies, aimed at fighting poverty, discrimination, unemployment, lack of access to education, while ensuring the general background for economic development and prosperity. The study is determined by the fact that many times the parents and the children of single parent families find themselves in the situation of not being able to make ends meet, the lack of finances, education and proper housing making it impossible for them to live a decent life. By identifying, through specific scientific methods such as document analysis, interviews, case studies, the particular types of problems facing single parent families, we consider we will succeed in offering a strong basis to motivate decision makers to establish additional social protection measures that will contribute to the reduction of the causes that maintain this social category among vulnerable groups.

  18. Parent dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated with child behaviors and weight status among private school children in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Greene-Cramer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Family can be an important socializing agent that strongly influences child and adolescent behavior. While studies have found associations between parent modeling of healthy behaviors and these behaviors in children in the US and other western countries, there is a dearth of research examining these associations among low and middle-income countries like India. This study examines the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors and child behaviors and weight status in Delhi, India. Methods The study was cross-sectional by design. The target population was comprised of a convenience sample of 6th and 8th grade children enrolled at 6 private schools in Delhi, India and their parents. A total of 551 child-parent dyads were used in analysis. Measures included parent and child BMI; physical activity and sedentary behavior; and dietary intake, such as weekly breakfast consumption, daily fruit and vegetable (FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily energy-dense (ED food consumption, daily sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to test for the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors (independent variables and child dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors (dependent variables while controlling for parent and child demographics. Results Significant, positive associations were observed between all parent and child dietary behaviors (weekly breakfast consumption, daily FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily ED food consumption, daily SSB consumption after adjusting for child sex and grade, parent sex, and parent weight status (p<0.05, all. Parent moderate/vigorous physical activity was positively associated with child moderate/vigorous physical activity (p=0.000, however there was no significant association between parent and child light physical activity levels (p=0.310. Parent

  19. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Whitley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis. Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents’ physical and emotional capacities.

  20. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis). Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents' physical and emotional capacities. PMID:26448744

  1. Hubungan Work-Family Conflict Dengan Continuance Commitment Pada Wanita Yang Berperan Sebagai Single Parent

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Selvia Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Being single parent for women will provide a variety of issues. The main problemis related tothe economic problems. To overcome the problems occurred woman who acts as a single parent, they must work and survive in the organization where she worked. Commitment to remain in the work referred to as continuance commitment. The decision to work and take care of the family can cause conflicts are referred to work-family conflict. This study was conducted to see the relationship between work-fa...

  2. Single parent status and children's objectively measured level of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhammer, John; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian; Lund-Kristensen, Peter; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo

    Single-parent family status has been investigated as a possible psychosocial determinant of children's level of physical activity (PA)-although with mixed and inconclusive results. Prevailing evidence of the importance of two-parent family status as a resource for children's PA is based on a mix of subjective and objective measurements of PA. Objectives: To investigate if the level of PA among children living with a single parent was lower compared to children living with two parents by means of a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies. We restricted our analysis to studies with objective measurements of PA. Data sources: The databases, Social Science Citation Index, PsycINFO, PubMed, and EBSCO were searched (1987-2013). Study eligibility criteria: Observational studies comparing objectively measured PA between single-parent children and children from two-parent families. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: We used guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions and a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale overall to assess the quality of the included studies. We refrained from calculation of summary scores. Twelve studies met the following inclusion criteria of which six were unpublished: (a) child age (6-18 years) and (b) objectively measured level of PA. Meta-analysis revealed pooled estimates of -0.01 for boys (95 % CI -0.04-0.03, p  = 0.77, I 2  = 6.5 %, p  = 0.38) and 0.01 for girls (95 % CI -0.03-0.04, p  = 0.62, I 2  = 21.0 %, p  = 0.24), respectively. Estimates show no differences in objectively measured physical activity between children living in single-parent families compared to children living with two parents. Analyses investigating seven potential moderators did not yield any statistical significant effect size estimates. No evidence of heterogeneity between studies was observed. Limitations: Retrieved articles were assessed by several of the authors. Blinding of the

  3. Comparison of Parenting Style in Single Child and Multiple Children Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Alidosti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Family is the first and the most important structure in human civilization in which social lifestyles, mutual understanding, and compatibility is learned. Studies have shown that parenting style, is one the most important and fundamental factors in personality development. The purpose of this study was comparison of parenting style in single child and multiple children families. Materials and Methods: This study, in total, 152 mothers from Andimeshk city, Iran, were selected by random sampling. Data were collected from a health-care center was chosen randomly, mothers who had 5-7 years old children were enrolled in this study. The data collecting tool was the questionnaire which investigates permissive, authoritative, and authoritarian parenting styles in parents. After data entry in SPSS software, the collected data were analyzed by ANOVA, independent t-test, and Pearson correlation test. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32.71 ± 5.39 years old participated in this study. 69 mothers (45.4% had one child, 53 (34.9% had 2 children, and 30 mothers (19.7% had 3 and more children. The mean score of permissive parenting style was 19.97 ± 5.13 in single child families; the mean score of authoritative (19.56 ± 4.70 and authoritarian parenting style (34.50 ± 2.81 that difference was significantly (P < 0.050. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that having more children would make parents more logical and paves the way for upbringing children. Therefore, it is recommended to plan some educational programs about this issue for parents.

  4. The diurnal salivary cortisol pattern of adolescents from families with single, ill and healthy parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Adolescents of single and/or chronically ill parents (target groups) reportedly have elevated psychological stress. However, their salivary cortisol pattern as part of the physiological stress system has not been compared to controls. The aim of this study is to examine differential

  5. The diurnal salivary cortisol pattern of adolescents from families with single, ill and healthy parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, Dominik S.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents of single and/or chronically ill parents (target groups) reportedly have elevated psychological stress. However, their salivary cortisol pattern as part of the physiological stress system has not been compared to controls. The aim of this study is to examine differential outcomes in the

  6. Low-Income, Single-Parent Francophone Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, Julie; Gaudet, Jeanne d'Arc; Godin, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological study focused on single-parent, low-income francophone mothers' relationships with the educational and cultural achievement of their children attending French-speaking schools in Anglo-dominant settings in New Brunswick (Canada). We conducted individual (N = 8) semi-structured interviews to solicit information about the…

  7. Testing the Efficacy of a Scholarship Program for Single Parent, Post-Freshmen, Full Time Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Kaka, Sarah J.; Tygret, Jennifer A.; Cathcart, Katy

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of a scholarship program designed to assist single parent, post-freshmen, full time undergraduate students and predictors of success among a sample of said students, where success is defined as progress toward completion, academic achievement, and degree completion. Results of fixed effects regression and…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Black Adoptions: Single Parent Transracial, and Traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    1986-01-01

    This longitudinal study of Black children reared in single-parent, transracial, and traditional adoptive homes reveals that most children grow well in these homes. Interest at this reporting is chiefly focused on the transracially adopted children because their pattern of racial identity development differs from that of children in Black homes.…

  9. Are the Needs of Single Parents Serving in the Air Force Being Met?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha E. Blanchard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The military has taken extraordinary steps in establishing programs to support not only the member serving but their families as well. This article will examine military policy as it impacts single parents serving in the Air Force, highlighting existing programs, and calling for more research on this valuable population.

  10. URGENSI KELOMPOK SADAR HUKUM BAGI WANITA SINGLE PARENT; PENGALAMAN PENGABDIAN MASYARAKAT DI PESISIR SELATAN SUMATERA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiswarni Tiswarni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The establishing of a group that has good awareness on law for single parent women in Batu Hampa, aims at facilitating knowledge and understanding on marriage problem and resolution from law perspective, both on divorce legalization and right-obligation as a single parent. An illegal divorce will take effect of her personal and social life such as citizen status or for a remarried action. The single parent  women  were  provided  with  a  law  counseling  in  order  to prepare them as a personal that has law awareness. They were given a partner community before the counseling. Partner group supported them to establish the group which has good law awareness. In case of a family which is about to have divorce, the groups will show their care and is hoped to give the better solution. They should be able to elaborate the knowledge and are able to help the others who have the same problem.  Keywords: single parent, aware of law group, community partnersCopyright © 2014 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v4i2.99

  11. Gender differences in the mental health of single parents: New Zealand evidence from a household panel survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Sunny; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Carter, Kristie; Signal, Louise

    2014-05-01

    In many countries single parents report poorer mental health than partnered parents. This study investigates whether there are gender differences in the mental health of single parents in New Zealand (and whether any gender difference varies with that among partnered parents), and examines key social and demographic mediators that may account for this difference. We used data on 905 single parents and 4,860 partnered parents from a New Zealand household panel survey that included the Kessler-10 measure of psychological distress. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate both interactions of gender and parental status, and confounding or mediation by other covariates. High/very high levels of psychological distress were reported by 15.7 % of single mothers and 9.1 % of single fathers, and 6.1 % of partnered mothers and 4.1 % of partnered fathers. In an Ordinary Least Squares regression of continuous K10 scores on gender, parental status and the interaction of both (plus adjustment for ethnicity, number of children and age), female single parents had a 1.46 higher K10 score than male single parents (95 % CI 0.48-2.44; 1.46). This difference was 0.98 (95 % CI -0.04 to 1.99) points greater than the gender difference among partnered parents. After controlling for further confounding or mediating covariates (educational level, labour force status and socioeconomic deprivation) both the gender difference among single parents (0.38, -0.56 to 1.31) and the interaction of gender and parental status (0.28 greater gender difference among single parents, -0.69 to 1.65) greatly reduced in magnitude and became non-significant, mainly due to adjustment for individual socioeconomic deprivation. The poorer mental health of single parents remains an important epidemiological phenomenon. Although research has produced mixed findings of the nature of gender differences in the mental health of single parents, our research adds to the increasing evidence that it is single

  12. What's in Your Portfolio? How Parents Rank Traditional Public, Private, and Charter Schools in Post-Katrina New Orleans' Citywide System of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincove, Jane A.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Imbrogno, Jason P.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of schools preferred by parents in New Orleans, Louisiana, where a "portfolio" of school choices is available. This tests the conditions under which school choice induces healthy competition between public and private schools through the threat of student exit. Using unique data from parent applications to…

  13. Housing Resources and Programs for Single Student Parents at Community and Technical Colleges. Fact Sheet #C396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Abby; Otto, Jessica; Gunn-Wright, Rhiana

    2012-01-01

    Parents with dependent children now make up almost one in four students pursuing higher education in the United States (Miller, Gault, and Thorman 2011). Single parents face particular challenges pursuing higher education, including securing safe and affordable housing. Single mothers often must spend over half of their income on housing expenses,…

  14. Government Should Subsidize, Not Tax, Marriage: Social Policies Have Influenced the Rate of Growth in Single-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Based upon reflections from the Moynihan report of 1965, this author notes that the root causes of the growth in single-parent families have yet to be well identified, making it difficult to figure out where to go next. However, from 1965 onward, social policies have influenced the rate of growth in single-parent families. What is needed is a…

  15. A prospective 10-year study of metal ceramic single crowns and fixed dental prosthesis retainers in private practice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitemeier, Bernd; Hänsel, Kristina; Kastner, Christian; Weber, Anke; Walter, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    Metal ceramic restorations are widely used in prosthodontics, but long-term data on their clinical performance in private practice settings based on prospective trials are sparse. This clinical trial was designed to provide realistic long-term survival rates for different outcomes related to tooth loss, crown loss, and metal ceramic defect. Ninety-five participants were provided with 190 noble metal ceramic single crowns and 138 participants with 276 fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns on vital posterior teeth. Follow-up examinations were scheduled 2 weeks after insertion, annually up to 8 years, and after 10 years. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, Mantel-Cox logrank tests, and Cox regression analyses were conducted. Because of variations in the time of the last examinations, the maximum observation period was 12.1 years. For the primary outcome 'loss of crown or tooth', the Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 94.3% ±1.8% (standard error) at 8.0 years (last outcome event) for single crowns and 94.4% ±1.5% at 11.0 years for fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns. The difference between the survival functions was not significant (P>.05). For the secondary outcome 'metal ceramic defect', the survival rate was 88.8% ±3.2% at 11.0 years for single crowns and 81.7% ±3.5% at 11.0 years for fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns. In Cox regression models, the only significant covariates for the outcome event 'metal ceramic defect' were bruxism in the medical history (single crowns) and signs and symptoms of bruxism (fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns) with hazard ratios of 3.065 (95% CI 1.063 - 8.832) and 2.554 (95% CI 1.307 - 4.992). Metal ceramic crowns provided in private practice settings show good longevity. Bruxism appears to indicate a risk for metal ceramic defects. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Motivational readiness of children to school in nuclear and single parent families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Ostrovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is a comparison of psychological readiness of the child to go to school in nuclear and single parent families. To obtain the objectives of the paper the following methods were used: 1 methods “Two schools” by L.A Venger to identify the level of formation of internal position of the student; 2 the method “Motivational research studies in older preschoolers” by M.R. Ginsburg; 3 method “Pattern” by L.I. Tsehanskaya to determine the degree of development of skills training activities; 4 method “Graphic dictation” by D. El’konin to study the ability to follow adult instructions. The investigated group consisted of 40 students from first grade secondary school - 20 students from nuclear families (12 girls and 8 boys and 20 students from single parent families (9 girls and 11 boys. As a result of qualitative, comparative and correlation analysis it was shown that readiness of children to go to school susbstantially depends on completness of their families. The children from families have a higher level of skill training and internal position than children from single parent families. This occurs because both parents pay more attention to the children in the forming of a willingness to learn in school. The studies have shown that in the group of children from nuclear families dominate the highest level of development of skills training activities, increased formation of internal positions and childrens social motivation. These indicators are the hallmarks of readiness to learn at school. Also, some recommendations to teachers are provided as for increase of motivation to learn in children from single parent families.

  17. Parental reports of behavioural outcome among paediatric leukaemia survivors in Malaysia: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidah, Alias; Sham Marina, Mohd; Tamil, Azmi M; Loh, C-Khai; Zarina, Latiff A; Jamal, Rahman; Tuti Iryani, Mohd Daud; Ratnam, Vijayalakshmi C

    2014-10-01

    To determine the behavioural impact of chemotherapy in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated with chemotherapy only and to identify treatment-related or sociodemography-related factors that might be associated with behavioural outcome. We examined 57 survivors of childhood ALL, who were off treatment for at least 2 years and were in remission, aged 4-18 years, and 221 unrelated healthy controls. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) parent report was used either in English or in Bahasa Malaysia (the national language of Malaysia) to assess the behavioural outcome. Childhood ALL survivors had significantly higher scores on externalising behaviour on the CBCL parent report than did controls. Higher problem scores were found in ALL survivors with single parents on 'total problems' (P = 0.03) and subscales 'withdrawn' (P = 0.03), 'social problems' (P design the most appropriate remedy for problem behaviours detected in this multi-ethnic population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A 3-year retrospective and clinical follow-up study of zirconia single crowns performed in a private practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortorp, Anders; Kihl, Maria Lind; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2009-09-01

    All-ceramic crowns have become increasingly used also in the posterior regions, but there are only few studies documenting the clinical outcome of these restorations. The aim was therefore to present the 3-year outcome of zirconia (NobelProcera) single crowns. All patients treated with porcelain-veneered zirconia single crowns in a private practice during the period October 2004 to November 2005 were included. The patient records were scrutinized for data on the restorations and the supporting teeth. Information was available for 161 patients and 204 crowns. At the 3-year recall appointments, a sample of 18 patients with 25 crowns was clinically examined and interviewed regarding patient satisfaction. Most crowns (78%) were placed on premolars and molars. The clinical outcome of the crowns was favourable. No zirconia core fractured and no caries was observed on the abutment teeth. Some types of complication were recorded for 32 (16%) crowns or abutment teeth. The most severe complications, in total 12 restorations (6%), were recorded as failures: abutment tooth was extracted (5), remake of crown due to lost retention (4), veneer fracture (2) and persistent pain (1). The CDA criteria for 25 crowns were rated favourably, and patient satisfaction with the zirconia crowns was in general high. The porcelain-veneered zirconia crowns (NobelProcera) showed good clinical results, were well accepted by the patients, and only few complications were reported over the 3-year follow-up period.

  19. A 5-year retrospective study of survival of zirconia single crowns fitted in a private clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortorp, Anders; Kihl, Maria Lind; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this report was to evaluate the 5-year clinical performance and survival of zirconia (NobelProcera™) single crowns. All patients treated with porcelain-veneered zirconia single crowns in a private practice during the period October 2004 to November 2005 were included. The records were scrutinized for clinical data. Information was available for 162 patients and 205 crowns. Most crowns (78%) were placed on premolars and molars. Out of the 143 crowns that were followed for 5 years, 126 (88%) did not have any complications. Of those with complications, the most common were: extraction of abutment tooth (7; 3%), loss of retention (15; 7%), need of endodontic treatment (9; 4%) and porcelain veneer fracture (6; 3%). No zirconia cores fractured. In total 19 restorations (9%) were recorded as failures: abutment tooth extraction (7), remake of crown due to lost retention (6), veneer fracture (4), persistent pain (1) and caries (1). The 5-year cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 88.8%. According to the present 5-year results zirconia crowns (NobelProcera™) are a promising prosthodontic alternative also in the premolar and molar regions. Out of the 143 crowns followed for 5 years, 126 (88%) did not have any complications. However, 9% of the restorations were judged as failures. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Parenting African American Children With Autism: The Influence of Respect and Faith in Mother, Father, Single-, and Two-Parent Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

    2016-08-10

    Parents are the most significant contributor to care of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and as such research on African American parenting in ASD is conspicuously absent. Findings relevant to parenting are discussed from a study with urban African American families caring for children with ASD. An ethnonursing study was conducted with 24 African American family members of children with ASD and 28 professionals. Data were analyzed and reported as themes. Two universal themes of were found of respect and faith in God and family that influenced parental care. Two diverse themes of mother's watchful care and father's protective care, along with differences in feelings of isolation and dependence on supports were found among single- and two-parent families. When health care professionals increase their knowledge and understanding of cultural practices in the parental care of children with ASD, they provide health care that is culturally congruent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The Need to Change Army Policies Toward Single Parents and Dual Military Couples With Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    SINGLE PARENT STATUS ACTIVE DUTY ENLISTED SOLDIERS ..8 TABLE 6. ACTIVE DUTY GENDER DISTRIBUTION BY GRADE ............................................ 10...493,563 (100%) TABLE 6. ACTIVE DUTY GENDER DISTRIBUTION BY GRADE WHAT THESE METRICS TELL US These data indicate that there is a problem in the Army...Army War College, March 1998) Fifth Amendment Sisters. "Pregnancy Disrimination ." Available from <http://userpages.aug.com /captbarb/pregnancy.html

  2. Adult bone strength of children from single-parent families: the Midlife in the United States Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C J; Karlamangla, A S; Merkin, S S; Binkley, N; Carr, D; Greendale, G A; Seeman, T E

    2015-03-01

    Bone health may be negatively impacted by childhood socio-environmental circumstances. We examined the independent associations of single-parent childhood and parental death or divorce in childhood with adult bone strength indices. Longer exposure to a single-parent household in childhood was associated with lower bone strength in adulthood. Because peak bone mass is acquired during childhood, bone health may be negatively impacted by childhood socio-environmental disadvantage. The goal of this study was to determine whether being raised in a single-parent household is associated with lower bone strength in adulthood. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data from 708 participants (mean age 57 years) in the Midlife in the United States Biomarker Project, we examined the independent associations of composite indices of femoral neck bone strength relative to load (in three failure modes: compression, bending, and impact) in adulthood with the experience of single-parent childhood and parental death or divorce in childhood. After adjustment for gender, race, menopause transition stage, age, and body mass index, each additional year of single-parent childhood was associated with 0.02 to 0.03 SD lower indices of adult femoral neck strength. In those with 9-16 years of single-parent childhood, the compression strength index was 0.41 SD lower, bending strength index was 0.31 SD lower, and impact strength index was 0.25 SD lower (all p values divorce during childhood was not by itself independently associated with adult bone strength indices. The magnitudes of these associations were unaltered by additional adjustment for lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status in childhood and adulthood. Independent of parental death or divorce, growing up in a single-parent household is associated with lower femoral neck bone strength in adulthood, and this association is not entirely explained by childhood or adult socioeconomic conditions or lifestyle choices.

  3. Cryptanalysis and Improvement for the Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Triplet Entangled State and Single-Particle Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Xu; Tian-Yu, Ye

    2017-03-01

    Quantum private comparison (QPC) aims to accomplish the equality comparison of secret inputs from two users on the basis of not leaking their contents out. Recently, Chen et al. proposed the QPC protocol based on triplet GHZ state and single-particle measurement (Optics Communications 283, 1561-1565 (2010)). In this paper, they suggested the standard model of a semi-honest third party (TP) for the first time, and declared that their protocol is secure. Subsequently, Lin et al. pointed out that in Chen et al.'s protocol, one user can extract the other user's secret without being discovered by performing the intercept-resend attack, and suggested two corresponding improvements (Optics Communications 284, 2412-2414 (2011)). However, Yang et al. first pointed out that the model of TP adopted by both Chen et al.'s protocol and Lin et al.'s improved protocols is unreasonable, and thought that a practical TP may also try any possible means to steal the users' secrets except being corrupted by the adversary including the dishonest user (Quantum Inf Process 12, 877-885 (2013). In this paper, after taking the possible attacks from TP into account, we propose the eavesdropping strategy of TP toward Lin et al.'s improved protocols and suggest two feasible solutions accordingly.

  4. The model of children's social adjustment under the gender-roles absence in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Jun; Zhang, Hailun; Wei, Bingsi; Guo, Zeyao

    2018-01-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the gender-role types and child-rearing gender-role attitude of the single-parents, as well as their children's gender role traits and family socio-economic status, on social adjustment. We recruited 458 pairs of single parents and their children aged 8-18 by purposive sampling. The research tools included the Family Socio-economic Status Questionnaire, Sex Role Scales, Parental Child-rearing Gender-role Attitude Scale and Social Adjustment Scale. The results indicated: (a) single mothers' and their daughters' feminine traits were both higher than their masculine traits, and sons' masculine traits were higher than their feminine traits; the majority gender-role type of single parents and their children was androgyny; significant differences were found between children's gender-role types depending on different raiser, the proportion of girls' masculine traits raised by single fathers was significantly higher than those who were raised by single mothers; (b) family socio-economic status and single parents' gender-role types positively influenced parental child-rearing gender-role attitude, which in turn, influenced the children's gender traits, and further affected children's social adjustment. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Male Heads of Family in Single-Parent Households: Men Adaptations to the Needs of Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Cano Rodas

    2016-01-01

    The experience of the head of a single-parent home has led interviewed parents to modify the exercise of their masculinity regarding communication, relationships, the manner to express affection and the everyday performance with their children, accepting the new family role by associating it with the responsibility of raising and caring for the children

  6. Age-Related Parenting Education: Model Development and Application to an Emerging Family Constellation - Single-by-Choice Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Kimberly Ann

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to describe an adaptation of the Schaefer Circumplex Model to age-related parenting theory and techniques, and (2) to illustrate its application in relation to the emerging numbers of single-by-choice mothers. The method described superimposes both a child's and a parent's cognitive and psychosocial…

  7. Biological aspects of the development and self-concept in adolescents living in single-parent families.

    OpenAIRE

    Veček, Andrea; Vidović, Vesna; Miličić, Jasna; Špoljar-Vržina, Sanja; Veček, Nenad; Arch-Veček, Branka

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate whether there are differences between adolescents who grow up in single-parent families and those who grow up in nucleus families. We have decided that there are no differences in the physical development between the adolescents who are growing up in single parent families and those growing up in nucleus families. There is no difference in the self-concept between these two groups, except in the ethical and moral self-image of adolescents living with one parent. A...

  8. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  9. Psychosocial differences related to parenting infants among single and married mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Debra Beach; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the psychosocial factors, self-esteem, sense of mastery, life stress, and social support among first-time married and single mothers in early parenthood. A cross-sectional comparative design was used to study secondary data. A convenience sample of 80 first-time mothers completed self-report instruments on self-esteem, sense of mastery, social, and life stress at 6-8 weeks after birth. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and ANOVA. A statistically significant difference was found between married and single mothers on self esteem (F = 9.314, df = 1, p = .003) and sense of mastery (F = 4.919, df = 1, p = .030). There were no statistical differences found between married and single mothers on social support and life stress. Findings support Belsky's (1984) theoretical assertion that personal psychological resources are most indicative of successful parenting. Further, interventions directed toward enhancing single mothers' sense of mastery and self-esteem may be needed to facilitate maternal role transition.

