WorldWideScience

Sample records for single open reading

  1. Open reading frame 122 of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a novel structurual protein of occlusion-derived virions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, G.; Chen Xinwen,; Peters, D.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) and its closely related variant H. zea SNPV (HzSNPV) contain 20 open reading frames (ORFs) unique among baculoviruses. In this report, the function of HaSNPV ORF 122 (Ha122) is investigated. Ha122 was transcribed as a

  2. Co-ordinate expression of glycine betaine synthesis genes linked by the FMDV 2A region in a single open reading frame in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sanhong; Yao, Quanhong; Tao, Jianmin; Qiao, Yushan; Zhang, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    The genes encoding the two enzymes choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) of glycine betaine synthesis in Suaeda salsa were cloned and fused with the 2A region of foot-and-mouth disease virus in a single open reading frame. The fused genes were placed under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter in pPIC3B and transformed into P. pastoris GS115. The expression of the fused genes in P. pastoris and the ability of recombinant yeasts to tolerate environmental stresses were studied. The results showed that induced with 0.5% methanol for 96 h, the maximal activities of CMO and BADH in the tested recombinant yeasts were 45- and 44-fold higher than those in the control yeast transformed empty vector only, respectively; the content of glycine betaine in the recombinant yeasts was 28- to 35-fold higher than that in the control. The fused genes linked by 2A region of foot-and-mouth disease virus were expressed in P. pastoris successfully and the polyprotein was 'cleaved' to each functional protein. The yeasts transformed the fused genes, which were more resistant to salt, methanol, and high temperature stresses than the control as result of glycine betaine synthesis genes introduced.

  3. The Definition of Open Reading Frame Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Patricia; Platzer, Matthias; Schuster, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    The term open reading frame (ORF) is of central importance to gene finding. Surprisingly, at least three definitions are in use. We discuss several molecular biological and bioinformatics aspects, and we recommend using the definition in which an ORF is bounded by stop codons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prologue: Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Kamhi, Alan G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this initial article of the clinical forum on reading comprehension, we argue that reading comprehension is not a single ability that can be assessed by one or more general reading measures or taught by a small set of strategies or approaches. Method: We present evidence for a multidimensional view of reading comprehension that…

  5. Open Reading Frame Phylogenetic Analysis on the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Lun Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis has become essential in researching the evolutionary relationships between viruses. These relationships are depicted on phylogenetic trees, in which viruses are grouped based on sequence similarity. Viral evolutionary relationships are identified from open reading frames rather than from complete sequences. Recently, cloud computing has become popular for developing internet-based bioinformatics tools. Biocloud is an efficient, scalable, and robust bioinformatics computing service. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based open reading frame phylogenetic analysis service. The proposed service integrates the Hadoop framework, virtualization technology, and phylogenetic analysis methods to provide a high-availability, large-scale bioservice. In a case study, we analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Norovirus. Evolutionary relationships are elucidated by aligning different open reading frame sequences. The proposed platform correctly identifies the evolutionary relationships between members of Norovirus.

  6. DNA vaccination of pigs with open reading frame 1-7 of PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Annette Malene; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete; Jensen, Merethe Holm

    2004-01-01

    We cloned all open reading frames of a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in DNA vaccination vectors. Pigs were vaccinated using a gene gun with each single construct (ORF1, ORF2, ORF3, ORF4, ORF5, ORF6, or ORF7) or combinations thereof. Vaccination...

  7. A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR READING URBAN OPEN SPACE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Al-Bishawi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a methodological approach for reading and analyzing urban open spaces, based on the concept of behavioral setting, which deals with individuals and their behavior as a tool for reading the urban open space. The behavioral setting is defined as the smallest living entity in the physical environment and has three main components: physical (design, social (use and cultural (rules. Based on that, the urban open space, as a part of the physical environment, can be considered as either one setting or a system of settings, according to the activities that take place within it and the users who occupy it. The proposed methodological approach will be discussed through the theoretical analysis of various studies on the physical form of urban open spaces. The approach is expected to help planners and architects in developing and providing urban spaces that comply with people’s needs and values.

  8. Isolation and open reading frame 5 gene analysis of porcine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    2012-11-08

    Nov 8, 2012 ... viral RNA of fourth generation, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR based on open reading frame 5 (ORF5) ... fourth generation. TCID50 of isolate measured by Reed-Muench method was 10-3.6/0.1 ml. Genetic evolution of ORF5 indicated that the two isolated strains were in a .... generation of the virus culture.

  9. Electrophysiological Correlates of Reading the Single- and Interactive-Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Wen; Zheng, Yu-Wei; Lin, Chong-De; Wu, Jie; Shen, De-Li

    2011-01-01

    Understanding minds is the cognitive basis of successful social interaction. In everyday life, human mental activity often happens at the moment of social interaction among two or multiple persons instead of only one-person. Understanding the interactive mind of two- or multi-person is more complex and higher than understanding the single-person mind in the hierarchical structure of theory of mind. Understanding the interactive mind maybe differentiate from understanding the single mind. In order to examine the dissociative electrophysiological correlates of reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind, the 64 channels event-related potentials were recorded while 16 normal adults were observing three kinds of Chinese idioms depicted physical scenes, one-person with mental activity, and two- or multi-person with mental interaction. After the equivalent N400, in the 500- to 700-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of late positive component (LPC) over frontal for reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind were significantly more positive than for physical representation, while there was no difference between the former two. In the 700- to 800-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of LPC over frontal–central for reading the interactive mind were more positive than for reading the single mind and physical representation, while there was no difference between the latter two. The present study provides electrophysiological signature of the dissociations between reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind. PMID:21845178

  10. Electrophysiological correlates of reading the single- and interactive-mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen eWang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding minds is the cognitive basis of successful social interaction. In everyday life, human mental activity often happens at the moment of social interaction among two or multiple persons instead of only one person. Understanding the interactive mind of two- or multi-person is more complex and higher than understanding the single-person mind in the hierarchical structure of theory-of-mind. Understanding the interactive mind maybe differentiate from understanding the single mind. In order to examine the dissociative electrophysiological correlates of reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind, the 64 channels event-related potentials (ERP were recorded while 16 normal adults were observing three kinds of Chinese idioms depicted physical scenes, one-person with mental activity and two- or multi-person with mental interaction. After the equivalent N400, in the 500- to 700-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of late positive component (LPC over frontal for reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind were significantly more positive than for physical representation, while there was no difference between the former two. In the 700-to 800-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of LPC over frontal-central for reading the interactive mind were more positive than for reading the single mind and physical representation, while there was no difference between the latter two. The present study provides electrophysiological signature of the dissociations between reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind.

  11. Books and Reading and Singleness of Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that in an age of information overload, the public library role is to promote books and reading and warns that public libraries that focus on technologies and information services will become cogs in the engine of material progress rather than fulfilling their role as sources of knowledge. (19 references) (EJS)

  12. Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Stephen, Ed.

    Articles in this monograph reflect the fact that English teachers see reading and literature as closely related. The opening essay, "Reading Is Non-Linear," provides the theoretical base for a comprehensive approach, drawing on current psycholinguistic theory. "Toward Comprehensive Reading Programs in Secondary Schools," reviews current issues and…

  13. Assessment of reading habits of national open university of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 49% of NOUN students read for leisure. A general recommendation was made to the ministry of education in Nigeria to make reading a subject of its own which should be made compulsory and seriously taught from primary school to the university level. In the case of NOUN, seminars and workshops on reading should ...

  14. Translational control of Nrf2 within the open reading frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Leal, Oscar; Barrero, Carlos A.; Merali, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Identification of a novel Nrf2 translational repression mechanism. •The repressor is within the 3′ portion of the Nrf2 ORF. •The translation of Nrf2 or eGFP is reduced by the regulatory element. •The translational repression can be reversed with synonymous codon substitutions. •The molecular mechanism requires the mRNA sequence, but not the encoded amino acids. -- Abstract: Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that is essential for the regulation of an effective antioxidant and detoxifying response. The regulation of its activity can occur at transcription, translation and post-translational levels. Evidence suggests that under environmental stress conditions, new synthesis of Nrf2 is required – a process that is regulated by translational control and is not fully understood. Here we described the identification of a novel molecular process that under basal conditions strongly represses the translation of Nrf2 within the open reading frame (ORF). This mechanism is dependent on the mRNA sequence within the 3′ portion of the ORF of Nrf2 but not in the encoded amino acid sequence. The Nrf2 translational repression can be reversed with the use of synonymous codon substitutions. This discovery suggests an additional layer of control to explain the reason for the low Nrf2 concentration under quiescent state

  15. Predicting functional upstream open reading frames in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansson Erik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some upstream open reading frames (uORFs regulate gene expression (i.e., they are functional and can play key roles in keeping organisms healthy. However, how uORFs are involved in gene regulation is not yet fully understood. In order to get a complete view of how uORFs are involved in gene regulation, it is expected that a large number of experimentally verified functional uORFs are needed. Unfortunately, wet-experiments to verify that uORFs are functional are expensive. Results In this paper, a new computational approach to predicting functional uORFs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. Our approach is based on inductive logic programming and makes use of a novel combination of knowledge about biological conservation, Gene Ontology annotations and genes' responses to different conditions. Our method results in a set of simple and informative hypotheses with an estimated sensitivity of 76%. The hypotheses predict 301 further genes to have 398 novel functional uORFs. Three (RPC11, TPK1, and FOL1 of these 301 genes have been hypothesised, following wet-experiments, by a related study to have functional uORFs. A comparison with another related study suggests that eleven of the predicted functional uORFs from genes LDB17, HEM3, CIN8, BCK2, PMC1, FAS1, APP1, ACC1, CKA2, SUR1, and ATH1 are strong candidates for wet-lab experimental studies. Conclusions Learning based prediction of functional uORFs can be done with a high sensitivity. The predictions made in this study can serve as a list of candidates for subsequent wet-lab verification and might help to elucidate the regulatory roles of uORFs.

  16. Management of Open Abdomen: Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yanar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The authors reviewed their experience in the management of open abdomen using the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC, in order to assess its morbidity, and the outcome of abdominal wall integrity. Methods. A retrospective review was performed using the trauma registry to identify patients undergoing temporary abdominal closure (TAC either using Bogota Bag (BB or VAC, from January 2006 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were TAC and survival to definitive abdominal closure. Data collected included age, indication for TAC, number of operating room procedures, primary fascial closure rate, and complications. Results. During the study period, 156 patients required one type of TAC. Mean number of operations required in BB group was 3.04 as compared to 1.96 in VAC group (. Survival was significantly increased in the VAC group (. The difference in primary closure rates did not reach statistical significance (25% vs. 55%; . Complications were observed less frequently in the VAC group (. The mean time for fascial closure was 21 (±12 days in the BB group, as opposed to 6 (±3 days in the VAC group (. Conclusion. The vacuum assisted closure (VAC has a significantly faster rate of closure, requires less number of operations, and is associated with a lower complication rate.

  17. Is single reading with computer-aided detection (CAD) as good as double reading in mammography screening? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azavedo, Edward; Zackrisson, Sophia; Mejàre, Ingegerd; Heibert Arnlind, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with European guidelines, mammography screening comprises independent readings by two breast radiologists (double reading). CAD (computer-aided detection) has been suggested to complement or replace one of the two readers (single reading + CAD). The aim of this systematic review is to address the following question: Is the reading of mammographic x-ray images by a single breast radiologist together with CAD at least as accurate as double reading? The electronic literature search included the databases Pub Med, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Two independent reviewers assessed abstracts and full-text articles. 1049 abstracts were identified, of which 996 were excluded with reference to inclusion and exclusion criteria; 53 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Finally, four articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and one in a GRADE synthesis. The scientific evidence is insufficient to determine whether the accuracy of single reading + CAD is at least equivalent to that obtained in standard practice, i.e. double reading where two breast radiologists independently read the mammographic images

  18. Measurement of reading speed with standardized texts: a comparison of single sentences and paragraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Elke Karin; Marx, Tobias; Nguyen, Nhung Xuan; Naumann, Aline; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    We examined the influence of text length (single sentence versus a paragraph of several sentences) on the repeatability of reading speed measurements in normal-sighted subjects. We compared reading speeds for the German versions of the Radner charts (single sentences of 14 words each) and the International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) charts (paragraphs, on average 132 words) in 30 normal-sighted elderly subjects aged 51-81 years (mean 64.5 years ± 7.2 SD). Three texts each of both lengths were read aloud in random order. The influence of text length (single sentence or paragraph) and text sample (each single text) on reading speed was calculated by a regression model and Bland-Altman analysis. Mean reading speed (words per minute) showed no significant difference for single sentences (170 wpm ± 33 SD) and paragraphs (167 wpm ±31 SD). Differences in reading speeds within one type of reading material were higher between single sentences than between paragraphs. Correlation coefficients between speeds were higher for paragraphs (r = 0.96-0.98) than for single sentences (r = 0.69-0.78). Variations between reading speeds for three texts of each length were markedly lower for paragraphs than for single sentences: (median, interquartile range [IQR]): 6.7, IQR 13.9; 3.0, IQR 8.3; -2.0, IQR 9.7 versus -8.8, IQR 29.6; 15.6, IQR 29.4; 22.7, IQR 19.4, respectively. Since reading speeds assessed with paragraphs show lower variance among texts than those for single sentences, they are better suited for repeated measurements, especially for long-term monitoring of the course of reading performance and for assessing effects of interventions in subjects with reading disorders.

  19. Is single reading with computer-aided detection (CAD) as good as double reading in mammography screening? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azavedo, Edward; Zackrisson, Sophia; Mejàre, Ingegerd; Heibert Arnlind, Marianne

    2012-07-24

    In accordance with European guidelines, mammography screening comprises independent readings by two breast radiologists (double reading). CAD (computer-aided detection) has been suggested to complement or replace one of the two readers (single reading + CAD).The aim of this systematic review is to address the following question: Is the reading of mammographic x-ray images by a single breast radiologist together with CAD at least as accurate as double reading? The electronic literature search included the databases Pub Med, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Two independent reviewers assessed abstracts and full-text articles. 1049 abstracts were identified, of which 996 were excluded with reference to inclusion and exclusion criteria; 53 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Finally, four articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and one in a GRADE synthesis. The scientific evidence is insufficient to determine whether the accuracy of single reading + CAD is at least equivalent to that obtained in standard practice, i.e. double reading where two breast radiologists independently read the mammographic images.

  20. Open-Access Single Balloon Enteroscopy: A Tertiary Care Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Nathan; Wallace, Kristin; Moore, J Matthew; Brock, Andrew S

    2015-12-01

    To compare single balloon enteroscopy (SBE) between patients seen in consultation by a member of our gastroenterology team with those performed as open-access cases. Retrospective study of all patients who underwent SBE at a single tertiary care center from April 2008 to January 2012. Open- and closed-access procedures were compared in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic yield, adverse events, and procedural success. A total of 125 SBEs were performed on 125 patients. The mean age was 63.1 (53% men) years. In all, 43 procedures were performed open access and 82 after face-to-face consultation. Indications included anemia/gastrointestinal bleeding (110), abdominal pain (8), and other (7). Diagnostic yield for open- and closed-access procedures was 53% and 60%, respectively (P = 0.501) and therapeutic yield was 37% and 52%, respectively (P = 0.11). Overall technical success was 91% with no difference between the groups (P = 0.27). There were no major adverse events in either group. SBE can be performed as an open-access procedure without compromise to safety or diagnostic yield.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis for breast cancer screening: double reading versus single + CAD reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Kawai, Masaaki; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Shibuya, Daisuke; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Ishibashi, Tadashi

    2014-09-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) increases breast cancer detection, but its cost-effectiveness is unknown for breast cancer screening in Japan. We aimed to determine whether screening mammography diagnosed by one physician using CAD is cost-effective when compared with the standard double reading by two physicians. We established our model with a decision tree and Markov model concept based on feasible screening and clinical pathways, combined with prognosis of the health state transition of breast cancer. Cost-effectiveness analysis between double reading by two readers and single reading with CAD by one reader was performed from a social perspective in terms of the expected cost, life expectancy and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The hypothetical population comprised 50-year-old female breast cancer screening examinees. Only direct medical costs related to breast cancer screening and treatment were considered. One simulation cycle was 2 years, and the annual discount rate was 3 %. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the robustness of the model and input data. Single reading with CAD increased expected costs by 2,704 yen and extended life expectancy by 0.0087 years compared with double reading. The ICER was 310,805 yen per life year gained, which is below the threshold. Sensitivity analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of CAD and the number of breast cancer screening examinees greatly affected the results. Single reading using CAD in mammography screening is more cost-effective than double reading, although the results are highly sensitive to the sensitivity and specificity of CAD and the numbers of examinees.

  2. Open Oncology Notes: A Qualitative Study of Oncology Patients' Experiences Reading Their Cancer Care Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Neha; Pollak, Kathryn I; LeBlanc, Thomas W

    2018-04-01

    Electronic medical records increasingly allow patients access to clinician notes. Although most believe that open notes benefits patients, some suggest negative consequences. Little is known about the experiences of patients with cancer reading their medical notes; thus we aimed to describe this qualitatively. We interviewed 20 adults with metastatic or incurable cancer receiving cancer treatment. The semistructured qualitative interviews included four segments: assessing their overall experience reading notes, discussing how notes affected their cancer care experiences, reading a real note with the interviewer, and making suggestions for improvement. We used a constant comparison approach to analyze these qualitative data. We found four themes. Patients reported that notes resulted in the following: (1) increased comprehension; (2) ameliorated uncertainty, relieved anxiety, and facilitated control; (3) increased trust; and (4) for a subset of patients, increased anxiety. Patients described increased comprehension because notes refreshed their memory and clarified their understanding of visits. This helped mitigate the unfamiliarity of cancer, addressing uncertainty and relieving anxiety. Notes facilitated control, empowering patients to ask clinicians more questions. The transparency of notes also increased trust in clinicians. For a subset of patients, however, notes were emotionally difficult to read and raised concerns. Patients identified medical jargon and repetition in notes as areas for improvement. Most patients thought that reading notes improved their care experiences. A small subset of patients experienced increased distress. As reading notes becomes a routine part of the patient experience, physicians might want to elicit and address concerns that arise from notes, thereby further engaging patients in their care.

  3. The Effect of Reading Involvement through Open-Ended Strategy vs. Fill-in- the- Blanks Strategy on Young EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Salehi Sepehr; Esmaeil Bagheridoust; Massood Yazdani Moghaddam

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which an instructional framework of integrating strategy instruction (open-ended strategy and fill-in-the blanks strategy) with motivation- support affected on reading result for young EFL learners. The central area of exploration included a comparison among three approaches to reading instruction: First, fill-in-the blanks strategy intervention; second, open-ended strategy intervention; and last, a control group which received the conventional rea...

  4. The Effect of Reading Involvement through Open-Ended Strategy vs. Fill-in- the- Blanks Strategy on Young EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Salehi Sepehr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the extent to which an instructional framework of integrating strategy instruction (open-ended strategy and fill-in-the blanks strategy with motivation- support affected on reading result for young EFL learners. The central area of exploration included a comparison among three approaches to reading instruction: First, fill-in-the blanks strategy intervention; second, open-ended strategy intervention; and last, a control group which received the conventional reading strategies. The participants were sampled from amongst a group of seventy-seven pre-intermediate EFL learners in a language school in Tehran- Iran based on convenient sampling technique. For the sake of measurement, the researchers administered PET and CELT along with reading strategy based-test to quantify the participants’ current level of knowledge as well as the degree of achievement after treatment. For measurement’s sake, different types of tests such as PET, reading comprehension test (CELT, and reading strategy based- test were employed to quantify the participants’ current level of knowledge as well as the degree of achievement before and after instruction. The result of the present study indicated that the experimental groups had a significant improvement over the control group. Also, the level of learners’ reading engagement during classroom work mediated the instructional effects on reading outcomes. The results of this study can be to the benefit of both EFL and ESL teachers to teach reading comprehension using the student's critical mind as well as critical involvement in the reading tasks.

  5. Commentary on "Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability": Implications for Child Language Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A

    2017-04-20

    This commentary responds to the implications for child language intervention of Catts and Kamhi's (2017) call to move from viewing reading comprehension as a single ability to recognizing it as a complex constellation of reader, text, and activity. Reading comprehension, as Catts and Kamhi explain, is very complicated. In this commentary, I consider how comprehension has been taught and the directions in which it is moving. I consider how speech-language pathologists (SLPs), with their distinctive expertise and resources, can contribute to effective reading comprehension instruction. I build from Catts and Kamhi's emphasis on the importance of context and knowledge, using the approaches of staying on topic, close reading, and incorporating quality features of intervention. I consider whether and how SLPs should treat language skills and comprehension strategies to achieve noticeable changes in their students' reading comprehension. Within this multidimensional view of reading comprehension, SLPs can make strategic, meaningful contributions to improving the reading comprehension of students with language impairments.

  6. Commentary on "Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability": Implications for Child Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This commentary responds to the implications for child language intervention of Catts and Kamhi's (2017) call to move from viewing reading comprehension as a single ability to recognizing it as a complex constellation of reader, text, and activity. Method: Reading comprehension, as Catts and Kamhi explain, is very complicated. In this…

  7. Does the accuracy of single reading with CAD (computer-aided detection) compare with that of double reading?: A review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.L.; Blanks, R.G.; Moss, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine current evidence to determine whether the accuracy of single reading with computed-aided detection (CAD) compares with that of double reading. Methods: We performed a literature review to identify studies where both protocols had been investigated and compared. We identified eight studies that compared single reading with CAD against double reading, of which six reported on comparisons of both sensitivity and specificity. Results: Of the six studies identified, three showed no differences in either sensitivity or specificity. One showed single reading with CAD had a higher sensitivity at the same specificity, another that single reading with CAD had a higher specificity at the same sensitivity. However, one study, in a real-life setting, showed that single reading with CAD had a higher sensitivity but a lower specificity. Conclusion: As the majority of the studies were not in a real-life setting, used test sets, lacked sufficient training in the use of CAD and simulated double reading (using a protocol of recall if one suggests), current evidence is therefore limited as to the accuracy, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, of single reading with CAD in comparison with the most common practice in the UK of double reading using a protocol of consensus or arbitration

  8. 3 ns single-shot read-out in a quantum dot-based memory structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowozin, T.; Bimberg, D.; Beckel, A.; Lorke, A.; Geller, M.

    2014-01-01

    Fast read-out of two to six charges per dot from the ground and first excited state in a quantum dot (QD)-based memory is demonstrated using a two-dimensional electron gas. Single-shot measurements on modulation-doped field-effect transistor structures with embedded InAs/GaAs QDs show read-out times as short as 3 ns. At low temperature (T = 4.2 K) this read-out time is still limited by the parasitics of the setup and the device structure. Faster read-out times and a larger read-out signal are expected for an improved setup and device structure

  9. Dual-sided reading versus single-sided reading: comparison of image quality and radiation dose between the two computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shaojuan; Qi Hengtao; Zhao Yongxia; Jiao Fanglian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the difference in image quality and exposure dose between single-sided reading image plate (IP) and dual-sided reading IP. Methods: A contrast-detail phantom CDRAD 2.0 was exposed by single-sided and dual-sided reading IP with different mAs sets. The entrance surface doses were recorded for all images. Images were then presented to two radiologists on a high resolution monitor of diagnosis workstation. The image quality figure (IQF) was measured for each image. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's correlation test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the difference in image quality and exposure dose between single-sided IP and dual-sided reading IP. Results: With different tube current dosage of 5.6, 12.0, 20.0, 25.0, and 40.0 mAs, IQF values of single-sided reading IP were 47.95, 37.68, 34.31, 28.61, and 24.65, respectively, while those of dual- sided reading IP were 38.83, 29.81, 29.65, 25.16, and 21.43, respectively. The IQF difference between them showed statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion: Image quality of dual-sided reading IP has been proved to be far superior to that of single-sided reading IP, in particular for low contrast detail. The image quality of single-sided reading IP is similar to that of dual-sided reading IP only at high dose levels. The clinical application of dual-sided reading IP will reduce the exposure dose by about 25% compared with single-sided reading IP. (authors)

  10. The syntax of single words: Evidence from a patient with a selective function word reading deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druks, Judit; Froud, Karen

    2002-05-01

    We describe the reading performance of a patient who has selective deficits for reading nonwords, function words, and morphologically complex words in isolation. His reading of highly abstract nouns and verbs, however, is relatively well preserved. He can recognise and comprehend the meaning of written function words, of derivational morphology, and of most inflectional morphology. We suggest that his deficit in reading grammatical morphemes is unrelated to his problems in reading nonwords and cannot be explained by their low semanticity and imageability. The patient's speech is ungrammatical but is not devoid of grammatical morphemes and his reading of functional elements improves when these are presented within the context of sentences. We argue that syntactic information relevant to individual lexical items including information about how the word may potentially be used within a phrase must be accessed during single word reading tasks (e.g., Levelt, 1989). This is particularly difficult for function words due to their linguistic specification, which is different from that of lexical categories (Chomsky, 1995). Both linguistic theory and Garrett's (e.g., 1982) model of sentence processing account for the patient's improved reading of function words in the context of sentences.

