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Sample records for single output miso

  1. Implementasi dan Evaluasi Kinerja Multi Input SingleOutput Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MISO OFDM Menggunakan Wireless Open Access Research Platform (WARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Permana Putra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi komunikasi nirkabel terus berkembang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan manusia akan koneksi informasi yang cepat, pengiriman data yang berkapasitas besar dan dapat diandalkan. Di dalam proses tersebut banyak sekali gangguan yang dapat mempengaruhi penurunan kinerja komunikasi diantaranya adalah multipath fading [1]. Multi Input Single Output (MISO merupakan salah satu teknik space diversity yang menggunakan banyak antena dengan tujuan untuk mengatasi multipath fading. Adapun pada proses transmisi digunakan teknik Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM yang bertujuan memberikan keuntungan dalam hal efisiensi pada saat transmisi data dan mampu menghindari Inter Simbol Interference (ISI. Pada penelitian ini akan dibandingkan kinerja sistem MISO OFDM dan SISO OFDM yang akan disimulasikan dan di implementasikan pada modul Wireless Open Access Penelitian Platform (WARP untuk mengevaluasi kinerja BER sebagai fungsi dari daya pancar dan jarak variasi. Parameter yang digunakan di dalam pengukuran berdasarkan IEEE 802.11 a/g karena menggunakan frekuensi 2,4 Ghz. Terdapat dua skema pengukuran yaitu SISO OFDM dan MISO OFDM dengan variasi jarak 4,6 dan 8 meter dengan variasi daya pancar -35 s/d -4 dBm dengan peningkatan gain 5 kali secara berkala. Dari dua skema yang dilaksanakan dapat disimpulkan bahwa semakin jauh jarak antara pemancar dan penerima maka dibutuhkan penambahan gain untuk menjaga kualitas data yang dikirimkan. Disamping itu, terdapat perbedaan nilai gain untuk mencapai nilai BER = dibutuhkan penambahan gain = - 33 sedangkan pada SISO OFM dibutuhkan penambahan gain = -18.

  2. A MISO-ARX-Based Method for Single-Trial Evoked Potential Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method for solving the single-trial evoked potential (EP estimation problem. In this method, the single-trial EP is considered as a complex containing many components, which may originate from different functional brain sites; these components can be distinguished according to their respective latencies and amplitudes and are extracted simultaneously by multiple-input single-output autoregressive modeling with exogenous input (MISO-ARX. The extraction process is performed in three stages: first, we use a reference EP as a template and decompose it into a set of components, which serve as subtemplates for the remaining steps. Then, a dictionary is constructed with these subtemplates, and EPs are preliminarily extracted by sparse coding in order to roughly estimate the latency of each component. Finally, the single-trial measurement is parametrically modeled by MISO-ARX while characterizing spontaneous electroencephalographic activity as an autoregression model driven by white noise and with each component of the EP modeled by autoregressive-moving-average filtering of the subtemplates. Once optimized, all components of the EP can be extracted. Compared with ARX, our method has greater tracking capabilities of specific components of the EP complex as each component is modeled individually in MISO-ARX. We provide exhaustive experimental results to show the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

  3. Discrete Input Signaling for MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine; Rezki, Zouheir; Ghrayeb, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the achievable secrecy rate of visible light communication (VLC) links for discrete input distributions. We consider single user single eavesdropper multiple-input single-output (MISO) links. In addition, both beamforming

  4. On the Secrecy Capacity of MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine; Rezki, Zouheir; Ghrayeb, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We study the secrecy capacity of the multiple- input single-output (MISO) Gaussian wiretap visible light communication (VLC) channel. We study a typical VLC scenario with one transmitter, one legitimate receiver, and one eavesdropper. Specifically

  5. Effective capacity of correlated MISO channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Caijun; Ratnarajah, Tharm; Wong, Kaikit; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical performance investigation of the capacity limits of correlated multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels in the presence of quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. Exact closed-form expression for the effective

  6. Multi input single output model predictive control of non-linear bio-polymerization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugasamy, Senthil Kumar; Ahmad, Z. [School of Chemical Engineering, Univerisiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan,14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper focuses on Multi Input Single Output (MISO) Model Predictive Control of bio-polymerization process in which mechanistic model is developed and linked with the feedforward neural network model to obtain a hybrid model (Mechanistic-FANN) of lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) for Poly (ε-caprolactone) production. In this research, state space model was used, in which the input to the model were the reactor temperatures and reactor impeller speeds and the output were the molecular weight of polymer (M{sub n}) and polymer polydispersity index. State space model for MISO created using System identification tool box of Matlab™. This state space model is used in MISO MPC. Model predictive control (MPC) has been applied to predict the molecular weight of the biopolymer and consequently control the molecular weight of biopolymer. The result shows that MPC is able to track reference trajectory and give optimum movement of manipulated variable.

  7. Formulating the Net Gain of MISO-SFN in the Presence of Self-Interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jeon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analytical formula for multiple-input single-output single frequency network gain (MISO-SFNG is investigated. To formulate the net MISO-SFNG, we derived the average signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR where the gain achieved by the distributed MISO diversity as a function of power imbalance is curve-fitted. Further, we analyzed the losses owing to self-interferences resulting from the delay spread and imperfect channel estimation. We verified the accuracy and effectiveness of the derived formula by comparing the measurement results with the analytical results. The derived formula helps to understand how various system factors affect the gain under a given condition. The formula can be used to evaluate the MISO-SFNG and to predict the MISO-SFN coverage in various system configurations.

  8. Effective capacity of correlated MISO channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Caijun

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an analytical performance investigation of the capacity limits of correlated multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels in the presence of quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. Exact closed-form expression for the effective capacity of correlated MISO channels is derived. In addition, simple expressions are obtained at the asymptotic high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes, which provide insights into the impact of various system parameters on the effective capacity of the system. Also, a complete characterization of the impact of spatial correlation on the effective capacity is provided with the aid of a majorization theory result. The findings suggest that antenna correlation reduce the effective capacity of the channels. Moreover, a stringent QoS requirement causes a significant reduction in the effective capacity but this can be effectively alleviated by increasing the number of antennas. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. An inter-lighting interference cancellation scheme for MISO-VLC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuntak; Lee, Kyujin; Lee, Kyesan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an inter-lighting interference cancellation (ILIC) scheme to reduce the interference between adjacent light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and enhance the transmission capacity of multiple-input-single-output (MISO)-visible light communication (VLC) systems. In indoor environments, multiple LEDs have normally been used as lighting sources, allowing the design of MISO-VLC systems. To enhance the transmission capacity, different data should be simultaneously transmitted from each LED; however, that can lead to interference between adjacent LEDs. In that case, relatively low-received power signals are subjected to large interference because wireless optical systems generally use intensity modulation and direct detection. Thus, only the signal with the highest received power can be detected, while the other received signals cannot be detected. To solve this problem, we propose the ILIC scheme for MISO-VLC systems. The proposed scheme preferentially detects the highest received power signal, and this signal is referred as interference signal by an interference component generator. Then, relatively low-received power signal can be detected by cancelling the interference signal from the total received signals. Therefore, the performance of the proposed scheme can improve the total average bit error rate and throughput of a MISO-VLC system.

  10. Discrete Input Signaling for MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine

    2017-05-12

    In this paper, we study the achievable secrecy rate of visible light communication (VLC) links for discrete input distributions. We consider single user single eavesdropper multiple-input single-output (MISO) links. In addition, both beamforming and robust beamforming are considered. In the former case, the location of the eavesdropper is assumed to be known, whereas in the latter case, the location of the eavesdropper is unknown. We compare the obtained results with those achieved by some continuous distributions including the truncated generalized normal (TGN) distribution and the uniform distribution. We numerically show that the secrecy rate achieved by the discrete input distribution with a finite support is significantly improved as compared to those achieved by the TGN and the uniform distributions.

  11. On the input distribution and optimal beamforming for the MISO VLC wiretap channel

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine; Rezki, Zouheir; Ghrayeb, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We investigate in this paper the achievable secrecy rate of the multiple-input single-output (MISO) visible light communication (VLC) Gaussian wiretap channel with single user and single eavesdropper. We consider the cases when the location of eavesdropper is known or unknown to the transmitter. In the former case, we derive the optimal beamforming in closed form, subject to constrained inputs. In the latter case, we apply robust beamforming. Furthermore, we study the achievable secrecy rate when the input follows the truncated generalized normal (TGN) distribution. We present several examples which demonstrate the substantial improvements in the secrecy rates achieved by the proposed techniques.

  12. On the input distribution and optimal beamforming for the MISO VLC wiretap channel

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine

    2017-05-12

    We investigate in this paper the achievable secrecy rate of the multiple-input single-output (MISO) visible light communication (VLC) Gaussian wiretap channel with single user and single eavesdropper. We consider the cases when the location of eavesdropper is known or unknown to the transmitter. In the former case, we derive the optimal beamforming in closed form, subject to constrained inputs. In the latter case, we apply robust beamforming. Furthermore, we study the achievable secrecy rate when the input follows the truncated generalized normal (TGN) distribution. We present several examples which demonstrate the substantial improvements in the secrecy rates achieved by the proposed techniques.

  13. CFO and channel estimation for MISO-OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ladaycia, Abdelhamid

    2017-11-02

    This study deals with the joint channel and carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation in a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) communications system. This problem arises in OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) based multi-relay transmission protocols such that the geo-routing one proposed by A. Bader et al in 2012. Indeed, the outstanding performance of this multi-hop relaying scheme relies heavily on the channel and CFO estimation quality at the PHY layer. In this work, two approaches are considered: The first is based on estimating the overall channel (including the CFO) as a time-varying one using an adaptive scheme under the assumption of small or moderate CFOs while the second one performs separately, the channel and CFO parameters estimation based on the considered data model. The two solutions are analyzed and compared in terms of performance, cost and convergence rate.

  14. On the Secrecy Capacity of MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine

    2017-02-07

    We study the secrecy capacity of the multiple- input single-output (MISO) Gaussian wiretap visible light communication (VLC) channel. We study a typical VLC scenario with one transmitter, one legitimate receiver, and one eavesdropper. Specifically, we compute the achievable secrecy rate for various input signaling distributions, including the truncated generalized normal (TGN) and uniform distributions. The transmitter is equipped with multiple light sources, while the legitimate and unauthorized receivers are each equipped with a single photodetector. We analyze the achievable secrecy rates via transmit beamforming and artificial noise. In addition, both zero-forcing beamforming and robust beamforming are considered. In the former case, the location of the eavesdropper is assumed to be known, whereas in the latter case, the location of the eavesdropper is unknown. Our numerical results show that the secrecy rate achieved by the TGN distribution is significantly improved as compared to those achieved by the truncated Gaussian and uniform distributions, for both zero-forcing beamforming and robust beamforming. We also derive an upper bound on the achievable secrecy capacity that we used to assess the closeness of the achievable secrecy rates to the derived bound.

  15. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2013-06-01

    We propose three adaptive transmission techniques aiming to maximize the capacity of a multiple-input-single-output (MISO) secondary system under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network. In the first scheme, namely the best antenna selection (BAS) scheme, the antenna maximizing the capacity of the secondary link is used for transmission. We then propose an orthogonal space time bloc code (OSTBC) transmission scheme using the Alamouti scheme with transmit antenna selection (TAS), namely the TAS/STBC scheme. The performance improvement offered by this scheme comes at the expense of an increased complexity and delay when compared to the BAS scheme. As a compromise between these schemes, we propose a hybrid scheme using BAS when only one antenna verifies the interference condition and TAS/STBC when two or more antennas are illegible for communication. We first derive closed-form expressions of the statistics of the received signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) at the secondary receiver (SR). These results are then used to analyze the performance of the proposed techniques in terms of the average spectral efficiency, the average number of transmit antennas, and the average bit error rate (BER). This performance is then illustrated via selected numerical examples. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. On-grid and Off-grid Operation of Multi-Input Single-Output DC/DC Converter based Fuel Cell Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noroozian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and simulation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC generation system for off-grid and on-grid operation and configuration. A fuel cell DG system consists of a fuel cell power plant, a DC/DC converter and a DC/AC inverter. The dynamic model for fuel cell array and its power electronic interfacing are presented also a multi-input single output (MISO DC/DC converter and its control scheme is proposed and analyzed. This DC/DC converter is capable of interfacing fuel cell arrays to the DC/AC inverter. Also the mathematical model of the inverter is obtained by using average technique. Then the novel control strategy of DC/AC inverter for different operating conditions is demonstrated. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the suggested control systems under both on-grid and off-grid operation modes.

  17. Achievable Rates of Secure Transmission in Gaussian MISO Channel with Imperfect Main Channel Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Xinyu

    2016-03-15

    A Gaussian multiple-input single-output (MISO) fading channel is considered. We assume that the transmitter, in addition to the statistics of all channel gains, is aware instantaneously of a noisy version of the channel to the legitimate receiver. On the other hand, the legitimate receiver is aware instantaneously of its channel to the transmitter, whereas the eavesdropper instantaneously knows all channel gains. We evaluate an achievable rate using a Gaussian input without indexing an auxiliary random variable. A sufficient condition for beamforming to be optimal is provided. When the number of transmit antennas is large, beamforming also turns out to be optimal. In this case, the maximum achievable rate can be expressed in a simple closed form and scales with the logarithm of the number of transmit antennas. Furthermore, in the case when a noisy estimate of the eavesdropper’s channel is also available at the transmitter, we introduce the SNR difference and the SNR ratio criterions and derive the related optimal transmission strategies and the corresponding achievable rates.

  18. Achievable Rates of Secure Transmission in Gaussian MISO Channel with Imperfect Main Channel Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Xinyu; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    A Gaussian multiple-input single-output (MISO) fading channel is considered. We assume that the transmitter, in addition to the statistics of all channel gains, is aware instantaneously of a noisy version of the channel to the legitimate receiver. On the other hand, the legitimate receiver is aware instantaneously of its channel to the transmitter, whereas the eavesdropper instantaneously knows all channel gains. We evaluate an achievable rate using a Gaussian input without indexing an auxiliary random variable. A sufficient condition for beamforming to be optimal is provided. When the number of transmit antennas is large, beamforming also turns out to be optimal. In this case, the maximum achievable rate can be expressed in a simple closed form and scales with the logarithm of the number of transmit antennas. Furthermore, in the case when a noisy estimate of the eavesdropper’s channel is also available at the transmitter, we introduce the SNR difference and the SNR ratio criterions and derive the related optimal transmission strategies and the corresponding achievable rates.

  19. Time series analysis of aerobic bacterial flora during Miso fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, T; Yanagida, F; Tsuji, M; Shinohara, T; Yokotsuka, K

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a microbiological study of aerobic mesophilic bacteria that are present during the fermentation process of Miso. Aerobic bacteria were enumerated and isolated from Miso during fermentation and divided into nine groups using traditional phenotypic tests. The strains were identified by biochemical analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, Kocuria kristinae, Staphylococcus gallinarum and S. kloosii. All strains were sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the lactic acid bacteria isolated from Miso. The dominant species among the undesirable species throughout the fermentation process were B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. It is suggested that bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria are effective in the growth prevention of aerobic bacteria in Miso. This study has provided useful information for controlling of bacterial flora during Miso fermentation.

  20. Inverted relativistic magnetron with a single axial output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, W.P.; Earley, L.M.; Wharton, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    A twelve vane, 1 MV, S-band magnetron has been designed and tested. An inverted design was selected to minimize the parasitic axial electron losses. The stainless steel anode is approximately one wavelength long. One end is partially short-circuited to rf, while the other end has a mode transformer to couple the 3.16 GHz π-mode out into a TM 01 circular waveguide. The magnetron has a loaded output Q of about 100. Operation at 1 MV, 0.31 T, 5 kA routinely produces approx.150 MW peak rms and 100 MW average rms with pulse lengths adjustable from 5 to 70 ns. The microwave power pulse has a rise time of approx.2 ns. The output power is diagnosed using four methods: calorimetry, two circular-waveguide directional couplers installed on the magnetron, two transmitting-receiving systems, and gaseous breakdown. Operation at other voltages and magnetic fields shows that the oscillation frequency is somewhat dependent on the magnetron current. Frequency changes of approx.20 MHz/kA occur as the operating conditions are varied. A series of experiments varying the anode conductivity, the electron emission profile, and the output coupling transformer design showed that none of these significantly increased the output power. Therefore, we have concluded that this magnetron operates in saturation. Because of the anode lifetime and repeatability, this magnetron has the potential to be repetitively pulsed. 36 refs., 16 figs

  1. Enhanced tumor responses through therapies combining CCNU, MISO and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, D.W.; Hill, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine whether the radiation sensitizer misonidazole (MISO) could enhance the tumor control probability in a treatment strategy combining radiation and the nitrosourea 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU). In initial experiments KHT sarcoma-bearing mice were injected with 1.0 mg/g of MISO simultaneously with a 20 mg/kg dose of CCNU 30-40 min prior to irradiation (1500 rad). With this treatment protocol approximately 60% of the mice were found to be tumor-free 100 days post treatment. By comparison all 2 agent combinations led to 0% cures. To evaluate the relative importance of chemopotentiation versus radiosensitization in the 3 agent protocol, tumors were treated with MISO plus one anti-tumor agent (either radiation of CCNU) and then at times ranging from 0 to 24 hr later exposed to the other agent. When the time between treatments was 0 to 6 hr, a 60 to 80% tumor control rate was achieved for both MISO plus radiation followed by CCNU and MISO plus CCNU followed by radiation. However if the time interval was increased to 18 or 24 hr, the cure rate in the former treatment regimen dropped to 10% while that of the latter remained high at 40%. The data therefore indicate that (1) improved tumor responses may be achieved when MISO is added to a radiation-chemotherapy combination and (2) MISO may be more effective in such a protocol when utilized as a chemopotentiator

  2. A simple output voltage control scheme for single phase wavelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    of the wavelet modulated (WM) scheme is that a single synthesis function, derived ... a single-phase H-bridge voltage-source (VS) inverter using MATLAB simulations. ... reconstruction process has been suggested to device a new class of ...

  3. The non-planar single-frequency ring laser with variable output coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-ying; Yang, Su-hui; Wei, Guang-hui

    2002-03-01

    We put forward a novel non-planar single-frequency ring laser, which consists of a corner cube prism and a specially cut Porro prism made by Nd:YAG crystal. The relative angle between the corner cube and the Porro prism could be adjusted to control the output coupling of the laser resonator and the polarization-state of the output laser. A 1.06 μm single-frequency laser with 1 W output has been obtained.

  4. 78 FR 69660 - Association of Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission Customers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission Customers, Illinois Industrial Energy... LLC, Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Entergy Arkansas, Inc., Entergy Gulf States Louisiana, LLC....206 (2013), Association of Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission...

  5. Graphical user interface for input output characterization of single variable and multivariable highly nonlinear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrukh Adnan Khan M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Graphical User Interface (GUI software utility for the input/output characterization of single variable and multivariable nonlinear systems by obtaining the sinusoidal input describing function (SIDF of the plant. The software utility is developed on MATLAB R2011a environment. The developed GUI holds no restriction on the nonlinearity type, arrangement and system order; provided that output(s of the system is obtainable either though simulation or experiments. An insight to the GUI and its features are presented in this paper and example problems from both single variable and multivariable cases are demonstrated. The formulation of input/output behavior of the system is discussed and the nucleus of the MATLAB command underlying the user interface has been outlined. Some of the industries that would benefit from this software utility includes but not limited to aerospace, defense technology, robotics and automotive.

  6. Three-Input Single-Output Voltage-Mode Multifunction Filter with Electronic Controllability Based on Single Commercially Available IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Klungtong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a second-order voltage-mode filter with three inputs and single-output voltage using single commercially available IC, one resistor, and two capacitors. The used commercially available IC, called LT1228, is manufactured by Linear Technology Corporation. The proposed filter is based on parallel RLC circuit. The filter provides five output filter responses, namely, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, and all-pass (AP functions. The selection of each filter response can be done without the requirement of active and passive component matching condition. Furthermore, the natural frequency and quality factor are electronically controlled. Besides, the nonideal case is also investigated. The output voltage node exhibits low impedance. The experimental results can validate the theoretical analyses.

  7. A design of calibration single star simulator with adjustable magnitude and optical spectrum output system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guansheng; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xuan; Shi, Gentai; Bai, Haojie

    2018-03-01

    In order to achieve multi-color temperature and multi-magnitude output, magnitude and temperature can real-time adjust, a new type of calibration single star simulator was designed with adjustable magnitude and optical spectrum output in this article. xenon lamp and halogen tungsten lamp were used as light source. The control of spectrum band and temperature of star was realized with different multi-beam narrow band spectrum with light of varying intensity. When light source with different spectral characteristics and color temperature go into the magnitude regulator, the light energy attenuation were under control by adjusting the light luminosity. This method can completely satisfy the requirements of calibration single star simulator with adjustable magnitude and optical spectrum output in order to achieve the adjustable purpose of magnitude and spectrum.

  8. Minimum Symbol Error Rate Detection in Single-Input Multiple-Output Channels with Markov Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Minimum symbol error rate detection in Single-Input Multiple- Output(SIMO) channels with Markov noise is presented. The special case of zero-mean Gauss-Markov noise is examined closer as it only requires knowledge of the second-order moments. In this special case, it is shown that optimal detection...

  9. New topology of multiple-input single-output PV system for DC load applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. ELhagry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving PV system structure and maximizing the output power of a PV system has drawn many researchers attention nowadays. A proposed multi-input single-output PV system is proposed in this paper. The system consists of multiple PV modules; each module feeds a DC–DC converter. The outputs of the converters are tied together to form a DC voltage source. In order to minimize the output ripples of the converters, the control signal of each converter is time shifted from each other by a certain time interval depending on the number of converters used in the topology. In this study a battery is used as the main load, the load current used as the control variable. A fuzzy logic controller designed to modulate the operating point of the system to get the maximum power. The results show that the proposed system has very good response for various operating conditions of the PV system. In addition the output filter is minimized with excellent quality of the DC output voltage.

  10. High Efficiency Single Output ZVS-ZCS Voltage Doubled Flyback Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyaperumal, Deepa; Saju, Hridya Merin; Kumar, M. Vijaya

    2016-06-01

    A switch operating at high switching frequency increases the switching losses of the converter resulting in lesser efficiency. Hence this paper proposes a new topology which has resonant switches [zero voltage switching (ZVS)] in the primary circuit to eliminate the above said disadvantages, and voltage doubler zero current switching (ZCS) circuit in the secondary to double the output voltage, and hence the output power, power density and efficiency. The design aspects of the proposed topology for a single output of 5 V at 50 kHz, its simulation and hardware results are discussed in detail. The analysis of the results obtained from a 2.5 W converter reveals the superiority of the proposed converter.

  11. Output pulse-shapes of position-sensitive proportional counters using high resistance single wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Hasai, Hiromi

    1980-01-01

    The measurements and model analysis of the output pulse-shapes from a single wire proportional counter (SWPC) which has a high resistance anode are described. The characteristics of the observed pulse-shapes are determined by only one parameter which is a function of anode resistance and load resistance and they are reproduced by a simple model. Using this model, the methods for position read-out are discussed in a systematical way. (author)

  12. Degradation of Histamine by Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from Miso Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Lee, Yi-Chen; Huang, Ya-Ling; Huang, Yu-Ru; Su, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-10-01

    Histamine is a toxic chemical and is the causative agent of food poisoning. This foodborne toxin may be degraded by the oxidative deamination activity of certain microorganisms. In this study, we isolated four histamine-degrading Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria from miso products. Among them, L. plantarum D-103 exhibited 100% degradation of histamine in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth containing 50 ppm of histamine after 24 h of incubation at 30°C. The optimal growth, histamine oxidase, and histamine-degrading activity of L. plantarum D-103 were observed in histamine MRS broth at pH 7.0, 3% NaCl, and 30°C. It also exhibited tolerance to broad ranges of pH (4 to 10) and salt concentrations (0 to 12%) in histamine MRS broth. Therefore, the histamine-degrading L. plantarum D-103 might be used as an additive culture to prevent histamine accumulation in miso products during fermentation.

  13. Isolation of 8-hydroxyglycitein and 6-hydroxydaidzein from soybean miso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Akira; Inaba, Miyuki; Chen, Yu-Chi; Abe, Naoki; Taki, Shoji; Yano, Masamichi; Kawaii, Satoru

    2004-06-01

    We isolated from soybean miso 8-hydroxyglycitein and 6-hydroxydaidzein as DPPH-radical scavengers, and elucidated their chemical structures by mass spectrometric, and (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectrosopic analyses. These compounds showed DPPH-radical scavenging activity as high as that of alpha-tocopherol, 8-hydroxygenistein and 8-hydroxydaidzein. This is the first report of the isolation of 8-hydroxyglycitein from a natural source.

  14. A single-to-differential low-noise amplifier with low differential output imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Lian; Ma Chengyan; He Xiaofeng; Ye Tianchun; Huang Wei; Jin Yuhua

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a single-ended input differential output low-noise amplifier intended for GPS applications. We propose a method to reduce the gain/amplitude and phase imbalance of a differential output exploiting the inductive coupling of a transformer or center-tapped differential inductor. A detailed analysis of the theory of imbalance reduction, as well as a discussion on the principle of choosing the dimensions of a transformer, are given. An LNA has been implemented using TSMC 0.18 μm technology with ESD-protected. Measurement on board shows a voltage gain of 24.6 dB at 1.575 GHz and a noise figure of 3.2 dB. The gain imbalance is below 0.2 dB and phase imbalance is less than 2 degrees. The LNA consumes 5.2 mA from a 1.8 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Maximizing power output from continuous-wave single-frequency fiber amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Benjamin G

    2015-02-15

    This Letter reports on a method of maximizing the power output from highly saturated cladding-pumped continuous-wave single-frequency fiber amplifiers simultaneously, taking into account the stimulated Brillouin scattering and transverse modal instability thresholds. This results in a design figure of merit depending on the fundamental mode overlap with the doping profile, the peak Brillouin gain coefficient, and the peak mode coupling gain coefficient. This figure of merit is then numerically analyzed for three candidate fiber designs including standard, segmented acoustically tailored, and micro-segmented acoustically tailored photonic-crystal fibers. It is found that each of the latter two fibers should enable a 50% higher output power than standard photonic crystal fiber.

  16. Single-InN-Nanowire Nanogenerator with Upto 1 V Output Voltage

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chi-Te

    2010-07-30

    Piezoelectric potential of a InN nanowire (NW) growing along [011̄0] can be positive, negative, and zero depending on the direction of the applied transverse force. By measuring the output voltage of a InN-NW-based nanogenerator, about 40% to 55% of output voltages are within the range of ?1 and ?20 mV, and 25% to 30% of output voltages would exceed ?100 mV. Some output voltages could reach the magnitude of ?1000 mV, showing its great potential for fabricating high-output nanogenerators. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Three-Dimensional Terahertz Coded-Aperture Imaging Based on Single Input Multiple Output Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a promising radar imaging technique, terahertz coded-aperture imaging (TCAI can achieve high-resolution, forward-looking, and staring imaging by producing spatiotemporal independent signals with coded apertures. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional (3D TCAI architecture based on single input multiple output (SIMO technology, which can reduce the coding and sampling times sharply. The coded aperture applied in the proposed TCAI architecture loads either purposive or random phase modulation factor. In the transmitting process, the purposive phase modulation factor drives the terahertz beam to scan the divided 3D imaging cells. In the receiving process, the random phase modulation factor is adopted to modulate the terahertz wave to be spatiotemporally independent for high resolution. Considering human-scale targets, images of each 3D imaging cell are reconstructed one by one to decompose the global computational complexity, and then are synthesized together to obtain the complete high-resolution image. As for each imaging cell, the multi-resolution imaging method helps to reduce the computational burden on a large-scale reference-signal matrix. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed architecture can achieve high-resolution imaging with much less time for 3D targets and has great potential in applications such as security screening, nondestructive detection, medical diagnosis, etc.

  18. The MISO wiretap channel with channel uncertainty: Asymptotic perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    The N-antenna MISO Gaussian wiretap channel with imperfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is studied in terms of secrecy rate scaling versus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and N. Two schemes are considered, beamforming (BF) and artificial noise injection (AN). It is shown that if the CSIT error is independent of SNR, then both schemes do not achieve scaling versus SNR. However, if this error vanishes as SNR increases, then AN achieves the optimal scaling versus SNR, contrary to BF. Scaling can be achieved in BF by increasing N. In fact, BF achieves the optimal scaling versus N. In the AN scheme however, injecting noise in multiple direction deteriorates its scaling versus N. Nevertheless, AN can achieve the optimal scaling if noise is sent in only one direction. This leads to better performance than BF if the CSIT error is smaller than a threshold which is also derived.

  19. The MISO wiretap channel with channel uncertainty: Asymptotic perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2017-05-12

    The N-antenna MISO Gaussian wiretap channel with imperfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is studied in terms of secrecy rate scaling versus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and N. Two schemes are considered, beamforming (BF) and artificial noise injection (AN). It is shown that if the CSIT error is independent of SNR, then both schemes do not achieve scaling versus SNR. However, if this error vanishes as SNR increases, then AN achieves the optimal scaling versus SNR, contrary to BF. Scaling can be achieved in BF by increasing N. In fact, BF achieves the optimal scaling versus N. In the AN scheme however, injecting noise in multiple direction deteriorates its scaling versus N. Nevertheless, AN can achieve the optimal scaling if noise is sent in only one direction. This leads to better performance than BF if the CSIT error is smaller than a threshold which is also derived.

  20. Robust fault detection and isolation technique for single-input/single-output closed-loop control systems that exhibit actuator and sensor faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Alavi, S. M. Mahdi; Hayes, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated quantitative feedback design and frequency-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) approach is presented for single-input/single-output systems. A novel design methodology, based on shaping the system frequency response, is proposed to generate an appropriate residual signal...

  1. Single-transverse-mode near-IR superluminescent diodes with cw output power up to 100 mW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, E V; Il'chenko, S N; Kostin, Yu O; Yakubovich, S D

    2014-01-01

    A series of light-emitting modules based on single-mode quantum-well superluminescent diodes with centre emission wavelengths of about 790, 840, 960 and 1060 nm and a cw output power up to 100 mW in free space is developed. A sufficiently long service life of these devices is demonstrated. (lasers)

  2. Single-transverse-mode near-IR superluminescent diodes with cw output power up to 100 mW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, E V; Il' chenko, S N; Kostin, Yu O [Superlum Diodes Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation); Yakubovich, S D [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-29

    A series of light-emitting modules based on single-mode quantum-well superluminescent diodes with centre emission wavelengths of about 790, 840, 960 and 1060 nm and a cw output power up to 100 mW in free space is developed. A sufficiently long service life of these devices is demonstrated. (lasers)

  3. Adjusting output impedance using a PI controller to improve the stability of a single-phase inverter under weak grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Jiao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Explored in this paper is the grid impedance effect on the stability of a single-phase grid connected inverter with an LC filter based on an analysis of the inverter output impedance. For a single-phase grid connected inverter, a PI controller is often used to regulate the current injected into the grid. However, the control performance can be influenced when the inverter is connected to a weak grid. Also, the utility grid has background harmonic noise, which can make the injected current distorted. Therefore, analysis of the output impedance of a single-phase grid connected inverter is important for the robustness and stability of the system. By modeling the output impedance of inverter, it can be determined that the proportional gain and integral gain of the controller have an effect on the output impedance. Analytical results show that by adjusting the PI controller parameters, the ability for harmonic reduction and stability of the system can be improved. Simulation and experiments using a 1 kW single-phase grid connected inverter verify the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  4. SISTEM KONTROL OTOMATIK DENGAN MODEL SINGLE-INPUT-DUAL-OUTPUT DALAM KENDALI EFISIENSI UMUR-PEMAKAIAN INSTRUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N.M.P. Simamora

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency condition occurs when the value of the used outputs compared to the resource total that has been used almost close to the value 1 (absolute environment. An instrument to achieve efficiency if the power output level has decreased significantly in the life of the instrument used, if it compared to the previous condition, when the instrument is not equipped with additional systems (or proposed model improvement. Even more effective if the inputs model that are used in unison to achieve a homogeneous output. On this research has been designed and implemented the automatic control system for models of single input-dual-output, wherein the sampling instruments used are lamp and fan. Source voltage used is AC (alternate-current and tested using quantitative research methods and instrumentation (with measuring instruments are observed. The results obtained demonstrate the efficiency of the instrument experienced a significant current model of single-input-dual-output applied separately instrument trials such as lamp and fan when it compared to the condition or state before. And the result show that the design has been built, can also run well.

  5. Influence of directionality and maximal power output on speech understanding with bone anchored hearing implants in single sided deafness

    OpenAIRE

    Krempaska, Silvia; Koval, Juraj; Schmid, Christoph; Pfiffner, Flurin; Kurz, Anja; Kompis, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bone-anchored hearing implants (BAHI) are routinely used to alleviate the effects of the acoustic head shadow in single-sided sensorineural deafness (SSD). In this study, the influence of the directional microphone setting and the maximum power output of the BAHI sound processor on speech understanding in noise in a laboratory setting were investigated. Eight adult BAHI users with SSD participated in this pilot study. Speech understanding in noise was measured using a new Slovak speech-in-noi...

  6. Single Ih channels in pyramidal neuron dendrites: properties, distribution, and impact on action potential output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Hallermann, Stefan; Stuart, Greg J.

    2006-01-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability, yet its native single-channel properties in the brain are essentially unknown. Here we use variance-mean analysis to study the properties of single Ih channels in the apical dendrites of

  7. Sliding-mode control of single input multiple output DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Wan, Qiyang

    2016-10-01

    Various voltage levels are required in the vehicle mounted power system. A conventional solution is to utilize an independent multiple output DC-DC converter whose cost is high and control scheme is complicated. In this paper, we design a novel SIMO DC-DC converter with sliding mode controller. The proposed converter can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage DC bus and middle-voltage output terminals, which endow the converter with characteristics of simple structure, low cost, and convenient control. In addition, the sliding mode control (SMC) technique applied in our converter can enhance the performances of a certain SIMO DC-DC converter topology. The high-voltage DC bus can be regarded as the main power source to the high-voltage facility of the vehicle mounted power system, and the middle-voltage output terminals can supply power to the low-voltage equipment on an automobile. In the respect of control algorithm, it is the first time to propose the SMC-PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm, in which the SMC algorithm is utilized and the PID control is attended to the conventional SMC algorithm. The PID control increases the dynamic ability of the SMC algorithm by establishing the corresponding SMC surface and introducing the attached integral of voltage error, which endow the sliding-control system with excellent dynamic performance. At last, we established the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model, tested performance of the system, and built the hardware prototype based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Results show that the sliding mode control is able to track a required trajectory, which has robustness against the uncertainties and disturbances.

  8. Indirect Matrix Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application with Three-Phase and Single-Phase Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indirect matrix converter (IMC topology for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV application with three-phase and single-phase outputs. The HEV includes mechanical, electrical, control, and electrochemical systems among others. In the mechanical system, a traction motor and a compressor motor are used to drive the HEV. The traction motor and the compressor motor are usually operated as three-phase and single-phase motors, respectively. In this respect, a dual AC-drive system can operate the traction and the compressor motor simultaneously. Furthermore, compared to a conventional dual matrix converter system, the proposed topology can reduce the number of switches that the dual outputs share with a DC-link. The application of this system for HEV has advantages, like long lifetime and reduced volume due to the lack of a DC-link. The proposed control strategy and modulation schemes ensure the sinusoidal input and output waveforms and bidirectional power transmission. The proposed system for the HEV application is verified by simulation and experiments.

  9. Identification of biomechanical nonlinearity in whole-body vibration using a reverse path multi-input-single-output method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya; Ferguson, Neil S.

    2018-04-01

    The study implements a classic signal analysis technique, typically applied to structural dynamics, to examine the nonlinear characteristics seen in the apparent mass of a recumbent person during whole-body horizontal random vibration. The nonlinearity in the present context refers to the amount of 'output' that is not correlated or coherent to the 'input', usually indicated by values of the coherence function that are less than unity. The analysis is based on the longitudinal horizontal inline and vertical cross-axis apparent mass of twelve human subjects exposed to 0.25-20 Hz random acceleration vibration at 0.125 and 1.0 ms-2 r.m.s. The conditioned reverse path frequency response functions (FRF) reveal that the uncorrelated 'linear' relationship between physical input (acceleration) and outputs (inline and cross-axis forces) has much greater variation around the primary resonance frequency between 0.5 and 5 Hz. By reversing the input and outputs of the physical system, it is possible to assemble additional mathematical inputs from the physical output forces and mathematical constructs (e.g. square root of inline force). Depending on the specific construct, this can improve the summed multiple coherence at frequencies where the response magnitude is low. In the present case this is between 6 and 20 Hz. The statistical measures of the response force time histories of each of the twelve subjects indicate that there are potential anatomical 'end-stops' for the sprung mass in the inline axis. No previous study has applied this reverse path multi-input-single-output approach to human vibration kinematic and kinetic data before. The implementation demonstrated in the present study will allow new and existing data to be examined using this different analytical tool.

  10. ATP and phosphocreatine utilization in single human muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output at elevated muscle temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stuart R; Söderlund, Karin; Ferguson, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of muscle temperature (Tm) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine utilization in single muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output in humans. Six male participants performed a 6-s maximal sprint on a friction-braked cycle ergometer under both normal (Tm = 34.3 degrees C, s = 0.6) and elevated (T(m) = 37.3 degrees C, s = 0.2) muscle temperature conditions. During the elevated condition, muscle temperature of the legs was raised, passively, by hot water immersion followed by wrapping in electrically heated blankets. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and immediately after exercise. Freeze-dried single fibres were dissected, characterized according to myosin heavy chain composition, and analysed for ATP and phosphocreatine content. Single fibres were classified as: type I, IIA, IIAX25 (1 - 25% IIX isoform), IIAX50 (26 - 50% IIX), IIAX75 (51 - 75% IIX), or IIAX100 (76 - 100% IIX). Maximal power output and pedal rate were both greater (P < 0.05) during the elevated condition by 258 W (s = 110) and 22 rev . min(-1) (s = 6), respectively. In both conditions, phosphocreatine content decreased significantly in all fibre types, with a greater decrease during the elevated condition in type IIA fibres (P < 0.01). Adenosine triphosphate content was also reduced to a greater (P < 0.01) extent in type IIA fibres during the elevated condition. The results of the present study indicate that after passive elevation of muscle temperature, there was a greater decrease in ATP and phosphocreatine content in type IIA fibres than in the normal trial, which contributed to the higher maximal power output.

  11. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging compounds from soybean miso and antiproliferative activity of isoflavones from soybean miso toward the cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, A; Taki, S; Kawaii, S; Yano, M; Abe, N

    2000-05-01

    Guided by their DPPH radical-scavenging activity, nine compounds were isolated from soybean miso. Of these, 8-hydroxydaidzein, 8-hydroxygenistein and syringic acid had as high DPPH radical-scavenging activity as that of alpha-tocopherol. The antiproliferative activity of four of the isolated isoflavones toward three cancer cell lines was examined. 8-Hydroxygenistein showed the highest activity (IC50=5.2 microM) toward human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60).

  12. Design and cold-air test of single-stage uncooled turbine with high work output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, T. P.; Szanca, E. M.; Whitney, W. J.; Behning, F. P.

    1980-01-01

    A solid version of a 50.8 cm single stage core turbine designed for high temperature was tested in cold air over a range of speed and pressure ratio. Design equivalent specific work was 76.84 J/g at an engine turbine tip speed of 579.1 m/sec. At design speed and pressure ratio, the total efficiency of the turbine was 88.6 percent, which is 0.6 point lower than the design value of 89.2 percent. The corresponding mass flow was 4.0 percent greater than design.

  13. Output energy of a photovoltaic module mounted on a single-axis tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tian Pau

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the electric energy from a photovoltaic module was calculated theoretically at different azimuths and tilt angles in Taiwan. The gain of the module mounted on a single-axis tracking panel relative to a traditional fixed panel was analyzed. To simulate different operation environments, both types of radiation will be considered in addition to observed radiation, i.e. the extraterrestrial radiation and the global radiation predicted by an empirical model. The results show that the optimal tilt angle obtained from the observed data is flatter than those from other two radiation types and becomes flatter while the panel deviates from due south. The yearly gains obtained from the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiations are 51.4%, 28.5% and 18.7%, respectively, if a single-axis tracked panel is installed with the yearly optimal tilt angle; the similar gains are 45.3%, 25.9% and 17.5%, respectively, while the panel is adjusted to its monthly optimal angle each month. The amount of yearly energy in due west (or east) is less than its maximum in due south by about 11%, 10% and 5% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation respectively. The yearly conversion efficiency of a fixed module is 10.2%, 9.2% and 8.3% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation, respectively.

  14. Efficient continuous-wave eye-safe region signal output from intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Ding Xin; Sheng Quan; Yin Su-Jia; Shi Chun-Peng; Li Xue; Wen Wu-Qi; Yao Jian-Quan; Yu Xuan-Yi

    2012-01-01

    We report an efficient continuous-wave (CW) tunable intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on the multi-period periodically poled lithium niobate and using a laser diode (LD) end-pumped CW 1064 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser as the pump source. A highly efficiency CW operation is realized through a careful cavity design for mode matching and thermal stability. The signal tuning range is 1401–1500 nm obtained by varying the domain period. The maximum output power of 2.2 W at 1500 nm is obtained with a 17.1 W 808 nm LD power and the corresponding conversion efficiency is 12.9%. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. Developing a compact multiple laser diode combiner with a single fiber stub output for handheld IoT devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minseok; June, Seunghyeok; Kim, Sehwan

    2018-01-01

    Many biomedical applications require an efficient combination and localization of multiple discrete light sources ( e.g., fluorescence and absorbance imaging). We present a compact 6 channel combiner that couples the output of independent solid-state light sources into a single 400-μm-diameter fiber stub for handheld Internet of Things (IoT) devices. We demonstrate average coupling efficiencies > 80% for each of the 6 laser diodes installed into the prototype. The design supports the use of continuous wave and intensity-modulated laser diodes. This fiber-stub-type beam combiner could be used to construct custom multi-wavelength sources for tissue oximeters, microscopes and molecular imaging technologies. In order to validate its suitability, we applied the developed fiber-stub-type beam combiner to a multi-wavelength light source for a handheld IoT device and demonstrated its feasibility for smart healthcare through a tumor-mimicking silicon phantom.