  10. Private Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...

  11. Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Externalizing Problems in African American Single-Mother Homes: A Person-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T.; Jones, Deborah J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, variability in youth outcomes as well. The current study demonstrated that within African American single-mother families: (a) a person-, rather than variable-, oriented approach to measuring parenting style may further elucidate variability; (b) socioeconomic status may provide 1 context within which to understanding variability in parenting style; and (c) 1 marker of socioeconomic status, income, and parenting style may each explain variability in youth externalizing problems; however, the interaction between income and parenting style was not significant. Findings have potential implications for better understanding the specific contexts in which externalizing problems may be most likely to occur within this at-risk and underserved group. PMID:26053349

  12. Marginal Effects of a Gross Income Increase for a Single Parent Family in Six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Marie

    High marginal tax rates constitute an issue in several countries because they are supposed to create barriers for increased labour supply. It is, however, often the case that relatively low income families with children face substantially higher combined marginal rates than even the highest...... the contributions to the combined marginal rate, the marginal effective tax rate, METR, using the OECD term, from taxation, payment for childcare, tapering of housing benefits and sometimes child benefits, when the income varies from a low level to a high level for a single parent family. Six countries are included...... marginal tax rates. High combined marginal rates are generated by increasing payment for care for children in childcare institutions and tapering of housing benefits in addition to taxation, when income rises. These effects are often simultaneous and add to the marginal tax rate. This paper explores...

  13. Assessment of parental tooth-brushing following instruction with single-headed and triple-headed toothbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telishevesky, Yoel S; Levin, Liran; Ashkenazi, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of toothbrush design on the ability of parents to effectively brush their children's teeth. Parents of children (mean age=5.1±0.75 years old) from 4 kindergarten schools were randomly assigned to receive instruction in brushing their children's teeth using a manual single-headed toothbrush (2 schools) or a triple-headed toothbrush (2 schools). The parents' ability to brush their children's teeth was evaluated according to a novel toothbrush performing skill index (Ashkenazi Index), based on 2 criteria: (1) placement of the toothbrush on each tooth segment to be brushed ("reach"); and (2) completion of enough strokes on each segment ("stay"). One month after instruction, tooth-brushing ability was re-evaluated and plaque index of the children's teeth was assessed. One month after instruction, parents using the triple-headed toothbrush received significantly higher scores on the tooth-brushing performance index (~86%), than did those in the single-headed group (~61%; P=.001). The plaque index was significantly higher in the single-headed group (0.97±0.38) vs the triple-headed group (0.72±0.29; Pbrushing performance index correlated negatively with the plaque index (Pbrushing by parents than does a single-headed toothbrush.

  14. Private Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note provides an overview of private activity in infrastructure in developing countries between 1990 and 2000. Three main trends characterized that decade: Private activity in infrastructure grew each year except 1998 and 1999. Most developing countries introduced some form of private activity in inf...

  15. Private prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovski, Darko

    2014-01-01

    The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of ...

  16. Privatizing Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California…

  17. Private handshakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Private handshaking allows pairs of users to determine which (secret) groups they are both a member of. Group membership is kept secret to everybody else. Private handshaking is a more private form of secret handshaking [BRS+03], because it does not allow the group administrator to trace users. We

  18. A Closer Look at Children in Single-Parent Families. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Patricia Palker

    Schools are more and more called upon to accomodate students' differences in background and experiences; this picture of diversity includes the growing number of one-parent families. However, educators need to be cautioned against expecting "trouble" from the child from a one-parent family. The diversity among research findings suggests…

  19. Religiosity of Muslim Adolescents from Single Parent Families Living in Government-Subsidised Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariza, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a phase of emotionl turmoil and stress. If not balanced with religious practice, it may cause adolescents to fall into moral and social problems such as breach of school discipline, delinquency, drug addiction and sexual permissiveness. Religiosity is one way for adolescents to deal with challenges in life thereby avoiding immoral activities. This is because religiosity may help to balance adolescent emotional, cognitive and social developments.The purpose of this study is to identify the behaviour and level of religiosity among 30 adolescents from single parents families who settle in government-subsidised area of residence, namely known as the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA. The area is located in the state of Pahang, situated on the eastern part of Malaysia. These adolescents have been selected as research respondents. This research was conducted as a survey using questionnaire as the research instrument. It was constructed based on the guidelines of Islamic Practice Instrument (IPI (Fariza, 2012 and has already been verified in terms of its validity and reliability. The data analysis has adopted the method of descriptive statistics explained in table form. The research results have found that religiosity or religious behaviour that the adolescents most frequently abide by are staying away from gambling, having good thoughts and expectations of Allah, feeling awed and fear of Allah’s power (taqwa, staying away from fornication (zina and supplication (doa to Allah facing the direction of Qibla. The level of religiosity is medium for most adolescents. This factor explains why not many respondents are involved in moral and disciplinary problems at school. This research finds that generally, religiosity protects adolescents from being involved in immoral activities and other vices.

  20. How do parents and pediatricians arrive at the decision to immunize their children in the private sector? Insights from a qualitative study on rotavirus vaccination across select Indian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew Sunil; Negandhi, Preeti; Farooqui, Habib Hassan; Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Key debates on improving vaccination coverage tend to focus on factors that affect uptake in the public health system while ignoring the private sector that plays an important role in providing health services in any low or middle-income country setting. Using in-depth interviews, we explored factors that influenced the decision of parents as well as pediatricians working in the private sector across 8 Indian cities on whether their children should be vaccinated with a particular vaccine Pediatricians and their relationship with parents was an important factor that influenced the decision on whether parents vaccinated their children with a particular vaccine or not. The decision to recommend a vaccine is taken on the principle that it is better to be safe than sorry than on any objective assessment of whether a child requires a particular vaccine or not. Family members and social factors also played a major role in the decision-making. According to some parents, vaccinating their child added an aspirational value to their growth. This is especially true of the newer vaccines that are considered optional in India. The cost of a vaccine did not come up as an inhibiting factor in the decision to vaccinate a child. Access to appropriate evidence was limited for both pediatricians and parents and evidence per se played a minimal role in the final decision to vaccinate a child or not. Far more important were the influences of factors such as relationship with the pediatrician, the role of decisions related to vaccination taken by people in the immediate social network.

  1. Private Moments

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Reed; Carol J. Cumber

    2000-01-01

    In October, 1996 Private Moments, an adult novelty store, opened for business in Huntsville, Texas. Huntsville had no ordinances in place to prevent the opening of this type of business. In fact, the local Small Business Development Center provided guidance and assistance to Edward Delagarza, the founder and owner of Private Moments. Many of the Huntsville citizens, unhappy with the opening of Private Moments, approached the City Council requesting that it be closed immediately and asked for ...

  2. Retrospective Study of Tapered One-Piece Implants Placed Over a Ten-Year Period in a Single Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichetti, John C; D'Amore, Joseph C; Hong, Anna Y-J

    2018-04-01

    Today, clinicians have a variety of treatment modalities available to address the increasing number of implant procedures performed each year. Single-stage implant surgery is now commonly used in implant dentistry. With patients' demands for immediate restoration, the utilization of 1-piece implants is gaining acceptance. This article reports the results of tapered 1-piece implants (Zimmer Biomet) placed in a single practice over a 10-year period. A total of 33 1-piece dental implants were placed in 24 patients and provisionally restored out of occlusion at the time of surgery. All 33 implants were definitively restored with ceramometal crowns after 3 months of provisionalization. Implant survival and success rates were 100% after 2.6-10 years of follow-up. Only 1 minor complication of crestal bone remodeling occurred among the 33 implants placed. Adequately stabilized tapered 1-piece implants can be successfully restored out of occlusion at the time of implant placement and definitively loaded in occlusion 3 months without adversely affecting function or esthetics. Additional long-term controlled studies are recommended to further understand these findings.

  3. Private prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of applying a new philosophy in the manner of execution of sentence, with modern Penitentiary program, with the aim of re-socialization and the reduction of recidivism and weaknesses of the private prisons (the question of legitimac, a chronic lack of space in the Penitentiary system is not solved, business-oriented policies of private prisons, less salaries, poor performance of the security service, worst food, weak enforcement of parole, lack of appropriate penitentiary program, wanted to draw attention to the professional public about controversy of the introduction private companies in the management structure of penitentiary institutions . As the Republic of Serbia is, constantly in the last twenty years, faced with the increasing number of inmates, as well as the chronic shortage of money, which affects on the situation in industrial areas of prisons, there are options to give licenses to private companies to manage prisons. Therefore, the author has paid special attention to potential problems of introducing private prisons in the penitentiary system in Serbia.

  4. EDUCATIONAL TACTICS OF MOTHERS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS IN TWO-PARENT AND SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Борисович Зуев

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of the psychological characteristics of boys and girls from complete and incomplete families. In addition to the type of family, the authors consider the educational tactics of mothers. The combined effects of the type of family and educational tactics on psychological characteristics of the adolescent were investigated. Adolescence was chosen as a period, when on the one hand, a relatively stable personality structure is developed, and on the other hand, the importance of the immediate social environment is extremely high. For our study we selected the psychological characteristics, to the utmost revealing the reaction of children to their parents' divorce: the level of subjective control (degree of responsibility for their own lives, and the sovereignty of the psychological space (clearnesse of psychological boundaries. It is shown that the largest influence on the psychological characteristics of adolescents, regardless of the type of family, is rendered by hostility in maternal education. The dependence of psychological characteristics of maternal directiveness occurs only at high values of such educational tactics that highlights the consistency of the obtained results with the classical studies of single-parent families.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-6

  5. Listening to children: gaining a perspective of the experiences of poverty and social exclusion from children and young people of single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janet; Crawford, Karin; Taylor, Francesca

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on the experiences and views of children and young people of single-parent families, as findings from a European Union-funded research project undertaken in England, Greece and Cyprus. The objectives of the research project were to investigate how children and young people of single-parent families understand and experience their worlds as members of these families: whether and to what extent they experience poverty and social exclusion and how they cope with the challenges that this confronts them with. Methodology was replicated in each of the countries; however, this paper draws on the English experiences. Semistructured interviews (40) and focus groups (four) were undertaken with children of single parents. In addition, focus groups were undertaken with children of two-parent families (four), focus groups with single parents, focus groups with two-parent families (four) and individual interviews with key professionals. Detailed discussion guides were followed, with open-ended questions to allow participants to express their feelings and ideas in their own words. The research sample included children from single-parent and two-parent families, aged 6 years to 16 years, balanced in terms of age, gender and geographical location. Findings demonstrate the children's and young people's understanding of the impact of poverty and social exclusion on their family life and their everyday experiences. The positive benefits of being in a single-parent family are highlighted, with 'time poverty' raised as a significant issue. Children and young people are aware of their poverty and how it influences exclusion from friendships, play, leisure and community activities. Policy needs to take account of the systematic reality of children's experiences; alliances with adults that support meaningful involvement and participation by children and young people will make a significant contribution to this.

  6. Subsidizing Private Education at Taxpayer Expense. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to subsidize private education take a variety of forms, with the most familiar being the private school voucher provided directly to parents. But there are other less direct ways governments subsidize private schools. One such method is to provide a tax credit to parents to offset their personal education expenses (education tax credit).…

  7. Parent dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated with child behaviors and weight status among private school children in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Blanche Greene-Cramer

    2016-01-01

    Background Family can be an important socializing agent that strongly influences child and adolescent behavior. While studies have found associations between parent modeling of healthy behaviors and these behaviors in children in the US and other western countries, there is a dearth of research examining these associations among low and middle-income countries like India. This study examines the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors and child behavi...

  8. Secure quantum private comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuguang; Cao Weifeng; Wen Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.

  9. Franchising and Privatization

    OpenAIRE

    Antony W. Dnes

    1995-01-01

    Increasing private sector participation to improve the efficiency of infrastructure services is a growing trend around the world. Some elements of most infrastructure activities exhibit "natural monopoly" characteristics, meaning that one or more services or products can be produced most cheaply by a single firm. This raises the issues of organizing an infrastructure industry so as to gain...

  10. Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression for Adolescents in Single-Mother and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L.; McArthur, Brae Anne; Steinberg, Laurence; Abramson, Lyn. Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2017-01-01

    Although research consistently suggests that adolescents in single-mother families are at increased risk for depression, the mechanisms that explain this relationship are unclear. In a community sample of adolescents (N = 368; ages 12–16; 50% female; 50% White) and their mothers (42% single), adolescents completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and depressogenic inferential style at baseline and two yearly follow-ups. Mothers reported on stressful events that occurred in the child’s life from birth until baseline. Adolescents raised by single mothers, relative to partnered mothers, experienced more childhood stressors and higher rumination levels at one-year follow-up. Additionally, higher rumination mediated the relationship between single motherhood and greater youth depressive symptoms at the two-year follow-up. Clinical implications and developmental considerations are discussed. PMID:27858293

  11. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  12. Maternal Psychological Functioning, Family Processes, and Child Adjustment in Rural, Single-Parent, African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.

    1997-01-01

    Tested a model linking family financial resources to adjustment among African American 6- to 9-year olds with single, rural, Southern mothers. Found that inadequate financial resources related to mothers' depression and low self-esteem. Self-esteem was linked with family routines and mother-child relationship quality. Child self-regulation…

  13. A 3-year follow-up study of all-ceramic single and multiple crowns performed in a private practice: a prospective case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M.; Sidoti, Ernesto; Sforza, Chiarella

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Zirconia-based prostheses are commonly used for aesthetic crown and fixed restorations, although follow-up data are limited, especially for implant-supported crowns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the three-year clinical results of the installation of 463 zirconia core crowns by a general dental private practice. METHODS: This study followed 142 patients (69 men and 73 women; aged 28-82 years) who had received 248 single crowns (202 tooth-supported, 36 implant-supported) and 225 multiple units of up to six elements (81 tooth-supported, 144 implant-supported). Clinical events, including fracture and loss of retention, secondary caries, and marginal integrity, were recorded. The overall failure rate was computed for the fractured and lost prostheses. Aesthetic, functional, and biological properties were rated, and patient satisfaction was investigated. RESULTS: During the three-year follow-up period, four patients were lost from the study (18 crowns, 4% of the total crowns). Three of the zirconia prostheses suffered fractures in more than three units (11 crowns; one- vs. three-year follow-up, pcemented, and no secondary caries of the abutment teeth were reported. The aesthetic, functional, and biological properties were generally well-rated, and there were no differences between tooth- and implant-supported crowns. The lowest scores were given regarding the anatomical form of the crowns, as some minor chipping was reported. Relatively low scores were also given for the periodontal response and the adjacent mucosa. Overall, patient satisfaction was high. CONCLUSIONS: At the three-year follow-up, the zirconia-core crowns appeared to be an effective clinical solution as they had favorable aesthetic and functional properties. Only the marginal fit of the prostheses should be improved upon. PMID:22189731

  14. A 3-year follow-up study of all-ceramic single and multiple crowns performed in a private practice: a prospective case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca M. Tartaglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Zirconia-based prostheses are commonly used for aesthetic crown and fixed restorations, although follow-up data are limited, especially for implant-supported crowns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the threeyear clinical results of the installation of 463 zirconia core crowns by a general dental private practice. METHODS: This study followed 142 patients (69 men and 73 women; aged 28-82 years who had received 248 single crowns (202 tooth-supported, 36 implant-supported and 225 multiple units of up to six elements (81 toothsupported, 144 implant-supported. Clinical events, including fracture and loss of retention, secondary caries, and marginal integrity, were recorded. The overall failure rate was computed for the fractured and lost prostheses. Aesthetic, functional, and biological properties were rated, and patient satisfaction was investigated. RESULTS: During the three-year follow-up period, four patients were lost from the study (18 crowns, 4% of the total crowns. Three of the zirconia prostheses suffered fractures in more than three units (11 crowns; one- vs. three-year follow-up, p,0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and the cumulative prosthesis survival rate was 98.2%. Twelve units lost retention and were re-cemented, and no secondary caries of the abutment teeth were reported. The aesthetic, functional, and biological properties were generally well-rated, and there were no differences between tooth- and implant-supported crowns. The lowest scores were given regarding the anatomical form of the crowns, as some minor chipping was reported. Relatively low scores were also given for the periodontal response and the adjacent mucosa. Overall, patient satisfaction was high. CONCLUSIONS: At the three-year follow-up, the zirconia-core crowns appeared to be an effective clinical solution as they had favorable aesthetic and functional properties. Only the marginal fit of the prostheses should be improved upon.

  15. Private skovejere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Tove Enggrob; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    I 2012 blev der gennemført en undersøgelse af de private skovejere. Skovejerne har ofte baggrund i jordbruget, og en stor del har en uddannelse inden for land- eller skovbrug. De fleste er aktive beslutningstagere – alene eller sammen med andre. Siden 2002 synes medlemskab af Skovdyrkerforeninger...

  16. Privatization costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, I.

    2007-01-01

    The efforts in progress now in Great Britain to liberalize the nuclear decommissioning activity market imply that by 2012 the competitive commercial private companies will lead the national nuclear decommissioning and decontamination related activity market. Paper dwells upon the new market peculiar features and upon some peculiar features of the new market related activities [ru

  17. The Effect of Incentive Return-to-Work Policies on Single-Parent Families: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Amine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of their struggle against inequality and social exclusion, many countries are trying to reform their redistributive system and low-income support measures to encourage return to work, and reduce inactivity traps. The purpose of this article is to propose a reflection on the social and fiscal policies. The analysis focuses on three measures in three different countries: the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC in the United States, the Working Tax Credit (WTC in the UK and the Active Solidarity Income (RSA in France. The emphasis is placed on the effects of such policies on the situation of single parents, in particular as part of their transition from welfare (social assistance to the labor market.

  18. Public Schools: Make Them Private.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Milton

    1997-01-01

    A voucher system enabling parents to choose freely the schools their children attend is the most feasible way to improve education. Vouchers will encourage privatization. That will unleash the drive, imagination, and energy of competitive free enterprise to revolutionize the education process. Government schools will be forced to improve to retain…

  19. Sending Public School Students to Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Public schools often contract with private schools to meet the needs of special-education students. When disagreement exists about placement, parents can forego the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) placement process in exchange for private education which is only partially subsidized by the government. Vouchers would provide…

  20. Private power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  1. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work......When the International Association of IT Lawyers (IAITL) held its first international conference in 2006 in Hamburg, it could never have been envisaged just how successful the programme would become as a firm 'not to be missed' date of the calendar of increasing numbers of academics and others...

  2. Mother-child discrepancy in perceived parental control and adolescent filial piety in poor single-mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Lin, Li

    2017-10-01

    Based on a sample of 432 poor Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years; 51.2% girls; mean age of mothers = 43.5 years) in Hong Kong, the interaction effect of mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control on filial piety of Chinese adolescents was examined. Results of polynomial multiple regression analyses showed that the interaction between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predicted perceived filial piety in adolescents. At high levels of mother-reported maternal control, high adolescent-perceived parental control was associated with higher filial piety. At low levels of mother-reported maternal control, filial piety increased initially and then decreased when adolescents reported higher levels of maternal control. Using multiple group analyses, these associations were found to be stable across gender and age. The present findings provide insights on how congruencies and discrepancies between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predict filial piety of Chinese adolescents growing up in poor single-mother families. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neoliberalism, welfare policy and health: a qualitative meta-synthesis of single parents' experience of the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay

    2012-09-01

    Following the United States' lead, the emergence of neoliberal welfare policy across the western world has resulted in employment programmes for single parents, who are predominantly single mothers. While some governments claim that employment will improve single parents' incomes and well-being, researchers dispute that single parents can unproblematically move into the workforce, with net positive effects. While researchers have quantified the socio-economic effect of these programmes, in particular on participant health, no study has yet synthesized participants' experiences of welfare-to-work. Here, I present a meta-synthesis of eight qualitative health-related studies of single parents' (and exclusively single mothers') welfare-to-work transition. I report that single mothers faced a combination of health and economic issues which made their transition from welfare to work difficult, including degrees of poor physical and mental health. For participants in the United States, these health issues were often compounded by a loss of health benefits on moving into low-wage employment. In countries where a return to employment was required before children reached school age, a lack of affordable and appropriate child care, especially for children with health problems, exacerbated these difficulties. As a result of scarce resources, single mothers in receipt of welfare benefits often relied on food banks or went without food. A return to the workforce did not alleviate this problem as additional child care and reduced government subsidies depleted the funds available for food. I conclude that welfare-to-work policies are underpinned by the neoliberal assumption that the market more efficiently distributes resources than the State. However, for the women in the studies examined here, labour market participation often depleted access to essential resources. Interventions to address the 'problem' of welfare dependency must recognize the complex interplay between work

  4. A Single-Arm Feasibility Trial of Problem-Solving Skills Training for Parents of Children with Idiopathic Chronic Pain Conditions Receiving Intensive Pain Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily F; Fales, Jessica L; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Failo, Alessandro; Logan, Deirdre; Randall, Edin; Weiss, Karen; Durkin, Lindsay; Palermo, Tonya M

    2017-05-01

    To adapt problem-solving skills training (PSST) for parents of children receiving intensive pain rehabilitation and evaluate treatment feasibility, acceptability, and satisfaction. Using a prospective single-arm case series design, we evaluated the feasibility of delivering PSST to 26 parents (84.6% female) from one of three pediatric pain rehabilitation programs. Parents completed four to six sessions of PSST delivered during a 2-4-week period. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess treatment acceptability and satisfaction. We also assessed changes in parent mental health and behavior outcomes from pretreatment to immediate posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Parents demonstrated excellent treatment adherence and rated the intervention as highly acceptable and satisfactory. Preliminary analyses indicated improvements in domains of mental health, parenting behaviors, health status, and problem-solving skills. Findings demonstrate the potential role of psychological interventions directed at reducing parent distress in the context of intensive pediatric pain rehabilitation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. How Single-Parent Children Speak about Poverty and Social Exclusion: Policy Implications from a Comparative, Qualitative, Cross-National Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    This article presents some of the key findings from a comparative, qualitative research study carried out in the United Kingdom, Greece, and Cyprus. The main goal of the study was to investigate single-parent children's experiences and understandings of poverty and social exclusion in their everyday lives and to make relevant policy…

  6. When Negotiation Fails : Private Education as a Disciplinary Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.; Regt, de A.

    2005-01-01

    This articles deals with the question why Dutch upper-middle-class parents resort to fee-paying private education, a tiny, recently developed sector of the Dutch educational system. The research is based on interviews with 37 parents and 20 students attending private schools, and on a survey among

  7. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  8. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  9. Private placements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugeaud, G. J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The principles underlying private placements in Alberta, and the nature of the processes employed by the Alberta Securities Commission in handling such transactions were discussed. The Alberta Securities Commission's mode of operation was demonstrated by the inclusion of various documents issued by the Commission concerning (1) special warrant transactions prior to listing, (2) a decision by the Executive Director refusing to issue a receipt for the final prospectus for a distribution of securities of a company and the reasons for the refusal, (3) the Commission's decision to interfere with the Executive Director's decision not to issue a receipt for the final prospectus, with full citation of the Commission's reasons for its decision, (4) and a series of proposed rules and companion policy statements regarding trades and distributions outside and in Alberta. Text of a sample 'short form prospectus' was also included

  10. Revisiting an era in Germany from the perspective of adolescents in mother-headed single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepali; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2007-02-01

    Much of the documented work on families headed by single mothers is based on empirical evidence from North America and a few Anglo-Saxon countries. Many researchers consider single-mother families to be at a disadvantage because of nonsupportive family policies. This paper uses data from a social context that differed hugely in this respect-the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The GDR provided extensive state support to single-mother families and, thus, was vastly different from other countries. Based on a literature review and using Hill's family stress theory, this paper is based on the hypothesis that adolescents living in mother-headed single-parent families and those living with their biological parents would have near-similar social outcomes (display of psychosomatic symptoms, perception of stress, display of delinquent behaviour, life satisfaction, academic self-efficacy, and academic grades) and family-related outcomes (relationship with parents and perception of family environment). Further, it was hypothesized that adolescents from stepfather families would display more negative social and family-related outcomes when compared with respondents from the other two family types. The sample comprised 1302 adolescents (M  =  13.82 years, SD  =  1.88) who were recruited from the city of Leipzig in the year immediately following German unification, 1991. Respondents reported on measures of psychosomatic symptoms, stress, delinquency, life satisfaction, academic achievement, and family-related variables. ANCOVAs, with a control for income adjusted for household size, indicated adolescents from single-mother families to have very similar experiences to respondents living with their biological parents on all measures except for their assessment of family environment. Adolescents living in stepfather families reported the least favourable experiences. Results are indicative of a social context in Germany that, despite unification and the early hardships for

  11. Construction from a single parent of baker's yeast strains with high freeze tolerance and fermentative activity in both lean and sweet doughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S; Ouchi, K

    1994-10-01

    From a freeze-tolerant baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), 2,333 spore clones were obtained. To improve the leavening ability in lean dough of the parent strain, we selected 555 of the high-maltose-fermentative spore clones by using a method in which a soft agar solution containing maltose and bromocresol purple was overlaid on yeast colonies. By measuring the gassing power in the dough, we selected 66 spore clones with a good leavening ability in lean dough and a total of 694 hybrids were constructed by crossing them. Among these hybrids, we obtained 50 novel freeze-tolerant strains with good leavening ability in all lean, regular, and sweet doughs comparable to that of commercial baker's yeast. Hybrids with improved leavening ability or freeze tolerance compared with the parent yeast and commercial baker's yeasts were also obtained. These results suggest that hybridization between spore clones derived from a single parent strain is effective for improving the properties of baker's yeasts.