  11. Genome-Wide Search for Translated Upstream Open Reading Frames in Arabidopsis Thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiwen; Merchante, Catharina; Stepanova, Anna N; Alonso, Jose M; Heber, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are open reading frames that occur within the 5' UTR of an mRNA. uORFs have been found in many organisms. They play an important role in gene regulation, cell development, and in various metabolic processes. It is believed that translated uORFs reduce the translational efficiency of the main coding region. However, only few uORFs are experimentally characterized. In this paper, we use ribosome footprinting together with a semi-supervised approach based on stacking classification models to identify translated uORFs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our approach identified 5360 potentially translated uORFs in 2051 genes. GO terms enriched in genes with translated uORFs include catalytic activity, binding, transferase activity, phosphotransferase activity, kinase activity, and transcription regulator activity. The reported uORFs occur with a higher frequency in multi-isoform genes, and some uORFs are affected by alternative transcript start sites or alternative splicing events. Association rule mining revealed sequence features associated with the translation status of the uORFs. We hypothesize that uORF translation is a complex process that might be regulated by multiple factors. The identified uORFs are available online at:https://www.dropbox.com/sh/zdutupedxafhly8/AABFsdNR5zDfiozB7B4igFcja?dl=0. This paper is the extended version of our research presented at ISBRA 2015.

  12. An improved filtering algorithm for big read datasets and its application to single-cell assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Axel; Kliemann, Lasse; Srivastav, Anand; Schielke, Christian; Reusch, Thorsten B; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2017-07-03

    For single-cell or metagenomic sequencing projects, it is necessary to sequence with a very high mean coverage in order to make sure that all parts of the sample DNA get covered by the reads produced. This leads to huge datasets with lots of redundant data. A filtering of this data prior to assembly is advisable. Brown et al. (2012) presented the algorithm Diginorm for this purpose, which filters reads based on the abundance of their k-mers. We present Bignorm, a faster and quality-conscious read filtering algorithm. An important new algorithmic feature is the use of phred quality scores together with a detailed analysis of the k-mer counts to decide which reads to keep. We qualify and recommend parameters for our new read filtering algorithm. Guided by these parameters, we remove in terms of median 97.15% of the reads while keeping the mean phred score of the filtered dataset high. Using the SDAdes assembler, we produce assemblies of high quality from these filtered datasets in a fraction of the time needed for an assembly from the datasets filtered with Diginorm. We conclude that read filtering is a practical and efficient method for reducing read data and for speeding up the assembly process. This applies not only for single cell assembly, as shown in this paper, but also to other projects with high mean coverage datasets like metagenomic sequencing projects. Our Bignorm algorithm allows assemblies of competitive quality in comparison to Diginorm, while being much faster. Bignorm is available for download at https://git.informatik.uni-kiel.de/axw/Bignorm .

  13. Cantilever-based sensor with integrated optical read-out using single mode waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    surface. Here, we present a novel integrated optical read-out scheme based on single-mode waveguides that enables the fabrication of a compact system. The complete system is fabricated in the polymer SU-8. This manuscript shows the principle of operation and the design well as the fabrication...

  14. Functional genomics of genes with small open reading frames (sORFs) in S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenmayer, James P.; Ni, Li; Chu, Angela; Kitchen, Lauren E.; Au, Wei-Chun; Yang, Hui; Carter, Carole D.; Wheeler, David; Davis, Ronald W.; Boeke, Jef D.; Snyder, Michael A.; Basrai, Munira A.

    2006-01-01

    Genes with small open reading frames (sORFs; molecular barcode,” bringing the total number of sORF deletion strains to 247. Phenotypic analyses of the new gene-deletion strains identified 22 sORFs required for haploid growth, growth at high temperature, growth in the presence of a nonfermentable carbon source, or growth in the presence of DNA damage and replication-arrest agents. We provide a collection of sORF deletion strains that can be integrated into the existing deletion collection as a resource for the yeast community for elucidating gene function. Moreover, our analyses of the S. cerevisiae sORFs establish that sORFs are conserved across eukaryotes and have important biological functions. PMID:16510898

  15. Improved Identification and Analysis of Small Open Reading Frame Encoded Polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiao; Diedrich, Jolene K; Jungreis, Irwin; Donaldson, Cynthia; Vaughan, Joan; Kellis, Manolis; Yates, John R; Saghatelian, Alan

    2016-04-05

    Computational, genomic, and proteomic approaches have been used to discover nonannotated protein-coding small open reading frames (smORFs). Some novel smORFs have crucial biological roles in cells and organisms, which motivates the search for additional smORFs. Proteomic smORF discovery methods are advantageous because they detect smORF-encoded polypeptides (SEPs) to validate smORF translation and SEP stability. Because SEPs are shorter and less abundant than average proteins, SEP detection using proteomics faces unique challenges. Here, we optimize several steps in the SEP discovery workflow to improve SEP isolation and identification. These changes have led to the detection of several new human SEPs (novel human genes), improved confidence in the SEP assignments, and enabled quantification of SEPs under different cellular conditions. These improvements will allow faster detection and characterization of new SEPs and smORFs.

  16. Open reading frames associated with cancer in the dark matter of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana Paula; Brandao, Pamela; Chapado, Maria Julia; Hamid, Sheilin; Narayanan, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    The uncharacterized proteins (open reading frames, ORFs) in the human genome offer an opportunity to discover novel targets for cancer. A systematic analysis of the dark matter of the human proteome for druggability and biomarker discovery is crucial to mining the genome. Numerous data mining tools are available to mine these ORFs to develop a comprehensive knowledge base for future target discovery and validation. Using the Genetic Association Database, the ORFs of the human dark matter proteome were screened for evidence of association with neoplasms. The Phenome-Genome Integrator tool was used to establish phenotypic association with disease traits including cancer. Batch analysis of the tools for protein expression analysis, gene ontology and motifs and domains was used to characterize the ORFs. Sixty-two ORFs were identified for neoplasm association. The expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) analysis identified thirteen ORFs related to cancer traits. Protein expression, motifs and domain analysis and genome-wide association studies verified the relevance of these OncoORFs in diverse tumors. The OncoORFs are also associated with a wide variety of human diseases and disorders. Our results link the OncoORFs to diverse diseases and disorders. This suggests a complex landscape of the uncharacterized proteome in human diseases. These results open the dark matter of the proteome to novel cancer target research. Copyright© 2014, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. READING OPEN EDUCATION IN THE AGE OF MANKIND: REPRODUCTION OF MEANING IN THE DERRIDEAN SENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfem GURSES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid change in the communication technologies plays a significant role in the transformation processes of societies. The studies studying the industrial revolution in two phases inform us that the first phase of the revolution involved a revolution in machinery while the second phase saw a revolution in technology. Fast forwarding to the twentieth century, however, one of the areas that has been affected greatly from the said technological revolution is education. The structural changes in education are essential for a new educational process that is consistent with a heterogeneous student population and independent of time and space. In this respect, the new education system in information age has been come to be called open and distance education. In the 21st century, when the information age gave way to the human age, we see learner oriented education system. Putting the learner at the center of the educational process, this particular system puts an end to binary opposition between the subject and object. Having aimed at identifying students’ perception of open and distance education system -being the educational technology of the twenty first century-, the present study has been conducted with 69 students that were presently enrolled to the Anadolu University Faculty of Open Education and entitled to the certificate of honor. A metaphor analysis method was employed within the scope of this study. In order to evaluate the students’ perception of open education system, this study adopted a "phenomenological method" as its qualitative research method as it seemed to be more suited to its purpose. In order to identify the students' perception of open education system, they were given a semi structured questionnaire form that contained the following statement “Open Education is like ………… Because it is ………………” and asked to convey their thoughts by focusing exclusively on a single metaphor. The answers from the

  18. Human herpesvirus 8 open reading frame 26 and open reading frame 65 sequences from multiple myeloma patients: a shared pattern not found in Kaposi's sarcoma or primary effusion lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H J; Sjak-Shie, N N; Vescio, R A; Kaminsky, M; Mikail, A; Pold, M; Parker, K; Beksac, M; Belson, D; Moss, T J; Wu, C H; Zhou, J; Zhang, L; Chen, G; Said, J W; Berenson, J R

    2000-11-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), multicentric Castleman's disease, and recently multiple myeloma (MM). DNA sequence analyses of HHV-8 suggest that multiple HHV-8 strains exist. We extracted DNA from 24 patients with MM and 3 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and compared HHV-8 open reading frames (ORFs) 26 and 65 sequences with those derived from patients with KS, PEL, and two HHV-8-positive PEL cell lines KS-1 and BC-1. ORF26 sequence data suggest that MM patients are consistently carriers of HHV-8 strain subtype C3. All MM patients also consistently revealed either a single bp deletion or substitution at position 112197 in ORF65. This unique alteration is not present in patients with KS or PEL or in PEL cell lines. It occurs in the portion of ORF65 that is known to be responsible for a serological response to HHV-8.

  19. On the Eye Movement Control of Changing Reading Direction for a Single Word: The Case of Reading Numerals in Urdu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azizuddin; Loberg, Otto; Hautala, Jarkko

    2017-10-01

    Typically orthographies are consistent in terms of reading direction, i.e. from left-to-right or right-to-left. However, some are bidirectional, i.e., certain parts of the text, (such as numerals in Urdu), are read against the default reading direction. Such sudden changes in reading direction may challenge the reader in many ways, at the level of planning of saccadic eye movements, changing the direction of attention, word recognition processes and cognitive reading strategies. The present study attempts to understand how readers achieve such sudden changes in reading direction at the level of eye movements and conscious cognitive reading strategies. Urdu readers reported employing a two-stage strategy for reading numerals by first counting the number of digits during right-to-left fixations, and only then forming numeric representation during left-to-right fixations. Eye movement findings were aligned with this strategy usage, as long numerals were often read with deliberate forward-and-backward fixation sequences. In these sequences fixations preceding saccades to default reading direction were shorter than against it, suggesting that different cognitive processes such as counting and formation of numeric representation were involved in fixations preceding left- and right-directed saccades. Finally, the change against the default reading direction was preceded by highly inflated fixation duration, pinpointing the oculomotor, attentional and cognitive demands in executing sudden changes in reading direction.

  20. Translation of small open reading frames within unannotated RNA transcripts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jenna E; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Kline, Nicholas; Huynh, Nathan J; Geisler, Sarah; Hu, Wenqian; Coller, Jeff; Baker, Kristian E

    2014-06-26

    High-throughput gene expression analysis has revealed a plethora of previously undetected transcripts in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we investigate >1,100 unannotated transcripts in yeast predicted to lack protein-coding capacity. We show that a majority of these RNAs are enriched on polyribosomes akin to mRNAs. Ribosome profiling demonstrates that many bind translocating ribosomes within predicted open reading frames 10-96 codons in size. We validate expression of peptides encoded within a subset of these RNAs and provide evidence for conservation among yeast species. Consistent with their translation, many of these transcripts are targeted for degradation by the translation-dependent nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) pathway. We identify lncRNAs that are also sensitive to NMD, indicating that translation of noncoding transcripts also occurs in mammals. These data demonstrate transcripts considered to lack coding potential are bona fide protein coding and expand the proteome of yeast and possibly other eukaryotes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Translation of Small Open Reading Frames within Unannotated RNA Transcripts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna E. Smith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput gene expression analysis has revealed a plethora of previously undetected transcripts in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we investigate >1,100 unannotated transcripts in yeast predicted to lack protein-coding capacity. We show that a majority of these RNAs are enriched on polyribosomes akin to mRNAs. Ribosome profiling demonstrates that many bind translocating ribosomes within predicted open reading frames 10–96 codons in size. We validate expression of peptides encoded within a subset of these RNAs and provide evidence for conservation among yeast species. Consistent with their translation, many of these transcripts are targeted for degradation by the translation-dependent nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD pathway. We identify lncRNAs that are also sensitive to NMD, indicating that translation of noncoding transcripts also occurs in mammals. These data demonstrate transcripts considered to lack coding potential are bona fide protein coding and expand the proteome of yeast and possibly other eukaryotes.

  2. Open Source Clinical NLP – More than Any Single System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanz, James; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Xu, Hua; Wu, Stephen T.; Chute, Christopher G.; Liu, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    The number of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools and systems for processing clinical free-text has grown as interest and processing capability have surged. Unfortunately any two systems typically cannot simply interoperate, even when both are built upon a framework designed to facilitate the creation of pluggable components. We present two ongoing activities promoting open source clinical NLP. The Open Health Natural Language Processing (OHNLP) Consortium was originally founded to foster a collaborative community around clinical NLP, releasing UIMA-based open source software. OHNLP’s mission currently includes maintaining a catalog of clinical NLP software and providing interfaces to simplify the interaction of NLP systems. Meanwhile, Apache cTAKES aims to integrate best-of-breed annotators, providing a world-class NLP system for accessing clinical information within free-text. These two activities are complementary. OHNLP promotes open source clinical NLP activities in the research community and Apache cTAKES bridges research to the health information technology (HIT) practice. PMID:25954581

  3. Open Source Clinical NLP - More than Any Single System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanz, James; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Xu, Hua; Wu, Stephen T; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    The number of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools and systems for processing clinical free-text has grown as interest and processing capability have surged. Unfortunately any two systems typically cannot simply interoperate, even when both are built upon a framework designed to facilitate the creation of pluggable components. We present two ongoing activities promoting open source clinical NLP. The Open Health Natural Language Processing (OHNLP) Consortium was originally founded to foster a collaborative community around clinical NLP, releasing UIMA-based open source software. OHNLP's mission currently includes maintaining a catalog of clinical NLP software and providing interfaces to simplify the interaction of NLP systems. Meanwhile, Apache cTAKES aims to integrate best-of-breed annotators, providing a world-class NLP system for accessing clinical information within free-text. These two activities are complementary. OHNLP promotes open source clinical NLP activities in the research community and Apache cTAKES bridges research to the health information technology (HIT) practice.

  4. Does a single session of reading literary fiction prime enhanced mentalising performance? Four replication experiments of Kidd and Castano (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Dalya; Tops, Mattie; Koole, Sander L

    2018-02-01

    Prior experiments indicated that reading literary fiction improves mentalising performance relative to reading popular fiction, non-fiction, or not reading. However, the experiments had relatively small sample sizes and hence low statistical power. To address this limitation, the present authors conducted four high-powered replication experiments (combined N = 1006) testing the causal impact of reading literary fiction on mentalising. Relative to the original research, the present experiments used the same literary texts in the reading manipulation; the same mentalising task; and the same kind of participant samples. Moreover, one experiment was pre-registered as a direct replication. In none of the experiments did reading literary fiction have any effect on mentalising relative to control conditions. The results replicate earlier findings that familiarity with fiction is positively correlated with mentalising. Taken together, the present findings call into question whether a single session of reading fiction leads to immediate improvements in mentalising.

  5. Single-shot read-out of a superconducting qubit using a Josephson parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Philip; Bengtsson, Andreas; Simoen, Michaël; Gustavsson, Simon; Shumeiko, Vitaly; Oliver, W. D.; Wilson, C. M.; Delsing, Per; Bylander, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a read-out technique for a superconducting qubit by dispersively coupling it with a Josephson parametric oscillator. We employ a tunable quarter wavelength superconducting resonator and modulate its resonant frequency at twice its value with an amplitude surpassing the threshold for parametric instability. We map the qubit states onto two distinct states of classical parametric oscillation: one oscillating state, with 185±15 photons in the resonator, and one with zero oscillation amplitude. This high contrast obviates a following quantum-limited amplifier. We demonstrate proof-of-principle, single-shot read-out performance, and present an error budget indicating that this method can surpass the fidelity threshold required for quantum computing. PMID:27156732

  6. The Maize TFome--development of a transcription factor open reading frame collection for functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdo, Brett; Gray, John; Goetting-Minesky, Mary P; Wittler, Bettina; Hunt, Matthew; Li, Tai; Velliquette, David; Thomas, Julie; Gentzel, Irene; dos Santos Brito, Michael; Mejía-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Connolly, Layne N; Qaisi, Dalya; Li, Wei; Casas, Maria I; Doseff, Andrea I; Grotewold, Erich

    2014-10-01

    Establishing the architecture of the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) responsible for controlling the transcription of all genes in an organism is a natural development that follows elucidation of the genome sequence. Reconstruction of the GRN requires the availability of a series of molecular tools and resources that so far have been limited to a few model organisms. One such resource consists of collections of transcription factor (TF) open reading frames (ORFs) cloned into vectors that facilitate easy expression in plants or microorganisms. In this study, we describe the development of a publicly available maize TF ORF collection (TFome) of 2034 clones corresponding to 2017 unique gene models in recombination-ready vectors that make possible the facile mobilization of the TF sequences into a number of different expression vectors. The collection also includes several hundred co-regulators (CoREGs), which we classified into well-defined families, and for which we propose here a standard nomenclature, as we have previously done for TFs. We describe the strategies employed to overcome the limitations associated with cloning ORFs from a genome that remains incompletely annotated, with a partial full-length cDNA set available, and with many TF/CoREG genes lacking experimental support. In many instances this required the combination of genome-wide expression data with gene synthesis approaches. The strategies developed will be valuable for developing similar resources for other agriculturally important plants. Information on all the clones generated is available through the GRASSIUS knowledgebase (http://grassius.org/). © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Maize TFome – development of a transcription factor open reading frame collection for functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdo, Brett; Gray, John; Goetting-Minesky, Mary P; Wittler, Bettina; Hunt, Matthew; Li, Tai; Velliquette, David; Thomas, Julie; Gentzel, Irene; Brito, Michael dos Santos; Mejía-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Connolly, Layne N; Qaisi, Dalya; Li, Wei; Casas, Maria I; Doseff, Andrea I; Grotewold, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the architecture of the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) responsible for controlling the transcription of all genes in an organism is a natural development that follows elucidation of the genome sequence. Reconstruction of the GRN requires the availability of a series of molecular tools and resources that so far have been limited to a few model organisms. One such resource consists of collections of transcription factor (TF) open reading frames (ORFs) cloned into vectors that facilitate easy expression in plants or microorganisms. In this study, we describe the development of a publicly available maize TF ORF collection (TFome) of 2034 clones corresponding to 2017 unique gene models in recombination-ready vectors that make possible the facile mobilization of the TF sequences into a number of different expression vectors. The collection also includes several hundred co-regulators (CoREGs), which we classified into well-defined families, and for which we propose here a standard nomenclature, as we have previously done for TFs. We describe the strategies employed to overcome the limitations associated with cloning ORFs from a genome that remains incompletely annotated, with a partial full-length cDNA set available, and with many TF/CoREG genes lacking experimental support. In many instances this required the combination of genome-wide expression data with gene synthesis approaches. The strategies developed will be valuable for developing similar resources for other agriculturally important plants. Information on all the clones generated is available through the GRASSIUS knowledgebase (http://grassius.org/). PMID:25053252

  8. Targeted Genome Sequencing Reveals Varicella-Zoster Virus Open Reading Frame 12 Deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Randall J; Lee, Katherine S; Beach, Addilynn; Sanford, Bridget; Baird, Nicholas L; Como, Christina; Graybill, Chiharu; Jones, Dallas; Tekeste, Eden; Ballard, Mitchell; Chen, Xiaomi; Yalacki, David; Frietze, Seth; Jones, Kenneth; Lenac Rovis, Tihana; Jonjić, Stipan; Haas, Jürgen; Gilden, Don

    2017-10-15

    The neurotropic herpesvirus varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establishes a lifelong latent infection in humans following primary infection. The low abundance of VZV nucleic acids in human neurons has hindered an understanding of the mechanisms that regulate viral gene transcription during latency. To overcome this critical barrier, we optimized a targeted capture protocol to enrich VZV DNA and cDNA prior to whole-genome/transcriptome sequence analysis. Since the VZV genome is remarkably stable, it was surprising to detect that VZV32, a VZV laboratory strain with no discernible growth defect in tissue culture, contained a 2,158-bp deletion in open reading frame (ORF) 12. Consequently, ORF 12 and 13 protein expression was abolished and Akt phosphorylation was inhibited. The discovery of the ORF 12 deletion, revealed through targeted genome sequencing analysis, points to the need to authenticate the VZV genome when the virus is propagated in tissue culture. IMPORTANCE Viruses isolated from clinical samples often undergo genetic modifications when cultured in the laboratory. Historically, VZV is among the most genetically stable herpesviruses, a notion supported by more than 60 complete genome sequences from multiple isolates and following multiple in vitro passages. However, application of enrichment protocols to targeted genome sequencing revealed the unexpected deletion of a significant portion of VZV ORF 12 following propagation in cultured human fibroblast cells. While the enrichment protocol did not introduce bias in either the virus genome or transcriptome, the findings indicate the need for authentication of VZV by sequencing when the virus is propagated in tissue culture. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Genetic characterization of complete open reading frame of glycoprotein C gene of bovine herpesvirus 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Majumder

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize one of the major glycoprotein genes viz., glycoprotein C (gC; UL44, unique long region 44 of bovineherpesvirus 1(BoHV1 of Indian origin at genetic and phylogenetic level.Materials and Methods: A bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate viz., (BoHV1/IBR 216 II/ 1976/ India maintained at Division ofVirology, IVRI, Mukteswar was used for the current study. The DNA was extracted using commercial kit and the completeORF of gC gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced by conventional Sanger sequencing method. The sequence wasgenetically and phylogenetically analysed using various bioinformatic tools. The sequence was submitted in the Genbankwith accession number Kc756965.Results: The complete ORF of gC gene was amplified and sequenced. It showed 100% sequence homology with referencecooper strain of BoHV1 and divergence varied from 0% to 2.7% with other isolates of BoHV1. The isolate under study haddivergence of 9.2%, 13%, 26.6%, and 9.2% with BoHV5 (Bovine herpesvirus 5, CvHV1 (Cervid herpesvirus 1, CpHV1(Caprine herpesvirus 1, and BuHV1 (Bubaline herpesvirus 1, respectively.Conclusion: This is the first genetic characterization of complete open reading frame (ORF of glycoprotein C gene (UL44 ofIndian isolate of BoHV1. The gC gene of BoHV1 is highly conserved among all BoHV1 isolates and it can be used as a targetfor designing diagnostic primers for the specific detection of BoHV1.