  16. The Effects of the Habitual Consumption of Miso Soup on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Japanese Adults: A Cross-sectional Study of a Health Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koji; Miyata, Kenji; Mohri, Masahiro; Origuchi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hideo

    Objective It is recommended that middle-aged and elderly individuals reduce their salt intake because of the high prevalence of hypertension. The consumption of miso soup is associated with salt intake, and the reduced consumption of miso soup has been recommended. Recent studies have demonstrated that the consumption of miso soup can attenuate an autonomic imbalance in animal models. However, it is unclear whether these results are applicable to humans. This study examined the cross-sectional association between the frequency of miso soup consumption and the blood pressure and heart rate of human subjects. Methods A total of 527 subjects of 50 to 81 years of age who participated in our hospital health examination were enrolled in the present study and divided into four groups based on the frequency of their miso soup consumption ([bowl(s) of miso soup/week] Group 1, <1; Group2, <4; Group3, <7; Group4, ≥7). The blood pressure levels and heart rates of the subjects in each group were compared. Furthermore, a multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether miso soup consumption was an independent factor affecting the incidence of hypertension or the heart rate. Results The frequency of miso soup consumption was not associated with blood pressure. The heart rate was, however, lower in the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption. A multivariable analysis revealed that the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption were more likely to have a lower heart rate, but that the consumption of miso soup was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. Conclusion These results indicate that miso soup consumption might decrease the heart rate, but not have a significant effect on the blood pressure of in middle-aged and elderly Japanese individuals.

  17. Reduction of Biogenic Amines during Miso Fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum as a Starter Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Kung, Hsien-Feng; Huang, Ya-Ling; Wu, Chien-Hui; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum D-103 isolated from a miso product that possesses amine-degrading activity was used as a starter culture in miso fermentation (25°C for 120 days) in this study. The salt content in control samples (without starter culture) and inoculated samples (inoculated with L. plantarum D-103) remained constant at 10.4% of the original salt concentration throughout fermentation, whereas the pH value decreased from 6.2 to 4.6 during fermentation. The inoculated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) levels of total volatile basic nitrogen than control samples after 40 days of fermentation. After 120 days of fermentation, the histamine and overall biogenic amine contents in inoculated samples were reduced by 58 and 27%, respectively, compared with control samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that application of a starter culture with amine-degrading activity in miso products was effective in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines.

  18. Output-Feedback Nonlinear Adaptive Control Strategy of the Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid Abouloifa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of controlling the single-phase grid connected to the photovoltaic system through a full bridge inverter with LCL-filter. The control aims are threefold: (i imposing the voltage in the output of PV panel to track a reference provided by the MPPT block; (ii regulating the DC-link voltage to guarantee the power exchange between the source and AC grid; (iii ensuring a satisfactory power factor correction (PFC. The problem is dealt with using a cascade nonlinear adaptive controller that is developed making use of sliding-mode technique and observers in order to estimate the state variables and grid parameters, by measuring only the grid current, PV voltage, and the DC bus voltage. The control problem addressed by this work involves several difficulties, including the uncertainty of some parameters of the system and the numerous state variables are inaccessible to measurements. The results are confirmed by simulation under MATLAB∖Simulink∖SimPowerSystems, which show that the proposed regulator is robust with respect to climate changes.

  19. An Invitation to Kitchen Earth Sciences, an Example of MISO Soup Convection Experiment in Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, K.; Kumagai, I.; Davaille, A.

    2008-12-01

    In recent frontiers of earth sciences such as computer simulations and large-scale observations/experiments involved researchers are usually remote from the targets and feel difficulty in having a sense of touching the phenomena in hands. This results in losing sympathy for natural phenomena particularly among young researchers, which we consider a serious problem. We believe the analog experiments such as the subjects of "kitchen earth sciences" proposed here can be a remedy for this. Analog experiments have been used as an important tool in various research fields of earth science, particularly in the fields of developing new ideas. The experiment by H. Ramberg by using silicone pate is famous for guiding concept of the mantle dynamics. The term, "analog" means something not directly related to the target of the research but in analogical sense parallel comparison is possible. The advantages of the analog experiments however seem to have been overwhelmed by rapid progresses of computer simulations. Although we still believe in the present-day meaning, recently we are recognizing another aspect of its significance. The essence of "kitchen earth science" as an analog experiment is to provide experimental setups and materials easily from the kitchen, by which everyone can start experiments and participate in the discussion without special preparations because of our daily-experienced matter. Here we will show one such example which can be used as a heuristic subject in the classrooms at introductory level of earth science as well as in lunch time break of advanced researchers. In heated miso soup the fluid motion can be easily traced by the motion of miso "particles". At highly heated state immiscible part of miso convects with aqueous fluid. At intermediate heating the miso part precipitates to form a sediment layer at the bottom. This layered structure is destroyed regularly by the instability caused by accumulated heat in the miso layer as a bursting. By showing

  20. Japanese traditional miso soup attenuates salt-induced hypertension and its organ damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Mariko; Toda, Natsuko; Tamura, Yuki; Terakado, Shouko; Ueno, Mai; Otsuka, Kie; Numabe, Atsushi; Kawabata, Yukari; Uehara, Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the effects of long-term miso soup drinking on salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats. Dahl S rats were divided into four groups that consumed 1) water, 2) a 0.9% NaCl solution, 3) a 1.3% sodium NaCl solution, or 4) miso soup containing 1.3% NaCl. They were followed for 8 wk. Systolic blood pressure and hypertensive organ damage were determined. Systolic blood pressure increased in an age- and dose-dependent manner in Dahl S rats drinking salt solutions. The systolic blood pressure increase was significantly less in the Dahl S rats that drank miso soup, although the ultimate cumulative salt loading was greater than that in the Dahl S rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution. This blood pressure decrease was associated with a morphologic attenuation of glomerular sclerosis in the kidney and collagen infiltration in the heart. Urinary protein excretions were less in the miso group than in the rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution. The fractional excretion of sodium was increased and that of potassium was decreased in Dahl S rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution, and these effects were reversed in rats given miso soup toward the values of the control. We found that long-term miso soup drinking attenuates the blood pressure increase in salt-induced hypertension with organ damage. This may be caused by a possible retardation of sodium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract or by the direct effects of nutrients in the miso soup from soybeans. The decrease was associated with decreases in cardiovascular and renal damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Miso (Japanese soybean paste) soup attenuates salt-induced sympathoexcitation and left ventricular dysfunction in mice with chronic pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koji; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    The hypothalamic mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) pathway is activated in mice with chronic pressure overload (CPO). When this activation is combined with high salt intake, it leads to sympathoexcitation, hypertension, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Salt intake is thus an important factor that contributes to heart failure. Miso, a traditional Japanese food made from fermented soybeans, rice, wheat, or oats, can attenuate salt-induced hypertension in rats. However, its effects on CPO mice with salt-induced sympathoexcitation and LV dysfunction are unclear. Here, we investigated whether miso has protective effects in these mice. We also evaluated mechanisms associated with the hypothalamic MR-AT1R pathway. Aortic banding was used to produce CPO, and a sham operation was performed for controls. At 2 weeks after surgery, the mice were given water containing high NaCl levels (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) for 4 weeks. The high salt loading in CPO mice increased excretion of urinary norepinephrine (uNE), a marker of sympathetic activity, in an NaCl concentration-dependent manner; however, this was not observed in Sham mice. Subsequently, CPO mice were administered 1.0% NaCl water (CPO-H) or miso soup (1.0% NaCl equivalent, CPO-miso). The expression of hypothalamic MR, serum glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 (SGK-1), and AT1R was higher in the CPO-H mice than in the Sham mice; however, the expression of these proteins was attenuated in the CPO-miso group. Although the CPO-miso mice had higher sodium intake, salt-induced sympathoexcitation was lower in these mice than in the CPO-H group. Our findings indicate that regular intake of miso soup attenuates salt-induced sympathoexcitation in CPO mice via inhibition of the hypothalamic MR-AT1R pathway.

  2. Asymptotic analysis of downlink MISO systems over Rician fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Falconet, Hugo

    2016-06-24

    In this work, we focus on the ergodic sum rate in the downlink of a single-cell large-scale multi-user MIMO system in which the base station employs N antennas to communicate with K single-antenna user equipments. A regularized zero-forcing (RZF) scheme is used for precoding under the assumption that each link forms a spatially correlated MIMO Rician fading channel. The analysis is conducted assuming N and K grow large with a non trivial ratio and perfect channel state information is available at the base station. Recent results from random matrix theory and large system analysis are used to compute an asymptotic expression of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio as a function of the system parameters, the spatial correlation matrix and the Rician factor. Numerical results are used to evaluate the performance gap in the finite system regime under different operating conditions. © 2016 IEEE.

  3. Asymptotic analysis of downlink MISO systems over Rician fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Falconet, Hugo; Sanguinetti, Luca; Kammoun, Abla; Debbah, Merouane

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the ergodic sum rate in the downlink of a single-cell large-scale multi-user MIMO system in which the base station employs N antennas to communicate with K single-antenna user equipments. A regularized zero-forcing (RZF) scheme is used for precoding under the assumption that each link forms a spatially correlated MIMO Rician fading channel. The analysis is conducted assuming N and K grow large with a non trivial ratio and perfect channel state information is available at the base station. Recent results from random matrix theory and large system analysis are used to compute an asymptotic expression of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio as a function of the system parameters, the spatial correlation matrix and the Rician factor. Numerical results are used to evaluate the performance gap in the finite system regime under different operating conditions. © 2016 IEEE.

  4. Beamforming design with proactive interference cancelation in MISO interference channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Tian, Yafei; Yang, Chenyang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we design coordinated beamforming at base stations (BSs) to facilitate interference cancelation at users in interference networks, where each BS is equipped with multiple antennas and each user is with a single antenna. By assuming that each user can select the best decoding strategy to mitigate the interference, either canceling the interference after decoding when it is strong or treating it as noise when it is weak, we optimize the beamforming vectors that maximize the sum rate for the networks under different interference scenarios and find the solutions of beamforming with closed-form expressions. The inherent design principles are then analyzed, and the performance gain over passive interference cancelation is demonstrated through simulations in heterogeneous cellular networks.

  5. "E pluribus unum" or How to Derive Single-equation Descriptions for Output-quantities in Nonlinear Circuits using Differential Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbracht, Eberhard H. -A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe by a number of examples how to deduce one single characterizing higher order differential equation for output quantities of an analog circuit. In the linear case, we apply basic "symbolic" methods from linear algebra to the system of differential equations which is used to model the analog circuit. For nonlinear circuits and their corresponding nonlinear differential equations, we show how to employ computer algebra tools implemented in Maple, which are based on diff...

  6. CMOS-based active RC sinusoidal oscillator with four-phase quadrature outputs and single-resistance-controlled (SRC) tuning laws

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, Abhirup; Herencsár, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a very compact CMOS realization of active RC sinusoidal oscillator capable of generating four quadrature voltage outputs. The oscillator is based on the cascade of lossless and lossy integrators in loop. The governing laws for the condition of oscillation (CO) and the frequency of oscillation (FO) are single-resistance-controlled (SRC) and which allow independent FO tuning. Unlike previously reported SRC-based sinusoidal oscillators based on the active building block (ABB)...

  7. 75 FR 3225 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Organization of MISO States and Midwest ISO Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Organization of MISO States and Midwest ISO Meetings January 12, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...: Midwest ISO Headquarters, 720 City Center Drive, Carmel, IN 46032. Except as otherwise noted above, the... Operator, Inc. Docket No. ER08-15, Midwest ISO Transmission Owners Docket No. ER08-55, Midwest Independent...

  8. The production of corn kernel miso based on rice-koji fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ratnaningrum

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of corn kernel as raw material to produce miso fermented by rice-koji containing Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus has been investigated. The optimization was conducted on two important factors in miso production namely mold composition in rice-koji and salt concentration. The mold composition was prepared by inoculating the spores of 2% A. oryzae, 2% R. oligosporus, and 2% the mixture of both in a ratio of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2 (v/v into different rice media. The mold composition was optimized to produce rice-koji with high α-amylase and protease activity. Different NaCl concentrations of 10%, 15%, and 20% were subjected to optimization process and added to each mixture after five days of fermentation. The salt concentration was also optimized to produce corn kernel miso with high glucose and high dissolved protein concentration. The result showed that rice-koji containing A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 had the highest α-amylase and protease activity of 0.42 U/mL and 0.45 U/mL respectively. In addition, the presence of 10% NaCl in corn kernel miso fermented by A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 exhibited the highest glucose and dissolved protein concentration of 0.64 mg/mL and 8.80 mg/mL respectively. The optimized corn kernel miso by A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 with 10% NaCl was subjected to nutrient content analysis and compared to the result before the corn kernel was fermented. The nutrient content analysis showed nutrient enhancement after corn kernel was fermented and transformed into a miso. Glucose, dissolved protein, and fat content increased 6.74, 1.34, 7.63 times respectively. This study concludes corn kernel could be utilized to produce a novel corn kernel miso for dietary diversification and for improving nutritional and health status.

  9. Simulation Performance of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems Employing Single-Carrier Modulation and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saglam, Halil D

    2004-01-01

    ...) systems utilizing Alamouti-based space-time block coding (STBC) technique. The MIMO communication systems using STBC technique employing both single-carrier modulation and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM...

  10. Design and Performance Analysis of MISO-ORM-DCSK System over Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel chaotic communication system, named Orthogonality-based Reference Modulated-Differential Chaos Shift Keying (ORM-DCSK, is proposed to enhance the performance of RM-DCSK. By designing an orthogonal chaotic generator (OCG, the intrasignal interference components in RM-DCSK are eliminated. Also, the signal frame format is expanded so the average bit energy is reduced. As a result, the proposed system has less interference in decision variables. Furthermore, to investigate the bit error rate (BER performance over Rayleigh fading channels, the MISO-ORM-DCSK is studied. The BER expressions of the new system are derived and analyzed over AWGN channel and multipath Rayleigh fading channel. All simulation results not only show that the proposed system can obtain significant improvement but also verify the analysis in theory.

  11. Tunable and stable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser with 1.3 nm mode spacing output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C H; Shih, F Y; Wang, C H; Chow, C W; Chi, S

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, we propose and investigate a stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with self-injected Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) scheme. By using an FP-LD incorporated with a tunable bandpass filter (TBF) within the gain cavity, the fiber laser can lase at two single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) wavelengths simultaneously due to the self-injected operation. The proposed dual-wavelength laser has a good performance of the output power and optical side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). The laser also shows a wide tuning range from 1523.08 to 1562.26 nm. Besides, the output stabilities of the fiber laser are also discussed

  12. MISO Current-mode Biquad Filter with Independent Control of Pole Frequency and Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaikla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a three-inputs single-output biquadratic filter performing completely standard functions: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-reject and all-pass functions, based on current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCCTA. The quality factor and pole frequency can be electronically/independently tuned via the input bias current. The proposed circuit uses 2 CCCCTAs and 2 grounded capacitors without external any resistors which is very suitable to further develop into an integrated circuit. The filter does not require double input current signal. Each function response can be selected by suitably selecting input signals with digital method. Moreover, the circuit possesses high output impedance which would be an ideal choice for current-mode cascading. The PSPICE simulation results are included to verify the workability of the proposed filter. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

  13. Studying the effect of over-modulation on the output voltage of three-phase single-stage grid-connected boost inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abbas Elserougi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Voltage boosting is very essential issue in renewable-energy fed applications. The classical two-stage power conversion process is typically used to interface the renewable energy sources to the grid. For better efficiency, single-stage inverters are recommended. In this paper, the performance of single-stage three-phase grid-connected boost inverter is investigated when its gain is extended by employing over-modulation technique. Using of over-modulation is compared with the employment of third order harmonic injection. The latter method can increase the inverter gain by 15% without distorting the inverter output voltage. The performance of extended gain grid-connected boost inverter is also tested during normal operation as well as in the presence of grid side disturbances. Simulation and experimental results are satisfactory.

  14. Urinary Isoflavonoid Excretion is Similar after Consuming Soy Milk and Miso Soup in Japanese-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Watts, Kirsten; Kagihara, Jamie; Hebshi, Sandra M.; Franke, Adrian A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that isoflavones are absorbed more efficiently from fermented than from non-fermented soy foods, we compared the urinary isoflavonoid excretion (UIE) after intake of miso soup or soy milk. We recruited 21 women with Japanese ancestry who consumed standardized soy portions containing 48 mg isoflavones. On day 1, half the women consumed soy milk, the other half started with miso soup. On day 3, the subjects ate the other soy food and on day 5, they repeated the first food. Each participant collected a spot urine sample before and an overnight urine sample after soy food intake. All urine samples were analyzed for the daidzein, genistein, and equol using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and were expressed as nmol per mg creatinine. We applied mixed models to evaluate the difference in UIE by food while including the baseline values and covariates. Relative to baseline, both groups experienced significantly higher UIE after consuming any of the soy foods. We observed no significant difference in UIE when soy milk was compared to miso soup (p = 0.87) among all women or in the seven equol producers (p = 0.88). Repeated intake of the same food on different days showed high reproducibility within subjects. These preliminary results indicate similar UIEs after consuming a fermented soy food (miso) as compared to a non-fermented soy food (soy milk). Therefore, recommendations favoring fermented soy foods are not justified as long as the intestinal microflora is capable of hydrolyzing the isoflavone glucosides from non-fermented soy foods. PMID:18275624

  15. Ber analysis of iterative turbo encoded miso wireless communication system under implementation of q-ostbc scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, M. Hasnat; Ullah, Shaikh Enayet; Zaman, Mustari; Rashed, Md. Golam

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive study has been made to evaluate the performance of a MISO wireless communication system. The 4-by-1 spatially multiplexed Turbo encoded system under investigation incorporates Quasi-orthogonal space-time block coding (Q-STBC) and ML signal detection schemes under QPSK, QAM, 16PSK and 16QAM digital modulations. The simulation results elucidate that a significant improvement of system performance is achieved in QAM modulation. The results are also indicative of no...

  16. Reduction of the degradation activity of umami-enhancing purinic ribonucleotide supplement in miso by the targeted suppression of acid phosphatases in the Aspergillus oryzae starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Junichiro; Tada, Sawaki; Fukuoka, Mari; Wagu, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Yohei; Kitamoto, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Tatsuya; Hattori, Ryota; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-02

    Miso (fermented soybean paste) is a traditional Japanese fermented food, and is now used worldwide. The solid-state culture of filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, grown on rice is known as rice-koji, and is important as a starter for miso fermentation because of its prominent hydrolytic enzyme activities. Recently, commercial miso products have been supplemented with purinic ribonucleotides, such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanine monophosphate, to enhance the characteristic umami taste of glutamate in miso. Because the purinic ribonucleotides are degraded by enzymes such as acid phosphatases in miso, heat inactivation is required prior to the addition of these flavorings. However, heat treatment is a costly process and reduces the quality of miso. Therefore, an approach to lower acid phosphatase activities in koji culture is necessary. Transcriptional analysis using an A. oryzae KBN8048 rice-koji culture showed that eight of the 13 acid phosphatase (aph) genes were significantly down-regulated by the addition of phosphoric acid in the preparation of the culture in a concentration-dependent manner, while aphC expression was markedly up-regulated under the same conditions. The eight down-regulated genes might be under the control of the functional counterpart of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional activator Pho4, which specifically regulates phosphatase genes in response to the ambient phosphate availability. However, the regulatory mechanism of aphC was not clear. The IMP dephosphorylation activities in rice-koji cultures of KBN8048 and the aphC deletion mutant (ΔaphC) were reduced by up to 30% and 70%, respectively, in cultures with phosphoric acid, while protease and amylase activity, which is important for miso fermentation, was minimally affected. The miso products fermented using the rice-koji cultures of KBN8048 and ΔaphC prepared with phosphoric acid had reductions in IMP dephosphorylation activity of 80% and 90%, respectively, without

  17. Comparison of Output Current Ripple in Single and Dual Three-Phase Inverters for Electric Vehicle Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Loncarski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard solution for the traction system in battery powered electric vehicles (EVs is a two-level (2L inverter feeding a three-phase motor. A simple and effective way to achieve a three-level (3L inverter in battery-supplied electric vehicles consists of using two standard three-phase 2L inverters with the open-end winding connection of standard three-phase ac motors. The 3L inverter solution can be usefully adopted in EVs since it combines several benefits such as current ripple reduction, increment of phase motor voltage with limited voltage ratings of the two battery banks, improvement in system reliability, etc. The reduction in current ripple amplitude is particularly relevant since it is a source of electromagnetic interference and audio noise from the inverter-motor power connection cables and from the motor itself. By increasing the inverter switching frequency the ripple amplitude is reduced, but the drive efficiency decreases due to the proportionally increased switching losses. In this paper the peak-to-peak ripple amplitude of the dual-2L inverter is evaluated and compared with the corresponding ripple of the single-2L inverter, considering the same voltage and power motor ratings. The ripple analysis is carried out as a function of the modulation index to cover the whole modulation range of the inverter, and the theoretical results are verified with experimental tests carried out by an inverter-motor drive prototype.

  18. Radioprotective effects of miso (fermented soy bean paste) against radiation in B6C3F1 mice. Increased small intestinal crypt survival, crypt lengths and prolongation of average time to death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Masayuki; Lu, Huimei; Shiraki, Katsutomo; Ishimura, Yoshimasa; Uesaka, Toshihiro; Katoh, Osamu; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2001-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of miso, a fermentation product from soy bean, was investigated with reference to the survival time, crypt survival and jejunum crypt length in male B6C3F1 mice. Miso at three different fermentation stages (early-, medium- and long-term fermented miso) was mixed in MF diet into biscuits at 10% and was administered from 1 week before irradiation. Animal survival in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly prolonged as compared with the short-term fermented miso and MF cases after 8 Gy of 60 Co-γ-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2 Gy min -1 . Delay in mortality was evident in all three miso groups, with significantly increased survival. At doses of 10 and 12 Gy X-irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy min -1 , the treatment with long-term fermented miso significantly increased crypt survival. Also the protective influence against irradiation in terms of crypt lengths in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly greater than in the short-term or medium-term fermented miso and MF diet groups. Thus, prolonged fermentation appears to be very important for protection against radiation effects. (author)

  19. Radioprotective effects of miso (fermented soy bean paste) against radiation in B6C3F1 mice: increased small intestinal crypt survival, crypt lengths and prolongation of average time to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, M; Lu, H; Shiraki, K; Ishimura, Y; Uesaka, T; Katoh, O; Watanabe, H

    2001-12-01

    The radioprotective effect of miso, a fermentation product from soy bean, was investigated with reference to the survival time, crypt survival and jejunum crypt length in male B6C3F1 mice. Miso at three different fermentation stages (early-, medium- and long-term fermented miso) was mixed in MF diet into biscuits at 10% and was administered from 1 week before irradiation. Animal survival in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly prolonged as compared with the short-term fermented miso and MF cases after 8 Gy of 60Co-gamma-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2Gy min(-1). Delay in mortality was evident in all three miso groups, with significantly increased survival. At doses of 10 and 12 Gy X-irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy min(-1), the treatment with long-term fermented miso significantly increased crypt survival. Also the protective influence against irradiation in terms of crypt lengths in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly greater than in the short-term or medium-term fermented miso and MF diet groups. Thus, prolonged fermentation appears to be very important for protection against radiation effects.

  20. Comparison of Single-Particle Monte Carlo Simulation with Measured Output Characteristics of an 0.1µm n-MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Bufler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between non-selfconsistent single-particle Monte Carlo (MC simulations and measurements of the output characteristics of an 0.1 µm n-MOSFET is presented. First the bulk MC model, which features a new simplified treatment of inelastic acoustic intravalley scattering, is validated by comparison with experimental literature data for mobilities and velocities. The dopant distribution of the MOSFET is obtained from a 2D process simulation, which is calibrated with SIMS and electrical measurements and fine-tuned by a comparison of the measured transfer characteristics in the subthreshold regime with a coupled Schro¨dinger drift-diffusion (DD simulation. Then the quantum effect is replaced by a shift of the work function and the DD, hydrodynamic (HD and MC models are adjusted to reproduce the measured drain current in the linear regime. The results of the three models in the non-linear regime are compared without further adjustment to the measured output characteristics. While good agreement is found for the MC model, the on-current is significantly overestimated by the HD model and underestimated by the DD model.

  1. Enhancing the x-ray output of a single-wire explosion with a gas-puff based plasma opening switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Joseph T.; Ouart, Nicholas D.; Qi, Niansheng; de Grouchy, Philip W.; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Pikuz, Sergey A.; Banasek, Jacob T.; Potter, William M.; Rocco, Sophia V.; Hammer, David A.; Kusse, Bruce R.; Giuliani, John L.

    2018-02-01

    We present experiments performed on the 1 MA COBRA generator using a low density, annular, gas-puff z-pinch implosion as an opening switch to rapidly transfer a current pulse into a single metal wire on axis. This gas-puff on axial wire configuration was studied for its promise as an opening switch and as a means of enhancing the x-ray output of the wire. We demonstrate that current can be switched from the gas-puff plasma into the wire, and that the timing of the switch can be controlled by the gas-puff plenum backing pressure. X-ray detector measurements indicate that for low plenum pressure Kr or Xe shots with a copper wire, this configuration can offer a significant enhancement in the peak intensity and temporal distribution of radiation in the 1-10 keV range.

  2. Method of fuzzy inference for one class of MISO-structure systems with non-singleton inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinuk, V. G.; Panchenko, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    In fuzzy modeling, the inputs of the simulated systems can receive both crisp values and non-Singleton. Computational complexity of fuzzy inference with fuzzy non-Singleton inputs corresponds to an exponential. This paper describes a new method of inference, based on the theorem of decomposition of a multidimensional fuzzy implication and a fuzzy truth value. This method is considered for fuzzy inputs and has a polynomial complexity, which makes it possible to use it for modeling large-dimensional MISO-structure systems.

  3. G16R single nucleotide polymorphism but not haplotypes of the ß2-adrenergic receptor gene alters cardiac output in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokamp, Kim Z; Staalsø, Jonatan M; Gartmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Variation in genes encoding the ß2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) may influence Q¿ (cardiac output). The 46G>A (G16R) SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) has been associated with ß2-mediated vasodilation, but the effect of ADRB2 haplotypes on Q¿ has not been...... studied. Five SNPs within ADRB2 (46G>A, 79C>G, 491C>T, 523C>A and 1053G>C by a pairwise tagging principle) and the I/D (insertion/deletion) polymorphism in ACE were genotyped in 143 subjects. Cardiovascular variables were evaluated by the Model flow method at rest and during incremental cycling exercise...... V¿O2 (oxygen uptake) in G16G subjects, but the increase was 0.5 (0.0-0.9) l/min lower in Arg16 carriers (P=0.035). A similar effect size was observed for the Arg16 haplotypes ACCCG and ACCCC. No interaction was found between ADRB2 and ACE polymorphisms. During exercise, the increase in Q¿ was 0...

  4. Associations between the intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasugi, Minako; James Kazama, Junichiro; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles, both traditional Japanese dishes, is recommended in order to decrease dietary salt intake. With the Westernization of dietary habits, however, these dishes are now consumed less frequently, and thus a reduction in their effect on sodium intake is suspected. This study examined cross-sectional associations between the frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion using data obtained from health examination surveys conducted in 2013 in Sado City, Japan. The level of daily salt intake was estimated based on spot urine sodium and creatinine measurements. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles was determined using a self-reported questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations. Among a total of 8,821 participants (3,956 men; age range, 19-97 years), the mean daily salt intake was 9.4 g/day. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles increased with age and was associated with the level of daily salt intake (p for trend soup (psoup and Japanese pickles may be an effective approach for decreasing the level of dietary salt intake in the general Japanese population, although not in octogenarians or nonagenarians.

  5. A Three-Level Quasi-Two-Stage Single-Phase PFC Converter with Flexible Output Voltage and Improved Conversion Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Zhu, Dexuan; Jin, Chi

    2015-01-01

    voltages, and it will be very suitable for high-power applications where the output voltage can be either lower or higher than the peak ac input voltage, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging systems. Moreover, the involved dc/dc buck conversion stage may only need to process partial input power...

  6. Statistical studies on the light output and energy resolution of small LSO single crystals with different surface treatments combined with various reflector materials

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrichs, U; Bussmann, N; Engels, R; Kemmerling, G; Weber, S; Ziemons, K

    2002-01-01

    The optimization of light output and energy resolution of scintillators is of special interest for the development of high resolution and high sensitivity PET. The aim of this work is to obtain statistically reliable results concerning optimal surface treatment of scintillation crystals and the selection of reflector material. For this purpose, raw, mechanically polished and etched LSO crystals (size 2x2x10 mm sup 3) were combined with various reflector materials (Teflon tape, Teflon matrix, BaSO sub 4) and exposed to a sup 2 sup 2 Na source. In order to ensure the statistical reliability of the results, groups of 10 LSO crystals each were measured for all combinations of surface treatment and reflector material. Using no reflector material the light output increased up to 551+-35% by mechanical polishing the surface compared to 100+-5% for raw crystals. Etching the surface increased the light output to 441+-29%. The untreated crystals had an energy resolution of 24.6+-4.0%. By mechanical polishing the surfac...

  7. Achieving community-based postpartum follow up in eastern Uganda: the field experience from the MamaMiso Study on antenatal distribution of misoprostol

    OpenAIRE

    Ditai, James; Frye, Laura J.; Durocher, Jill; Byrne, Meagan E.; Ononge, Sam; Winikoff, Beverly; Weeks, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Advance provision of misoprostol to women during antenatal care aims to achieve broader access to uterotonics for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Studies of this community-based approach usually involve antenatal education as well as timely postpartum follow-up visits to confirm maternal and neonatal outcomes. The MamaMiso study in Mbale, Uganda sought to assess the feasibility of conducting follow-up visits in the postpartum period following advance provision of misoprost...

  8. Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

  9. Near field intensity pattern at the output of silica-based graded-index multimode fibers under selective excitation with a single-mode fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsekrekos, C.P.; Smink, R.W.; Hon, de B.P.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Selective excitation of graded-index multimode fibers (GIMMFs) with a single-mode fiber (SMF) has gained increased interest for telecommunication applications. It has been proposed as a way to enhance the transmission bandwidth of GI-MMF links and/or create parallel communication channels

  10. Unit 16 - Output

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 16, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    This unit discusses issues related to GIS output, including the different types of output possible and the hardware for producing each. It describes text, graphic and digital data that can be generated by a GIS as well as line printers, dot matrix printers/plotters, pen plotters, optical scanners and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as technologies for generating the output.

  11. Should we build wind farms close to load or invest in transmission to access better wind resources in remote areas? A case study in the MISO region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, Julian V.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês L.; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Wind speeds in remote areas are sometimes very high, but transmission costs to access these locations can be prohibitive. We present a conceptual model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets, and apply the model to the Midwestern grid (MISO) as a case study. We assess the goal of providing 40 TWh of new wind generation while minimizing costs, and include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. We find that building wind farms in North/South Dakota (windiest states) compared to Illinois (less windy, but close to load) would only be economical if the incremental transmission costs to access them were below $360/kW of wind capacity (break-even value). Historically, the incremental transmission costs for wind development in North/South Dakota compared to in Illinois are about twice this value. However, the break-even incremental transmission cost for wind farms in Minnesota/Iowa (also windy states) is $250/kW, which is consistent with historical costs. We conclude that wind development in Minnesota/Iowa is likely more economical to meet MISO renewable targets compared to North/South Dakota or Illinois. - Highlights: •We evaluate the economics of building wind farms in remote areas in MISO. •We present a conceptual wind site selection model to meet 40 TWh of new wind. •We use the model to compare remote windy sites to less windy ones closer to load. •We show break-even transmission costs that would justify remote wind development. •Comparing break-even values to historical costs, MN/IA sites are most economical.

  12. Development of the complex general linear model in the Fourier domain: application to fMRI multiple input-output evoked responses for single subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Daniel E; Rawlings, Robert R; Woltz, Lawrence A; Gilman, Jodi; Hommer, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    A linear time-invariant model based on statistical time series analysis in the Fourier domain for single subjects is further developed and applied to functional MRI (fMRI) blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) multivariate data. This methodology was originally developed to analyze multiple stimulus input evoked response BOLD data. However, to analyze clinical data generated using a repeated measures experimental design, the model has been extended to handle multivariate time series data and demonstrated on control and alcoholic subjects taken from data previously analyzed in the temporal domain. Analysis of BOLD data is typically carried out in the time domain where the data has a high temporal correlation. These analyses generally employ parametric models of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) where prewhitening of the data is attempted using autoregressive (AR) models for the noise. However, this data can be analyzed in the Fourier domain. Here, assumptions made on the noise structure are less restrictive, and hypothesis tests can be constructed based on voxel-specific nonparametric estimates of the hemodynamic transfer function (HRF in the Fourier domain). This is especially important for experimental designs involving multiple states (either stimulus or drug induced) that may alter the form of the response function.

  13. The MISO Wiretap Channel with Noisy Main Channel Estimation in the High Power Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2017-02-07

    We improve upon our previous upper bound on the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel with multiple transmit antennas and single-antenna receivers, with noisy main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). Specifically, we show that if the main CSI error does not scale with the power budget at the transmitter P̅, then the secrecy capacity is )bounded above essentially by log log (P̅ yielding a secure degree of freedom (sdof) equal to zero. However, if the main CSI error scales as O(P̅-β), for β ∈ [0,1], then the sdof is equal to β.

  14. The MISO Wiretap Channel with Noisy Main Channel Estimation in the High Power Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir; Chaaban, Anas; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We improve upon our previous upper bound on the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel with multiple transmit antennas and single-antenna receivers, with noisy main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). Specifically, we show that if the main CSI error does not scale with the power budget at the transmitter P̅, then the secrecy capacity is )bounded above essentially by log log (P̅ yielding a secure degree of freedom (sdof) equal to zero. However, if the main CSI error scales as O(P̅-β), for β ∈ [0,1], then the sdof is equal to β.

  15. On the secrecy capacity of the MISO wiretap channel under imperfect channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    We consider a wiretap channel consisting of a source with multiple antennas, a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper with a single antenna each. The channels between the source and the receivers undergo fast fading. We assume that the transmitter, in addition to the statistics of both channels, is only aware of a noisy version of the CSI to the legitimate receiver referred to as main channel. The legitimate receiver is aware of both its instantaneous channel gain and the transmitter's estimate of the main channel. On the other hand, the eavesdropper's receiver, in addition to its instantaneous channel realization, is aware of the actual main CSI and the transmitter's estimate as well. While the capacity of this channel is still open even with perfect CSI at the transmitter, we provide in this paper upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. The upper bound is tighter than the one corresponding to perfect main CSI and the gap between the two upper bounds is characterized in function of the channel estimation error variance, at high-SNR. Furthermore, we show that our upper and lower bounds coincide in the case of no main CSI providing a trivial secrecy capacity.

  16. On the secrecy capacity of the MISO wiretap channel under imperfect channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-12-01

    We consider a wiretap channel consisting of a source with multiple antennas, a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper with a single antenna each. The channels between the source and the receivers undergo fast fading. We assume that the transmitter, in addition to the statistics of both channels, is only aware of a noisy version of the CSI to the legitimate receiver referred to as main channel. The legitimate receiver is aware of both its instantaneous channel gain and the transmitter\\'s estimate of the main channel. On the other hand, the eavesdropper\\'s receiver, in addition to its instantaneous channel realization, is aware of the actual main CSI and the transmitter\\'s estimate as well. While the capacity of this channel is still open even with perfect CSI at the transmitter, we provide in this paper upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. The upper bound is tighter than the one corresponding to perfect main CSI and the gap between the two upper bounds is characterized in function of the channel estimation error variance, at high-SNR. Furthermore, we show that our upper and lower bounds coincide in the case of no main CSI providing a trivial secrecy capacity.

  17. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  18. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  19. UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  20. WRF Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...

  1. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  2. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  3. CMAQ Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...

  4. Oil output's changing fortunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Petroleum Economist, previously the Petroleum Press Service, has been making annual surveys of output levels of petroleum in all the oil-producing countries since its founding in 1934. This article documents trends and changes in the major oil-producing countries output from 1934 until the present. This analysis is linked with the political and historical events accompanying these changes, notably the growth of Middle Eastern oil production, the North Sea finds and most recently, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. (UK)

  5. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  6. Achieving community-based postpartum follow up in eastern Uganda: the field experience from the MamaMiso Study on antenatal distribution of misoprostol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditai, James; Frye, Laura J; Durocher, Jill; Byrne, Meagan E; Ononge, Sam; Winikoff, Beverly; Weeks, Andrew D

    2017-10-26

    Advance provision of misoprostol to women during antenatal care aims to achieve broader access to uterotonics for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Studies of this community-based approach usually involve antenatal education as well as timely postpartum follow-up visits to confirm maternal and neonatal outcomes. The MamaMiso study in Mbale, Uganda sought to assess the feasibility of conducting follow-up visits in the postpartum period following advance provision of misoprostol for postpartum hemorrhage prevention. MamaMiso recruited women during antenatal care visits. Participants were asked to contact the research team within 48 h of giving birth so that postpartum follow-up visits could be carried out at their homes. Women's baseline and delivery characteristics were collected and analyzed with respect to follow-up time ('on time' ≤ 7 days, 'late' > 7 days, and 'lost to follow up'). Every woman who was followed up late due to a failure to report the delivery was asked for the underlying reasons for the delay. When attempts at following up participants were unsuccessful, a file note was generated explaining the details of the failure. We abstracted data and identified themes from these notes. Of 748 recruited women, 700 (94%) were successfully followed up during the study period, 465 (62%) within the first week postpartum. The median time to follow up was 4 days and was similar for women who delivered at home or in facilities and for women who had attended or unattended births. Women recruited at the urban hospital site (as opposed to rural health clinics) were more likely to be lost to follow up or followed up late. Of the women followed up late, 202 provided a reason. File notes explaining failed attempts at follow up were generated for 164 participants. Several themes emerged from qualitative analysis of these notes including phone difficulties, inaccurate baseline information, misperceptions, postpartum travel, and the condition of the mother

  7. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  8. Design of output feedback controller for a unified chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenlin; Chen Xiuqin; Shen Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of a unified chaotic system is investigated by the use of output feedback controllers; a two-input single-output feedback controller and single-input single-output feedback controller are presented to synchronize the unified chaotic system when the states are not all measurable. Compared with the existing results, the controllers designed in this paper have some advantages such as small feedback gain, simple structure and less conservation. Finally, numerical simulations results are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method

  9. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daming; Qiu Limin; Wang Bo; Xiao Yong; Zhao Liang

    2008-01-01

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE

  10. Inverter communications using output signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Patrick L.

    2017-02-07

    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  11. Cooperative Technique Based on Sensor Selection in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISLAM, M. R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An energy efficient cooperative technique is proposed for the IEEE 1451 based Wireless Sensor Networks. Selected numbers of Wireless Transducer Interface Modules (WTIMs are used to form a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO structure wirelessly connected with a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP. Energy efficiency and delay of the proposed architecture are derived for different combination of cluster size and selected number of WTIMs. Optimized constellation parameters are used for evaluating derived parameters. The results show that the selected MISO structure outperforms the unselected MISO structure and it shows energy efficient performance than SISO structure after a certain distance.

  12. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  13. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  14. GDP Growth, Potential Output, and Output Gaps in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrima A Faal

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of Mexico's economic growth since the 1960s and compares various decompositions of historical growth into its trend and cyclical components. The role of the implied output gaps in the inflationary process is then assessed. Looking ahead, the paper presents medium-term paths for GDP based on alternative assumptions for productivity growth rates. The results indicate that the most important factor underlying the slowdown in output growth was a decline in trend to...

  15. Output Information Based Fault-Tolerant Iterative Learning Control for Dual-Rate Sampling Process with Disturbances and Output Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For a class of single-input single-output (SISO dual-rate sampling processes with disturbances and output delay, this paper presents a robust fault-tolerant iterative learning control algorithm based on output information. Firstly, the dual-rate sampling process with output delay is transformed into discrete system in state-space model form with slow sampling rate without time delay by using lifting technology; then output information based fault-tolerant iterative learning control scheme is designed and the control process is turned into an equivalent two-dimensional (2D repetitive process. Moreover, based on the repetitive process stability theory, the sufficient conditions for the stability of system and the design method of robust controller are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs technique. Finally, the flow control simulations of two flow tanks in series demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Near-optimal Downlink precoding of a MISO system for a secondary network under the SINR constraints of a primary network

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study a multiple-input single-output cognitive radio (CR) system where only the primary base station (BS) has multiple antennas. We consider a rate maximization problem of the secondary network under signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio constraints on the primary network in order to guarantee the quality-of-service for the latter network. While the interference due to the secondary transmission in the conventional underlay CR approach may severely degrade the performance of the primary network, we propose a primary BS-aided approach in which the primary BS helps relay the secondary users\\' signals instead of allowing them to communicate with each other via a direct path between them. In addition, an algorithm to find a near-optimal beamforming solution at the primary BS is proposed. Finally, based on some selected numerical results, we show that the proposed scheme outperforms the conventional underlay CR configuration over a wide transmit power range. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området.......Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området....