  12. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country's petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government's own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country's assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government's strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed

  13. Public-Private Partnership in Health Care: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of Perceived Quality of Care Among Parents of Children Admitted in Two Government District-hospitals, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, B Shantaram; Ravikiran, S R; Rao, Suchetha S; Coutinho, Anitha; Jain, Animesh

    2016-02-01

    Perceived better quality of care draws lower socio-economic classes of Indians to more expensive private setups, leading to poverty illness poverty cycle. Urgent measures need to be taken to improve perceived quality of public hospitals. The present study compares the difference in perceived quality of care among parents of children admitted at two government district hospitals. A cross-sectional, comparative, questionnaire based study was conducted between February 2011 and February 2012 at Government medical college hospitals of two district headquarters in South-India: one with private-public-partnership (PPP-model); another directly operated by government - Public Hospital-model (PH-model). A total of 461 inpatients from the PH model hospital and 580 from the PPP model hospital were eligible. Patients who left against advice (LAMA) (n=44 in PH and 19 in PPP) and expired (n=25 in PH and 59 in PPP) were excluded. Fourteen incomplete forms from PH and 10 from PPP model hospital were also excluded. Responders rated perception on a 1-5 scale in each domain: accessibility of health-facility, time spent waiting, manner and quality of physician, manner and quality of nurse, manner and quality of supporting staff, perception of equipment, explanation of treatment details and general comfort. The responders also rated overall satisfaction on a 1-10 scale. In the 1-5 scale, rating≥4 in each domain was considered good. Rating≥8 in 1-10 scale was considered satisfaction. Responders from PPP-model hospital were significantly more satisfied than those from PH-model {n=529 (91.2%) vs. n=148 (32.1%) p<0.001}. This was true even when controlled for age-group, sex, maternal education, family-type, days of hospital-stay and socioeconomic class {O.R.(CI) =23.58 (16.13-34.48); p<0.001} by binary logistic regression model. In the PPP-model hospital the time spent waiting for treatment {4.28(2.07-8.82), p<.001} and manner of support staff {3.64(1.02-12.99), p=0.04} significantly

  14. Effectiveness of ACT-Based Parenting Training to Mothers on the Depression of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد صالح فقیهی

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Parenting Training based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT to mothers on the depression of children with cleft lip and palate. The research method was based on a single case and individual intervention study. The sample was constituted of 65 Isfahanian children with cleft lip and palate. Parenting skills based on ACT were taught to five mothers of children with cleft lip and palate who achieved the minimum score in screening. After three baseline sessions for each child, ACT parenting skills were taught to their mothers in 8 individual sessions companied with testing the child’s depression in every session. Three follow-up sessions after 15 days, 1 month and 3 months were set to evaluate children’s depression. The Kovacs Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI was used to test the children’s depression. The results were analyzed with visual analysis and descriptive statistics. This particular intervention was effective on depression. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that ACT parenting training to mothers of children with cleft lips and palates was effective on reducing depression and that an on-time intervention can improve these children's depression.

  15. Optimality of private quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouda, Jan; Ziman, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We addressed the question of optimality of private quantum channels. We have shown that the Shannon entropy of the classical key necessary to securely transfer the quantum information is lower bounded by the entropy exchange of the private quantum channel E and the von Neumann entropy of the ciphertext state ρ (0) . Based on these bounds we have shown that decomposition of private quantum channels into orthogonal unitaries (if they exist) optimizes the entropy. For non-ancillary single-qubit PQC we have derived the optimal entropy for the arbitrary set of plaintexts. In particular, we have shown that except when the (closure of the) set of plaintexts contains all states, one bit key is sufficient. We characterized and analysed all the possible single-qubit private quantum channels for an arbitrary set of plaintexts. For the set of plaintexts consisting of all qubit states we have characterized all possible approximate private quantum channels and we have derived the relation between the security parameter and the corresponding minimal entropy

  16. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  17. EDUCATIONAL TACTICS OF MOTHERS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS IN TWO-PARENT AND SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuev Konstantin Borisovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of the psychological characteristics of boys and girls from complete and incomplete families. In addition to the type of family, the authors consider the educational tactics of mothers. The combined effects of the type of family and educational tactics on psychological characteristics of the adolescent were investigated. Adolescence was chosen as a period, when on the one hand, a relatively stable personality structure is developed, and on the other hand, the importance of the immediate social environment is extremely high. For our study we selected the psychological characteristics, to the utmost revealing the reaction of children to their parents' divorce: the level of subjective control (degree of responsibility for their own lives, and the sovereignty of the psychological space (clearnesse of psychological boundaries. It is shown that the largest influence on the psychological characteristics of adolescents, regardless of the type of family, is rendered by hostility in maternal education. The dependence of psychological characteristics of maternal directiveness occurs only at high values ​​of such educational tactics that highlights the consistency of the obtained results with the classical

  18. Analysis of decisional conflict among parents who consent to hypospadias repair: single institution prospective study of 100 couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Armando J; Braga, Luis H P; Zlateska, Bozana; Leslie, Bruno; Farhat, Walid A; Bägli, Darius J; Pippi Salle, Joao L

    2012-08-01

    Although obtaining informed consent for distal hypospadias repair is common practice, little is known about the uncertainty or conflict between consenting parents faced with this decision. We systematically evaluated decisional conflict between parents who elected to have their child undergo hypospadias surgery. A total of 100 couples who were counseled about treatment options agreed to participate. Using a validated questionnaire, the Decisional Conflict Scale, we prospectively collected data on decisional conflict demographics, preference for circumcision, education level and prior knowledge about hypospadias. All parents elected surgical repair. Evidence of decisional conflict was encountered in 28% of participants (score less than 25 in 72%, 25 to 37.5 in 23.5%, greater than 37.5 in 4.5%). No statistically significant differences among parents were noted for total score (mean ± SD 16.1 ± 12 in mothers and 18.3 ± 12.6 in fathers) or subscales, except the informed subscale (mean ± SD 16.7 ± 14.3 in mothers and 21.1 ± 16.6 in fathers). Parental self-report of prior knowledge about hypospadias and preference for neonatal circumcision correlated with lower Decisional Conflict Scale scores (p = 0.02 and p conflict in couples agreeing to proceed with hypospadias repair, with no evidence of significant discrepancy between them. The novel description of factors related to decreased decisional conflict might help focus efforts aimed at minimizing difficulties encountered during the decision making process. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Private cord blood banking: current use and clinical future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Peter; McCauley, Catherina

    2009-09-01

    International private umbilical cord blood banking has expanded rapidly in recent years since the first cord blood transplant which was 20 years ago. Private companies offer parents the opportunity to store umbilical cord blood for the possible future use by their child or other family members. The private cord blood industry has been criticised by a number of professional bodies including the EU Ethics Committee, the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, the Royal College of Midwives and the US College of Paediatrics. This review presents the arguments from the opponents of private cord blood banking, and then makes the case for private cord banking based on the latest scientific and clinical evidence.

  20. Investigating the effect of home care program on self-efficacy of femaleheaded single-parent households supported by Isfahan Welfare Organization (Behzisti in year 1394

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Moeini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Female-headed households are among the most vulnerable groups of society and there are potential of many critical jeopardies for these families. Therefore, this study was focused to evaluate the effect of home care program on self-efficacy of female-headed single parent households supported by Isfahan Behzisti-Welfare Organization in year 2015. Methodology: This study was a quasi-experimental design research with random selection of 36 female headed single parent. Prior to the nursing intervention, demographic and life style information of these families were evaluated using 70 questions in a questionnaires. In addition, a pre-test using a standard self-efficacy questionnaires with 17 questions were used to assess the level of self-efficacy of these families. Following the experiment, these families responded to the self-efficacy questionnaires. For descriptive statistics analysis, frequency, average, and standard deviation were evaluated. Furthermore, paired-sample t-test, Pearson's chi-squared test, Mann–Whitney test, Spearman's rank-order correlation, and Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance were analyzed using SPSS v.18 software for statistical inference analysis. Results: Our analysis revealed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05 between the score average of pre- and post- home care program. It supported our hypothesis that the supportive home care program had significant effect on self-efficacy of femaleheaded single parent households. Discussion and Conclusion: Following the effect of the supportive nursing intervention on self-efficacy of female-headed households, it should be mentioned that this supportive program can be the best strategic plan to increase the family’s health and preventing health issues. Therefore, given the multiple roles of public health nurse, supportive home care program is critical and should be emphasized.

  1. Parents' Rights and Educational Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marples, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Legitimate parental interests need to be distinguished from any putative rights parents "qua" parents may be said to possess. Parents have no right to insulate their children from conceptions of the good at variance with those of their own. Claims to the right to faith schools, private schools, home-schooling or to withdraw a child from…

  2. Decisional regret after distal hypospadias repair: single institution prospective analysis of factors associated with subsequent parental remorse or distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Armando J; Pippi Salle, João L; Zlateska, Bozana; Koyle, Martin A; Bägli, Darius J; Braga, Luis H P

    2014-05-01

    Hypospadias repair is a commonly performed procedure. Little is known about decisional regret in parents who agree to proceed with this surgical reconstruction. We present data on this previously underexplored issue. We performed followup analysis of 100 couples prospectively evaluated after counseling for surgical correction of distal hypospadias in their son with assessment of complications and decisional regret 1 year after surgery. Findings were contrasted with baseline demographics, hypospadias knowledge and decisional conflict at the time of counseling. Decisional regret was found in 116 parents, including mild regret in 41.4% and moderate to severe regret in 8.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in paired regret analysis between mothers and fathers. Complications were strongly associated with decisional regret (p <0.001). On regression analysis postoperative complications (OR 14.7, 95% CI 1.6-131.6), parental desire to avoid circumcision (OR 7.4, 95% CI 1.1-49.4) and initial decisional conflict level (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.09) were statistically significant predictors of moderate to strong decisional regret. These findings remained robust after imputation strategies to address missing data. The impact of decisional conflict and preference for circumcision were significant even after excluding families who experienced complications. To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating parental decisional regret after providing consent for surgical correction of distal hypospadias in their son. Based on the described risk factors efforts aimed at minimizing complications and counseling about foreskin preservation techniques may be prudent to ameliorate decisional regret. The novel association between decisional conflict and regret suggests that conflict assessment during counseling may help screen families at risk for postoperative regret. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier

  3. Does Mission Matter? An Analysis of Private School Achievement Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2009-01-01

    Using student achievement data from British Columbia, Canada, this study is an exploration of the differences that lie within the private school sector using hierarchical linear modeling to analyze the data. The analysis showed that when controlling for language, parents' level of educational attainment, and prior achievement, the private school…

  4. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  5. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  6. How private are Europe's private forests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichiforel, Liviu; Keary, Kevin; Deuffic, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Private forests are widespread in Europe providing a range of ecosystem services of significant value to society, and there are calls for novel policies to enhance their provision and to face the challenges of environmental changes. Such policies need to acknowledge the importance of private...... forests, and importantly they need to be based on a deep understanding of how property rights held by private forest owners vary across Europe. We collected and analysed data on the content of property rights based on formal legal requirements existing in 31 European jurisdictions. To allow a comparison...... across jurisdictions, we constructed an original Property Rights Index for Forestry encompassing five rights domains (access, withdrawal, management, exclusion and alienation). We documented substantial variation of the private forest owners' rights, and notably to i) make decisions in operational...

  7. Volatiles emitted from single flower buds of the lilium longiflorum × L. callosum interspecific hybrid and its parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was initiated to analyze the volatiles emitted from a single flower bud of Lilium longiflorum Thunb., L. callosum Sieb. et Zucc., and interspecific hybrids of L. longiflorum × L. callosum (L. longi × L. cal IH). Volatiles, collected automatically every 6-hour intervals at 20oC before ...

  8. Privatization, Competition and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Gundogan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Privatization not only results in the transfer of state assets, but it also reduces economic role of the government. Developing and developed countries have experienced privatization in different ways for years. This article focuses upon the issue of privatization in Turkey. Turkey launched its comprehensive economic liberalization program named ‘structural adjustment reform' in 1980 by the stimulation of the World Bank and IMF. Later on, privatization has been an official state ideology with two institutions, the Privatization Higher Council and the Privatization Administration. Some of their implementations have been given. Privatization policies have multiple, often together with often inter-related and conflicting political, economic and financial objectives. They must be evaluated according to political, social and economical structures and conditions of the country concerned. Together with privatization, competition and its institutional framework with implementations have also been analyzed in the paper. The paper maintains that there seemed no direct and strong relationship between the privatization endeavours and institutional competition. Finally, the study points out that Turkey seems to be a bare-foot runner in its privatization venture unless there is a proper competitive market, together with a sound social security system and a profound capital market.

  9. Privatization in economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakić Maja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In reality privatization has never occurred according to the handbook rules of ordinary market transactions. Not even in advanced market economies can privatization transactions be described by the Walrasian or Arrowian, or Leontiefian equilibrium models, or by the equilibrium models of the game theory. In these economies transactions of privatization take place in a fairly organic way – which means that those are driven by the dominance of private property rights and in a market economy. But despite this fact Western privatization also some peculiar features as compared to ordinary company takeovers, since the state as the seller may pursue non – economic goals. Changes in the dominant form of property change positions and status of many individuals and groups in the society. That’s why privatization can even less be explained by ordinary market mechanisms in transition countries where privatizing state-owned property have happened in a mass scale and where markets and private property rights weren't established at the time process of privatization began. In this paper I’ll discuss and analyze the phenomenon of privatization in context of different economic theories arguing that empirical results go in favor of the public choice theory (Buchanan, 1978, theory of "economic constitution" (Brennan and Buchanan 1985, (Buchanan and Tullock, 1989, and theory of "collective action" (Olson, 1982. These theories argues that transition from one economic system into another, for example transition from collectivistic, socialistic system into capitalism and free market economy with dominant private property, will not happen through isolated changes of only few economic institutions, no matter how deep that changes would be. In other words privatization can not give results if it's not followed by comprehensive change of economic system because privatized companied wouldn't be able to operate in old environment.

  10. Children's Perspective of Game: A Comparison of the Public and Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Nevin; Taspinar, Tugçe; Demis, Nurdan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine what the game means from the perspectives of children studying at public and private schools. Four questionnaires were applied to all the third grade parents of four schools; two public and two private schools in Ankara, and questionnaires were completed and sent back by 212 parents. A total of 32…

  11. Siblings and Parents in One-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Edna K.; Wallace, Doris B.

    1987-01-01

    Examination of six one- and two-parent families reveals the following: (1) members of the same family have different perceptions of family experiences, including divorce and its impact on family relationships; (2) single parents seem to become closer to their children than do married parents; and (3) a one-parent two-sibling family differs from a…

  12. Private Sector Initiatives Regarding Missing Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on the Issue of Missing Children: Runaways, Parental Abduction, and Kidnaping; and the Responses of the Private Sector to This Problem (May 22, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document contains witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issue of missing children and the initiatives taken by the private sector to help locate these children and return them to their homes. Opening statements by Senators Specter, Simon, McConnell, Metzenbaum, and Denton discuss…

  13. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.

  14. Private sector development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As an engine of economic growth, private enterprise plays an impor- tant role in combatting poverty by creating jobs and livelihood opportunities. In helping develop- ing countries pursue private sector development strategies that benefit women, youth, and the poor, inno- vative research supported by IDRC is laying the ...

  15. Private Speech in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  16. Private Universities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akira, Ninomiya

    The historical development of private universities in Japan is traced, with special attention to the Imperial Ordinance of University of 1918, and postwar developments. The present state of private universities is examined, considering especially their role in national education, finances and financial support, and public support of the…

  17. Serial private infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high

  18. Private Military Industry Analysis: Private and Public Companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunar, III, Charles J; Mitchell, Jared L; Robbins, III, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the Private Military Industry has skyrocketed. This study gathers, compiles and examines demographic and financial information on 585 private and public companies that operate in the Private Military Industry...

  19. Parents' Voice: Concerns, barriers and benefits of Parental Involvement for children with Autism in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    R Muralidharan, Gayathri Devi

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of parents at home and in school is a crucial factor in the development of child with autism. This qualitative study explored the similarities and difference between the perceptions of Malaysian parents on parental involvement. The selected participants are parents of children with autism, and are currently enrolled either in a primary government or private school. The present study used semi-structured interviews to examine the participants' views on parental involvement. A t...

  20. Support grows for privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Issues relating to the privatization of Ontario Hydro were discussed in light of the Corporation's first ever indication of being in favour of privatization in its January 26, 1996 submission to the Macdonald Committee, which is studying electric sector reform options for the Ontario government. In the course of the Committee hearings a majority of the interested parties were in favour of some form of privatization, except the labour union, which was, and continues to be, opposed. While welcoming the apparent change in attitude, IPPSO believes that Ontario Hydro's new proposal would, in fact,lessen competition, rather than increase it. It was stated that what Ontario Hydro is asking is to be granted commercial rights, which some experts describe as absolute freedom without meaningful regulation or competition for an indefinite period of time. Details of Ontario Hydro's submission to the Committee, and the basis of the objection of the privatization supporters were explained

  1. Private Web Browsing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syverson, Paul F; Reed, Michael G; Goldschlag, David M

    1997-01-01

    .... These are both kept confidential from network elements as well as external observers. Private Web browsing is achieved by unmodified Web browsers using anonymous connections by means of HTTP proxies...

  2. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis". Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad.

  3. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis" Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad

  4. In a Private House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Volkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features the advantages of living in a private house, such as feeling of privacy and safety and redistribution of roles between spouses, which have a positive impact on the family relationships, housekeeping and raising children. Besides, living in the country allows to cut down expenses: energy efficiency of present-day building materials enables to build a warm private house with minimum expenditure on warming, and with the possibility to freely regulate the heating system.

  5. Areva's privatization uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    The French nuclear public group Areva (the fusion of CEA-Industrie, Framatome and Cogema companies) will actively prepare its privatization and stock exchange introduction before the end of the first half of 2005, in order to re-launch its acquisitions and associations policy. However, the advantages of this privatization with a preponderant public share-holding will depend on the intentions of the French government. Short paper. (J.S.)

  6. Privatizing electricity: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1991-01-01

    In February 1988, the Government announced their intention of privatizing the electricity supply industry of England, Wales and Scotland. The Government's proposals were outlined in two White Papers. Cm 322 covered the proposals for England and Wales and Cm 327 the proposals for Scotland. This article deals with the events covering the stages of the privatization process from just before passing of the Electricity Bill in July 1989 to December 1990. (author)

  7. Young single women using abortion in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bélanger, Danièle; Khuat, Thu Hong

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the population characteristics among a hospital-based sample of single women who experienced an abortion in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Data were obtained from topical and in-depth interviews with women in two Hanoi hospitals, a district health center, and a private clinic in Hadong, a Hanoi suburb. The total sample consisted of 279 single women. 75% were residents of Hanoi. In-migrants had lived in Hanoi for an average of 4 years. Over 80% lived with their parents or relatives, of ...

  8. Human Relations Activities for the Single Parent To Develop More Effective Parent/Child Relations. Bilingual Guide = Actividades sobre relaciones humanas para ayudar al padre-soltero o madre-soltera a desarrollar una relacion efectiva entre padre e hijo Guia bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Susan

    Written in English and Spanish, this bilingual guide offers 10 activities which single parents can use to improve their relationships with their children. Objectives of activities include: (1) developing children's responsibility for work tasks in the home; (2) improving sibling relationships; (3) discussing emergencies with children; (4)…

  9. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Parenting Multiples KidsHealth / For Parents / Parenting Multiples What's in ... your ability to take care of your babies. Parenting Issues With Multiples It may be difficult to ...

  10. Public Supervision over Private Relationships : Towards European Supervision Private Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of

  11. Privatization Process in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Florin Aliu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Privatization is considered an initial step toward market economy, restructuring financial and economic sector that enables competition in the economy. Privatization is the most painful process in economy where beside legal establishment and political will, it includes also the aspect of fairness and honesty. Analysis of this process is based on the models and comparisons between Kosovo and countries of central and Eastern Europe, in order to give a clearer picture on the overall process of privatization in Kosovo Methodology that is used to analyze this issue is based on empirical results and also qualitative interpretation of the models and also on studying particular asset privatization process. A widely discussed case of privatization in Kosovo is that of Post and Telecom of Kosovo (PTK. Since each company has its own value, I have focused my appraising analysis on the financial statements with a special observation on Cash Flow from Operation, as the most significant indicator on showing how company is using her physical and human recourses to generate money. I have based my research on using methodology of discounted cash flow from operation analysis, even though the company valuation was done using net cash flow from operation analysis. Cash Flow valuation then was discounted by the T-bonds interest rate. This paper tries to bring a conclusion that privatization process in Kosovo have not brought the results excepted, firstly by setting an inappropriate price of assets and lastly by restructuring overall privatization sector and the overall industry. Kosovo, consequently, lost a big opportunity to create a competitive environment of financial industry: starting from the banking industry followed the pension trust which remained at their initial steps of development

  12. Precarity in the Brussels-Capital Region: The Issues at Stake for Public Policy in Response to the Precarization of Single-parent Families in Brussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wagener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of precarization is analysed in different manners in most literature concerning contemporary stakes of western welfare states. In comparison to other countries, Belgium has known a rather specific and delimited effect of the economic crisis from 2008, but certain groups face rather an ongoing effect of precarization on multiple and intertwined aspects. The aim of the article is to analyse the situation of precarity of single-parent families in the Brussels-Capital Region. The attention to that group is related to its higher risk of precarity and poverty. Furthermore it allows analysing the limits of public policies in the fight against poverty and precarity, that are clearly inadequate. Various options in terms of public policies and legal measures in the fight against poverty are discussed from three different angles of perspective: socioeconomic positions, social integration and the subjective experience (Dubet 1994. The tension between recognition and redistribution measures is central (Fraser 2011 in the argumentation for a balanced vision of policy measures to address single-parent poverty. La literatura científica sobre las apuestas contemporáneas de los estados de bienestar occidentales analiza de forma diferente el proceso de precarización. En comparación con otros países, Bélgica ha vivido desde 2008 un efecto de la crisis económica bastante específico y delimitado. Sin embargo, algunos grupos se enfrentan a un proceso de precarización continuo en numerosos aspectos, interrelacionados entre sí. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la situación de precariedad de las familias monoparentales de la región de Bruselas capital. La atención a ese grupo está relacionada con su mayor riesgo de precariedad y pobreza. Además, permite analizar los límites de las políticas públicas en la lucha contra la pobreza y la precariedad, que son claramente insuficientes. Se analizan desde tres puntos de vista diversas

  13. Private hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.L.; Bourgeacq, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses different aspects of exporting the American knowledge and experience in the private development of small-scale hydropower projects. It details the export and adaptation/translation of American PURPA philosophy to other countries. The major stumbling blocks on the road to exportation are listed. The subject countries market evaluation is explained, as well as methods for researching and gathering the necessary information on a specific country. Methods of choosing a target country are discussed, and the criteria necessary for making a choice are detailed. The subject of legal framework and privatization of power generation issues overseas and the ways and means to help the export of U.S. expertise through U.S. Government programs are described. The subjects of financing and joint ventures with local entities are also included in this paper. Various scenarios for private development overseas are presented

  14. PRIVATE SECURITY IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.

  15. State Punishment and Private Prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovich, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    To date, the debate over private prisons has focused largely on the relative efficiency of private prisons as compared to their publicly run counterparts, and has assumed that, if private contractors can run the prisons for less money than the state without a drop in quality, then states should be willing to privatize. This comparative efficiency approach, however, has two significant problems. First, it is concerned exclusively with efficiency, despite the fact that the privatization of pris...