  10. A general method for nested RT-PCR amplification and sequencing the complete HCV genotype 1 open reading frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavis John E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a pathogenic hepatic flavivirus with a single stranded RNA genome. It has a high genetic variability and is classified into six major genotypes. Genotype 1a and 1b cause the majority of infections in the USA. Viral genomic sequence information is needed to correlate viral variation with pathology or response to therapy. However, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the HCV genome must overcome low template concentration and high target sequence diversity. Amplification conditions must hence have both high sensitivity and specificity yet recognize a heterogeneous target population to permit general amplification with minimal bias. This places divergent demands of the amplification conditions that can be very difficult to reconcile. Results RT and nested PCR conditions were optimized independently and systematically for amplifying the complete open reading frame (ORF from HCV genotype 1a and 1b using several overlapping amplicons. For each amplicon, multiple pairs of nested PCR primers were optimized. Using these primers, the success rate (defined as the rate of production of sufficient DNA for sequencing with any one of the primer pairs for a given amplicon for amplification of 72 genotype 1a and 1b patient plasma samples averaged over 95% for all amplicons. In addition, two sets of sequencing primers were optimized for each genotype 1a and 1b. Viral consensus sequences were determined by directly sequencing the amplicons. HCV ORFs from 72 patients have been sequenced using these primers. Sequencing errors were negligible because sequencing depth was over 4-fold and both strands were sequenced. Primer bias was controlled and monitored through careful primer design and control experiments. Conclusion Optimized RT-PCR and sequencing conditions are useful for rapid and reliable amplification and sequencing of HCV genotype 1a and 1b ORFs.

  11. Structural analysis of a composite continuous girder with a single rectangular web opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. ElShaer

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a non-linear finite element analysis has been done to analyze the deflection in the steel section and internal stresses in the concrete slab for continuous composite girders with a single rectangular opening in the steel web. ANSYS computer program (version 15 has been used to analyze the three-dimensional model. The reliability of the model was demonstrated by comparison with experimental results of continuous composite beams without an opening in the steel web carried out by another author. The parametric analysis was executed to investigate the width, height, and position of the opening in one span on the behavior of a composite girder under vertical load. The results indicated that when the width of opening is less than 0.05 of length of a single span and the height is less than 0.15 of the steel web, the deflection and internal stresses increased less than 10% comparing to continuous composite girders without an opening.

  12. Introduction to the Clinical Forum: Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shelley

    2017-04-20

    In this introduction to the clinical forum on reading comprehension, the Editor-in-Chief of Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools provides data on our national reading comprehension problem, resources for increasing our understanding of reading comprehension, and a call to action for speech-language pathologists to work with educational teams to address poor reading comprehension in school-age children.

  13. Open-Trial Pilot of "Mind Reading" and in Vivo Rehearsal for Children with HFASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Lopata, Christopher; McDonald, Christin A.; Volker, Martin A.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Smith, Rachael A.; Gullo, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    In this pilot study, the authors evaluated a manualized administration of the "Mind Reading" (MR) program with in vivo rehearsal to determine the effects on emotion recognition and autism features of eleven 7- to 12-year-old children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD), and to determine the overall feasibility of the…

  14. An upstream open reading frame controls translation of var2csa, a gene implicated in placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amulic, Borko; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    to only be expressed in the presence of a placenta, suggesting that its expression is actively repressed in men, children or non-pregnant women; however, the mechanism of repression is not understood. Using cultured parasite lines and reporter gene constructs, we show that the gene encoding VAR2CSA...... contains a small upstream open reading frame that acts to repress translation of the resulting mRNA, revealing a novel form of gene regulation in malaria parasites. The mechanism underlying this translational repression is reversible, allowing high levels of protein translation upon selection, thus...

  15. Multicomponent Treatment of Rapid Naming, Reading Rate, and Visual Attention in Single and Double Deficit Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kary A.

    2013-01-01

    While the relationship between rapid automatic naming (RAN) deficiencies and dyslexia (reading disability) is well developed and supported in the behavioral and medical research literature to date, direct treatment of the specific RAN deficiency in addition to subsequently poor reading outcomes in the lexical skill of reading rate and the…

  16. Perceived Challenges to Integrating Reading Strategies in Content Areas: A Single Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolla, Karen

    2017-01-01

    An alarming percentage of middle and high school students find themselves unable to read their textbooks at grade level proficiency; lacking the necessary skills to access and process information, and read critically. The Common Core State Standards require students to apply reading strategies across the curriculum, therefore requiring teachers to…

  17. Epilogue: Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability--Implications for Assessment and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this epilogue, we review the 4 response articles and highlight the implications of a multidimensional view of reading for the assessment and instruction of reading comprehension. Method: We reiterate the problems with standardized tests of reading comprehension and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of recently developed…

  18. Enterobacterial Small Mobile Sequences Carry Open Reading Frames and are Found Intragenically—Evolutionary Implications for Formation of New Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Delihas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intergenic repeat units of 127-bp (RU-1 and 168-bp (RU-2, as well as a newly-found class of 103-bp (RU-3, represent small mobile sequences in enterobacterial genomes present in multiple intergenic regions. These repeat sequences display similarities to eukaryotic miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITE. The RU mobile elements have not been reported to encode amino acid sequences. An in silico approach was used to scan genomes for location of repeat units. RU sequences are found to have open reading frames, which are present in annotated gene loci whereby the RU amino acid sequence is maintained. Gene loci that display repeat units include those that encode large proteins which are part of super families that carry conserved domains and those that carry predicted motifs such as signal peptide sequences and transmembrane domains. A putative exported protein in Y. pestis and a phylogenetically conserved putative inner membrane protein in Salmonella species represent some of the more interesting constructs. We hypothesize that a major outcome of RU open reading frame fusions is the evolutionary emergence of new proteins.

  19. Identification and characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus open reading frame 11 promotor activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Open reading frame 11 (ORF11) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus belongs to a herpesviral homologous protein family shared by some members of the gamma- herpesvirus subfamily. Little is known about this ORF11 homologous protein family. We have characterized an unknown open reading frame, ORF11, located adjacent and in the opposite orientation to a well-characterized viral IL-6 gene. Northern blot analysis reveals that ORF11 is expressed during the KSHV lytic cycle with delayed-early transcription kinetics. We have determined the 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated region of the unspliced ORF11 transcript and identified both the transcription start site and the transcription termination site. Core promoter region, representing ORF11 promoter activity, was mapped to a 159nt fragment 5{prime} most proximal to the transcription start site. A functional TATA box was identified in the core promoter region. Interestingly, we found that ORF11 transcriptional activation is not responsive to Rta, the KSHV lytic switch protein. We also discovered that part of the ORF11 promoter region, the 209nt fragment upstream of the transcription start site, was repressed by phorbol esters. Our data help to understand transcription regulation of ORF11 and to elucidate roles of ORF11 in KSHV pathogenesis and life cycle.

  20. Sustaining Composition: Studying Content-Based, Ecological, and Economical Sustainability of Open-Source Textbooks through "Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Writing programs in institutions of higher education work to prepare students for real-world writing within any field of study. The composition of "Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing" offers an open-source text for students, teachers, and policy-makers at all levels. Exposure to an open space for learning encourages access to information,…

  1. Photon-HDF5: Open Data Format and Computational Tools for Timestamp-based Single-Molecule Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingargiola, Antonino; Laurence, Ted; Boutelle, Robert; Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier

    2016-02-13

    Archival of experimental data in public databases has increasingly become a requirement for most funding agencies and journals. These data-sharing policies have the potential to maximize data reuse, and to enable confirmatory as well as novel studies. However, the lack of standard data formats can severely hinder data reuse. In photon-counting-based single-molecule fluorescence experiments, data is stored in a variety of vendor-specific or even setup-specific (custom) file formats, making data interchange prohibitively laborious, unless the same hardware-software combination is used. Moreover, the number of available techniques and setup configurations make it difficult to find a common standard. To address this problem, we developed Photon-HDF5 (www.photon-hdf5.org), an open data format for timestamp-based single-molecule fluorescence experiments. Building on the solid foundation of HDF5, Photon-HDF5 provides a platform- and language-independent, easy-to-use file format that is self-describing and supports rich metadata. Photon-HDF5 supports different types of measurements by separating raw data (e.g. photon-timestamps, detectors, etc) from measurement metadata. This approach allows representing several measurement types and setup configurations within the same core structure and makes possible extending the format in backward-compatible way. Complementing the format specifications, we provide open source software to create and convert Photon-HDF5 files, together with code examples in multiple languages showing how to read Photon-HDF5 files. Photon-HDF5 allows sharing data in a format suitable for long term archival, avoiding the effort to document custom binary formats and increasing interoperability with different analysis software. We encourage participation of the single-molecule community to extend interoperability and to help defining future versions of Photon-HDF5.

  2. Single-shot LIBS spectral quality for waste particles in open air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, H.; Bakker, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the ability of LIBS to produce quality spectra from small particles of concrete demolition waste using single-shot spectra collected in open air. The 2–8?mm materials are rounded river gravel, green glass shards, and plastic flakes. Considered are focal length, air, moisture,

  3. The Influence of Visual Word Form in Reading: Single Case Study of an Arabic Patient with Deep Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaraf, Assia; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Deep dyslexia is a written language disorder characterized by poor reading of non-words, and advantage for concrete over abstract words with production of semantic, visual and morphological errors. In this single case study of an Arabic patient with input deep dyslexia, we investigated the impact of graphic features of Arabic on manifestations of…

  4. General Open Systems Theory and the Substrata-Factor Theory of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Martin

    This study was designed to extend the generality of the Substrata-Factor Theory by two methods of investigation: (1) theoretically, to est"blish the validity of the hypothesis that an isomorphic relationship exists between the Substrata-Factor Theory and the General Open Systems Theory, and (2) experimentally, to disc"ver through a…

  5. Reading the Stories of Teaching and Learning—ISSOTL 2016 Opening Keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Manarin

    2017-03-01

    This article includes an embedded audio file from YouTube. To listen to the file linked from within the PDF, download the PDF and click the links. If you stay within the preview page, you'll have to right-click the links and open them in a new window.

  6. Learning to Read in a Second Language Doesn't Have to Hurt: The Effect of Pleasure Reading (Open to Suggestion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    Describes how reading for pleasure for 20 minutes of each class period in a beginning, intermediate-level reading course for adults in English as a Second Language resulted in language development in terms of reading, writing, and comprehension, as well as increased confidence. (SR)

  7. Single reading with computer-aided detection performed by selected radiologists in a breast cancer screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargalló, Xavier, E-mail: xbarga@clinic.cat [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Santamaría, Gorane; Amo, Montse del; Arguis, Pedro [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Ríos, José [Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, (Hospital Clinic) C/ Mallorca, 183. Floor -1. Office #60. 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Grau, Jaume [Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Burrel, Marta; Cores, Enrique; Velasco, Martín [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • 1-The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD. • 2-The cancer detection rate improved at the cost of increasing recall rate. • 3-CAD, used by breast radiologists, did not help to detect more cancers. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess the impact of shifting from a standard double reading plus arbitration protocol to a single reading by experienced radiologists assisted by computer-aided detection (CAD) in a breast cancer screening program. Methods: This was a prospective study approved by the ethics committee. Data from 21,321 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2010–2012) were read following a single reading plus CAD protocol and compared with data from 47,462 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2004–2010) that were interpreted following a double reading plus arbitration protocol. For the single reading, radiologists were selected on the basis of the appraisement of their previous performance. Results: Period 2010–2012 vs. period 2004–2010: Cancer detection rate (CDR): 6.1‰ (95% confidence interval: 5.1–7.2) vs. 5.25‰; Recall rate (RR): 7.02% (95% confidence interval: 6.7–7.4) vs. 7.24% (selected readers before arbitration) and vs. 3.94 (all readers after arbitration); Predictive positive value of recall: 8.69% vs. 13.32%. Average size of invasive cancers: 14.6 ± 9.5 mm vs. 14.3 ± 9.5 mm. Stage: 0 (22.3/26.1%); I (59.2/50.8%); II (19.2/17.1%); III (3.1/3.3%); IV (0/1.9%). Specialized breast radiologists performed better than general radiologists. Conclusions: The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD, at the cost of a moderate increase of the recall rate mainly related to the lack of arbitration.

  8. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Reading Ability Show Connection to Socio-Economic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Hagenaars, Saskia P; Cox, Simon R; Hill, William David; Davies, Gail; Harris, Sarah E; Deary, Ian J; Evans, David M; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Bates, Timothy C

    2017-09-01

    Impairments in reading and in language have negative consequences on life outcomes, but it is not known to what extent genetic effects influence this association. We constructed polygenic scores for difficulties with language and learning to read from genome-wide data in ~6,600 children, adolescents and young adults, and tested their association with health, socioeconomic outcomes and brain structure measures collected in adults (maximal N = 111,749). Polygenic risk of reading difficulties was associated with reduced income, educational attainment, self-rated health and verbal-numerical reasoning (p reading ability get larger. Polygenic scores for childhood cognitive ability and educational attainment were correlated with polygenic scores of reading and language (up to 0.09 and 0.05, respectively). But when they were included in the prediction models, the observed associations between polygenic reading and adult outcomes mostly remained. This suggests that the pathway from reading ability to social outcomes is not only via associated polygenic loads for general cognitive function and educational attainment. The presence of non-overlapping genetic effect is indicated by the genetic correlations of around 0.40 (childhood intelligence) and 0.70 (educational attainment) with reading ability. Mendelian randomization approaches will be important to dissociate any causal and moderating effects of reading and related traits on social outcomes.

  9. Near-field wireless sensing of single and multiple open-ended micro coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousaf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present near-field wireless sensing of single and multiple open-ended micro coils using an electrically small loop antenna. Wirelessly characterized parameters of open-ended micro coils include its resonance frequency, quality factor and inductance. Moreover a wireless frequency-dependent analytical model was developed. Micro coil inductance was extracted from the wirelessly measured signal using a constraint-based least-squares approach. Wireless measurements and analytical fit of micro coils are in strong agreement which validates the analytical model. Finite element method (FEM simulations of the coupled system were done in COMSOL Multiphysics.

  10. Epilogue: Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability-Implications for Assessment and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G; Catts, Hugh W

    2017-04-20

    In this epilogue, we review the 4 response articles and highlight the implications of a multidimensional view of reading for the assessment and instruction of reading comprehension. We reiterate the problems with standardized tests of reading comprehension and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of recently developed authentic tests of reading comprehension. In the "Instruction" section, we review the benefits and limitations of strategy instruction and highlight suggestions from the response articles to improve content and language knowledge. We argue that the only compelling reason to administer a standardized test of reading comprehension is when these tests are necessary to qualify students for special education services. Instruction should be focused on content knowledge, language knowledge, and specific task and learning requirements. This instruction may entail the use of comprehension strategies, particularly those that are specific to the task and focus on integrating new knowledge with prior knowledge.

  11. Extraction of high-molecular-weight genomic DNA for long-read sequencing of single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayjonade, Baptiste; Gouzy, Jérôme; Donnadieu, Cécile; Pouilly, Nicolas; Marande, William; Callot, Caroline; Langlade, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    De novo sequencing of complex genomes is one of the main challenges for researchers seeking high-quality reference sequences. Many de novo assemblies are based on short reads, producing fragmented genome sequences. Third-generation sequencing, with read lengths >10 kb, will improve the assembly of complex genomes, but these techniques require high-molecular-weight genomic DNA (gDNA), and gDNA extraction protocols used for obtaining smaller fragments for short-read sequencing are not suitable for this purpose. Methods of preparing gDNA for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries could be adapted, but these approaches are time-consuming, and commercial kits for these methods are expensive. Here, we present a protocol for rapid, inexpensive extraction of high-molecular-weight gDNA from bacteria, plants, and animals. Our technique was validated using sunflower leaf samples, producing a mean read length of 12.6 kb and a maximum read length of 80 kb.

  12. Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Kennedy, K. N.

    1983-01-01

    A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

  13. [Three dimensional finite element model of a modified posterior cervical single open-door laminoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Yang, Y; Fei, Q; Li, D; Li, J J; Meng, H; Su, N; Fan, Z H; Wang, B Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To build a three-dimensional finite element models of a modified posterior cervical single open-door laminoplasty with short-segmental lateral mass screws fusion. Methods: The C(2)-C(7) segmental data were obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans of a male patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and spinal stenosis.Three-dimensional finite element models of a modified cervical single open-door laminoplasty (before and after surgery) were constructed by the combination of software package MIMICS, Geomagic and ABAQUS.The models were composed of bony vertebrae, articulating facets, intervertebral disc and associated ligaments.The loads of moments 1.5Nm at different directions (flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation)were applied at preoperative model to calculate intersegmental ranges of motion.The results were compared with the previous studies to verify the validation of the models. Results: Three-dimensional finite element models of the modified cervical single open- door laminoplasty had 102258 elements (preoperative model) and 161 892 elements (postoperative model) respectively, including C(2-7) six bony vertebraes, C(2-3)-C(6-7) five intervertebral disc, main ligaments and lateral mass screws.The intersegmental responses at the preoperative model under the loads of moments 1.5 Nm at different directions were similar to the previous published data. Conclusion: Three-dimensional finite element models of the modified cervical single open- door laminoplasty were successfully established and had a good biological fidelity, which can be used for further study.

  14. [Amblyopia: reading speed in comparison with visual acuity for gratings, single Landolt Cs and series Landolt Cs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, M; Strahl, P; Waltenspiel, S; Kommerell, G

    1990-01-01

    In the treatment of amblyopia in preschool children, a means of predicting later reading ability would be helpful. This prediction might be possible using a test for visual acuity where the results correlate with reading ability in adult patients with amblyopia. We measured the following four parameters in 18 experienced readers with strabismic amblyopia: (1) time spent reading ten lines of a standard text in one of three magnifications, (2) visual acuity for gratings, (3) visual acuity for single Landolt Cs, and (4) visual acuity for crowded Landolt Cs (one Landolt C flanked by two full rings on each side each at a distance of 2.6 min of arc). The reading text was presented on paper at a distance of 40 cm; the subject had a choice of three magnifications. The acuity tests were generated by a computer on a VDU at 4.6 m. The relative impairment of the amblyopic eye was defined as the quotient between the performance of the amblyopic and the good eye. In addition, the difference between the times spent reading the ten lines with the amblyopic and with the good eye was calculated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. A perioperative cost analysis comparing single-level minimally invasive and open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kern; Nandyala, Sreeharsha V; Marquez-Lara, Alejandro; Fineberg, Steven J; Oglesby, Mathew; Pelton, Miguel A; Andersson, Gunnar B; Isayeva, Darya; Jegier, Briana J; Phillips, Frank M

    2014-08-01

    Emerging literature suggests superior clinical short- and long-term outcomes of MIS (minimally invasive surgery) TLIFs (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) versus open fusions. Few studies to date have analyzed the cost differences between the two techniques and their relationship to acute clinical outcomes. The purpose of the study was to determine the differences in hospitalization costs and payments for patients treated with primary single-level MIS versus open TLIF. The impact of clinical outcomes and their contribution to financial differences was explored as well. This study was a nonrandomized, nonblinded prospective review. Sixty-six consecutive patients undergoing a single-level TLIF (open/MIS) were analyzed (33 open, 33 MIS). Patients in either cohort (MIS/open) were matched based on race, sex, age, smoking status, medical comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity index), payer, and diagnosis. Every patient in the study had a diagnosis of either degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis and stenosis. Operative time (minutes), length of stay (LOS, days), estimated blood loss (EBL, mL), anesthesia time (minutes), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores, and hospital cost/payment amount were assessed. The MIS and open TLIF groups were compared based on clinical outcomes measures and hospital cost/payment data using SPSS version 20.0 for statistical analysis. The two groups were compared using bivariate chi-squared analysis. Mann-Whitney tests were used for non-normal distributed data. Effect size estimate was calculated with the Cohen d statistic and the r statistic with a 95% confidence interval. Average surgical time was shorter for the MIS than the open TLIF group (115.8 minutes vs. 186.0 minutes respectively; p=.001). Length of stay was also reduced for the MIS versus the open group (2.3 days vs. 2.9 days, respectively; p=.018). Average anesthesia time and EBL were also lower in the MIS group (pFinancial analysis demonstrated lower total hospital direct

  16. Inactivation of the conserved open reading frame ycf34 of Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 interferes with the photosynthetic electron transport chain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wallner, T.; Hagiwara, Y.; Bernát, G.; Sobotka, Roman; Reijerse, E. J.; Frankenberg-Dinkel, N.; Wilde, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1817, č. 11 (2012), s. 2016-2026 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Hypothetical chloroplast open reading frame * Iron-sulphur protein * Phycobilisome Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.624, year: 2012

  17. Open reading frame ssr2016 is required for antimycin A-sensitive photosystem I-driven cyclic electron flow in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeremenko, Nataliya; Jeanjean, Robert; Prommeenate, Peerada; Krasikov, Vladimir; Nixon, Peter J.; Vermaas, Wim F. J.; Havaux, Michel; Matthijs, Hans C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Open reading frame ssr2016 encodes a protein with substantial sequence similarities to PGR5 identified as a component of the antimycin A-sensitive ferredoxin:plastoquinone reductase (FQR) in PSI cyclic photophosphorylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We studied cyclic electron flow in Synechocystis sp.

  18. Single-leg spica provides adequate stability after open reduction in developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alassaf, Nabil

    2018-02-01

    The late detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) will remain a major concern in some parts of the world until effective screening programs become available. With late diagnosis comes the need for open surgical reduction. Surgery is invariably followed by a period of immobilisation in a spica cast to prevent postoperative displacement. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of double-leg spica as compared to single-leg spica, on the risk of displacement after unilateral open reduction of the hip. This was a retrospective review of DDH patients from 2012 to 2016 and younger than 4 years of age, who had unilateral anterior open reduction. Patients who had one of the following were excluded: neuromuscular diagnosis, the addition of K-wire, and simultaneous bilateral open reductions. Demographic data were collected along with related clinical and radiographic variables. A total of 128 patients (162 hips) met the inclusion criteria; 93 were in the double-leg spica group, and 69 were in the single-leg spica group. The mean age was 25.4 ± 8.1 months and the mean follow-up was 18.6 ± 11.6 months. Baseline characteristics were balanced between the two groups. There were three events of redislocation in the double-leg spica group as compared to one redislocation in the single-leg spica group. The difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.637, risk ratio 1.317, CI 0.736-2.356). The difference in subsequent disruption of Shenton's line and hip migration of more than 29% was (p = 0.395, risk ratio 1.411, CI 0.892-2.234) and (p = 0.087, risk ratio 0.67, CI 0.417-1.078), respectively. Three patients had a greenstick distal femur fracture after double-leg spica and one after single-leg spica. These data suggest that including the contralateral hip in the cast after open reduction is not essential as it does not seem to improve stability.

  19. An upstream open reading frame (uORF) signals for cellular localization of the virulence factor implicated in pregnancy associated malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastman, Yair; Assaraf, Shany; Rose, Miriam; Milrot, Elad; Basore, Katherine; Arasu, B Sivanandam; Desai, Sanjay A; Elbaum, Michael; Dzikowski, Ron

    2018-03-15

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, alternates expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multi-copy gene family named var. In var2csa, the var gene implicated in pregnancy-associated malaria, translational repression is regulated by a unique upstream open reading frame (uORF) found only in its 5' UTR. Here, we report that this translated uORF significantly alters both transcription and posttranslational protein trafficking. The parasite can alter a protein's destination without any modifications to the protein itself, but instead by an element within the 5' UTR of the transcript. This uORF-dependent localization was confirmed by single molecule STORM imaging, followed by fusion of the uORF to a reporter gene which changes its cellular localization from cytoplasmic to ER-associated. These data point towards a novel regulatory role of uORF in protein trafficking, with important implications for the pathology of pregnancy-associated malaria.

  20. Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Niels F M; Lind, May Y; Hansson, Birgitta M E; Pilzecker, Desiree; Mertens zur Borg, Ingrid R A M; Knipscheer, Ben C; Hazebroek, Eric J; Dooper, Ine M; Weimar, Willem; Hop, Wim C J; Adang, Eddy M M; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Bonjer, Hendrik J; van der Vliet, Jordanus A; IJzermans, Jan N M

    2006-07-29

    To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. Single blind, randomised controlled trial. Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. 100 living kidney donors. Participants were randomly assigned to either laparoscopic donor nephrectomy or to mini incision muscle splitting open donor nephrectomy. The primary outcome was physical fatigue using the multidimensional fatigue inventory 20 (MFI-20). Secondary outcomes were physical function using the SF-36, hospital stay after surgery, pain, operating times, recipient graft function, and graft survival. Conversions did not occur. Compared with mini incision open donor nephrectomy, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy resulted in longer skin to skin time (median 221 v 164 minutes, P fatigue was less (difference - 1.3, 95% confidence interval - 2.4 to - 0.1) and physical function was better (difference 6.2, 2.0 to 10.3) after laparoscopic nephrectomy. Function of the graft and graft survival rate of the recipient at one year censored for death did not differ (100% after laparoscopic nephrectomy and 98% after open nephrectomy). Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy results in a better quality of life compared with mini incision open donor nephrectomy but equal safety and graft function.