  18. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-04

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  19. Redesign lifts prep output 288%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamric, J

    1987-02-01

    This paper outlines the application of engineering creativity and how it brought output at an Ohio coal preparation plant up from 12,500 tpd to nearly four times that figure, 48,610 tpd. By streamlining the conveyor systems, removing surplus belt length and repositioning subplants the whole operation was able to run far more efficiently with a greater output. Various other alterations including the raw material supply and management and operating practices were also undertaken to provide a test for the achievements possible with such reorganization. The new developments have been in the following fields: fine coal cleaning, heavy media cyclones, feeders, bins, filter presses, dewatering equipment and settling tanks. Output is now limited only by the reduced demand by the Gavin power station nearby.

  20. Multi-model MPC with output feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Perez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new formulation is presented for the model predictive control (MPC of a process system that is represented by a finite set of models, each one corresponding to a different operating point. The general case is considered of systems with stable and integrating outputs in closed-loop with output feedback. For this purpose, the controller is based on a non-minimal order model where the state is built with the measured outputs and the manipulated inputs of the control system. Therefore, the state can be considered as perfectly known and, consequently, there is no need to include a state observer in the control loop. This property of the proposed modeling approach is convenient to extend previous stability results of the closed loop system with robust MPC controllers based on state feedback. The controller proposed here is based on the solution of two optimization problems that are solved sequentially at the same time step. The method is illustrated with a simulated example of the process industry. The rigorous simulation of the control of an adiabatic flash of a multi-component hydrocarbon mixture illustrates the application of the robust controller. The dynamic simulation of this process is performed using EMSO - Environment Model Simulation and Optimization. Finally, a comparison with a linear MPC using a single model is presented.

  1. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  2. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.

    1984-07-17

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the tranducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  3. A Monte Carlo study on multiple output stochastic frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    , dividing all other output quantities by the selected outputquantity, and using these ratios as regressors (OD). Another approach is the stochasticray production frontier (SR), which transforms the output quantities into their Euclideandistance as the dependent variable and their polar coordinates...... of the approaches is clearly superior. However, considerable differences are found between the estimates at single replications. Taking average efficiencies from both approaches gives clearly better efficiency estimates than taking just the OD or the SR. In the case of zero values in the output quantities, the SR...

  4. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekik Argo Dahono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

  5. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  6. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  7. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  8. Aggregate Supply and Potential Output

    OpenAIRE

    Razin, Assaf

    2004-01-01

    The New-Keynesian aggregate supply derives from micro-foundations an inflation-dynamics model very much like the tradition in the monetary literature. Inflation is primarily affected by: (i) economic slack; (ii) expectations; (iii) supply shocks; and (iv) inflation persistence. This paper extends the New Keynesian aggregate supply relationship to include also fluctuations in potential output, as an additional determinant of the relationship. Implications for monetary rules and to the estimati...

  9. A 240W Monolithic Class-D Audio Amplifier Output Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Nyboe, Flemming; Kaya, Cetin; Risbo, Lars; Andreani, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    A single-channel class-D audio amplifier output stage outputs 240W undipped into 4Omega 0.1% open-loop THD+N allows using the device in a fully-digital audio signal path with no feedback. The output current capability is plusmn18A and the part is fabricated in a 0.4mum/1.8mum high-voltage BiCMOS process. Over-current sensing protects the output from short circuits.

  10. Thin disk laser with unstable resonator and reduced output coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavili, Anwar; Shayganmanesh, Mahdi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, feasibility of using unstable resonator with reduced output coupling in a thin disk laser is studied theoretically. Unstable resonator is modeled by wave-optics using Collins integral and iterative method. An Yb:YAG crystal with 250 micron thickness is considered as a quasi-three level active medium and modeled by solving rate equations of energy levels populations. The amplification of laser beam in the active medium is calculated based on the Beer-Lambert law and Rigrod method. Using generalized beam parameters method, laser beam parameters like, width, divergence, M2 factor, output power as well as near and far-field beam profiles are calculated for unstable resonator. It is demonstrated that for thin disk laser (with single disk) in spite of the low thickness of the disk which leads to low gain factor, it is possible to use unstable resonator (with reduced output coupling) and achieve good output power with appropriate beam quality. Also, the behavior of output power and beam quality versus equivalent Fresnel number is investigated and optimized value of output coupling for maximum output power is achieved.

  11. A Single Switch Dual Output Non-Isolated Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2008-01-01

    There are many applications for high gain dc-dc converters. In several of these applications galvanic isolation is not required, but there are some safety issues regarding missing isolation and leakage current. Usage of a half-bridge inverter and a dual dc-link may solve this issues. In this paper...

  12. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to override unwanted jurisprudence. In this debate, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has become famous for its central and occasionally controversial role in European integration. This article examines to what extent and under which conditions judicial decisions influence European Union (EU......) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  13. Bank output measurement in the euro area : A modified approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colangelo, A.; Inklaar, R.

    Banks do not charge explicit fees for many of the services they provide, bundling the service payment with the offered interest rates. This output therefore has to be imputed using estimates of the opportunity cost of funds. We argue that rather than using the single short-term, low-risk interest

  14. Integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Saliji, Albulena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the work that I have been doing during these past eight weeks as a Summer Student at CERN. The task which was assigned to me had to do with the integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks. In order to integrate the TMVA Output into the Jupyter notebook, first, improvement of the TMVA Output in the terminal was required. Once the output was improved, it needed to be transformed into HTML output and at the end it would be possible to integrate that output into the Jupyter notebook.

  15. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koplon, R.; Sontag, E.D.; Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.

  16. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  17. Probabilistic Output Analysis by Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of a probabilistic output analysis is to derive a probability distribution of possible output values for a program from a probability distribution of its input. We present a method for performing static output analysis, based on program transformation techniques. It generates a probability...

  18. Single lens laser beam shaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuyu [Newport News, VA; Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA

    2011-10-04

    A single lens bullet-shaped laser beam shaper capable of redistributing an arbitrary beam profile into any desired output profile comprising a unitary lens comprising: a convex front input surface defining a focal point and a flat output portion at the focal point; and b) a cylindrical core portion having a flat input surface coincident with the flat output portion of the first input portion at the focal point and a convex rear output surface remote from the convex front input surface.

  19. Model output: fact or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a

  20. Canada's helium output rising fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-12-01

    About 12 months from now, International Helium Limited will be almost ready to start up Canada's second helium extraction plant at Mankota, in Saskatchewan's Wood Mountain area about 100 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. Another 80 miles north is Saskatchewan's (and Canada's) first helium plant, operated by Canadian Helium and sitting on a gas deposit at Wilhelm, 9 miles north of Swift Current. It contains almost 2% helium, some COD2U, and the rest nitrogen. One year in production was apparently enough to convince Canadian Helium that the export market (it sells most of its helium in W. Europe) can take a lot more than it's getting. Construction began this summer on an addition to the Swift Current plant that will raise its capacity from 12 to 36MMcf per yr when it goes on stream next spring. Six months later, International Helium's 40 MMcf per yr plant to be located about 4 miles from its 2 Wood Mountain wells will double Canada's helium output again.

  1. Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.

  2. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  3. The 'icon' of output efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bligh, L.N.; Evans, S.G.; Larcos, G.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Output efficiency (OE) is a well-validated parameter used in the assessment of hydronephrosis. Current analysis on Microdelta appears to produce few low OE values and occasional inability to produce a result. We sought an OE program which gave a reliable response over the full range of values. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether OE results are comparable between two computer systems; (2) a normal range for OE on an ICON; (3) inter-observer reproducibility; and (4) the correlation between the two programs and the residual cortical activity ratio (RCA), an index which assesses tracer washout from the 20 min cortical activity/peak cortical activity. Accordingly, two blinded medical radiation scientists reviewed 41 kidneys (26 native, 15 transplant) and calculated OE for each kidney on the ICON and Microdelta computers The OE on the Microdelta and the ICON had good correspondence (r = 0.6%, SEE = 6.2). The extrapolated normal range for ICON OE was 69-92% (mean 80.9%). The inter-observer reproducibility on the ICON was excellent with a CV of 8.7%. ICON OE and RCA had a strong correlation (r = - 0.77, SEE = 0.09), compared with a weaker correlation for the Microdelta (r = 0.47, SEE = 0.13). Processing on the ICON was almost half that of the Microdelta at 4 min compared with 7 min. We conclude that OE generated by these computer programs has good correlation, an established normal range, excellent interobserver reproducibility, but differing correlation with RCA. The response of the ICON program to low ranges of OE is being investigated further

  4. A 240W Monolithic Class-D Audio Amplifier Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Kaya, Cetin; Risbo, Lars

    2006-01-01

    A single-channel class-D audio amplifier output stage outputs 240W undipped into 4Omega 0.1% open-loop THD+N allows using the device in a fully-digital audio signal path with no feedback. The output current capability is plusmn18A and the part is fabricated in a 0.4mum/1.8mum high-voltage Bi...

  5. Silicon Integrated Dual-Mode Interferometer with Differential Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hoppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dual-mode interferometer (DMI is an attractive alternative to Mach-Zehnder interferometers for sensor purposes, achieving sensitivities to refractive index changes close to state-of-the-art. Modern designs on silicon-on-insulator (SOI platforms offer thermally stable and compact devices with insertion losses of less than 1 dB and high extinction ratios. Compact arrays of multiple DMIs in parallel are easy to fabricate due to the simple structure of the DMI. In this work, the principle of operation of an integrated DMI with differential outputs is presented which allows the unambiguous phase shift detection with a single wavelength measurement, rather than using a wavelength sweep and evaluating the optical output power spectrum. Fluctuating optical input power or varying attenuation due to different analyte concentrations can be compensated by observing the sum of the optical powers at the differential outputs. DMIs with two differential single-mode outputs are fabricated in a 250 nm SOI platform, and corresponding measurements are shown to explain the principle of operation in detail. A comparison of DMIs with the conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometer using the same technology concludes this work.

  6. Energy and output dynamics in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Biru Paksha; Uddin, Gazi Salah

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between energy consumption and output is still ambiguous in the existing literature. The economy of Bangladesh, having spectacular output growth and rising energy demand as well as energy efficiency in recent decades, can be an ideal case for examining energy-output dynamics. We find that while fluctuations in energy consumption do not affect output fluctuations, movements in output inversely affect movements in energy use. The results of Granger causality tests in this respect are consistent with those of innovative accounting that includes variance decompositions and impulse responses. Autoregressive distributed lag models also suggest a role of output in Bangladesh's energy use. Hence, the findings of this study have policy implications for other developing nations where measures for energy conservation and efficiency can be relevant in policymaking.

  7. Theoretical analysis of magnetic sensor output voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haishun; Dun Chaochao; Dou Linming; Yang Weiming

    2011-01-01

    The output voltage is an important parameter to determine the stress state in magnetic stress measurement, the relationship between the output voltage and the difference in the principal stresses was investigated by a comprehensive application of magnetic circuit theory, magnetization theory, stress analysis as well as the law of electromagnetic induction, and a corresponding quantitative equation was derived. It is drawn that the output voltage is proportional to the difference in the principal stresses, and related to the angle between the principal stress and the direction of the sensor. This investigation provides a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement by output voltage. - Research highlights: → A comprehensive investigation of magnetic stress signal. → Derived a quantitative equation about output voltage and the principal stresses. → The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the principal stresses. → Provide a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement.

  8. DBS -- An rlogin multiplexer and output logger for DA systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Appleton, L.; Udumula, L.; Votava, M.

    1994-04-01

    DART Bootstrap Services (dbs) is the first component of run-control for the DART Data Acquisition system -- the DA for the 96' round of experiments at Fermilab -- though it has potential usefulness as a powerful tool in other distributed applications. dbs is an rlogin session multiplexer. It allows a user, running a single program, to start up any number of remote login sessions, feed shell commands to them, and collect their output into a single (or multiple) log files (a server keeps the sessions open and collects their output). From this program, any session can be attached to interactively so it appears just like an rlogin session -- dbs becomes transparent. When finished with this interactive mode, the user can escape back to dbs and attach to a different session if so desired. Among many other useful features, dbs supplies a mechanism for cleanup (deletion) of all processes created under a session, allowing a fresh start

  9. DBS - an rlogin multiplexor and output logger for DA systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Appleton, L.; Udumula, L.; Votava, M.

    1994-01-01

    DART Bootstrap Services (dbs) is the first component of run-control for the DART Data Acquisition system - the DA for the 96' round of experiments at Fermilab - though it has potential usefulness as a powerful tool in other distributed applications, dbs is an rlogin session multiplexer. It allows a user, running a single program, to start up any number of remote login sessions, feed shell commands to them, and collect their output into a single (or multiple) logfiles (a server keeps the sessions open and collects their output). From this program, any session can be attached to interactively so it appears just like an rlogin session - dbs becomes transparent. When finished with this interactive mode, the user can escape back to dbs and attach to a different session if so desired. Among many other useful features, dbs supplies a mechanism for cleanup (deletion) of all processes created under a session, allowing a fresh start

  10. Real-time Tumor Oxygenation Changes After Single High-dose Radiation Therapy in Orthotopic and Subcutaneous Lung Cancer in Mice: Clinical Implication for Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy Schedule Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Changhoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Beom-Ju; Bok, Seoyeon; Lee, Chan-Ju; Kim, Young-Eun [Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Sang-Rok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong-Gyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeong; Paeng, Jin Chul [Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Carlson, David J. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); and others

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the serial changes of tumor hypoxia in response to single high-dose irradiation by various clinical and preclinical methods to propose an optimal fractionation schedule for stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Syngeneic Lewis lung carcinomas were grown either orthotopically or subcutaneously in C57BL/6 mice and irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy to mimic stereotactic ablative radiation therapy used in the clinic. Serial [{sup 18}F]-misonidazole (F-MISO) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, pimonidazole fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses, hypoxia-responsive element-driven bioluminescence, and Hoechst 33342 perfusion were performed before irradiation (day −1), at 6 hours (day 0), and 2 (day 2) and 6 (day 6) days after irradiation for both subcutaneous and orthotopic lung tumors. For F-MISO, the tumor/brain ratio was analyzed. Results: Hypoxic signals were too low to quantitate for orthotopic tumors using F-MISO PET or hypoxia-responsive element-driven bioluminescence imaging. In subcutaneous tumors, the maximum tumor/brain ratio was 2.87 ± 0.483 at day −1, 1.67 ± 0.116 at day 0, 2.92 ± 0.334 at day 2, and 2.13 ± 0.385 at day 6, indicating that tumor hypoxia was decreased immediately after irradiation and had returned to the pretreatment levels at day 2, followed by a slight decrease by day 6 after radiation. Pimonidazole analysis also revealed similar patterns. Using Hoechst 33342 vascular perfusion dye, CD31, and cleaved caspase 3 co-immunostaining, we found a rapid and transient vascular collapse, which might have resulted in poor intratumor perfusion of F-MISO PET tracer or pimonidazole delivered at day 0, leading to decreased hypoxic signals at day 0 by PET or pimonidazole analyses. Conclusions: We found tumor hypoxia levels decreased immediately after delivery of a single dose of 15 Gy and had returned to the pretreatment levels 2 days after irradiation and had decreased

  11. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  12. Fast multi-output relevance vector regression

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Youngmin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to decrease the time complexity of multi-output relevance vector regression from O(VM^3) to O(V^3+M^3), where V is the number of output dimensions, M is the number of basis functions, and V

  13. Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crt Kostevc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.

  14. Assessing the psychological factors predicting workers' output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated job security, communication skills, interpersonal relationship and emotional intelligence as correlates of workers' output among local government employees in Oyo State. The research adopted descriptive design of an expose facto type. The research instruments used includes Workers' output scale, ...

  15. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-03-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA.cm-2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW.cm-2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics.

  16. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA·cm−2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW·cm−2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

  17. Farm-Level Determinants of output Commercialization:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARC-AB

    Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. አኀፅሮተ- ... haricot bean output commercialization among smallholder farmers in moisture-stress areas of ..... the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, July.

  18. Endogenous Money, Output and Prices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rituparna

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes to quantify the macroeconometric relationships among the variables broad money, lending by banks, price, and output in India using simultaneous equations system keeping in view the issue of endogeneity.

  19. Scintillation camera with improved output means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, K.; Wiesen, E.J.; Woronowicz, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    In a scintillation camera system, the output pulse signals from an array of photomultiplier tubes are coupled to the inputs of individual preamplifiers. The preamplifier output signals are coupled to circuitry for computing the x and y coordinates of the scintillations. A cathode ray oscilloscope is used to form an image corresponding with the pattern in which radiation is emitted by a body. Means for improving the uniformity and resolution of the scintillations are provided. The means comprise biasing means coupled to the outputs of selected preamplifiers so that output signals below a predetermined amplitude are not suppressed and signals falling within increasing ranges of amplitudes are increasingly suppressed. In effect, the biasing means make the preamplifiers non-linear for selected signal levels

  20. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  1. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  2. Model validation and calibration based on component functions of model output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Danqing; Lu, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanping; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The target in this work is to validate the component functions of model output between physical observation and computational model with the area metric. Based on the theory of high dimensional model representations (HDMR) of independent input variables, conditional expectations are component functions of model output, and the conditional expectations reflect partial information of model output. Therefore, the model validation of conditional expectations tells the discrepancy between the partial information of the computational model output and that of the observations. Then a calibration of the conditional expectations is carried out to reduce the value of model validation metric. After that, a recalculation of the model validation metric of model output is taken with the calibrated model parameters, and the result shows that a reduction of the discrepancy in the conditional expectations can help decrease the difference in model output. At last, several examples are employed to demonstrate the rationality and necessity of the methodology in case of both single validation site and multiple validation sites. - Highlights: • A validation metric of conditional expectations of model output is proposed. • HDRM explains the relationship of conditional expectations and model output. • An improved approach of parameter calibration updates the computational models. • Validation and calibration process are applied at single site and multiple sites. • Validation and calibration process show a superiority than existing methods

  3. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  4. Estimation of international output-energy relation. Effects of alternative output measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the output-energy relationship with alternative measures of output and energy. Our analysis rejects the hypothesis of non-diminishing returns to energy consumption when GDP at purchasing power parities is used as the output measure unlike the case with GNP at market exchange rates. This finding also holds when energy input includes the usage of both commercial and traditional fuels. 13 refs

  5. From Static Output Feedback to Structured Robust Static Output Feedback: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sadabadi , Mahdieh ,; Peaucelle , Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the vast literature on static output feedback design for linear time-invariant systems including classical results and recent developments. In particular, we focus on static output feedback synthesis with performance specifications, structured static output feedback, and robustness. The paper provides a comprehensive review on existing design approaches including iterative linear matrix inequalities heuristics, linear matrix inequalities with rank constraints, methods with ...

  6. Problems in Modelling Charge Output Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczyk Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.

  7. Quantum theory of multiple-input-multiple-output Markovian feedback with diffusive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, A.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Feedback control engineers have been interested in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) extensions of single-input-single-output (SISO) results of various kinds due to its rich mathematical structure and practical applications. An outstanding problem in quantum feedback control is the extension of the SISO theory of Markovian feedback by Wiseman and Milburn [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548 (1993)] to multiple inputs and multiple outputs. Here we generalize the SISO homodyne-mediated feedback theory to allow for multiple inputs, multiple outputs, and arbitrary diffusive quantum measurements. We thus obtain a MIMO framework which resembles the SISO theory and whose additional mathematical structure is highlighted by the extensive use of vector-operator algebra.

  8. Reliability and Energy Output of Bifacial Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Jansen, M.J.; Dekker, N.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Although flash tests under standard test conditions yields lower power due to transmittance of the back sheet, bifacial modules are expected to outperform their monofacial equivalents in terms of yearly energy output in the field. We compare flash tests for bifacial modules with and without a light scattering panel directly behind the modules: 3% more power output is obtained. We also report on the damp-heat reliability of modules with transparent back sheet. Finally we will present the results of an outdoor study comparing modules with transparent back sheet and modules with state-of-the-art AR coating on the front glass.

  9. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong......This paper studies the effects of taxation on output volatility in OECD countries to shed light on the sources of observed heterogeneity over time and across countries. To this end, we derive tax effects on macro aggregates in a stochastic neoclassical model. As a result, taxes are shown to affect...... positive effects....

  10. The light output of BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhufang; Ma Wengan; Lin Zhirong; Wang Zhaomin; Xu Zhizong; Fan Yangmei

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of light output on the surface treatment of BGO crystals has been tested. The results of experiments and Monte Carlo calculation indicate that for a tapered BGO crystal the best way to improve the uniformity and the energy resolution and to obtain higher light output is roughing the surface coupled to photomultiplier tube. The authors also observed that different wrapping method can effect its uniformity and resolutoin. Monte Carlo calculation indicates that the higher one of the 'double peaks' is the photoelectron peak of γ rays

  11. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji, E-mail: carlos.shimokawa@usp.br [University of São Paulo, School of Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2227, 05508-000, São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Turbino, Míriam Lacalle, E-mail: miturbin@usp.br [University of São Paulo, School of Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2227, 05508-000, São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Harlow, Jessie Eudora, E-mail: jessie.harlow@dal.ca [Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Price, Hannah Louise, E-mail: hannlprice@gmail.com [Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Price, Richard Bengt, E-mail: richard.price@dal.ca [Dalhousie University, School of Biomedical Engineering and Faculty of Dentistry, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20 second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p < 0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p < 0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2 Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs. - Highlights: • The six LCUs delivered significantly different light output characteristics. • The use of a single irradiance value does not adequately describe the light output from a curing light. • Small differences in the tip area, or how it is defined, will have a large effect on the calculated irradiance. • In some cases there were large portions of the light tip that emitted less than 400 mW/cm². • The radiant

  12. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Harlow, Jessie Eudora; Price, Hannah Louise; Price, Richard Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20 second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p < 0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p < 0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2 Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs. - Highlights: • The six LCUs delivered significantly different light output characteristics. • The use of a single irradiance value does not adequately describe the light output from a curing light. • Small differences in the tip area, or how it is defined, will have a large effect on the calculated irradiance. • In some cases there were large portions of the light tip that emitted less than 400 mW/cm². • The radiant

  13. A PASSIVELY MODE-LOCKED CR4+:FORSTERITE LASER WITH ELEСTRONICALLY CONTROLLED OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zolotovskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of electronic control of laser output parameters to bulk solid-state laser sources is demonstrated. A single laser source with variable pulse duration for novel imaging and manipulation systems is presented. Stable passive mode-locking of a Cr4+:forsterite laser using a voltage controlled p-n junction quantum dot saturable absorber was achieved. Output shortening from 17,4 to 6,4 ps near-transform limited pulses was obtained by applying reverse bias.

  14. Multistrip western blotting to increase quantitative data output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Aksamitiene, Edita

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurements of protein abundance and modification states are essential in understanding their functions in diverse cellular processes. Typical western blotting, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. Multistrip western blotting is a modified immunoblotting procedure based on simultaneous electrophoretic transfer of proteins from multiple strips of polyacrylamide gels to a single membrane sheet. In comparison with the conventional technique, Multistrip western blotting increases the data output per single blotting cycle up to tenfold, allows concurrent monitoring of up to nine different proteins from the same loading of the sample, and substantially improves the data accuracy by reducing immunoblotting-derived signal errors. This approach enables statistically reliable comparison of different or repeated sets of data, and therefore is beneficial to apply in biomedical diagnostics, systems biology, and cell signaling research.

  15. Output formatting in Apple-Soft Basic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navale, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Personal computers are being used extensively in various fields. BASIC is a very popular and widely used language in personal computers. Apple computer is one of the popular machines used for scientific and engineering applications. Presenting output from computers in a neat and easy to read form is very important. Languages like FORTRAN have utility command 'FORMAT' which takes care of the formatting of the output in user-defined form. In some versions of BASIC a PRINT USING facility is available but it is not as powerful as the FORTRAN statement 'FORMAT'. Applesoft basic does not have even this PRINT USING command. Programmers have to write their own program segments to handle output formatting in Applesoft BASIC. Generally, such user written programs are of limited use as they cannot be used easily with other programs. A general purpose and easily transportable subroutine in Applesoft BASIC is presented here for handling output formatting in user-defined structure. The subroutine is nearly as powerful as the FORMAT statement in FORTRAN. It can also be used in other versions of BASIC with very little modifications. 3 tables, 4 refs. (author)

  16. On output regulation for linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah

    For both continuous- and discrete-time systems, we revisit the output regulation problem for linear systems. We generalize the problem formulation in order • to expand the class of reference or disturbance signals, • to utilize the derivative or feedforward information of reference signals whenever

  17. Fast Output-sensitive Matrix Multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  18. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  19. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Fores...

  20. Monetary policy and regional output in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rockenbach da Silva Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of whether the effects of the Brazilian monetary policy on regional outputs are symmetric. The strategy developed combines the techniques of principal component analysis (PCA to decompose the variables that measure regional economic activity into common and region-specific components and vector autoregressions (VAR to observe the behavior of these variables in response to monetary policy shocks. The common component responds to monetary policy as expected. Additionally, the idiosyncratic components of the regions showed no impact of monetary policy. The main finding of this paper is that the monetary policy responses on regional output are symmetrical when the regional output decomposition is performed, and the responses are asymmetrical when this decomposition is not performed. Therefore, performing the regional output decomposition corroborates the economic intuition that monetary policy has no impact on region-specific issues. Once monetary policy affects the common component of the regional economic activity and does not impact its idiosyncratic components, it can be considered symmetrical.

  1. Comparison of cardiac output measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, K; Jensen, E W; Rosenborg, D

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneously measured cardiac output obtained by thermodilution (TD), transcutaneous suprasternal ultrasonic Doppler (DOP), CO2-rebreathing (CR) and the direct Fick method (FI) were compared in eleven healthy subjects in a supine position (SU), a sitting position (SI), and during sitting exercise...

  2. Cardiac output measurement instruments controlled by microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, M.; Barritault, L.; Boeri, C.; Fauchet, M.; Gambini, D.; Vernejoul, P. de

    The nuclear medicine and biophysics laboratory of the Necker-Enfants malades University Hospital Centre has built a microprocessor controlled Cardiac flowmetre. The principle of the cardiac output measurement from a radiocardiogram is well established. After injection of a radioactive indicator upstream from the heart cavities the dilution curve is obtained by the use of a gamma-ray precordial detector. This curve normally displays two peaks due to passage of the indicator into the right and left sides of the heart respectively. The output is then obtained from the stewart Hamilton principle once recirculation is eliminated. The graphic method used for the calculation however is long and tedious. The decreasing fraction of the dilution curve is projected in logarithmic space in order to eliminate recirculation by determining the mean straight line from which the decreasing exponential is obtained. The principle of the use of microprocessors is explained (electronics, logics) [fr

  3. Tunable first-order resistorless all-pass filter with low output impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage mode cascadable single active element tunable first-order all-pass filter with a single passive component. The active element used to realise the filter is a new building block termed as differential difference dual-X current conveyor with a buffered output (DD-DXCCII). The filter is thus realized with the help of a DD-DXCCII, a capacitor, and a MOS transistor. By exploiting the low output impedance, a higher order filter is also realized. Nonideal and parasitic study is also carried out on the realised filters. The proposed DD-DXCCII filters are simulated using TSMC the 0.25 µm technology.

  4. Unregulated heat output of a storage heater

    OpenAIRE

    Lysak, Oleg Віталійович

    2017-01-01

    In the article the factors determining the heat transfer between the outer surfaces of a storage heater and the ambient air. This heat exchange is unregulated, and its definition is a precondition for assessing heat output range of this type of units. It was made the analysis of the literature on choosing insulating materials for each of the external surfaces of storage heaters: in foreign literature, there are recommendations on the use of various types of insulation depending on the type of...

  5. Computing multiple-output regression quantile regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paindaveine, D.; Šiman, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2012), s. 840-853 ISSN 0167-9473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : halfspace depth * multiple-output regression * parametric linear programming * quantile regression Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.304, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/siman-0376413.pdf

  6. Galois connection for multiple-output operations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 79 (2018), č. článku 17. ISSN 0002-5240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : clones and coclones * Galois connection * multiple-output operations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/ article /10.1007%2Fs00012-018-0499-7

  7. Carnot efficiency at divergent power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2017-05-01

    The widely debated feasibility of thermodynamic machines achieving Carnot efficiency at finite power has been convincingly dismissed. Yet, the common wisdom that efficiency can only be optimal in the limit of infinitely slow processes overlooks the dual scenario of infinitely fast processes. We corroborate that efficient engines at divergent power output are not theoretically impossible, framing our claims within the theory of Stochastic Thermodynamics. We inspect the case of an electronic quantum dot coupled to three particle reservoirs to illustrate the physical rationale.

  8. Galois connection for multiple-output operations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2018), č. článku 17. ISSN 0002-5240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : clones and coclones * Galois connection * multiple-output operations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00012-018-0499-7

  9. Burst firing enhances neural output correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ka eChan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurons communicate and transmit information predominantly through spikes. Given that experimentally observed neural spike trains in a variety of brain areas can be highly correlated, it is important to investigate how neurons process correlated inputs. Most previous work in this area studied the problem of correlation transfer analytically by making significant simplifications on neural dynamics. Temporal correlation between inputs that arises from synaptic filtering, for instance, is often ignored when assuming that an input spike can at most generate one output spike. Through numerical simulations of a pair of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF neurons receiving correlated inputs, we demonstrate that neurons in the presence of synaptic filtering by slow synapses exhibit strong output correlations. We then show that burst firing plays a central role in enhancing output correlations, which can explain the above-mentioned observation because synaptic filtering induces bursting. The observed changes of correlations are mostly on a long time scale. Our results suggest that other features affecting the prevalence of neural burst firing in biological neurons, e.g., adaptive spiking mechanisms, may play an important role in modulating the overall level of correlations in neural networks.

  10. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  11. Muscular outputs during dynamic bench press under stable versus unstable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshida, Sentaro; Urabe, Yukio; Miyashita, Koji; Iwai, Kanzunori; Kagimori, Aya

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that resistance training exercise under unstable conditions decreases the isometric force output, yet little is known about its influence on muscular outputs during dynamic movement. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an unstable condition on power, force, and velocity outputs during the bench press. Twenty male collegiate athletes (mean age, 21.3 +/- 1.5 years; mean height, 167.7 +/- 7.7 cm; mean weight, 75.9 +/- 17.5 kg) participated in this study. Each subject attempted 3 sets of single bench presses with 50% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) under a stable condition with a flat bench and an unstable condition with a Swiss ball. Acceleration data were obtained with an accelerometer attached to the center of a barbell shaft, and peak outputs of power, force, and velocity were computed. Although significant loss of the peak outputs was found under the unstable condition (p velocity outputs, compared with previous findings. Such small reduction rates of muscular outputs may not compromise the training effect. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm whether the resistance training under an unstable condition permits the improvement of dynamic performance and trunk stability.

  12. Optimal time-domain combination of the two calibrated output quadratures of GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitson, M; Grote, H; Hild, S; Lueck, H; Ajith, P; Smith, J R; Strain, K A; Willke, B; Woan, G

    2005-01-01

    GEO 600 is an interferometric gravitational wave detector with a 600 m arm-length and which uses a dual-recycled optical configuration to give enhanced sensitivity over certain frequencies in the detection band. Due to the dual-recycling, GEO 600 has two main output signals, both of which potentially contain gravitational wave signals. These two outputs are calibrated to strain using a time-domain method. In order to simplify the analysis of the GEO 600 data set, it is desirable to combine these two calibrated outputs to form a single strain signal that has optimal signal-to-noise ratio across the detection band. This paper describes a time-domain method for doing this combination. The method presented is similar to one developed for optimally combining the outputs of two colocated gravitational wave detectors. In the scheme presented in this paper, some simplifications are made to allow its implementation using time-domain methods

  13. Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Decoupler for Nonlinear Multi-Input Multi-Output Distillation Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. El-Saify

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distillation process is vital in many fields of chemical industries, such as the two-coupled distillation columns that are usually highly nonlinear Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO coupled processes. The control of MIMO process is usually implemented via a decentralized approach using a set of Single-Input Single-Output (SISO loop controllers. Decoupling the MIMO process into group of single loops requires proper input-output pairing and development of decoupling compensator unit. This paper proposes a novel intelligent decoupling approach for MIMO processes based on new MIMO brain emotional learning architecture. A MIMO architecture of Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC is developed and applied as a decoupler for 4 input/4 output highly nonlinear coupled distillation columns process. Moreover, the performance of the proposed Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Decoupler (BELBID is enhanced using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique. The performance is compared with the PSO optimized steady state decoupling compensation matrix. Mathematical models of the distillation columns and the decouplers are built and tested in simulation environment by applying the same inputs. The results prove remarkable success of the BELBID in minimizing the loops interactions without degrading the output that every input has been paired with.

  14. Influence of Special Weather on Output of PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-01-01

    The output of PV system is affected by different environmental factors, therefore, it is important to study the output of PV system under different environmental conditions. Through collecting data on the spot, collecting the output of photovoltaic panels under special weather conditions, and comparing the collected data, the output characteristics of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions are obtained. The influence of weather factors such as temperature, humidity and irradiance on the output of photovoltaic panels was investigated.

  15. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  16. On output measurements via radiation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeman, S.; Healey, A.J.; Forsberg, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown, by simple physical argument, that measurements of intensity with a radiation pressure balance should not agree with those based on calorimetric techniques. The conclusion is ultimately a consequence of the circumstance that radiation pressure measurements relate to wave momentum, while...... calorimetric methods relate to wave energy. Measurements with some typical ultrasound fields are performed with a novel type of hydrophone, and these allow an estimate to be made of the magnitude of the discrepancy to be expected between the two types of output measurement in a typical case....

  17. On directional multiple-output quantile regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paindaveine, D.; Šiman, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 2 (2011), s. 193-212 ISSN 0047-259X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Grant - others:Commision EC(BE) Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multivariate quantile * quantile regression * multiple-output regression * halfspace depth * portfolio optimization * value-at risk Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/siman-0364128.pdf

  18. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  19. Output-Sensitive Pattern Extraction in Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Menconi, Giulia; Pisanti, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Genomic Analysis, Plagiarism Detection, Data Mining, Intrusion Detection, Spam Fighting and Time Series Analysis are just some examples of applications where extraction of recurring patterns in sequences of objects is one of the main computational challenges. Several notions of patterns exist...... or extend them causes a loss of significant information (where the number of occurrences changes). Output-sensitive algorithms have been proposed to enumerate and list these patterns, taking polynomial time O(nc) per pattern for constant c > 1, which is impractical for massive sequences of very large length...

  20. Utilization of INIS output in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanik, Z.; Blazek, J.

    1978-01-01

    Information on INIS output materials - INIS magnetic tape, INIS Atomindex, full texts of non-conventional literature on microfiches. Complex is provided of INIS-SDI service by the Nuclear Information Centre for CSSR. The Unified Software System (USS) of the UVTEI-UTZ (the Central Technical Base of the Central Office for Scientific, Technical and Economic Information) is used for the automated processing of INIS magnetic tapes. A survey of INIS-SDI services in the years 1974 to 1978 is given. The further development of the system consists in the use of the terminal network, with direct access to the IAEA computer in Vienna. (author)

  1. Prescribed Performance Fuzzy Adaptive Output-Feedback Control for Nonlinear Stochastic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A prescribed performance fuzzy adaptive output-feedback control approach is proposed for a class of single-input and single-output nonlinear stochastic systems with unmeasured states. Fuzzy logic systems are used to identify the unknown nonlinear system, and a fuzzy state observer is designed for estimating the unmeasured states. Based on the backstepping recursive design technique and the predefined performance technique, a new fuzzy adaptive output-feedback control method is developed. It is shown that all the signals of the resulting closed-loop system are bounded in probability and the tracking error remains an adjustable neighborhood of the origin with the prescribed performance bounds. A simulation example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Systematic review of cardiac output measurements by echocardiography vs. thermodilution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Mik; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Johansen, Rasmus Rothmann

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Echocardiography is frequently used in the hemodynamic evaluation of critically ill patients, but inaccurate measurements may lead to wrong clinical decisions. The aim of our systematic review was to investigate the interchangeability of echocardiography with thermodilution technique...... of the studies assessed left-sided heart structures and the majority had small bias, wide limits of agreement, and high percentage error between echocardiography and thermodilution. In only two of the 24 studies the precision of each technique (echocardiography and thermodilution) was assessed before comparing...... them. In the single study evaluating trending ability using valid methodology, agreement was observed between echocardiography and thermodilution in detecting the directional changes in cardiac output, but the magnitude of changes varied considerably. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of studies comparing...

  3. World crude output overcomes Persian Gulf disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Several OPEC producers made good on their promises to replace 2.7 MMbpd of oil exports that vanished from the world market after Iraq took over Kuwait. Even more incredibly, they accomplished this while a breathtaking 1.2- MMbopd reduction in Soviet output took place during the course of 1991. After Abu Dhabi, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela turned the taps wide open, their combined output rose 2.95 MMbopd. Put together with a 282,000-bopd increase by Norway and contributions from smaller producers, this enabled world oil production to remain within 400,000 bopd of its 1990 level. The 60.5-MMbopd average was off by just 0.7%. This paper reports that improvement took place in five of eight regions. Largest increases were in Western Europe and Africa. Greatest reductions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Fifteen nations produced 1 MMbopd or more last year, compared with 17 during 1990

  4. Saturated output tabletop x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R.; Li, Y.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Shlyaptsev, N.

    2000-01-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion x-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (Compact Multipulse Terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have produced several x-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 (micro)J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d → 4p transition at 147 (angstrom) with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the x-ray laser output

  5. Guaranteeing high output of a mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetser, M G

    1983-05-01

    Operation of the Im. Kalinina coal mine in the Central Donbass is evluated. Seventeen coal seams, on the average 0.87 m thick, are prone to methane and coal dust explosions and to rock bursts. Some of the seams are also prone to spontaneous combustion. Rock layers in the roofs are prone to rock falls. Mining depth ranges from 740 to 850 m. Another working level is being constructed at a depth of 960 m. The steep coal seams are mined by means of the ANShch shield systems and the KGU system (with the 'Poisk' cutter loader). Strata control methods used in the mine are evaluated. Design of timber cribbings used for strata control in inclined workings is shown in a scheme. Construction of coal chutes and strata control in coal chutes are also described. Operation of KGU-1 powered supports which have been used in the mine for 10 years is evaluated. Improved strata control permitted daily coal output from a working face to be increased from 135 t in 1979 to 169 t in 1982. Yearly coal output increased from 605,000 t to 760,000 t. Labor productivity increased from 21.1 t/month to 25.9 t/month per miner. (In Russian)

  6. Saturated output tabletop X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Yuelin Li [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); ILSA, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Shlyaptsev, V.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); DAS, Univ. of California Davis-Livermore, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion X-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (compact multipulse terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence livermore national laboratory (LLNL) have produced several X-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 {mu}J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d{yields}4p transition at 147 A with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the X-ray laser output. (orig.)

  7. 106-17 Telemetry Standards. Annex A.4. Asynchronous Recorder Multiplexer Output Re-Constructor (ARMOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Output Re-Constructor 1. General This standard defines the recommended multiplexer format for single-channel data recording on small-format (1/2 in...which is 1-based, is determined by the position of the channel’s module in the ARMOR system . The first input channel found in the ARMOR system is

  8. Saturation of the 2.71 µm laser output in erbium doped ZBLAN fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedö, S.; Pollnau, Markus; Lüthy, W.; Weber, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    The saturation of the 2.71 μm laser output power has been investigated in an erbium doped ZBLAN single-mode fiber with an Er3+ concentration of 5000 ppm mol. The bleaching of the ground state, the absorption coefficient at the pump wavelength and the fluorescence intensities over a wide wavelength

  9. Measurement and Analysis of Multiple Output Transient Propagation in BJT Analog Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nicolas J.-H.; Khachatrian, A.; Warner, J. H.; Buchner, S. P.; McMorrow, D.; Clymer, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    The propagation of Analog Single Event Transients (ASETs) to multiple outputs of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJTs) Integrated Circuits (ICs) is reported for the first time. The results demonstrate that ASETs can appear at several outputs of a BJT amplifier or comparator as a result of a single ion or single laser pulse strike at a single physical location on the chip of a large-scale integrated BJT analog circuit. This is independent of interconnect cross-talk or charge-sharing effects. Laser experiments, together with SPICE simulations and analysis of the ASET's propagation in the s-domain are used to explain how multiple-output transients (MOTs) are generated and propagate in the device. This study demonstrates that both the charge collection associated with an ASET and the ASET's shape, commonly used to characterize the propagation of SETs in devices and systems, are unable to explain quantitatively how MOTs propagate through an integrated analog circuit. The analysis methodology adopted here involves combining the Fourier transform of the propagating signal and the current-source transfer function in the s-domain. This approach reveals the mechanisms involved in the transient signal propagation from its point of generation to one or more outputs without the signal following a continuous interconnect path.

  10. A Monte Carlo Study on Multiple Output Stochastic Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    , dividing all other output quantities by the selected output quantity, and using these ratios as regressors (OD). Another approach is the stochastic ray production frontier (SR) which transforms the output quantities into their Euclidean distance as the dependent variable and their polar coordinates......In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the main question is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often an output distance function is used, where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one output quantity as the dependent variable...... of both specifications for the case of a Translog output distance function with respect to different common statistical problems as well as problems arising as a consequence of zero values in the output quantities. Although, our results partly show clear reactions to statistical misspecifications...

  11. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  12. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  13. FEL system with homogeneous average output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Legg, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas Joseph

    2018-01-16

    A method of varying the output of a free electron laser (FEL) on very short time scales to produce a slightly broader, but smooth, time-averaged wavelength spectrum. The method includes injecting into an accelerator a sequence of bunch trains at phase offsets from crest. Accelerating the particles to full energy to result in distinct and independently controlled, by the choice of phase offset, phase-energy correlations or chirps on each bunch train. The earlier trains will be more strongly chirped, the later trains less chirped. For an energy recovered linac (ERL), the beam may be recirculated using a transport system with linear and nonlinear momentum compactions M.sub.56, which are selected to compress all three bunch trains at the FEL with higher order terms managed.