  16. Privatization in East Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Althammer, Jörg

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of east German privatization policy. It is argued that the restitution of old property rights has been a major obstacle to investment and that the attempt to sell two thirds of an economy in the market place is bound to be a failure. Such an attempt implies serious macro and microeconomic stock-flow problems which erode the sales prices of Treuhand assets, induce the Treuhand to slow down its sales, and reduce private investment. By combining a participation mo...

  17. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program

  18. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program.

  19. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    There is a great deal of confusion about the meaning of the concept public-private partnership (PPP). Much is written on the subject but only rarely do authors give an adequate account of what they mean when they talk about PPP, nor do they acknowledge that there exist qualitatively different PPP...

  20. Private skoves naturkvaliteter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Tove Enggrob; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Private skovejere er spurgt om skovens indhold af naturværdier. Store ejendomme har flere forskellige naturværdier end mindre ejendomme. Ejere af store ejendomme mener at skovens naturværdier har større betydning end ejere af mindre ejendomme. Samarbejde og øget indtjening i relation til øgede na...

  1. At private den

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida

    2006-01-01

    club (teens between 12-16 years) in Denmark will be presented. The teens are always situated end located when they use the cell phone. When they use it, temporary personal reserves are created, in which they do territorial demands. As the most obvious they forget themselves and ?go private?. It has...

  2. Private deprivation of liberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2017-04-02

    The Court of Appeal has ruled that a person is deprived of their liberty in their own home even though care and treatment was provided in the person's own home and funded using the person's money. In this article Richard Griffith discusses when a private deprivation of liberty must be authorised by a welfare order from the Court of Protection.

  3. Valuing Private Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity....

  4. Strategy in the Public and Private Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, John; Greve, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    . These and other factors complicated efforts to apply New Public Management and similar frameworks in strategy concepts in a governmental context. Partly also the traditional private-sector focus on single organizations did not resonate with the growth of network governance from the 1990s. The authors argue......Strategic concepts and practices first evolved in the private sector, so they evoked much controversy when they migrated to the public sector from the late 1970s onwards. Partly this was about their (in)applicability to the distinctive features of government organizations, in particular their focus...... on public as well as private value, their situation in a political rather than a market environment, their almost exclusive capacity to use legal authority to achieve purposes, and the extent to which they often need to share power over personnel and resources with other public sector agencies...

  5. PARENTAL DIVORCE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCDERMOTT, JOHN V.

    THE BEHAVIOR OF 16 CHILDREN THREE TO FIVE YEARS OLD AT THE TIME THEIR PARENTS WERE BEING SEPARATED AND DIVORCED WAS OBSERVED IN A PRIVATE, INDEPENDENT NURSERY SCHOOL. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WERE TO DISCOVER--(1) IF THE DIVORCE PERIOD IS A TIME OF SIGNIFICANT STRESS FOR THE CHILDREN, (2) HOW THE DIVORCE AFFECTS THE BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN, (3) HOW…

  6. A Home Economist Speaks Out: Need for a Parenting Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolny, Candice

    1996-01-01

    Social trends indicating change in family structure and roles, more single-parent and blended families, and the important role of parents in socialization demonstrate the need for parenting education. A parenting course should include understanding of healthy family life and parental roles, parenting styles, child development, and parenting…

  7. Public-Private Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten

    Public-private partnership has been a globally popular strategy for governments over the past two decades to deliver public-infrastructure. But private finance approaches have also been controversial, and there has been much written on issues such as defining and characterising partnerships......, valuing risk, measuring value-for-money and on questions of performance. Crucial matters of governance including aspects such as accountability and decision making have also been discussed. Whilst some of the appeal of the PPP approach to infrastructure may have waned since the global financial crisis...... the role of PPP as governance tool, the influence of PPP on urban and regional planning matters, PPPs and pension funds, changing forms of PPP transparency, and the psychological appeal of PPPs to citizens, ministers and markets. And above this, a meta-frame of the internationalisation of the PPP...

  8. Apaches push privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, S.

    1994-01-01

    Trying to drum up business for what would be the first private temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel rods, the Mescalero Apaches are inviting officials of 30 utilities to convene March 10 at the tribe's New Mexico reservation. The state public utilities commission will also attend the meeting, which grew from an agreement the tribe signed last month with Minneapolis-based Northern States Power Co

  9. Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

  10. Virtual private network (VPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan

    2006-01-01

    A virtual private network (VPN) is the essential security feature that allows remote monitoring systems to take advantage of the low communications cost of the internet. This paper introduces the VPN concept and summarizes the networking and security principles. The mechanics of security, for example, types of encryption and protocols for exchange of keys between partners, are explained. Important issues for partners in different countries include the interoperability and mutual accreditations of systems. (author)

  11. Private bankers pengeskabelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Gennem kredit- og långivning bidrager private banker til at øge pengemængden og blæse finansbobler op. Hvorfra kommer bankernes særlige ret til pengeskabelse? Bl.a. fra de engelske guldsmede i 1600-tallet, der først lånte ud af deres guld, men snart fandt det mere lukrativt blot at udlåne...

  12. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  13. Holocaust memory reconstruction among bereaved parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Louck, Keren; Saka, Yael

    2017-02-01

    Many studies have examined the trauma bereaved parents experience. The current study focuses on the role that the Holocaust's memory plays in the bereavement experience of parents who have lost a child in a terrorist attack in Israel. Forty bereaved parents were interviewed, using semistructured in-depth interviews. Bereaved parents related to the Holocaust memory as a meaningful experience in their private bereavement. The parents expressed dialectic feelings concerning their loss, personal victimization on the one hand and personal strength, and growth on the other hand. It seems that memory reconstruction of the Holocaust can be used as a coping resource.

  14. Private Law, Regulation, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    This paper critically engages with the European Regulatory Private Law thesis (ERPL). The main strength of ERPL is that it offers an entirely new perspective on European private law. However, as a complete theory of European private law, ERPL is too one-sided, both from a descriptive and from a

  15. Private Equity and Industry Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...

  16. Private political archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Chorążyczewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns

  17. Developing an Emotional Intelligence Program Training and Study Its Effectiveness on Emotional Intelligence of Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Problems That Living in Single Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Farzaneh; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Beh-pajooh, Ahmad; Yekta, Mohsen Shokoohi; Afrooz, Gholam Ali

    2017-01-01

    Development of children and adolescents' personality is strongly affected by their parents, and absence of one of them has an undesirable effect on their development, and makes them vulnerable to later psychological disorders and behavioral problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an emotional intelligence training program and to…

  18. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  19. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...

  20. Private Sector Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....

  1. Private information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a technique allowing a user to retrieve an element from a server in possession of a database without revealing to the server which element is retrieved. PIR has been widely applied to protect the privacy of the user in querying a service provider on the Internet. For example, by PIR, one can query a location-based service provider about the nearest car park without revealing his location to the server.The first PIR approach was introduced by Chor, Goldreich, Kushilevitz and Sudan in 1995 in a multi-server setting, where the user retriev

  2. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Jeppesen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development. So-called ‘Green Networks’, ‘Cleaner Production Centres’, ‘Waste Minimisation Clubs’ are among others highlighted as alternatives to governmental regulation. While being...... promoted as an option for governments in the South to make up for lack of sufficient environmental legislation and enforcement, the majority of these examples, however, stem from countries in the North. Uncritical transfer of such concepts to contexts in the South along with substantial, external donor...

  3. The economy of privately owned windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Danish government ordered that an investigation of the economy of privately owned windmills be undertaken from 1991. Updating is a part of the follow-up of Danish energy policy designated ''Energi 2000'' (Energy 2000). The report contains descriptions of the calculation methods used and related conditions, data on individual privately owned windmills, a summary of the most important tax and duty regulations, details of conditions for private windmill owners, a sensitivity analysis and an analysis of the development of the economy of privately owned windmills since 1991. It is concluded that, based on the current values named in the 1991 report, there is a drop in the case of cooperatively owned windmills of ca. 235,000 DKr and a rise in current value in the case of one-man owned windmills of 270,000 DKr. It is concluded that the changed conditions of the economy since 1991 has resulted in a poorer economy in relation to cooperatively owned windmills and an improvement in single-ownership windmills so that the current value in the latter is now positive. (AB)

  4. Cosas de mujeres: familias monoparentales dominicanas en Barcelona y Nueva York Women’s issues: Dominican single-parent families in Barcelona and New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Alcalde

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos estudios a escala internacional y española avalan en la actualidad el riesgo de pobreza que presentan los hogares monoparentales encabezados por mujeres en las sociedades contemporáneas desarrolladas. Este artículo recoge  algunos de los principales resultados de sendas investigaciones llevadas a cabo en las ciudades de Barcelona y Nueva York sobre la incidencia de estas formas de hogar entre las mujeres inmigrantes, focalizando el análisis en las mujeres dominicanas.Several international and Spanish studies have shown that one-parent families are at considerable risk of poverty in contemporary and developed societies, particularly when the mother is the head, which is usually the case. This paper  provides the main results of some research carried out in Barcelona and New York about one-parent families and immigrant women, with particular emphasis on Dominican women.

  5. Privatization between Professionism and Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Lefter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Privatization has become a truly global process which varies significantly from one country to another. The real test for the privatization experts is to take into account not only the international best practice but also the local cultural and economic conditions. In the field of public utilities, France pioneered the system of privatization by contracting-out or gestion déléguée - delegated management.

  6. Privatization between Professionism and Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Lefter

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Privatization has become a truly global process which varies significantly from one country to another. The real test for the privatization experts is to take into account not only the international best practice but also the local cultural and economic conditions. In the field of public utilities, France pioneered the system of privatization by contracting-out or gestion déléguée - delegated management.

  7. A statewide review of postnatal care in private hospitals in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised in Australia and internationally regarding the quality and effectiveness of hospital postnatal care, although Australian women receiving postnatal care in the private maternity sector rate their satisfaction with care more highly than women receiving public maternity care. In Victoria, Australia, two-thirds of women receive their maternity care in the public sector and the remainder in private health care sector. A statewide review of public hospital postnatal care in Victoria from the perspective of care providers found many barriers to care provision including the busyness of postnatal wards, inadequate staffing and priority being given to other episodes of care; however the study did not include private hospitals. The aim of this study was replicate the review in the private sector, to explore the structure and organisation of postnatal care in private hospitals and identify those aspects of care potentially impacting on women's experiences and maternal and infant care. This provides a more complete overview of the organisational structures and processes in postnatal care in all Victorian hospitals from the perspective of care providers. Methods A mixed method design was used. A structured postal survey was sent to all Victorian private hospitals (n = 19 and key informant interviews were undertaken with selected clinical midwives, maternity unit managers and obstetricians (n = 11. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and interview data analysed thematically. Results Private hospital care providers report that postnatal care is provided in very busy environments, and that meeting the aims of postnatal care (breastfeeding support, education of parents and facilitating rest and recovery for women following birth was difficult in the context of increased acuity of postnatal care; prioritising of other areas over postnatal care; high midwife-to-woman ratios; and the number and

  8. TWRS privatization bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety.

  9. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    businesses and represent operable units for the clients and citizens. Cases are focused within education and healthcare. The analysis suggests that another type of economy apparently is in play. It is thus characteristic within education projects in UK that the largest portion of small PPPs are of a size......Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded...... by the authorities, which recommend sizes over 13,5 million € (100 million DKr). PPP is here understood as Design, Build, Finance and Operate projects. The paper shows, when looking at Germany, Italy and United Kingdom, that small PPP (below 13,5 million €) are widespread in two investigated countries; United...

  10. TWRS privatization bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information.

  11. TWRS privatization bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety

  12. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby Petersen, Ole

    This PhD dissertation studies national similarities and differences in policy and regulation of public-private partnerships (PPPs), with an empirical focus on Denmark and Ireland. The starting point and motivation for the study is the observation that whereas PPPs are often depicted in the academic...... literature and in policy practice as a globally disseminated governance scheme, in reality, a closer examination of the PPP reform landscape reveals significant differences in national governments’ PPP policy and regulation and in the amount of actually implemented PPP projects. By comparing the initiatives...... taken by the Irish government, which has embraced PPPs, with those of the Danish government, which has been a PPP sceptic, this study inquires into the fundamental questions as to how, why and to what consequences some governments have developed widespread policy and regulation frameworks to support...

  13. Effective Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Effective Parenting Page Content Article Body Now that our children ... school play and his soccer games. Your Current Parenting Experiences Spend some time thinking about how you ...

  14. Working Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... working-parent families are no longer exceptional. The Impact of Working When both parents are occupied with ... and perform a relaxation exercise. Or during your coffee breaks, forgo coffee and doughnuts and take a ...

  15. Heating plant privatization stagnates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Benka, M.; Sobinkovic, B.; Haluza, I.

    2005-01-01

    The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector

  16. The Effect of a Parent Education Program on Selected Aspects of Parental Behavior: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Daniel David

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to measure the impact of a specific style of parent education on parental behavior with their children. Six families, chosen by invitation from among parents participating in the Carbon County, Utah parent education programs, participated in the study. A BAB-ABBA single case experimental design was…

  17. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type and adolescent functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship

  18. TWRS Privatization Phase 1 Master Site Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARAZIN, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen to accomplish the Tank Waste Remediation System disposal mission via privatization. The disposal mission has been divided into two privatization phases. Phase I, a 'proof of concept' phase, will establish and demonstrate the technical, commercial, and procurement capabilities necessary far privatization to proceed. Once established, privatization will be expanded in the form of a second phase (Phase II) to dispose of the remainder of the tank waste. In conjunction with preparation of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP)(RL, 1996), a location was selected for the Phase I demonstration facilities (Shord, 1996). The location selected was the area previously developed and characterized for the Grout Disposal Site, adjoining the 200 East Area. The site is of sufficient size for a Private Contractor (PC) to carry out pretreatment, immobilization, and vitrification operations and possesses the required characteristics (e.g., close to feed tanks) to best facilitate the Phase I operations. This overall long-range Master Site Plan (MSP) has been developed to establish a ''baseline'' for the (TWRS) Privatization Phase I (TPPI) PC Site. The MSP depicts the planned layout for the PC Site along with various interfaces between the site and other Hanford utilities and functions. The complete integration of TPPl MSP with overall Hanford Site planning process will assist in establishing the PC site and the necessary priorities to meet the Hanford cleanup mission. The MSP has been developed systematically into a comprehensive, safe, flexible, logical and cost-effective plan. The general philosophy behind the preparation of a MSP for the TPPl program is that it will serve as a single source documentation of the planning for the development of the TPPl complex. The effort will plan temporary and permanent land use, utilities, and traffic flow for the overall program. It will identify needs

  19. Violência doméstica contra crianças: nível de conhecimento dos pais de crianças em escolas pública e privada Domestic violence against children: knowledge of parents of children enrolled in public and private schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Soares Biscegli

    2008-12-01

    /caregivers of children from one public and one private school in Catanduva, São Paulo State, Brazil. RESULTS: The questionnaires were sent to caregivers in the public school and (1429 and private school (256, and they were answered respectively by 670 (47% and 115 (45% of them. The answers were (private/public school: 1 do not approve physical punishment by educators (99/96%; 2 draw the attention of children to bad behavior (90/92%; 3 disagree that "slapping" prepares for life (80/66%; 4 agree that it is wrong to reprimand children in front of others (87/73%; 5 agree that "slaps/smacks" affect the relationship between parents and children (59/57%; 6 talk about "mistakes" as a part of education (97/91%; 7 agree that "insulting" causes damage to a child (81/60%; 8 think that "fear" is not the same as "respect" (86/57%; 9 agree that a "child does not forget easily" (92/79%; 10 agree with child abuse notification (93/90%; 11 worry about violence in someone else's house (51/30%; 12 know that domestic violence may kill (97/94%; 13 consider the violence level in their homes low (89/86%. There were diferences between schools regarding questions 3, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 11 (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers of children attending elementary schools are aware of the main concepts regarding child abuse, although participants from the public school presented a worse performance regarding educational questions.

  20. Advanced Introduction to Private Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this Advanced Introduction, the reader is taken on an intellectual journey through the different facets and dimensions of private law, from the family home to Kuta Beach and from Thomas Piketty to Nina Hagen. This concise book provides an accessible and fresh introduction to private law,

  1. Entrepreneurial Crowdfunding without Private Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke

    Today's crowdfunding raises funds for tiny, private entrepreneurial ventures without granting funders private claims to a project's future value. Rather than “investments,” these are “contributions.” This paper argues that for such crowdfunding neither producer nor consumer surplus – i.e., project...

  2. Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagley, Constance; Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a game theory and law-and-management analysis of for- profit pharmaceutical public-private partnerships, a complex type of legal arrangement in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical public-private partnership (PPPP) agreement is a legally binding...

  3. Privatization alone is not enough

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    n. Privatization Alone Is Not Enough. The sale of Egyptian state interests in cement was only the beginning in a long process to establish an efficient and competitive industry. The privatization of state-owned companies attracted new players to Egypt's cement industry and generated export growth. But at the time, the market ...

  4. Introduction : Ethnographies of Private Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassiani, Erella; Diphoorn, T.G.

    2017-01-01

    This introduction emphasizes the value of an anthropological lens within the research on private security. Although much scholarly work has been conducted on private security throughout the past decades, anthropological attention for this subject was somewhat delayed. Yet, the works that have

  5. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  6. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  7. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic...... stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...

  8. Parents Bereaved by Infant Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentiallytraumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic...... posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)´symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Methods: Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study...

  9. Family structure and park use among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A; Das, Kirti V

    2012-11-01

    Despite the increasingly diversified family structure in the U.S., little research examines differences in park use between nontraditional and traditional family structures. This study examines family-structure differences in parent park use. It was hypothesized that working single parents and dual-worker parents have lower levels of park use than parents in two-parent, single-worker families. Data from a 2010 park-use survey in three urban neighborhoods in Minneapolis MN (N=261 parents) were analyzed in 2012. Multiple variables of park use were developed, including recalled measures over the past 3 days and over the past year. Family-structure differences in these variables were examined using multivariate regression analyses. After controlling for spatial clustering effects and confounding factors, working single parents reported 32.6% (pparents in two-parent, single-worker families. Dual-worker parents did not report fewer park visits in the past 3 days than parents in two-parent, single-worker families, yet the length of time they spent in parks during these visits was 41.5% (pparents and dual-worker parents is needed in descriptive and intervention research aiming to promote park use among families with children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Principal Performance in Public and Private Sector Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Iram; Cheema, Khaliq Ur Rehman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the performance in context of student learning of principals in public sector and private sector schools. For this purpose five main domains were used as variables are: 1) teaching, learning and professional growth, 2) Inter-personal and inter-professional relationship and collaboration, 3) Parent and faculty involvement in decision making, 4) Vision and values, 5) Innovation and change. The population for this study was selected randomly. The target sa...

  11. Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV: Single Centre Experience of 14 years at Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, A G; Chawla, Sonia; Bhaskaran, Sruthi

    2017-08-01

    Prevention of Parent To Child Transmission (PPTCT) of HIV/AIDS is an integral component of AIDS control programme. PPTCT is an ongoing programme since last 15 years. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction in the burden of disease in newborn and infants by prevention of parents to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. This retrospective study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi from May 2002 to May 2015. The data was collected from records of maternal details registered at PPTCT clinic as well as list of infants undergoing Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) recorded in the standard format as per instructions from National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) of India. The Programme performance was assessed against performance indicators stated by NACO, India. Evaluation was done by dividing study period into two halves of seven years each. Out of 2,52,447 new antenatal case registration, overall, 43% received pretest of which, 91% were tested. Antenatal seropositivity rate varied from 0.1%-0.25%. Of 243 seropositive antenatal women 187 partners tested positive. While 25 women opted for MTP, 15 had still births. There were 17 neonatal deaths at 3-12 months attributable to respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases. Operative delivery rates declined from 50% to 31% over the years. Most women opted for breast feeding. The lost to follow up rate of newborns was quite high with details of only 43.5% being available at 18 months of infant's age. A total of three infants tested HIV positive at 18 months of age. The study highlights the practical aspects of policy implementation and operational issues involved in low resource country.

  12. Privatization and the allure of franchising: a Zambian feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Wight, Jonathan B

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to privatize portions of the health sector have proven more difficult to implement than had been anticipated previously. One common bottleneck encountered has been the traditional organizational structure of the private sector, with its plethora of independent, single physician practices. The atomistic nature of the sector has rendered many privatization efforts difficult, slow and costly-in terms of both organizational development and administration. In many parts of Africa, in particular, the shortages of human and social capital, and the fragile nature of legal institutions, undermine the appeal of privatization. The private sector is left with inefficiencies, high prices and costs, and a reduced effective demand. The result is the simultaneous existence of excess capacity and unmet need. One potential method to improve the efficiency of the private sector, and thereby enhance the likelihood of successful privatization, is to transfer managerial technology--via franchising--from models that have proven successful elsewhere. This paper presents a feasibility analysis of franchizing the successful Bolivian PROSALUD system's management package to Zambia. The assessment, based on PROSALUD's financial model, demonstrates that technology transfer requires careful adaptation to local conditions and, in this instance, would still require significant external assistance.

  13. State Government, Its Relationship to Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Joseph M.; Kenyon, Regan

    1982-01-01

    In examining the state's role in private education, this article discusses court cases bearing on state services to private schools, state regulation of different types of private schools, collaborative efforts between public and private schools, and emerging state attitudes toward private education. (Author/WD)

  14. SWOT analysis & privatization in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Družić Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal framework for privatization in Croatia was based on two key laws: the Transformation Act of 1991, and the Privatization Act of 1993, amended in 1996. Early start of privatization process in 1990s in Croatia was marked by the transformation of socially-owned companies into stock holding companies or limited liability companies. The first step (1991-1993 of this process of almost 2700 companies which entered privatization was their evaluation and transformation into private ownership entities. The second step (1994- 1997 consisted of privatization of CPF portfolio. The portfolios change constantly, not only as a result of privatization but also because companies themselves change, as does their position in the market. The third step (1998 in the privatization process was voucher privatization. Privatization of large infrastructure and utility companies designated as public enterprises began in 1999 (Croatian Telecom and INA in 2002 (public enterprises are privatized on the basis of separate laws. Attempts to discuss privatization in Croatia in terms of SWOT analysis have been motivated by the stark difference among Croatian professional economists in an appraisal of Croatia's performance during the transition process in general and of the privatization process in particular. Therefore we considered the elements of SWOT analysis to be an acceptable way to delve into the confusing world of bickering arguments on the state and perspective of the Croatia's privatization process. In this paper we have tried to provide an impartial approach by employing two criteria i.e. strength and weaknesses in judging the events and results of the privatization process in Croatia. Strength of the overall privatization process can be mostly ascribed to the institutional swiftness on micro as well as on macro level. On the micro level 80% of the companies were formally privatized in the first two years despite unfavorable external conditions comprising the

  15. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  16. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. GAME (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment): protocol of a single blind randomised controlled trial of motor training, parent education and environmental enrichment for infants at high risk of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Catherine; Novak, Iona; Dale, Russell C; Guzzetta, Andrea; Badawi, Nadia

    2014-10-07

    Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability of childhood and early detection is possible using evidence based assessments. Systematic reviews indicate early intervention trials rarely demonstrate efficacy for improving motor outcomes but environmental enrichment interventions appear promising. This study is built on a previous pilot study and has been designed to assess the effectiveness of a goal - oriented motor training and enrichment intervention programme, "GAME", on the motor outcomes of infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with standard community based care. A two group, single blind randomised controlled trial (n = 30) will be conducted. Eligible infants are those diagnosed with CP or designated "at high risk of CP" on the basis of the General Movements Assessment and/or abnormal neuroimaging. A physiotherapist and occupational therapist will deliver home-based GAME intervention at least fortnightly until the infant's first birthday. The intervention aims to optimize motor function and engage parents in developmental activities aimed at enriching the home learning environment. Primary endpoint measures will be taken 16 weeks after intervention commences with the secondary endpoint at 12 months and 24 months corrected age. The primary outcome measure will be the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale second edition. Secondary outcomes measures include the Gross Motor Function Measure, Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Parent well-being will be monitored using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. This paper presents the background, design and intervention protocol of a randomised trial of a goal driven, motor learning approach with customised environmental interventions and parental education for young infants at high risk of cerebral palsy. This trial is registered on the Australian

  18. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts

  19. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  20. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  1. Private schools and school enrollment in Chicago

    OpenAIRE

    William Sander

    2006-01-01

    Does enrollment in private school increase educational attainment? After reviewing some research on national trends concerning private (versus public) schooling, the author examines how private school options in the Chicago metropolitan area might affect academic achievement for various demographic groups.