  1. Accurate mitochondrial DNA sequencing using off-target reads provides a single test to identify pathogenic point mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Helen R; Pyle, Angela; Blakely, Emma L; Alston, Charlotte L; Duff, Jennifer; Hudson, Gavin; Horvath, Rita; Wilson, Ian J; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Taylor, Robert W; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are a common cause of inherited metabolic disease and can be due to mutations affecting mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA. The current diagnostic approach involves the targeted resequencing of mitochondrial DNA and candidate nuclear genes, usually proceeds step by step, and is time consuming and costly. Recent evidence suggests that variations in mitochondrial DNA sequence can be obtained from whole-exome sequence data, raising the possibility of a comprehensive single diagnostic test to detect pathogenic point mutations. We compared the mitochondrial DNA sequence derived from off-target exome reads with conventional mitochondrial DNA Sanger sequencing in 46 subjects. Mitochondrial DNA sequences can be reliably obtained using three different whole-exome sequence capture kits. Coverage correlates with the relative amount of mitochondrial DNA in the original genomic DNA sample, heteroplasmy levels can be determined using variant and total read depths, and-providing there is a minimum read depth of 20-fold-rare sequencing errors occur at a rate similar to that observed with conventional Sanger sequencing. This offers the prospect of using whole-exome sequence in a diagnostic setting to screen not only all protein coding nuclear genes but also all mitochondrial DNA genes for pathogenic mutations. Off-target mitochondrial DNA reads can also be used to assess quality control and maternal ancestry, inform on ethnic origin, and allow genetic disease association studies not previously anticipated with existing whole-exome data sets.

  2. Breast cancer detection using single-reading of breast tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) compared to double-reading of 2D-mammography: Evidence from a population-based trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Bernardi, Daniela; Pellegrini, Marco; Valentini, Marvi; Fantò, Carmine; Ostillio, Livio; Tuttobene, Paolina; Luparia, Andrea; Macaskill, Petra

    2017-04-01

    Most population breast cancer (BC) screening programs use double-reading of 2D-mammography. We recently reported the screening with tomosynthesis or standard mammography-2 (STORM-2) trial, showing that double-read tomosynthesis (pseudo-3D-mammography) detected more BC than double-read 2D-mammography. In this study, we compare screen-detection measures for single-reading of 3D-mammography with those for double-reading of 2D-mammography, to inform screening practice. This is a secondary analysis based on STORM-2 which prospectively compared 3D-mammography and 2D-mammography in sequential screen-readings. Asymptomatic women ≥49 years who attended population-based screening (Trento, 2013-2015) were recruited. Participants recalled at any screen-read from parallel double-reading arms underwent further testing and/or biopsy. Single-reading of 3D-mammography, integrated with acquired or synthetized 2D-mammograms, was compared to double-reading of 2D-mammograhy alone for screen-detection measures: number of detected BCs, cancer detection rate (CDR), number and percentage of false-positive recall (FPR). Paired binary data were compared using McNemar's test. Screening detected 90, including 74 invasive, BCs in 85 of 9672 participants. CDRs for single-reading using integrated 2D/3D-mammography (8.2 per 1000 screens; 95% CI 6.5-10.2) or 2D synthetic/3D-mammography (8.4 per 1000 screens; 95% CI: 6.7-10.4) were significantly higher than CDR for double-reading of 2D-mammography (6.3 per 1000 screens; 95% CI: 4.8-8.1), Pmammography (2.60%; 95% CI: 2.29-2.94), or single-read 2D synthetic/3D-mammography (2.76%; 95% CI: 2.45-3.11), were significantly lower than FPR% for double-read 2D-mammography (3.42%; 95% CI: 3.07-3.80), Pmammography (integrated 2D/3D or 2Dsynthetic/3D) detected more BC, and had lower FPR, compared to current practice of double-reading 2D-mammography alone - these findings have implications for population BC screening programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Lncident: A Tool for Rapid Identification of Long Noncoding RNAs Utilizing Sequence Intrinsic Composition and Open Reading Frame Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs play critical roles in diversity of biological process and are also associated with various types of disease. How to rapidly identify lncRNAs and messenger RNA is the fundamental step to uncover the function of lncRNAs identification. Here, we present a novel method for rapid identification of lncRNAs utilizing sequence intrinsic composition features and open reading frame information based on support vector machine model, named as Lncident (LncRNAs identification. The 10-fold cross-validation and ROC curve are used to evaluate the performance of Lncident. The main advantage of Lncident is high speed without the loss of accuracy. Compared with the exiting popular tools, Lncident outperforms Coding-Potential Calculator, Coding-Potential Assessment Tool, Coding-Noncoding Index, and PLEK. Lncident is also much faster than Coding-Potential Calculator and Coding-Noncoding Index. Lncident presents an outstanding performance on microorganism, which offers a great application prospect to the analysis of microorganism. In addition, Lncident can be trained by users’ own collected data. Furthermore, R package and web server are simultaneously developed in order to maximize the convenience for the users. The R package “Lncident” can be easily installed on multiple operating system platforms, as long as R is supported.

  4. A novel sweet potato potyvirus open reading frame (ORF) is expressed via polymerase slippage and suppresses RNA silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiveros, Milton; Olspert, Allan; Artola, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Summary The single‐stranded, positive‐sense RNA genome of viruses in the genus Potyvirus encodes a large polyprotein that is cleaved to yield 10 mature proteins. The first three cleavage products are P1, HCpro and P3. An additional short open reading frame (ORF), called pipo, overlaps the P3 region of the polyprotein ORF. Four related potyviruses infecting sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) are predicted to contain a third ORF, called pispo, which overlaps the 3′ third of the P1 region. Recently, pipo has been shown to be expressed via polymerase slippage at a conserved GA6 sequence. Here, we show that pispo is also expressed via polymerase slippage at a GA6 sequence, with higher slippage efficiency (∼5%) than at the pipo site (∼1%). Transient expression of recombinant P1 or the ‘transframe’ product, P1N‐PISPO, in Nicotiana benthamiana suppressed local RNA silencing (RNAi), but only P1N‐PISPO inhibited short‐distance movement of the silencing signal. These results reveal that polymerase slippage in potyviruses is not limited to pipo expression, but can be co‐opted for the evolution and expression of further novel gene products. PMID:26757490

  5. Single- and central-diffractive production of open charm and bottom mesons at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Łuszczak, Marta; Szczurek, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    We discuss diffractive production of open charm and bottom mesons at the LHC. The differential cross sections for single- and central-diffractive mechanisms for $c\\bar c$ and $b\\bar b$ pair production are calculated in the framework of the Ingelman-Schlein model corrected for absorption effects. The LO gluon-gluon fusion and quark-antiquark anihilation partonic subprocesses are taken into consideration, which are calculated within standard collinear approximation. The extra corrections from reggeon exchanges are taken into account. The hadronization of charm and bottom quarks is taken into account by means of fragmentation functions. Predictions for single- and central-diffractive production in the case of $D$ and $B$ mesons, as well as $D\\bar D$ pairs are presented, including detector acceptance of the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb Collaborations.

  6. The Evolution of the Appendectomy: From Open to Laparoscopic to Single Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah J. Switzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with its initial description by Fitz in the 19th century, acute appendicitis has been a significant long-standing medical challenge; today it remains the most common gastrointestinal emergency in adults. Already in 1894, McBurney advocated for the surgical removal of the inflamed appendix and is credited with the initial description of an Open Appendectomy (OA. With the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, this classic approach evolved into a procedure with multiple, smaller incisions; a technique termed Laparoscopic Appendectomy (LA. There is much literature describing the advantages of this newer approach. To name a few, patients have significantly less wound infections, reduced pain, and a reduction in ileus compared with the OA. In the past few years, Single Incision Laparoscopic Appendectomy (SILA has gained popularity as the next major evolutionary advancement in the removal of the appendix. Described as a pioneer in the era of “scarless surgery,” it involves only one transumbilical incision. Patients are postulated to have reduced post-operative complications such as infection, hernias, and hematomas, as well as a quicker recovery time and less post-operative pain scores, in comparison to its predecessors. In this review, we explore the advancement of the appendectomy from open to laparoscopic to single incision.

  7. Measuring chess experts' single-use sequence knowledge: an archival study of departure from 'theoretical' openings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chassy

    Full Text Available The respective roles of knowledge and search have received considerable attention in the literature on expertise. However, most of the evidence on knowledge has been indirect--e.g., by inferring the presence of chunks in long-term memory from performance in memory recall tasks. Here we provide direct estimates of the amount of monochrestic (single use and rote knowledge held by chess players of varying skill levels. From a large chess database, we analyzed 76,562 games played in 2008 by individuals ranging from Class B players (average players to Masters to measure the extent to which players deviate from previously known initial sequences of moves ("openings". Substantial differences were found in the number of moves known by players of different skill levels, with more expert players knowing more moves. Combined with assumptions independently made about the branching factor in master games, we estimate that masters have memorized about 100,000 opening moves. Our results support the hypothesis that monochrestic knowledge is essential for reaching high levels of expertise in chess. They provide a direct, quantitative estimate of the number of opening moves that players have to know to reach master level.

  8. Measuring chess experts' single-use sequence knowledge: an archival study of departure from 'theoretical' openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassy, Philippe; Gobet, Fernand

    2011-01-01

    The respective roles of knowledge and search have received considerable attention in the literature on expertise. However, most of the evidence on knowledge has been indirect--e.g., by inferring the presence of chunks in long-term memory from performance in memory recall tasks. Here we provide direct estimates of the amount of monochrestic (single use) and rote knowledge held by chess players of varying skill levels. From a large chess database, we analyzed 76,562 games played in 2008 by individuals ranging from Class B players (average players) to Masters to measure the extent to which players deviate from previously known initial sequences of moves ("openings"). Substantial differences were found in the number of moves known by players of different skill levels, with more expert players knowing more moves. Combined with assumptions independently made about the branching factor in master games, we estimate that masters have memorized about 100,000 opening moves. Our results support the hypothesis that monochrestic knowledge is essential for reaching high levels of expertise in chess. They provide a direct, quantitative estimate of the number of opening moves that players have to know to reach master level.

  9. Small Open Reading Frames

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However,recent work on ribosome profiling and mass spectrometryhave led to the discovery of many translating functionalsmall ORFs and presence of their stable peptide products.Further, examples of biologically active peptides with vitalregulatory functions underline the importance of smORFsin cell functions.

  10. Small Open Reading Frames

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    small ORFs and presence of their stable peptide products. Further, examples of biologically active peptides with ... enormous growth in whole genome sequencing. Hence today, genome sequence. Recently, ORFs ... Similarly, during the embryo development of zebrafish, 58 aa long toddler polypeptide produced by a short ...

  11. Small Open Reading Frames

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, examples of biologically active peptides with vitalregulatory functions underline the importance of smORFsin cell functions. Genome-wide analysis shows that smORFsare conserved across diverse species, and the functional characterizationof their peptides reveals their critical role in abroad spectrum of regulatory ...

  12. Small Open Reading Frames

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are conserved across diverse species, and the functional char- acterization of their peptides reveals their critical role in a broad spectrum of regulatory mechanisms. Further analy- sis of small ORFs is likely throw light on many exciting, un- explored regulatory mechanisms in different developmental stages and tissue types.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of second-generation open-type PET ''single-ring OpenPET'' implemented with DOI detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouch, Shoko; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Eiichi

    2013-01-01

    At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, we are developing OpenPET, an open-type positron emission tomography (PET) geometry with a physically open space, which allows easy access to the patient during PET studies. Our first-generation OpenPET system, dual-ring OpenPET, which consisted of two detector rings, could provide an extended axial field of view (FOV) including the open space. However, for applications such as in-beam PET to monitor the dose distribution in situ during particle therapy, higher sensitivity concentrated on the irradiation field is required rather than a wide FOV. In this report, we propose a second-generation OpenPET geometry, single-ring OpenPET, which can efficiently improve sensitivity while providing the required open space. When the proposed geometry was realized with block detectors, position-dependent degradation of the spatial resolution was expected because it was necessary to arrange the detector blocks in ellipsoidal rings stacked and shifted relative to one another. However, we found by Monte Carlo simulation that the use of depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors made it feasible to achieve uniform spatial resolution in the FOV. (author)

  14. [A single blood pressure reading during check-up for hypertension leads to a change in management more often than multiple readings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbersen, R; Smits, P; Lenders, J W; Thien, T

    1994-01-29

    To define the number of blood pressure readings necessary during a patient's visit to serve as a correct reference for patient management. Observational study. Outpatient clinic in the Netherlands. In a period of 30 months blood pressure was measured in 250-300 patients with hypertension during 1008 patients' visits. All readings were done by the same physician in the same room with the same system, after the patients had been submitted to at least 10 minutes of supine rest. Three readings were taken simultaneously with a mercury sphygmomanometer and (via a Y-connector) with a semiautomatic oscillometric method. Blood pressure readings of 932 visits were available for further analysis. Both methods gave similar results for the mean of each reading and for the combination of 2 or 3 readings. Based on the first diastolic reading alone instead of the mean of 3 readings, 25% of the patients would have been subjected to different patient management. On the basis of the first two readings II% would have been treated differently. No definite recommendation can be made for the ideal number of blood pressure readings per visit, but with only 1 or 2 readings, 11-25% of the subjects would have been submitted to different management.

  15. Conserved-peptide upstream open reading frames (CPuORFs are associated with regulatory genes in angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Upstream open reading frames (uORFs are common in eukaryotic transcripts, but those that encode conserved peptides (CPuORFs occur in less than 1% of transcripts. The peptides encoded by three plant CPuORF families are known to control translation of the downstream ORF in response to a small signal molecule (sucrose, polyamines and phosphocholine. In flowering plants, transcription factors are statistically over-represented among genes that possess CPuORFs, and in general it appeared that many CPuORF genes also had other regulatory functions, though the significance of this suggestion was uncertain (Hayden and Jorgensen, 2007. Five years later the literature provides much more information on the functions of many CPuORF genes. Here we reassess the functions of 27 known CPuORF gene families and find that 22 of these families play a variety of different regulatory roles, from transcriptional control to protein turnover, and from small signal molecules to signal transduction kinases. Clearly then, there is indeed a strong association of CPuORFs with regulatory genes. In addition, 16 of these families play key roles in a variety of different biological processes. Most strikingly, the core sucrose response network includes three different CPuORFs, creating the potential for sophisticated balancing of the network in response to three different molecular inputs. We propose that the function of most CPuORFs is to modulate translation of a downstream major ORF (mORF in response to a signal molecule recognized by the conserved peptide and that because the mORFs of CPuORF genes generally encode regulatory proteins, many of them centrally important in the biology of plants, CPuORFs play key roles in balancing such regulatory networks.

  16. Transcription pattern of human herpesvirus 8 open reading frame K3 in primary effusion lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimessi, P; Bonaccorsi, A; Stürzl, M; Fabris, M; Brocca-Cofano, E; Caputo, A; Melucci-Vigo, G; Falchi, M; Cafaro, A; Cassai, E; Ensoli, B; Monini, P

    2001-08-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is found in immunoblastic B cells of patients with multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) and, predominantly in a latent form, in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) spindle cells. Recent studies have shown that upon reactivation, HHV-8 expresses factors that downregulate major histocompatibility class I proteins and coactivation molecules and that may enable productively infected cells to escape cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cell responses. One of these viral factors is encoded by open reading frame (ORF) K3. Here we show that in PEL cells, ORF K3 is expressed through viral transcripts that are induced very early upon virus reactivation, including bicistronic RNA molecules containing coding sequences from viral ORFs K3 and 70. Specifically, we found that a bicistronic transcript was expressed in the absence of de novo protein synthesis, thereby identifying a novel HHV-8 immediate-early gene product. Several features of the RNA molecules encoding the K3 product, including multiple transcriptional start sites, multiple donor splicing sites, and potential alternative ATG usage, suggest that there exists a finely tuned modulation of ORF K3 expression. By contrast, ORF K3 transcripts are not detected in the majority of cells present in KS lesions that are latently infected by the virus, suggesting that there are other, as-yet-unknown mechanisms of immune evasion for infected KS spindle cells. Nevertheless, because HHV-8 viremia precedes the development of KS lesions and is associated with the recrudescence of MCD symptoms, the prompt expression of ORF K3 in productively infected circulating cells may be important for virus pathogenesis. Thus, molecules targeting host or viral factors that activate ORF K3 expression or inactivate the biological functions of the K3 product should be exploited for the prevention or treatment of HHV-8-associated diseases in at-risk individuals.

  17. Exploring the Relevance of Single-Gender Group Formation: What We Learn from a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeck, Rebecca Yvonne; Hristova, Adelina; Jablokow, Kathryn W.; Bonafini, Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exploratory study on participants' perception of the importance of single-gender grouping in a massive open online course (MOOC) delivered through the Coursera platform. Findings reveal that female and male learners' perception of single-gender grouping differs. Female students more than males indicated less…

  18. Two-dimensional single fluid MHD simulations of plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, N.F.; Payne, S.S.; Peterkin, R.E. Jr.; Frese, M.H.; Hussey, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    Simulations of plasma opening switch have been made using two-dimensional, single fluid, magnetohydrodynamic codes HAM and MACH2. A variety of mechanisms for magnetic field penetration have been investigated. These include plasma convection, classical and microturbulent resistive diffusion, and Hall effect transport. We find that plasma microturbulent models are necessary to explain the broad current channels observed in experiments. Both heuristic and consistent microturbulent models are able to explain observed channel widths and penetration features. The best results are obtained for a consistent model that includes the Buneman, ion acoustic, and lower hybrid microturbulent collision frequencies and threshold conditions. Maximum microturbulent collision frequencies of 5 ω p , are typical. Field transport and current channel profiles are in excellent agreement with experimental observations for GAMBLE I, GAMBLE II, and SUPERMITE experiments. Dominant field penetration mechanisms and center of mass plasma motion are current and density dependent. Including the Hall effect enhanced field penetration. Center of mass motion is negligible for the GAMBLE I experiments but significant for the GAMBLE II conditions. Scaling of plasma opening time with switch length and density can be fit by linear representations for lengths from 0.03 m to 0.24 m and ion densities from 10 18 m -3 to 1.5 times 10 19 m -3 . 15 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  19. FUZZY LOGIC BASED OPTIMIZATION OF CAPACITOR VALUE FOR SINGLE PHASE OPEN WELL SUBMERSIBLE INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this paper is to optimize the capacitor value of a single phase open well submersible motor operating under extreme voltage conditions using fuzzy logic optimization technique and compared with no-load volt-ampere method. This is done by keeping the displacement angle (a between main winding and auxiliary winding near 90o, phase angle (f between the supply voltage and line current near 0o. The optimization work is carried out by using Fuzzy Logic Toolbox software built on the MATLAB technical computing environment with Simulink software. Findings – The optimum capacitor value obtained is used with a motor and tested for different supply voltage conditions. The vector diagrams obtained from the experimental test results indicates that the performance is improved from the existing value. Originality/value – This method will be highly useful for the practicing design engineers in selecting the optimum capacitance value for single phase induction motors to achieve the best performance for operating at extreme supply voltage conditions.

  20. Intra-observer agreement in single and joint double readings of contrast-enhanced breast MRI screening for women with high genetic breast cancer risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine intra-observer reliability (IR for lesion detection on contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance images (MRI for screening women at high risk of breast cancer in single and joint double readings, without case selection. Methods: Contrast-enhanced breast MRIs were interpreted twice by the same independent reader and twice in joint readings. IR was assessed for lesion detection, normal MRI identification, mass, non-mass like enhancements (NMLE and focus characterisation, and BI-RADS assessment. Results: MRI examinations for 124 breasts, 65 women (mean age 43.4y were retrospectively reviewed with 110 lesions identified. Abnormal BIRADS (3-5 classifications were found for 52.3% in single readings and 58.5% in joint readings. Seven biopsies were performed for 4 histologically confirmed cancers. IR for BI-RADS classifications was good for single (0.63, 95% CI: 0.49-0.77, and joint readings (0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.93. IR for background parenchymal enhancement (BPE was moderate across single (0.53, 95% CI: 0.40-0.65 and joint readings (0.44, 95% CI: 0.33-0.56. IR for BI-RADS category according to each enhancement was poor for single (0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.44, and higher for joint readings, (0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.72. Conclusions: IR in BI-RADS breast assessments or BI-RADS lesion assessments are better with joint reading in screening for women with high genetic risks, in particular for abnormal MRI (BI-RADS 3, 4 and 5.

  1. Single-case effect size calculation: comparing regression and non-parametric approaches across previously published reading intervention data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sarah G; Begeny, John C

    2014-08-01

    Growing from demands for accountability and research-based practice in the field of education, there is recent focus on developing standards for the implementation and analysis of single-case designs. Effect size methods for single-case designs provide a useful way to discuss treatment magnitude in the context of individual intervention. Although a standard effect size methodology does not yet exist within single-case research, panel experts recently recommended pairing regression and non-parametric approaches when analyzing effect size data. This study compared two single-case effect size methods: the regression-based, Allison-MT method and the newer, non-parametric, Tau-U method. Using previously published research that measured the Words read Correct per Minute (WCPM) variable, these two methods were examined by comparing differences in overall effect size scores and rankings of intervention effect. Results indicated that the regression method produced significantly larger effect sizes than the non-parametric method, but the rankings of the effect size scores had a strong, positive relation. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From PREDs and open reading frames to cDNA isolation: revisiting the human chromosome 21 transcription map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, A; Friedli, M; Henrichsen, C N; Chapot, F; Deutsch, S; Ucla, C; Rossier, C; Lyle, R; Guipponi, M; Antonarakis, S E

    2001-11-01

    A supernumerary copy of human chromosome 21 (HC21) causes Down syndrome. To understand the molecular pathogenesis of Down syndrome, it is necessary to identify all HC21 genes. The first annotation of the sequence of 21q confirmed 127 genes, and predicted an additional 98 previously unknown "anonymous" genes (predictions (PREDs) and open reading frames (C21orfs)), which were foreseen by exon prediction programs and/or spliced expressed sequence tags. These putative gene models still need to be confirmed as bona fide transcripts. Here we report the characterization and expression pattern of the putative transcripts C21orf7, C21orf11, C21orf15, C21orf18, C21orf19, C21orf22, C21orf42, C21orf50, C21orf51, C21orf57, and C21orf58, the GC-rich sequence DNA-binding factor candidate GCFC (also known as C21orf66), PRED12, PRED31, PRED34, PRED44, PRED54, and PRED56. Our analysis showed that most of the C21orfs originally defined by matching spliced expressed sequence tags were correctly predicted, whereas many of the PREDs, defined solely by computer prediction, do not correspond to genuine genes. Four of the six PREDs were incorrectly predicted: PRED44 and C21orf11 are portions of the same transcript, PRED31 is a pseudogene, and PRED54 and PRED56 were wrongly predicted. In contrast, PRED12 (now called C21orf68) and PRED34 (C21orf63) are now confirmed transcripts. We identified three new genes, C21orf67, C21orf69, and C21orf70, not previously predicted by any programs. This revision of the HC21 transcriptome has consequences for the entire genome regarding the quality of previous annotations and the total number of transcripts. It also provides new candidates for genes involved in Down syndrome and other genetic disorders that map to HC21.