  14. Proportional chamber with data analog output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.E.; Prokof'ev, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    A proportional multiwier chamber is described. The chamber makes it possible to determine angles at wich a pion strikes a polarized target. A delay line, made of 60-core flat cable is used for removing signals from the chamber. From the delay line, signals are amplified and successively injected into shapers and a time-to-amplitude converter. An amplitude of the time-to amplitude converter output signal unambiguously determines the coordinate of a point at which a particle strikes the chamber plane. There are also given circuits of amplifiers, which consist of a preamplifier with gain 30 and a main amplifier with adjustable gain. Data on testing the chamber with the 450 MeV pion beam is demonstrated. The chamber features an efficiency of about 98 per cent under load of 2x10 5 s -1

  15. Optimizing microwave photodetection: input-output theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, M.; Govia, L. C. G.; Vavilov, M. G.; McDermott, R.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    High fidelity microwave photon counting is an important tool for various areas from background radiation analysis in astronomy to the implementation of circuit quantum electrodynamic architectures for the realization of a scalable quantum information processor. In this work we describe a microwave photon counter coupled to a semi-infinite transmission line. We employ input-output theory to examine a continuously driven transmission line as well as traveling photon wave packets. Using analytic and numerical methods, we calculate the conditions on the system parameters necessary to optimize measurement and achieve high detection efficiency. With this we can derive a general matching condition depending on the different system rates, under which the measurement process is optimal.

  16. Improvement of Output Power of ECF Micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shinichi; Kawamura, Kiyomi; Takemura, Kenjiro; Edamura, Kazuya

    Electro-conjugate fluid (ECF) is a kind of dielectric fluids, which produces jet-flow (ECF jet) when subjected to a high DC voltage. By using the ECF jet, a new type of micromotor with simple structure and lightweight can be realized. Up to now, we developed a disk-plate type ECF micromotor with inner diameter of 9 mm. In this study, we develope novel ECF micromotors with inner diameter of 5 mm in order to improve the output power density. First, we designed and produced the ECF micromotors with 4-layered and 8-layered disk plate rotors. Then, the performances of the motors are measured. The experimental results confirm the motor developed has a higher performance than the previous ones.

  17. Floating Gate CMOS Dosimeter With Frequency Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Moreno, E.; Isern, E.; Roca, M.; Picos, R.; Font, J.; Cesari, J.; Pineda, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a gamma radiation dosimeter based on a floating gate sensor. The sensor is coupled with a signal processing circuitry, which furnishes a square wave output signal, the frequency of which depends on the total dose. Like any other floating gate dosimeter, it exhibits zero bias operation and reprogramming capabilities. The dosimeter has been designed in a standard 0.6 m CMOS technology. The whole dosimeter occupies a silicon area of 450 m250 m. The initial sensitivity to a radiation dose is Hz/rad, and to temperature and supply voltage is kHz/°C and 0.067 kHz/mV, respectively. The lowest detectable dose is less than 1 rad.

  18. Application of computer voice input/output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices

  19. Advanced Output Coupling for High Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Michael [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Marsden, David [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Guss, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lohr, John [General Atomics, La Jolla, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeffrey [Lexam Research, Redwood City, CA (United States); Bui, Thuc [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The Phase II program developed an internal RF coupler that transforms the whispering gallery RF mode produced in gyrotron cavities to an HE11 waveguide mode propagating in corrugated waveguide. This power is extracted from the vacuum using a broadband, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, Brewster angle window capable of transmitting more than 1.5 MW CW of RF power over a broad range of frequencies. This coupling system eliminates the Mirror Optical Units now required to externally couple Gaussian output power into corrugated waveguide, significantly reducing system cost and increasing efficiency. The program simulated the performance using a broad range of advanced computer codes to optimize the design. Both a direct coupler and Brewster angle window were built and tested at low and high power. Test results confirmed the performance of both devices and demonstrated they are capable of achieving the required performance for scientific, defense, industrial, and medical applications.

  20. Output power analyses for the thermodynamic cycles of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chen; Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Thermal power plant is one of the important thermodynamic devices, which is very common in all kinds of power generation systems. In this paper, we use a new concept, entransy loss, as well as exergy destruction, to analyze the single reheating Rankine cycle unit and the single stage steam extraction regenerative Rankine cycle unit in power plants. This is the first time that the concept of entransy loss is applied to the analysis of the power plant Rankine cycles with reheating and steam extraction regeneration. In order to obtain the maximum output power, the operating conditions under variant vapor mass flow rates are optimized numerically, as well as the combustion temperatures and the off-design flow rates of the flue gas. The relationship between the output power and the exergy destruction rate and that between the output power and the entransy loss rate are discussed. It is found that both the minimum exergy destruction rate and the maximum entransy loss rate lead to the maximum output power when the combustion temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are prescribed. Unlike the minimum exergy destruction rate, the maximum entransy loss rate is related to the maximum output power when the highest temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are not prescribed. (general)

  1. Relationship between cardiac output and effective renal plasma flow in patients with cardiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGriffin, D; Tauxe, W N; Lewis, C; Karp, R; Mantle, J

    1984-12-01

    The relationship between effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and cardiac output was examined in 46 patients (22 with congestive heart failure and 24 following cardiac surgical procedures) by simultaneously measuring the global ERPF by the single-injection method and cardiac output by the thermodilution method. Of the patients in the heart-failure group, 21 also had pulmonary artery end diastolic pressure (PAEDP) recorded at the same time. ERPF and cardiac output were found to be related by the regression equations: cardiac output = 2.08 + 0.0065 ERPF (r, 080), with a SE of estimate of 0.81 l/min. ERPF and PAEDP were related by the regression equation: PAEDP = 42.02 - 0.0675 ERPF (r, 0.86), with a SE of estimate of 5.5 mm Hg. ERPF may be a useful noninvasive method of estimating cardiac output if it is known that no intrinsic kidney disease is present, and if the error of 0.81 l/min (1 SE of estimate) is within the range of clinical usefulness. The error is principally attributable to the determination of cardiac output by the thermodilution method.

  2. Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto protocol. An input-output approach with application to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lixon, Benoit; Thomassin, Paul J.; Hamaide, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impacts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing industrial output in Canada to a level that will meet the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The study uses an ecological-economic Input-Output model combining economic components valued in monetary terms with ecologic components - GHG emissions - expressed in physical terms. Economic and greenhouse gas emissions data for Canada are computed in the same sectoral disaggregation. Three policy scenarios are considered: the first one uses the direct emission coefficients to allocate the reduction in industrial output, while the other two use the direct plus indirect emission coefficients. In the first two scenarios, the reduction in industrial sector output is allocated uniformly across sectors while it is allocated to the 12 largest emitting industries in the last one. The estimated impacts indicate that the results vary with the different allocation methods. The third policy scenario, allocation to the 12 largest emitting sectors, is the most cost effective of the three as the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol reduces Gross Domestic Product by 3.1% compared to 24% and 8.1% in the first two scenarios. Computed economic costs should be considered as upper-bounds because the model assumes immediate adjustment to the Kyoto Protocol and because flexibility mechanisms are not incorporated. The resulting upper-bound impact of the third scenario may seem to contradict those who claim that the Kyoto Protocol would place an unbearable burden on the Canadian economy. (author)

  3. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Loczi, Lajos; Jangabylova, Aliya; Kusmanov, Adil

    2016-01-01

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step

  4. MCNP output data analysis with ROOT (MODAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasco, C.

    2010-12-01

    MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR) is a tool based on CERN's ROOT software. MODAR has been designed to handle time-energy data issued by MCNP simulations of neutron inspection devices using the associated particle technique. MODAR exploits ROOT's Graphical User Interface and functionalities to visualize and process MCNP simulation results in a fast and user-friendly way. MODAR allows to take into account the detection system time resolution (which is not possible with MCNP) as well as detectors energy response function and counting statistics in a straightforward way. New version program summaryProgram title: MODAR Catalogue identifier: AEGA_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGA_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 150 927 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 981 633 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations and PCs Operating system: Most Unix systems, Linux and windows, provided the ROOT package has been installed. Examples where tested under Suse Linux and Windows XP. RAM: Depends on the size of the MCNP output file. The example presented in the article, which involves three two dimensional 139×740 bins histograms, allocates about 60 MB. These data are running under ROOT and include consumption by ROOT itself. Classification: 17.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 1161 External routines: ROOT version 5.24.00 ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The output of a MCNP simulation is an ascii file. The data processing is usually performed by copying and pasting the relevant parts of the ascii

  5. Effects of Measurement Error on the Output Gap in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Koichiro Kamada; Kazuto Masuda

    2000-01-01

    Potential output is the largest amount of products that can be produced by fully utilizing available labor and capital stock; the output gap is defined as the discrepancy between actual and potential output. If data on production factors contain measurement errors, total factor productivity (TFP) cannot be estimated accurately from the Solow residual(i.e., the portion of output that is not attributable to labor and capital inputs). This may give rise to distortions in the estimation of potent...

  6. Optimum output coupling for a mid-infrared KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guochao; Gao, Yesheng; Zheng, Guangjin; Zhao, Yao; Chen, Kunfeng; Wang, Qingpu; Bai, Fen

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the turn off time of the Q-switch, the coupled equations for a mid-infrared KTiOAsO 4 optical parametric oscillator (OPO) are given. These rate equations are solved numerically and some key parameters for designing the laser system are determined. The key parameters include the optimal coupling and nonlinear crystal length which maximize the output power and OPO conversion efficiency. We found that a low-loss singly resonant OPO cavity not only enhances the mid-infrared output but also decreases the optimal OPO crystal length. (paper)

  7. Static inverter with synchronous output waveform synthesized by time-optimal-response feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernick, A.; Stechschulte, D. L.; Shireman, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Time-optimal-response 'bang-bang' or 'bang-hang' technique, using four feedback control loops, synthesizes static-inverter sinusoidal output waveform by self-oscillatory but yet synchronous pulse-frequency-modulation (SPFM). A single modular power stage per phase of ac output entails the minimum of circuit complexity while providing by feedback synthesis individual phase voltage regulation, phase position control and inherent compensation simultaneously for line and load disturbances. Clipped sinewave performance is described under off-limit load or input voltage conditions. Also, approaches to high power levels, 3-phase arraying and parallel modular connection are given.

  8. Defining the Benefits, Outputs, and Knowledge Elements of Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Rochelle; Perrin, Burt; McGuire, Martha; Long, Bud; Lee, Linda

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Evaluation Society explored the benefits that can be attributed to program evaluation, the outputs necessary to achieve those benefits, and the knowledge and skills needed to produce outputs. Findings, which articulate benefits, outputs, and skills, can be used by evaluation organizations to support advocacy and professional…

  9. A multi-centre analysis of radiotherapy beam output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Bolt

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Machine beam output measurements were largely within ±2% of 1.00 cGy/MU. Clear trends in measured output over time were seen, with some machines having large drifts which would result in additional burden to maintain within acceptable tolerances. This work may act as a baseline for future comparison of beam output measurements.

  10. Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output

  11. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A; Jin Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad, E-mail: pcostanzo@ing.unlp.edu.are, E-mail: granieri@rose-hulma.edu, E-mail: siahmako@rose-hulma.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  12. Nonlinear Output Feedback Control of Underwater Vehicle Propellers using Advance Speed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.

    1999-01-01

    More accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory. In this paper, an output feedback controller reconstructing the advance speed (speed of water going into the propeller) from vehicle speed measurements is derived. For this purpose a three-state model...... minimizes thruster losses due to variations in propeller axial inlet flow which is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems. The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. From the simulations it can be concluded...... of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle and axial inlet flow of the propeller is applied. A nonlinear observer in combination with an output feedback integral controller are derived by applying Lyapunov stability theory and exponential stability is proven. The output feedback controller...

  13. Nonlinear output feedback control of underwater vehicle propellers using feedback form estimated axial flow velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T. I.; Blanke, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    Accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory and feedback from the axial water velocity in the propeller disc. In this paper, an output feedback controller is derived, reconstructing the axial flow velocity from vehicle speed measurements, using...... a three-state model of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle, and the axial flow velocity. Lyapunov stability theory is used to prove that a nonlinear observer combined with an output feedback integral controller provide exponential stability. The output feedback controller...... compensates for variations in thrust due to time variations in advance speed. This is a major problem when applying conventional vehicle-propeller control systems, The proposed controller is simulated for an underwater vehicle equipped with a single propeller. The simulations demonstrate that the axial water...

  14. Output Beam Polarisation of X-ray Lasers with Transient Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulewicz, K. A.; Kim, C. M.; Matouš, B.; Stiel, H.; Nishikino, M.; Hasegawa, N.; Kawachi, T.

    It is commonly accepted that X-ray lasers, as the devices based on amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), did not show any specific polarization in the output beam. The theoretical analysis within the uniform (single-mode) approximation suggested that the output radiation should show some defined polarization feature, but randomly changing from shot-to-shot. This hypothesis has been verified by experiment using traditional double-pulse scheme of transient inversion. Membrane beam-splitter was used as a polarization selector. It was found that the output radiation has a significant component of p-polarisation in each shot. To explain the effect and place it in the line with available, but scarce data, propagation and kinetic effects in the non-uniform plasma have been analysed.

  15. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillerman, Joshua; Fredian, Thomas; Manduchi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud

  16. Assessment of paediatric hydronephrosis using output efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saundres, C.A.B.; Choong, K.K.L.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Diuretic renography is an important tool in the evaluation of paediatric hydronephrosis. Recently a newly developed parameter, output efficiency (OE) has allowed normalisation of washout according to renal function. We retrospectively reviewed the diagnostic accuracy of OE in 56 children (70 hydronephrotic kidneys). There were 16 females and 41 males (mean age 1.4 years, range 3 weeks-12 years). Diuretic renography ( 99m Tc-MAG3) was performed using i.v. volume expansion (15 mL/kg), frusemide diuresis (1mg/kg) and urethral catheterisation if VUR was present. Final diagnosis was made using surgery (n = 15) or clinical outcome (n = 42). Clinical follow up exceeded one year and included repeat MAG3 scan (n = 20), resolving hydronephrosis on ultrasound (n = 15) or percutaneous antegrade pyelogram (n = 1). Initial scans were classified as obstructed (n 13), indeterminate (n = 13) or non obstructed (n = 30) based on standard qualitative and quantitative criteria. Using a normal range of >84%, OE correctly predicted 12/13 (92%) obstructed kidneys and 44/44 non-obstructed kidneys (100%). In the indeterminate group, three kidneys developed obstruction at follow -up and 10 became non obstructed. Initial OE predicted outcome in two and four kidneys respectively. Overall, OE sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 89%. In the subgroup of patients (n = 19) with reduced differential function (<40%) the sensitivity of OE was 100% and specificity was 75%. This compares to 83% and 66% for Tl/2 in this subgroup. Therefore OE is a useful marker of renal outflow tract obstruction and maybe superior to other parameters such as Tl/2 particularly when renal function is reduced

  17. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  18. The single chip microcomputer technique in an intelligent nuclear instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tieliu; Sun Punan; Wang Ying

    1995-01-01

    The authors present that how to acquire and process the output signals from the nuclear detector adopting single chip microcomputer technique, including working principles and the designing method of the computer's software and hardware in the single chip microcomputer instrument

  19. A Constraint programming-based genetic algorithm for capacity output optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Ean Nee Goh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The manuscript presents an investigation into a constraint programming-based genetic algorithm for capacity output optimization in a back-end semiconductor manufacturing company.Design/methodology/approach: In the first stage, constraint programming defining the relationships between variables was formulated into the objective function. A genetic algorithm model was created in the second stage to optimize capacity output. Three demand scenarios were applied to test the robustness of the proposed algorithm.Findings: CPGA improved both the machine utilization and capacity output once the minimum requirements of a demand scenario were fulfilled. Capacity outputs of the three scenarios were improved by 157%, 7%, and 69%, respectively.Research limitations/implications: The work relates to aggregate planning of machine capacity in a single case study. The constraints and constructed scenarios were therefore industry-specific.Practical implications: Capacity planning in a semiconductor manufacturing facility need to consider multiple mutually influenced constraints in resource availability, process flow and product demand. The findings prove that CPGA is a practical and an efficient alternative to optimize the capacity output and to allow the company to review its capacity with quick feedback.Originality/value: The work integrates two contemporary computational methods for a real industry application conventionally reliant on human judgement.

  20. Regulation of the Output Voltage of an Inverter in Case of Load Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouri, Omar; Errahimi, Fatima; Es-Sbai, Najia

    2018-05-01

    In a DC/AC photovoltaic application, the stability of the output voltage of the inverter plays a very important role in the electrical systems. Such a photovoltaic system is constituted by an inverter, which makes it possible to convert the continuous energy to the alternative energy used in systems which operate under a voltage of 230V. The output of this inverter can be connected to a single load or more, at which time a second load is added in parallel with the first load. In this case, it proves a voltage drop at the output of the inverter. This problem influences the proper functioning of the electrical loads. Therefore, our contribution is to give a solution to this by compensating this voltage drop using a boost converter at the input of the inverter. This boost converter will play the role of the compensator that will provide the necessary voltage to the inverter in order to increase the voltage across the loads. But the use of this boost without controlling it is not enough because it generates a voltage that depends on the duty cycle of the control signal. To stabilize the output voltage of the inverter, we used a Proportional, Integral, and Derivative control (PID), which makes it possible to generate the necessary control signal for the voltage boost in order to have a good regulation of the output voltage of the inverter. Finally, we have solved the problem of the voltage drop even though there is loads variation.

  1. CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, William; Giorgi, Filippo; Lake, Irene

    2017-04-01

    The Science Advisory Team for the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) has developed a baseline framework of specified regions, resolutions and simulation periods intended to provide a foundation for ongoing regional CORDEX activities: the CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation, or CORDEX-CORE. CORDEX-CORE was conceived in part to be responsive to IPCC needs for coordinated simulations that could provide regional climate downscaling (RCD) that yields fine-scale climate information beyond that resolved by GCMs. For each CORDEX region, a matrix of GCM-RCD experiments is designed based on the need to cover as much as possible different dimensions of the uncertainty space (e.g., different emissions and land-use scenarios, GCMs, RCD models and techniques). An appropriate set of driving GCMs can allow a program of simulations that efficiently addresses key scientific issues within CORDEX, while facilitating comparison and transfer of results and lessons learned across different regions. The CORDEX-CORE program seeks to provide, as much as possible, homogeneity across domains, so it is envisioned that a standard set of regional climate models (RCMs) and empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) methods will downscale a standard set of GCMs over all or at least most CORDEX domains for a minimum set of scenarios (high and low end). The focus is on historical climate simulations for the 20th century and projections for 21st century, implying that data would be needed minimally for the period 1950-2100 (but ideally 1900-2100). This foundational ensemble can be regionally enriched with further contributions (additional GCM-RCD pairs) by individual groups over their selected domains of interest. The RCM model resolution for these core experiments will be in the range of 10-20 km, a resolution that has been shown to provide substantial added value for a variety of climate variables and that represents a significant forward step compared in the CORDEX

  2. A multi-purpose brain-computer interface output device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David E; Huggins, Jane E

    2011-10-01

    While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising alternative access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments, many BCI systems are designed as stand-alone communication and control systems, rather than as interfaces to existing systems built for these purposes. An individual communication and control system may be powerful or flexible, but no single system can compete with the variety of options available in the commercial assistive technology (AT) market. BCls could instead be used as an interface to these existing AT devices and products, which are designed for improving access and agency of people with disabilities and are highly configurable to individual user needs. However, interfacing with each AT device and program requires significant time and effort on the part of researchers and clinicians. This work presents the Multi-Purpose BCI Output Device (MBOD), a tool to help researchers and clinicians provide BCI control of many forms of AT in a plug-and-play fashion, i.e., without the installation of drivers or software on the AT device, and a proof-of-concept of the practicality of such an approach. The MBOD was designed to meet the goals of target device compatibility, BCI input device compatibility, convenience, and intuitive command structure. The MBOD was successfully used to interface a BCI with multiple AT devices (including two wheelchair seating systems), as well as computers running Windows (XP and 7), Mac and Ubuntu Linux operating systems.

  3. A Multi-purpose Brain-Computer Interface Output Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David E; Huggins, Jane E

    2012-01-01

    While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising alternative access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments, many BCI systems are designed as standalone communication and control systems, rather than as interfaces to existing systems built for these purposes. While an individual communication and control system may be powerful or flexible, no single system can compete with the variety of options available in the commercial assistive technology (AT) market. BCIs could instead be used as an interface to these existing AT devices and products, which are designed for improving access and agency of people with disabilities and are highly configurable to individual user needs. However, interfacing with each AT device and program requires significant time and effort on the part of researchers and clinicians. This work presents the Multi-Purpose BCI Output Device (MBOD), a tool to help researchers and clinicians provide BCI control of many forms of AT in a plug-and-play fashion, i.e. without the installation of drivers or software on the AT device, and a proof-of-concept of the practicality of such an approach. The MBOD was designed to meet the goals of target device compatibility, BCI input device compatibility, convenience, and intuitive command structure. The MBOD was successfully used to interface a BCI with multiple AT devices (including two wheelchair seating systems), as well as computers running Windows (XP and 7), Mac and Ubuntu Linux operating systems. PMID:22208120

  4. Handwriting generates variable visual output to facilitate symbol learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julia X; James, Karin H

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Alternative to Ritt's pseudodivision for finding the input-output equations of multi-output models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Anderson, Chris; DiStefano, Joseph J

    2012-09-01

    Differential algebra approaches to structural identifiability analysis of a dynamic system model in many instances heavily depend upon Ritt's pseudodivision at an early step in analysis. The pseudodivision algorithm is used to find the characteristic set, of which a subset, the input-output equations, is used for identifiability analysis. A simpler algorithm is proposed for this step, using Gröbner Bases, along with a proof of the method that includes a reduced upper bound on derivative requirements. Efficacy of the new algorithm is illustrated with several biosystem model examples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Output controllability of nonlinear systems with bounded control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rafael; D'Attellis, Carlos

    1990-01-01

    The control problem treated in this paper is the output controllability of a nonlinear system in the form: x = f(x) + g(x)u(t); y = h(x), using bounded controls. The approach to the problem consists of a modification in the system using dynamic feedback in such a way that the input/output behaviour of the closed loop matches the input/output behaviour of a completely output-controllable system with bounded controls. Sufficient conditions are also put forward on the system so that a compact set in the output space may be reached in finite time using uniformally bounded controls, and a result on output regulation in finite time with asymptotic state stabilization is obtained. (Author)

  7. Simulation of Distributed PV Power Output in Oahu Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation in Oahu has grown rapidly since 2008. For applications such as determining the value of energy storage, it is important to have PV power output timeseries. Since these timeseries of not typically measured, here we produce simulated distributed PV power output for Oahu. Simulated power output is based on (a) satellite-derived solar irradiance, (b) PV permit data by neighborhood, and (c) population data by census block. Permit and population data was used to model locations of distributed PV, and irradiance data was then used to simulate power output. PV power output simulations are presented by sub-neighborhood polygons, neighborhoods, and for the whole island of Oahu. Summary plots of annual PV energy and a sample week timeseries of power output are shown, and a the files containing the entire timeseries are described.

  8. A Single-Pulse Integrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1974-01-01

    A single-pulse integrator is described. It gives a relative measure of the integral of the output signal from a coil monitor on the Risø 10 MeV linear accelerator, and displays the value on a digital voltmeter. The reproduccibility is found to be better than ±1% for an accelerated pulse charge...

  9. Tunable First-Order Resistorless All-Pass Filter with Low Output Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Beg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a voltage mode cascadable single active element tunable first-order all-pass filter with a single passive component. The active element used to realise the filter is a new building block termed as differential difference dual-X current conveyor with a buffered output (DD-DXCCII. The filter is thus realized with the help of a DD-DXCCII, a capacitor, and a MOS transistor. By exploiting the low output impedance, a higher order filter is also realized. Nonideal and parasitic study is also carried out on the realised filters. The proposed DD-DXCCII filters are simulated using TSMC the 0.25 µm technology.

  10. Research on output signal of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector using Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takechi, Seiji, E-mail: takechi@elec.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Tomoaki; Miura, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Miyachi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Okudaira, Osamu [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fujii, Masayuki [Famscience Co., Ltd., Tsukubamirai, Ibaraki 300-2435 (Japan); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co., Ltd., Toyohashi, Aichi 441-3193 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2017-06-21

    The response of a radiation detector fabricated from piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was studied. The response signal due to a single 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) ion was assumed to have a simple form that was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. These variables were estimated by comparing two output waveforms obtained from a computer simulation and an experiment on Xe beam irradiation. Their values appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity. - Highlights: • The performance of PZT detector was studied by irradiation of a 400 MeV/n Xe beam. • Monte Carlo simulation was used to examine the formation process of the output. • The response signal due to a single Xe ion was assumed to have a simple form. • The form was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. • These variables appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity.

  11. Validation of models with multivariate output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebba, Ramesh; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops metrics for validating computational models with experimental data, considering uncertainties in both. A computational model may generate multiple response quantities and the validation experiment might yield corresponding measured values. Alternatively, a single response quantity may be predicted and observed at different spatial and temporal points. Model validation in such cases involves comparison of multiple correlated quantities. Multiple univariate comparisons may give conflicting inferences. Therefore, aggregate validation metrics are developed in this paper. Both classical and Bayesian hypothesis testing are investigated for this purpose, using multivariate analysis. Since, commonly used statistical significance tests are based on normality assumptions, appropriate transformations are investigated in the case of non-normal data. The methodology is implemented to validate an empirical model for energy dissipation in lap joints under dynamic loading

  12. The Association Between Urine Output, Creatinine Elevation, and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engoren, Milo; Maile, Michael D; Heung, Michael; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Vahabzadeh, Christie; Haft, Jonathan W; Kheterpal, Sachin

    2017-04-01

    Acute kidney injury can be defined by a fall in urine output, and urine output criteria may be more sensitive in identifying acute kidney injury than traditional serum creatinine criteria. However, as pointed out in the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome guidelines, the association of urine output with subsequent creatinine elevations and death is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine what degrees of reduced urine output are associated with subsequent creatinine elevation and death. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients (age ≥18 years) cared for in a cardiovascular intensive care unit after undergoing cardiac operations in a tertiary care university medical center. All adult patients who underwent cardiac operations and were not receiving dialysis preoperatively were studied. The development of acute kidney injury was defined as an increase in creatinine of more than 0.3 mg/dL or by more than 50% above baseline by postoperative day 3. Acute kidney injury developed in 1,061 of 4,195 patients (25%). Urine output had moderate discrimination in predicting subsequent acute kidney injury (C statistic = .637 ± .054). Lower urine output and longer duration of low urine output were associated with greater odds of developing acute kidney injury and death. We found that there is similar accuracy in using urine output corrected for actual, ideal, or adjusted weight to discriminate future acute kidney injury by creatinine elevation and recommend using actual weight for its simplicity. We also found that low urine output is associated with subsequent acute kidney injury and that the association is greater for lower urine output and for low urine output of longer durations. Low urine output (creatinine elevation, is independently associated with mortality. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Output, renewable energy consumption and trade in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Aïssa, Mohamed Safouane; Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2014-01-01

    We use panel cointegration techniques to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in a sample of 11 African countries covering the period 1980–2008. The results from panel error correction model reveal that there is evidence of a bidirectional causality between output and exports and between output and imports in both the short and long-run. However, in the short-run, there is no evidence of causality between output and renewable energy consumption and between trade (exports or imports) and renewable energy consumption. Also, in the long-run, there is no causality running from output or trade to renewable energy. In the long-run, our estimations show that renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant and positive impact on output. Our energy policy recommendations are that national authorities should design appropriate fiscal incentives to encourage the use of renewable energies, create more regional economic integration for renewable energy technologies, and encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output. - Highlights: • We examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in African countries. • There is a bidirectional causality between output and trade in both the short and long-run. • In the short-run, there is no causality between renewable energy consumption and trade or output. • In the long-run, renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant positive impact on output. • African authorities should encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output

  14. Quantum superchemistry in an output coupler of coherent matter waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, H.; Cheng, J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the quantum superchemistry or Bose-enhanced atom-molecule conversions in a coherent output coupler of matter waves, as a simple generalization of the two-color photoassociation. The stimulated effects of molecular output step and atomic revivals are exhibited by steering the rf output couplings. The quantum noise-induced molecular damping occurs near a total conversion in a levitation trap. This suggests a feasible two-trap scheme to make a stable coherent molecular beam

  15. The Economic Impact of Tourism. An Input-Output Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia SURUGIU

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an Input-Output Analysis for Romania, an important source of information for the investigation of the inter-relations existing among different industries. The Input-Output Analysis is used to determine the role and importance of different economic value added, incomes and employment and it analyses the existing connection in an economy. This paper is focused on tourism and the input-output analysis is finished for the Hotels and Restaurants Sector.

  16. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  17. Global Sensitivity Analysis for multivariate output using Polynomial Chaos Expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cabrejo, Oscar; Valocchi, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Many mathematical and computational models used in engineering produce multivariate output that shows some degree of correlation. However, conventional approaches to Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) assume that the output variable is scalar. These approaches are applied on each output variable leading to a large number of sensitivity indices that shows a high degree of redundancy making the interpretation of the results difficult. Two approaches have been proposed for GSA in the case of multivariate output: output decomposition approach [9] and covariance decomposition approach [14] but they are computationally intensive for most practical problems. In this paper, Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) is used for an efficient GSA with multivariate output. The results indicate that PCE allows efficient estimation of the covariance matrix and GSA on the coefficients in the approach defined by Campbell et al. [9], and the development of analytical expressions for the multivariate sensitivity indices defined by Gamboa et al. [14]. - Highlights: • PCE increases computational efficiency in 2 approaches of GSA of multivariate output. • Efficient estimation of covariance matrix of output from coefficients of PCE. • Efficient GSA on coefficients of orthogonal decomposition of the output using PCE. • Analytical expressions of multivariate sensitivity indices from coefficients of PCE

  18. Inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Ramprasad; Mallik, Girijasankar

    2010-12-01

    Employing a multivariate EGARCH-M model, this study investigates the effects of inflation uncertainty and growth uncertainty on inflation and output growth in the United States. Our results show that inflation uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on the level of inflation and a negative and significant effect on the output growth. However, output uncertainty has no significant effect on output growth or inflation. The oil price also has a positive and significant effect on inflation. These findings are robust and have been corroborated by use of an impulse response function. These results have important implications for inflation-targeting monetary policy, and the aim of stabilization policy in general.

  19. Engineering microbial consortia for controllable outputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Song, Hyun-Seob; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fields, Matthew W.; Shou, Wenying; Johnson, David R.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2016-03-11

    Much research has been invested into engineering microorganisms to perform desired biotransformations; nonetheless, these efforts frequently fall short of expected results due to the unforeseen effects of biofeedback regulation and functional incompatibility. In nature, metabolic function is compartmentalized into diverse organisms assembled into resilient consortia, in which the division of labor is thought to lead to increased community efficiency and productivity. Here, we consider whether and how consortia can be designed to perform bioprocesses of interest beyond the metabolic flexibility limitations of a single organism. Advances in post-genomic analysis of microbial consortia and application of high-resolution global measurements now offer the promise of systems-level understanding of how microbial consortia adapt to changes in environmental variables and inputs of carbon and energy. We argue that when combined with appropriate modeling framework that predictive knowledge generates testable hypotheses and orthogonal synthetic biology tools, such understanding can dramatically improve our ability to control the fate and functioning of consortia. In this article, we articulate our collective perspective on the current and future state of microbial community engineering and control while placing specific emphasis on ecological principles that promote control over community function and emergent properties.

  20. A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorder, Peter James

    1993-01-01

    Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

  1. Linear and quadratic models of point process systems: contributions of patterned input to output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R

    2012-08-01

    In the 1880's Volterra characterised a nonlinear system using a functional series connecting continuous input and continuous output. Norbert Wiener, in the 1940's, circumvented problems associated with the application of Volterra series to physical problems by deriving from it a new series of terms that are mutually uncorrelated with respect to Gaussian processes. Subsequently, Brillinger, in the 1970's, introduced a point-process analogue of Volterra's series connecting point-process inputs to the instantaneous rate of point-process output. We derive here a new series from this analogue in which its terms are mutually uncorrelated with respect to Poisson processes. This new series expresses how patterned input in a spike train, represented by third-order cross-cumulants, is converted into the instantaneous rate of an output point-process. Given experimental records of suitable duration, the contribution of arbitrary patterned input to an output process can, in principle, be determined. Solutions for linear and quadratic point-process models with one and two inputs and a single output are investigated. Our theoretical results are applied to isolated muscle spindle data in which the spike trains from the primary and secondary endings from the same muscle spindle are recorded in response to stimulation of one and then two static fusimotor axons in the absence and presence of a random length change imposed on the parent muscle. For a fixed mean rate of input spikes, the analysis of the experimental data makes explicit which patterns of two input spikes contribute to an output spike. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Output Price Risk, Material Input Price Risk, and Price Margins: Evidence from the US Catfish Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bouras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - To develop a conceptual model for analyzing the impact of output price risk and material input price risk on price margins. Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the combined effect of output price risk and material input risk on price margins, we use a series of comparative static analyses, GARCH models, and data ranging from 1990/01 to 2012/12. Findings - The theoretical results indicate that the impact of output price risk and the impact of material input price risk on price margins are ambiguous and, to a great extent, hinge on the correlation between output price and material input price. The empirical results show that whole frozen catfish price risk and live catfish price risk negatively affect the price margin for frozen catfish. The empirical results, however, indicate that the risk of the price of live catfish affects markedly the price margin for frozen whole catfish in contrast to the impact of the risk of the price of frozen whole catfish. Research implications/limitations - The empirical results have significant implications for managerial decision-making especially when crafting strategies for improving price margins. Accordingly, in order to beef up the price margin for frozen whole catfish, catfish processors may consider engaging in vertical integration. This paper has some limitations: first, it assumes that firms operate in competitive markets; second, it assumes that firms produce and sell a single product. Originality/value/contribution - Unlike earlier studies that focused solely on the effect of output price risk on price margins, this paper analyzes theoretically and empirically the impact of output price risk and material input price risk on price margins.

  3. Cooled solar PV panels for output energy efficiency optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhijun; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of cooling on solar PV performance have been experimentally investigated. • As a solar panel is cooled down, the electric output can have significant increase. • A cooled solar PV system has been proposed for resident application. • Life cycle assessment suggests the cost payback time of cooled PV can be reduced. - Abstract: As working temperature plays a critical role in influencing solar PV’s electrical output and efficacy, it is necessary to examine possible way for maintaining the appropriate temperature for solar panels. This research is aiming to investigate practical effects of solar PV surface temperature on output performance, in particular efficiency. Experimental works were carried out under different radiation condition for exploring the variation of the output voltage, current, output power and efficiency. After that, the cooling test was conducted to find how much efficiency improvement can be achieved with the cooling condition. As test results show the efficiency of solar PV can have an increasing rate of 47% with the cooled condition, a cooling system is proposed for possible system setup of residential solar PV application. The system performance and life cycle assessment suggest that the annual PV electric output efficiencies can increase up to 35%, and the annual total system energy efficiency including electric output and hot water energy output can increase up to 107%. The cost payback time can be reduced to 12.1 years, compared to 15 years of the baseline of a similar system without cooling sub-system.

  4. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that your...

  5. Distributed control design for nonlinear output agreement in convergent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitenberg, Erik; De Persis, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This work studies the problem of output agreement in homogeneous networks of nonlinear dynamical systems under time-varying disturbances using controllers placed at the nodes of the networks. For the class of contractive systems, necessary and sufficient conditions for output agreement are derived,

  6. High output stomas: ensuring safe discharge from hospital to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa

    High-output stomas are a challenge for the patient and all health professionals involved. This article discusses safe discharge home for this patient group, encouraging collaborative working practices between acute care trust and the community services. The authors also discuss the management of a high-output stoma and preparation and education of the patient before discharge home.

  7. Against Journal Articles for Measuring Value in University Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbali, C.

    2010-01-01

    The following lines of arguments against the metrics of journal articles is developed: (1) Textual output should no longer be main valued output; (2) Digitalization enables other ways of advancing knowledge; (3) Measures by journal article favours the disciplines of Natural Science and Engineering (NSE) and moulds other disciplines of Social…

  8. Input-Output Economics : Theory and Applications - Featuring Asian Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Thijs ten Raa, author of the acclaimed text The Economics of Input–Output Analysis, now takes the reader to the forefront of the field. This volume collects and unifies his and his co-authors' research papers on national accounting, Input–Output coefficients, economic theory, dynamic models,

  9. effect of light curing unit characteristics on light intensity output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-09

    Sep 9, 2013 ... in Nairobi and their effect on light intensity output, depth of cure (DOC) and ... result in gradual reduction in the energy output of ..... of LED lights are compared with QTH lights could ... influence on the SMH of dark shades.

  10. Using deflation in the pole assignment problem with output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miminis, George

    1989-01-01

    A direct algorithm is suggested for the computation of a linear output feedback for a multi input, multi output system such that the resultant closed-loop matrix has eigenvalues that include a specified set of eigenvalues. The algorithm uses deflation based on unitary similarity transformations. Thus researchers hope the algorithm is numerically stable; however, this has not been proven as yet.

  11. Characterizing the effects of cell settling on bioprinter output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Matthew E; Burg, Timothy C; Burg, Karen J L; Groff, Richard E; Seshadri, Vidya

    2012-01-01

    The time variation in bioprinter output, i.e. the number of cells per printed drop, was studied over the length of a typical printing experiment. This variation impacts the cell population size of bioprinted samples, which should ideally be consistent. The variation in output was specifically studied in the context of cell settling. The bioprinter studied is based on the thermal inkjet HP26A cartridge; however, the results are relevant to other cell delivery systems that draw fluid from a reservoir. A simple mathematical model suggests that the cell concentration in the bottom of the reservoir should increase linearly over time, up to some maximum, and that the cell output should be proportional to this concentration. Two studies were performed in which D1 murine stem cells and similarly sized polystyrene latex beads were printed. The bead output profiles were consistent with the model. The cell output profiles initially followed the increasing trend predicted by the settling model, but after several minutes the cell output peaked and then decreased. The decrease in cell output was found to be associated with the number of use cycles the cartridge had experienced. The differing results for beads and cells suggest that a biological process, such as adhesion, causes the decrease in cell output. Further work will be required to identify the exact process. (communication)

  12. Output Enhancement in the Transfer-Field Machine Using Rotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Output Enhancement in the Transfer-Field Machine Using Rotor Circuit Induced Currents. ... The output of a plain transfer-field machine would be much less than that of a conventional machine of comparable size and dimensions. The use of ... The same effects have their parallel for the asynchronous mode of operation.

  13. Duplicating MC-15 Output with Python and MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSpaden, Alexander Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Two Python scripts have been written that process the output files of MCNP6 into a format that mimics the list-mode output of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s MC-15 and NPOD neutron detection systems. This report details the methods implemented in these scripts and instructions on their use.

  14. Figure output program for JFT-2M experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yukitoshi; Mori, Masahiro; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Takada, Susumu.

    1991-11-01

    The software for the figure output of JFT-2M experimental data is reported. Since the configuration of a figure is determined by some easy input parameters, then any format of each experimental output is configured freely by this software. (author)

  15. Exploring the Relationship between Modified Output and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Alison; Adams, Rebecca; Stafford, Catherine; Winke, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between learners' production of modified output and their working memory (WM) capacity. The task-based interactions of 42 college-level, native English-speaking learners of Spanish as a foreign language were examined. A relationship was found between learners' WM test scores and their tendency to modify output.…

  16. INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS : THE NEXT 25 YEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lenzen, Manfred; Los, Bart; Guan, Dabo; Lahr, Michael L.; Sancho, Ferran; Suh, Sangwon; Yang, Cuihong; Sancho, S.

    2013-01-01

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the International Input-Output Association and the 25th volume of Economic Systems Research. To celebrate this anniversary, a group of eight experts provide their views on the future of input-output. Looking forward, they foresee progress in terms of data

  17. Are output measurements always necessary after CT tube replacement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Stauduhar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: TX regulations and the ACR require that CT radiation output be measured within 30 days of major service. The most common major service is tube replacement. We hypothesized that historical QC data could be used instead to determine if output measurements are necessary, reducing the need for costly output measurements.Methods: We reviewed 66 records of tube replacements to determine with what frequency output falls outside specifications. We also conducted an experiment to verify that clinically significant output changes could be identified by comparing image noise in historical QC data with the same data after tube replacement. We used 30 days of historical QC data to establish a baseline noise level and 95% confidence interval (CI for individual noise measurements. To simulate output changes, we acquired phantom images with our QC protocol while manually changing output (mA. We acquired 10 images using the baseline output and 10 images at each different “output”. We evaluated individual images and subsets of images at each “output” to determine if the system was within the manufacturer’s specifications.Results: None of the 66 tube replacements resulted in an output change that exceeded specifications. Analysis of 30 days of historic QC data for our experimental system indicated a mean noise of 5.4 HU with 95% CI of 5.1 ‒ 5.7 HU. When using the mean noise of 10 images acquired at each of the varying outputs, we were able to identify, with 100% accuracy, images acquired at outputs outside manufacturer’s specifications.Conclusion: The results of our review of historical tube replacement data indicated the likelihood of output falling outside manufacturer’s specifications is low. Considering this, it is likely that by using QC data from programs required by regulation and the ACR physicists can reliably verify radiation output stability remotely instead of making physical measurements.--------------------Cite this article

  18. A two stage data envelopment analysis model with undesirable output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam; Izzati Jaini, Nur; Mat Kasim, Maznah; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2017-09-01

    The dependent relationship among the decision making units (DMU) is usually assumed to be non-existent in the development of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The dependency can be represented by the multi-stage DEA model, where the outputs from the precedent stage will be the inputs for the latter stage. The multi-stage DEA model evaluate both the efficiency score for each stages and the overall efficiency of the whole process. The existing multi stage DEA models do not focus on the integration with the undesirable output, in which the higher input will generate lower output unlike the normal desirable output. This research attempts to address the inclusion of such undesirable output and investigate the theoretical implication and potential application towards the development of multi-stage DEA model.