  2. Business associations and private ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, Jens

    We study the capacity of business associations—private, formal, noncommercial organizations designed to promote the common business interests of their members—to support contract enforcement and collective action. Inspired by recent empirical literature, our theoretical framework connects the

  3. Brexit, Private Equity and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, M.; Wilson, N.; Gilligan, J.; Bacon, N.; Amess, K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the expected impact of Brexit on private equity and its implications for management research. Specifically, we explore the implications for PE funds and funding, and at the portfolio firm level with respect to employment and performance.

  4. Private Military Companies: An Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, II, James M

    2008-01-01

    ...) as defense contractors. The history of privatized security, consideration of ethical and legal issues, and examination of three case studies allows assessment of PMCs in accordance with five criteria for success...

  5. Business Associations and Private Ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the capacity of business associations - private, formal, noncommercial organizations designed to promote the common business interests of their members - to support contract enforcement and collective action. Inspired by recent empirical literature, our theoretical framework

  6. "Private Views" Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise ja eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. "Private Views" ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi

  7. 'Private Views' Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise js eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. 'Private Views' ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi.

  8. Global Order and Security Privatization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howe, Herbert

    1998-01-01

    Nation-states are losing their monopoly over military might. Private security firms are filling a void by offering military services and security for national governments and non-governmental organizations...

  9. Cabo Verde - Private Sector Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The objective of the Private Sector Development Project activities of the 2005-2010 Cabo Verde Compact was to support Cabo Verde's long-term economic transformation...

  10. Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagley, Constance; Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a game theory and law-and-management analysis of for- profit pharmaceutical public-private partnerships, a complex type of legal arrangement in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical public-private partnership (PPPP) agreement is a legally binding...... contract be- tween a private pharmaceutical enterprise and a public research university (or a private university conducting publicly funded research) to support research leading to new commercial pharmaceutical and biologic products. The key purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical explanation...... and a practical perspective on how properly crafted PPPP arrangements can promote innovation more efficiently than traditional self-optimizing contracts. In particular, a properly framed binding contract, coupled with respect for positive incentives, can move the parties away from an inefficient prisoners...

  11. Private Security Contractors in Darfur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the role of Private Security Contractors in Darfur reflects and reinforces neo-liberal governmentality in contemporary security governance. It is an argument (in line with other articles in this special issue) which is more interested in discussing how the privatization....... It underlines that governance is increasingly taking place through a set of (quasi-) markets, it is marked by entrepreneurial values, and a hands off approach to governance. We then discuss the way this overall change is reflected in and reinforced by the role of private security contractors in Darfur. Drawing...... at these processes is necessary to understand the role of private security contractors in Darfur. But more than this, practices in Darfur entrench neo-liberal governmentality in security more generally. The managerial and `de-politicizing' approach to security in Darfur displaces alternative views not only...

  12. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  13. Parents' Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, George C.

    A psychologist discusses efforts at the Boston Center for Blind Children to help parents adjust to the demands of their multiply-handicapped, visually-impaired children. The following programs are found to be helpful: an infant home visiting program (see EC 062 470)in which parents develop their role through participating in an individualized…

  14. Clarifying Parents' and Pediatricians' Views of Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard C; Pascoe, John

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of partnership in improving health care outcomes among children, there is a substantial need to understand better what partnership means to parents and physicians. The goal of this study was to develop a partnership survey that was based on parents' and pediatricians' opinions about the key concepts of partnership. Parents of patients visiting an affluent suburban private practice and a federally qualified health center, and 2 groups of pediatricians, were asked to review 61 partnership concepts and identify those they considered as being important to partnership. Parents and pediatricians from both practices agreed that 42 (68.9%) of the concepts were important to partnership. Sixteen of these concepts were dropped because they were redundant. Parents from both the suburban practice and health center identified 5 (8.2%) concepts that they believed contributed to partnership. Seven (11.5%) concepts were viewed as important to parents and pediatricians from the suburban practice but not to parents from the health center. Significant socioeconomic differences between the 2 parent groups suggested factors that explained the differences between parent groups. The 38 concepts endorsed by parents and pediatricians provided a nuanced view of partnership and formed the Parent Pediatrician Partnership Survey. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  15. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization and Impact of a Single Dose of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Indian Children With HIV and Their Unvaccinated Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Bikas K; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Ganaie, Feroze; Bhaskar, Arun; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Moss, William J; Panda, Samiran; Ravikumar, Kadahalli Lingegowda; Das, Ranjan Saurav; Mandal, Sutapa

    2018-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases risk of invasive disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) prevent invasive disease and acquisition of vaccine type (VT) pneumococcus in the nasopharynx. To look at the safety and impact of one dose of PCV13 on acquisition of VT pneumococcal carriage in Indian children with HIV. We conducted a cohort study in families of HIV-infected children (CLH) and families of HIV-uninfected children (HUC) in West Bengal. All children received one dose of PCV13. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children and parents at baseline and 2 months after vaccination. One hundred and fifteen CLH and 47 HUC received one dose of PCV13. Fifty-eight percent of CLH were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the median nadir CD4 count was 287. There were no significant adverse events in either group. HUC had more VT colonization than CLH-55% versus 23% of all pneumococcal isolates. HIV infection doubled the risk of nonvaccine serotype colonization (P = 0.03). There was no difference in acquisition of VT isolates in CLH (4.4%) and HUC (4.5%) post-PCV13; however, older CLH (>5 years) had decreased clearance of VT strains. ART made no difference in pneumococcal colonization at baseline or after PCV13; however, CLH with higher nadir CD4 counts before starting ART were less likely to have VT colonization post-PCV13 (prevalence ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.5). While there was no difference in acquisition of VT nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus in CLH and HUC after one dose of PCV13, earlier access to ART may impact response to PCV13 in CLH.

  16. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on a morning session at a pedagogical training course for a group of teachers at a small Danish public school. Using role-play, these teachers, under the guidance of a consultant and an actor, were practicing ‘the difficult conversation' with parents. I had been given permission...... and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...... to the teachers' description, and the teachers' authority is very easily threatened by parents who suppose that their experiences are relevant. The training situation in itself confirms that the parents are the opponents, and that the teachers should take care.The training course had been developed by the school...

  17. Naturalistic Observation in the Study of Parent-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    This project investigated patterns of parental authority among Berkeley preschool children and the processes by which these parents contributed to the development of children's social responsibility and individuality. Subjects were 140 families from city-sponsored, private cooperative, and university-operated nursery schools. Eight constructs were…

  18. Determinants of Parental Choice in Schooling: The Coquitlam Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Susana

    Parents living in the Coquitlam School District in British Columbia can choose between public and private schools and between English language and French immersion programs in the public schools. This study investigates the choice-making behavior of parents enrolling their children in kindergarten in fall 1977 in terms of socioeconomic factors,…

  19. Parents' Involvement in Secondary School Administration as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between parents' involvement in secondary school administration and school effectiveness in Nigeria adopting a descriptive survey research. The population was all the teachers, principals and parents of students in all public and private secondary schools in the South-East Zone of ...

  20. Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, John F.

    A preliminary evaluation and report were conducted of the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public Schools' (MPS) Parental Choice Program (PCP) following its first year of operation. The state legislated program provides an opportunity for students meeting specific criteria to attend private, non-sectarian schools in Milwaukee. A payment from public funds…

  1. European Private Law after the Treaty of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, G.; Hondius, E.H.

    2001-01-01

    The communitarization of the private law of the Member States has been given a significant impetus by the transfer of EC competence regarding judicial cooperation in civil matters from the third to the first pillar of the European Union. That is to say, under a new title of the EC Treaty, a single

  2. The exploration of service quality and its measurement for private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... places the focus on service quality leadership, service quality management systems, service quality dimensions and the measurement of service quality. Many businesses such as private higher education institutions. (PHEIs) regard service quality excellence as the single most important and distinct ...

  3. Factors influencing the future of paediatric private practice in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Malta, the health system is hybrid, with similarities to both UK system and the US system, where the National Health Service is supplemented by private practice. This is widely performed either as a primary job or as a supplement to a government salary. This article reviews unfavourable secular trends in Maltese fertility, births, marriages, separations, single parenthood and loans incurred after marriage, and relates them to (equally unfavourable in terms of private practice escalating numbers of paediatricians working in private practice. Overall, future prospects appear bleak for private practice in this branch of medicine, with a dwindling patient pool being shared by an ever-increasing number of paediatricians. The only identifiable factor that may mitigate is the potential for more private health insurance uptake. This must be coupled with a movement to improve the perception of a substantial proportion of the public that facilities are poorer in the private health sector than in the NHS service. Since Malta is a developed, EU country, these results may (cautiously be extrapolated to other, larger developed countries.

  4. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge...

  5. Feasibility of selected private money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Nevěděl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the entry: “Feasibility of selected private money” is the assessment of practicability of selected private money types as future currency especially in terms of attributes that the currency should meet to fulfil all claims required by its users. In the first step the features that the widely used currency has to have will be described and it will be analysed which of these features are characteristic for nowadays currencies (Czech crown and Euro too. In the second step private (unnationalized money will be described as well as several concepts derived from it. The paper will concern mainly on Hayek’s concept of private money and on particular variations of Local exchange trading systems. In the next part there will be pointed out good and bad features of these types of money, mainly from the view of characteristics that the proper currency should have. At the end it will be carried out the comparison of bad and good effects resulting from using of particular currencies types and I will decide about the applicability of analysed private money types. The paper uses the standard methods of scientific work. Firstly, the method of description is used to describe the development of private money concepts and characteristic features that the currency should have. Then, a comparative analysis is used to discuss the differences between contemporary currencies and unnationalized currencies as well as between required and real features of particular private money. At the end the method of synthesis, deduction and induction is used.

  6. Mixed, private, and public educational financing regimes: economic growth and income inequality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trabelsi Salwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of mixed educational financing is rarely evoked in the literature, although the financial contribution of parents in the public educational system can be significant. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the mixed system and public and private ‘extreme’ systems in terms of economic growth and social disparity. For developing countries and for heterogeneous individuals, the mixed system is widely preferred. For homogeneous agents the public and private systems cannot lead to better economic performance than the mixed system. The public system always reduces social inequality, in contrast to the mixed and private systems, which generate the same level of inequality.

  7. Parenting stress and parental bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Diendorfer-Radner, Gabriela; Willnauer, Ruth; Jörgl, Gudrun; Hager, Veronika

    2005-01-01

    Attachment experiences are thought to be important because of their implications for later development. The authors' aim with the questionnaire-based study was to investigate the differences between recalled parental bonding regarding 4 types of maternal and paternal bonding with respect to experienced parenting stress caused by child characteristics, parent attributes, and life events under the consideration of the child's gender and age. The authors gathered parental bonding behavior data with the German version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The authors assessed parenting stress with their German version of the "Parenting Stress Index (PSI)." They found significant differences among 120 mothers grouped in the 4 maternal and the 4 paternal bonding types regarding parenting stress caused by child, maternal bonding: F(5, 113) = 4.13, p = .002, paternal bonding: F(5, 111) = 8.50, p mothers who themselves recalled the "optimal parental bonding type" with respect to the child and parental domain. The authors did not find any significant differences between the 4 maternal, F(5, 113) = 1.25, p = .29, and the 4 paternal, F(5, 111) = 1.87, p = .106, bonding types with respect to the life stress. According to the authors' findings, the representation of attachment relationships seems to have a special impact on the adult's capacity to cope with challenges and stress, either directly or indirectly as an internal working model of attachment. For the clinical practice, these findings seem to recommend the combination of both the PSI and PBI regarding the diagnostic of stressful mother-child system to plan an optimal intervention program.

  8. Bundling the procurement of sports infrastructure projects : How neither public nor private actors really benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Public-private partnerships for infrastructure development are often conceived as puzzling governance tools. A peculiar case in Belgium has been the procurement of multiple similar projects to single private sector partners who design, build, finance and maintain infrastructure for a fixed

  9. The "Decline" of Private Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    No topic in private higher education study has attracted as great attention globally as has growth. This is appropriate as private growth has soared to nearly a third of the world's total higher education enrolment. But while private growth continues to be the dominant trend, important declines in private shares have emerged. These must be…

  10. The views of parents who experience intergenerational poverty on parenting and play: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Stagnitti, K; Lewis, A J; Pépin, G

    2015-11-01

    There is minimal literature on how parents experiencing intergenerational poverty view their role as parents and the value they place on children's play. The objective of this study was to examine how these parents view their parenting role and their beliefs about children's play. Thirteen mothers of preschool-aged children who experienced intergenerational poverty were recruited to the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Parents described their role as guiding their children to become 'good' people, to teach them skills and provide a routine within the home. There were two disconnections in the data including the view that whilst parenting was hard and lonely, it was also a private matter and participants preferred not to seek support. A second disconnection was in terms of their beliefs about play. Parents believed that whilst play was valuable to their child's development, it was not their role to play with children. However, if parents did play with their child, they noticed positive changes in their child's behaviour. The views of parents who experienced intergenerational poverty were similar to other reported findings in parenting studies. However, the current sample differed on not seeking help for support as well as not seeing their role as playing with their children, even though occasions of joining their child in play were associated with a positive change in their relationship with their child. This has implications for communicating about parenting issues with parents who have experienced intergenerational poverty. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Privatizing health care: caveat emptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D W

    1990-01-01

    Many Western European countries are moving toward privatization of their health care systems. The United States' health care system, since it is almost entirely privatized, is therefore worthy of study. Doing so raises several questions. How is privatization being managed in the US? How could its management be improved? What management lessons must be kept in mind if it is to be used effectively? What potential pitfalls should European countries consider as they move toward greater privatization? With operating costs, European countries must avoid the mistakes that have led to dramatic increases in annual health care costs in the US, simultaneous with reductions in access and quality. Doing so requires designing systems that promote hospital behavior consistent with a country's health objectives. With capital costs, an approach must be designed that allows policy-makers to work closely with both managers and physicians in order to make strategically sound choices about access and quality. Such an approach will require physicians to incorporate their clinical judgments into community standards of care, and to adopt a regional (rather than an institutional or personal) perspective in the determination of any incremental capital expenditures. By making regulation proactive and strategic, rather than punitive, health policymakers in Western Europe can achieve the best privatization has to offer without feeling the sting of its unintended consequences. In so doing they can help to move their health systems toward achieving the multiple and illusive goals of access, quality and reasonable cost.

  12. Teen Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Teen Parents Page Content Article Body A girl who ... prenatal vitamins and iron is so important. Preparing Teens For Parenthood Fears about the future are common ...

  13. Gravitating toward Science: Parent-Child Interactions at a Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szechter, Lisa E.; Carey, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the nature of parent-child conversations at an informal science education center housed in an active gravitational-wave observatory. Each of 20 parent-child dyads explored an interactive exhibit hall privately, without the distraction of other visitors. Parents employed a variety of strategies to support their children's…

  14. Multiple Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Paulo Cezar; Gramstrup, Erik Frederico

    2016-01-01

    With the modification of the family concept in human history, now considered the site of important value, aimed at personal fulfillment of its members, in line with the Federal Constitution of 1988 was enshrined in the principles of human dignity, affection, equal affiliations and plurality of family entities, recognizing the socio-affective parenting, founded in the state of emotional child, and biological, originally from consanguinity ties, arises multiple parenting in response to the full...

  15. Private Security Contractors in Darfur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2006-01-01

    of security alters security practices (including those involving states) than in thinking about their impact on an idealised public monopoly on the use of force. To make its point, the article begins by drawing on Foucauldian work to clarify the meaning of neo-liberal governmentality in security......This article argues that the role of Private Security Contractors in Darfur reflects and reinforces neo-liberal governmentality in contemporary security governance. It is an argument (in line with other articles in this special issue) which is more interested in discussing how the privatization....... It underlines that governance is increasingly taking place through a set of (quasi-) markets, it is marked by entrepreneurial values, and a hands off approach to governance. We then discuss the way this overall change is reflected in and reinforced by the role of private security contractors in Darfur. Drawing...

  16. Energy privatization: sensitivities and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Centre for Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy

    1997-12-31

    It is a commonly held belief at present that privatization will improve the efficiency of the state run energy sector, and benefit customers as well as the new owners, and the government selling the industry. Experience so far has been in well run Western economies, in particular in the UK, and even here many mistakes have been made, leading to increasingly strong intervention by regulators. In developing countries, where corruption is pervasive, efficient regulation is unlikely. Thus, privatisation may prove to be far worse for the consumer than the original state monopoly. The drive for privatization appears to be part ideological, part greed, as far as developing countries are considered. Certainly, political reform is needed before privatization can work in favour of the consumer. Examples are given from the UK electricity, gas, coal and rail industries.

  17. The Impunity of Private Authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2007-01-01

    In security, as in other areas, the emergence of transnational private organizations with a central role in governance poses profound challenges to established conceptions of international politics and democracy. This paper discusses one side of this challenge by looking at accountability...... of private security companies (PSCs). PSCs have become authorities in their own right in the security sphere. This has raised the question of their accountability and also resulted in considerable efforts to improve the accountability of the firms. This paper looks at why these efforts bear so little fruit....... It begins by pointing to the tension involved in any effort to hold an authority (private or public) accountable, namely the tension between the centrality of acceptance for authority and accountability measures that necessarily involve contestation. It then proceeds to analyse this tension in the case...

  18. Teens Parenting: The Challenge of Babies and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jeanne Warren

    This parenting guide for teenage parents of infants and toddlers incorporates numerous comments from 61 teenage parents who chose to stay in school after the birth of their child. Specific problems confronting young parents are addressed. These problems include single parenthood, early marriage, and the advantages and disadvantages of living with…

  19. Quantum Private Comparison Based on χ-Type Entangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Ming, Pan

    2017-10-01

    A two-party quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol is constructed with χ-type entangled states in this paper. The proposed protocol employs a semi-honest third party (TP) that is allowed to misbehave on his own but cannot conspire with the adversary. The proposed protocol need perform Bell basis measurements and single-particle measurements but neither unitary operations nor quantum entanglement swapping technology. The proposed protocol possesses good security toward both the outside attack and the participant attack. TP only knows the comparison result of the private information from two parties in the proposed protocol.

  20. Private Military and Security Contractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior a multinational team of 16 scholars and a practitioner from political science, sociology, and law address a developing phenomenon: controlling the use of privatized force by states in international politics. Robust...... analyses of the evolving, multi-layered tapestry of formal and informal mechanisms of control include addressing the microfoundations of the market: the social and role identities of contract employees, their acceptance by military personnel, and potential tensions between them. The extent and willingness...

  1. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution of the mult......This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution...

  2. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...... or if there might be other reasons for the concept to work so well there. The conclusion is that major cultural, economic, and political differences between the U.S. and the Nordic countries make it difficult to apply American theories and empirical findings to the Nordic region....

  3. Private support and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, F

    1998-01-01

    "The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt

  4. Children's divorce and parent-child contact: A within-family analysis of older European parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown that a parental divorce has a negative effect on parent-child relations. This study examines how adult children’s divorce affects the amount of contact children have with older parents, making a distinction between the effects of being single on the one hand and the

  5. Parental attitudes toward adolescent sexuality: transcultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, L; Thomas, J T

    1987-08-01

    The problem of teenage pregnancy continues to impact private and public resources, affecting all socioeconomic and cultural groups. A key factor for nurse practitioners to consider when planning sex education programs is the differing parental attitudes toward teenage sexuality. These attitudes are especially important to keep in mind when dealing with parents from minority cultural groups, as these groups are often highly influential in determining the nature of adolescent sexual behavior and attitudes toward reproduction. A study of Cuban and Haitian child-rearing practices clearly demonstrates two divergent parental views of adolescent sexuality. Nurse practitioners must recognize these differing views, and individualize their approach, in order to develop culturally sensitive sex education programs for adolescents and their parents. Suggestions are provided for development of such programs for Cuban and Haitian parents and children.

  6. Disparities in health insurance among children with same-sex parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn A

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine disparities in health insurance coverage for children with same-sex parents and to investigate how statewide policies such as same-sex marriage and second-parent adoptions affect children's private insurance coverage. We used data from the 2008-2010 American Community Survey to identify children (aged 0-17 years) with same-sex parents (n = 5081), married opposite-sex parents (n = 1369789), and unmarried opposite-sex parents (n = 101678). We conducted multinomial logistic regression models to estimate the relationship between family type and type of health insurance coverage for all children and then stratified by each child's state policy environment. Although 77.5% of children with married opposite-sex parents had private health insurance, only 63.3% of children with dual fathers and 67.5% with dual mothers were covered by private health plans. Children with same-sex parents had fewer odds of private insurance after controlling for demographic characteristics but not to the extent of children with unmarried opposite-sex parents. Differences in private insurance diminished for children with dual mothers after stratifying children in states with legal same-sex marriage or civil unions. Living in a state that allowed second-parent adoptions also predicted narrower disparities in private insurance coverage for children with dual fathers or dual mothers. Disparities in private health insurance for children with same-sex parents diminish when they live in states that secure their legal relationship to both parents. This study provides supporting evidence in favor of recent policy statements by the American Academy of Pediatricians endorsing same-sex marriage and second-parent adoptions.

  7. 76 FR 71329 - Request for Information Regarding Private Education Loans and Private Educational Lenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Regarding Private Education Loans and Private Educational Lenders AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial... Justice and the Federal Trade Commission, to prepare a Report on Private Education Loans and Private Education Lenders. The Bureau seeks information on private education loans and related consumer financial...

  8. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  9. Does private tutoring increase students' academic performance? Evidence from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.

  10. Access to elective surgery at electoral ward level: the impact of the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamden, K H; Sudell, A J

    1995-03-01

    Purchasers of health care receive no routine information on the use of the private health sector by their residents, and are consequently unaware of any resulting differentials in access to health services. This information would assist in assessing need for services on a locality basis. For the period 1990-1992 surgical activity data from the single private hospital in Preston were examined by electoral ward of residence and compared with corresponding NHS data. For the procedures examined, the private sector contributed only 8 per cent to overall surgical activity within Preston. People from the more affluent wards were far more likely to use the private sector than those from deprived wards. The private sector did not introduce any inequity of access to surgery within Preston at electoral ward level. However, in districts with higher levels of private sector activity significant differentials in access may exist.

  11. Tolerant indirect reciprocity can boost social welfare through solidarity with unconditional cooperators in private monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Isamu; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-08-29

    Indirect reciprocity is an important mechanism for resolving social dilemmas. Previous studies explore several types of assessment rules that are evolutionarily stable for keeping cooperation regimes. However, little is known about the effects of private information on social systems. Most indirect reciprocity studies assume public monitoring in which individuals share a single assessment for each individual. Here, we consider a private monitoring system that loosens such an unnatural assumption. We explore the stable norms in the private system using an individual-based simulation. We have three main findings. First, narrow and unstable cooperation: cooperation in private monitoring becomes unstable and the restricted norms cannot maintain cooperative regimes while they can in public monitoring. Second, stable coexistence of discriminators and unconditional cooperators: under private monitoring, unconditional cooperation can play a role in keeping a high level of cooperation in tolerant norm situations. Finally, Pareto improvement: private monitoring can achieve a higher cooperation rate than does public monitoring.