  3. Laparoscopic versus open distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-Bin; Wang, Ye; Hu, Chen; Shen, Yan; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare complications and oncologic outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) and open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) at a single center. Distal pancreatectomies performed for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma during a 4-year period were included in this study. A retrospective analysis of a database of this cohort was conducted. Twenty-two patients underwent LDP for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, in comparison to seventy-six patients with comparable tumor characteristics treated by ODP. No patients with locally advanced lesions were included in this study. Comparing LDP group to ODP group, there were no significant differences in operation time (P=0.06) or blood loss (P=0.24). Complications (pancreatic fistula, P=0.62; intra-abdominal abscess, P=0.44; postpancreatectomy hemorrhage, P=0.34) were similar. There were no significant differences in the number of lymph nodes harvested (11.2±4.6 in LDP group vs. 14.4±5.5 in ODP group, P=0.44) nor the rate of patients with positive lymph nodes (36% in LDP group vs. 41% in ODP group, P=0.71). Incidence of positive margins was similar (9% in LDP group vs. 13% in ODP group, P=0.61). The mean overall survival time was (29.6±3.7) months for the LDP group and (27.6±2.1) months for ODP group. There was no difference in overall survival between the two groups (P=0.34). LDP is a safe and effective treatment for selected patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. A slow-compression of pancreas tissue with the GIA stapler is effective in preventing postoperative pancreatic fistula. The oncologic outcome is comparable with the conventional open approach. Laparoscopic radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy contributed to oncological clearance.

  4. Single-Step BLUP with Varying Genotyping Effort in Open-Pollinated Picea glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise Ratcliffe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximization of genetic gain in forest tree breeding programs is contingent on the accuracy of the predicted breeding values and precision of the estimated genetic parameters. We investigated the effect of the combined use of contemporary pedigree information and genomic relatedness estimates on the accuracy of predicted breeding values and precision of estimated genetic parameters, as well as rankings of selection candidates, using single-step genomic evaluation (HBLUP. In this study, two traits with diverse heritabilities [tree height (HT and wood density (WD] were assessed at various levels of family genotyping efforts (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% from a population of white spruce (Picea glauca consisting of 1694 trees from 214 open-pollinated families, representing 43 provenances in Québec, Canada. The results revealed that HBLUP bivariate analysis is effective in reducing the known bias in heritability estimates of open-pollinated populations, as it exposes hidden relatedness, potential pedigree errors, and inbreeding. The addition of genomic information in the analysis considerably improved the accuracy in breeding value estimates by accounting for both Mendelian sampling and historical coancestry that were not captured by the contemporary pedigree alone. Increasing family genotyping efforts were associated with continuous improvement in model fit, precision of genetic parameters, and breeding value accuracy. Yet, improvements were observed even at minimal genotyping effort, indicating that even modest genotyping effort is effective in improving genetic evaluation. The combined utilization of both pedigree and genomic information may be a cost-effective approach to increase the accuracy of breeding values in forest tree breeding programs where shallow pedigrees and large testing populations are the norm.

  5. The Effect of a Specialized Dyslexia Font, Opendyslexic, on Reading Rate and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wery, Jessica J.; Diliberto, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    A single-subject alternating treatment design was used to investigate the extent to which a specialized dyslexia font, OpenDyslexic, impacted reading rate or accuracy compared to two commonly used fonts when used with elementary students identified as having dyslexia. OpenDyslexic was compared to Arial and Times New Roman in three reading tasks:…

  6. TrackMate: An open and extensible platform for single-particle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Perry, Nick; Schindelin, Johannes; Hoopes, Genevieve M; Reynolds, Gregory D; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Shorte, Spencer L; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2017-02-15

    We present TrackMate, an open source Fiji plugin for the automated, semi-automated, and manual tracking of single-particles. It offers a versatile and modular solution that works out of the box for end users, through a simple and intuitive user interface. It is also easily scriptable and adaptable, operating equally well on 1D over time, 2D over time, 3D over time, or other single and multi-channel image variants. TrackMate provides several visualization and analysis tools that aid in assessing the relevance of results. The utility of TrackMate is further enhanced through its ability to be readily customized to meet specific tracking problems. TrackMate is an extensible platform where developers can easily write their own detection, particle linking, visualization or analysis algorithms within the TrackMate environment. This evolving framework provides researchers with the opportunity to quickly develop and optimize new algorithms based on existing TrackMate modules without the need of having to write de novo user interfaces, including visualization, analysis and exporting tools. The current capabilities of TrackMate are presented in the context of three different biological problems. First, we perform Caenorhabditis-elegans lineage analysis to assess how light-induced damage during imaging impairs its early development. Our TrackMate-based lineage analysis indicates the lack of a cell-specific light-sensitive mechanism. Second, we investigate the recruitment of NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) clusters in fibroblasts after stimulation by the cytokine IL-1 and show that photodamage can generate artifacts in the shape of TrackMate characterized movements that confuse motility analysis. Finally, we validate the use of TrackMate for quantitative lifetime analysis of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in plant cells. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. STATSLAB: An open-source EEG toolbox for computing single-subject effects using robust statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campopiano, Allan; van Noordt, Stefon J R; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2018-03-21

    Research on robust statistics during the past half century provides concrete evidence that classical hypothesis tests that rely on the sample mean and variance are problematic. Even seemingly minor departures from normality are now known to create major problems in terms of increased error rates and decreased power. Fortunately, numerous robust estimation techniques have been developed that circumvent the need for strict assumptions of normality and equal variances, leading to increased power and accuracy when testing hypotheses. Two robust methods that have been shown to have practical value across a wide range of applied situations are the trimmed mean and percentile bootstrap test. To facilitate the uptake of robust methods into the behavioural sciences, especially when dealing with trial-based data such as EEG, we introduce STATSLAB: An open-source EEG toolbox for computing single-subject effects using robust statistics. With the STATSLAB toolbox users can apply the percentile bootstrap test, with trimmed means, to a variety of neural signals including voltages, global field amplitude, and spectral features for both scalp channels and independent components. The toolbox offers a range of analytical strategies and is packaged with a fully functional graphical user interface that includes documentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plastic deformation in nanoscale gold single crystals and open-celled nanoporous gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongyun; Wei, Xiaoding; Zhao, Manhong; Chen, Xi; Jun, Seong C.; Hone, James; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2007-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments to measure the elastic-plastic behaviour of gold at the nanometre length scale are reported. One set of experiments was on free-standing nanoscale single crystals of gold, and the other was on free-standing nanoscale specimens of open-celled nanoporous gold. Both types of specimens were fabricated from commercially available leaf which was either pure Au or a Au/Ag alloy following by dealloying of the Ag. Mechanical testing specimens of a 'dog-bone' shape were fabricated from the leaf using standard lithographic procedures after the leaf had been glued onto a silicon wafer. The thickness of the gauge portion of the specimens was about 100 nm, the width between 250 nm and 300 nm and the length 7 µm. The specimens were mechanically loaded with a nanoindenter (MTS) at the approximate midpoint of the gauge length. The resulting force-displacement curve of the single crystal gold was serrated and it was evident that slip localization occurred on individual slip systems; however, the early stages of the plastic deformation occurred in a non-localized manner. The results of detailed finite element analyses of the specimen suggest that the critical resolved shear stress of the gold single crystal was as high as 135 MPa which would lead to a maximum uniaxial stress of about 500 MPa after several per cent strain. The behaviour of the nanoporous gold was substantially different. It exhibited an apparent elastic behaviour until the point where it failed in an apparently brittle manner, although it is assumed that plastic deformation occurred in the ligaments prior to failure. The average elastic stiffness of three specimens was measured to be Enp = 8.8 GPa and the stress at ultimate failure averaged 190 MPa for the three specimens tested. Scaling arguments suggest that the stress in the individual ligaments could approach the theoretical shear strength. Presented at the IUTAM Symposium on Plasticity at the Micron Scale, Technical

  9. Perioperative outcomes of minimally invasive versus open radical cystectomy: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Panwar

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: MIS is associated with significantly longer operative time than open RC. Robotic RC has significantly higher lymph node yield than open or laparoscopic RC. Minimally invasive RC is equivalent to open surgery in terms of perioperative morbidity, mortality, and blood loss.

  10. Open quantum systems and the two-level atom interacting with a single mode of the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, A.; Stefanescu, E.

    1987-07-01

    On the basis of Lindblad theory of open quantum systems we obtain new optical equations for the system of two-level atom interacting with a single mode of the electromagnetic field. The conventional Block equations in a generalized form with field phases are obtained in the hypothesis that all the terms are slowly varying in the rotating frame.(authors)

  11. Striatal dopamine release in reading and writing measured with [123I]iodobenzamide and single photon emission computed tomography in right handed human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommartz, B; Larisch, R; Vosberg, H; Müller-Gärtner, H M

    2000-09-29

    Competition between endogenous dopamine and a radioligand for postsynaptic dopamine D(2) receptor binding was examined in two groups of eight subjects each who had to read or write off a text, respectively, and in a control group. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the ligand [(123)I]iodobenzamide (IBZM) were used for in vivo imaging. Subjects commenced reading or writing immediately before IBZM injection and continued for 30min thereafter. SPECT images were acquired 60min later. Striatum-to-parietal-cortex IBZM uptake ratios were lower in subjects who wrote off the text than in controls indicating competition of IBZM and dopamine. There was no difference between subjects who read the text and controls. Thus, dopamine release occurs as a consequence of the motoric activity involved in writing rather than of cognitive functions necessary for reading the text.

  12. Bone-level implants placed in the anterior maxilla: an open-label, single-arm observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, EnFeng; Hei, Wei-Hong; Park, Jong-Chul; Pang, KangMi; Kim, Sun Kyung; Kim, Bongju; Kim, Soung-Min; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed marginal bone remodeling and soft tissue esthetics after the loading of single bone-level implants in the anterior maxilla. Methods An open, single-arm observational clinical trial with 3 years of follow-up was performed, including 22 implants. The patients presented with a single tooth gap in the anterior maxilla (tooth positions 14–24), with natural or restored adjacent teeth. An implant was placed at least 8 weeks post-extraction and healed submerged for 6 weeks...

  13. The CPT1C 5'UTR contains a repressing upstream open reading frame that is regulated by cellular energy availability and AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lohse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Translational control is utilized as a means of regulating gene expression in many species. In most cases, posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms play an important role in stress response pathways and can lead to dysfunctional physiology if blocked by mutations. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 C (CPT1C, the brain-specific member of the CPT 1 family, has previously been shown to be involved in regulating metabolism in situations of energy surplus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence analysis of the CPT1C mRNA revealed that it contains an upstream open reading frame (uORF in the 5' UTR of its mRNA. Using CPT1C 5' UTR/luciferase constructs, we investigated the role of the uORF in translational regulation. The results presented here show that translation from the CPT1C main open reading frame (mORF is repressed by the presence of the uORF, that this repression is relieved in response to specific stress stimuli, namely glucose deprivation and palmitate-BSA treatment, and that AMPK inhibition can relieve this uORF-dependent repression. SIGNIFICANCE: The fact that the mORF regulation is relieved in response to a specific set of stress stimuli rather than general stress response, hints at an involvement of CPT1C in cellular energy-sensing pathways and provides further evidence for a role of CPT1C in hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis.

  14. An upstream open reading frame represses expression of Lc, a member of the R/B family of maize transcriptional activators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, R.D. Jr.; Wessler, S.R. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The R/B genes of maize encode a family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins that determine where and when the anthocyanin-pigment pathway will be expressed in the plant. Previous studies showed that allelic diversity among family members reflects differences in gene expression, specifically in transcription initiation. The authors present evidence that the R gene Lc is under translational control. They demonstrate that the 235-nt transcript leader of Lc represses expression 25- to 30-fold in an in vivo assay. Repression is mediated by the presence in cis of a 38-codon upstream open reading frame. Furthermore, the coding capacity of the upstream open reading frame influences the magnitude of repression. It is proposed that translational control does not contribute to tissue specificity but prevents overexpression of the Lc protein. The diversity of promoter and 5' untranslated leader sequences among the R/B genes provides an opportunity to study the coevolution of transcriptional and translational mechanisms of gene regulation. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Comparisons of an open-ended vs. forced-choice 'mind reading' task: implications for measuring perspective-taking and emotion recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy G Cassels

    Full Text Available Perspective-taking and emotion recognition are essential for successful social development and have been the focus of developmental research for many years. Although the two abilities often overlap, they are distinct and our understanding of these abilities critically rests upon the efficacy of existing measures. Lessons from the literature differentiating recall versus recognition memory tasks led us to hypothesize that an open-ended emotion recognition measure would be less reliant on compensatory strategies and hence a more specific measure of emotion recognition abilities than a forced-choice task. To this end, we compared an open-ended version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task with the original forced-choice version in two studies: 118 typically-developing 4- to 8-year-olds (Study 1 and 139 5- to 12-year-olds; 85 typically-developing and 54 with learning disorders (Study 2. We found that the open-ended version of the task was a better predictor of empathy and more reliably discriminated typically-developing children from those with learning disorders. As a whole, the results suggest that the open-ended version is a more sensitive measure of emotion recognition specifically.

  16. High-resolution Spectroscopic Observations of Single Red Giants in Three Open Clusters: NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Suárez, V. J.; Sales Silva, J. V.; Katime Santrich, O. J.; Drake, N. A.; Pereira, C. B.

    2018-02-01

    Single stars in open clusters with known distances are important targets in constraining the nucleosynthesis process since their ages and luminosities are also known. In this work, we analyze a sample of 29 single red giants of the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 using high-resolution spectroscopy. We obtained atmospheric parameters, abundances of the elements C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd, as well as radial and rotational velocities. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium atmospheric models of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. Rotational velocities and light-element abundances were derived using spectral synthesis. Based on our analysis of the single red giants in these three open clusters, we could compare, for the first time, their abundance pattern with that of the binary stars of the same clusters previously studied. Our results show that the abundances of both single and binary stars of the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 do not have significant differences. For the elements created by the s-process, we observed that the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 also follow the trend already raised in the literature that young clusters have higher s-process element abundances than older clusters. Finally, we observed that the three clusters of our sample exhibit a trend in the [Y/Mg]-age relation, which may indicate the ability of the [Y/Mg] ratio to be used as a clock for the giants. Based on the observations made with the 2.2 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under an agreement with Observatório Nacional and under an agreement between Observatório Nacional and Max-Planck Institute für Astronomie.

  17. Determination of single nucleotide variants in Escherichia coli DH5α by using short-read sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoseb; Lee, Bo-Rahm; Cho, Suhyung; Cho, Yoo-Bok; Kim, Seon-Won; Kang, Taek Jin; Kim, Sun Chang; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2015-06-01

    Escherichia coli DH5α is a common laboratory strain that provides an important platform for routine use in cloning and synthetic biology applications. Many synthetic circuits have been constructed and successfully expressed in E. coli DH5α; however, its genome sequence has not been determined yet. Here, we determined E. coli DH5α genome sequence and identified genetic mutations that affect its phenotypic functions by using short-read sequencing. The sequencing results clearly described the genotypes of E. coli DH5α, which aid in further studies using the strain. Additionally, we observed 105 single nucleotide variants (SNVs), 83% of which were detected in protein-coding regions compared to the parental strain E. coli DH1. Interestingly, 23% of the protein-coding regions have mutations in their amino acid residues, whose biological functions were categorized into two-component systems, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. These results underscore the advantages of E. coli DH5α, which tolerates the components of transformation buffer and expresses foreign plasmids efficiently. Moreover, these SNVs were also observed in the commercially available strain. These data provide the genetic information of E. coli DH5α for its future application in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Internet-Based Intervention for Tinnitus: Outcome of a Single-Group Open Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, Eldré W; Allen, Peter M; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Baguley, David M; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Managing chronic tinnitus is challenging, and innovative ways to address the resulting health-care burden are required. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for tinnitus shows promise as a cost-effective treatment option. The feasibility and effectiveness of iCBT in the United Kingdom are yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is not known if iCBT can be supported by an audiologist rather than a psychologist. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of guided iCBT using audiological support on tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related comorbidities. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the feasibility of iCBT for tinnitus distress in the United Kingdom, by determining recruitment, attrition, and compliance rates. Finally, it aimed to identify which aspects of the protocol require refinement for subsequent clinical trials. A single-group open trial design was implemented. This study would serve as a prerequisite study, to identify barriers, before undertaking effectiveness trials. Participants consisted of 37 adults (18 males, 19 females), with an age range of between 50 and 59 yr. The mean preintervention tinnitus severity rating was 56.15 (standard deviation = 18.35), which is categorized as "severe tinnitus" as measured by the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Five participants withdrew during the study, and 29 of the remaining participants completed the postintervention questionnaire. The guided iCBT intervention ran over an eight-week period and consisted of 16 obligatory modules and five optional modules. The intervention was designed to be interactive, interesting, and stimulating. A key element was the provision of support from an audiologist throughout the program. Online questionnaires were used throughout the study. These were administered at baseline and postintervention to determine attrition and compliance rates and to facilitate sample size estimates for further clinical trials. Outcome measures for tinnitus severity, hearing handicap

  19. Evaluation of the Single-precision Floatingpoint Vector Add Kernel Using the Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoshii, Kazutomo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-04-20

    Open Computing Language (OpenCL) is a high-level language that enables software programmers to explore Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) for application acceleration. The Intel FPGA software development kit (SDK) for OpenCL allows a user to specify applications at a high level and explore the performance of low-level hardware acceleration. In this report, we present the FPGA performance and power consumption results of the single-precision floating-point vector add OpenCL kernel using the Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL on the Nallatech 385A FPGA board. The board features an Arria 10 FPGA. We evaluate the FPGA implementations using the compute unit duplication and kernel vectorization optimization techniques. On the Nallatech 385A FPGA board, the maximum compute kernel bandwidth we achieve is 25.8 GB/s, approximately 76% of the peak memory bandwidth. The power consumption of the FPGA device when running the kernels ranges from 29W to 42W.

  20. Expression of human papillomavirus type 6 E1, E2, L1 and L2 open reading frames in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G H; Roman, A

    1987-01-01

    Open reading frame (ORF) fragments (putative gene fragments) from human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV-6b) were inserted into the bacterial expression vector pHK413 to provide viral antigenic determinants. Approximately 86% of the entire L1 ORF, 82% of the E2 ORF, and 52% of the L2 ORF were expressed in Escherichia coli. The E1 ORF was cloned as two fragments. The constructions containing E1n (coding for the N-terminal region) and E1c (coding for the C-terminal region) expressed 27% and 16% of the E1 ORF, respectively. Protein encoded by the L1 ORF, but not that encoded by the L2 ORF, reacted with antibodies elicited by disrupted bovine papillomavirus. These reagents will be extremely useful in unravelling the HPV-6b replication cycle.

  1. Identification of very small open reading frames in the genomes of Holmes Jungle virus, Ord River virus, and Wongabel virus of the genus , family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Gubala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae infect a broad range of hosts from a variety of ecological and geographical niches, including vertebrates, arthropods, and plants. The arthropod-transmitted members of this family display considerable genetic diversity and remarkable genomic flexibility that enable coding for various accessory proteins in different locations of the genome. Here, we describe the genome of Holmes Jungle virus, isolated from Culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected in northern Australia, and make detailed comparisons with the closely related Ord River and Wongabel viruses, with a focus on identifying very small open reading frames (smORFs in their genomes. This is the first systematic prediction of smORFs in rhabdoviruses, emphasising the intricacy of the rhabdovirus genome and the knowledge gaps. We speculate that these smORFs may be of importance to the life cycle of the virus in the arthropod vector.

  2. Isolation and expression of human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor cDNA clones: Homology to Epstein-Barr virus open reading frame BCRFI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, P.; De Waal-Malefyt, R.; Dang, M.N.; Johnson, K.E.; Kastelein, R.; Fiorentino, D.F.; DeVries, J.E.; Roncarolo, M.G.; Mosmann, T.R.; Moore, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors demonstrated the existence of human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (DSIF) [interleukin 10 (IL-10)]. cDNA clones encoding human IL-10 (hIL-10) were isolated from a tetanus toxin-specific human T-cell clone. Like mouse IL-10, hIL-10 exhibits strong DNA and amino acid sequence homology to an open reading frame in the Epstein-Barr virus, BDRFL. hIL-10 and the BCRFI product inhibit cytokine synthesis by activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and by a mouse Th1 clone. Both hIL-10 and mouse IL-10 sustain the viability of a mouse mast cell line in culture, but BCRFI lacks comparable activity in this way, suggesting that BCRFI may have conserved only a subset of hIL-10 activities

  3. Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: Single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F.M. Kok (Niels); M.Y. Smits-Lind (May); B.M.E. Hansson (Birgitta); D. Pilzecker (Desiree); I.R.A.M. Mertens Zur Borg (Ingrid); B.C. Knipscheer (Ben); E.J. Hazebroek (Eric Jasper); I.M. Dooper (Ine); W. Weimar (Willem); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E.M.M. Adang (Eddy); G.-J. van der Wilt (Gert-Jan); H.J. Bonjer (Jaap); J.A. van der Vliet (Adam); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVES: To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. DESIGN: Single blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 100 living

  4. Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, N.F.; Lind, M.Y.; Hansson, B.M.; Pilzecker, D.; Mertens zur Borg, I.R.; Knipscheer, B.C.; Hazebroek, E.J.; Dooper, P.M.M.; Weimar, W.; Hop, W.C.J.; Adang, E.M.M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Bonjer, H.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; Ijzermans, J.N.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. DESIGN: Single blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 100 living kidney donors.

  5. Combination Antisense Treatment for Destructive Exon Skipping of Myostatin and Open Reading Frame Rescue of Dystrophin in Neonatal mdx Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu-Nguyen, Ngoc B; Jarmin, Susan A; Saleh, Amer F; Popplewell, Linda; Gait, Michael J; Dickson, George

    2015-08-01

    The fatal X-linked Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), characterized by progressive muscle wasting and muscle weakness, is caused by mutations within the DMD gene. The use of antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) modulating pre-mRNA splicing to restore the disrupted dystrophin reading frame, subsequently generating a shortened but functional protein has emerged as a potential strategy in DMD treatment. AO therapy has recently been applied to induce out-of-frame exon skipping of myostatin pre-mRNA, knocking-down expression of myostatin protein, and such an approach is suggested to enhance muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia and to reduce muscle necrosis. Within this study, we investigated dual exon skipping of dystrophin and myostatin pre-mRNAs using phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers conjugated with an arginine-rich peptide (B-PMOs). Intraperitoneal administration of B-PMOs was performed in neonatal mdx males on the day of birth, and at weeks 3 and 6. At week 9, we observed in treated mice (as compared to age-matched, saline-injected controls) normalization of muscle mass, a recovery in dystrophin expression, and a decrease in muscle necrosis, particularly in the diaphragm. Our data provide a proof of concept for antisense therapy combining dystrophin restoration and myostatin inhibition for the treatment of DMD.

  6. Single-nanowire, low-bandgap hot carrier solar cells with tunable open-circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, Steven; Burke, Adam; Chen, I.-Ju; Anttu, Nicklas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Fahlvik, Sofia; Bremner, Stephen; Conibeer, Gavin; Thelander, Claes; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Linke, Heiner

    2017-10-01

    Compared to traditional pn-junction photovoltaics, hot carrier solar cells offer potentially higher efficiency by extracting work from the kinetic energy of photogenerated ‘hot carriers’ before they cool to the lattice temperature. Hot carrier solar cells have been demonstrated in high-bandgap ferroelectric insulators and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, but so far not in low-bandgap materials, where the potential efficiency gain is highest. Recently, a high open-circuit voltage was demonstrated in an illuminated wurtzite InAs nanowire with a low bandgap of 0.39 eV, and was interpreted in terms of a photothermoelectric effect. Here, we point out that this device is a hot carrier solar cell and discuss its performance in those terms. In the demonstrated devices, InP heterostructures are used as energy filters in order to thermoelectrically harvest the energy of hot electrons photogenerated in InAs absorber segments. The obtained photovoltage depends on the heterostructure design of the energy filter and is therefore tunable. By using a high-resistance, thermionic barrier, an open-circuit voltage is obtained that is in excess of the Shockley-Queisser limit. These results provide generalizable insight into how to realize high voltage hot carrier solar cells in low-bandgap materials, and therefore are a step towards the demonstration of higher efficiency hot carrier solar cells.