  19. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of disaggregate energy consumption on industrial output in the United States. Most of the related research utilizes aggregate data which may not indicate the relative strength or explanatory power of various energy inputs on output. We use monthly data and employ the generalized variance decomposition approach to assess the relative impacts of energy and employment on real output. Our results suggest that unexpected shocks to coal, natural gas and fossil fuel energy sources have the highest impacts on the variation of output, while several renewable sources exhibit considerable explanatory power as well. However, none of the energy sources explain more of the forecast error variance of industrial output than employment

  20. Output gap uncertainty and real-time monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grigoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Output gap estimates are subject to a wide range of uncertainty owing principally to the difficulty in distinguishing between cycle and trend in real time. We show that country desks tend to overestimate economic slack, especially during recessions, and that uncertainty in initial output gap estimates persists several years. Only a small share of output gap revisions is predictable based on output dynamics, data quality, and policy frameworks. We also show that for a group of Latin American inflation targeters the prescriptions from monetary policy rules are subject to large changes due to revised output gap estimates. These explain a sizable proportion of the deviation of inflation from target, suggesting this information is not accounted for in real-time policy decisions.

  1. CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions.

  2. Peripheral vasodilatation determines cardiac output in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bada, A A; Svendsen, J H; Secher, N H

    2012-01-01

    In dogs, manipulation of heart rate has no effect on the exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. Whether these findings apply to humans remain uncertain, because of the large differences in cardiovascular anatomy and regulation. To investigate the role of heart rate and peripheral...... arterial ATP infusion at rest. Exercise and ATP infusion increased cardiac output, leg blood flow and vascular conductance (P heart rate by up to 54 beats min(−1), cardiac output did not change in any of the three...... demonstrate that the elevated cardiac output during steady-state exercise is regulated by the increase in skeletal muscle blood flow and venous return to the heart, whereas the increase in heart rate appears to be secondary to the regulation of cardiac output....

  3. Association of Total Fluid Intake and Output with Duration of Hospital Stay in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andree H. Koop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of fluid balance with outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis (AP. Methods. This was a retrospective study of patients hospitalized between May 2008 and June 2016 with AP and a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Data collected included various types of fluid intake and output at 24 and 48 hours after admission. The primary outcome was length of stay (LOS. Analysis was performed using single-variable and multivariable negative binomial regression models. Results. Of 1256 patients hospitalized for AP during the study period, only 71 patients (5.6% had a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Increased urine output was associated with a decreased LOS at 24 and 48 hours in univariable analysis. An increasingly positive fluid balance (total intake minus urine output at 24 hours was associated with a longer LOS in multivariable analysis. Conclusions. Few patients hospitalized for AP had a documented order for strict monitoring of fluid intake and output, despite the importance of monitoring fluid balance in these patients. Our study suggests an association between urine output and fluid balance with LOS in AP.

  4. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, V.

    1994-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  5. Single-event transients (SET) in analog circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Panxun; Zhou Kaiming

    2006-01-01

    A new phenomenon of single- event upset is introduced. The transient signal is produced in the output of analog circuits after a heavy ion strikes. The transient upset can influence the circuit connected with the output of analog circuits. For example, the output of operational amplifier can be connected with the input of a digital counter, and the pulse of sufficiently high transient output induced by an ion can increase counts of the counter. On the other hand, the transient voltage signal at the output of analog circuits can change the stage of other circuits. (authors)

  6. Advances in single chain technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A

    2015-10-07

    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses.

  7. Universal Voltage Conveyor and its Novel Dual-Output Fully-Cascadable VM APF Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Herencsar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a novel realization of a voltage-mode (VM first-order all-pass filter (APF with attractive features. The proposed circuit employs a single readily available six-terminal active device called as universal voltage conveyor (UVC and only grounded passive components, which predict its easy monolithic integration with desired circuit simplicity. The auxiliary voltage input (W and output (ZP, ZN terminals of the device fully ensure easy cascadability of VM APF, since the input and output terminal impedances are theoretically infinitely high and zero, respectively. Moreover, thanks to mutually inverse outputs of the UVC, the proposed filter simultaneously provides both inverting and non-inverting outputs from the same configuration. All of these features make the UVC a unique active device currently available in the literature. The behavior of the filter was experimentally measured using the readily available UVC-N1C 0520 chip, which was produced in cooperation with ON Semiconductor Czech Republic, Ltd.

  8. An Improved Mathematical Model for Computing Power Output of Solar Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayoom Jakhrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to determine the input parameters values for equivalent circuit models of photovoltaic modules through analytical methods. Thus, the previous researchers preferred to use numerical methods. Since, the numerical methods are time consuming and need long term time series data which is not available in most developing countries, an improved mathematical model was formulated by combination of analytical and numerical methods to overcome the limitations of existing methods. The values of required model input parameters were computed analytically. The expression for output current of photovoltaic module was determined explicitly by Lambert W function and voltage was determined numerically by Newton-Raphson method. Moreover, the algebraic equations were derived for the shape factor which involves the ideality factor and the series resistance of a single diode photovoltaic module power output model. The formulated model results were validated with rated power output of a photovoltaic module provided by manufacturers using local meteorological data, which gave ±2% error. It was found that the proposed model is more practical in terms of precise estimations of photovoltaic module power output for any required location and number of variables used.

  9. Laser fiber cleaving techniques: effects on tip morphology and power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassantachart, Janna M; Lightfoot, Michelle; Yeo, Alexander; Maldonado, Jonathan; Li, Roger; Alsyouf, Muhannad; Martin, Jacob; Lee, Michael; Olgin, Gaudencio; Baldwin, D Duane

    2015-01-01

    Proper cleaving of reusable laser fibers is needed to maintain optimal functionality. This study quantifies the effect of different cleaving tools on power output of the holmium laser fiber and demonstrates morphologic changes using microscopy. The uncleaved tips of new 272 μm reusable laser fibers were used to obtain baseline power transmission values at 3 W (0.6 J, 5 Hz). Power output for each of four cleaving techniques-11-blade scalpel, scribe pen cleaving tool, diamond cleaving wheel, and suture scissors-was measured in a single-blinded fashion. Dispersion of light from the fibers was compared with manufacturer specifications and rated as "ideal," "acceptable," or "unacceptable" by blinded reviewers. The fiber tips were also imaged using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Independent samples Kruskal-Wallis test and chi square were used for statistical analysis (αtrend that was highly significant (Ptrend as the power output results (P<0.001). Microscopy showed that the scribe pen produced small defects along the fiber cladding but maintained a smooth, flat core surface. The other cleaving techniques produced defects on both the core and cladding. Cleaving techniques produce a significant effect on the initial power transmitted by reusable laser fibers. The scribe pen cleaving tool produced the most consistent and highest average power output.

  10. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postoperative Transfusions and 24-Hour Chest-Tube Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Heather R.; Ramaiah, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    An increasing obese population in the United States focuses attention on the effect of obesity on surgical outcomes. Our objective was to see if obesity, determined by body mass index (BMI), contributed to bleeding in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as measured by intraoperative and postoperative packed red blood cell transfusion frequency and amount and 24-hour chest-tube output. A retrospective chart review examined 150 subjects undergoing single-surgeon off-pump or on-pump CABG surgery between September 2006 and April 2009. BMI groups included normal-weight (BMI trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The percentage of subjects receiving transfusions in the combined intraoperative or 72-hour postoperative period showed a decreasing linear trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The transfusion amount during the 72-hour postoperative period varied significantly between BMI groups (p = 0.021), and the test for a linear decrease across groups was significant (p = 0.020). Twenty-four hour chest-tube output showed variation across all three BMI categories (p = 0.018) with chest-tube output decreasing with increasing obesity in a linear fashion (p = 0.006). Transfusion rate and amount indicate total blood loss is decreased in the obese, and chest-tube output findings give a direct measurable indicator of blood loss from the surgical site indicating increasing BMI is linearly correlated with decreasing postoperative bleeding. PMID:22654469

  11. 16 W output power by high-efficient spectral beam combining of DBR-tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2011-01-01

    output power achieved by spectral beam combining of two single element tapered diode lasers. Since spectral beam combining does not affect beam propagation parameters, M2-values of 1.8 (fast axis) and 3.3 (slow axis) match the M2- values of the laser with lowest spatial coherence. The principle......Up to 16 W output power has been obtained using spectral beam combining of two 1063 nm DBR-tapered diode lasers. Using a reflecting volume Bragg grating, a combining efficiency as high as 93.7% is achieved, resulting in a single beam with high spatial coherence. The result represents the highest...... of spectral beam combining used in our experiments can be expanded to combine more than two tapered diode lasers and hence it is expected that the output power may be increased even further in the future....

  12. 16 W output power by high-efficient spectral beam combining of DBR-tapered diode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, André; Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hasler, Karl-Heinz; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Andersen, Peter E; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2011-01-17

    Up to 16 W output power has been obtained using spectral beam combining of two 1063 nm DBR-tapered diode lasers. Using a reflecting volume Bragg grating, a combining efficiency as high as 93.7% is achieved, resulting in a single beam with high spatial coherence. The result represents the highest output power achieved by spectral beam combining of two single element tapered diode lasers. Since spectral beam combining does not affect beam propagation parameters, M2-values of 1.8 (fast axis) and 3.3 (slow axis) match the M2-values of the laser with lowest spatial coherence. The principle of spectral beam combining used in our experiments can be expanded to combine more than two tapered diode lasers and hence it is expected that the output power may be increased even further in the future.

  13. Differential pulse amplitude modulation for multiple-input single-output OWVLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. H.; Kwon, D. H.; Kim, S. J.; Son, Y. H.; Han, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used for lighting due to their energy efficiency, eco-friendly, and small size than previously light sources such as incandescent, fluorescent bulbs and so on. Optical wireless visible light communication (OWVLC) based on LED merges lighting and communications in applications such as indoor lighting, traffic signals, vehicles, and underwater communications because LED can be easily modulated. However, physical bandwidth of LED is limited about several MHz by slow time constant of the phosphor and characteristics of device. Therefore, using the simplest modulation format which is non-return-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK), the data rate reaches only to dozens Mbit/s. Thus, to improve the transmission capacity, optical filtering and pre-, post-equalizer are adapted. Also, high-speed wireless connectivity is implemented using spectrally efficient modulation methods: orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) or discrete multi-tone (DMT). However, these modulation methods need additional digital signal processing such as FFT and IFFT, thus complexity of transmitter and receiver is increasing. To reduce the complexity of transmitter and receiver, we proposed a novel modulation scheme which is named differential pulse amplitude modulation. The proposed modulation scheme transmits different NRZ-OOK signals with same amplitude and unit time delay using each LED chip, respectively. The `N' parallel signals from LEDs are overlapped and directly detected at optical receiver. Received signal is demodulated by power difference between unit time slots. The proposed scheme can overcome the bandwidth limitation of LEDs and data rate can be improved according to number of LEDs without complex digital signal processing.

  14. Detailed session outputs by the groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    available to assess licensee safety culture, both formal (e.g. surveys, interviews) and informal (e.g. site inspector insights). - Regulatory staff should be given training to enable them to carry out safety culture interventions. - Regulators need to establish suitable internal regulatory processes and relationships to ensure effective sharing and use of safety culture information. - Current approaches to making a judgement on licensee safety culture are largely based on expert judgement, using data from a variety of sources. - There was general consensus that numerical rating of safety culture has limited meaning, especially a drive to a single number. - Building safety culture data collection into existing regulatory activities requires: commitment within the regulatory body, reflected in leadership, resources, and processes. - There was general agreement that interaction with licensees on safety culture issues should be not be fundamentally different to other regulatory areas. - To retain effective oversight of licensee safety culture it was agreed that regulators should provide an improved awareness of human and organizational factors/safety culture within the regulatory body, learn from other industries to avoid insularity, better integrate safety culture data collection into regulatory business, ensure long term follow up of issues and improve regulatory documentation. questions raised through the discussions as well as main points highlighted during the feedback session are listed

  15. Experimental characterization of variable output refractive beamshapers using freeform elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Jason A.; Smilie, Paul J.; Dutterer, Brian S.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    We present experimental results from variable output refractive beam shapers based on freeform optical surfaces. Two freeform elements in close proximity comprise a beam shaper that maps a circular Gaussian input to a circular `flat-top' output. Different lateral relative shifts between the elements result in a varying output diameter while maintaining the uniform irradiance distribution. We fabricated the beam shaping elements in PMMA using multi-axis milling on a Moore Nanotech 350FG diamond machining center and tested with a 632.8 nm Gaussian input. Initial optical testing confirmed both the predicted beam shaping and variable functionality, but with poor output uniformity. The effects of surface finish on optical performance were investigated using LightTrans VirtualLabTM to perform physical optics simulations of the milled freeform surfaces. These simulations provided an optimization path for determining machining parameters to improve the output uniformity of the beam shaping elements. A second variable beam shaper based on a super-Gaussian output was designed and fabricated using the newly determined machining parameters. Experimental test results from the second beam shaper showed outputs with significantly higher quality, but also suggest additional areas of study for further improvements in uniformity.

  16. INFLUENCE OF FISCAL POLICY DYNAMICS ON OUTPUT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predescu Antoniu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of fiscal policy, more specific rise in fiscal pressure, increase which can be obtained either through enforcing one or more taxes, or by augmenting at least a tax, has a powerful impact on output management – visible, in the first place, in the realm of output size. But, not only output size will vary, after an increase in fiscal pressure, at least because output management is dealing with more than issue of producing a certain quantity of products, material or not, goods and/or services. Products are made for selling, but selling is impossible but through price and with a price; price is an essential economic variable, both in microeconomic and macroeconomic spheres. Thus, on one side rise in fiscal pressure determines, at least in short term, and, of course, if producers pay, or even support, a tax, be it newly enforced or (newly augmented, a rise of prices for sold products, and, on the other side, this results in a variation in output size, e.g. a reduced output volume, but, though, not in a linear trend. The dynamics, in this case of economic mechanism whose yield is a reduced volume of goods and/or services, in not linear, because essential are, too, the characteristics of products, from which effects of demand price elasticity and offer price elasticity influence significantly, in this framework, output management.

  17. Fast metabolite identification with Input Output Kernel Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouard, Céline; Shen, Huibin; Dührkop, Kai; d'Alché-Buc, Florence; Böcker, Sebastian; Rousu, Juho

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: An important problematic of metabolomics is to identify metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry data. Machine learning methods have been proposed recently to solve this problem by predicting molecular fingerprint vectors and matching these fingerprints against existing molecular structure databases. In this work we propose to address the metabolite identification problem using a structured output prediction approach. This type of approach is not limited to vector output space and can handle structured output space such as the molecule space. Results: We use the Input Output Kernel Regression method to learn the mapping between tandem mass spectra and molecular structures. The principle of this method is to encode the similarities in the input (spectra) space and the similarities in the output (molecule) space using two kernel functions. This method approximates the spectra-molecule mapping in two phases. The first phase corresponds to a regression problem from the input space to the feature space associated to the output kernel. The second phase is a preimage problem, consisting in mapping back the predicted output feature vectors to the molecule space. We show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art accuracy in metabolite identification. Moreover, our method has the advantage of decreasing the running times for the training step and the test step by several orders of magnitude over the preceding methods. Availability and implementation: Contact: celine.brouard@aalto.fi Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307628

  18. Synthesis of a novel adaptive wavelet optimized neural cascaded steam blow-off control system for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.H.; Memon, A.A.; Arshad, F.

    2013-01-01

    Blow-Off System Controller (MIMO AWNN-SBOSC) is designed based on real time dynamic parametric plant data of steam blow-off system with conventional Single-Input Multi-Output Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Controller (SIMO PIDC). The proposed MIMO AWANN-SBOSC is designed using three Multi-Input Single-Output Adaptive Wavelet Neural Network based Steam Blow-Off System Controllers (MISO AWNN-SBOSC). The hidden layer of each MISO AWNN-SBOSC is formulated using Mother Wavelet Transforms (MWT). Using nonlinear dynamic neural data of designed MIMO AWNN-SBOSC, a Multi-Input Multi-Output Adaptive Wavelet Neural Network based Steam Blow-Off System Model (MIMO AWNN-SBOSM) is developed in cascaded mode. MIMO AWNN-SBOSM is designed using two MISO AWNN-SBOSM. All training, testing and validation of MIMO AWNN-SBOSC and MIMO AWNN-SBOSM are carried out in MA TLAB while all simulation experiments are performed in Visual C. The results of the new design is evaluated against conventional controller based measured data and found robust, fast and much better in performance. (author)

  19. New solid laser: Ceramic laser. From ultra stable laser to ultra high output laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    An epoch-making solid laser is developed. It is ceramic laser, polycrystal, which is produced as same as glass and shows ultra high output. Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 laser crystal and the CPA (chirped pulse amplification) technique realized new ultra high output lasers. Japan has developed various kinds of ceramic lasers, from 10 -2 to 67 x 10 3 w average output, since 1995. These ceramic lasers were studied by gravitational radiation astronomy. The scattering coefficient of ceramic laser is smaller than single crystals. The new fast ignition method is proposed by Institute of Laser Engineering of Osaka University, Japan. Ultra-intense short pulse laser can inject the required energy to the high-density imploded core plasma within the core disassembling time. Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 crystal for laser, ceramic YAG of large caliber for 100 kW, transparent laser ceramic from nano-crystals, crystal grain and boundary layer between grains, the scattering coefficient of single crystal and ceramic, and the derived release cross section of Yb:YAG ceramic are described. (S.Y.)

  20. A coupled piezoelectric–electromagnetic energy harvesting technique for achieving increased power output through damping matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challa, Vinod R; Prasad, M G; Fisher, Frank T

    2009-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesting is being pursued as a means to power wireless sensors and ultra-low power autonomous devices. From a design standpoint, matching the electrical damping induced by the energy harvesting mechanism to the mechanical damping in the system is necessary for maximum efficiency. In this work two independent energy harvesting techniques are coupled to provide higher electrical damping within the system. Here the coupled energy harvesting device consists of a primary piezoelectric energy harvesting device to which an electromagnetic component is added to better match the total electrical damping to the mechanical damping in the system. The first coupled device has a resonance frequency of 21.6 Hz and generates a peak power output of ∼332 µW, compared to 257 and 244 µW obtained from the optimized, stand-alone piezoelectric and electromagnetic energy harvesting devices, respectively, resulting in a 30% increase in power output. A theoretical model has been developed which closely agrees with the experimental results. A second coupled device, which utilizes the d 33 piezoelectric mode, shows a 65% increase in power output in comparison to the corresponding stand-alone, single harvesting mode devices. This work illustrates the design considerations and limitations that one must consider to enhance device performance through the coupling of multiple harvesting mechanisms within a single energy harvesting device

  1. Transiently chaotic neural networks with piecewise linear output functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.-S. [Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shih, C.-W. [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cwshih@math.nctu.edu.tw

    2009-01-30

    Admitting both transient chaotic phase and convergent phase, the transiently chaotic neural network (TCNN) provides superior performance than the classical networks in solving combinatorial optimization problems. We derive concrete parameter conditions for these two essential dynamic phases of the TCNN with piecewise linear output function. The confirmation for chaotic dynamics of the system results from a successful application of the Marotto theorem which was recently clarified. Numerical simulation on applying the TCNN with piecewise linear output function is carried out to find the optimal solution of a travelling salesman problem. It is demonstrated that the performance is even better than the previous TCNN model with logistic output function.

  2. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...... and traditional half bridge inverter, from switching frequency 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The experimental results comparison shows that the half bridge with split output has an efficiency improvement of more than 0.5% at 100 kHz switching frequency....

  3. Effect of surface fouling on the output of PV panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-04-01

    Surface fouling on the photovoltaic system caused by the output of a certain impact, therefore, it is very important to explore the effect of fouling on its contribution. Through the use of photovoltaic panels to collect Baoding area under different weather output data, and the collected data for comparative analysis, obtained under different environments on the impact of its contribution. It is concluded that the output of the photovoltaic cells will decrease, and the power drop rate will stabilize after three or four days. The effect of fouling on the fog haze and low temperature is more obvious.

  4. Development of A 402.5 MHz 140 kW Inductive Output Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Read, Michael; Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This report contains the results of Phase I of an SBIR to develop a Pulsed Inductive Output Tube (IOT) with 140 kW at 400 MHz for powering H-proton beams. A number of sources, including single beam and multiple beam klystrons, can provide this power, but the IOT provides higher efficiency. Efficiencies exceeding 70% are routinely achieved. The gain is typically limited to approximately 24 dB; however, the availability of highly efficient, solid state drivers reduces the significance of this limitation, particularly at lower frequencies. This program initially focused on developing a 402 MHz IOT; however, the DOE requirement for this device was terminated during the program. The SBIR effort was refocused on improving the IOT design codes to more accurately simulate the time dependent behavior of the input cavity, electron gun, output cavity, and collector. Significant improvement was achieved in modeling capability and simulation accuracy.

  5. Neural network-based optimal adaptive output feedback control of a helicopter UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodland, David; Zargarzadeh, Hassan; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2013-07-01

    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are widely used for both military and civilian operations. Because the helicopter UAVs are underactuated nonlinear mechanical systems, high-performance controller design for them presents a challenge. This paper introduces an optimal controller design via an output feedback for trajectory tracking of a helicopter UAV, using a neural network (NN). The output-feedback control system utilizes the backstepping methodology, employing kinematic and dynamic controllers and an NN observer. The online approximator-based dynamic controller learns the infinite-horizon Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation in continuous time and calculates the corresponding optimal control input by minimizing a cost function, forward-in-time, without using the value and policy iterations. Optimal tracking is accomplished by using a single NN utilized for the cost function approximation. The overall closed-loop system stability is demonstrated using Lyapunov analysis. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design for trajectory tracking.

  6. A discriminator with a current-sum multiplicity output for the PHENIX multiplicity vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.S.; Kennedy, E.J.; Jackson, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    A current output multiplicity discriminator for use in the front-end electronics (FEE) of the Multiplicity Vertex Detector (MVD) for the PHENIX detector at RHIC has been fabricated in the a 1.2-micro CMOS, n-well process. The discriminator is capable of triggering on input signals ranging from 0.25 MIP to 5 MIP. Frequency response of the discriminator is such that the circuit is capable of generating an output for every bunch crossing (105 ns) of the RHIC collider. Channel-to-channel threshold matching was adjustable to ± 4 mV. One channel of multiplicity discriminator occupied an area of 85 micro x 630 micro and consumed 515 microW from a single 5-V supply. Details of the design and results from prototype device testing are presented

  7. Reconstructing the population activity of olfactory output neurons that innervate identifiable processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Namiki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the functional organization of the moth antennal lobe (AL, the primary olfactory network, using in vivo electrophysiological recordings and anatomical identification. The moth AL contains about 60 processing units called glomeruli that are identifiable from one animal to another. We were able to monitor the output information of the AL by recording the activity of a population of output neurons, each of which innervated a single glomerulus. Using compiled intracellular recordings and staining data from different animals, we mapped the odor-evoked dynamics on a digital atlas of the AL and geometrically reconstructed the population activity. We examined the quantitative relationship between the similarity of olfactory responses and the anatomical distance between glomeruli. Globally, the olfactory response profile was independent of the anatomical distance, although some local features were present.

  8. texreg: Conversion of Statistical Model Output in R to LATEX and HTML Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Leifeld

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A recurrent task in applied statistics is the (mostly manual preparation of model output for inclusion in LATEX, Microsoft Word, or HTML documents usually with more than one model presented in a single table along with several goodness-of-fit statistics. However, statistical models in R have diverse object structures and summary methods, which makes this process cumbersome. This article first develops a set of guidelines for converting statistical model output to LATEX and HTML tables, then assesses to what extent existing packages meet these requirements, and finally presents the texreg package as a solution that meets all of the criteria set out in the beginning. After providing various usage examples, a blueprint for writing custom model extensions is proposed.

  9. A new measure of output ranking performance in automatic document retrieval systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    1987-01-01

    A new measure of output ranking performance is proposed on the basis of recall-precision pairs corresponding to ranks of relevant documents when documents are arranged in decreasing order of their scores given by a ranking function. This measure is constructed to take a single value in starting from the area under a recall-precision graph for a ranked output and to distinguish meaningful ranking with a positive value between 0 and 1 from meaningless ranking with a negative value. It is clarified too that the measure must be useful in practice to evaluate the ranking performance made by various ranking function models and to choose the best ranking models among them. (author)

  10. Period meter output in response to terminated ramps of reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J D [Dynamics Group, Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-07-15

    The time behaviour of the period meter output has been determined for a range of total reactivity injections and reactivity rates. Some results which are directly applicable to graphite gas cooled reactors are given. (author)

  11. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American...

  12. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American Carbon...

  13. Value-Chain Networks and Entrepreneurial Output in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks...... and non value-chain networks; because they may provide the subsidiary knowledge with market opportunities that it lacks and that the other types of networks cannot effectively provide. However, value-chain networks have a negative effect on entrepreneurial output of a subsidiary operating...... in an environment of high uncertainty; because they can constrain the exploration and creation of new knowledge that cannot be provided by any of the networks. Contrary to our expectations, the combined effect of value-chain and non-value chain networks has a negative influence on entrepreneurial output; and...

  14. Factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batterink, M.H.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study assessed the factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry, a scale-intensive, supplierdominated industry. We concentrated on explanatory variables related to cooperation, information sources, innovation objectives, obstacles to innovation, and innovation

  15. Weak Disposability in Nonparametric Production Analysis with Undesirable Outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group at Wageningen University in The Netherlands Weak disposability of outputs means that firms can abate harmful emissions by decreasing the activity level. Modeling weak disposability in nonparametric production analysis has caused some confusion.

  16. Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRRE). The efforts in repositioning these banks through the current banking reforms (recapitalization and consolidation) the paper notes are a right step in the right direction. Keywords: Indirect monetary policy, Granger – causality, output growth

  17. Science policy through stimulating scholarly output. Reanalyzing the Australian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Heyman, U.; Sandström, U.

    2016-07-01

    There is a long standing debate about perverse effects of performance indicators. A main target is science policy using stimulation of output as instrument. The criticism is to a large extent based on a study of the Australian science policy in the early 1990s. Linda Butler studied the effects and argued that the effect was an growth of output, but also a decrease of average quality of the output. These results have been cited many times. In this paper we reanalyze this case and show that the analysis of Butler was wrong: the new Australian science policy did not only increase the output of the system, but also the quality went up. We discuss the implications. (Author)

  18. Robust output synchronization of heterogeneous nonlinear agents in uncertain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Wan, Fuhua; Tu, Mengchuan; Shen, Guojiang

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the global robust output synchronization problem for a class of nonlinear multi-agent systems. In the considered setup, the controlled agents are heterogeneous and with both dynamic and parametric uncertainties, the controllers are incapable of exchanging their internal states with the neighbors, and the communication network among agents is defined by an uncertain simple digraph. The problem is pursued via nonlinear output regulation theory and internal model based design. For each agent, the input-driven filter and the internal model compose the controller, and the decentralized dynamic output feedback control law is derived by using backstepping method and the modified dynamic high-gain technique. The theoretical result is applied to output synchronization problem for uncertain network of Lorenz-type agents. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bibliometric Analysis of Publication Output Patterns of Faculty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is set out to analyse publication research output patterns of the faculty members of Agriculture and Veterinary Complex of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria ... Faculty of Agriculture (FOA), National Agricultural Extension and Research ...

  20. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  1. Input-output interactions and optimal monetary policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrella, Ivan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the implications of factor demand linkages for monetary policy design in a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model. Part of the output of each sector serves as a production input in both sectors, in accordance with a realistic input–output structure. Strategic...... complementarities induced by factor demand linkages significantly alter the transmission of shocks and amplify the loss of social welfare under optimal monetary policy, compared to what is observed in standard two-sector models. The distinction between value added and gross output that naturally arises...... in this context is of key importance to explore the welfare properties of the model economy. A flexible inflation targeting regime is close to optimal only if the central bank balances inflation and value added variability. Otherwise, targeting gross output variability entails a substantial increase in the loss...

  2. Aqueous Extract of Flueggea leucopyrus Increases Urine Output in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FLAE) on the urinary output of rats. Method: Three different doses of FLAE (500, 1000 and 1500 mgkg-1), furosemide (13 mg kg-1 as diuretic reference) and distilled water (as control) were orally administered to healthy adult hydrated rats.

  3. User manual for two simple postscript output FORTRAN plotting routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. X.

    1991-01-01

    Graphics is one of the important tools in engineering analysis and design. However, plotting routines that generate output on high quality laser printers normally come in graphics packages, which tend to be expensive and system dependent. These factors become important for small computer systems or desktop computers, especially when only some form of a simple plotting routine is sufficient. With the Postscript language becoming popular, there are more and more Postscript laser printers now available. Simple, versatile, low cost plotting routines that can generate output on high quality laser printers are needed and standard FORTRAN language plotting routines using output in Postscript language seems logical. The purpose here is to explain two simple FORTRAN plotting routines that generate output in Postscript language.

  4. Public Investment and Output Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aregbeyen Omo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the direct/indirect long-run relationships and dynamic interactions between public investment (PI and output performance in Nigeria using annual data spanning 1970-2010. A macro-econometric model derived from Keynes’ income-expenditure framework was employed. The model was disaggregated into demand and supply sides to trace the direct and indirect effects of PI on aggregate output. The direct supply side effect was assessed using the magnitude of PI multiplier coefficient, while the indirect effect of PI on the demand side was evaluated with marginal propensity to consume, accelerator coefficient and import multiplier. The results showed relatively less strong direct effect of PI on aggregate output, while the indirect effects were stronger with the import multiplier being the most pronounced. This is attributed to declining capital expenditure, poor implementation and low quality of PI projects due to widespread corruption. By and large, we concluded that PI exerted considerable influence on aggregate output.

  5. Linearised model for PV panel power output variation with changes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PALLAVI BHARADWAJ

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... change in system input, namely: irradiance and temperature, with its output, namely: array current and power. ... of a solar cell as shown in figure 1, with appropriate scaling according to ... measurement-based methods [8–13].

  6. New Sufficient LMI Conditions for Static Output Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller....

  7. The measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhou Zaiping; Zhang Longfang

    1999-01-01

    The author describes a experiment equipment used for measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators; gives some measurement results of temperature effect of light output for NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), plastic scintillator, ZnS(Ag), anthracene crystal glass scintillator; analyzes the error factors affecting the measurement results. The total uncertainty of the temperature effect measurement for NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillator is 11%

  8. Nine Criteria for a Measure of Scientific Output

    OpenAIRE

    Kreiman, Gabriel; Maunsell, John H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research produces new knowledge, technologies, and clinical treatments that can lead to enormous returns. Often, the path from basic research to new paradigms and direct impact on society takes time. Precise quantification of scientific output in the short-term is not an easy task but is critical for evaluating scientists, laboratories, departments, and institutions. While there have been attempts to quantifying scientific output, we argue that current methods are not ideal and suf...

  9. Output Feedback M-MRAC Backstepping With Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Sriniva

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a certainty equivalence output feedback backstepping adaptive control design method for the systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties without over-parametrization. It uses a fast prediction model to estimate the unknown parameters, which is independent of the control design. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters. The approach is applied to aerospace control problems and tested in numerical simulations.

  10. Money and Output: A Test of Reverse Causation.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Wilbur John, II

    1996-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain the correlation between money and output at various leads and lags with a model in which money is largely neutral and endogenously responds to output. Money is endogenous because both monetary policy and deposit creation are endogenous. Parameters are selected according to the simulated moments estimation technique. While the estimated model succeeds along some dimensions in matching properties of postwar U.S. data, its failure to match key patterns of lead-lag ...

  11. Scientific Output of Croatian Universities: Comparison with Neighbouring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Podobnik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared the Croatian research output with the neighboring countries and the Croatian universities with the largest Slovenian, Hungarian, and Serbian universities. As far as papers listed by Social Science Citation Index are concerned, since 2000 the University of Zagreb exhibits best results in social sciences compared to the competing universities, that is not the case in “hard” sciences. For the last 12 years, only the University of Ljubljana has shown better results in total research output than the University of Zagreb. The difference in research output between the University of Zagreb and the rest of the Croatian universities has been constantly decreasing. As a case study we compare research output at Faculty of Civil Engeenering on different Croatian universities. By analyzing European countries, we show a functional dependence between the gross domestic product (GDP and the research output. From this fit we conclude that the Croatian science exhibits research output as expected for the given level of GDP.

  12. Nine Criteria for a Measure of Scientific Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiman, Gabriel; Maunsell, John H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research produces new knowledge, technologies, and clinical treatments that can lead to enormous returns. Often, the path from basic research to new paradigms and direct impact on society takes time. Precise quantification of scientific output in the short-term is not an easy task but is critical for evaluating scientists, laboratories, departments, and institutions. While there have been attempts to quantifying scientific output, we argue that current methods are not ideal and suffer from solvable difficulties. Here we propose criteria that a metric should have to be considered a good index of scientific output. Specifically, we argue that such an index should be quantitative, based on robust data, rapidly updated and retrospective, presented with confidence intervals, normalized by number of contributors, career stage and discipline, impractical to manipulate, and focused on quality over quantity. Such an index should be validated through empirical testing. The purpose of quantitatively evaluating scientific output is not to replace careful, rigorous review by experts but rather to complement those efforts. Because it has the potential to greatly influence the efficiency of scientific research, we have a duty to reflect upon and implement novel and rigorous ways of evaluating scientific output. The criteria proposed here provide initial steps toward the systematic development and validation of a metric to evaluate scientific output. PMID:22102840

  13. Task-dependent output of human parasternal intercostal motor units across spinal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Anna L; Gandevia, Simon C; Butler, Jane E

    2017-12-01

    During breathing, there is differential activity in the human parasternal intercostal muscles and the activity is tightly coupled to the known mechanical advantages for inspiration of the same regions of muscles. It is not known whether differential activity is preserved for the non-respiratory task of ipsilateral trunk rotation. In the present study, we compared single motor units during resting breathing and axial rotation of the trunk during apnoea. We not only confirmed non-uniform recruitment of motor units across parasternal intercostal muscles in breathing, but also demonstrated that the same motor units show an altered pattern of recruitment in the non-respiratory task of trunk rotation. The output of parasternal intercostal motoneurones is modulated differently across spinal levels depending on the task and these results help us understand the mechanisms that may govern task-dependent differences in motoneurone output. During inspiration, there is differential activity in the human parasternal intercostal muscles across interspaces. We investigated whether the earlier recruitment of motor units in the rostral interspaces compared to more caudal spaces during inspiration is preserved for the non-respiratory task of ipsilateral trunk rotation. Single motor unit activity (SMU) was recorded from the first, second and fourth parasternal interspaces on the right side in five participants in two tasks: resting breathing and 'isometric' axial rotation of the trunk during apnoea. Recruitment of the same SMUs was compared between tasks (n = 123). During resting breathing, differential activity was indicated by earlier recruitment of SMUs in the first and second interspaces compared to the fourth space in inspiration (P motor units showed an altered pattern of recruitment because SMUs in the first interspace were recruited later and at a higher rotation torque than those in the second and fourth interspaces (P recruitment measures, was good-excellent [intraclass

  14. Stacking gels: A method for maximising output for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng See

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, the gold standard of molecular typing methods, has a major disadvantage of an unusually long electrophoretic time. From the original protocol of 6 days, it was modified to 3 days and subsequently to a single day. We describe the procedure of stacking five to six gels one on top of another in order to increase and maximize the output in a shorter time without compromising the resolution and reproducibility. All the variables that affect pulsed field gels during electrophoresis were taken into consideration. We firstly optimized the parameters to be used and secondly determined whether stacking of five to six gels had any effect on the molecular separation during electrophoresis in comparison with a single gel run. DNA preparation, restriction, electrophoresis, staining and gel documentation was carried out based on previously published methods. Gels were analysed using BioNumerics and dice coefficient and unweighted pair group methods were used to generate dendrograms based on 1.5% tolerance values. Identical band profiles and band resolution-separation were seen in the PFGE patterns with single gel and multiple stacking gels. Cluster analysis further strengthened the fact that results from stacking gels were reproducible and comparable with a single gel run. This method of stacking gels saves time and maximizes the output at the same time. The run time for a single gel was about 28 hours, but with six stacked gels the run time was 54 hours compared with 28 x 6 = 168 hours if they were run separately as single gels thus saving time of 67.86%. Beside the big factor of saving time, stacking gels save resources (electricity, reagents, water, chemicals and working time by increasing the sample throughput in a shorter time without compromising on quality of data. But optimization of working parameters is vital depending on the PFGE system used.

  15. C-C1-04: How to Win Friends and Influence People with the SAS Output Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, William

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: Long-time SAS users remember the days when SAS output was embarrassingly ugly. Version 7 saw the introduction of the Output Delivery System (ODS). ODS has matured into a very capable subsystem that gives users powerful reporting options. This presentation will highlight useful features and outline a macro-based system for handling multiple ODS destinations simultaneously. Nowadays there is no excuse for ugly SAS output! When building reports, SAS users should think about the needs of those using the reports. Some people just want to review frequency tables, and are happy to do so on a monitor. Others want to be able to print data for review in a meeting. And, there are always those that want to work with the data in a spreadsheet. Consider the ideal formats for each of the users outlined above. For the casual data browser, HTML output is ideal. For printing, PDF is preferred. And for the additional analysis, Excel is a popular option. With ODS, we can meet all of these needs. Methods: Because ODS permits opening multiple output destinations simultaneously, a single procedure can be used to generate data in HTML, PDF, and Excel at once. The presentation will demonstrate the following: o- basic ODS syntax for HTML, PDF, and Excel output o- custom HTML table of contents o- using the ExcelXP tagset for multi-tab spreadsheets o- a custom macro for managing multiple ODS destinations simultaneously o- simple PROC Template code for easy customization o- techniques for consistent output from multiple platforms. Results: The techniques outlined here have been well-received in a variety of business reporting environments. Conclusions: The SAS ODS provides a wide array of reporting options. Don’t limit yourself to just one type of output.

  16. Measurement of Cardiac Output by Constant Injection of Radioactive Xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishon, Y.; Avasthey, P.; Barnett, A.; Shillingford, J. P. [MRC Cardiovascular Research Unit and Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1971-02-15

    The method of determining cardiac output by the injection of {sup 133}Xe solution has been initially tested in a suitable hydrodynamic model, simulating the cardiovascular system. The indicator was infused in a constant rate into a ''pre-ventricular'' site through a fine polyethylene tubing, and samples were taken from a ''post-ventricular'' site through similar tubing. Specific activity was determined with the use of a universal well-type scintillation counter and output values were derived from the dilutional factor of the specific activity and the rate of the infusion. Good correlation with direct output measurements were demonstrated over a wide range of outputs, stroke volumes and end-diastolic volumes. The method remained valid when either the ''pre-ventricular'' or the ''post-ventricular'' valve was made incompetent. The method was then evaluated in anaesthetized dogs and cardiac output determinations were compared with those obtained by the Fick and dye-dilution techniques. The indicator was injected into the right atrium, and samples were obtained from the pulmonary artery through similar tubings. The method was found to be reliable over a wide range of cardiac outputs (drugs- and bleeding-induced) and in the presence of severe tricuspid incompetence (performed by a valvotome). Finally, the technique was used in six patients, both at rest and after exercise, and the cardiac output values were compared with those obtained by the Fick and the photoelectric-earpiece dye-dilution techniques. It is concluded that, provided the appropriate speed of injection (about 1.5 - 3.5 {mu}Ci/sec) and the time of sampling is carefully observed, good correlation between the method under investigation and other conventional methods could be shown. This method is more convenient for repeated determinations, simpler to perform and final values are obtained almost immediately. (author)

  17. Self-seeded single-frequency laser peening method

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAne, C Brent; Hackey, Lloyd A; Harris, Fritz B

    2012-06-26

    A method of operating a laser to obtain an output pulse having a single wavelength, comprises inducing an intracavity loss into a laser resonator having an amount that prevents oscillation during a time that energy from the pump source is being stored in the gain medium. Gain is built up in the gain medium with energy from the pump source until formation of a single-frequency relaxation oscillation pulse in the resonator. Upon detection of the onset of the relaxation oscillation pulse, the intracavity loss is reduced, such as by Q-switching, so that the built-up gain stored in the gain medium is output from the resonator in the form of an output pulse at a single frequency. An electronically controllable output coupler is controlled to affect output pulse characteristics. The laser acts a master oscillator in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration. The laser is used for laser peening.

  18. 270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandusky, James R.; Chen, Jianfeng; Gibb, Shawn R.; Mendrick, Mark C.; Moe, Craig G.; Rodak, Lee; Garrett, Gregory A.; Wraback, Michael; Schowalter, Leo J.

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, the achievement of over 60 mW output power from pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in continuous wave operation is reported. Die thinning and encapsulation improved the photon extraction efficiency to over 15%. Improved thermal management and a high characteristic temperature resulted in a low thermal rolloff up to 300 mA injection current with an output power of 67 mW, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.9%, and a wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 2.5% for a single-chip device emitting at 271 nm in continuous wave operation.