  12. Impact of Caregiving for a Child With Cancer on Parental Health Behaviors, Relationship Quality, and Spiritual Faith: Do Lone Parents Fare Worse?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Kearney, Julia; Mullins, Larry L.; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Zadeh, Sima; Farkas-Patenaude, Andrea; Pao, Maryland

    2015-01-01

    Caregiving stress has been associated with changes in the psychological and physical health of parents of children with cancer, including both partnered and single parents. While parents who indicate “single” on a demographic checklist are typically designated as single parents, a parent can be legally single and still have considerable support caring for an ill child. Correspondingly, an individual can be married/partnered and feel alone when caring for a child with serious illness. In the c...

  13. XPIR : Private Information Retrieval for Everyone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Melchor Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Private Information Retrieval (PIR scheme is a protocol in which a user retrieves a record from a database while hiding which from the database administrators. PIR can be achieved using mutuallydistrustful replicated databases, trusted hardware, or cryptography. In this paper we focus on the later setting which is known as single-database computationally- Private Information Retrieval (cPIR. Classic cPIR protocols require that the database server executes an algorithm over all the database content at very low speeds which impairs their usage. In [1], given certain assumptions, realistic at the time, Sion and Carbunar showed that cPIR schemes were not practical and most likely would never be. To this day, this conclusion is widely accepted by researchers and practitioners. Using the paradigm shift introduced by lattice-based cryptography, we show that the conclusion of Sion and Carbunar is not valid anymore: cPIR is of practical value. This is achieved without compromising security, using standard crytosystems, and conservative parameter choices.

  14. The Economics of Private Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe development of theory about private equity during the last decades follows the pattern of economic development. While buyouts have found their origin in restructuring we observe more recently a trend of facilitating growth, where the firm and financier follow a path of acquisitions.

  15. Renegotiating Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim

  16. Washington's public and private forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil McKay; Donald FL Gedney; Carol. Alerich

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes 1988-91 timber inventories of western and eastern Washington. These inventories were conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Data...

  17. The Problem of Private Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Abdollahi

    2014-09-01

    This language is, according to Wittgenstein, impossible because it leads to epistemological and semantic skepticism. The definition of private language contains two elements: the “privacy” and “referring to”. Wittgenstein shows how we may be trapped in solipsism and the only way to avoid this problem is to consider language as a social phenomenon.

  18. Private sector finance for adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atteridge, A.; Pauw, W.P.; Terpstra, P.; Bedini, F.; Bosi, L; Costella, C.

    2016-01-01

    An emphasis on private finance has emerged in climate finance discussions, particularly in the context of international climate change negotiations. This is partly because the overall volume of finance needed to support adaptation in developing countries is beyond what many expect public finance to

  19. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  20. Public interests in private hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijkerk, W.; Poort, J.; Schuurman, A.

    2003-03-01

    In this study several actual problems with respect to privatization in the Netherlands are discussed, focusing on the production and distribution of electricity, the harbour in Rotterdam and the airport Schiphol, the railway sector, and the waste management and processing sector. For each sector it is discussed what level of government and market involvement is required to give the best results [nl

  1. The structure of privatization plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Guney, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, large-scale privatization programs have transformed the structure of corporate ownership in many countries, and are a major cause of the development of their capital markets. They have contributed to nondebt financing of the public deficit, attracted foreign capital and

  2. Public Sector Unions and Privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employee...... influence primarily goes through a direct user channel, that is through union influence directed at the service users, whereas a minor effect possibly runs through a political channel, that is lobbying directed at the local politicians......., they have been unable to isolate a one-way effect, and the studies have not been attentive to whether the effect varies for different market forms. In this article, we focus on privatization in Denmark through a voucher market without price competition for eldercare services. Using new data for all 98...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...

  3. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development.…

  4. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  5. [Private medical education in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwörer, Beatrix; Wissing, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Through the years, a range of privately funded medical training opportunities has been established in Germany. Only a few of them operate along the German Medical Licensure Act and thus underlie quality assurance regulations in Germany. Most of the courses are a result of German hospitals cooperating with universities from other EU countries. The content of the courses and the examinations underlie the regulations of the university's home country. This article aims to give an overview of the private medical training opportunities offered in Germany and to show differences compared to state funded German medical schools. The authors discuss the opportunities of private medical training as well as its challenges and risks. Basic principles concerning finances and quality assurance of national and international private medical training are provided. Regardless of their mode of financing, the superior goal of the training, according to the German Medical Licensure Act, should always be to enable young doctors to pursue further professional training, so that they can maintain the best possible quality in patient care, research, and medical education.

  6. Financing a Private School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A recent National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) survey of more than 1,200 individuals who filed financial aid forms underscores the central role financial aid plays in their ability to pursue a private education for their children. This article highlights the survey findings, demonstrating why school leaders need to thoroughly analyze…

  7. IDRC on Private Sector Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    trade, and commerce as engines of economic growth. From its own practical support for private sector development, IDRC has learned that two kinds of assistance can pay dividends: improving the business environment, and stimulating innovation. If donor agencies work to enhance the general environment for business —.

  8. Private lenders’ demand for audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baylis, R.M.; Burnap, P.; Clatworthy, M.A.; Gad, Mahmoud; Pong, C.K.M.

    We study clauses in private lending agreements requiring auditors to assure lenders of borrowers’ compliance with financial covenants. Auditors are required under general purpose financial reporting to review covenant compliance. However, by informing lenders directly that they have no knowledge of

  9. Contemporary Public-private Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme; Greve, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the research agenda lineage on public-private partnerships (PPPs) from Broadbent and Laughlin's seminal piece in 1999. The PPP phenomenon is viewed at five levels: project delivery, organisational form, policy, governance tool and as a phenomenon within a broader historical...... contracts as a governing regime and (5) PPPs in BRICS and developing countries...

  10. Single-Parent and Working-Parent Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes Teaching Gardens Teaching Gardens Recognition Teaching Gardens-See Our ...

  11. Private Animal Welfare Standards—Opportunities and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary In all European countries, farmers keeping animals must comply with European and national animal welfare legislation. Each government has a responsibility to make sure that the legislation is complied with by the farmers. However, during the last decades it has become increasingly common that private organisations, such as the industry, farmers’ organisations, or animal welfare organisations, develop additional animal welfare regulations (‘private standards’) that the farmers also need to comply with. These private standards have the opportunity to improve animal welfare above the legislative level, however, in our study we have shown that this is not always the case and that all of these different private standards, in addition to the legislation, makes it difficult to get an overview of the animal welfare regulation and control arena. For the sake of the farmers, the animal welfare inspectors, the consumers, and the animals we conclude that it is important that policymakers consider this arena as a whole and not their own regulation as a single phenomenon. Abstract The current shift moves the governance of animal welfare away from the government towards the private market and the consumers. We have studied the intentions, content, and on-farm inspection results from different sets of animal welfare legislation and private standards with an aim to highlight the most important opportunities and risks identified in relation to the trend of increasingly relying on private standards for safeguarding or improving farm animal welfare. Our results show that different focuses, intentions, animal welfare requirements, inspection methods (i.e., methods for measuring and evaluating the compliance with a regulation), and inspection results, together with the use of vague wordings and a drive towards more flexible regulations does certainly not facilitate the interpretation and implementation of animal welfare regulations, especially not in relation to

  12. Women's Private Conversations about Abortion: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Stephanie; Kimport, Katrina; Cockrill, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is a relatively frequent experience, yet public discourse about abortion is contentious and stigmatizing. Little literature is available on private conversations about abortion, which may be distinct from public discourse. We explored private discourse by documenting the nature of women's discussions about abortion with peers in a book club. We recruited thirteen women's book clubs in nine states. Participants (n = 119) read the book Choice: True Stories of Birth, Contraception, Infertility, Adoption, Single Parenthood, & Abortion, and participated in a book club meeting, which we audio-recorded and transcribed. Data collection occurred between April 2012 and April 2013. In contrast to public discourse of abortion, private discourse was nuanced and included disclosures of multiple kinds of experiences with abortion. Participants disclosed having abortions, considering abortion as an option for past or future pregnancies, and supporting others through an abortion. Distinguishing between public and private discourse enabled us to identify that an "abortion experience" could include personal decisions, hypothetical decisions, or connection with someone having an abortion. The book club atmosphere provided a rare opportunity for participants to explore their relationship to abortion. More research is needed to understand the role of private discourse in reducing abortion stigma.

  13. Private Animal Welfare Standards-Opportunities and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Frida; Berg, Charlotte; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2018-01-02

    The current shift moves the governance of animal welfare away from the government towards the private market and the consumers. We have studied the intentions, content, and on-farm inspection results from different sets of animal welfare legislation and private standards with an aim to highlight the most important opportunities and risks identified in relation to the trend of increasingly relying on private standards for safeguarding or improving farm animal welfare. Our results show that different focuses, intentions, animal welfare requirements, inspection methods (i.e., methods for measuring and evaluating the compliance with a regulation), and inspection results, together with the use of vague wordings and a drive towards more flexible regulations does certainly not facilitate the interpretation and implementation of animal welfare regulations, especially not in relation to each other. Since farmers today often have to comply with several animal welfare regulations, including private standards, it is important to stress that a given regulation should never be seen as a single, stand-alone phenomenon, and the policymakers must hence consider the bigger picture, and apply the standards in relation to other existing regulations. This is especially relevant in relation to the legislation, a level that a private standard can never ignore.

  14. Associations between Private Speech, Behavioral Self-Regulation, and Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Tuija; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the associations between 5-year-old children's private speech, behavioural self-regulation, and cognitive abilities. Behavioural self-regulation was assessed using parental and preschool teacher questionnaires. Cognitive abilities (i.e., language, inhibition, planning and fluency, and memory) were assessed with neurocognitive tests,…

  15. The Public/Private Dichotomy: A Threat to Children's Fellow Citizenship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrem, Solveig

    2008-01-01

    When child-raising involves violence, a conflict of values arises between the parents' autonomy and the children's right to equal participation in a democratic society. In this article I discuss, from the perspective of discourse analysis, how a dichotomous understanding of the public versus private sphere can constitute a threat to children's…

  16. Family socio-economic profile and private spending on educational goods and services in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rokicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to theory, educational goods and services have an important impact on a child’s human capital. Although the majority of educational services in Poland are delivered within a public education system, various educational costs are borne by parents. This paper looks at the socio-economic determinants of private spending on education, including fees, private tutoring and courses, educational goods and materials, and the internet. The analysis was performed using the Polish Household Budget Survey for 2009 and 2010. Results from a logit regression suggest that disposable household income per capita and parental level of education, especially mother’s level of education have the greatest impact on spending on educational goods and services. This was true for all analysed categories of expenditure. Regional disparities and community size were an important factor especially with regards to spending on private tutoring and additional courses.

  17. Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

    1984-01-01

    Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

  18. Public-private or private-private energy partnerships? Toward good energy governance in regional and local green gas projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, Michiel A.; Sanders, Maurits; Harmsen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important avenue toward a proper ‘energy transition’ through regional and local projects is for government to collaborate with private sector organizations. In the energy sector, these latter organizations are often already involved in private-private partnerships for collaboration

  19. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...] Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and Acceptance for Review: Preliminary Application for Airglades Airport (2IS), Clewiston, Florida... Airport's preliminary application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received...

  20. NASA and Public-Private Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews ways to build public-private partnerships with NASA, and the many efforts that Ames Research Center is engaged in in building partnerships with private businesses, not profit organizations and universities.

  1. Private Practice Is Alive and Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Arnold M.

    1976-01-01

    Is private practice a superior service delivery mechanism? The author contends that, in affording the client his choice of a helper, private practice embodies the basic values of social work and stimulates workers to become more responsible and knowledgeable.

  2. Privatization and subsidization in a leadership duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a competition in both mixed and privatized markets, in which the firms set prices in a sequential way. We study the effects of optimal production subsidies in both mixed and privatized duopoly.

  3. How Social Security Payments Affect Private Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Donald; Hill, Diane

    1984-01-01

    Coordinating the two sources of retirement income--private pensions and Social Security--tends to lower employer costs and result in private pensions that replace a larger percentage of preretirement income for higher-paid workers. (Author/SK)

  4. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  5. Social and Private Costs of Youth Joblessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the literature concerning the costs of youth joblessness: (1) analyzes social costs, (2) discusses the private costs, (3) synthesizes the analyses of private and social costs, and (4) discusses the implications for policy and research. (JOW)

  6. Offentlig privat samarbejde i Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger baggrunden for Senegals regering og præsident Wades bestræbelser på at fremme ”privatisering” af nationalparken ”Niokolo Koba” og andre naturparker i Senegal gennem ”Public Private Partnership” (PPP) – det man på dansk vil kalde udlicitering. Jeg fokuserer på, hvilken form denne...... delvise privatisering tager, under påvirkning af de barrierer og interessekampe den støder på under den igangværende politiske proces. Det er i særdeleshed interessant, hvordan samspillet mellem internationale aktører på naturbevaringsområdet, udenlandske donorer, private investorer, Senegals regering...

  7. Collaborating with the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Advertising .‖ Center for Democracy & Technology. 14 Aug. 2009 <http://www.cdt.org/privacy/20080708ISPtraffic.pdf>. 19 18 U.S.C. §§ 2510-2522 20 Hudson...companies interviewed regarded FISA as government compulsion . During outreach, the private sector indicated it has little to gain under FISA other than...government that specify how Executive Branch agencies are to buy goods and services from commercial vendors.‖ 70 FAR provides rules that both agencies

  8. Private Donations for International Development

    OpenAIRE

    Micklewright, John; Wright, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Charitable donations by private individuals and firms can help fund the Millennium Development Goals. What are the prospects for increasing donations for international development, whether from small scale donors, the super-rich (as in the recent gifts by Bill Gates and Ted Turner), or the corporate sector? The paper starts by reviewing how large are the sums currently given in OECD countries (including gifts of time) and the problems development has in competing with domestic causes. It then...

  9. Private Cord Blood Banking: Experiences And Views Of Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Ian; Eapen, Mary; Sung, Lillian; Lee, Stephanie J.; Davies, Stella M.; Joffe, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Objective Private cord blood banks are for-profit companies that facilitate storage of umbilical cord blood for personal or family use. Pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) physicians are currently best situated to use cord blood therapeutically. We sought to describe the experiences and views of these physicians regarding private cord blood banking. Participants and Methods Emailed cross-sectional survey of pediatric HCT physicians in the United States and Canada. 93/152 potentially eligible physicians (93/130 confirmed survey recipients) from 57 centers responded. Questions addressed the number of transplants performed using privately banked cord blood, willingness to use banked autologous cord blood in specific clinical settings, and recommendations to parents regarding private cord blood banking. Results Respondents reported having performed 9 autologous and 41 allogeneic transplants using privately banked cord blood. In 36/40 allogeneic cases for which data were available, the cord blood had been collected because of a known indication in the recipient. Few respondents would choose autologous cord blood over alternative stem cell sources for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission. In contrast, 55% would choose autologous cord blood to treat high-risk neuroblastoma, or to treat severe aplastic anemia in the absence of an available sibling donor. No respondent would recommend private cord blood banking for a newborn with one healthy sibling when both parents were of Northern European descent; 11% would recommend banking when parents were of different minority ethnicities. Conclusions Few transplants have been performed using cord blood stored in the absence of a known indication in the recipient. Willingness to use banked autologous cord blood varies depending on disease and availability of alternative stem cell sources. Few pediatric HCT physicians endorse private cord blood banking in the absence of an identified recipient

  10. Single parent families: diversity, myths and realities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Shirley M. H

    1995-01-01

    ...: * * * . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Cults and the Family, edited by Florence Kaslow and Marvin B. Sussman Alternatives to Traditional Family Living, edited by Harriet Gross and Marvin B. Sussman...

  11. Defining the private partners in PPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Vleuten-Balkema, F.; Stam, N.

    2004-01-01

    Now that the public private partnerships are seen to be the way forward in solar electrification in developing countries, it is important to question who will be the private partner in the partnership? For decentralized energy technologies such as solar home systems, that are being disseminated to vast numbers of highly dispersed end-users, the private partners of today are the hundreds or thousands of often non specialized local entrepreneurs. The public private partnerships of tomorrow should be reoriented accordingly. (authors)

  12. CRIMINAL PROTECTION OF PRIVATE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU SLAVOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant, first of all, to analyze the incriminations that the new Romanian Criminal Code sets for the protection of a person’s private life as a social value of maximum significance both for the human being and for any democratic society as a whole.There are two criminal offences treated in this study that are not to be found in the current criminal legislation: violation of private life and criminal trespassing of a legal person’s property. Likewise, the study will bring forth the novelties and the differences regarding the offences of criminal trespassing of a natural person’s property, disclosure of professional secret, violation of secret correspondence, illegal access to computerized system and illegal interception of electronic data transfer – acts that when, directly or indirectly, committed can cause harm to the intimacy of a person’s life.As an expression of the interdisciplinary nature of this subject, the study also sets out, as a subsidiary aspect, an evaluation of the circumstances under which the new criminal proceeding legislation allows public authorities to interfere with an individual’s private life. Thus, the emphasis is on the analysis of the circumstances under which special surveillance and investigation techniques can be used as evidence proceedings regulated by the new Romanian Criminal Procedure Code.

  13. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration

  14. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive) material...

  15. Private labels : The brands of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of

  16. Private quantum subsystems and quasiorthogonal operator algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levick, Jeremy; Kribs, David W; Pereira, Rajesh; Jochym-O’Connor, Tomas; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory. (paper)

  17. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  18. 77 FR 58208 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Puerto Rico Public-Private Partnerships Authority for the participation of Luis Mu[ntilde]oz Mar[iacute]n... about the concerns, advantages or disadvantages of transferring the airport to a private operator. The... Authority and Puerto Rico Public-Private Partnerships Authority submitted a preliminary application to the...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  20. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person...

  1. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can, with...

  2. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person...

  3. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  4. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  5. TAXING OR AIDING PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES: EDUCATIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ekanem

    various merits/demerits of taxing or aiding private universities, and that private universities should not be taxed for now since they were still at the developing stage in Nigeria. Aids in the form of specific grant-in-aid should be given to the universities by government. It was recommended that private universities in Nigeria ...

  6. The Relation between Family Structure and Young Adolescents' Appraisals of Family Climate and Parenting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Fine, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Young adolescents who lived with both biological parents, single divorced mother, single divorced father, mother and stepfather, father and stepmother, or multiply divorced parent appraised dimensions of family climate and dimensions of parenting. Differences among family structures were found on warmth, conflict, permissive parenting, and…

  7. Diapers: What do Parents Choose and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanon, Amir; Feldman, William; James, William; Dulberg, Corinne

    1990-01-01

    Self-administered questionnaires about diaper choices and the reasons for such choices were completed by 600 parents of children younger than two years of age attending a hospital walk-in clinic or the private office of one of four pediatricians. Only 2.7% of the parents used cloth alone; another 15% used both cloth and disposable diapers; a further 18% reported having used cloth at some time. Convenience and rash prevention were reasons for choosing disposable diapers. Those who used only cloth washed at home cited cost and rash prevention. Those who used cloth diapers from a service cited convenience and rash prevention. Only 10% of parents received advice about diapers from their physicians, but 70% said they would follow such advice. Primary care providers can point out to parents that disposable diapers are more costly and present environmental concerns. PMID:21233992

  8. Parent and Child Agreement for Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology in a Prospective Study of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Single-Event Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…

  9. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AS A MECHANISM TO REDUCE SOCIAL RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    А. Oleynik

    2015-01-01

    The role of public-private partnership in the overall development of the country and its regions is determined in the article. The opinions of foreign and domestic scientists on the interpretation of the concept of PPP are analyzed, the main causes and social factors in favor of the introduction of PPP in Ukraine are determined. Singled out the main components of the PPP in the social sphere, including: public-regulation, public policy, transparency and accountability of PPP, financing and be...

  10. Privatization of oil companies in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, A.; Mommer, B.; McBeth, B.

    1995-01-01

    Three linked articles explore the current movement towards privatization in the various countries of South America. While the progress away from state control varies from country to country, the first article argues that the movement will offer economic benefits to the Latin American petroleum industry as a whole, despite the political difficulties which must be overcome. In the second article, public distaste for the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry back in 1943, petroleum engineers, economists, private sector representatives and oil industry employees all oppose wholesale privatization, favouring national and private investment within Venezuela. The last author argues for an efficient regulatory framework to oversee privatization schemes. (UK)

  11. The public- private split rearticulated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchorst, Anette

    2006-01-01

    The  chapter focuses on the background for the decision to abolish the Danish daddy leave of two weeks in 2001 with a particular emphasis on  problem definition, agenda setting and  path dependency. The decision is perspectivized by decisions on parental leave 1901-2001....

  12. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  13. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  14. Diapers: What do Parents Choose and Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Shanon, Amir; Feldman, William; James, William; Dulberg, Corinne

    1990-01-01

    Self-administered questionnaires about diaper choices and the reasons for such choices were completed by 600 parents of children younger than two years of age attending a hospital walk-in clinic or the private office of one of four pediatricians. Only 2.7% of the parents used cloth alone; another 15% used both cloth and disposable diapers; a further 18% reported having used cloth at some time. Convenience and rash prevention were reasons for choosing disposable diapers. Those who used only cl...

  15. Prison privatization and HIV prevention in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cregan, J

    Prison privatization is being increasingly discussed as an alternative that might help drive down the cost of corrections in Canada. An Australian conference recently addressed prison privatization. Australia has a long history with privatizing corrections and historically being the site of private penal colonies. Private and State-owned corporations own and manage Australian prisons and the balance of private and public sector activity within the prisons is discussed. HIV/AIDS care and prevention programs provide bleach distribution, education programs for staff and inmates, and safety training. Moral issues debating how much time and money is allocated to HIV/AIDS are addressed. Private operators of prisons have no financial incentive to educate, rehabilitate, or release prisoners.

  16. Youths' and Parents' Views on the Acceptability and Design of a Video-Based Tobacco Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Vaughn, Lisa; Gordon, Judith S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of a brief, video-based parental intervention that modeled parent-child communication about tobacco, delivered within an emergency department (ED) setting. While waiting to be seen by a physician in the ED, 20 parent-youth dyads watched the video together and then private, semi-structured…

  17. Effects of the Practiced Routines Parent Training Program on Behavioral Strategy Use, Parental Well-Being, and Child Challenging Behavior in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulston, Tracy Jane

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a concurrent randomized multiple baseline across three parent-child dyads single-case design was employed to evaluate the effects of a brief three-week parent training program, titled Practiced Routines. The Practiced Routines parent training program included positive behavior supports (PBS) and mindfulness strategies within the…

  18. Parental care influences leukocyte telomere length with gender specificity in parents and offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokido, Masanori; Suzuki, Akihito; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kuwahata, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Nana; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2014-10-03

    There have been several reports suggesting that adverse childhood experiences such as physical maltreatment and long institutionalization influence telomere length. However, there has been no study examining the relationship of telomere length with variations in parental rearing. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with parental rearing in healthy subjects. The subjects were 581 unrelated healthy Japanese subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument consisting of the care and protection factors. Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the multiple regression analyses, shorter telomere length in males was related to lower scores of paternal care (β = 0.139, p parental care and telomere length which covers both lower and higher ends of parental care, and that the effects of parental care on telomere length are gender-specific in parents and offsprings.

  19. INSTITUTE OF THE STATE-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN THE SPHERE OF THE STATE PURCHASES: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Subkhonberdiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Close cooperation between public and private property within the boundaries of a single firm (mixed company or within various forms of public-private partnerships is a characteristic tendency of modern innovative economy. The term covers a wide range of partnerships from simple contracts with private entrepreneurs in the production of goods, works, the provision of services to large projects needed in the areas where privatization is not possible, but there is a need in private investment. State, attracting private capital to financing of capital-intensive, long payback, but important for innovative economic development projects, does not lose control over them, and the private business gets access to previously closed sectors of the economy, such as transport infr astructure, housing and communal services, bringing with it new efficient technology management. Now there is no single approach to defining the nature and content of the concepts in the economic and legal literature presented different points of view, institutional problems of public-private partnership actively discussed by scientists and practitioners. Analysis of international experience projects shows that the specific features of and peculiarities of the institute of public-private partnership determined by the historical, social and economic characteristics development of each country. In turn, the institutional system public procurement is formed depending on the current in them budgetary and legislative system. Because of the historical development United States, perhaps on other developed countries advanced in the organization system of partnership between the state and private business, based solely on market principles.