  7. An Open-Loop Grid Synchronization Approach for Single-Phase Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    in the presence of frequency drifts. This is particularly true in single-phase applications, where the lack of multiple independent input signals makes the implementation of the synchronization technique difficult. The aim of this paper is to develop an effective OLS technique for single-phase power and energy...... applications. The proposed OLS method benefits from a straightforward implementation, a fast dynamic response (a response time less than two cycles of the nominal frequency), and a complete immunity against the DC component in the grid voltage. In addition, the designed OLS method totally blocks (significantly...... attenuates) all harmonics up to the aliasing point under a nominal (off-nominal) frequency. The effectiveness of the designed OLS technique is verified using comparative experimental results....

  8. Effect of Loss on Multiplexed Single-Photon Sources (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    theCreative CommonsAttribution 3.0 licence . Any further distribution of this workmustmaintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of thework...themultiplexed (MUX) single-photon source [14], which uses an array ofHSPSs, delay lines, electronics for classical logic operations , and an active...the squeezing parameter or the loss in the idler arm. In section 3wewill show that a practicalmultiplexed sourcewill require operation in the strong

  9. The relation between executive functioning, reaction time, naming speed, and single word reading in children with typical development and language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, David; Henry, Lucy A; Nash, Gilly

    2016-09-01

    Few investigations have examined the relationship between a comprehensive range of executive functioning (EF) abilities and reading. Our investigation identified components of EF that independently predicted single word reading, and determined whether their predictive role remained when additional variables were included in the regression analyses. This provided information about the EF processes that are related to reading, and the unity and diversity of EF. This study consisted of 160 children: 88 were typically developing with no language difficulties; 72 had language impairments. The assessments involved decoding, 10 measures of EF, reaction time, naming speed, non-verbal and verbal age-equivalent scores. In the first regression analysis, which only concerned the EF variables, the following verbal forms of EF had significant relationships with decoding: working memory, fluency, planning, and inhibition. Further regression analyses included additional predictor variables: reaction time, naming speed, and age-equivalent scores. These analyses indicated that most of the EF variables continued to predict decoding even when entered with competitor variables. Furthermore, after the entry of EF variables, there were no group differences in decoding (typical vs. language difficulties). We discuss the contribution of EF and other variables to reading abilities. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Laparoscopic versus open distal pancreatectomy for nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a large single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Hyup; Han, In Woong; Heo, Jin Seok; Choi, Seong Ho; Choi, Dong Wook; Han, Sunjong; You, Yung Hun

    2018-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) account for 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. Nonfunctioning PNETs (NF-PNETs) account for 60-90% of all PNETs. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) is becoming the treatment of choice for benign lesions in the body and tail of the pancreas. However, LDP has not yet been widely accepted as the gold standard for NF-PNETs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and oncologic outcomes after laparoscopic versus open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) for NF-PNETs. Between April 1995 and September 2016, 94 patients with NF-PNETs underwent open or laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy at Samsung Medical Center. Patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent LDP and those who underwent ODP. Both groups were compared in terms of clinical and oncologic variables. LDP patients had a significantly shorter hospital stay compared with ODP patients, amounting to a mean difference of 2 days (p < 0.001). Overall complication rates did not differ significantly between the ODP and LDP groups (p = 0.379). The 3-year overall survival rates in the ODP and LDP groups were 93.7 and 100%, respectively (p = 0.069). In this study, LDP for NF-PNETs had similar oncologic outcomes compared with ODP. In addition, LDP was associated with a shorter hospital stay compared with ODP. Therefore, LDP is a safe and effective procedure for patients with NF-PNETs. A multicenter study and a randomized controlled trial are needed to better assess the clinical and oncologic outcomes.

  11. Single Qubit Manipulation in a Microfabricated Surface Electrode Ion Trap (Open Access, Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    electrode ion trap with field compensation using a modulated Raman effect D T C Allcock, J A Sherman, D N Stacey et al. Spatially uniform single-qubit gate...in thermal states of motion G Kirchmair, J Benhelm, F Zähringer et al. Normal modes of trapped ions in the presence of anharmonic trap potentials J P...Qloaded = 280) [35]. New Journal of Physics 15 (2013) 093018 (http://www.njp.org/) 5 2.1 GHz Zeeman = 1.4 MHz/G 36 9. 5 nm HF = 12.6 GHz 171Yb+ 2P 1

  12. Terminal Complement Inhibitor Eculizumab in Adult Patients With Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Single-Arm, Open-Label Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, Fadi; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Campistol, Josep M; Cataland, Spero R; Espinosa, Mario; Gaber, A Osama; Menne, Jan; Minetti, Enrico E; Provôt, François; Rondeau, Eric; Ruggenenti, Piero; Weekers, Laurent E; Ogawa, Masayo; Bedrosian, Camille L; Legendre, Christophe M

    2016-07-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare genetic life-threatening disease of chronic uncontrolled complement activation leading to thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and severe end-organ damage. Eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor approved for aHUS treatment, was reported to improve hematologic and renal parameters in 2 prior prospective phase 2 studies. This is the largest prospective study of eculizumab in aHUS to date, conducted in an adult population. Open-label single-arm phase 2 trial. Patients 18 years or older with aHUS (platelet count dialysis, 5 recovered kidney function before eculizumab initiation and 15 of the remaining 19 (79%) discontinued dialysis during eculizumab treatment. No patients lost existing transplants. Quality-of-life measures were significantly improved. Two patients developed meningococcal infections; both recovered, and 1 remained on eculizumab treatment. Single-arm open-label design. Results highlight the benefits of eculizumab in adult patients with aHUS: improvement in hematologic, renal, and quality-of-life parameters; dialysis discontinuation; and transplant protection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermodynamics of single polyethylene and polybutylene glycols with hydrogen-bonding ends: A transition from looped to open conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunsang; Paul, Wolfgang

    2018-02-01

    A variety of linear polymer precursors with hydrogen bonding motifs at both ends enable us to design supramolecular polymer systems with tailored macroscopic properties including self-healing. In this study, we investigate thermodynamic properties of single polyethylene and polybutylene glycols with hydrogen bonding motifs. In this context, we first build a coarse-grained model of building blocks of the supramolecular polymer system based on all-atom molecular structures. The density of states of the single precursor is obtained using the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo method. Constructing canonical partition functions from the density of states, we find the transition from looped to open conformations at transition temperatures which are non-monotonously changing with an increasing degree of polymerization due to the competition between chain stiffness and loop-forming entropy penalty. In the complete range of chain length under investigation, a coexistence of the looped and open morphologies at the transition temperature is shown regardless of whether the transition is first-order-like or continuous. Polyethylene and polybutylene glycols show similar behavior in all the thermodynamic properties but the transition temperature of the more flexible polybutylene glycol is shown to change more gradually.

  14. Reference quality assembly of the 3.5 Gb genome of Capsicum annuum form a single linked-read library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linked-Read sequencing technology has recently been employed successfully for de novo assembly of multiple human genomes, however the utility of this technology for complex plant genomes is unproven. We evaluated the technology for this purpose by sequencing the 3.5 gigabase (Gb) diploid pepper (Cap...

  15. Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  16. Landau-Zener tunneling of a single Tb3+ magnetic moment allowing the electronic read-out of a nuclear spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdampilleta, M.; Klyatskaya, S.; Ruben, M.; Wernsdorfer, W.

    2013-05-01

    A multiterminal device based on a carbon nanotube quantum dot was used at very low temperature to probe a single electronic and nuclear spin embedded in a bis-(phthalocyaninato) terbium (III) complex (TbPc2). A spin-valve signature with large conductance jumps was found when two molecules were strongly coupled to the nanotube. The application of a transverse field separated the magnetic signal of both molecules and enabled single-shot read-out of the terbium nuclear spin. The Landau-Zener (LZ) quantum tunneling probability was studied as a function of field sweep rate, establishing a good agreement with the LZ equation and yielding the tunnel splitting Δ. It was found that Δ increased linearly as a function of the transverse field. These studies are an essential prerequisite for the coherent manipulation of a single nuclear spin in TbPc2.

  17. Differential regulation of hepatitis B virus core protein expression and genome replication by a small upstream open reading frame and naturally occurring mutations in the precore region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Li; Qin, Yanli; Jia, Haodi; Ye, Lei; Wang, Yongxiang; Zhang, Jiming; Wands, Jack R; Tong, Shuping; Li, Jisu

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcribes two subsets of 3.5-kb RNAs: precore RNA for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression, and pregenomic RNA for core and P protein translation as well as genome replication. HBeAg expression could be prevented by mutations in the precore region, while an upstream open reading frame (uORF) has been proposed as a negative regulator of core protein translation. We employed replication competent HBV DNA constructs and transient transfection experiments in Huh7 cells to verify the uORF effect and to explore the alternative function of precore RNA. Optimized Kozak sequence for the uORF or extra ATG codons as present in some HBV genotypes reduced core protein expression. G1896A nonsense mutation promoted more efficient core protein expression than mutated precore ATG, while a +1 frameshift mutation was ineffective. In conclusion, various HBeAg-negative precore mutations and mutations affecting uORF differentially regulate core protein expression and genome replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Translational profiling of B cells infected with the Epstein-Barr virus reveals 5' leader ribosome recruitment through upstream open reading frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencun, Maja; Klinke, Olaf; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Klaus, Severina; Tsai, Ming-Han; Poirey, Remy; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2018-02-26

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome encodes several hundred transcripts. We have used ribosome profiling to characterize viral translation in infected cells and map new translation initiation sites. We show here that EBV transcripts are translated with highly variable efficiency, owing to variable transcription and translation rates, variable ribosome recruitment to the leader region and coverage by monosomes versus polysomes. Some transcripts were hardly translated, others mainly carried monosomes, showed ribosome accumulation in leader regions and most likely represent non-coding RNAs. A similar process was visible for a subset of lytic genes including the key transactivators BZLF1 and BRLF1 in cells infected with weakly replicating EBV strains. This suggests that ribosome trapping, particularly in the leader region, represents a new checkpoint for the repression of lytic replication. We could identify 25 upstream open reading frames (uORFs) located upstream of coding transcripts that displayed 5' leader ribosome trapping, six of which were located in the leader region shared by many latent transcripts. These uORFs repressed viral translation and are likely to play an important role in the regulation of EBV translation.

  19. The virion-associated open reading frame 49 of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 promotes viral replication both in vitro and in vivo as a derepressor of RTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Hye-Jeong; Kang, Hye-Ri; Jin, Hyun Yong; Lee, Shaoying; Deng, Hongyu; Wu, Ting-Ting; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Sun, Ren; Song, Moon Jung

    2012-01-01

    Replication and transcription activator (RTA), an immediate-early gene, is a key molecular switch to evoke lytic replication of gammaherpesviruses. Open reading frame 49 (ORF49) is conserved among gammaherpesviruses and shown to cooperate with RTA in regulating virus lytic replication. Here we show a molecular mechanism and in vivo functions of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 or γHV-68) ORF49. MHV-68 ORF49 was transcribed and translated as a late gene. The ORF49 protein was associated with a virion, interacting with the ORF64 large tegument protein and the ORF25 capsid protein. Moreover, ORF49 directly bound to RTA and its negative cellular regulator, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and disrupted the interactions of RTA and PARP-1. Productive replication of an ORF49-deficient mutant virus (49S) was attenuated in vivo as well as in vitro. Likewise, latent infection was also impaired in the spleen of 49S-infected mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the virion-associated ORF49 protein may promote virus replication both in vitro and in vivo by providing an optimal environment in the early phase of virus infection as a derepressor of RTA.

  20. Applying a PCR-based open-reading frame typing method for easy genotyping and molecular epidemiological analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Yamada, K; Aoki, M; Hosoba, E; Matsumoto, M; Baba, H; Iinuma, Y

    2016-02-01

    Molecular epidemiological techniques, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), or multilocus sequence typing (MLST) have facilitated our understanding of the transmission routes of nosocomial infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, they are time consuming and technically demanding. To perform molecular epidemiological analysis in a standard microbiology laboratory, we aimed to develop a simpler and effective molecular epidemiological technique based on the open-reading frame (ORF) distribution patterns detected by PCR, which we call PCR-based ORF typing (POT). Ten ORFs from genomic islets, five ORFs from genomic islands, and the metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) blaIMP and blaVIM were selected by comparing the whole-genome sequences of different Ps. aeruginosa strains (PAO1, PA7, UCBPP-PA14 and LESB58). These 17 ORFs were detected, along with a Ps. aeruginosa marker, using 9-plex and 10-plex PCR systems. The genotypes in the POT were compared to those obtained by using PFGE and MLST. Using the POT method, molecular epidemiological analyses of Ps. aeruginosa can be completed in 4 h. Since this method is very easy to perform, even in standard clinical laboratories, it could be a valuable tool for monitoring daily infection control measures. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Comparison of PCR-based open reading frame typing, multilocus sequence typing, and Staphylococcus protein A gene typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Shinji; Saito, Ryoichi; Sawabe, Etsuko; Kozakai, Takahiro; Shima, Mari; Aiso, Yoshibumi; Fujie, Toshihide; Nukui, Yoko; Koike, Ryuji; Hagihara, Michio; Tohda, Shuji

    2018-04-01

    The recently developed PCR-based open reading frame typing (POT) method is a useful molecular typing tool. Here, we evaluated the performance of POT for molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and compared its performance to those of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Staphylococcus protein A gene typing (spa typing). Thirty-seven MRSA isolates were collected between July 2012 and May 2015. MLST, spa typing, and POT were performed, and their discriminatory powers were evaluated using Simpson's index analysis. The MRSA isolates were classified into 11, 18, and 33 types by MLST, spa typing, and POT, respectively. The predominant strains identified by MLST, spa typing, and POT were ST8 and ST764, t002, and 93-191-127, respectively. The discriminatory power of MLST, spa typing, and POT was 0.853, 0.875, and 0.992, respectively, indicating that POT had the highest discriminatory power. Moreover, the results of MLST and spa were available after 2 days, whereas that of POT was available in 5 h. Furthermore, POT is rapid and easy to perform and interpret. Therefore, POT is a superior molecular typing tool for monitoring nosocomial transmission of MRSA. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does reading a single passage of literary fiction really improve theory of mind? An attempt at replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Maria Eugenia; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Black, Jessica; Goldstein, Thalia R; Barnes, Jennifer L; Brownell, Hiram; Winner, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 111(5) of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (see record 2016-50315-003). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1. These omissions do not undermine the results in the primary analyses, which all included ART and ART Condition (as covariates). Any variation across research groups, including this difference in reading exposure measurement, is accounted for in the multilevel analyses. Therefore, the Table 2 title should appear as Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) Scores by Condition and Overall Unadjusted Means for the Current Study and Kidd and Castano (2013), as Well as the Zero-Order Pearson's Correlations Between RMET and ART Scores Overall and by Condition. The ART data columns should be deleted, and the table note should begin as follows: RMET scores were transformed to correct for skew prior to correlational analyses. The section title above the Discussion section should appear as Comparison of Our RMET Scores to Kidd and Castano Data, with the first two sentences appearing as follows: To determine whether the responses in our sample were similar to what Kidd and Castano (2013) found, we compared our mean performance on the RMET to theirs. Our grand mean (26.28) was significantly higher than theirs (25.18), t (1=, 374) = 3.71, p social world and invites us into the minds of characters. This has led various researchers to suggest that reading fiction improves our understanding of others' cognitive and emotional states. Kidd and Castano (2013) received a great deal of attention by providing support for this claim. Their article reported that reading segments of literary fiction (but not popular fiction or nonfiction) immediately and significantly improved performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), an advanced theory

  3. A single-beam titration method for the quantification of open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Lung-Yu; Lu, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-01

    This study introduced a quantitative method that can be used to measure the concentration of analytes directly from a single-beam spectrum of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR). The peak shapes of the analytes in a single-beam spectrum were gradually canceled (i.e., “titrated”) by dividing an aliquot of a standard transmittance spectrum with a known concentration, and the sum of the squared differential synthetic spectrum was calculated as an indicator for the end point of this titration. The quantity of a standard transmittance spectrum that is needed to reach the end point can be used to calculate the concentrations of the analytes. A NIST traceable gas standard containing six known compounds was used to compare the quantitative accuracy of both this titration method and that of a classic least square (CLS) using a closed-cell FTIR spectrum. The continuous FTIR analysis of industrial exhausting stack showed that concentration trends were consistent between the CLS and titration methods. The titration method allowed the quantification to be performed without the need of a clean single-beam background spectrum, which was beneficial for the field measurement of OP-FTIR. Persistent constituents of the atmosphere, such as NH 3 , CH 4 and CO, were successfully quantified using the single-beam titration method with OP-FTIR data that is normally inaccurate when using the CLS method due to the lack of a suitable background spectrum. Also, the synthetic spectrum at the titration end point contained virtually no peaks of analytes, but it did contain the remaining information needed to provide an alternative means of obtaining an ideal single-beam background for OP-FTIR. - Highlights: • Establish single beam titration quantification method for OP-FTIR. • Define the indicator for the end-point of spectrum titration. • An ideal background spectrum can be obtained using single beam titration. • Compare the quantification between titration

  4. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena eKrefta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such ‘bilingual’ mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct – single or dual – language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1 – English (L2 childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading, and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants’ performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual

  5. Bone-level implants placed in the anterior maxilla: an open-label, single-arm observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, EnFeng; Hei, Wei-Hong; Park, Jong-Chul; Pang, KangMi; Kim, Sun Kyung; Kim, Bongju; Kim, Soung-Min; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed marginal bone remodeling and soft tissue esthetics after the loading of single bone-level implants in the anterior maxilla. An open, single-arm observational clinical trial with 3 years of follow-up was performed, including 22 implants. The patients presented with a single tooth gap in the anterior maxilla (tooth positions 14-24), with natural or restored adjacent teeth. An implant was placed at least 8 weeks post-extraction and healed submerged for 6 weeks. After the second-stage operation, a fixed provisional prosthesis was provided. The final restoration was placed 6 months after the provisional restoration. The time of the provisional crown connection was considered to be the baseline in this study. Esthetic parameters and the marginal bone level were assessed at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. All implants were well integrated in the bone. A statistically significant increase was found in the mean implant stability quotient between the time of the provisional prosthesis and the time of the final prosthesis. Most implants (95.5%) revealed marginal bone resorption (implant (4.5%) showed a change of 2.12 mm from baseline to 36 months (mean 0.07±0.48 mm), while the crestal bone level decreased significantly, from 2.34±0.93 mm at baseline to 1.70±1.10 mm at 36 months. The facial gingival margin and papilla were stable and the esthetic scores indicated high patient and dentist satisfaction. Platform-switching bone-level implants placed in maxillary single-tooth gaps resulted in successful osseointegration with minimal marginal bone resorption. The peri-implant soft tissue was also esthetically satisfying and stable.

  6. Bone-level implants placed in the anterior maxilla: an open-label, single-arm observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed marginal bone remodeling and soft tissue esthetics after the loading of single bone-level implants in the anterior maxilla. Methods An open, single-arm observational clinical trial with 3 years of follow-up was performed, including 22 implants. The patients presented with a single tooth gap in the anterior maxilla (tooth positions 14–24), with natural or restored adjacent teeth. An implant was placed at least 8 weeks post-extraction and healed submerged for 6 weeks. After the second-stage operation, a fixed provisional prosthesis was provided. The final restoration was placed 6 months after the provisional restoration. The time of the provisional crown connection was considered to be the baseline in this study. Esthetic parameters and the marginal bone level were assessed at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Results All implants were well integrated in the bone. A statistically significant increase was found in the mean implant stability quotient between the time of the provisional prosthesis and the time of the final prosthesis. Most implants (95.5%) revealed marginal bone resorption (<0.5 mm), and just 1 implant (4.5%) showed a change of 2.12 mm from baseline to 36 months (mean 0.07±0.48 mm), while the crestal bone level decreased significantly, from 2.34±0.93 mm at baseline to 1.70±1.10 mm at 36 months. The facial gingival margin and papilla were stable and the esthetic scores indicated high patient and dentist satisfaction. Conclusions Platform-switching bone-level implants placed in maxillary single-tooth gaps resulted in successful osseointegration with minimal marginal bone resorption. The peri-implant soft tissue was also esthetically satisfying and stable. PMID:29093988

  7. Feasibility study of a single-element transcranial focused ultrasound system for blood-brain barrier opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Fabrice; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Teichert, Tobias; Ferrera, Vincent P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2012-10-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized vascular system that impedes entry of all large and the vast majority of small molecules including the most potent CNS disease therapeutic agents from entering from the lumen into the brain parenchyma. Microbubble-enhanced, focused ultrasound (ME-FUS) has been previously shown to disrupt noninvasively, selectively, and transiently the BBB in small animals in vivo. The study addresses the focusing properties of single-element transducers at intermediate frequencies (500 kHz) through primate and human skulls, targeting clinically relevant targets extracted from 3D brain atlases such as the hippocampus and the basal ganglia, which are typically affected by early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, respectively. A preliminary in vivo study was performed to study the frequency dependence of BBB opening parameters in mice. Then, feasibility of transcranial ME-FUS BBB opening in non-human primates was demonstrated with subsequent BBB recovery. Sonications were combined with two different types of microbubbles (custom made 4-5 μm and Definity®). 3T MRI was used to confirm the BBB disruption and to assess brain damage.

  8. Measuring Chess Experts' Single-Use Sequence Knowledge: An Archival Study of Departure from ‘Theoretical’ Openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassy, Philippe; Gobet, Fernand

    2011-01-01

    The respective roles of knowledge and search have received considerable attention in the literature on expertise. However, most of the evidence on knowledge has been indirect – e.g., by inferring the presence of chunks in long-term memory from performance in memory recall tasks. Here we provide direct estimates of the amount of monochrestic (single use) and rote knowledge held by chess players of varying skill levels. From a large chess database, we analyzed 76,562 games played in 2008 by individuals ranging from Class B players (average players) to Masters to measure the extent to which players deviate from previously known initial sequences of moves (“openings”). Substantial differences were found in the number of moves known by players of different skill levels, with more expert players knowing more moves. Combined with assumptions independently made about the branching factor in master games, we estimate that masters have memorized about 100,000 opening moves. Our results support the hypothesis that monochrestic knowledge is essential for reaching high levels of expertise in chess. They provide a direct, quantitative estimate of the number of opening moves that players have to know to reach master level. PMID:22110590

  9. {open_quotes}Optical guiding{close_quotes} limits on extraction efficiencies of single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawley, W.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers have an attractive feature of being able, in theory at least, of extracting a large portion of the electron beam energy into light. In circumstances where an optical FEL`s wiggler length is significantly longer than the Rayleigh length Z{sub R} corresponding to the electron beam radius, diffraction losses must be controlled via the phenomenon of {open_quotes}optical guiding{close_quotes}. Since the strength of the guiding depends upon the effective refractive index {eta}{sub r} exceeding one, and since ({eta}{sub r}-1) is inversely proportional to the optical electric field, there is a natural {open_quotes}limiting{close_quotes} mechanism to the on-axis field strength and thus the rate at which energy may be extracted from the electron beam. In particular, the extraction efficiency for a prebunched beam asymptotically grows linearly with z rather than quadratically. We present analytical and numerical simulation results concerning this behavior and discuss its applicability to various FEL designs including oscillator/amplifier-radiator configurations.