  19. Measuring nuclear power plant output by neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovkin, V.A.; Kodanev, S.A.; Panashchenko, N.S.; Sokolov, D.A.; Solov'yanov, O.M.; Tverdovskii, N.D.; Yarichin, A.D.; Ketov, S.N.; Kopeikin, V.I.; Machulin, I.N.; Mikaelyan, L.A.; Sinev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Neutrino emission from a reactor is inseparably linked with the fission process of heavy nuclei: each fission contributes a specific amount to the overall power output and gives rise to neutrinos which are emitted by the fission fragments created. Using a detector to record the neutrino flux gives a curve for the number of nuclei undergoing fission and the reactor power output. The question of whether it is practically possible to make use of neutrino emission from reactors was first posed in the mid-70s in connection with preparations for neutrino research at the Roven nuclear power plant (RAES) and in 1986 at an IAEA symposium on the topic of guarantees. Since 1982, research has been carried on at RAES on the fundamental properties and interactions of neutrinos. Based on this research and in parallel with it, in 1983 specialists from the Kurchatov Nuclear Power Institute and RAES jointly conducted an experiment which demonstrated in principle the possibility of remotely measuring reactor power output using the neutrino emission. This experiment had extremely limited statistics and is of interest today as the first demonstration of practical usage of neutrino emission from a reactor. At present the statistics for detecting neutrino events have increased tenfold and experience in lengthy measurements has been accumulated. This allows better analysis for the possibilities of the method. This paper reviews neutrino detection, theoretical bases of the method, determining the fission scale values for converting a number of neutrinos into power output, and measuring the power output

  20. A hybrid method for forecasting the energy output of photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsami, Pamela; Oree, Vishwamitra

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel hybrid technique for predicting the daily PV energy output. • Multiple linear regression, FFNN and GRNN artificial neural networks are used. • Stepwise regression is used to select the most relevant meteorological parameters. • SR-FFNN reduces the average dispersion and overall bias in prediction errors. • Accuracy metrics of hybrid models are better than those of single-stage models. - Abstract: The intermittent nature of solar energy poses many challenges to renewable energy system operators in terms of operational planning and scheduling. Predicting the output of photovoltaic systems is therefore essential for managing the operation and assessing the economic performance of power systems. This paper presents a new technique for forecasting the 24-h ahead stochastic energy output of photovoltaic systems based on the daily weather forecasts. A comparison of the performances of the hybrid technique with conventional linear regression and artificial neural network models has also been reported. Initially, three single-stage models were designed, namely the generalized regression neural network, feedforward neural network and multiple linear regression. Subsequently, a hybrid-modeling approach was adopted by applying stepwise regression to select input variables of greater importance. These variables were then fed to the single-stage models resulting in three hybrid models. They were then validated by comparing the forecasts of the models with measured dataset from an operational photovoltaic system. The accuracy of the each model was evaluated based on the correlation coefficient, mean absolute error, mean bias error and root mean square error values. Simulation results revealed that the hybrid models perform better than their corresponding single-stage models. Stepwise regression-feedforward neural network hybrid model outperformed the other models with root mean square error, mean absolute error, mean bias error and

  1. Secure communication based on multi-input multi-output chaotic system with large message amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.; Boutat, D.; Floquet, T.; Barbot, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of secure communication based on multi-input multi-output (MIMO) chaotic systems. Single input secure communication based on chaos can be easily extended to multiple ones by some combinations technologies, however all the combined inputs possess the same risk to be broken. In order to reduce this risk, a new secure communication scheme based on chaos with MIMO is discussed in this paper. Moreover, since the amplitude of messages in traditional schemes is limited because it would affect the quality of synchronization, the proposed scheme is also improved into an amplitude-independent one.

  2. Monitoring Linear Accelerator Output Constancy Using the PTW Linacheck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Garry M.; Buckle, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    The PTW-Linacheck was assessed for its ability to monitor linear accelerator radiation output constancy. The key issues that were considered were the setup for daily output measurements, e.g., requirements for build-up and backscatter material, and the reproducibility and linearity of the device with linear accelerator output. An appropriate measurement setup includes a 10 x 10 cm field at 100 cm FSD, 5 cm backscatter, and no added build-up for 4 MeV electron beams, 1 cm added build-up for 6-16 MeV electron beams and 5 cm added build-up for 6-15 MV photon beams. Using this measurement setup, the dose linearity and short-term reproducibility were acceptable; however, the Linacheck should be recalibrated on a monthly basis to ensure acceptable long-term reproducibility.

  3. Orchestrating the management of patients with high-output stomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alison

    Working in isolation, managing high-output stomas can be stressful and difficult, with patient outcomes varying significantly. For the stoma care clinical nurse specialist, managing the choice of stoma appliance is only a small part of the care provided. To standardise and improve outcomes for patients with high-output stomas, team working is required. After contacting other stoma care services and using guidance from the High Impact Actions for Stoma Care document ( Coloplast, 2010 ), it was evident that the team should put together an algorithm/flow chart to guide both specialists and ward nursing staff in the evidence-based and standardised management of patients with high-output stomas. This article presents the flowchart that was produced and uses case studies to demonstrate improvements.

  4. Quantized Passive Dynamic Output Feedback Control with Actuator Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Xin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of passive dynamic output feedback control for fuzzy discrete nonlinear systems with quantization and actuator failures, where the measurement output of the system is quantized by a logarithmic quantizer before being transferred to the fuzzy controller. By employing the fuzzy-basis-dependent Lyapunov function, sufficient condition is established to guarantee the closed-loop system to be mean-square stable and the prescribed passive performance. Based on the sufficient condition, the fuzzy dynamic output feedback controller is proposed for maintaining acceptable performance levels in the case of actuator failures and quantization effects. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the usefulness of the proposed method.

  5. PENDUGAAN ELASTISITAS PENAWARAN OUTPUT DAN PERMINTAAN INPUT USAHATANI JAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Agustian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of changes in output and input prices, corn research expenditures and road infrastructure on output supply and input demand for corn in the Province of East Java and West Java. The data that are analyzed are those of structure of costs of corn farming in the Province of East Java and West Java in 1985-2009. Estimation model employed is the method of Seemingly Unrelated Regression. The results showed that the output supply of corn both in the province of East Java and West Java are elastic to its price changes, however it is inelastic to the price changes of: seed, urea, TSP and labor. Input demand of seed, urea, TSP and labor area inelastic to their price changes. Policy implications of this research is efforts to increase the supply of corn can be carried out by increasing its price, expenditures of corn research, and road infrastructure.

  6. Direct output feedback control of discrete-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Chung, L.L.; Lu, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    An optimal direct output feedback control algorithm is developed for discrete-time systems with the consideration of time delay in control force action. Optimal constant output feedback gains are obtained through variational process such that certain prescribed quadratic performance index is minimized. Discrete-time control forces are then calculated from the multiplication of output measurements by these pre-calculated feedback gains. According to the proposed algorithm, structural system is assured to remain stable even in the presence of time delay. The number of sensors and controllers may be very small as compared with the dimension of states. Numerical results show that direct velocity feedback control is more sensitive to time delay than state feedback but, is still quite effective in reducing the dynamic responses under earthquake excitation. (author)

  7. Auxetic piezoelectric energy harvesters for increased electric power output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a piezoelectric bimorph with auxetic (negative Poisson’s ratio behaviors for increased power output in vibration energy harvesting. The piezoelectric bimorph comprises a 2D auxetic substrate sandwiched between two piezoelectric layers. The auxetic substrate is capable of introducing auxetic behaviors and thus increasing the transverse stress in the piezoelectric layers when the bimorph is subjected to a longitudinal stretching load. As a result, both 31- and 32-modes are simultaneously exploited to generate electric power, leading to an increased power output. The increasing power output principle was theoretically analyzed and verified by finite element (FE modelling. The FE modelling results showed that the auxetic substrate can increase the transverse stress of a bimorph by 16.7 times. The average power generated by the auxetic bimorph is 2.76 times of that generated by a conventional bimorph.

  8. GaN Nanowire Arrays for High-Output Nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chi-Te

    2010-04-07

    Three-fold symmetrically distributed GaN nanowire (NW) arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire substrates. The GaN NW possesses a triangular cross section enclosed by (0001), (2112), and (2112) planes, and the angle between the GaN NW and the substrate surface is ∼62°. The GaN NW arrays produce negative output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope in contact mode. The average of piezoelectric output voltage was about -20 mV, while 5-10% of the NWs had piezoelectric output voltages exceeding -(0.15-0.35) V. The GaN NW arrays are highly stable and highly tolerate to moisture in the atmosphere. The GaN NW arrays demonstrate an outstanding potential to be utilized for piezoelectric energy generation with a performance probably better than that of ZnO NWs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Incremental passivity and output regulation for switched nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongbo; Zhao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies incremental passivity and global output regulation for switched nonlinear systems, whose subsystems are not required to be incrementally passive. A concept of incremental passivity for switched systems is put forward. First, a switched system is rendered incrementally passive by the design of a state-dependent switching law. Second, the feedback incremental passification is achieved by the design of a state-dependent switching law and a set of state feedback controllers. Finally, we show that once the incremental passivity for switched nonlinear systems is assured, the output regulation problem is solved by the design of global nonlinear regulator controllers comprising two components: the steady-state control and the linear output feedback stabilising controllers, even though the problem for none of subsystems is solvable. Two examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Research output in medieval and crusades studies 1981-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the numerical research output of crusade studies over the past thirty years. The article compares its findings to the output of medieval studies in general in the same period. It shows in detail how the applied bibliometric statistics are generated and elaborates on some...... of the methodological considerations necessary in carrying out this kind of quantitative research. On the basis of bibliometric statistics generated from the International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) and Bibliographie de Civilisation Médiévale (BCM), the article identifies a numeric decrease in research output both...... in crusade studies in particular and in medieval studies in general. The article proposes further discussion on the “why” and “how” of this somewhat surprising result....

  11. External Suction and Fluid Output in Chest Drains After Lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lijkendijk, Marike; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Licht, Peter B

    2018-01-01

    influences the amount of fluid. METHODS: We randomly assigned (1:1) 106 patients who underwent lobectomy to either low (-5 cm H2O) or high (-20 cm H2O) external suction using an electronic chest drainage system. Only one chest drain was allowed, and we used strict algorithms for chest drain removal, which...... was delegated to staff nurses: air leakage less than 20 mL/min for 6 hours regardless of fluid output, provided it was serous. The primary end point was fluid output after 24 and 48 hours. RESULTS: Mean fluid output was significantly higher with high suction after both 24 (338 ± 265 mL versus 523 ± 215 m...

  12. Effect of Aspect Ratio on the Light Output of Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Pauwels, Kristof; Gundacker, S.; Knapitsch, A.; Lecoq, P.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the geometry of the scintillators is presented in this paper. We focus on the effect of narrowing down the section of crystals that have a given length. The light output of a set of crystals with very similar scintillating properties but different geometries measured with several coupling/wrapping configurations is provided. We observe that crystals shaped in thin rods have a lower light output as compared to bulk or sliced crystals. The effect of unpolishing the crystal faces is also investigated, and it is shown that highest light outputs are not necessarily obtained with crystals having all faces polished. Simulation results based on a realistic model of the crystal that implements light scattering on the crystal edges are in agreement with the experimental data. Fine-tuning of this model would allow us to further explore the details of light propagation in scintillators and would be highly valuable to fast timing detection and highly granular detectors.

  13. Hierarchical-control-based output synchronization of coexisting attractor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Zhong, Song; Yi-Fa, Tang

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of hierarchical-control-based output synchronization of coexisting attractor networks. Within the new framework, each dynamic node is made passive at first utilizing intra-control around its own arena. Then each dynamic node is viewed as one agent, and on account of that, the solution of output synchronization of coexisting attractor networks is transformed into a multi-agent consensus problem, which is made possible by virtue of local interaction between individual neighbours; this distributed working way of coordination is coined as inter-control, which is only specified by the topological structure of the network. Provided that the network is connected and balanced, the output synchronization would come true naturally via synergy between intra and inter-control actions, where the Tightness is proved theoretically via convex composite Lyapunov functions. For completeness, several illustrative examples are presented to further elucidate the novelty and efficacy of the proposed scheme. (general)

  14. Technical improvement for the output drive unit of the reactor protection system in QNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zuyue

    1995-11-01

    For improving the reliability of the output drive unit of the reactor protection system in Qinshan NPP, the former design of this part was improved and researched on the problem appeared during the commissioning and operation under the conditions of narrow process space of cabinets and unchanged overall arrangement: (1) The output relay modules was redesigned to unify the relay specification to improve the versatility, and also to improve the pin's contact by means of welding them directly on the printed circuit boards and to make the modules detachable by connectors instead of previously non-detachable. Th modules were connected in series by both power supply line and ground line which were finally connected at same point respectively, so that other protection signals can still be output correctly when a single module is removed. (2) The relay drive circuit was also redesigned for working in on-off state instead of in amplification to minimize the power consumption. On the other hand, the CMOS buffers were taken to couple the CMOS circuits to the TTL circuits. The actuating time for the new shutdown relay was decreased from the former 35 ms to 5 ms, the actuating time for the engineered safety feature drive signal relay was decreased from 10 ms to 6 ms after the above-mentioned improvements, the reliability of the RPS is remarkably improved and a great economic benefit is obtained. (4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  15. A Free-Piston Linear Generator Control Strategy for Improving Output Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control strategy to improve the output power for a single-cylinder two-stroke free-piston linear generator (FPLG. The comprehensive simulation model of this FPLG is established and the operation principle is introduced. The factors that affect the output power are analyzed theoretically. The characteristics of the piston motion are studied. Considering the different features of the piston motion respectively in acceleration and deceleration phases, a ladder-like electromagnetic force control strategy is proposed. According to the status of the linear electric machine, the reference profile of the electromagnetic force is divided into four ladder-like stages during one motion cycle. The piston motions, especially the dead center errors, are controlled by regulating the profile of the electromagnetic force. The feasibility and advantage of the proposed control strategy are verified through comparison analyses with two conventional control strategies via MatLab/Simulink. The results state that the proposed control strategy can improve the output power by around 7–10% with the same fuel cycle mass.

  16. Estimation of Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio in Gasoline Engine with Output Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the individual cylinder air-fuel ratio (AFR with a single universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO sensor installed in the exhaust pipe is an important issue for the cylinder-to-cylinder AFR balancing control, which can provide high-quality torque generation and reduce emissions in multicylinder engine. In this paper, the system dynamic for the gas in exhaust pipe including the gas mixing, gas transport, and sensor dynamics is described as an output delay system, and a new method using the output delay system observer is developed to estimate the individual cylinder AFR. With the AFR at confluence point augmented as a system state, an observer for the augmented discrete system with output delay is designed to estimate the AFR at confluence point. Using the gas mixing model, a method with the designed observer to estimate the individual cylinder AFR is presented. The validity of the proposed method is verified by the simulation results from a spark ignition gasoline engine from engine software enDYNA by Tesis.

  17. Residual urine output and postoperative mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Feng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chao, Anne; Huang, Tao-Min; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Shih-I; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Wang, Wei-Jie; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Hu, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between residual urine output and postoperative survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients is unknown. To explore the relationship between amount of urine before surgery and postoperative mortality and differences between postoperative nonanuria and anuria in maintenance hemodialysis patients. A total of 109 maintenance hemodialysis patients underwent major operations. Anuria was defined as urine output <30 mL in the 8 hours before the first session of postoperative dialysis. Propensity scores for postoperative anuria were developed. Postoperative residual urine output was 159.2 mL/8 h (SD, 115.1) in 33 patients; 76 patients were anuric. Preoperative residual urine output and adequate perioperative blood transfusion were positively related to postoperative urine output. Propensity-adjusted 30-day mortality was associated with postoperative anuria (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-17.96; P = .03), prior stroke (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 1.43-13.89; P = .01) and higher disease severity (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21; P = .049) at the first postoperative dialysis. OR of 30-day mortality was 5.38 for nonanuria to anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .03) and 5.13 for preoperative anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .01). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 30-day mortality differed significantly among patients for nonanuria to nonanuria, anuria, and nonanuria to anuria (log rank, P = .045). Patients with preoperative nonanuria and postoperative anuria had higher mortality than did patients with no anuria before and after surgery and patients with anuria before surgery. Postoperative residual urine output is an important surrogate marker for disease severity.

  18. The multi-factor energy input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, Zeus; Domingos, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    Energy input–output analysis (EIO analysis) is a noteworthy tool for the analysis of the role of energy in the economy. However, it has relied on models that provide a limited description of energy flows in the economic system and do not allow an adequate analysis of energy efficiency. This paper introduces a novel energy input–output model, the multi-factor energy input–output model (MF-EIO model), which is obtained from a partitioning of a hybrid-unit input–output system of the economy. This model improves on current models by describing the energy flows according to the processes of energy conversion and the levels of energy use in the economy. It characterizes the vector of total energy output as a function of seven factors: two energy efficiency indicators; two characteristics of end-use energy consumption; and three economic features of the rest of the economy. Moreover, it is consistent with the standard model for EIO analysis, i.e., the hybrid-unit model. This paper also introduces an approximate version of the MF-EIO model, which is equivalent to the former under equal energy prices for industries and final consumers, but requires less data processing. The latter is composed by two linked models: a model of the energy sector in physical units, and a model of the rest of the economy in monetary units. In conclusion, the proposed modelling framework improves EIO analysis and extends EIO applications to the accounting for energy efficiency of the economy. - Highlights: • A novel energy input–output model is introduced. • It allows a more adequate analysis of energy flows than current models. • It describes energy flows according to processes of energy conversion and use. • It can be used for other environmental applications (material use and emissions). • An approximate version of the model is introduced, simpler and less data intensive.

  19. L1 Adaptive Control Augmentation System with Application to the X-29 Lateral/Directional Dynamics: A Multi-Input Multi-Output Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brian Joseph; Burken, John J.; Xargay, Enric

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an L(sub 1) adaptive control augmentation system design for multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems in the presence of unmatched uncertainties which may exhibit significant cross-coupling effects. A piecewise continuous adaptive law is adopted and extended for applicability to multi-input multi-output systems that explicitly compensates for dynamic cross-coupling. In addition, explicit use of high-fidelity actuator models are added to the L1 architecture to reduce uncertainties in the system. The L(sub 1) multi-input multi-output adaptive control architecture is applied to the X-29 lateral/directional dynamics and results are evaluated against a similar single-input single-output design approach.

  20. Effect of blasting on output increase of bucket wheel excavators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, P.

    1987-12-01

    In brown coal surface mines, consolidated sediments become a problem as mining operations advance into greater depth below the original terrain. Owing to higher digging resistance, the output of bucket wheel excavators drops. This problem may be solved by blasting technology and using drilling machines with higher digging force. This paper describes the blasting operations at the Nastup Mines in Tusmice, Czechoslovakia. About 60% of blasting explosives used is a simple mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel (ANFO), the rest falls on classic blasting gelatines and blasting explosives plasticized by slurry. It is found that blasting improves output by 30% while electric energy consumption is reduced.

  1. Antiretroviral therapy increases thymic output in children with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Sandgaard, Katrine; Lewis, Joanna; Adams, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Disease progression and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children is different to that of adults. Immune reconstitution in adults is mainly from memory T cells, whereas in children it occurs predominantly from the naive T-cell pool. It is unclear however what...... with a recently described mathematical model to give explicit measures of thymic output. RESULTS: We found that age-adjusted thymic output is reduced in untreated children with HIV, which increases significantly with length of time on ART. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a highly active thymus in early...

  2. Event-triggered output feedback control for distributed networked systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S; Sabih, Muhammad; Elshafei, Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of output-feedback communication and control with event-triggered framework in the context of distributed networked control systems. The design problem of the event-triggered output-feedback control is proposed as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility problem. The scheme is developed for the distributed system where only partial states are available. In this scheme, a subsystem uses local observers and share its information to its neighbors only when the subsystem's local error exceeds a specified threshold. The developed method is illustrated by using a coupled cart example from the literature. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Output Error Method for Tiltrotor Unstable in Hover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichota Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates unstable tiltrotor in hover system identification from flight test data. The aircraft dynamics was described by a linear model defined in Body-Fixed-Coordinate System. Output Error Method was selected in order to obtain stability and control derivatives in lateral motion. For estimating model parameters both time and frequency domain formulations were applied. To improve the system identification performed in the time domain, a stabilization matrix was included for evaluating the states. In the end, estimates obtained from various Output Error Method formulations were compared in terms of parameters accuracy and time histories. Evaluations were performed in MATLAB R2009b environment.

  4. Improvement of highly charged ion output from an ECR source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The physical limitations of the highly charged ion production in the ECR source is analyzed in this report. General methods to increase the output ion current and the attainable charged states of heavy ions are discussed. Some new ways to improve the output of highly charged ions from the ECR source for heavy ions are proposed. A new library of computer codes for the mathematical simulation of heavy ion production in the ECR ion source is used for numerical experiments to test these ways for improving the operation of the ECR source. (orig.)

  5. Buck supplies output voltage ripple reduction using fuzzy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu BIZON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the PWM control for switching power supplies the peaks EMI noise appear at the switching frequency and its harmonics. Using randomize or chaotic PWM control techniques in these systems the power spectrum is spread out in all frequencies band spectral emissions, but with a bigger ripple in the output voltage. The proposed nonlinear feedback control method, which induces chaos, is based by fuzzy rules that minimize the output voltage ripple. The feasibility and effectiveness of this relative simple method is shown by simulation. A comparison with the previous control method is included, too.

  6. Fluid Overload and Cumulative Thoracostomy Output Are Associated With Surgical Site Infection After Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochet, Anthony A; Nyhan, Aoibhinn; Spaeder, Michael C; Cartron, Alexander M; Song, Xiaoyan; Klugman, Darren; Brown, Anna T

    2017-08-01

    To determine the impact of cumulative, postoperative thoracostomy output, amount of bolus IV fluids and peak fluid overload on the incidence and odds of developing a deep surgical site infection following pediatric cardiothoracic surgery. A single-center, nested, retrospective, matched case-control study. A 26-bed cardiac ICU in a 303-bed tertiary care pediatric hospital. Cases with deep surgical site infection following cardiothoracic surgery were identified retrospectively from January 2010 through December 2013 and individually matched to controls at a ratio of 1:2 by age, gender, Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery category, primary cardiac diagnosis, and procedure. None. Twelve cases with deep surgical site infection were identified and matched to 24 controls without detectable differences in perioperative clinical characteristics. Deep surgical site infection cases had larger thoracostomy output and bolus IV fluid volumes at 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively compared with controls. For every 1 mL/kg of thoracostomy output, the odds of developing a deep surgical site infection increase by 13%. By receiver operative characteristic curve analysis, a cutoff of 49 mL/kg of thoracostomy output at 48 hours best discriminates the development of deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 83%, specificity 83%). Peak fluid overload was greater in cases than matched controls (12.5% vs 6%; p operative characteristic curve analysis, a threshold value of 10% peak fluid overload was observed to identify deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 67%, specificity 79%). Conditional logistic regression of peak fluid overload greater than 10% on the development of deep surgical site infection yielded an odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI, 2-46.2). Increased postoperative peak fluid overload and cumulative thoracostomy output were associated with deep surgical site infection after pediatric

  7. Variable self-powered light detection CMOS chip with real-time adaptive tracking digital output based on a novel on-chip sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, HongYi; Fan, Youyou; Lu, Zhijian; Luo, Tao; Fu, Houqiang; Song, Hongjiang; Zhao, Yuji; Christen, Jennifer Blain

    2017-10-02

    This paper provides a solution for a self-powered light direction detection with digitized output. Light direction sensors, energy harvesting photodiodes, real-time adaptive tracking digital output unit and other necessary circuits are integrated on a single chip based on a standard 0.18 µm CMOS process. Light direction sensors proposed have an accuracy of 1.8 degree over a 120 degree range. In order to improve the accuracy, a compensation circuit is presented for photodiodes' forward currents. The actual measurement precision of output is approximately 7 ENOB. Besides that, an adaptive under voltage protection circuit is designed for variable supply power which may undulate with temperature and process.

  8. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  9. Output voltage calculations in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with asymmetric voltage behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2011-10-22

    In this paper we study the asymmetric voltage behavior (AVB) of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) for single and double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in range of a quasi-classical free electron model. Numerical calculations of the TMR-V curves, output voltages and I-V characteristics for negative and positive values of applied voltages were carried out using MTJs with CoFeB/MgO interfaces as an example. Asymmetry of the experimental TMR-V curves is explained by different values of the minority and majority Fermi wave vectors for the left and right sides of the tunnel barrier, which arises due to different annealing regimes. Electron tunneling in DMTJs was simulated in two ways: (i) Coherent tunneling, where the DMTJ is modeled as one tunnel system and (ii) consecutive tunneling, where the DMTJ is modeled by two single barrier junctions connected in series. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chaotic behavior learning of Chua's circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jian-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Least-square support vector machines (LS-SVM) are applied for learning the chaotic behavior of Chua's circuit. The system is divided into three multiple-input single-output (MISO) structures and the LS-SVM are trained individually. Comparing with classical approaches, the proposed one reduces the structural complexity and the selection of parameters is avoided. Some parameters of the attractor are used to compare the chaotic behavior of the reconstructed and the original systems for model validation. Results show that the LS-SVM combined with the MISO can be trained to identify the underlying link among Chua's circuit state variables, and exhibit the chaotic attractors under the autonomous working mode

  11. Bibliometrics analysis of publication output in library and information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Web of Science was used as indexing/citation database in the study. The findings of the study revealed increasing trend in annual publication output in LIS research in Nigerian universities which indicates that there is progress in the development of LIS research in Nigeria. It was found that, typically and on the average, ...

  12. An analysis of employment intensity of sectoral output growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explores the employment intensity of sectoral output growth in Botswana with a view to identifying key sectors of the Botswana economy that are employment intensive. To achieve this objective, the study used both simple elasticities and econometric procedures to provide empirical evidence concerning the extent ...

  13. High Output LED-Based Profile Lighting Fixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in power light emitting diode (LED) industry have made LEDs suitable for being efficiently used in high intensity lighting fixtures instead of the commonly used high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. A high output LEDbased profile-light fixture is presented in this paper...

  14. Programmable pulse sequence generator with multiple output lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabczyk, Hubert

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents a novel concept of pulse sequence generator and its prototype as an electronic circuit testing laboratory tool. The generator has multiple output lines and is capable of using control data defining different pulse sequences to be given to the outputs. It is also possible to use different voltage levels in output signal and switch output lines for reading data from driven system. The pulse sequence generator can be used for runtime environment simulation, as hardware tester or auxiliary tool in new designs. Important design factors were to keep cost of the tool low and allow integration with other projects by using flexible architecture. The prototype was based on universal programmer with adjustable power supply, '51 microcontroller and Altera Cyclone chip. The generator communicates witch PC computer via RS232 port. Dedicated software was developed in the course of this project, to control the tool and data transmission. The prototype confirmed the possibility to create an inexpensive multipurpose laboratory tool for programming, testing and simulation of digital devices.

  15. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquin, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations

  16. Input-output theory and institutional aspects of environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    National accounting over the years has developed in close interaction with input–output analysis. However, present developments involving core and satellite accounts seem to suggest that this relation will become less close, with possible negative consequences for analysis and policy. In this paper

  17. Subjective test of class D amplifiers without output filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Fenger, Lars M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of subjective listening tests designed to determine whether the output filter on class D amplifiers used in active loudspeakers can be omitted without audible errors occurring. The frequency range of the amplifiers was limited to 0-3 kHz corresponding to a woofer...

  18. Output pulse height distribution of the GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou; Xiong Jianping

    1995-01-01

    The GM counters are the radiation detectors most in use. It has special advantages compared with other detectors. This paper introduces the output pulse height distribution of the GM counters, gives the measuring instruments and methods. The measuring results, some discussions, and useful conclusion are given as well

  19. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  20. Output synchronization control of ship replenishment operations: theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrkjebø, E.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Wondergem, M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2007-01-01

    A leader–follower synchronization output feedback control scheme is presented for the ship replenishment problem where only positions are measured. No mathematical model of the leader ship is required, and the control scheme relies on nonlinear observers to estimate velocity and acceleration of all

  1. Open Access Policy for IDRC-Funded Project Outputs | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open access is of fundamental importance to IDRC's mandate and to ... Grey literature must be placed in the IDRC Digital Library;; All project outputs identified ... website or in a reasonably well-established and high quality repository[1]. ... The Directory of Open Access Journals,maintained by Infrastructure Services for Open ...

  2. Use of Input–Output Analysis in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattila, Tuomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Input–output analysis can be used as a tool for complementing the traditionally process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) with macroeconomic data from the background systems. Properly used, it can result in faster and more accurate LCA. It also provides opportunities for streamlining the LCA inve...

  3. Output control of da Vinci surgical system's surgical graspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul J; Schmidt, David E; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar

    2014-01-01

    The number of robot-assisted surgeries performed with the da Vinci surgical system has increased significantly over the past decade. The articulating movements of the robotic surgical grasper are controlled by grip controls at the master console. The user interface has been implicated as one contributing factor in surgical grasping errors. The goal of our study was to characterize and evaluate the user interface of the da Vinci surgical system in controlling surgical graspers. An angular manipulator with force sensors was used to increment the grip control angle as grasper output angles were measured. Input force at the grip control was simultaneously measured throughout the range of motion. Pressure film was used to assess the maximum grasping force achievable with the endoscopic grasping tool. The da Vinci robot's grip control angular input has a nonproportional relationship with the grasper instrument output. The grip control mechanism presents an intrinsic resistant force to the surgeon's fingertips and provides no haptic feedback. The da Vinci Maryland graspers are capable of applying up to 5.1 MPa of local pressure. The angular and force input at the grip control of the da Vinci robot's surgical graspers is nonproportional to the grasper instrument's output. Understanding the true relationship of the grip control input to grasper instrument output may help surgeons understand how to better control the surgical graspers and promote fewer grasping errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spanish scientific output on Helicobacter pylori. A study through Medline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapero-Marugán, M; Gisbert, J P; Pajares, J M

    2006-04-01

    to analyze scientific output from Spanish hospitals in relation to Helicobacter pylori infection. papers collected from the Medline database between January 1988 and December 2003 were selected. Our search strategy was: "Helicobacter pylori" [MeSH] AND ((Spain [AD] OR Espana [AD] OR Spanien [AD] OR Espagne [AD] OR Espanha [AD]) OR (Spanish [LA]) OR Spain). The following was analyzed: geographic area, Spanish or foreign publication, topic, and year of publication. Output and impact bibliometric markers were evaluated. in all, 691 papers were identified, of which 241 were excluded. Number of papers went from 2 in 1988 to 47 in 2002 and 13 in 2003. There were more reports in Spanish versus foreign journals (58 vs. 42%). In the first 5 years the areas with greater output were associated with diagnosis and microbiology (33 and 20%), whereas therapy was the predominating subject during the last 5 years (27%). Original papers were most common among publications (69%). Hospitals with highest output included La Princesa (24%) and Ramón y Cajal (17.6%) in Madrid, and Parc Taulí in Barcelona (6.4%). Mean impact factor progressively increased from 1.826 in 1988 to 2.142 in 2002 and 2.493 in 2003. the production and impact of documents published by Spanish scientists regarding H. pylori infection considerably increased during the past two decades.

  5. A Discourse on the Creative Output of Contemporary Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It discusses such issues as the musicians, the medium of communication, musical output of Nigerian musicians and Nigerian music in the context of meeting global standards and other important concepts. It also gives a comprehensive list of current music practitioners in Nigeria, covering the popular genres, art music and ...

  6. ROBUST CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR MULTIVARIABLE PLANTS WITH QUANTIZED OUTPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Margun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with robust output control algorithm for multivariable plants under disturbances. A plant is described by the system of linear differential equations with known relative degrees. Plant parameters are unknown but belong to the known closed bounded set. Plant state vector is unmeasured. Plant output is measured only via static quantizer. Control system algorithm is based on the high gain feedback method. Developed controller provides exponential convergence of tracking error to the bounded area. The area bounds depend on quantizer parameters and the value of external disturbances. Experimental approbation of the proposed control algorithm is performed with the use of Twin Rotor MIMO System laboratory bench. This bench is a helicopter like model with two degrees of freedom (pitch and yaw. DC motors are used as actuators. The output signals are measured via optical encoders. Mathematical model of laboratory bench is obtained. Proposed algorithm was compared with proportional - integral – differential controller in conditions of output quantization. Obtained results have confirmed the efficiency of proposed controller.

  7. The ACUMEN Portfolio: Accounting for Alternative Forms of Scholarly Output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; Tatum, C.

    2013-01-01

    New tools for measuring the impact of research (altmetrics) bring much needed attention to changing scholarly communication practices. However, alternative forms of output are still widely excluded from the evaluation of individual researchers. The ACUMEN project addresses this problem in two ways.

  8. QUALITATIVE DATA AND ERROR MEASUREMENT IN INPUT-OUTPUT-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIJKAMP, P; OOSTERHAVEN, J; OUWERSLOOT, H; RIETVELD, P

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the rapidly emerging field of qualitative data analysis in economics. Ordinal data techniques and error measurement in input-output analysis are here combined in order to test the reliability of a low level of measurement and precision of data by means of a stochastic

  9. Quantum energy duplication using super high output pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kiwamu; Koyama, Kazuyoshi; Tanimoto, Mitsumori; Saito, Naoaki

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at elucidation on phenomena induced by strong electric field of super high output ultra short laser pulse to carry out development of basic technology required for promotion of a study on generation of high energy particle and photon using them, in order to contribute to application of super high output ultra short laser pulse and high energy plasma formed by it. In 1998 fiscal year of the last fiscal year in this study, by intending to increase the output by narrowing pulse width of the super high output laser, some basic experiments such as verification due to experiment on relativity theoretical self-convergence, generation of high energy particles, and so forth were carried out to establish a forecasting on future application. And, by conducting plasma generation experiment, self-guide and high energy particle formation experiment in plasma of super high intensity laser pulse important for its applications, and so forth, various technologies constituting foundation of future developments were developed, and more results could be obtained than those at proposal of this study. (G.K.)

  10. Possibilities and constraints for grazing in high output dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennessy, D.; Delaby, L.; Pol, van den A.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    In temperate and oceanic regions, grazed grass is the lowest cost feed available for milk production. In other regions, grazed grass is less important but can contribute to the diet of livestock. Within high output systems the interaction between the animal and sward is challenging for a host of

  11. INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OF LINEAR-DIFFERENTIAL ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KUIJPER, M; SCHUMACHER, JM

    Systems of linear differential and algebraic equations occur in various ways, for instance, as a result of automated modeling procedures and in problems involving algebraic constraints, such as zero dynamics and exact model matching. Differential/algebraic systems may represent an input-output

  12. A Strategy-Based Approach towards Optimising Research Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lues, L.

    2013-01-01

    The South African higher education fraternity has experienced an outflow of senior research capacity during the past decade, resulting in a large influx of younger and less-published academics. More emphasis is therefore placed on the role of the central institution in ensuring research output. The Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences at a…

  13. Basal Ganglia Outputs Map Instantaneous Position Coordinates during Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Joseph W.; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A.; Bartholomew, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

  14. Appropriatie spatial scales to achieve model output uncertainty goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Martijn J.; Melching, Charles S.; Chen, Xiaohong; Chen, Yongqin; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Hailun

    2008-01-01

    Appropriate spatial scales of hydrological variables were determined using an existing methodology based on a balance in uncertainties from model inputs and parameters extended with a criterion based on a maximum model output uncertainty. The original methodology uses different relationships between

  15. Global sensitivity analysis for models with spatially dependent outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, B.; Marrel, A.; Jullien, M.; Laurent, B.

    2011-01-01

    The global sensitivity analysis of a complex numerical model often calls for the estimation of variance-based importance measures, named Sobol' indices. Meta-model-based techniques have been developed in order to replace the CPU time-expensive computer code with an inexpensive mathematical function, which predicts the computer code output. The common meta-model-based sensitivity analysis methods are well suited for computer codes with scalar outputs. However, in the environmental domain, as in many areas of application, the numerical model outputs are often spatial maps, which may also vary with time. In this paper, we introduce an innovative method to obtain a spatial map of Sobol' indices with a minimal number of numerical model computations. It is based upon the functional decomposition of the spatial output onto a wavelet basis and the meta-modeling of the wavelet coefficients by the Gaussian process. An analytical example is presented to clarify the various steps of our methodology. This technique is then applied to a real hydrogeological case: for each model input variable, a spatial map of Sobol' indices is thus obtained. (authors)

  16. Nonlinear observer output-feedback MPC treatment scheduling for HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurakowski Ryan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models of the immune response to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus demonstrate the potential for dynamic schedules of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy to enhance Cytotoxic Lymphocyte-mediated control of HIV infection. Methods In previous work we have developed a model predictive control (MPC based method for determining optimal treatment interruption schedules for this purpose. In this paper, we introduce a nonlinear observer for the HIV-immune response system and an integrated output-feedback MPC approach for implementing the treatment interruption scheduling algorithm using the easily available viral load measurements. We use Monte-Carlo approaches to test robustness of the algorithm. Results The nonlinear observer shows robust state tracking while preserving state positivity both for continuous and discrete measurements. The integrated output-feedback MPC algorithm stabilizes the desired steady-state. Monte-Carlo testing shows significant robustness to modeling error, with 90% success rates in stabilizing the desired steady-state with 15% variance from nominal on all model parameters. Conclusions The possibility of enhancing immune responsiveness to HIV through dynamic scheduling of treatment is exciting. Output-feedback Model Predictive Control is uniquely well-suited to solutions of these types of problems. The unique constraints of state positivity and very slow sampling are addressable by using a special-purpose nonlinear state estimator, as described in this paper. This shows the possibility of using output-feedback MPC-based algorithms for this purpose.

  17. 36 CFR 1193.43 - Output, display, and control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the use of the product, through at least one mode in enhanced auditory fashion (i.e., increased... and use the product, including but not limited to, text, static or dynamic images, icons, labels... of audio cutoff. Where a product delivers audio output through an external speaker, provide an...

  18. Output Feedback in the Design of Eigenstructures for Enhanced Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, Dionisio; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2018-01-01

    Highlights •It is shown that the SVD assignment fails for homogeneous sensors and output feedback. •The high coherence of the latent vectors real and imaginary parts is identified as the culprit. •Least square placement of the full spectrum resolves instability but limits sensitivity improvements...

  19. Public Infrastructure Investment, Output Dynamics, and Balanced Budget Fiscal Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamic output and welfare effects of public infrastructure investment under a balanced budget fiscal rule, using an overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The government finances public investment by employing distortionary labor taxes. We find a negative short-run

  20. Large steam turbines for nuclear power stations. Output growth prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riollet, G.; Widmer, M.; Tessier, J.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid growth of the output of nuclear reactors, even if temporary settlement occurs, leads the manufacturer to evaluate, at a given time, technological limitations encountered. The problems dealing with the main components of turbines: steam path, rotors and stators steam valves, controle devices, shafts and bearings, are reviewed [fr

  1. Design of a CMOS temperature sensor with current output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolling, A.; Kölling, Arjan; Bak, Frans; Bergveld, Piet; Seevinck, E.; Seevinck, Evert

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a CMOS temperature-to-current converter is presented of which the output current is the difference between a PTC current and an NTC current. The PTC current is derived from a PTAT cell, while the NTC current is derived from a threshold voltage reference source. It is shown that this

  2. Crossover Can Be Constructive When Computing Unique Input Output Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Unique input output (UIO) sequences have important applications in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSMs). Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can compute UIOs efficiently on many FSM instance classes, but fail on others. However...

  3. Determining intervention thresholds that change output behavior patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walrave, B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details a semi-automated method that can calculate intervention thresholds—that is, the minimum required intervention sizes, over a given time frame, that result in a desired change in a system’s output behavior pattern. The method exploits key differences in atomic behavior profiles that

  4. Know Your Personal Computer Basic Input-Output System (BIOS)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 7. Know Your Personal Computer Basic Input-Output System (BIOS). Siddhartha Kumar Ghoshal. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 7 July 1997 pp 48-54. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Method of stabilizing single channel analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasching, G.E.; Patton, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    A method and the apparatus to reduce the drift of single channel analyzers are described. Essentially, this invention employs a time-sharing or multiplexing technique to insure that the outputs from two single channel analyzers (SCAS) maintain the same count ratio regardless of variations in the threshold voltage source or voltage changes, the multiplexing technique is accomplished when a flip flop, actuated by a clock, changes state to switch the output from the individual SCAS before these outputs are sent to a ratio counting scalar. In the particular system embodiment disclosed that illustrates this invention, the sulfur content of coal is determined by subjecting the coal to radiation from a neutron producing source. A photomultiplier and detector system equates the transmitted gamma radiation to an analog voltage signal and sends the same signal after amplification, to a SCA system that contains the invention. Therein, at least two single channel analyzers scan the analog signal over different parts of a spectral region. The two outputs may then be sent to a digital multiplexer so that the output from the multiplexer contains counts falling within two distinct segments of the region. By dividing the counts from the multiplexer by each other, the percentage of sulfur within the coal sample under observation may be determined. (U.S.)

  6. Active structural acoustic control of helicopter interior multifrequency noise using input-output-based hybrid control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xunjun; Lu, Yang; Wang, Fengjiao

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the recent advances in reduction of multifrequency noise inside helicopter cabin using an active structural acoustic control system, which is based on active gearbox struts technical approach. To attenuate the multifrequency gearbox vibrations and resulting noise, a new scheme of discrete model predictive sliding mode control has been proposed based on controlled auto-regressive moving average model. Its implementation only needs input/output data, hence a broader frequency range of controlled system is modelled and the burden on the state observer design is released. Furthermore, a new iteration form of the algorithm is designed, improving the developing efficiency and run speed. To verify the algorithm's effectiveness and self-adaptability, experiments of real-time active control are performed on a newly developed helicopter model system. The helicopter model can generate gear meshing vibration/noise similar to a real helicopter with specially designed gearbox and active struts. The algorithm's control abilities are sufficiently checked by single-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output experiments via different feedback strategies progressively: (1) control gear meshing noise through attenuating vibrations at the key points on the transmission path, (2) directly control the gear meshing noise in the cabin using the actuators. Results confirm that the active control system is practical for cancelling multifrequency helicopter interior noise, which also weakens the frequency-modulation of the tones. For many cases, the attenuations of the measured noise exceed the level of 15 dB, with maximum reduction reaching 31 dB. Also, the control process is demonstrated to be smoother and faster.