  20. Private Observatories in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  1. Syntetiske pyrethroider i private hjem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2015-01-01

    A number of different methods are tested to elucidate the accumulation of synthetic pyrethroids in private homes. When the target pest is resistant, there is a potential risk that persistent synthetic pyrethroids accumulate because of repeated treatments. The highest residue found was 8260 µg lam...... lambda-cyhalothrin in a vacuum-cleaner sample (vacuumed for 10 minutes) and 1252 µg lambda-cyhalothrin in a “cotton sock dosimeter” sample. Similar data for deltamethrin was 805 µg in a vacuum-cleaner sample and 806 µg in a “cotton sock dosimeter” sample....

  2. TWRS privatization bibliography. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.

  3. Radon mitigation choices in the United States: A comparison of private- and public-sector developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witter, K.A.; Sanchez, D.C.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper compares private- and public-sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the U.S. In response to elevated radon levels in many U.S. houses, the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public-information efforts resulting in a range of radon reduction installations in the U.S. Government-sponsored research and development of radon-mitigation techniques in single-family detached houses is compared with radon mitigation approaches undertaken by the private sector. An attempt is also made to compare premitigation diagnostics, the application of mitigation techniques to various substructure types, the performance of mitigation installations, and the cost of the installations. The information collected indicates that subslab ventilation is the most common technique in both public- and private-sector radon mitigation; however, air-to-air heat exchangers and sealing are employed more frequently in the private sector than in government-sponsored mitigation

  4. Radon mitigation choices in the United States - a comparison of private and public sector developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Sanchez, D.C.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The paper compares private and public sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the US. In response to elevated levels of radon in many houses throughout the U.S., the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public information efforts resulting in a range of radon reduction installations in the U.S. Government sponsored research and development of radon mitigation techniques in single-family detached houses is compared with radon mitigation approaches undertaken by the private sector. An attempt is also made to compare premitigation diagnostics, the performance of mitigation installations, and the cost of the installations. The information collected indicates that sub-slab ventilation is the most common technique in both public and private sector radon mitigation; however, air-to-air heat exchangers and sealing are employed more frequently in the private sector than in government sponsored mitigation. (author)

  5. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  6. Privatizing Southeast Asia's electric power industries: phases, challenges, difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dang, G.

    1995-01-01

    The privatization of the power sector in South East Asia is part of a complex strategy, aimed a creating an efficient power production space, consisting of both national and international producers, although the latter will have to be selected according to their ability to ensure the most efficient service while implementing new technology. There is no single privatization model in S.E. Asia, but a wide variety of approaches, ranging from the most daring (e.g. Malaysia) to the most cautious (e.g. Thailand). For centrally planned economies (such as Vietnam and Laos), the approach will still be dictated by strategic demands to the detriment of the obvious financial advantages of total privatization of the power sector. Nevertheless, in most S.E. Asian countries, the process seems to be inexorably heading towards a situation where the political authorities will induce competition between the different groups of operators on the power production market. The basic challenge to governments of the region is to ensure the coexistence and smooth operation of the new public private relations within the power sector. (author). 19 refs

  7. The Issue of Private Tuition: An Analysis of the Practice in Mauritius and Selected South-east Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foondun, A. Raffick

    2002-11-01

    Private tuition is an issue of growing concern and is practised in both developed and developing countries. Although it has certain positive effects, it imposes a considerable financial burden on parents and often gives rise to abuses. The present study, which focuses on the primary level, addresses a number of questions, such as the extent of the practice, its implications, the various forms that it takes, attitudes towards it, why children take private tuition, why teachers provide it, and policies to deal with the issue. The discussion ends with a plea for more research on private tuition in order to provide a basis for policies to address the problem.

  8. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions......LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...

  9. Satisfaction and Related Factors among the Service Users of Private Rehabilitation Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Pakjouei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of present study was determining the level of satisfaction and its relative factors among parents of mentally retarded children using the services of private rehabilitation centers. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study that was conducted on parents of 150 mentally retarded children, who were selected by quota sampling from eight private rehabilitation centers in Tehran. Questionnaires were used to collect data, and correlation tests, independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance were utilized to analyze data. Results: Upon the results, overall 88% of participants expressed their satisfaction. The major related factors were the behavior of managers and employees, receiving training for follow-up rehabilitation and education programs for the child at home, and the child's progress. The factors related to dissatisfaction included nutrition services, physical condition of the center and lack of parental participation in decision- making on matters related to the child. A significant relationship was found between parental satisfaction and family size, father's job, and the number of other disabled people in the family. Discussion: According to the findings, it seems that patient satisfaction is also affected by the behavioral aspects of care, in addition to the technical aspects. Considering the humans’ need for respect and compassion and the sense of being valuable, this finding could be anticipated. The managers of private rehabilitation centers, for attracting and retain clients, need to pay attention to the factors which have impact on service users’ satisfaction.

  10. Double Jeopardy: Parental Conflict and Stepfamily Outcomes for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Thomas L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Uses data from the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households to examine whether conflict between parents can explain why children in stepfather households do worse than children in original, two-parent households and no better than children in single-mother households. Suggests parental conflict does not account for lower levels of…

  11. Parent Imprisonment and Child Socialization Research Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Univ., Washington, DC. Dept. of Psychology.

    Conducted in response to the 7% increase in black female single-parent families during 1970 to 1975, this project systematically investigates the impact of parent-absence on the socialization of black children. Divided into four separate studies, the project concentrates on (1) community-social variables related to black parent-absent families;…

  12. Attitudes towards parental presence at induction of anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induction of anaesthesia,~Many paediatric anaesthetists today would agree that parental presence at induction is ... personal attitudes to parental presence, perceived benefits for the child and parent, and negative ... the X2 goodness of fit test for a single sample to compare the number of respondents who disagreed with ...

  13. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Roberto; Universidad de San Martín de Porres / Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal

    2010-01-01

    As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts pe...

  14. Private TV and Radio Broadcasting in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Vefalı ENSEROV

    2013-01-01

    The change of mass media and its innovation like the other areas were inevitable in post-soviet countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this means, media area of Azerbaijan began to privatization process after independence and since mid 1990`s private radio and television channels began to broadcast in the country one by one that uni-centrally, officially and ideologically was directed by Moscow before. Progress which is related to privatization process of broadcasting in Azerbai...

  15. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  16. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  17. Student Dissertation Explores Privatization of Global Security

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2012-01-01

    NPS national security affairs doctoral student Cmdr. Dan Straub weighs the benefits and challenges of using private security contractors for United Nations peacekeeping efforts in his upcoming dissertation.

  18. Involving Divorced Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarriff, Harold M.; Levine, Valerie

    1993-01-01

    In divorced families, the noncustodial parent is usually as important to the child as the residential parent. Schools should avoid actions that cause parental conflict, place one parent in a sole decision-making role, or deny a parent's access to information or involvement. School responsibilities governing routine correspondence, cyclical and…

  19. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  20. Adolescent drinking, social identity, and parenting for safety: Perspectives from Australian adolescents and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Lynda; Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly

    2016-03-01

    We explored young people and parents' views on adolescent drinking and safety in the locations where drinking may occur. Focus groups with adolescents and parents showed that many believed adolescent drinking and drunkenness is normative. Younger adolescents had more negative views of adolescent drinkers than their older peers. Adolescent drinking occurred in private settings and parents made decisions about allowing their adolescent children to attend social events based on the level of safety attributed to the location. If adolescent drinking was likely then home was the preferred location as it provided scope for risk minimisation. Positive portrayals of non-drinking adolescents and information to assist parents' decision-making are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Book-tax conformity in Polish private companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Białek-Jaworska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify whether financial income differs significantly from the tax base in Poland and what determines these differences between accounting and taxable results in Polish private entities that are not listed on the stock exchange. In this paper, besides examining the level of book-tax conformity in Poland, we investigate the determinants of book-tax differences in the one-book and twobook accounting systems, with deferred income tax. We use the single factor ANOVA variance analysis, robust fixed effects estimator and the fixed effects linear model with an AR(1 disturbance estimator for panel data of 26,657 private limited liability and non-public joint-stock companies for the period of 2003–2014 (177,667 firm-year observations. The originality of this paper results from the deep quantita-tive analysis of the determinants of book-tax conformity on a novel dataset of Polish private firms. We confirm a strong significant influence of tax law on the shape of the one-book accounting system in Poland. Larger enterprises show fewer book-tax differences. Book-tax conformity is lower in private companies that incur financial losses and in private companies conducting the one-book accounting system. Family-owned companies have higher mean and median book-tax conformity than businessgroups members, due to higher demand for information from their accounts to support stewardship func-tions and to monitor the activities of the management board in the business groups.

  2. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  3. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of public and private schools. Salta City, Argentina, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Susana Judith; Jubany, Lilian Laura

    2010-10-01

    South America is now at a stage of epidemiological transition, changing the condition of high prevalence of underweight and stunting, to a scene marked by increases in obesity that accompanies chronic diseases, such us cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Surveillance of risk factors associated with them is considered a priority. To establish the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents in public and private schools in the city of Salta, and observe the socioeconomic characteristics and presence of cardiovascular risk factors in parents. Cross-sectional design, adolescents aged 16 to 20 years of public and private schools. Anthropometric, biochemical, food, social, lifestyle and family history variables. Adolescents of private schools had higher average values of cholesterol, LDL and glucose. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in public schools was 15% and 14.2% in private, and of hypertension 11.3% and 12.2%, respectively. It was noted higher consumption of sweets, sodas and juices; 35.1% and 42.5% of adolescents in public and private schools, did not perform physical activity, 14.2% and 27.1% smoked and 66.2% and 54.7%, respectively, consumed alcohol at weekend. The prevalence of obesity in mothers of public school students was significantly higher. There is evidence of the emergence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents with different characteristics as belonging to public or private schools, but both groups involved in an unhealthy family environment.

  4. Quantum and Private Capacities of Low-Noise Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leditzky, Felix; Leung, Debbie; Smith, Graeme

    2018-04-01

    We determine both the quantum and the private capacities of low-noise quantum channels to leading orders in the channel's distance to the perfect channel. It has been an open problem for more than 20 yr to determine the capacities of some of these low-noise channels such as the depolarizing channel. We also show that both capacities are equal to the single-letter coherent information of the channel, again to leading orders. We thus find that, in the low-noise regime, superadditivity and degenerate codes have a negligible benefit for the quantum capacity, and shielding does not improve the private capacity beyond the quantum capacity, in stark contrast to the situation when noisier channels are considered.

  5. Key Enabling Technologies for Virtual Private Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Jeffrey M.; Cohen, David; Kaliski, Burton S.

    The concept of a virtual private cloud (VPC) has emerged recently as a way of managing information technology resources so that they appear to be operated for a single organization from a logical point of view, but may be built from underlying physical resources that belong to the organization, an external service provider, or a combination of both. Several technologies are essential to the effective implementation of a VPC. Virtual data centers provide the insulation that sets one organization's virtual resources apart from those of other organizations and from the underlying physical infrastructure. Virtual applications collect those resources into separately manageable units. Policy-based deployment and policy compliance offer a means of control and verification of the operation of the virtual applications across the virtual data centers. Finally, service management integration bridges across the underlying resources to give an overall, logical and actionable view. These key technologies enable cloud providers to offer organizations the cost and efficiency benefits of cloud computing as well as the operational autonomy and flexibility to which they have been accustomed.

  6. Preschool Movement Education in Turkey: Perceptions of Preschool Administrators and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevimli-Celik, Serap; Kirazci, Sadettin; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of preschool administrators and parents about preschool movement education and movement practices in preschools. Participants were 8 preschool administrators and 21 parents from 8 randomly selected private preschools in one of the municipalities in Ankara, Turkey. Semi-structured interviews,…

  7. What's Wrong with Day Care: Freeing Parents To Raise Their Own Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Charles

    Federal and state tax laws and most private programs give funding to all parents who put their children in day care but give nothing to parents who cut back on their work hours to care for their own children. Challenging the conventional wisdom about child care, this book argues that Americans have wrongly embraced day care and devalued work that…

  8. Parental Demand, Choice and Access to Early Childhood Education in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parental demand for early childhood education (ECE) in relation to choice and access to early childhood programmes in Tanzania. Extensive analyses of both Government and privately written documents over the past decade were used to determine parental demand, choice and access to ECE. The literature revealed that although…

  9. Parental Education as a Determinant of School Choice: Comparative Study of School Types in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    In Pakistan, school education is not compulsory for children and, therefore, sending a child to school is a matter of choice for parents. For those parents who choose school education for their children the options are government schools, private fees paid schools and Islamic education schools (Madrassahs). This research uses a large-scale survey…

  10. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  11. The impact of investment in Public Private Partnerships on Public, Private investment and GDP in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, Inácia; St.Aubyn, Miguel; Ribeiro, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we test the macroeconomic impact of investment in public-private partnerships, public and private investment in Portugal through a VAR model with four variables: public and private investment, PPP investment and GDP, to the period 1998- 2013. An assessment of crowding-in / crowding-out effects of investment in PPPs is carried out. We also proceed to the calculation of macroeconomic rates of return on investment in PPP, public investment and private investment. The...

  12. Parenting while Being Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  13. Parental views of antibiotic use in children with upper respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents towards antibiotics use for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at 10 private outpatients' pediatric clinics across Amman-Jordan from September to December 2013. During the study period, ...

  14. Self-esteem, gender, family-communication-style and parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the role of self-esteem, gender, family communication style, and parental neglect on aggressive tendencies among secondary school adolescents' in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. A total of two hundred and forty (240) secondary school adolescents drawn from 9 private and 3 public ...

  15. The Origins of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The excerpts presented in this article begin in the 1980s and detail the origins of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, which today enables more than 25,000 low-income students to attend more than 100 Milwaukee private schools. (This article was written with Lisa Frazier Page.)

  16. The Face of Private Tutoring in Russia: Evidence from Online Marketing by Private Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…

  17. Private Higher Education in India: A Study of Two Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angom, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    The Private higher education sector is growing fast in many settings, including India, and there are variations at the national level. Privatization of higher education in India has been the result of changes in the economic policy towards liberalization and privatization by the Government of India. Till 1980, higher education sector was…

  18. Quantifying Parental Influence on Youth Athlete Specialization: A Survey of Athletes' Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Ahmad, Christopher S; Hodgins, Justin L; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Popkin, Charles A

    2017-09-01

    Youth athlete specialization has been linked to decreased enjoyment, burnout, and increased injury risk, although the impact of specialization on athletic success is unknown. The extent to which parents exert extrinsic influence on this phenomenon remains unclear. The goal of this study was to assess parental influences placed on young athletes to specialize. It was hypothesized that parents generate both direct and indirect pressures on specialized athletes. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A survey tool was designed by an interdisciplinary medical team to evaluate parental influence on youth specialization. Surveys were administered to parents of the senior author's orthopaedic pediatric patients. Of the 211 parents approached, 201 (95.3%) completed the assessment tool. One-third of parents stated that their children played a single sport only, 53.2% had children who played multiple sports but had a favorite sport, and 13.4% had children who balanced their multiple sports equally. Overall, 115 (57.2%) parents hoped for their children to play collegiately or professionally, and 100 (49.7%) parents encouraged their children to specialize in a single sport. Parents of highly specialized and moderately specialized athletes were more likely to report directly influencing their children's specialization ( P = .038) and to expect their children to play collegiately or professionally ( P = .014). Finally, parents who hired personal trainers for their children were more likely to believe that their children held collegiate or professional aspirations ( P = .009). Parents influence youth athlete specialization both directly and by investment in elite coaching and personal instruction. Parents of more specialized athletes exert more influence than parents of unspecialized athletes.

  19. Parental overprotection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1993-01-01

    Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested.

  20. Applied research and development private sector accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskid, N.J.; Devgun, J.S.; Erickson, M.D.; Zielke, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the fiscal year 1990 procurement of contracts with the private sector and the current status of applied research and development conducted for DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD). This report documents the procurement actions, discusses lessons learned from this activity, and disseminates the results of the procurement to interested parties in DOE and in the private sector

  1. Privatization and Economic Performance: Evidence from Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review ... This paper seeks to evaluate theoretically and empirically the impact of privatization on economic growth in Nigeria. Using error correlation model (ECM), it was discovered that privatization has not impacted positively on economic growth in Nigeria, and this was blamed on a lot of factors like ...

  2. Lessons Learned from the Private Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, Robert J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This session is focused on lessons learned from private sector energy projects that could be applied to the federal sector. This presentation tees up the subsequent presentations by outlining the differences between private and federal sectors in objectives, metrics for determining success, funding resources/mechanisms, payback and ROI evaluation, risk tolerance/aversion, new technology adoption perspectives, and contracting mechanisms.

  3. Local government grants for private schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Orlikowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the educational grants from budget of local government. Author presented procedures about establish private schools and educational institutions and explained selected concepts about units of education. The article presents selected judgment from SN and NSA in disputes about grants for private schools.

  4. 75 FR 49932 - Private Transfer Fee Covenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... the entities it regulates should not deal in mortgages on properties encumbered by private transfer... mortgages and securities held by the Banks as investments or as collateral for advances and to mortgages and... to real property by the owner or another private party, frequently, the property developer, and...

  5. Public-Private Partnerships in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, Geert

    2006-01-01

    Belgium's Flemish government recently approved a EUR 1 billion investment in school infrastructure through public-private partnerships, its first major initiative of this kind. The Flemish Community's variant of public-private partnerships in school building allows the government to meet urgent needs in the short run, but also to spread the costs…

  6. Philanthropy and Private Foundations: Expanding Revenue Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Carlee; Marshburn, Roxann

    2014-01-01

    As community colleges seek new revenue streams, philanthropic organizations, including college foundations and private funders, have already begun to influence both revenues and college programming. This chapter discusses the current role of philanthropy, especially private foundations such as the Lumina Foundation for Education and the Bill and…

  7. Getting Started in Private ESL Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzelbacher, Thelma

    2000-01-01

    Provides tips on how to get started in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) private tutoring. Suggests considering three factors before getting started: readiness, market, and service. A readiness profile for private ESL tutoring and a checklist for getting started are included. (Author/VWL)

  8. Privatization and Political Power in Representative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    One of the main endeavors within ”New Public Management” (NPM) since the 1980s has been to encourage various forms of privatization in the public sector. In recent years, the involvement of private players in the provision of services in Danish municipalities has thus been increased, which makes ...

  9. Adoption and Privatization: An Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ann

    Over the last several years, state and local governments have increased the privatization of a range of services that historically have been provided by government agencies, including adoption services. This issue brief of the Child Welfare League of America provides adoption professionals with information on the privatization of adoption…

  10. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  11. Strange Bedfellows? Reaffirming Rehabilitation and Prison Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…

  12. Private udlejningsboligers rolle på boligmarkedet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    På grundlag af registerdata gives i denne rapport et signalement af den private udlejningssektor i Danmark, hvilke ejendomme og boliger den består af, og hvem der bor i den. Undersøgelsen viser, at den private udlejningssektor har en stor betydning for mobiliteten på det danske boligmarked, og...

  13. Perceptions towards private medical practitioners\\' attachments for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Private medical practitioners however reported participation in credible continued professional development (CPD) programs although these were not necessary for re-registration. Students and faculty suggested that the need for privacy in private institutions unlike in the public teaching hospitals as one reason why patients ...

  14. Tabling sustainable commodities through private governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few decades, new types of private governance arrangements arose which increasingly shape outcomes in global governance. The object of this dissertation is a specific form of private governance arrangement which emerged in the early 2000s in response to sustainability challenges

  15. Competition for Private and State School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard; Zhu, Yu

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the role of private schools in the teachers' labour market. Private schools employ an increasingly-disproportionate share of teachers in Britain, relative to the number of their pupils. Their teachers are more likely than state school teachers to possess post-graduate qualifications, and to be specialists in shortage subjects.…

  16. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides...

  17. Prospects of Private Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wu

    2009-01-01

    Private education contributes a great deal to education in China, but people are confused about the prospects of teacher development, tax problems, property rights problems, remunerations, and so forth. Legal provisions stipulate that private education and public education have the same legal status and rights, but there is still a long way to go…

  18. Private Higher Education and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

  19. Prisons for Profit: Public Justice, Private Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, John D.

    This paper examines several aspects of the private prison debate: (1) How much scope is there for improving the technical and economic efficiency of incarceration through contracting-out to private prison entrepreneurs? (2) Will a fully developed corrections industry be sufficiently competitive to ensure that any efficiency gains are passed on to…

  20. Psychotherapy Outcome in a Private Practice Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhart, Kathryn A.; And Others

    Although almost one-third of licensed psychologists who work in health care settings are employed primarily in private practice, no major study of outcomes in this setting has been undertaken. Outcomes in a private practice were investigated with 33 adult clients who planned to pursue psychotherapy until release by their therapist. The clients…

  1. The Importance of Store Image and Retail Service Quality in Private Brand Image-Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Alić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this research is to highlight the role which store image and retail service quality can play in private brand image-building in the context of an emerging market in South-Eastern Europe (i.e. Bosnia and Herzegovina. We propose to address this issue by seeking answers to the following questions: (1 Does a ‘halo effect’ take place between the store image and the private brand image? (2 How does consumer’s evaluation of the quality of the service delivered by a retailer affect the image of its private brand? Research Design & Methods: Data were collected through a field survey via the store-intercept method. The sample consisted of 699 customers of two large retail chains. The data were analysed using the Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings: The findings of the present study suggest that store image and retail service quality are important factors in the formation of the image of product-branded products. Implications & Recommendations: This study offers some important insights for retailers who intend to develop their private brand. First, the image transfer from store brand to private brand suggests that retailers should consider the introduction of a private brand as a brand extension, with their stores as the parent brand. Second, we recommend that retailers put more emphasis on quality improvement initiatives related to the store environment attributes. Contribution & Value Added: This study enhances the discussion on the phenomenon of private branding by analysing the store-level factors which underpin the formation of private brand image in the context of less developed European markets.

  2. Transgender People (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  3. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  4. Headaches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  5. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  6. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  7. Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  8. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  9. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  10. Tips for Divorcing Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  11. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  12. When Parents Argue

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  14. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Tourette Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  16. Sinusitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  17. Diarrhea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  18. Adenovirus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  19. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  20. Chemotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  1. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  2. Bronchiolitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  3. Amblyopia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  4. Laryngoscopy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  5. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  6. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  7. Yersiniosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  8. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  9. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  10. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  11. Eczema (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  12. Amebiasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Strep Throat (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  14. Down Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Syphilis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  16. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  17. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  18. Private sector and stabilisation in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard, Tina

    I briefet opsummerer Tina Magaard de vigtigste konklusioner fra konferencen ”Private sector and stabilisation in Afghanistan – a neglected match?”, som blandt andet gav indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Ved at kombinere perspektiver fra strategiske...... studier med forretnings- og udviklingsstudier tilbød konferencen en dybere indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Samtidig blev der åbnet en række nye perspektiver for interaktionen mellem den private sektor og stabiliseringsoperationer i en post-krigskontekst som...... Afghanistan. Selvom udgangspunktet var Afghanistan, er konferencens konklusioner i høj grad relevante for andre konflikt/post-konfliktområder. Konferencen var organiseret i et samarbejde mellem Centre for Business and Development Studies (Copenhagen Business School), Public-Private Platform (Copenhagen...

  19. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender......This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...... offer transactions, the answer is that private benefits are insignificant to both sides of the transaction. As an alternative measure of the transaction premium, I calculate the abnormal return premium. This represents the stock market's valuation of the transaction. I find that the stock market puts...