  10. Comparison of open surgical discectomy versus plasma-laser nucleoplasty in patients with single lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishamkar, Saeid; Kouchakzadeh, Masih; Mirhosseini, Ahmad; Tabesh, Homayoun; Rezvani, Majid; Moayednia, Amir; Ganjeifar, Babak; Mahabadi, Amir; Yousefi, Elham; Kooshki, Ali Mehrabi

    2015-12-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation is a major cause of low back pain. Several treatment methods are available for lumbar disc herniation including Chemonucleolysis, open surgery, nucleoplasty, laser disc decompression, and intradiscal electrothermal therapy. The high prevalence of lumbar disc herniation necessitates a minimally invasive yet effective treatment method. In this study, we compared the outcomes of open surgery and nucleoplasty method in patients with single lumbar disc herniation. This study was a noninferiority randomized clinical trial conducted in one of the University Hospitals of Isfahan Medical University; The Alzahra Hospital. About 200 patients with the diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation were recruited and were assigned to either the treatment or control groups using block randomization. One group received open surgery and the other group received nucleoplasty as the method of treatment. Patients were revisited at 14 days, 1, 2, 3 months, and 1-year after surgery and were assessed for the following variables: Lower back pain, lower limb pain, common complications of surgery (e.g., discitis, infection and hematoma) and recurrence of herniation. The mean (standard deviation) severity of low back pain was reduced from 6.92 (2.5) to 3.43 (2.3) in the nucleoplasty group (P = 0.04) and from 7.5 (2.2) to 3.04 (1.61) in the discectomy group (P = 0.73). Between group difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.44), however, time and treatment interaction was significant (P = 0.001). The level of radicular pain evaluated 1 year after treatment was reduced from 8.1 (1.2) to 2.9 (1.2) (P = 0.004) and from 7.89 (2.1) to 3.6 (2.5) (P =0.04) in the discectomy and the nucleoplasty groups respectively, significant interaction between time and treatment options was observed (P disc herniation, it is also less invasive with higher patient compliance. Taking factor such as decreased cost and duration of the surgery, as well as faster recovery in patients into

  11. "Does reading a single passage of literary fiction really improve theory of mind? An attempt at replication": Correction to Panero et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Reports an error in "Does Reading a Single Passage of Literary Fiction Really Improve Theory of Mind? An Attempt at Replication" by Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R. Goldstein, Jennifer L. Barnes, Hiram Brownell and Ellen Winner ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Sep 19, 2016, np). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1. These omissions do not undermine the results in the primary analyses, which all included ART and ART Condition (as covariates). Any variation across research groups, including this difference in reading exposure measurement, is accounted for in the multilevel analyses. Therefore, the Table 2 title should appear as Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) Scores by Condition and Overall Unadjusted Means for the Current Study and Kidd and Castano (2013), as Well as the Zero-Order Pearson's Correlations Between RMET and ART Scores Overall and by Condition. The ART data columns should be deleted, and the table note should begin as follows: RMET scores were transformed to correct for skew prior to correlational analyses. The section title above the Discussion section should appear as Comparison of Our RMET Scores to Kidd and Castano Data, with the first two sentences appearing as follows: To determine whether the responses in our sample were similar to what Kidd and Castano (2013) found, we compared our mean performance on the RMET to theirs. Our grand mean (26.28) was significantly higher than theirs (25.18), t (1=, 374) = 3.71, p minds of characters. This has led various researchers to suggest that reading fiction improves our understanding of others' cognitive and emotional states. Kidd and Castano (2013) received a great deal of attention by providing support for this claim. Their article reported that reading segments of literary

  12. 2D speckle tracking echocardiography of the right ventricle free wall in SCUBA divers after single open sea dive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilovic-Grabovac, Zora; Obad, Ante; Duplančić, Darko; Banić, Ivana; Brusoni, Denise; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Vuković, Ivica; Dujic, Zeljko; Bakovic, Darija

    2018-03-01

    The presence of circulating gas bubbles and their influence on pulmonary and right heart hemodynamics was reported after uncomplicated self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) dive(s). Improvements in cardiac imaging have recently focused great attention on the right ventricle (RV). The aim of our study was to evaluate possible effects of a single air SCUBA dive on RV function using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy divers after single open sea dive to 18 meters of seawater, followed by bottom stay of 47 minutes with a direct ascent to the surface. Twelve experienced male divers (age 39.5 ± 10.5 years) participated in the study. Echocardiographic assessment of the right ventricular function (free wall 2 D strain, tricuspid annular planes systolic excursion [TAPSE], lateral tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity [RV s`] and fractional area change [FAC]) was performed directly prior to and 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after surfacing. Two-dimensional strain of all three segments of free right ventricular wall showed a significant increase in longitudinal shortening in post-dive period for maximally 26% (basal), 15.4% (mid) and 16.3% (apical) as well as TAPSE (11.6%), RV FAC (19.2%), RV S` (12.7%) suggesting a rise in systolic function of right heart. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mean PAP) increased post-dive from 13.3 mmHg to maximally 23.5 mmHg (P = .002), indicating increased RV afterload. Our results demonstrated that single dive with significant bubble load lead to increase in systolic function and longitudinal strain of the right heart in parallel with increase in mean PAP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Implementation and assessment of a yeast orphan gene research project: involving undergraduates in authentic research experiences and progressing our understanding of uncharacterized open reading frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Bethany V; Schultheis, Patrick J; Strome, Erin D

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic organism to be sequenced; however, little progress has been made in recent years in furthering our understanding of all open reading frames (ORFs). From October 2012 to May 2015 the number of verified ORFs had only risen from 75.31% to 78%, while the number of uncharacterized ORFs had decreased from 12.8% to 11% (representing > 700 genes still left in this category; http://www.yeastgenome.org/genomesnapshot). Course-based research has been shown to increase student learning while providing experience with real scientific investigation; however, implementation in large, multi-section courses presents many challenges. This study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating authentic research into a core genetics course, with multiple instructors, to increase student learning and progress our understanding of uncharacterized ORFs. We generated a module-based annotation toolkit and utilized easily accessible bioinformatics tools to predict gene function for uncharacterized ORFs within the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). Students were each assigned an uncharacterized ORF, which they annotated using contemporary comparative genomics methodologies, including multiple sequence alignment, conserved domain identification, signal peptide prediction and cellular localization algorithms. Student learning outcomes were measured by quizzes, project reports and presentations, as well as a post-project questionnaire. Our results indicate that the authentic research experience had positive impacts on students' perception of their learning and their confidence to conduct future research. Furthermore, we believe that creation of an online repository and adoption and/or adaptation of this project across multiple researchers and institutions could speed the process of gene function prediction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Implementation and assessment of a yeast orphan gene research project; involving undergraduates in authentic research experiences and progressing our understanding of uncharacterized open reading frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Bethany V.; Schultheis, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic organism to be sequenced, however little progress has been made in recent years in furthering our understanding of all open reading frames (ORFs). From October 2012 to May 2015 the number of verified ORFs has only risen from 75.31% to 78% while the number of uncharacterized ORFs have decreased from 12.8% to 11% (representing more than 700 genes still left in this category) [http://www.yeastgenome.org/genomesnapshot]. Course-based research has been shown to increase student learning while providing experience with real scientific investigation; however, implementation in large, multi-section courses presents many challenges. This study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating authentic research into a core genetics course with multiple instructors to increase student learning and progress our understanding of uncharacterized ORFs. We generated a module-based annotation toolkit and utilized easily accessible bioinformatics tools to predict gene function for uncharacterized ORFs within the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). Students were each assigned an uncharacterized ORF which they annotated using contemporary comparative genomics methodologies including multiple sequence alignment, conserved domain identification, signal peptide prediction and cellular localization algorithms. Student learning outcomes were measured by quizzes, project reports and presentations, as well as a post-project questionnaire. Our results indicate the authentic research experience had positive impacts on student's perception of their learning and their confidence to conduct future research. Furthermore we believe that creation of an online repository and adoption and/or adaptation of this project across multiple researchers and institutions could speed the process of gene function prediction. PMID:26460164

  15. Expression of a continuous open reading frame encoding subunits 1 and 2 of cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondrial DNA of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, K M; Gray, M W

    1996-04-19

    We have investigated the expression of a continuous open reading frame (ORF) present in the mitochondrial genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii and specifying the two largest subunits (COX1 and COX2) of the cytochrome c oxidase complex. Northern hybridization and primer extension analysis demonstrated that this ORF (cox1/2, 873 codons) is transcribed as part of a 4.7 kb RNA that also includes the upstream small subunit rRNA sequence. Between the cox1 and cox2 portions of the transcript, RNA sequence exactly matches gene sequence, excluding the possibility that a standard cox1 termination codon is created by post-transcriptional RNA processing or editing. Western analysis revealed an A. castellanii COX2 protein with a mobility matching that of mature COX2 from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mitochondria. These observations indicate that although A. castellanii COX1 and COX2 are apparently translated from the same ORF, they do not exist in mature form as a COX1-COX2 "fusion" protein. Whereas translation of COX2 could potentially be initiated from an internal AUG codon in the cox1/2 ORF, COX1 must be generated either through an unusual translation termination mechanism acting between the cox1 and cox2 coding regions of the cox1/2 mRNA, or by co-translational or post-translational proteolytic processing of a translation product whose synthesis continues into the cox2 coding region. Because the cox2 nucleotide sequence predicts a COX2 protein considerably larger than that observed by Western analysis, A. castellanii COX2 may undergo additional post-translational processing to its final form.

  16. Immunogenicity of a Multi-Epitope DNA Vaccine Encoding Epitopes from Cu–Zn Superoxide Dismutase and Open Reading Frames of Brucella abortus in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Emilia; Sáez, Darwin; Oñate, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease affecting several mammalian species that is transmitted to humans by direct or indirect contact with infected animals or their products. In cattle, brucellosis is almost invariably caused by Brucella abortus. Live, attenuated Brucella vaccines are commonly used to prevent illness in cattle, but can cause abortions in pregnant animals. It is, therefore, desirable to design an effective and safer vaccine against Brucella. We have used specific Brucella antigens that induce immunity and protection against B. abortus. A novel recombinant multi-epitope DNA vaccine specific for brucellosis was developed. To design the vaccine construct, we employed bioinformatics tools to predict epitopes present in Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase and in the open reading frames of the genomic island-3 (BAB1_0260, BAB1_0270, BAB1_0273, and BAB1_0278) of Brucella. We successfully designed a multi-epitope DNA plasmid vaccine chimera that encodes and expresses 21 epitopes. This DNA vaccine induced a specific humoral and cellular immune response in BALB/c mice. It induced a typical T-helper 1 response, eliciting production of immunoglobulin G2a and IFN-γ particularly associated with the Th1 cell subset of CD4+ T cells. The production of IL-4, an indicator of Th2 activation, was not detected in splenocytes. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that the vaccine induced a predominantly Th1 response. The vaccine induced a statistically significant level of protection in BALB/c mice when challenged with B. abortus 2308. This is the first use of an in silico strategy to a design a multi-epitope DNA vaccine against B. abortus. PMID:28232837

  17. Novel function of the chromosome 7 open reading frame 41 gene to promote leukemic megakaryocyte differentiation by modulating TPA-induced signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Lu, B; Hu, B; Xiao, W; Li, W; Huang, Z

    2014-03-28

    12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) activates multiple signaling pathways, alters gene expression and causes leukemic cell differentiation. How TPA-induced genes contribute to leukemic cell differentiation remains elusive. We noticed that chromosome 7 open reading frame 41 (C7ORF41) was a TPA-responsive gene and its upregulation concurred with human megakaryocyte differentiation. In K562 cells, ectopic expression of C7ORF41 significantly increased CD61 expression, enhanced ERK and JNK signaling, and upregulated RUNX1 and FLI1, whereas C7ORF41 knockdown caused an opposite phenotype. These observations suggest that C7ORF41 may promote megakaryocyte differentiation partially through modulating ERK and JNK signaling that leads to upregulation of RUNX1 and FLI1. In supporting this, C7ORF41 overexpression rescued megakaryocyte differentiation blocked by ERK inhibition while JNK inhibition abrogated the upregulation of FLI1 by C7ORF41. Furthermore, we found that Y34F mutant C7ORF41 inhibited megakaryocyte differentiation. nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) was the major activator of C7ORF41 that in turn repressed NF-κB activity by inhibiting its phosphorylation at serine 536, while MAPK/ERK was the potent repressor of C7ORF41. Finally, we showed that C7ORF41 knockdown in mouse fetal liver cells impaired megakaryocyte differentiation. Taken together, we have identified the function of a novel gene C7ORF41 that forms interplaying regulatory network in TPA-induced signaling and promotes leukemic and normal megakaryocyte differentiation.

  18. Novel function of the chromosome 7 open reading frame 41 gene to promote leukemic megakaryocyte differentiation by modulating TPA-induced signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X; Lu, B; Hu, B; Xiao, W; Li, W; Huang, Z

    2014-01-01

    12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) activates multiple signaling pathways, alters gene expression and causes leukemic cell differentiation. How TPA-induced genes contribute to leukemic cell differentiation remains elusive. We noticed that chromosome 7 open reading frame 41 (C7ORF41) was a TPA-responsive gene and its upregulation concurred with human megakaryocyte differentiation. In K562 cells, ectopic expression of C7ORF41 significantly increased CD61 expression, enhanced ERK and JNK signaling, and upregulated RUNX1 and FLI1, whereas C7ORF41 knockdown caused an opposite phenotype. These observations suggest that C7ORF41 may promote megakaryocyte differentiation partially through modulating ERK and JNK signaling that leads to upregulation of RUNX1 and FLI1. In supporting this, C7ORF41 overexpression rescued megakaryocyte differentiation blocked by ERK inhibition while JNK inhibition abrogated the upregulation of FLI1 by C7ORF41. Furthermore, we found that Y34F mutant C7ORF41 inhibited megakaryocyte differentiation. nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) was the major activator of C7ORF41 that in turn repressed NF-κB activity by inhibiting its phosphorylation at serine 536, while MAPK/ERK was the potent repressor of C7ORF41. Finally, we showed that C7ORF41 knockdown in mouse fetal liver cells impaired megakaryocyte differentiation. Taken together, we have identified the function of a novel gene C7ORF41 that forms interplaying regulatory network in TPA-induced signaling and promotes leukemic and normal megakaryocyte differentiation

  19. Chimeric Recombinant Human Metapneumoviruses with the Nucleoprotein or Phosphoprotein Open Reading Frame Replaced by That of Avian Metapneumovirus Exhibit Improved Growth In Vitro and Attenuation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quynh N.; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.; Buchholz, Ursula J.

    2005-01-01

    Chimeric versions of recombinant human metapneumovirus (HMPV) were generated by replacing the nucleoprotein (N) or phosphoprotein (P) open reading frame with its counterpart from the closely related avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroup C. In Vero cells, AMPV replicated to an approximately 100-fold-higher titer than HMPV. Surprisingly, the N and P chimeric viruses replicated to a peak titer that was 11- and 25-fold higher, respectively, than that of parental HMPV. The basis for this effect is not known but was not due to obvious changes in the efficiency of gene expression. AMPV and the N and P chimeras were evaluated for replication, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in hamsters. AMPV was attenuated compared to HMPV in this mammalian host on day 5 postinfection, but not on day 3, and only in the nasal turbinates. In contrast, the N and P chimeras were reduced approximately 100-fold in both the upper and lower respiratory tract on day 3 postinfection, although there was little difference by day 5. The N and P chimeras induced a high level of neutralizing serum antibodies and protective efficacy against HMPV; AMPV was only weakly immunogenic and protective against HMPV challenge, reflecting antigenic differences. In African green monkeys immunized intranasally and intratracheally, the mean peak titer of the P chimera was reduced 100- and 1,000-fold in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, whereas the N chimera was reduced only 10-fold in the lower respiratory tract. Both chimeras were comparable to wild-type HMPV in immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Thus, the P chimera is a promising live HMPV vaccine candidate that paradoxically combines improved growth in vitro with attenuation in vivo. PMID:16306583

  20. Zm908p11, encoded by a short open reading frame (sORF) gene, functions in pollen tube growth as a profilin ligand in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xue; Wang, Dongxue; Liu, Peng; Li, Chengxia; Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2013-01-01

    Double fertilization of flowering plants depends on the targeted transportation of sperm to the embryo sac by the pollen tube. Currently, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate pollen germination and pollen tube growth in maize (Zea mays). Here, a maize pollen-predominant gene Zm908, with several putative short open reading frames (sORFs), was isolated and characterized. The longest ORF of Zm908 encodes a small protein of 97 amino acids. This was designated as Zm908p11 and is distributed throughout the maize pollen tube. Western blot detected the small peptide in mature pollen. Quantitative reverse transcription–PCR and northern blot analysis revealed that Zm908p11 was expressed predominantly in mature pollen grains. Ectopic overexpression of full-length Zm908 and Zm908p11 in tobacco resulted in defective pollen, while transgenic tobacco plants with a site-specific mutation or a frameshift mutation of Zm908p11 showed normal pollen development. Overexpression of Zm908p11 in maize decreased pollen germination efficiency. Maize pollen cDNA library screening and protein–protein interaction assays demonstrated that Zm908p11 interacts with maize profilin 1 (ZmPRO1). A microarray analysis identified 273 up-regulated and 203 down-regulated genes in the overexpressing transgenic Zm908p11 pollen. Taken together, these results indicate that Zm908 functions as Zm908p11, and binds to profilins as a novel ligand, with a required role during pollen tube growth in maize. Accordingly, a model is proposed for the role of Zm908p11 during pollen tube growth in maize. PMID:23676884

  1. Beyond single syllables: large-scale modeling of reading aloud with the Connectionist Dual Process (CDP++) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Conrad; Ziegler, Johannes C; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Most words in English have more than one syllable, yet the most influential computational models of reading aloud are restricted to processing monosyllabic words. Here, we present CDP++, a new version of the Connectionist Dual Process model (Perry, Ziegler, & Zorzi, 2007). CDP++ is able to simulate the reading aloud of mono- and disyllabic words and nonwords, and learns to assign stress in exactly the same way as it learns to associate graphemes with phonemes. CDP++ is able to simulate the monosyllabic benchmark effects its predecessor could, and therefore shows full backwards compatibility. CDP++ also accounts for a number of novel effects specific to disyllabic words, including the effects of stress regularity and syllable number. In terms of database performance, CDP++ accounts for over 49% of the reaction time variance on items selected from the English Lexicon Project, a very large database of several thousand of words. With its lexicon of over 32,000 words, CDP++ is therefore a notable example of the successful scaling-up of a connectionist model to a size that more realistically approximates the human lexical system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Randomized single-blind clinical trial of intradermal methylene blue on pain reduction after open diathermy haemorrhoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, H-L; Tan, K-Y

    2014-08-01

    Open haemorrhoidectomy has been associated with considerable postoperative pain and discomfort. Perianal intradermal injection of methylene blue has been shown to ablate perianal nerve endings and may bring about temporary pain relief after haemorrhoidectomy. We hypothesized that the administration of intradermal methylene blue would reduce postoperative pain during the initial period after surgery. A randomized, prospective, single-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Patients were randomized to intradermal injection at haemorrhoidectomy of either 4 ml 1% methylene blue and 16 ml 0.5% marcaine or of 16 ml 0.5% marcaine and 4 ml saline prior to surgical dissection. Patients were asked to fill in a pain diary with a visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measure was pain score and analgesic use. Secondary outcomes were complications. There were 37 patients in the methylene blue arm and 30 patients in the placebo arm. There were no statistically significant differences in the sex, type of haemorrhoid, number of haemorrhoids excised, duration of surgery or hospital stay. The mean pain scores were significantly lower and the use of paracetamol was also significantly less in the methylene blue group during the first three postoperative days. The risk ratio of acute urinary retention occurring when methylene blue was not used was 2.320 (95% CI 1.754-3.067). Other complication rates were not significantly different. Perianal intradermal injection of methylene blue was useful in reducing the initial postoperative pain of open haemorrhoidectomy. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Single-center open-label randomized study of anemia management improvement in ESRD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellasi Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether anemia and mineral bone abnormalities (chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorder [CKD-MBD] are associated still remains to be elucidated. Both anemia and CKD-MBD have been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome and poor quality of life. However, recent evidence suggests that use of large doses of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs to correct hemoglobin (Hb may be detrimental in CKD. The Optimal Anemia Treatment in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD (Optimal ESRD Treatment study will assess whether lowering of parathyroid hormone (PTH is associated with a reduction in ESA consumption. The Optimal ESRD Treatment study is a pilot single-center open-label study with blinded end point (a prospective randomized open blinded end-point [PROBE] design enrolling 50 patients on maintenance dialysis. Eligible patients with intact PTH (iPTH 300-540 pg/mL and Hb 10-11.5 g/dL will be randomized 1:1 to strict PTH control (150-300 pg/mL versus standard care (PTH range 300-540 pg/mL. Available drugs for CKD-MBD and anemia treatment will be managed by the attending physician to maintain the desired levels of PTH (according to study arm allocation and Hb (10-11.5 g/dL. Echocardiographic data for cardiac structure and function as well as arterial stiffness will be assessed at study inception and completion. The Optimal ESRD Treatment study should shed light on the complicated interplay of anemia and CKD-MBD and on the feasibility of clinical trials in this domain. The study results are expected in the spring of 2017.

  4. Single-Incision Carpal Tunnel Release and Distal Radius Open Reduction and Internal Fixation: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P; Sessions, Blane A; Dudoussat, Bryan S; Kane, Patrick M

    2016-08-01

    The safety of surgical approaches for single- versus double-incision carpal tunnel release in association with distal radius open reduction and internal fixation remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to identify critical structures to determine if a single-incision extension of the standard flexor carpi radialis (FCR) approach can be performed safely. Nine cadaveric arms with were dissected under loupe magnification, utilizing a standard FCR approach. After the distal radius exposure was complete, the distal portion of the FCR incision was extended to allow release of the carpal tunnel. Dissection of critical structures was performed, including the recurrent thenar motor branch of the median nerve, the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve (PCBm), the palmar carpal and superficial palmar branches of the radial artery, and proximally the median nerve proper. The anatomic relationship of these structures relative to the surgical approach was recorded. Extension of the standard FCR approach as described in this study did not damage any critical structure in the specimens dissected. The PCBm was noted to arise from the radial side of the median nerve an average of 6.01cm proximal to the proximal edge of the transverse carpal ligament. The PCBm became enveloped in the layers of the antebrachial fascia and the transverse carpal ligament at the incision site, protecting it from injury. The recurrent motor branch of the median nerve, branches of the radial artery and the median nerve proper were not at risk during extension of the FCR approach to release the carpal tunnel. Extension of the standard FCR approach to include carpal tunnel release can be performed with minimal risk to the underlying structures. This exposure may offer benefits in both visualization and extent of carpal tunnel release.

  5. The role of benzodiazepines in breathlessness: a single site, open label pilot of sustained release morphine together with clonazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcroft, Peter; Margitanovic, Vera; Greene, Aine; Agar, Meera R; Clark, Katherine; Abernethy, Amy P; Currow, David C

    2013-07-01

    Breathlessness at rest or on minimal exertion despite optimal treatment of underlying cause(s) is distressing and prevalent. Opioids can reduce the intensity of chronic refractory breathlessness and an anxiolytic may be of benefit. This pilot aimed to determine the safety and feasibility of conducting a phase III study on the intensity of breathlessness by adding regular benzodiazepine to low-dose opioid. This is a single site, open label phase II study of the addition of regular clonazepam 0.5 mg nocte orally to Kapanol(R) 10 mg (sustained release morphine sulphate) orally mane together with docusate/sennosides in people with modified Medical Research Council Scale ≥2. Breathlessness intensity on day four was the efficacy outcome. Participants could extend for another 10 days if they achieved >15% reduction over their own baseline breathlessness intensity. Eleven people had trial medication (eight males, median age 78 years (68 to 89); all had COPD; median Karnofsky 70 (50 to 80); six were on long-term home oxygen. Ten people completed day four. One person withdrew because of unsteadiness on day four. Five participants reached the 15% reduction, but only three went on to the extension study, all completing without toxicity. This study was safe, feasible and there appears to be a group who derive benefits comparable to titrated opioids. Given the widespread use of benzodiazepines for the symptomatic treatment of chronic refractory breathlessness and its poor evidence base, there is justification for a definitive phase III study.

  6. Development FD-SOI MOSFET Amplifiers for Integrated Read-Out Circuit of Superconducting-Tunnel-Junction Single-Photon-Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, Kenji; et al.