  7. Study of cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts with nonlinear output frequency response functions based on NARMAX modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Honglan; Mao, Hanying; Mao, Hanling; Zheng, Weixue; Huang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Xianghong

    2017-12-01

    Cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts plays a key role in the process of remanufacturing engineering and is related to the service safety of the remanufactured parts. In light of the nonlinear properties of used parts caused by cumulative fatigue damage, the based nonlinear output frequency response functions detection approach offers a breakthrough to solve this key problem. First, a modified PSO-adaptive lasso algorithm is introduced to improve the accuracy of the NARMAX model under impulse hammer excitation, and then, an effective new algorithm is derived to estimate the nonlinear output frequency response functions under rectangular pulse excitation, and a based nonlinear output frequency response functions index is introduced to detect the cumulative fatigue damage in used parts. Then, a novel damage detection approach that integrates the NARMAX model and the rectangular pulse is proposed for nonlinear output frequency response functions identification and cumulative fatigue damage detection of used parts. Finally, experimental studies of fatigued plate specimens and used connecting rod parts are conducted to verify the validity of the novel approach. The obtained results reveal that the new approach can detect cumulative fatigue damages of used parts effectively and efficiently and that the various values of the based nonlinear output frequency response functions index can be used to detect the different fatigue damages or working time. Since the proposed new approach can extract nonlinear properties of systems by only a single excitation of the inspected system, it shows great promise for use in remanufacturing engineering applications.

  8. Design of optimal input–output scaling factors based fuzzy PSS using bat algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Sambariya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a fuzzy logic based power system stabilizer (FPSS is designed by tuning its input–output scaling factors. Two input signals to FPSS are considered as change of speed and change in power, and the output signal is considered as a correcting voltage signal. The normalizing factors of these signals are considered as the optimization problem with minimization of integral of square error in single-machine and multi-machine power systems. These factors are optimally determined with bat algorithm (BA and considered as scaling factors of FPSS. The performance of power system with such a designed BA based FPSS (BA-FPSS is compared to that of response with FPSS, Harmony Search Algorithm based FPSS (HSA-FPSS and Particle Swarm Optimization based FPSS (PSO-FPSS. The systems considered are single-machine connected to infinite-bus, two-area 4-machine 10-bus and IEEE New England 10-machine 39-bus power systems for evaluating the performance of BA-FPSS. The comparison is carried out in terms of the integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE, integral of absolute error (IAE and integral of square error (ISE of speed response for systems with FPSS, HSA-FPSS and BA-FPSS. The superior performance of systems with BA-FPSS is established considering eight plant conditions of each system, which represents the wide range of operating conditions.

  9. Evaluation of scientific output in Dentistry in Spanish Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Flor-Martínez, M; Galindo-Moreno, P; Sánchez-Fernández, E; Abadal, E; Cobo, M-J; Herrera-Viedma, E

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the scientific output of Spanish universities that offer a bachelor's degree in dentistry through the use of various bibliometric indicators. A total of 21 universities offered a bachelor's degree in dentistry in academic year 2016-2017. The search for papers published by authors associated with these institutions was carried out using the selection of journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) and the Web of Knowledge database for the period 1986-2017. On the basis of these data, we determined the output, the h-, g- and hg-indexes, the most productive authors, international collaborations, and the most relevant journals. Public universities obtained better results than private universities. The University of Valencia was ranked first, followed by the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Granada. The most productive author was José Vicente Bagán, but the author with the highest h-index was Mariano Sanz and Manuel Toledado. The universities with the greatest output and highest citation rates had more international collaborations. The most developed fields in Spanish universities were Oral surgery, Oral medicine and Dental materials. The universities had different models of production. At universities such as Barcelona or Valencia, the production was focused on very few departments and authors. At the other extreme, the University of Granada had various sources of research and authors, which meant that its output and citation rate could increase more. University faculties must provide suitable academic and research training, and therefore must be assessed using objective criteria and bibliometric tools. Although the number of university schools and faculties that teach dentistry has increased, and particularly the number of private universities, there is no correlation between their quality and output and the number of places offered on their courses.

  10. LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.

  11. Immature spinal locomotor output in children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Cappellini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed descriptions of gait impairments have been reported in cerebral palsy (CP, but it is still unclear how maturation of the spinal motoneuron output is affected. Spatiotemporal alpha-motoneuron activation during walking can be assessed by mapping the electromyographic activity profiles from several, simultaneously recorded muscles onto the anatomical rostrocaudal location of the motoneuron pools in the spinal cord, and by means of factor analysis of the muscle activity profiles. Here, we analysed gait kinematics and EMG activity of 11 pairs of bilateral muscles with lumbosacral innervation in 35 children with CP (19 diplegic, 16 hemiplegic, 2-12 years and 33 typically developing (TD children (1-12 years. TD children showed a progressive reduction of EMG burst durations and a gradual reorganization of the spatiotemporal motoneuron output with increasing age. By contrast, children with CP showed very limited age-related changes of EMG durations and motoneuron output, as well as of limb intersegmental coordination and foot trajectory control (on both sides for diplegic children and the affected side for hemiplegic children. Factorization of the EMG signals revealed a comparable structure of the motor output in children with CP and TD children, but significantly wider temporal activation patterns in children with CP, resembling the patterns of much younger TD infants. A similar picture emerged when considering the spatiotemporal maps of alpha-motoneuron activation. Overall, the results are consistent with the idea that early injuries to developing motor regions of the brain substantially affect the maturation of the spinal locomotor output and consequently the future locomotor behaviour.

  12. Eating marshmallows reduces ileostomy output: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarebrough, E; Guest, G; Stupart, D

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotally, many ostomates believe that eating marshmallows can reduce ileostomy effluent. There is a plausible mechanism for this, as the gelatine contained in marshmallows may thicken small bowel fluid, but there is currently no evidence that this is effective. This was a randomized crossover trial. Adult patients with well-established ileostomies were included. Ileostomy output was measured for 1 week during which three marshmallows were consumed three times daily, and for one control week where marshmallows were not eaten. There was a 2-day washout period. Patients were randomly allocated to whether the control or intervention week occurred first. In addition, a questionnaire was administered regarding patient's subjective experience of their ileostomy function. Thirty-one participants were recruited; 28 completed the study. There was a median reduction in ileostomy output volume of 75 ml per day during the study period (P = 0.0054, 95% confidence interval 23.4-678.3) compared with the control week. Twenty of 28 subjects (71%) experienced a reduction in their ileostomy output, two had no change and six reported an increase. During the study period, participants reported fewer ileostomy bag changes (median five per day vs six in the control period, P = 0.0255). Twenty of 28 (71%) reported that the ileostomy effluent was thicker during the study week (P = 0.023). Overall 19 (68%) participants stated they would use marshmallows in the future if they wanted to reduce or thicken their ileostomy output. Eating marshmallows leads to a small but statistically significant reduction in ileostomy output. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Determining the confidence levels of sensor outputs using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broten, G S; Wood, H C [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an approach for determining the confidence level of a sensor output using multi-sensor arrays, sensor fusion and artificial neural networks. The authors have shown in previous work that sensor fusion and artificial neural networks can be used to learn the relationships between the outputs of an array of simulated partially selective sensors and the individual analyte concentrations in a mixture of analyses. Other researchers have shown that an array of partially selective sensors can be used to determine the individual gas concentrations in a gaseous mixture. The research reported in this paper shows that it is possible to extract confidence level information from an array of partially selective sensors using artificial neural networks. The confidence level of a sensor output is defined as a numeric value, ranging from 0% to 100%, that indicates the confidence associated with a output of a given sensor. A three layer back-propagation neural network was trained on a subset of the sensor confidence level space, and was tested for its ability to generalize, where the confidence level space is defined as all possible deviations from the correct sensor output. A learning rate of 0.1 was used and no momentum terms were used in the neural network. This research has shown that an artificial neural network can accurately estimate the confidence level of individual sensors in an array of partially selective sensors. This research has also shown that the neural network`s ability to determine the confidence level is influenced by the complexity of the sensor`s response and that the neural network is able to estimate the confidence levels even if more than one sensor is in error. The fundamentals behind this research could be applied to other configurations besides arrays of partially selective sensors, such as an array of sensors separated spatially. An example of such a configuration could be an array of temperature sensors in a tank that is not in

  14. Enhancement of anodic biofilm formation and current output in microbial fuel cells by composite modification of stainless steel electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuxiang; Feng, Huajun; Shen, Dongsheng; Li, Na; Guo, Kun; Zhou, Yuyang; Xu, Jing; Chen, Wei; Jia, Yufeng; Huang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we first systematically investigate the current output performance of stainless steel electrodes (SS) modified by carbon coating (CC), polyaniline coating (PANI), neutral red grafting (NR), surface hydrophilization (SDBS), and heat treatment (HEAT). The maximum current density of 13.0 A m-2 is obtained on CC electrode (3.0 A m-2 of the untreated anode). Such high performance should be attributed to its large effective surface area, which is 2.3 times that of the unmodified electrode. Compared with SS electrode, about 3-fold increase in current output is achieved with PANI. Functionalization with hydrophilic group and electron medium result in the current output rising to 1.5-2 fold, through enhancing bioadhesive and electron transport rate, respectively. CC modification is the best choice of single modification for SS electrode in this study. However, this modification is not perfect because of its poor hydrophilicity. So CC electrode is modified by SDBS for further enhancing the current output to 16 A m-2. These results could provide guidance for the choice of suitable single modification on SS electrodes and a new method for the perfection of electrode performance through composite modification.

  15. Fungal infection intensity and zoospore output of Atelopus zeteki, a potential acute chytrid supershedder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella V Direnzo

    Full Text Available Amphibians vary in their response to infection by the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Highly susceptible species are the first to decline and/or disappear once Bd arrives at a site. These competent hosts likely facilitate Bd proliferation because of ineffective innate and/or acquired immune defenses. We show that Atelopus zeteki, a highly susceptible species that has undergone substantial population declines throughout its range, rapidly and exponentially increases skin Bd infection intensity, achieving intensities that are several orders of magnitude greater than most other species reported. We experimentally infected individuals that were never exposed to Bd (n = 5 or previously exposed to an attenuated Bd strain (JEL427-P39; n = 3. Within seven days post-inoculation, the average Bd infection intensity was 18,213 zoospores (SE: 9,010; range: 0 to 66,928. Both average Bd infection intensity and zoospore output (i.e., the number of zoospores released per minute by an infected individual increased exponentially until time of death (t50 = 7.018, p<0.001, t46 = 3.164, p = 0.001, respectively. Mean Bd infection intensity and zoospore output at death were 4,334,422 zoospores (SE: 1,236,431 and 23.55 zoospores per minute (SE: 22.78, respectively, with as many as 9,584,158 zoospores on a single individual. The daily percent increases in Bd infection intensity and zoospore output were 35.4% (SE: 0.05 and 13.1% (SE: 0.04, respectively. We also found that Bd infection intensity and zoospore output were positively correlated (t43 = 3.926, p<0.001. All animals died between 22 and 33 days post-inoculation (mean: 28.88; SE: 1.58. Prior Bd infection had no effect on survival, Bd infection intensity, or zoospore output. We conclude that A. zeteki, a highly susceptible amphibian species, may be an acute supershedder. Our results can inform epidemiological models to estimate Bd outbreak probability, especially as they relate

  16. Regulation of the output power at the resonant converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanov, Goce G.; Sarac, Vasilija J. [University Goce Delecev-Stip, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Radovis (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Karadzinov, Ljupco V., E-mail: goce.stefanov@ugd.edu.mk [University Kiril and Methodyus-Skopje, FEIT Skopje(Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper a method for regulating an alternating current voltage source with pair of IGBT transistor’s modules, in a full bridge configuration with series resonant converter is given. With the developed method a solution is obtained which can regulate the phase difference between output voltage and current through the inductor, in order to maintain maximum output power. Control electronic via feedback signals regulates the energy transfer to the tank by changing the pulse width of signals which are used as inputs to the gates of the IGBTs. By increasing or decreasing the pulse width transmitted to the various gates of the IGBT the energy transfer to the tank is increased or decreased . PowerSim simulations program is used for development of controlling methodology. Developed method is practically implemented in a prototype of the device for phase control of resonant converter with variable the resonant load. Key words: pulse width method, phase regulation , power converter.

  17. SCALPLO, Plotting of Flux Output from SCALE Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, A.; De Leege, P.F.A.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SCALPLO is a plot program, designed to plot flux, power and spectrum information. Data exchange between SCALE modules and SCALPLO is via CCCC-interface files. As not all modules can produce these files, there are special routines supplied with SCALPLO that can produce CCCC-like files. These routines can be included in the code and for XSDRPM, CITATION, ANISN and DOT, the place to include these routines is supplied. 2 - Method of solution: SCALPLO consists of two sections. Firstly the pre-processor, which selects and reads the required data. Secondly the plot section which produces the plot on the selected output device. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: SCALPLO requires DISSPLA version 11.0 or higher. The choice of output device depends on the devices installed

  18. Constancy of radiation output during diagnostic X-ray exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardran, G.M.; Crooks, H.E.; Birch, R.

    1978-01-01

    Variation in X-ray output and quality during a diagnostic exposure can be undesirable and may result in unnecessary dose to the patient. When significant build-up or decay periods are present errors will arise if factors obtained under steady-state conditions are employed to estimate the exposure. These parameters must be taken into account when calibrating X-ray generators. A variable speed spinning film device and a spectrometry system have been used to measure the variations under fluoroscopic and radiographic conditions for a number of generators. Variations in output due to filament heating, voltage supply and rectification, cable capacity and target pitting have been demonstrated. At low fluoroscopic currents, large surges and long decays have been observed; the significance of these effects is considered. (author)

  19. Data Envelopment Analysis with Uncertain Inputs and Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilin Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA, as a useful management and decision tool, has been widely used since it was first invented by Charnes et al. in 1978. On the one hand, the DEA models need accurate inputs and outputs data. On the other hand, in many situations, inputs and outputs are volatile and complex so that they are difficult to measure in an accurate way. The conflict leads to the researches of uncertain DEA models. This paper will consider DEA in uncertain environment, thus producing a new model based on uncertain measure. Due to the complexity of the new uncertain DEA model, an equivalent deterministic model is presented. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the uncertain DEA model.

  20. System convergence in transport models: algorithms efficiency and output uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2015-01-01

    of this paper is to analyse convergence performance for the external loop and to illustrate how an improper linkage between the converging parts can lead to substantial uncertainty in the final output. Although this loop is crucial for the performance of large-scale transport models it has not been analysed...... much in the literature. The paper first investigates several variants of the Method of Successive Averages (MSA) by simulation experiments on a toy-network. It is found that the simulation experiments produce support for a weighted MSA approach. The weighted MSA approach is then analysed on large......-scale in the Danish National Transport Model (DNTM). It is revealed that system convergence requires that either demand or supply is without random noise but not both. In that case, if MSA is applied to the model output with random noise, it will converge effectively as the random effects are gradually dampened...

  1. Characteristic analysis of a polarization output coupling Porro prism resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailong; Meng, Junqing; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    An Electro-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser with a crossed misalignment Porro prism resonator for space applications has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The phase shift induced by the combination of different wave plates and Porro prism azimuth angles have been studied for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching. The relationship of the effective output coupling reflectivity and the employed Q-switch driving voltage is explored by using Jones matrix optics. In the experiment, the maximum output pulse energy of 93 mJ with 14-ns pulse duration is obtained at the repetition rate of 20 Hz and the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 16.8%. The beam quality factors are M 2 x = 2.5 and M 2y = 2.2, respectively.

  2. Modeling the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2011-04-30

    Design of experiments and multiphysics analyses were used to develop a parametric model for a d 33-based cantilever. The analysis revealed that the most significant parameters influencing the resonant frequency are the supporting layer thickness, piezoelectric layer thickness, and cantilever length. On the other hand, the most important factors affecting the charge output arethe piezoelectric thickness and the interdigitated electrode dimensions. The accuracy of the developed model was confirmed and showed less than 1% estimation error compared with a commercial simulation package. To estimate the power delivered to a load, the electric current output from the piezoelectric generator was calculated. A circuit model was built and used to estimate the power delivered to a load, which compared favorably to experimentally published power data on actual cantilevers of similar dimensions. © 2011 TMS.

  3. Perceiving imitatible stimuli: consequences of isomorphism between input and output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M

    2001-07-01

    For more than a century, psychologists have been intrigued by the idea that mental representations of perceived human actions are closely connected with mental representations of performing those same actions. In this article, connections between input and output representations are considered in terms of the potential for imitation. A broad range of evidence suggests that, for imitatible stimuli, input and output representations are isomorphic to one another, allowing mutual influence between perception and motoric planning that is rapid, effortless, and possibly obligatory. Thus, the cognitive consequences of imitatibility may underlie such diverse phenomena as phoneme perception; imitation in neonates; echoic memory; stimulus-response compatibility; conduction aphasia; maintenance rehearsal; and a variety of developmental and social activities such as language acquisition, social learning, empathy, and monitoring one's own behavior.

  4. Environmental risk assessments for transgenic crops producing output trait enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Ann; Shore, Scott; Stone, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The environmental risks from cultivating crops producing output trait enzymes can be rigorously assessed by testing conservative risk hypotheses of no harm to endpoints such as the abundance of wildlife, crop yield and the rate of degradation of crop residues in soil. These hypotheses can be tested with data from many sources, including evaluations of the agronomic performance and nutritional quality of the crop made during product development, and information from the scientific literature on the mode-of-action, taxonomic distribution and environmental fate of the enzyme. Few, if any, specific ecotoxicology or environmental fate studies are needed. The effective use of existing data means that regulatory decision-making, to which an environmental risk assessment provides essential information, is not unnecessarily complicated by evaluation of large amounts of new data that provide negligible improvement in the characterization of risk, and that may delay environmental benefits offered by transgenic crops containing output trait enzymes. PMID:19924556

  5. Robust output LQ optimal control via integral sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Leonid; Bejarano, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Featuring original research from well-known experts in the field of sliding mode control, this monograph presents new design schemes for implementing LQ control solutions in situations where the output system is the only information provided about the state of the plant. This new design works under the restrictions of matched disturbances without losing its desirable features. On the cutting-edge of optimal control research, Robust Output LQ Optimal Control via Integral Sliding Modes is an excellent resource for both graduate students and professionals involved in linear systems, optimal control, observation of systems with unknown inputs, and automatization. In the theory of optimal control, the linear quadratic (LQ) optimal problem plays an important role due to its physical meaning, and its solution is easily given by an algebraic Riccati equation. This solution turns out to be restrictive, however, because of two assumptions: the system must be free from disturbances and the entire state vector must be kn...

  6. Globalization and changing trends of biomedical research output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Marisa L.; Liu, Jing; Omary, M. Bishr

    2017-01-01

    The US continues to lead the world in research and development (R&D) expenditures, but there is concern that stagnation in federal support for biomedical research in the US could undermine the leading role the US has played in biomedical and clinical research discoveries. As a readout of research output in the US compared with other countries, assessment of original research articles published by US-based authors in ten clinical and basic science journals during 2000 to 2015 showed a steady decline of articles in high-ranking journals or no significant change in mid-ranking journals. In contrast, publication output originating from China-based investigators, in both high- and mid-ranking journals, has steadily increased commensurate with significant growth in R&D expenditures. These observations support the current concerns of stagnant and year-to-year uncertainty in US federal funding of biomedical research. PMID:28614799

  7. Globalization and changing trends of biomedical research output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Marisa L; Liu, Jing; Schnell, Santiago; Omary, M Bishr

    2017-06-15

    The US continues to lead the world in research and development (R&D) expenditures, but there is concern that stagnation in federal support for biomedical research in the US could undermine the leading role the US has played in biomedical and clinical research discoveries. As a readout of research output in the US compared with other countries, assessment of original research articles published by US-based authors in ten clinical and basic science journals during 2000 to 2015 showed a steady decline of articles in high-ranking journals or no significant change in mid-ranking journals. In contrast, publication output originating from China-based investigators, in both high- and mid-ranking journals, has steadily increased commensurate with significant growth in R&D expenditures. These observations support the current concerns of stagnant and year-to-year uncertainty in US federal funding of biomedical research.

  8. Modelling Analysis of Forestry Input-Output Elasticity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extended economic model and space econometrics, this essay analyzed the spatial distributions and interdependent relationships of the production of forestry in China; also the input-output elasticity of forestry production were calculated. Results figure out there exists significant spatial correlation in forestry production in China. Spatial distribution is mainly manifested as spatial agglomeration. The output elasticity of labor force is equal to 0.6649, and that of capital is equal to 0.8412. The contribution of land is significantly negative. Labor and capital are the main determinants for the province-level forestry production in China. Thus, research on the province-level forestry production should not ignore the spatial effect. The policy-making process should take into consideration the effects between provinces on the production of forestry. This study provides some scientific technical support for forestry production.

  9. Does Gender Affect a Scientist's Research Output in Evolutionary Ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Shine, Richard; Lourdais, Olivier

    To examine how an author's gender influences his or her research output, the authors analyzed (not simply scored) more than 900 published articles in nine leading scientific journals in the field of evolutionary ecology. Women were strongly underrepresented in all countries, but this bias is decreasing. Men and women differed significantly in their fields of research, with women preferentially conducting projects on behavior rather than evolution or ecology. Most aspects of the structure of published articles and the level of conceptual generality were unaffected by an author's gender. Because discriminatory practices by reviewers and editors can be manifested in attributes of the articles that survive the review process, the latter result suggests a lack of gender-based discrimination during the review process. Gender differences in research output presumably reflect a complex array of genetic and social influences; a clearer understanding of these causal factors may help identify (and thus reduce) gender-based discrimination.

  10. Magnetospheric storm dynamics in terms of energy output rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigancova, A.; Feldstein, Ya.I.

    1992-01-01

    Using hourly values of both the global magnetospheric disturbance characteristic DR, and AE index of auroral ionospheric currents during magnetic storm intervals, the energy output rate dynamics is evaluated for a magnetic storm main/recovery phase and a whole storm interval. The magnetospheric response to the solar wind energy input rate under varying interplanetary and magnetospheric conditions is considered from the temporal variability point of view. The peculiarities of the response are traced separately. As far as quantitative characteristics of energy output rate are concerned, the time dependence pattern of the ring current decay parameter is emphasized to be fairly important. It is pointed out that more insight into the plasma processes, especially at L = 3 - 5, is needed for adequate evidence of the dependence. (Author)

  11. Modeling the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-01-01

    Design of experiments and multiphysics analyses were used to develop a parametric model for a d 33-based cantilever. The analysis revealed that the most significant parameters influencing the resonant frequency are the supporting layer thickness, piezoelectric layer thickness, and cantilever length. On the other hand, the most important factors affecting the charge output arethe piezoelectric thickness and the interdigitated electrode dimensions. The accuracy of the developed model was confirmed and showed less than 1% estimation error compared with a commercial simulation package. To estimate the power delivered to a load, the electric current output from the piezoelectric generator was calculated. A circuit model was built and used to estimate the power delivered to a load, which compared favorably to experimentally published power data on actual cantilevers of similar dimensions. © 2011 TMS.

  12. Maximization of energy in the output of a linear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A time-limited signal which, when passed through a linear system, maximizes the total output energy is considered. Previous work has shown that the solution is given by the eigenfunction associated with the maximum eigenvalue in a Hilbert-Schmidt integral equation. Analytical results are available for the case where the transfer function is a low-pass filter. This work is extended by obtaining a numerical solution to the integral equation which allows results for reasonably general transfer functions

  13. Programmed Evolution for Optimization of Orthogonal Metabolic Output in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckdahl, Todd T.; Campbell, A. Malcolm; Heyer, Laurie J.; Poet, Jeffrey L.; Blauch, David N.; Snyder, Nicole L.; Atchley, Dustin T.; Baker, Erich J.; Brown, Micah; Brunner, Elizabeth C.; Callen, Sean A.; Campbell, Jesse S.; Carr, Caleb J.; Carr, David R.; Chadinha, Spencer A.; Chester, Grace I.; Chester, Josh; Clarkson, Ben R.; Cochran, Kelly E.; Doherty, Shannon E.; Doyle, Catherine; Dwyer, Sarah; Edlin, Linnea M.; Evans, Rebecca A.; Fluharty, Taylor; Frederick, Janna; Galeota-Sprung, Jonah; Gammon, Betsy L.; Grieshaber, Brandon; Gronniger, Jessica; Gutteridge, Katelyn; Henningsen, Joel; Isom, Bradley; Itell, Hannah L.; Keffeler, Erica C.; Lantz, Andrew J.; Lim, Jonathan N.; McGuire, Erin P.; Moore, Alexander K.; Morton, Jerrad; Nakano, Meredith; Pearson, Sara A.; Perkins, Virginia; Parrish, Phoebe; Pierson, Claire E.; Polpityaarachchige, Sachith; Quaney, Michael J.; Slattery, Abagael; Smith, Kathryn E.; Spell, Jackson; Spencer, Morgan; Taye, Telavive; Trueblood, Kamay; Vrana, Caroline J.; Whitesides, E. Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Current use of microbes for metabolic engineering suffers from loss of metabolic output due to natural selection. Rather than combat the evolution of bacterial populations, we chose to embrace what makes biological engineering unique among engineering fields – evolving materials. We harnessed bacteria to compute solutions to the biological problem of metabolic pathway optimization. Our approach is called Programmed Evolution to capture two concepts. First, a population of cells is programmed with DNA code to enable it to compute solutions to a chosen optimization problem. As analog computers, bacteria process known and unknown inputs and direct the output of their biochemical hardware. Second, the system employs the evolution of bacteria toward an optimal metabolic solution by imposing fitness defined by metabolic output. The current study is a proof-of-concept for Programmed Evolution applied to the optimization of a metabolic pathway for the conversion of caffeine to theophylline in E. coli. Introduced genotype variations included strength of the promoter and ribosome binding site, plasmid copy number, and chaperone proteins. We constructed 24 strains using all combinations of the genetic variables. We used a theophylline riboswitch and a tetracycline resistance gene to link theophylline production to fitness. After subjecting the mixed population to selection, we measured a change in the distribution of genotypes in the population and an increased conversion of caffeine to theophylline among the most fit strains, demonstrating Programmed Evolution. Programmed Evolution inverts the standard paradigm in metabolic engineering by harnessing evolution instead of fighting it. Our modular system enables researchers to program bacteria and use evolution to determine the combination of genetic control elements that optimizes catabolic or anabolic output and to maintain it in a population of cells. Programmed Evolution could be used for applications in energy

  14. Enhancing MINIX 3.X input/output performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pessolani, Pablo Andrés; Weisz, Gustavo; Bardus, Marisa; Hein, César

    2008-01-01

    MINIX 3.X is an open-source operating system designed to be highly reliable, flexible, and secure. The kernel is extremely small and user processes, specialized servers and device driver runs as user-mode insulated processes. These features, the tiny amount of kernel code, and other aspects greatly enhance system reliability. The drawbacks of running device drivers in user-mode are the performance penalties on input/output ports access, kernel data structures access, interrupt indirect man...

  15. Elliptical multiple-output quantile regression and convex optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hallin, M.; Šiman, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2016), s. 232-237 ISSN 0167-7152 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07234S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : quantile regression * elliptical quantile * multivariate quantile * multiple-output regression Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.540, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/SI/siman-0458243.pdf

  16. Distortions in the output signals of conventional spectrum analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    We show that the output signals of conventional spectrum analysers contain distortions which basically originate from the signal processing performed inside the analysers' frequency convertors. Total elimination of these distortions through normal filtering techniques is difficult owing to the closeness of some of their frequencies to the corresponding frequencies of the required signals. Simple design adjustments that can minimize these distortions are suggested. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  17. Programmed evolution for optimization of orthogonal metabolic output in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd T Eckdahl

    Full Text Available Current use of microbes for metabolic engineering suffers from loss of metabolic output due to natural selection. Rather than combat the evolution of bacterial populations, we chose to embrace what makes biological engineering unique among engineering fields - evolving materials. We harnessed bacteria to compute solutions to the biological problem of metabolic pathway optimization. Our approach is called Programmed Evolution to capture two concepts. First, a population of cells is programmed with DNA code to enable it to compute solutions to a chosen optimization problem. As analog computers, bacteria process known and unknown inputs and direct the output of their biochemical hardware. Second, the system employs the evolution of bacteria toward an optimal metabolic solution by imposing fitness defined by metabolic output. The current study is a proof-of-concept for Programmed Evolution applied to the optimization of a metabolic pathway for the conversion of caffeine to theophylline in E. coli. Introduced genotype variations included strength of the promoter and ribosome binding site, plasmid copy number, and chaperone proteins. We constructed 24 strains using all combinations of the genetic variables. We used a theophylline riboswitch and a tetracycline resistance gene to link theophylline production to fitness. After subjecting the mixed population to selection, we measured a change in the distribution of genotypes in the population and an increased conversion of caffeine to theophylline among the most fit strains, demonstrating Programmed Evolution. Programmed Evolution inverts the standard paradigm in metabolic engineering by harnessing evolution instead of fighting it. Our modular system enables researchers to program bacteria and use evolution to determine the combination of genetic control elements that optimizes catabolic or anabolic output and to maintain it in a population of cells. Programmed Evolution could be used for applications in

  18. TrustGuard: A Containment Architecture with Verified Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    that the TrustGuard system has minimal performance decline, despite restrictions such as high communication latency and limited available bandwidth...design are the availability of high bandwidth and low delays between the host and the monitoring chip. 3-D integration provides an alternate way of...TRUSTGUARD: A CONTAINMENT ARCHITECTURE WITH VERIFIED OUTPUT SOUMYADEEP GHOSH A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY IN

  19. International P/L Insurance Output, Input, and Productivity Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Mary A. Weiss

    1991-01-01

    This research provides (bilateral) divisia and multilateral divisia indexes of output, input, and productivity for the property-liability (P-L) insurance industry for the following countries: United States, West Germany, Switzerland, France, and Japan. The time period studied is 1975 to 1987. The results indicate that considerable diversity exists among different countries, with Japan showing the weakest productivity growth. The United States and West Germany are associated overall with high ...

  20. Steam turbines of large output. Vol. 1, 2, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings contain 52 papers of which 14 have been inputted in INIS. They concern the development of high output turbines for power plants, the designing and testing of moisture separators, aerodynamics and vibrations of revolving parts of turbines, turbines suitable for heat extraction, the calculations and testing of steam flow characteristics, the mathematical model of thermodynamic cycles in wet steam, reliability, corrosion, and the questions of economics. (M.D.)

  1. Measurement of cardiac output in man with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, M.J.; Weikl, A.; Mueller, E.; Reinhardt, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    Multiecho electrocardiogram-triggered imaging sequences were obtained in 15 patients to measure aortic blood flow velocity in a 6-cm thick section. The aortic area was calculated from MR images; cardiac output was calculated as the product of velocity and area and was expressed in liters per minute. MR imaging results were compared with measurements obtained by cardiac catheterization and thermodilution. A good correlation of 0.9 was found, with a slope approaching unity

  2. An Interface Theory for Input/Output Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    Building on the theory of interface automata by de~Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch's Input/Output Automata, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit....... We also present a method for solving systems of relativized behavioral inequalities as used in our setup and draw a formal correspondence between our work and interface automata. Proofs are provided in an appendix....

  3. Forecasted Changes in West Africa Photovoltaic Energy Output by 2045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Dimitri Yikwe Buri Bazyomo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on photovoltaic (PV output in the fifteen countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS was analyzed in this paper. Using a set of eight climate models, the trends of solar radiation and temperature between 2006–2100 were examined. Assuming a lifetime of 40 years, the future changes of photovoltaic energy output for the tilted plane receptor compared to 2006–2015 were computed for the whole region. The results show that the trends of solar irradiation are negative except for the Irish Centre for High-End Computing model which predicts a positive trend with a maximum value of 0.17 W/m2/year for Cape Verde and the minimum of −0.06 W/m2/year for Liberia. The minimum of the negative trend is −0.18 W/m2/year predicted by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC, developed at the University of Tokyo Center for Climate System Research for Cape Verde. Furthermore, temperature trends are positive with a maximum of 0.08 K/year predicted by MIROC for Niger and minimum of 0.03 K/year predicted by Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC, Max Planck Institute (MPI for Climate Meteorology at Hamburg, French National Meteorological Research Center (CNRM and Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCMA for Cape Verde. Photovolataic energy output changes show increasing trends in Sierra Leone with 0.013%/year as the maximum. Climate change will lead to a decreasing trend of PV output in the rest of the countries with a minimum of 0.032%/year in Niger.

  4. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  5. Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy.

  6. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  7. Investigation of solar photovoltaic module power output by various models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakhrani, A.Q.; Othman, A.K.; Rigit, A.R.H.; Baini, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the power output of a solar photovoltaic module by various models and to formulate a suitable model for predicting the performance of solar photovoltaic modules. The model was used to correct the configurations of solar photovoltaic systems for sustainable power supply. Different types of models namely the efficiency, power, fill factor and current-voltage characteristic curve models have been reviewed. It was found that the examined models predicted a 40% yield of the rated power in cloudy weather conditions and up to 80% in clear skies. The models performed well in terms of electrical efficiency in cloudy days if the influence of low irradiance were incorporated. Both analytical and numerical methods were employed in the formulation of improved model which gave +- 2% error when compared with the rated power output of solar photovoltaic module. The proposed model is more practical in terms of number of variables used and acceptable performance in humid atmospheres. Therefore, it could be useful for the estimation of power output of the solar photovoltaic systems in Sarawak region. (author)

  8. Outputs of shock-loaded small piezoceramic disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charest, Jacques A.; Mace, Jonathan Lee

    2002-01-01

    Thin small-diameter polycrystalline Lead-Zirconate-Titanate piezoceramic disks were shock loaded in the D33 orientation over a stress range of 0.1-30 GPa. Their electrical outputs were discharged into 50 Ω viewing resistors, producing typically 0.15 μs quasi-triangular impulses ranging from 50-700 V. The gas gun flat plate impact approach and the high explosives (HE) plane wave lens approach were used to load piezoceramic elements. These piezoceramic elements consisted of 0.25 mm thick and 1.32 mm diameter disks that were ultrasonically machined from 25 mm piezocrystal disks of type APC 850, commercially produced by American Piezo Ceramic Inc. To facilitate our experiments, the piezoceramic elements were coaxially mounted at the tip of a 2.35 mm diameter brass tube, an arrangement that is commercialized by Dynasen, Inc. under the name Piezopin of model CA-1136. Simple calculations on the electrical outputs produced by these piezoceramic disks reveal electrical outputs in excess of 3000 W. Such short bursts of electrical energy have the potential for numerous applications where critical timing is needed to observe fast transient events

  9. Downscaling Global Weather Forecast Outputs Using ANN for Flood Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Do Hoai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Downscaling global weather prediction model outputs to individual locations or local scales is a common practice for operational weather forecast in order to correct the model outputs at subgrid scales. This paper presents an empirical-statistical downscaling method for precipitation prediction which uses a feed-forward multilayer perceptron (MLP neural network. The MLP architecture was optimized by considering physical bases that determine the circulation of atmospheric variables. Downscaled precipitation was then used as inputs to the super tank model (runoff model for flood prediction. The case study was conducted for the Thu Bon River Basin, located in Central Vietnam. Study results showed that the precipitation predicted by MLP outperformed that directly obtained from model outputs or downscaled using multiple linear regression. Consequently, flood forecast based on the downscaled precipitation was very encouraging. It has demonstrated as a robust technology, simple to implement, reliable, and universal application for flood prediction through the combination of downscaling model and super tank model.

  10. COA based robust output feedback UPFC controller design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayeghi, H., E-mail: hshayeghi@gmail.co [Technical Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalilzadeh, S.; Safari, A. [Technical Engineering Department, Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, a novel method for the design of output feedback controller for unified power flow controller (UPFC) using chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is developed. Chaotic optimization algorithms, which have the features of easy implementation, short execution time and robust mechanisms of escaping from the local optimum, is a promising tool for the engineering applications. The selection of the output feedback gains for the UPFC controllers is converted to an optimization problem with the time domain-based objective function which is solved by a COA based on Lozi map. Since chaotic mapping enjoys certainty, ergodicity and the stochastic property, the proposed chaotic optimization problem introduces chaos mapping using Lozi map chaotic sequences which increases its convergence rate and resulting precision. To ensure the robustness of the proposed stabilizers, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The effectiveness of the proposed controller for damping low frequency oscillations is tested and demonstrated through non-linear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results analysis reveals that the designed COA based output feedback UPFC damping controller has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems.

  11. Output power characteristics of the neutral xenon long laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.J. [TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA (United States). Space and Technology Div.

    1994-12-31

    Lasers which oscillate within inhomogeneously broadened gain media exhibit spectral hole burning and concomitant reduction in output power compared with equivalent homogeneously-broadened laser gain media. By increasing the cavity length, it may be possible to demonstrate at least a partial transition from an inhomogeneous laser cavity mode spectrum to a homogeneous spectrum. There are a number of high gain laser lines which are inhomogeneously-broadened transitions in electric discharges of neutral xenon. In neutral xenon lasers, as in the cases of many other gas lasers, the inhomogeneous spectral broadening mechanism arises from Doppler shifts, {Delta}{nu}{sub D}, of individual atoms in thermal motion within the electric discharge comprising the laser gain medium. Optical transitions corresponding to these noble gas atoms have natural linewidths, {Delta}{nu}{sub n}{lt}{Delta}{nu}{sub D}. Simulations of the output power characteristics of the xenon laser were carried out as a function of laser cavity parameters, including the cavity length, L. These calculations showed that when the intracavity mode spacing frequency, c/2L{lt}{Delta}{nu}{sub n}, the inhomogeneously broadened xenon mode spectrum converted to a homogeneously broadened oscillation spectrum with an increase in output power. These simulations are compared with experimental results obtained for the long laser oscillation characteristics of the (5d[5/2]{degree}{sub 2}{r_arrow}6p[3/2]{sub 1}) transition corresponding to the strong, high-gain 3.508 {mu} line in xenon.

  12. Output feedback control of a quadrotor UAV using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new nonlinear controller for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed using neural networks (NNs) and output feedback. The assumption on the availability of UAV dynamics is not always practical, especially in an outdoor environment. Therefore, in this work, an NN is introduced to learn the complete dynamics of the UAV online, including uncertain nonlinear terms like aerodynamic friction and blade flapping. Although a quadrotor UAV is underactuated, a novel NN virtual control input scheme is proposed which allows all six degrees of freedom (DOF) of the UAV to be controlled using only four control inputs. Furthermore, an NN observer is introduced to estimate the translational and angular velocities of the UAV, and an output feedback control law is developed in which only the position and the attitude of the UAV are considered measurable. It is shown using Lyapunov theory that the position, orientation, and velocity tracking errors, the virtual control and observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are all semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) in the presence of bounded disturbances and NN functional reconstruction errors while simultaneously relaxing the separation principle. The effectiveness of proposed output feedback control scheme is then demonstrated in the presence of unknown nonlinear dynamics and disturbances, and simulation results are included to demonstrate the theoretical conjecture.

  13. Evidence That Androgens Modulate Human Thymic T Cell Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nancy J.; Kovacs, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The thymus has long been recognized as a target for the actions of androgenic hormones, but it has only been recently recognized that alterations in circulating levels of gonadal steroids might affect thymic output of T cells. We had the opportunity to examine parameters of thymic cellular output in several hypogonadal men undergoing androgen replacement therapy. Methods Circulating naive (CD4+CD45RA+) T cells were quantitated by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cells bearing T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) were quantitated using real-time PCR amplification of DNA isolated from PBMCs from normal men and from hypogonadal men before and after testosterone replacement therapy. Results CD4+CD45+ (“naïve”) T cells comprised 10.5% of lymphocytes in normal males; this proportion was greatly increased in two hypogonadal men (35.5% and 44.4%). One man was studied sequentially during treatment with physiologic doses of testosterone. CD4+CD45RA+ cells fell from 37.36% to 20.05% after one month and to 12.51% after 7 months of normalized androgen levels. In two hypogonadal patients TREC levels fell by 83% and 78% after androgen replacement therapy. Conclusions Our observations indicate that the hypogonadal state is associated with increased thymic output of T cells and that this increase in recent thymic emigrants in peripheral blood is reversed by androgen replacement. PMID:21218609

  14. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  15. Intermittent Smoothing Approaches for Wind Power Output: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jabir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the most common types of renewable energy resource. Due to its sustainability and environmental benefits, it is an emerging source for electric power generation. Rapid and random changes of wind speed makes it an irregular and inconsistent power source when connected to the grid, causing different technical problems in protection, power quality and generation dispatch control. Due to these problems, effective intermittent smoothing approaches for wind power output are crucially needed to minimize such problems. This paper reviews various intermittent smoothing approaches used in smoothing the output power fluctuations caused by wind energy. Problems associated with the inclusion of wind energy resources to grid are also briefly reviewed. From this review, it has been found that battery energy storage system is the most suitable and effective smoothing approach, provided that an effective control strategy is available for optimal utilization of battery energy system. This paper further demonstrates different control strategies built for battery energy storage system to obtain the smooth output wind power.

  16. Development of output user interface software to support analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahanani, Nursinta Adi, E-mail: sintaadi@batan.go.id; Natsir, Khairina, E-mail: sintaadi@batan.go.id; Hartini, Entin, E-mail: sintaadi@batan.go.id [Center for Development of Nuclear Informatics - National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Tangerang, Banten (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Data processing software packages such as VSOP and MCNPX are softwares that has been scientifically proven and complete. The result of VSOP and MCNPX are huge and complex text files. In the analyze process, user need additional processing like Microsoft Excel to show informative result. This research develop an user interface software for output of VSOP and MCNPX. VSOP program output is used to support neutronic analysis and MCNPX program output is used to support burn-up analysis. Software development using iterative development methods which allow for revision and addition of features according to user needs. Processing time with this software 500 times faster than with conventional methods using Microsoft Excel. PYTHON is used as a programming language, because Python is available for all major operating systems: Windows, Linux/Unix, OS/2, Mac, Amiga, among others. Values that support neutronic analysis are k-eff, burn-up and mass Pu{sup 239} and Pu{sup 241}. Burn-up analysis used the mass inventory values of actinide (Thorium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Uranium). Values are visualized in graphical shape to support analysis.