  20. Stockholders' interests in the energy system privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Magdalena; Matei, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    The paper highlights the benefits and objectives of competition and privatization in the power sector. The reasons for electric utility privatization are numerous and vary from country to country. Some of the more evident reasons include the following: - Raising revenues for the state through asset sales; - Acquiring investment capital; - Improving managerial performance; - Moving toward market-determined prices; - Technology transfer; - Reducing the frequency of power shortages; - Reducing the cost of electricity to consumers through efficiency gain; - Taking advantage of creating national and regional power grids. Several objectives commonly associated with privatization, includes: - Improving access to private capital resources for the rehabilitation, replacement and eventual expansion of the electric power infrastructure; - Improving access to new technology and management practices designed to improve the performance of the sector; - Reducing corruption through the introduction of commercial practices which will lead to strengthened collections, transparent and accountable delivery of electricity and reduced political interference in commercial operations; - Improving customer service and customer choice through continued reform of the power sector as a result of innovation and reform introduced by the new owners; - Human resources development; - Improving environmental performance . The paper addresses the following items: - Some elements of a successful power sector privatization; - Stockholders' position versus privatization in Romania; - Managing 'The Change'; - Power sector privatization in Romania. The paper demonstrates that the power sector privatization is a key condition for EU's support for Romania accession. The international organization push towards this essential economic change, which will guarantee a real competition and a liberalized energy market in facto. Strategic privatization can be a positive step in improving energy service and

  1. Determinants of Participation and Expenditure Patterns of Private Tuition Received by Primary School Students in Penang, Malaysia: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelani, Juliana; Tan, Andrew K. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the censored Tobit model is applied on primary data collected amongst parents of primary school students in Penang, Malaysia to examine the determinants of participation and expenditures on private tuition (PT). Results of the marginal effects indicate that socio-demographic characteristics--ethnicity, household income,…

  2. United Kingdom electric system privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolli, A. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1992-03-01

    This paper reviews the mechanics and first results of deregulation in the electric power industry of the United Kingdom. Several aspects are dealt with, namely: 1983 Energy Act impacts on ownership and subsequent changes brought about by the 1989 Energy Act; the Act's stipulations with regard to share acquisition and distribution; the division of the patrimony of the Area Boards; natural monopolistic characteristics of power distribution; vertical integration in Scotland, target investment limits in Government and public participation; the 'golden share' concept to guarantee public participation; current 40% share ownership by the Government; 15% private ownership limit for individual investors; external control by Government of licensing and rate structure setting; the impacts of organizational changes on the overall cost benefits of deregulation; modified Governmental regulatory powers; measures to ensure competition and consumer protection; provisions regarding misbehaviour; second tier suppliers and reserve fuel supply obligations; deregulation impacts on nuclear power marketing; power pooling regulations; installation of new transmission lines; provisions encouraging the use of diverse energy sources; franchising; interconnection with national grid; regulation of technical operations; standby as it affects rate structure; and spot market pricing.

  3. The privatization mosaic: International power development agendas and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the international trend toward private ownership of state-owned power production, transmission and distribution systems. The topics of the article include trends towards private investment in electric power systems, alternative opportunities for private sector investment, investor objectives in private power development and utility privatization, and potential investors in overseas projects

  4. The privately owned timber resources of western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney

    1983-01-01

    Timber resource statistics from a 1973-76 inventory are presented for private timberland in western Oregon. Inventories usually classify private owners as either forest industry or nonindustrial private. For this report, however, the nonindustrial private classification has been further disaggregated into farmer, individual, and corporate owners. For all private owner...

  5. Job satisfaction of nurses who work in private psychiatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Keith R

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the job satisfaction of nurses who work in private psychiatric hospitals. In 1998 and 1999 an anonymous employee satisfaction survey was completed by all 3,024 employees of 39 for-profit psychiatric hospitals owned by the same hospital corporation. Of this total, 546 were registered nurses (RNs). Generally RNs reported fair levels of satisfaction. They reported high levels of pride in their hospitals but low levels of satisfaction with the parent company. Differences in satisfaction were noted as a function of work shift, supervisory role, work setting, and tenure. RNs were less satisfied than employees in all other hospital job classifications. RNs' low level of satisfaction relative to other positions is concerning.

  6. Sociodemographic Characteristics, Behavioral Problems, Parental Concerns and Children’s Strengths Reported by Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ribas Emerich

    Full Text Available Abstract: Parental report is essential to understand adaptive difficulties in childhood. The aim of the study was to identify concerns of parents and qualities of children reported by parents, as well as the association of these variables with sociodemographic factors and child behavior problems. Parents of 353 schoolchildren from three public schools and one private school took part in the study. Assessment of behavior problems and parental reports about concerns and children’s strengths were obtained from the Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. We submitted parents’ answers to the open-ended questions in the CBCL to a lexical analysis with the IRAMUTEQ software. Results concerning ‘strengths’ were related to affective and social interaction, while ‘concerns’ were related to academic performance and prevention of behavior problems. We concluded that parent concerns are targets of preventive interventions in childhood, while child strengths reported by parents are skills that need to be developed, as they help in adaptive functioning.

  7. Bounds on the sample complexity for private learning and private data release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beime, Amos [BEN-GURION UNIV.; Nissim, Kobbi [BEN-GURION UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Learning is a task that generalizes many of the analyses that are applied to collections of data, and in particular, collections of sensitive individual information. Hence, it is natural to ask what can be learned while preserving individual privacy. [Kasiviswanathan, Lee, Nissim, Raskhodnikova, and Smith; FOCS 2008] initiated such a discussion. They formalized the notion of private learning, as a combination of PAC learning and differential privacy, and investigated what concept classes can be learned privately. Somewhat surprisingly, they showed that, ignoring time complexity, every PAC learning task could be performed privately with polynomially many samples, and in many natural cases this could even be done in polynomial time. While these results seem to equate non-private and private learning, there is still a significant gap: the sample complexity of (non-private) PAC learning is crisply characterized in terms of the VC-dimension of the concept class, whereas this relationship is lost in the constructions of private learners, which exhibit, generally, a higher sample complexity. Looking into this gap, we examine several private learning tasks and give tight bounds on their sample complexity. In particular, we show strong separations between sample complexities of proper and improper private learners (such separation does not exist for non-private learners), and between sample complexities of efficient and inefficient proper private learners. Our results show that VC-dimension is not the right measure for characterizing the sample complexity of proper private learning. We also examine the task of private data release (as initiated by [Blum, Ligett, and Roth; STOC 2008]), and give new lower bounds on the sample complexity. Our results show that the logarithmic dependence on size of the instance space is essential for private data release.

  8. Name of the child in Serbian private international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanivuković Maja D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rules of Serbian Private International Law pertaining to the name of the child, both those currently in force, and those that are proposed in the Draft Private International Law Code (2004 are discussed in this article in the light of the decisions of the Court of the EU in Garcia Avello and Grunkin-Paul. The main issue related to the name of the child with an international element is how to regulate the recognition of first and last names of Serbian nationals determined abroad. Currently, there is a unilateral conflict rule providing for application of mandatory norms of Serbian family law. That means that the current Serbian law does not allow recognition of the name of the Serbian child determined according to foreign law if the foreign rules are different than the Serbian applicable rules. The registrar is directed to request the parents to adapt the child's name to requirements of Serbian law, irrespective of the consequences, i. e. the possibility that the child will bear different names in different countries. The fact that the child may also be a national of that other country and habitually resident there, is of no consequence. The Draft PIL Act introduces significant changes by: providing for a possibility for parents to choose the applicable law in case of change of name so that they can choose between the laws of the child's various nationalities, and by providing for recognition of changes of name conducted in a foreign country if the child has been a habitual resident of that country for at least five years. The author argues for introduction of substantive rules into the future PIL Code, which would provide for a possibility of recognition of child's name determined in the country of his other nationality or of his habitual residence.

  9. Parental Attitudes Toward Advanced Behavior Guidance Techniques Used in Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Monica; McTigue, Dennis J; Thikkurissy, Sarat; Fields, Henry W

    2016-01-01

    To re-examine parental attitudes toward advanced behavior management techniques in pediatric dentistry and determine whether cost, urgency, and amount of treatment influence parental preferences. Parents viewed previously validated videotaped clinical vignettes of four advanced behavior guidance techniques: (1) passive immobilization; (2) active immobilization; (3) general anesthesia; and (4) oral sedation. The study was conducted in a children's hospital dental clinic and a suburban private pediatric dentistry office. Parents rated overall acceptance of the techniques, and acceptance under specified conditions using an anchored visual analogue scale. One hundred five parents completed the survey; 55 from the children's hospital and 50 from private practice. Oral sedation was rated as the most acceptable technique, followed by general anesthesia, active immobilization, and passive immobilization. As urgency, convenience, and previous experience increased, parental acceptance of the technique increased. As cost of treatment increased, parental acceptance decreased. Ratings between the children's hospital group and private practice group differed, as did the demographic variables of insurance, income, and race. The hierarchy of parental acceptance of advanced behavior guidance techniques is changing with increasing approval of pharmacological management and decreasing approval of physical management. The health care delivery system, urgency, convenience, previous experience, and cost all influence parental acceptance.

  10. Cryptanalysis of the secure quantum private comparison protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingtong; Zhao Jingjing; Wang Jian; Tang Chaojing

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Yang et al [2009 Phys. Scr. 80 065002] presented the first quantum private comparison protocol that involves single photons only. This protocol is very promising in practice. However, in this paper, we analyze the security of the protocol and point out a subtle loophole. It is shown that both Eve and Charlie could obtain Bob's secret by launching a special dense-coding attack. Moreover, details of this attack and its correctness are given, and also two solutions are demonstrated to improve the protocol in order to overcome the fatal flaw. (paper)

  11. Computer Security: How private is “private”?

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    What a surprise it would be for you to discover that everyone at CERN can access your Windows “My Documents” folder or your AFS home-folder? Reading your private letters? Looking at your private photos?  Digging through your confidential documents? Would you be embarrassed? You would not be the first.   Unfortunately, if you are not careful when handling the access control settings of your AFS and DFS folders, you can easily make a mistake. The IT Department's AFS and DFS services provide you with all the means to protect your documents, but you are the only one who knows which documents should be made accessible to whom…  So be careful!!! Mistakes are easy to make, and have happened in the past! The settings on DFS are complex and usually inherit rights from parent folders, so small slip-ups can quickly spread to every other folder. The settings on AFS require special commands (“fs setacl”) instead of the &ldqu...

  12. Integrating multiple scientific computing needs via a Private Cloud infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, S.; Berzano, D.; Brunetti, R.; Lusso, S.; Vallero, S.

    2014-06-01

    In a typical scientific computing centre, diverse applications coexist and share a single physical infrastructure. An underlying Private Cloud facility eases the management and maintenance of heterogeneous use cases such as multipurpose or application-specific batch farms, Grid sites catering to different communities, parallel interactive data analysis facilities and others. It allows to dynamically and efficiently allocate resources to any application and to tailor the virtual machines according to the applications' requirements. Furthermore, the maintenance of large deployments of complex and rapidly evolving middleware and application software is eased by the use of virtual images and contextualization techniques; for example, rolling updates can be performed easily and minimizing the downtime. In this contribution we describe the Private Cloud infrastructure at the INFN-Torino Computer Centre, that hosts a full-fledged WLCG Tier-2 site and a dynamically expandable PROOF-based Interactive Analysis Facility for the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC and several smaller scientific computing applications. The Private Cloud building blocks include the OpenNebula software stack, the GlusterFS filesystem (used in two different configurations for worker- and service-class hypervisors) and the OpenWRT Linux distribution (used for network virtualization). A future integration into a federated higher-level infrastructure is made possible by exposing commonly used APIs like EC2 and by using mainstream contextualization tools like CloudInit.

  13. The Identification of Alienated Parents and Children: Implications for School Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined predictors of parental alienation in parents of 49 urban midwestern fourth-graders using the Dean Alienation Scale. High levels of alienation were associated with single, unemployed female parents, whose child was a female with few perceived friends. In predicting parental level of alienation, race, achievement, and attendance were not…

  14. Parental Relationships and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ray B.

    1971-01-01

    Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)

  15. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  16. Public-private partnership models in France and in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Canet, Emmanuel; Segard, Lionel

    2006-01-01

    The workshop entitled "Public-Private partnerships models in Europe-- comparison between France and European countries" brought together representatives of academia and industry, of national or European health research programs, of regional or national public-private partnership (PPP) initiatives, and of biotechnology with the following objectives: sharing a common vision on the needs, expectations and challenges of public-private partnership, based on the analysis of actual and original cases, and of new initiatives on public-private partnership, drawing conclusions and identifying key success factors, identifying trails for progress and drawing recommendations. The major event in this field is a European public-private partnership initiative between pharmaceutical industry (European Federation of Pharmaceultical Industry and Associations, EFPIA) and the European Commission (DG Research--health priority) resulting in the European Technology Platform project "Innovative Medicines Initiative" (IMI). Its architecture is based on the identification of the main bottlenecks to the development of innovative treatments (predictive pharmacology and toxicology, identification and validation of biomarkers, patients' recruitment, risk evaluation, and cooperation with the regulatory authorities). Simultaneously, initiatives both at the national and regional levels also foster PPP in the therapeutic field. Regional competitivity clusters acting in the biomedical sector, and national PPP calls such as the ANR (National Research Agency) RIB (Research and Innovation in Biotechnology) call are incentives for PPP projects. These regional and national PPP levels help public and private partners to further build consortia able to compete for EU-level calls, thus acting as incubators for EU PPP projects. In spite of incentives and of the regional and national structuring of PPP, weaknesses in the French system are linked to its fragmentation--multiple transfer agencies, multiple

  17. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bueno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts permits us to confirm a gradual advance in behavior theory, in dealing with this issue, toward a totally monistic view.

  18. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.

  19. Private and public decisions in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houser, Daniel; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco

    2012-01-01

    impulse for several minutes in order to benefit others. In Public Condition children make decisions in public view of the group of other participants, while in Private Condition they have the possibility to decide privately. We find that children aged 9 and higher are better able to resist selfish...... impulses in public environments. Younger children, however, display no such effect. Further, we find self-control substantially impacted by group size. When decisions are public, self-control is better in larger groups, while in private condition the opposite holds....

  20. Public and private regulation of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1995-01-01

    Human reproduction is interrelated with privacy. However, in most countries where new reproductive technologies are used public regulations have been passed to provide a legal framework for such technologies. This interference in private life can be justified by the need to control medical intervention in the human reproductive process. But in order to find a balance between public regulations and other social regulations, this article analyses the impact private regulation may have on issues raised by reproductive technologies. It also addresses the issue of the influence of private bodies on the drafting of public regulations.

  1. Argentina's YPF hones in on privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months

  2. Children's Divorce and Parent-Child Contact: A Within-Family Analysis of Older European Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that a parental divorce has a negative effect on parent-child relations. This study examines how adult children's divorce affects the amount of contact children have with older parents, making a distinction between the effects of being single on the one hand and the effects of divorce on the other hand. Using data on older adults in 11 European countries, I estimate within-family regression models to compare multiple adult children per parent (19,454 children aged 30-49; 10,476 parents aged 50-96). I analyze contact frequency while taking into account coresidence and distance. When comparing single divorced children and married children, no difference in contact is observed, but divorced children are more likely to live with their parents. When comparing among children who are single, divorced children have less frequent contact with parents than never-married children. This negative divorce effect exists for sons and daughters and is found in 9 of the 11 countries. The divorce of a child has a double meaning: it leads to being single, which is associated with stronger intergenerational ties, but it is also a non-normative and stressful life event, which is associated with weaker intergenerational ties. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Are Private Reserves Effective for Jaguar Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina E Gutiérrez-González

    Full Text Available We present the first study of density and apparent survival for a jaguar (Panthera onca population in northern Mexico using 13 years of camera trap data from 2000 to 2012. We used the Barker robust design model which combines data from closed sampling periods and resight data between these periods to estimate apparent survival and abundance. We identified 467 jaguar pictures that corresponded to 48 jaguar individuals. We included camera type and field technician as covariates for detection probabilities. We used three covariates to evaluate the effect of reserve on jaguar apparent survival: i private reserve creation ii later reserve expansions, and iii cattle ranches' conservation activities. We found that the use of digital cameras in addition to film cameras increased detection probability by a factor of 6x compared with the use of only film cameras (p = 0.34 ± 0.05 and p = 0.05 ± 0.02 respectively in the closed period and more than three times in the open period (R = 0.91 ± 0.08 and R = 0.30 ± 0.13 mixed and film cameras respectively. Our availability estimates showed no temporary emigration and a fidelity probability of 1. Despite an increase of apparent survival probability from 0.47 ± 0.15 to 0.56 ± 0.11 after 2007, no single covariate explained the change in these point estimates. Mean jaguar density was 1.87 ± 0.47 jaguars/100 km2. We found that 13 years of jaguar population monitoring with our sampling size were not enough for detecting changes in survival or density. Our results provide a baseline for studies evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas and the inclusion of ranch owners in jaguar conservation programs and long-term population viability.

  4. Cohabitation: parents following in their children's footsteps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Lauren Rinelli

    2011-01-01

    As cohabitation has risen dramatically in the past few decades among adults of all ages, it is possible that middle-and older-aged parents are “learning” cohabitation from their young adult children. The present study uses this theory as a guiding framework to determine if parents are more likely to cohabit themselves following the start of a young adult child’s cohabitation. Using three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 275), results show that union formation patterns are influenced by young adult children among parents who are single at their child’s 18th birthday. Parents are less likely to marry than remain single and are much more likely to cohabit than marry if they have a young adult child who cohabits. These results show support for the hypotheses.

  5. Privatization: What We have Learned: World Bank's ABCDE 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Sergei Guriev; William L. Megginson

    2006-01-01

    Privatization is one of the major economic phenomena in recent economic history. This paper summarizes empirical research on the effect of privatization on the performance of privatized firms and on the society. The extant evidence from privatizations in many developed and developing shows that privatization usually results in an increased productivity and positive effects on the society. The effect of privatization depends however on economic institutions in place, in particular on rule-of-l...

  6. Children's fear and behavior in private pediatric dentistry practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Krista; Milgrom, Peter; Russell, Stephen; Mancl, Lloyd; Yoshida, Toshiko

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the proportion of children with dental fear, the proportion of children with negative behavior and the relationship of children's dental fear and children's negative behavior in private pediatric dentistry practices in western Washington state. A total of 421 children seen in 21 private pediatric dentistry practices in western Washington State participated. The average age of the children was 6.8+/-2.8 years (range=0.8-12.8 years). An average of 21 children were studied per practice (range=7-25 children). Dental fear was measured using the parents' version of the Dental Subscale of the Child Fear Survey Schedule (CFS). Behavior of the child during treatment was rated using the Frankl scale. Additional data were collected regarding the child's previous experiences and parental fear. The children's average item score on the 15-item CFS was 2+/-0.7, corresponding to a total score of 29.6 out of 75, where 75 indicates maximum fear. The proportion of children with dental fear, defined as an average item score of > or = 2.5 (corresponding to a total score of > or = 38), was 20% (85/421, 95% CI=16.3, 24%). The proportion of children who displayed negative behavior during treatment was 21% (95% CI=17.5, 24%). A prevalence ratio of 2.4 was calculated to describe the relationship between children's behavior during treatment and children's dental fear prior to dental treatment. Multivariate logistical regression analysis showed children with dental fear, younger children, and children exposed to treatment involving local anesthesia have higher odds of displaying negative behavior. The proportion of children with dental fear in private pediatric dentistry practices was 20%, and the proportion of children with negative behavior during treatment was 21%. Children with negative behavior had greater odds of having dental fear and children with dental fear had greater odds of having negative behavior. Screening for dental fear may allow pediatric dentists to

  7. Competition between social and private rental housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of shifting regulatory approaches and changing provision structures in many Western rental housing systems, the notion of competition between social and private rental housing has received increasing attention from practitioners and academic researchers. This thesis explores and

  8. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU), Lawrenceville, Georgia. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has completed its review of the Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU) preliminary...

  9. Private sector engagement in refugee education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeena Zakharia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the private sector in providing education for Syrian refugees has much to commend it but greater consideration needs to be paid to the ethical and practical concerns that may arise.

  10. Evaluation of public private partnership proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    In Alabama, a shortage of transportation funds requires the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) to combat that shortage by implementing innovative programs. Nationwide, Public Private Partnerships (PPP) in transportation projects are increas...

  11. Private sector data for performance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report examines and analyzes technical and institutional issues associated with the use of private sector travel time and speed data for public sector performance management. The primary data needs for congestion performance measures are outline...

  12. Radon in private drinking water wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otahal, P.; Merta, J.; Burian, I.

    2014-01-01

    At least 10 % of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq.l -1 . This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. (authors)

  13. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...

  14. USAID Public-Private Partnerships Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset brings together information collected since 2001 on PPPs that have been supported by USAID. For the purposes of this dataset a Public-Private...

  15. What Drives Private Equity Investments in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Precup Mihai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting the determinants of private equity investments in Romania over the period 2000 - 2013. Additionally, this paper presents the main highlights in terms of evolution, source of funding and activities in which the private equity funds invested during the crisis. Starting from the existing literature, this paper extends the analysis of private equity drivers to Romanian market by including variables such as: economic growth, market capitalization, interest rate, unemployment rate and public R&D expenditure which were already tested in previous papers. In addition, this paper introduces new variables such us productivity and corruption index which we consider important factors in explaining the evolution of private equity investments in Romania.

  16. Portugal's Petrogal eyes expansion amid continuing privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Portugal's recently privatized state oil company Petrogal is about to embark on a major expansion worldwide. That comes against the backdrop of major change in Portugal's energy sector and the rocky road to Petrogal's partial privatization. Despite the controversy, there remain opportunities for foreign companies investing in Portugal's energy sector. The most attractive opportunities are in Portugal's downstream petroleum sector and in the country's continuing campaign to develop its natural gas industry. Typical of the latter is Portugal's participation in the Trans-Maghreb gas pipeline megaproject. The paper discusses the background to privatization, its current status, Petrogal strategy, modernization of refineries, a joint partnership with Venezuela, constraints, energy policy program, gas pipeline privatization, and concerns of the gas industry

  17. Private STINET Handbook (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedrick, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    ...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 11.0 MB. ABSTRACT: This handbook provides instruction in the searching of the Technical Reports, Research Summaries and Independent Research and Development databases in Private STINET...

  18. Job Satisfaction in Public and Private Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Foged, Søren Kjær

    2017-01-01

    is that dissimilar functional areas are studied which makes it difficult to isolate effects of privatization as such. We respond to these challenges by carrying out an empirical analysis of job satisfaction among teachers who teach Danish to immigrants. The teachers work in comparable schools, carry out the same...... task, and are subject to the same performance management system, but some of the schools are public, some are private, and some have been subject to competitive tendering. We demonstrate that competition has a greater impact than ownership upon job satisfaction. We also show that one of the key...... mechanisms which translate competition into reduced job satisfaction relates to changing relations between managers and employees. Advocates and opponents of privatization alike should pay more attention to specific aspects and mechanisms related to privatization, in particular the element of competition....

  19. Private healthcare quality: applying a SERVQUAL model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Mohsin Muhammad; de Run, Ernest Cyril

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop and test the SERVQUAL model scale for measuring Malaysian private health service quality. The study consists of 340 randomly selected participants visiting a private healthcare facility during a three-month data collection period. Data were analyzed using means, correlations, principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to establish the modified SERVQUAL scale's reliability, underlying dimensionality and convergent, discriminant validity. Results indicate a moderate negative quality gap for overall Malaysian private healthcare service quality. Results also indicate a moderate negative quality gap on each service quality scale dimension. However, scale development analysis yielded excellent results, which can be used in wider healthcare policy and practice. Respondents were skewed towards a younger population, causing concern that the results might not represent all Malaysian age groups. The study's major contribution is that it offers a way to assess private healthcare service quality. Second, it successfully develops a scale that can be used to measure health service quality in Malaysian contexts.

  20. THE PRIVATE VISIT – RIGHT OR COMPENSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia POPESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The connection of the person deprived of his/her liberty with the family is an important aspect to be kept in the prison environment both for him/her and for the family. This connection is accomplished in particular by the right to private visit as provided within the legal regulations. Identifying the origins of the right to private visit and establishing the nature of this private right represent a goal, given that its peculiarity is that although it is regarded as a right, its implementation seems to be closer to the concept of reward. The radiography of the concept „private visit” is trying to identify both the willingness of the legislator that regulated this right, but also the realities from the prisons in terms of concrete realization of this right, considering both the legal provisions and the concrete situations in prisons.