  17. Development of output user interface software to support analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahanani, Nursinta Adi; Natsir, Khairina; Hartini, Entin

    2014-01-01

    Data processing software packages such as VSOP and MCNPX are softwares that has been scientifically proven and complete. The result of VSOP and MCNPX are huge and complex text files. In the analyze process, user need additional processing like Microsoft Excel to show informative result. This research develop an user interface software for output of VSOP and MCNPX. VSOP program output is used to support neutronic analysis and MCNPX program output is used to support burn-up analysis. Software development using iterative development methods which allow for revision and addition of features according to user needs. Processing time with this software 500 times faster than with conventional methods using Microsoft Excel. PYTHON is used as a programming language, because Python is available for all major operating systems: Windows, Linux/Unix, OS/2, Mac, Amiga, among others. Values that support neutronic analysis are k-eff, burn-up and mass Pu 239 and Pu 241 . Burn-up analysis used the mass inventory values of actinide (Thorium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Uranium). Values are visualized in graphical shape to support analysis

  18. Correlation between renew able energy source's energy output and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, G.H.M.; El-Zeftawy, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The common problem to all renew energy sources (RESs) is the mismatch between their energy output and load demand. In remote areas, the solution of this problem is in general employing a small diesel-generator or a storage battery. But, the storage battery is a major cost element of RESs and small diesel-generator is unreliable and costly. Therefore, a proposed technique has been introduced in this work to determine correlation between the energy output of wind energy systems (WES) and isolated loads. solar photovoltaic power system (PVS) and two of energy storage facilities are used here for this correlation. The proposed technique includes also two models for optimizing the generation and costs of WES accompanied with PVS, storage battery and water storage (reservoir) to accommodate an isolated load. The proposed technique is applied with the dynamic programming to coordinate the energy output of a WES with residential and pumping load in remote area of egypt. The results of this application reveal that minimization of both capacity of the storage battery and the whole power system cost are obtained. 4 figs

  19. Predicting Output Power for Nearshore Wave Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henock Mamo Deberneh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvested from a Wave Energy Converter (WEC varies greatly with the location of its installation. Determining an optimal location that can result in maximum output power is therefore critical. In this paper, we present a novel approach to predicting the output power of a nearshore WEC by characterizing ocean waves using floating buoys. We monitored the movement of the buoys using an Arduino-based data collection module, including a gyro-accelerometer sensor and a wireless transceiver. The collected data were utilized to train and test prediction models. The models were developed using machine learning algorithms: SVM, RF and ANN. The results of the experiments showed that measurements from the data collection module can yield a reliable predictor of output power. Furthermore, we found that the predictors work better when the regressors are combined with a classifier. The accuracy of the proposed prediction model suggests that it could be extremely useful in both locating optimal placement for wave energy harvesting plants and designing the shape of the buoys used by them.

  20. Time-response shaping using output to input saturation transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, E.; Burlion, L.; Apkarian, P.

    2018-03-01

    For linear systems, the control law design is often performed so that the resulting closed loop meets specific frequency-domain requirements. However, in many cases, it may be observed that the obtained controller does not enforce time-domain requirements amongst which the objective of keeping a scalar output variable in a given interval. In this article, a transformation is proposed to convert prescribed bounds on an output variable into time-varying saturations on the synthesised linear scalar control law. This transformation uses some well-chosen time-varying coefficients so that the resulting time-varying saturation bounds do not overlap in the presence of disturbances. Using an anti-windup approach, it is obtained that the origin of the resulting closed loop is globally asymptotically stable and that the constrained output variable satisfies the time-domain constraints in the presence of an unknown finite-energy-bounded disturbance. An application to a linear ball and beam model is presented.

  1. Cd-diffused Pb/sub 1-x/Sn/sub x/Te lasers with high output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, W.

    1976-01-01

    Cd-diffused Pb 1 /sub -//subx/Sn/subx/Te (xapprox.0.13) diode lasers have been fabricated with cw output powers of 1.25 mW (single mode) and 2.4 mW (total) at 10.6 μm. These power levels are attributed to the low-temperature Cd diffusion, a new method of growing low-dislocation-density crystals, and to a contact resistance as low as 3x10 -5 Ω cm 2 . Multimode emission spectra are common for cw operation, but reducing the cavity width encourages single-mode emission, indicating the filamentary nature of modes in these devices

  2. Determining the confidence levels of sensor outputs using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broten, G.S.; Wood, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for determining the confidence level of a sensor output using multi-sensor arrays, sensor fusion and artificial neural networks. The authors have shown in previous work that sensor fusion and artificial neural networks can be used to learn the relationships between the outputs of an array of simulated partially selective sensors and the individual analyte concentrations in a mixture of analyses. Other researchers have shown that an array of partially selective sensors can be used to determine the individual gas concentrations in a gaseous mixture. The research reported in this paper shows that it is possible to extract confidence level information from an array of partially selective sensors using artificial neural networks. The confidence level of a sensor output is defined as a numeric value, ranging from 0% to 100%, that indicates the confidence associated with a output of a given sensor. A three layer back-propagation neural network was trained on a subset of the sensor confidence level space, and was tested for its ability to generalize, where the confidence level space is defined as all possible deviations from the correct sensor output. A learning rate of 0.1 was used and no momentum terms were used in the neural network. This research has shown that an artificial neural network can accurately estimate the confidence level of individual sensors in an array of partially selective sensors. This research has also shown that the neural network's ability to determine the confidence level is influenced by the complexity of the sensor's response and that the neural network is able to estimate the confidence levels even if more than one sensor is in error. The fundamentals behind this research could be applied to other configurations besides arrays of partially selective sensors, such as an array of sensors separated spatially. An example of such a configuration could be an array of temperature sensors in a tank that is not in

  3. Diode-side-pumped 131 W, 1319 nm single-wavelength cw Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyong, Zhu; Ge, Zhang; Chenghui, Huang; Yong, Wei; Lingxiong, Huang; Jing, Chen; Weidong, Chen; Zhenqiang, Chen

    2007-01-20

    A diode-side-pumped high-power 1319 nm single-wavelength Nd:YAG continuous wave (cw) laser is described. Through reasonable coating design of the cavity mirrors, the 1064 nm strongest line as well as the 1338 nm one have been successfully suppressed. The laser output powers corresponding to four groups of different output couplers operating at 1319 nm single wavelength have been compared. The output coupler with the transmission T=5.3% has the highest output power, and a 131 W cw output power was achieved at the pumping power of 555 W. The optical-optical conversion efficiency is 23.6%, and the slope efficiency is 46%. The output power is higher than the total output power of the dual-wavelength laser operating at 1319 nm and 1338 nm in the experiment.

  4. Singled out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Frank

    2004-03-01

    The increasing use of single use medical devices is being driven by a growing awareness of iatrogenic (from the Greek; caused by the doctor) and nosocomial infections. Public health perceptions relating to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, specifically variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B are high on the political agenda and a matter of concern to healthcare professionals.

  5. High output power reluctance electric motors with bulk high-temperature superconductor elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, L.K. [Moscow State Aviation Institute (Technical University) (MAI), Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kovalev@mail.sitek.net; Ilushin, K.V.; Penkin, V.T. [Moscow State Aviation Institute (Technical University) (MAI), Moscow (RU)] [and others

    2002-05-01

    We present new types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS)-YBCO and Bi-Ag-elements. We discuss different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, 'trapped field' and composed synchronous HTS machines. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the single-domain and polycrystal YBCO ceramic samples and plate shape Bi-Ag elements. We give the test results of the series of hysteresis, reluctance, 'trapped field' and composed with permanent magnets HTS motors with an output power rating of 0.1-18 kW and current frequencies 50 Hz and 400 Hz. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one unit weight of the HTS motor is four to seven times better than for conventional electric machines. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental characteristics of the developed HTS motors show that they are in good agreement. We discuss the test results for a liquid nitrogen cryogenic pump system with a hysteresis 500 W HTS motor. We describe several designs of new HTS motors operating in the media of liquid nitrogen with an output power 125 kW (and more) and a power factor of more than 0.8. We discuss future applications of new types of HTS motors for aerospace technology, on-land industry and transport systems. (author)

  6. CFO and channel estimation for MISO-OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ladaycia, Abdelhamid; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    -relay transmission protocols such that the geo-routing one proposed by A. Bader et al in 2012. Indeed, the outstanding performance of this multi-hop relaying scheme relies heavily on the channel and CFO estimation quality at the PHY layer. In this work, two

  7. PCI-SS: MISO dynamic nonlinear protein secondary structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboul-Magd Mohammed O

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the function of a protein is largely dictated by its three dimensional configuration, determining a protein's structure is of fundamental importance to biology. Here we report on a novel approach to determining the one dimensional secondary structure of proteins (distinguishing α-helices, β-strands, and non-regular structures from primary sequence data which makes use of Parallel Cascade Identification (PCI, a powerful technique from the field of nonlinear system identification. Results Using PSI-BLAST divergent evolutionary profiles as input data, dynamic nonlinear systems are built through a black-box approach to model the process of protein folding. Genetic algorithms (GAs are applied in order to optimize the architectural parameters of the PCI models. The three-state prediction problem is broken down into a combination of three binary sub-problems and protein structure classifiers are built using 2 layers of PCI classifiers. Careful construction of the optimization, training, and test datasets ensures that no homology exists between any training and testing data. A detailed comparison between PCI and 9 contemporary methods is provided over a set of 125 new protein chains guaranteed to be dissimilar to all training data. Unlike other secondary structure prediction methods, here a web service is developed to provide both human- and machine-readable interfaces to PCI-based protein secondary structure prediction. This server, called PCI-SS, is available at http://bioinf.sce.carleton.ca/PCISS. In addition to a dynamic PHP-generated web interface for humans, a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP interface is added to permit invocation of the PCI-SS service remotely. This machine-readable interface facilitates incorporation of PCI-SS into multi-faceted systems biology analysis pipelines requiring protein secondary structure information, and greatly simplifies high-throughput analyses. XML is used to represent the input protein sequence data and also to encode the resulting structure prediction in a machine-readable format. To our knowledge, this represents the only publicly available SOAP-interface for a protein secondary structure prediction service with published WSDL interface definition. Conclusion Relative to the 9 contemporary methods included in the comparison cascaded PCI classifiers perform well, however PCI finds greatest application as a consensus classifier. When PCI is used to combine a sequence-to-structure PCI-based classifier with the current leading ANN-based method, PSIPRED, the overall error rate (Q3 is maintained while the rate of occurrence of a particularly detrimental error is reduced by up to 25%. This improvement in BAD score, combined with the machine-readable SOAP web service interface makes PCI-SS particularly useful for inclusion in a tertiary structure prediction pipeline.

  8. A novel compact low impedance Marx generator with quasi-rectangular pulse output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Jiang, Ping; Yuan, Jianqiang; Wang, Lingyun; Ma, Xun; Xie, Weiping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a novel low impedance compact Marx generator with near-square pulse output based on the Fourier theory is developed. Compared with the traditional Marx generator, capacitors with different capacity have been used. It can generate a high-voltage quasi-rectangular pulse with a width of 100 ns at low impedance load, and it also has high energy density and power density. The generator consists of 16 modules. Each module comprises an integrative single-ended plastic case capacitor with a nominal value of 54 nF, four ceramic capacitors with a nominal value of 1.5 nF, a gas switch, a charging inductor, a grounding inductor, and insulators which provide mechanical support for all elements. In the module, different discharge periods from different capacitors add to the main circuit to form a quasi-rectangular pulse. The design process of the generator is analyzed, and the test results are provided here. The generator achieved pulse output with a rise time of 32 ns, pulse width of 120 ns, flat-topped width (95%-95%) of 50 ns, voltage of 550 kV, and power of 20 GW.

  9. Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.

  10. Magnetic Field and Torque Output of Packaged Hydraulic Torque Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic torque motors are one key component in electro-hydraulic servo valves that convert the electrical signal into mechanical motions. The systematic characteristics analysis of the hydraulic torque motor has not been found in the previous research, including the distribution of the electromagnetic field and torque output, and particularly the relationship between them. In addition, conventional studies of hydraulic torque motors generally assume an evenly distributed magnetic flux field and ignore the influence of special mechanical geometry in the air gaps, which may compromise the accuracy of analyzing the result and the high-precision motion control performance. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of the distribution of the magnetic field and torque output; the influence of limiting holes in the air gaps is considered to improve the accuracy of both numerical computation and analytical modeling. The structure and working principle of the torque motor are presented first. The magnetic field distribution in the air gaps and the magnetic saturation in the iron blocks are analyzed by using a numerical approach. Subsequently, the torque generation with respect to the current input and assembly errors is analyzed in detail. This shows that the influence of limiting holes on the magnetic field is consistent with that on torque generation. Following this, a novel modified equivalent magnetic circuit is proposed to formulate the torque output of the hydraulic torque motor analytically. The comparison among the modified equivalent magnetic circuit, the conventional modeling approach and the numerical computation is conducted, and it is found that the proposed method helps to improve the modeling accuracy by taking into account the effect of special geometry inside the air gaps.

  11. Downscaling climate model output for water resources impacts assessment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E. P.; Pierce, D. W.; Cayan, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Water agencies in the U.S. and around the globe are beginning to wrap climate change projections into their planning procedures, recognizing that ongoing human-induced changes to hydrology can affect water management in significant ways. Future hydrology changes are derived using global climate model (GCM) projections, though their output is at a spatial scale that is too coarse to meet the needs of those concerned with local and regional impacts. Those investigating local impacts have employed a range of techniques for downscaling, the process of translating GCM output to a more locally-relevant spatial scale. Recent projects have produced libraries of publicly-available downscaled climate projections, enabling managers, researchers and others to focus on impacts studies, drawing from a shared pool of fine-scale climate data. Besides the obvious advantage to data users, who no longer need to develop expertise in downscaling prior to examining impacts, the use of the downscaled data by hundreds of people has allowed a crowdsourcing approach to examining the data. The wide variety of applications employed by different users has revealed characteristics not discovered during the initial data set production. This has led to a deeper look at the downscaling methods, including the assumptions and effect of bias correction of GCM output. Here new findings are presented related to the assumption of stationarity in the relationships between large- and fine-scale climate, as well as the impact of quantile mapping bias correction on precipitation trends. The validity of these assumptions can influence the interpretations of impacts studies using data derived using these standard statistical methods and help point the way to improved methods.

  12. A general theory for ball lightning structure and light output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R.

    2018-03-01

    A general theory for free-floating ball lightning is presented which unifies the phantom plasma ball theory involving the production of very little light, with theories for ball lightning involving light output produced by burning particles from the soil. The mechanism for the formation of plasma balls is shown to be quite general, producing very similar plasma balls independent of initial ion densities over four orders of magnitude. All that is required is an excess of positive ions in the initial ball of ions. The central plasma density after 1 s is shown to be the reciprocal of the ion neutralization coefficient for all cases, both analytically and computationally. Further, the plasma region has zero electric field in all cases. Surrounding the plasma ball is a sphere of positive ions moving away from the centre via their own space-charge field; this space-charge field, which is the same in all cases near the plasma ball, drives negative ions and negative particles towards the plasma centre. The connection with burning particle theories is the proposition that the burning particles are highly-charged which is very likely after a lightning strike. Burning negatively charged particles would be driven into the plasma ball region and trapped while any positively charged particles would be driven away. The plasma ball structure is shown to last more than 10 s and the ‘burnout time’ for a typical coal particle (as an example) has been measured at 5-10 s this is comparable with the lifetimes observed for ball lightning. The light output from a few hundred particles is estimated to be ~1 W, a typical output for ball lightning. Finally, suggestions are made for the generation of ball lightning in the laboratory.

  13. Graphene-Based Linear Tandem Micro-Supercapacitors with Metal-Free Current Collectors and High-Voltage Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoyu; Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Qin, Jieqiong; Zheng, Shuanghao; Wang, Sen; Zhou, Feng; Sun, Chenglin; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-11-01

    Printable supercapacitors are regarded as a promising class of microscale power source, but are facing challenges derived from conventional sandwich-like geometry. Herein, the printable fabrication of new-type planar graphene-based linear tandem micro-supercapacitors (LTMSs) on diverse substrates with symmetric and asymmetric configuration, high-voltage output, tailored capacitance, and outstanding flexibility is demonstrated. The resulting graphene-based LTMSs consisting of 10 micro-supercapacitors (MSs) present efficient high-voltage output of 8.0 V, suggestive of superior uniformity of the entire integrated device. Meanwhile, LTMSs possess remarkable flexibility without obvious capacitance degradation under different bending states. Moreover, areal capacitance of LTMSs can be sufficiently modulated by incorporating polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive nanosheets into graphene electrodes, showing enhanced capacitance of 7.6 mF cm -2 . To further improve the voltage output and energy density, asymmetric LTMSs are fabricated through controlled printing of linear-patterned graphene as negative electrodes and MnO 2 nanosheets as positive electrodes. Notably, the asymmetric LTMSs from three serially connected MSs are easily extended to 5.4 V, triple voltage output of the single cell (1.8 V), suggestive of the versatile applicability of this technique. Therefore, this work offers numerous opportunities of graphene and analogous nanosheets for one-step scalable fabrication of flexible tandem energy storage devices integrating with printed electronics on same substrate. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Simulation of the effects of coated material SEY property on output electron energy distribution and gain of microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xingchao [North Night Vision Technology (NNVT) Co., Ltd., Nanjing 210110 (China); Tian, Jinshou, E-mail: tianjs@opt.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Liu, Chunliang [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Hulin [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Chen, Ping [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang [North Night Vision Technology (NNVT) Co., Ltd., Nanjing 210110 (China); Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); and others

    2016-12-21

    To obtain a high spatial resolution of a image intensifier based on microchannel plate (MCP), the long tail in the exit energy distribution of the output electrons (EDOE) is undesirable. The existing solution is increasing the penetration depth of the MCP output electrode, which will result in a serious gain reduction. Coating the MCP output electrode with efficient secondary electron yield (SEY) materials is supposed to be an effective approach to suppress the unfavorable tail component in the EDOE without negative effects on the gain. In our work, a three-dimensional MCP single channel model is developed in CST STUDIO SUITE to systematically investigate the dependences of the EDOE and the gain on the SEY property of the coated material, based on the Finite Integral Technique and Monte Carlo method. The results show that besides the high SEY of the coated material, the low incident energy corresponding to the peak SEY is another essential element affecting the electron yield in the final stage of multiplication and suppressing the output energy spread.

  15. Effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on radio frequency output of a photonic band gap cavity gyrotron oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashutosh, E-mail: asingh.rs.ece@iitbhu.ac.in [Faculty of Physical Sciences, Institute of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Lucknow-Deva Road, Uttar Pradesh 225003 (India); Center of Research in Microwave Tubes, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Jain, P. K. [Center of Research in Microwave Tubes, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on the RF behavior of a metallic photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating at 35 GHz with TE{sub 041}–like mode have been theoretically demonstrated. PBG cavity is used here to achieve a single mode operation of the overmoded cavity. The nonlinear time-dependent multimode analysis has been used to observe the beam-wave interaction behavior of the PBG cavity gyrotron, and a commercially available PIC code “CST Particle Studio” has been reconfigured to obtain 3D simulation results in order to validate the analytical values. The output power for this typical PBG gyrotron has been obtained ∼108 kW with ∼15.5% efficiency in a well confined TE{sub 041}–like mode, while all other competing modes have significantly low values of power output. The output power and efficiency of a gyrotron depend highly on the electron beam parameters and velocity spread. The influence of several electron beam parameters, e.g., beam voltage, beam current, beam velocity pitch factor, and DC magnetic field, on the PBG gyrotron operations has been investigated. This study would be helpful in optimising the electron beam parameters and estimating accurate RF output power of the high frequency PBG cavity based gyrotron oscillators.

  16. Transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using step-index fibers having large cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer P; Joshi, Sachin

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus and method for transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using large core step-index silica optical fibers having thick cladding, are described. The thick cladding suppresses diffusion of modal power to higher order modes at the core-cladding interface, thereby enabling higher beam quality, M.sup.2, than are observed for large core, thin cladding optical fibers. For a given NA and core size, the thicker the cladding, the better the output beam quality. Mode coupling coefficients, D, has been found to scale approximately as the inverse square of the cladding dimension and the inverse square root of the wavelength. Output from a 2 m long silica optical fiber having a 100 .mu.m core and a 660 .mu.m cladding was found to be close to single mode, with an M.sup.2=1.6. Another thick cladding fiber (400 .mu.m core and 720 .mu.m clad) was used to transmit 1064 nm pulses of nanosecond duration with high beam quality to form gas sparks at the focused output (focused intensity of >100 GW/cm.sup.2), wherein the energy in the core was laser pulses was about 6 ns. Extending the pulse duration provided the ability to increase the delivered pulse energy (>20 mJ delivered for 50 ns pulses) without damaging the silica fiber.

  17. Calculation of the output power in self-amplified spontaneous radiation using scaling of power with number of simulation particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.H.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) experiments stimulate interest in quantitative comparison of measurements with theory. In this paper we show that the widely used simulation code TDA3D, developed by Tran and Wurtele [Comput. Phys. Commun. 54, 263 (1989)] even though a single frequency code, can be used to determine the output power in the SASE process with excellent approximation in the exponential growth regime. The method applies when the gain is not very high, which is a special advantage, because when the gain is not very high, the analytical calculation is particularly difficult since the exponential growing term does not dominate. The analysis utilizes a scaling relation between the output power and the number of simulation particles in the code TDA3D: left-angle P right-angle=N λ ' /N λ left-angle P ' right-angle, where left-angle P right-angle is the output power and N λ is the line density of the electrons, while left-angle P ' right-angle is the calculated output power using a line density N λ ' of the number of simulation particles in the code TDA3D. Because of the scaling property, the number of simulation particles can be taken to be many orders of magnitude less than the actual experiment. Comparison of our results with experiment yields new insight into the SASE process. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  18. Multi-decadal Variability of the Wind Power Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner Bossi, Nicolas; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Prieto, Luis; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of the long-term wind power variability is essential to provide a realistic outlook on the power output during the lifetime of a planned wind power project. In this work, the Power Output (Po) of a market wind turbine is simulated with a daily resolution for the period 1871-2009 at two different locations in Spain, one at the Central Iberian Plateau and another at the Gibraltar Strait Area. This is attained through a statistical downscaling of the daily wind conditions. It implements a Greedy Algorithm as classificator of a geostrophic-based wind predictor, which is derived by considering the SLP daily field from the 56 ensemble members of the longest homogeneous reanalysis available (20CR, 1871-2009). For calibration and validation purposes we use 10 years of wind observations (the predictand) at both sites. As a result, a series of 139 annual wind speed Probability Density Functions (PDF) are obtained, with a good performance in terms of wind speed uncertainty reduction (average daily wind speed MAE=1.48 m/s). The obtained centennial series allow to investigate the multi-decadal variability of wind power from different points of view. Significant periodicities around the 25-yr frequency band, as well as long-term linear trends are detected at both locations. In addition, a negative correlation is found between annual Po at both locations, evidencing the differences in the dynamical mechanisms ruling them (and possible complementary behavior). Furthermore, the impact that the three leading large-scale circulation patterns over Iberia (NAO, EA and SCAND) exert over wind power output is evaluated. Results show distinct (and non-stationary) couplings to these forcings depending on the geographical position and season or month. Moreover, significant non-stationary correlations are observed with the slow varying Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index for both case studies. Finally, an empirical relationship is explored between the annual Po and the

  19. Strategies for shortening the output pulse of silicon photomultipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Antoranz Canales, Pedro; Miranda Pantoja, José Miguel; Yebras Rivera, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    In this work, three strategies for shortening the output pulse of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) are reported. The first strategy is passive filtering, where band-pass filtering removes the lowest frequency components in the signal, getting a noticeable reduction in pulse width (a compression ratio of 10: 1 was obtained). In the second place, a reflectometric scheme is proposed where the amplified signal coming from the SiPM is injected into a signal splitter with one of its stubs connected...

  20. Efficient performance simulation of class D amplifier output stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Risbo, Lars; Andreani, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Straightforward simulation of amplifier distortion involves transient simulation of operation on a sine wave input signal, and a subsequent FFT of the output voltage. This approach is very slow on class D amplifiers, since the switching behavior forces simulation time steps that are many orders...... of magnitude smaller than the duration of one period of an audio sine wave. This work presents a method of simulating the amplifier transfer characteristic using a minimum amount of simulation time, and then deriving THD from the results....

  1. A model to predict the power output from wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    This paper will describe a model that can predict the power output from wind farms. To give examples of input the model is applied to a wind farm in Texas. The predictions are generated from forecasts from the NGM model of NCEP. These predictions are made valid at individual sites (wind farms) by applying a matrix calculated by the sub-models of WASP (Wind Atlas Application and Analysis Program). The actual wind farm production is calculated using the Riso PARK model. Because of the preliminary nature of the results, they will not be given. However, similar results from Europe will be given.

  2. Large-scale imaging of retinal output activity

    CERN Document Server

    Litke, A M; Dabrowski, W; Grillo, A A; Grybos, P; Kachiguine, S; Rahman, M; Taylor, G

    2003-01-01

    A system is being developed to study how the retina processes, encodes and communicates information about the visual world to the brain. It will image the activity of retinal output neurons over a region of live retina approaching that used for significant neural computation in the visual cortex. A prototype system consisting of 61 microelectrodes, covering an area of 0.17 mm**2, is described, including some first results with monkey retina. The plans and status for a system with 512 microelectrodes, covering an area of 1.7 mm**2, are also given.

  3. Multichannel display system with automatic sequential output of analog data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Gruzinov, A.E.; Lagoda, V.B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a device that, with maximum simplicity and autonomy, permits parallel data display from 16 measuring channels with automatic output to the screen of a storage oscilloscope in ∼ 50 μsec. The described device can be used to study the divergence characteristics of the ion component of plasma sources and in optical and x-ray spectroscopy of pulsed processes. Owing to its compactness and autonomy, the device can be located in the immediate vicinity of the detectors (for example, inside a vacuum chamber), which allows the number of vacuum electrical lead-ins and the induction level to be reduced

  4. Optimizing Input/Output Using Adaptive File System Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.

  5. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output OFDM with Index Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Basar, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with index modulation (OFDM-IM) is a novel multicarrier transmission technique which has been proposed as an alternative to classical OFDM. The main idea of OFDM-IM is the use of the indices of the active subcarriers in an OFDM system as an additional source of information. In this work, we propose multiple-input multiple-output OFDM-IM (MIMO-OFDM-IM) scheme by combining OFDM-IM and MIMO transmission techniques. The low complexity transceiver structu...

  6. Robust Output Model Predictive Control of an Unstable Rijke Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Jarmolowitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the active control of an unstable Rijke tube using robust output model predictive control (RMPC. As internal model a polytopic linear system with constraints is assumed to account for uncertainties. For guaranteed stability, a linear state feedback controller is designed using linear matrix inequalities and used within a feedback formulation of the model predictive controller. For state estimation a robust gain-scheduled observer is developed. It is shown that the proposed RMPC ensures robust stability under constraints over the considered operating range.

  7. SARAH 3.2: Dirac gauginos, UFO output, and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Florian

    2013-07-01

    SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/O'Mega. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis 5, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and 1-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files has seen further improvement in this version. Also models including Dirac gauginos are supported with the new version of SARAH, and additional checks for the consistency of the implementation of new models have been created. Program summaryProgram title:SARAH Catalogue identifier: AEIB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 22 411 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 629 206 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: All for which Mathematica is available. Operating system: All for which Mathematica is available. Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEIB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 182 (2011) 808 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes, the new version includes all known features of the previous version but also provides the new features mentioned below

  8. Characteristics of output voltage and current of integrated nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Rusen

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the anisotropic property and small output signals of the piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) and the influence of the measurement system and environment, identification of the true signal generated by the NG is critical. We have developed three criteria: Schottky behavior test, switching-polarity tests, and linear superposition of current and voltage tests. The 11 tests can effectively rule out the system artifacts, whose sign does not change with the switching measurement polarity, and random signals, which might change signs but cannot consistently add up or cancel out under designed connection configurations. This study establishes the standards for designing and scale up of integrated nanogenerators. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Correlations in Output and Overflow Traffic Processes in Simple Queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don McNickle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider some simple Markov and Erlang queues with limited storage space. Although the departure processes from some such systems are known to be Poisson, they actually consist of the superposition of two complex correlated processes, the overflow process and the output process. We measure the cross-correlation between the counting processes for these two processes. It turns out that this can be positive, negative, or even zero (without implying independence. The models suggest some general principles on how big these correlations are, and when they are important. This may suggest when renewal or moment approximations to similar processes will be successful, and when they will not.

  10. Testing quantum mechanics against macroscopic realism using the output of χ(2) nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podoshvedov, Sergey A.; Kim, Jaewan

    2006-01-01

    We suggest an all-optical scheme to generate entangled superposition of a single photon with macroscopic entangled states for testing macroscopic realism. The scheme consists of source of single photons, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in routes of which a system of coupled-down converters with type-I phase matching is inserted, and a beam splitter for the other auxiliary modes of the scheme. We use quantization of the pumping modes, depletion of the coherent states passing through the system, and interference effect in the pumping modes in the process of erasing which-path information of the single-photon on exit from the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We show the macroscopic fields of the output superposition are distinguishable states. This scheme generates macroscopic entangled state that violates Bell's inequality. Moreover, the detailed analysis concerning change of amplitudes of entangled superposition by means of repeating this process many times is accomplished. We show our scheme works without photon number resolving detection and it is robust to detector inefficiency

  11. Fitting and benchmarking of Monte Carlo output parameters for iridium-192 high dose rate brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquah, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Brachytherapy, the use of radioactive sources for the treatment of tumours is an important tool in radiation oncology. Accurate calculations of dose delivered to malignant and normal tissues are the main responsibility of the Medical Physics staff. With the use of Treatment Planning System (TPS) computers now becoming a standard practice in the Radiation Oncology Departments, Independent calculations to certify the results of these commercial TPSs are important part of a good quality management system for brachytherapy implants. There are inherent errors in the dose distributions produced by these TPSs due to its failure to account for heterogeneity in the calculation algorithms and Monte Carlo (MC) method seems to be the panacea for these corrections. In this study, a fit functional form using MC output parameters was performed to reduce dose calculation uncertainty using the Matlab software curve fitting applications. This includes the modification of the AAPM TG-43 parameters to accommodate the new developments for a rapid brachytherapy dose rate calculation. Analytical computations were performed to hybridize the anisotropy function, F(r,θ) and radial dose function, g(r) into a single new function f(r,θ) for the Nucletron microSelectron High Dose Rate 'new or v2' (mHDRv2) 192 Ir brachytherapy source. In order to minimize computation time and to improve the accuracy of manual calculations, the dosimetry function f(r,θ) used fewer parameters and formulas for the fit. Using MC outputs as the standard, the percentage errors for the fits were calculated and used to evaluate the average and maximum uncertainties. Dose rate deviation between the MC data and fit were also quantified as errors(E), which showed minimal values. These results showed that the dosimetry parameters from this study as compared to those of MC outputs parameters were in good agreement and better than the results obtained from literature. The work confirms a lot of promise in building robust

  12. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shaun M; Findlay, Scott; Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Grant, Marie Clare

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD) age: 23.1 (3.0) years, height: 1.83 (0.07) m, body mass (BM): 86.3 (13.5) kg) completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin) solution, 2. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml placebo (PLA) solution. Following mouth rinse administration, participants completed a 30 second sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.075 g·kg(-1) BM resistance. Eight participants achieved a greater peak power output (PPO) in the CHO trial, resulting in a significantly greater PPO compared with PLA (13.51 ± 2.19 vs. 13.20 ± 2.14 W·kg(-1), p 0.05). No significant between-trials difference was reported for fatigue index, perceived exertion, arousal and nausea levels, or blood lactate and glucose concentrations. Serial administration of a CHO mouth rinse may significantly improve PPO during a cycle sprint. This improvement appears confined to the first 5 seconds of the sprint, and may come at a greater relative cost for the remainder of the sprint. Key pointsThe paper demonstrates that repeated administration of a carbohydrate mouth rinse can significantly improve peak power output during a single 30 second cycle sprint.The ergogenic effect of the carbohydrate mouth rinse may relate to the duration of exposure of the oral cavity to the mouth rinse, and associated greater stimulation of oral carbohydrate receptors.The significant increase in peak power output with the carbohydrate mouth rinse may come at a relative cost for the remainder of the sprint, evidenced by non-significantly lower mean power output and a greater fatigue index in the carbohydrate vs. placebo trial.Serial administration of a carbohydrate mouth rinse may be beneficial for

  13. Methodological concerns for determining power output in the jump squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; Deane, Russell; McBride, Jeffrey M

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of power measurement techniques during the jump squat (JS) utilizing various combinations of a force plate and linear position transducer (LPT) devices. Nine men with at least 6 months of prior resistance training experience participated in this acute investigation. One repetition maximums (1RM) in the squat were determined, followed by JS testing under 2 loading conditions (30% of 1RM [JS30] and 90% of 1RM [JS90]). Three different techniques were used simultaneously in data collection: (a) 1 linear position transducer (1-LPT); (b) 1 linear position transducer and a force plate (1-LPT + FP); and (c) 2 linear position transducers and a force place (2-LPT + FP). Vertical velocity-, force-, and power-time curves were calculated for each lift using these methodologies and were compared. Peak force and peak power were overestimated by 1-LPT in both JS30 and JS90 compared with 2-LPT + FP and 1-LPT + FP (p squat varies according to the measurement technique utilized. The 1-LPT methodology is not a valid means of determining power output in the jump squat. Furthermore, the 1-LPT + FP method may not accurately represent power output in free weight movements that involve a significant amount of horizontal motion.

  14. Assessing neutron generator output using neutron activation of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, Pauli M.; Kehayias, Joseph J.

    2007-01-01

    D-T neutron generators are used for elemental composition analysis and medical applications. Often composition is determined by examining elemental ratios in which the knowledge of the neutron flux is unnecessary. However, the absolute value of the neutron flux is required when the generator is used for neutron activation analysis, to study radiation damage to materials, to monitor the operation of the generator, and to measure radiation exposure. We describe a method for absolute neutron output and flux measurements of low output D-T neutron generators using delayed activation of silicon. We irradiated a series of silicon oxide samples with 14.1 MeV neutrons and counted the resulting gamma rays of the 28 Al nucleus with an efficiency-calibrated detector. To minimize the photon self-absorption effects within the samples, we used a zero-thickness extrapolation technique by repeating the measurement with samples of different thicknesses. The neutron flux measured 26 cm away from the tritium target of a Thermo Electron A-325 D-T generator (Thermo Electron Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO) was 6.2 x 10 3 n/s/cm 2 ± 5%, which is consistent with the manufacturer's specifications

  15. Estimation of Potential GDP and output Gap. Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Măntescu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis is to assess the impact of the crisis on the potential output and output gaps, to study their evolution by using a comparative approach for a sample of EU countries that were in majority included recently in financial assistance and macroeconomic adjustment programmes. The potential GDP growth rates calculated using the Cobb Douglas production function and Hodrick-Prescott methodology, decelerated substantially across the board in the countries studied once the international economic and financial crisis hit, recording even negative rates of growth in Cyprus, Greece, Portugal, Italy and Spain. In addition to the specific factors that characterise each country, there is a series of common features that will affect the developments of the potential GDP on a long-term basis, such as the increase of global risk aversion correlated with the reduction of the banking exposures, the slow economic recovery in the EU, and last but not least the incoming ageing process, which will exert an additional negative impact on the growth potential of the EU member states. The article makes a series of economic policy recommendations to promote key measures aiming to increase the flexibility of the goods, services, and labour markets, to improve the prioritisation of public expenditures especially capital spending, and to improve the management of the public assets including real estate and public buildings by promoting a mix of measures including privatisation, monetisation and a wider involvement of the private sector in their management.

  16. Hall Sensor Output Signal Fault-Detection & Safety Implementation Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SangHun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently BLDC motors have been popular in various industrial applications and electric mobility. Recently BLDC motors have been popular in various industrial applications and electric mobility. In most brushless direct current (BLDC motor drives, there are three hall sensors as a position reference. Low resolution hall effect sensor is popularly used to estimate the rotor position because of its good comprehensive performance such as low cost, high reliability and sufficient precision. Various possible faults may happen in a hall effect sensor. This paper presents a fault-tolerant operation method that allows the control of a BLDC motor with one faulty hall sensor and presents the hall sensor output fault-tolerant control strategy. The situations considered are when the output from a hall sensor stays continuously at low or high levels, or a short-time pulse appears on a hall sensor signal. For fault detection, identification of a faulty signal and generating a substitute signal, this method only needs the information from the hall sensors. There are a few research work on hall effect sensor failure of BLDC motor. The conventional fault diagnosis methods are signal analysis, model based analysis and knowledge based analysis. The proposed method is signal based analysis using a compensation signal for reconfiguration and therefore fault diagnosis can be fast. The proposed method is validated to execute the simulation using PSIM.

  17. Annual Prediction Output of an RADTIRC-PV Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Freier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of solar photovoltaic (PV installations has been increasing worldwide but the high capital cost of installation continues to be the main challenge, particularly in many developing countries. The solar concentrator, a device that focuses the sunlight onto a small area, has the potential to minimize the use of expensive PV material while maintaining the system’s performance, ultimately bringing down its overall cost. This study aims to predict the annual electrical output of a specific concentrator design called the rotationally asymmetrical dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrator (RADTIRC. The aforementioned design is assumed to be installed in Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. First, a short review of concentrators is provided. Next, a description of the RADTIRC and the previous research that revolved around it are provided. Afterwards, the key parameters that are needed to determine the annual electrical output of the RADTIRC are explained before presenting the results of the simulations. It was found that the yearly energy yield was increased by a factor of 2.29 when the RADTIRC-PV module was used when compared with the non-concentrating PV module.

  18. A PRODUCTIVITY EVALUATION MODEL BASED ON INPUT AND OUTPUT ORIENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Anyaeche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many productivity models evaluate either the input or the output performances using standalone techniques. This sometimes gives divergent views of the same system’s results. The work reported in this article, which simultaneously evaluated productivity from both orientations, was applied on real life data. The results showed losses in productivity (–2% and price recovery (–8% for the outputs; the inputs showed productivity gain (145% but price recovery loss (–63%. These imply losses in product performances but a productivity gain in inputs. The loss in the price recovery of inputs indicates a problem in the pricing policy. This model is applicable in product diversification.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die meeste produktiwiteitsmodelle evalueer of die inset- of die uitsetverrigting deur gebruik te maak van geïsoleerde tegnieke. Dit lei soms tot uiteenlopende perspektiewe van dieselfde sisteem se verrigting. Hierdie artikel evalueer verrigting uit beide perspektiewe en gebruik ware data. Die resultate toon ‘n afname in produktiwiteit (-2% en prysherwinning (-8% vir die uitsette. Die insette toon ‘n toename in produktiwiteit (145%, maar ‘n afname in prysherwinning (-63%. Dit impliseer ‘n afname in produkverrigting, maar ‘n produktiwiteitstoename in insette. Die afname in die prysherwinning van insette dui op ‘n problem in die prysvasstellingbeleid. Hierdie model is geskik vir produkdiversifikasie.

  19. Power output of field-based downhill mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Atkins, Stephen

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the power output of field-based downhill mountain biking. Seventeen trained male downhill cyclists (age 27.1 +/- 5.1 years) competing nationally performed two timed runs of a measured downhill course. An SRM powermeter was used to simultaneously record power, cadence, and speed. Values were sampled at 1-s intervals. Heart rates were recorded at 5-s intervals using a Polar S710 heart rate monitor. Peak and mean power output were 834 +/- 129 W and 75 +/- 26 W respectively. Mean power accounted for only 9% of peak values. Paradoxically, mean heart rate was 168 +/- 9 beats x min(-1) (89% of age-predicted maximum heart rate). Mean cadence (27 +/- 5 rev x min(-1)) was significantly related to speed (r = 0.51; P biking. The poor relationships between power and run time and between cadence and run time suggest they are not essential pre-requisites to downhill mountain biking performance and indicate the importance of riding dynamics to overall performance.

  20. Assessing neutron generator output using neutron activation of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehayias, Pauli M. [Body Composition Laboratory, Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Kehayias, Joseph J. [Body Composition Laboratory, Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)]. E-mail: joseph.kehayias@tufts.edu

    2007-08-15

    D-T neutron generators are used for elemental composition analysis and medical applications. Often composition is determined by examining elemental ratios in which the knowledge of the neutron flux is unnecessary. However, the absolute value of the neutron flux is required when the generator is used for neutron activation analysis, to study radiation damage to materials, to monitor the operation of the generator, and to measure radiation exposure. We describe a method for absolute neutron output and flux measurements of low output D-T neutron generators using delayed activation of silicon. We irradiated a series of silicon oxide samples with 14.1 MeV neutrons and counted the resulting gamma rays of the {sup 28}Al nucleus with an efficiency-calibrated detector. To minimize the photon self-absorption effects within the samples, we used a zero-thickness extrapolation technique by repeating the measurement with samples of different thicknesses. The neutron flux measured 26 cm away from the tritium target of a Thermo Electron A-325 D-T generator (Thermo Electron Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO) was 6.2 x 10{sup 3} n/s/cm{sup 2} {+-} 5%, which is consistent with the manufacturer's specifications.