    2015-07-27

    We proposed a new high-resolution single-photon infrared spectrometer for search for radiative decay of cosmic neutrino background (CνB). The superconducting-tunnel-junctions(STJs) are used as a single-photon counting device. Each STJ consists of Nb/Al/AlxOy/Al/Nb layers, and their thicknesses are optimized for the operation temperature at 370 mK cooled by a 3He sorption refrigerator. Our STJs achieved the leak current 250 pA, and the measured data implies that a smaller area STJ fulfills our requirement. FD-SOI MOSFETs are employed to amplify the STJ signal current in order to increase signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). FD-SOI MOSFETs can be operated at cryogenic temperature of 370 mK, which reduces the noise of the signal amplification system. FD-SOI MOSFET characteristics are measured at cryogenic temperature. The Id-Vgs curve shows a sharper turn on with a higher threshold voltage and the Id-Vds curve shows a nonlinear shape in linear region at cryogenic temperature. Taking into account these effects, FD-SOI MOSFETs are available for read-out circuit of STJ detectors. The bias voltage for STJ detectors is 0.4 mV, and it must be well stabilized to deliver high performance. We proposed an FD-SOI MOSFET-based charge integrated amplifier design as a read-out circuit of STJ detectors. The requirements for an operational amplifier used in the amplifier is estimated using SPICE simulation. The op-amp is required to have a fast response (GBW ≥ 100 MHz), and it must have low power dissipation as compared to the cooling power of refrigerator.

  7. Cartography of neurexin alternative splicing mapped by single-molecule long-read mRNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treutlein, Barbara; Gokce, Ozgun; Quake, Stephen R; Südhof, Thomas C

    2014-04-01

    Neurexins are evolutionarily conserved presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that are essential for normal synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Indirect evidence has indicated that extensive alternative splicing of neurexin mRNAs may produce hundreds if not thousands of neurexin isoforms, but no direct evidence for such diversity has been available. Here we use unbiased long-read sequencing of full-length neurexin (Nrxn)1α, Nrxn1β, Nrxn2β, Nrxn3α, and Nrxn3β mRNAs to systematically assess how many sites of alternative splicing are used in neurexins with a significant frequency, and whether alternative splicing events at these sites are independent of each other. In sequencing more than 25,000 full-length mRNAs, we identified a novel, abundantly used alternatively spliced exon of Nrxn1α and Nrxn3α (referred to as alternatively spliced sequence 6) that encodes a 9-residue insertion in the flexible hinge region between the fifth LNS (laminin-α, neurexin, sex hormone-binding globulin) domain and the third EGF-like sequence. In addition, we observed several larger-scale events of alternative splicing that deleted multiple domains and were much less frequent than the canonical six sites of alternative splicing in neurexins. All of the six canonical events of alternative splicing appear to be independent of each other, suggesting that neurexins may exhibit an even larger isoform diversity than previously envisioned and comprise thousands of variants. Our data are consistent with the notion that α-neurexins represent extracellular protein-interaction scaffolds in which different LNS and EGF domains mediate distinct interactions that affect diverse functions and are independently regulated by independent events of alternative splicing.

  8. Long-term changes in open field behaviour following a single social defeat in rats can be reversed by sleep deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Overkamp, GJF; Benning, MA; Koolhaas, JM; vandenHoofdakker, RH

    1996-01-01

    The long-term consequences of a single social defeat on open field behaviour in rats were studied, with special emphasis on the time course of stress-induced changes. Animals were subjected to social defeat by placing them into the territory of an aggressive male conspecific for 1 h. After the

  9. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  10. A single dose, randomized, open-label, cross-over bioequivalence study of sildenafil citrate tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dai; Wang, Yu-Lu; Xu, Su-Mei; Li, Dan; Li, Xiao-Min; Pan, Jing; Xu, Ping-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the bioequivalence of a newly developed sildenafil citrate tablet 50 mg (Jinge®, Test) and a marketed counterpart (Viagra®, 100 mg, Reference) in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers. This single-dose, randomized, open-label, four-period, and two-treatment self-crossover study included two parts: fasting and postprandial studies. In each part of the study, the subjects were randomly assigned to receive test or reference products (100 mg sildenafil) in a 1 : 1 ratio, and then received the alternative products, following a 1-week washout period. Plasma sildenafil concentrations were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Tolerability was assessed during the entire study period. 32 healthy volunteers (aged 19 - 30) were enrolled in the study; 31 volunteers completed the fasting study, while 32 volunteers completed the postprandial study. The test formulation was bioequivalent to the marketed formulation as the 90% CIs for the ratio of geometric means of Cmax (fasting: 98.79 - 119.61%; fed: 94.47 - 119.65%), AUClast (fasting: 98.70 - 109.71%; fed: 96.39 - 112.89%), and AUC∞ (fasting: 98.45 - 108.87%; fed: 96.36 - 112.74%) were within equivalence limits (80 - 125%) under both fasting and postprandial conditions. When sildenafil was given with high-fat meals, mean Cmax was reduced by 23%, and median tmax ranged from 0.75 to 1.50 hours (p ≤ 0.05). However, both AUClast and AUC∞ were comparable between fasting and postprandial conditions. No serious adverse events were found among the subjects. This study confirmed that test and reference sildenafil citrate tablets were bioequivalent under fasting and postprandial conditions.
.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of serelaxin in patients with hepatic impairment: a single-dose, open-label, parallel group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobalava, Zhanna; Villevalde, Svetlana; Kotovskaya, Yulia; Hinrichsen, Holger; Petersen-Sylla, Marc; Zaehringer, Andreas; Pang, Yinuo; Rajman, Iris; Canadi, Jasna; Dahlke, Marion; Lloyd, Peter; Halabi, Atef

    2015-06-01

    Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2 in development for treatment of acute heart failure. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of serelaxin in patients with hepatic impairment. Secondary objectives included evaluation of immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of serelaxin. This was an open-label, parallel group study (NCT01433458) comparing the PK of serelaxin following a single 24 h intravenous (i.v.) infusion (30 μg kg(-1)  day(-1) ) between patients with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A, B, C) and healthy matched controls. Blood sampling and standard safety assessments were conducted. Primary non-compartmental PK parameters [including area under the serum concentration-time curve AUC(0-48 h) and AUC(0-∞) and serum concentration at 24 h post-dose (C24h )] were compared between each hepatic impairment group and healthy controls. A total of 49 subjects (including 25 patients with hepatic impairment) were enrolled, of which 48 subjects completed the study. In all groups, the serum concentration of serelaxin increased over the first few hours of infusion, reached steady-state at 12-24 h and then declined following completion of infusion, with a mean terminal half-life of 7-8 h. All PK parameter estimates were comparable between each group of patients with hepatic impairment and healthy controls. No serious adverse events, discontinuations due to adverse events or deaths were reported. No serelaxin treatment-related antibodies developed during this study. The PK and safety profile of serelaxin were not affected by hepatic impairment. No dose adjustment is needed for serelaxin treatment of 48 h i.v. infusion in patients with hepatic impairment. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Influence of Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of Afatinib: An Open-Label, Single-Dose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Sabrina; Schnell, David; Külzer, Raimund; Gansser, Dietmar; Weber, Anne; Wallenstein, Gudrun; Halabi, Atef; Conrad, Anja; Wind, Sven

    2017-06-01

    Afatinib is an oral irreversible ErbB-Family Blocker indicated for treatment of patients with EGFR mutation positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer. This trial assessed whether renal impairment influences the pharmacokinetics and safety of afatinib. This was an open-label, single-dose study. Pharmacokinetic parameters after afatinib 40 mg were investigated in subjects with moderate (n = 8) or severe (n = 8) renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively) and healthy matched controls (n = 14). Plasma and urine samples were collected before and up to 14 days after dosing for pharmacokinetic and plasma protein-binding assessment. Primary endpoints were area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC last ) and maximum plasma concentration (C max ) between subjects with renal impairment and healthy matched controls. Pharmacokinetic profiles and plasma protein binding were similar in all groups. The extent of exposure, as indicated by AUC last and C max , was generally similar between the matched treatment groups, with the exception of the geometric mean ratio of AUC last for subjects with severe renal impairment, which showed a trend towards a higher value compared with matched healthy subjects (150.0 % [90 % CI 105.3-213.7]) Inter-individual variability was moderate (geometric mean coefficient of variation 28-39 % for moderate impairment, 34-42 % for severe impairment). Afatinib was well tolerated and urinary excretion was minimal. Moderate-to-severe renal impairment had a minor influence on the pharmacokinetics of afatinib that was within the observed inter-individual variability, suggesting that afatinib treatment can be considered in this patient population. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02096718.

  13. The Effects of a Dog Reading Visitation Program on Academic Engagement Behavior in Three Elementary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities: A Single Case Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassette, Laura A.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) struggle with behavioral problems during reading activities in school. One way to address these concerns may be through dog reading programs which are increasing in popularity in schools and libraries. Preliminary anecdotal research suggests dog reading programs may improve…

  14. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple strategies. This intervention is child-centered and includes visual aids, talking, dictating, reading and writing stages. The study was performed in 35 sessions consisting of stages of a single sentence (5 sessions, two sentences (5 sessions, three sentences (20 sessions and the text stage (5 sessions. The intervention sessions were audio-taped. These recordings and the written responses to the reading comprehension questions provided the data for analysis. The findings on the reading intervention revealed positive outcomes. The student exhibited certain improvements at the levels of reading, reading rate and reading comprehension. These results were discussed in the literature and the findings suggest that child-centered reading strategies such as talking, dictating and writing should be the main focus of instruction for students with low reading literacy achievement to enable these students to meet the demands of the curriculum.

  15. Making Higher Education More Affordable, One Course Reading at a Time: Academic Libraries as Key Advocates for Open Access Textbooks and Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Open access textbooks (OATs) and educational resources (OERs) are being lauded as a viable alternative to costly print textbooks. Some academic libraries are joining the OER movement by creating guides to open repositories. Others are promoting OATs and OERs, reviewing them, and even helping to create them. This article analyzes how academic…

  16. Evaluation and validity of a polymerase chain reaction-based open reading frame typing method to dissect the molecular epidemiology for Acinetobacter baumannii in an epidemiologic study of a hospital outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Yuji; Yuki, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Ichimura, Sadahiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2016-11-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is regarded as one of the most important pathogens in hospital outbreaks. To obtain an efficient and simple epidemiologic method of surveillance during outbreaks, we assessed the applicability of the polymerase chain reaction-based open reading frames typing (POT) method and compared it with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The POT method was found to have sufficient discriminatory power to identify the strains and would be widely applicable to epidemiologic surveillance during hospital outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. No evidence for the use of DIR, D-D fusions, chromosome 15 open reading frames or VH replacement in the peripheral repertoire was found on application of an improved algorithm, JointML, to 6329 human immunoglobulin H rearrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohm-Laursen, Line; Nielsen, Morten; Larsen, Stine R

    2006-01-01

    Antibody diversity is created by imprecise joining of the variability (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) gene segments of the heavy and light chain loci. Analysis of rearrangements is complicated by somatic hypermutations and uncertainty concerning the sources of gene segments and the precise way...... in which they recombine. It has been suggested that D genes with irregular recombination signal sequences (DIR) and chromosome 15 open reading frames (OR15) can replace conventional D genes, that two D genes or inverted D genes may be used and that the repertoire can be further diversified by heavy chain V...

  18. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  19. Reading: Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie Wennekers; Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

    2018-01-01

    Original title: Lees:Tijd The amount of time that Dutch people spend reading has been declining steadily since the 1950s. This decline in reading time contrasts starkly with the positive personal and social benefits that can be derived from reading, according to lots of research. The Reading:

  20. Understanding Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for children to go beyond literacy to become lifelong readers. Highlights include the reading process; reading instruction; and the role of the librarian, including reading books aloud, allowing children to choose their own books, book discussion groups, teaching different purposes of reading, and author studies. (LRW)

  1. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent models suggest that face and word recognition may rely on overlapping cognitive processes and neural regions. In support of this notion, face recognition deficits have been demonstrated in developmental dyslexia. Here we test whether the opposite association can also be found......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  2. SchemaOnRead Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  3. libgapmis: extending short-read alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachiotis, Nikolaos; Berger, Simon; Flouri, Tomáš; Pissis, Solon P; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of short-read alignment programmes have been published recently to tackle the problem of mapping millions of short reads to a reference genome, focusing on different aspects of the procedure such as time and memory efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy. These tools allow for a small number of mismatches in the alignment; however, their ability to allow for gaps varies greatly, with many performing poorly or not allowing them at all. The seed-and-extend strategy is applied in most short-read alignment programmes. After aligning a substring of the reference sequence against the high-quality prefix of a short read--the seed--an important problem is to find the best possible alignment between a substring of the reference sequence succeeding and the remaining suffix of low quality of the read--extend. The fact that the reads are rather short and that the gap occurrence frequency observed in various studies is rather low suggest that aligning (parts of) those reads with a single gap is in fact desirable. In this article, we present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. Apart from the standard CPU version, it includes ultrafast SSE- and GPU-based implementations. libgapmis is based on an algorithm computing a modified version of the traditional dynamic-programming matrix for sequence alignment. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the functions of the CPU version provided in this library accelerate the computations by a factor of 20 compared to other programmes. The analogous SSE- and GPU-based implementations accelerate the computations by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the CPU version. The library also provides the user the flexibility to split the read into fragments, based on the observed gap occurrence frequency and the length of the read, thereby allowing for a variable, but bounded, number of gaps in the alignment. We present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. We

  4. Local heat application for the treatment of Buruli ulcer : results of a phase II open label single center non comparative clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F.; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bratschi, Martin W.; Bolz, Miriam; Um Boock, Alphonse; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pluschke, Gerd; Junghanss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease most prevalent among West African children. The causative organism, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is sensitive to temperatures above 37°C. We investigated the safety and efficacy of a local heat application device based on phase change material. METHODS In a phase II open label single center noncomparative clinical trial (ISRCTN 72102977) under GCP standards in Cameroon, laboratory confirmed BU patients received up to 8 weeks of...

  5. The Role of Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Technique in the Age of Single-Incision Laparoscopy: An Effective Alternative to Avoid Open Conversion in Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung Uk; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Cho, Yong Beom; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    Continuous efforts to reduce the numbers and size of incisions led to the emergence of a new technique, single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). It has been rapidly accepted as the preferred surgical approach in the colorectal area. In the age of SILS, what is the role of hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS)? We introduce the way to take advantage of it, as an effective alternative to avoid open conversion. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data of SILS colectomies performed by a single surgeon in Samsung Medical Center between August 2009 and December 2012. Out of 631 cases of SILS colectomy, 47 cases needed some changes from the initial approach. Among these, five cases were converted to HALS. Four of them were completed successfully without the need for open conversion. One patient with rectosigmoid colon cancer invading bladder was finally opened to avoid vesical trigone injury. The mean operation time of the 4 patients was 265.0 minutes. The mean estimated blood loss was 587.5 mL. The postoperative complication rate associated with the operation was 25%. Conversion from SILS to HALS in colorectal surgery was feasible and effective. It seemed to add minimal morbidity while preserving advantages of minimally invasive surgery. It could be considered an alternative to open conversion in cases of SILS, especially when the conversion to conventional laparoscopy does not seem to be helpful.

  6. Laparoscopic Complete Mesocolic Excision versus Open Complete Mesocolic Excision for Transverse Colon Cancer: Long-Term Survival Results of a Prospective Single Centre Non-Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storli, Kristian Eeg; Eide, Geir Egil

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision (CME) used in the treatment of transverse colon cancer has been questioned on the basis of the technical challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium- and long-term clinical and survival outcomes after laparoscopic and open CME for transverse colon cancer and to compare the 2 approaches. This study was a retrospective non-randomized study of patients with prospectively registered data on open and laparoscopic CME for transverse colon cancer tumour-node-metastasis stages I-III operated on between 2007 and 2014. This was a single-centre study in a community teaching hospital. A total of 56 patients with transverse colon cancer were included, excluding those with tumours in the colonic flexures. The outcome aims were 4-year time to recurrence (TTR) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Morbidity was also measured. The 4-year TTR was 93.9% in the laparoscopic group and 91.3% in the open group (p = 0.71). The 4-year CSS was 97.0% in the laparoscopic group and 91.3% in the open group (p = 0.42). This was a prospective single-institution study with a small sample size. Results of the study suggest that the laparoscopic CME approach might be the preferred approach for transverse colon cancer, especially regarding its benefits in terms of short-term morbidity, length of stay and oncological outcome. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Open Core Protocol (OCP) Clock Domain Crossing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlev, Mathias; Poulsen, Christian Keis; Sparsø, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The open core protocol (OCP) is an openly licensed configurable and scalable interface protocol for on-chip subsystem communications. The protocol defines read and write transactions from a master towards a slave across a point-to-point connection and the protocol assumes a single common clock....... This paper presents the design of two OCP clock domain crossing interface modules that can be used to construct systems with multiple clock domains. An OCP interface typically has control signals related to both the master issuing a read or write request and the slave producing a response. If all...

  8. Open Embolectomy of Large Vessel Occlusion in the Endovascular Era: Results of a 12-Year Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Nitta, Junpei; Miyaoka, Yoshinari; Nagm, Alhusain; Tsutsumi, Keiji; Ito, Kiyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Mechanical endovascular embolectomy using stent retrievers has gained popularity for treatment of large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke. Use of open embolectomy as a direct surgical treatment has been limited, likely owing to the technical difficulty, therapeutic time window, and time-consuming procedure. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic records of patients who underwent open embolectomy for major artery occlusion at an acute stage. Clinical features, complications, and outcome of patients were analyzed. From January 2004 to September 2016, 153 patients underwent 157 open embolectomies for major artery occlusion. Complete recanalization was achieved in 96.2% of patients. A favorable outcome was observed in 43.9%. Cerebral aneurysm along the occluded artery was observed in 11 patients with 12 aneurysms. Open embolectomy resulted in a high complete recanalization rate with an acceptable safety profile. Open embolectomy is a safe and durable method of cerebral recanalization in patients with embolic stroke and can be considered as a potential treatment if endovascular embolectomy cannot be performed. The details of the occluded arteries presented here will be useful for endovascular surgeons to prevent complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence-based severity assessment: Impact of repeated versus single open-field testing on welfare in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Carina; Siestrup, Sophie; Palme, Rupert; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert; Richter, S Helene

    2018-01-15

    According to current guidelines on animal experiments, a prospective assessment of the severity of each procedure is mandatory. However, so far, the classification of procedures into different severity categories mainly relies on theoretic considerations, since it is not entirely clear which of the various procedures compromise the welfare of animals, or, to what extent. Against this background, a systematic empirical investigation of the impact of each procedure, including behavioral testing, seems essential. Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate the effects of repeated versus single testing on mouse welfare, using one of the most commonly used paradigms for behavioral phenotyping in behavioral neuroscience, the open-field test. In an independent groups design, laboratory mice (Mus musculus f. domestica) experienced either repeated, single, or no open-field testing - procedures that are assigned to different severity categories. Interestingly, testing experiences did not affect fecal corticosterone metabolites, body weights, elevated plus-maze or home cage behavior differentially. Thus, with respect to the assessed endocrinological, physical, and behavioral outcome measures, no signs of compromised welfare could be detected in mice that were tested in the open-field repeatedly, once, or, not at all. These findings challenge current classification guidelines and may, furthermore, stimulate systematic research on the severity of single procedures involving living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic value of a single blood pressure reading for the detection of latent hypertension in children with chronic kidney diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Aksenova

    2017-01-01

    antihypertensive and/or immunosuppressive therapy showed a close correlation between the level of a single office blood pressure measurement and the parameters of 24-hour ABPM, as well as a lower frequency of latent hypertension. The risk of latent hypertension increases significantly when the level of a single office blood pressure is more than 75‰.Conclusion. The normal level of a single office blood pressure reading does not allow latent hypertension to be ruled out in children with chronic kidney diseases. The risk of latent hypertension was significantly higher in patients with a single systolic/diastolic blood pressure measurement of more than 75‰ by gender, age, and height. Regardless of the level of a single office blood pressure measurement, 24-hour ABPM should be therefore carried out in all children with chronic kidney diseases. 

  11. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Keir X X; Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Leff, Alexander P; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-28

    We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%-270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Note: Compact, reusable inductive-storage-cum-opening-switch based 1.5 GW single-shot pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rohit; Shyam, Anurag

    2014-03-01

    The results of a very-compact (Marx generator-cum-inductor confined into 0.20 m cylindrical diameter and 0.75 m length) and light-weight (Marx generator used as primary energy source and opening switch of exploding wire) make device very attractive. Marx generator shape itself provides the desired inductance for the inductive storage.

  13. Comparison of self-citation by peer reviewers in a journal with single-blind peer review versus a journal with open peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Alexander W; Leentjens, Albert F G; Levenson, James L; Lumley, Mark A; Thombs, Brett D

    2015-12-01

    Some peer reviewers may inappropriately, or coercively request that authors include references to the reviewers' own work. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether, compared to reviews for a journal with single-blind peer review, reviews for a journal with open peer review included (1) fewer self-citations; (2) a lower proportion of self-citations without a rationale; and (3) a lower ratio of proportions of citations without a rationale in self-citations versus citations to others' work. Peer reviews for published manuscripts submitted in 2012 to a single-blind peer review journal, the Journal of Psychosomatic Research, were previously evaluated (Thombs et al., 2015). These were compared to publically available peer reviews of manuscripts published in 2012 in an open review journal, BMC Psychiatry. Two investigators independently extracted data for both journals. There were no significant differences between journals in the proportion of all reviewer citations that were self-citations (Journal of Psychosomatic Research: 71/225, 32%; BMC Psychiatry: 90/315, 29%; p=.50), or in the proportion of self-citations without a rationale (Journal of Psychosomatic Research: 15/71, 21%; BMC Psychiatry: 12/90, 13%; p=.21). There was no significant difference between journals in the proportion of self-citations versus citations to others' work without a rationale (p=.31). Blind and open peer review methodologies have distinct advantages and disadvantages. The present study found that, in reasonably similar journals that use single-blind and open review, there were no substantive differences in the pattern of peer reviewer self-citations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adjuvant Cyclophosphamide and Docetaxel With or Without Epirubicin for Early TOP2A-Normal Breast Cancer: DBCG 07-READ, an Open-Label, Phase III, Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent; Tuxen, Malgorzata K; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Administration of anthracycline and taxane therapy in the adjuvant setting is considered a standard for breast cancer. We evaluated a non-anthracycline-based regimen in TOP2A-normal patients. Patients and Methods In this multicenter, open-label, phase III trial, 2,012 women with early TOP2A...

  15. Laparoscopic versus open liver resection for elderly patients with malignant liver tumors: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Albert C Y; Poon, Ronnie T P; Cheung, Tan To; Chok, Kenneth S H; Dai, Wing Chiu; Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau

    2014-06-01

    Laparoscopic liver resection is associated with less perioperative blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and fewer postoperative complications in younger patients. However, it remains unclear if these short-term benefits could also be applicable to elderly patients with medical comorbidities. To evaluate the perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic liver resection in patients with advanced age. Patients aged ≥ 70 years old who received liver resections for malignant liver tumors between January 2002 and December 2012 were included. The perioperative outcomes of 17 patients with laparoscopic approach were matched and compared with 34 patients with conventional open approach in a 1:2 ratio. There was no significant difference with regard to age, gender, incidence of comorbid illness, hepatitis B positivity, and Child grading of liver function. The median tumor size was 3 cm for both groups. The types of liver resection were similar between the two groups with no significant difference in the duration of operation (laparoscopic: 195 min vs open: 210 min, P = 0.436). The perioperative blood loss was 150 mL in the laparoscopic group and 330 mL in the open group (P = 0.046) with no significant difference in the number of patients with blood transfusion. The duration of hospital stay was 6 days (3-15 days) for the laparoscopic group and 8 days (5-105 days) for the open group (P = 0.005). Laparoscopic liver resection is safe and feasible for elderly patients. The short-term benefits of laparoscopic approach continued to be evident for geriatric oncological liver surgery. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Root Cause Analysis and Correction of Single Metal Contact Open-Induced Scan Chain Failure in 90nm node VLSI

    OpenAIRE

    Ting, Chao-Cheng; Liu, Ya-Chi; Chen, Hsuan-Hsien; Tsai, Chung-Ching; Shih, Liwen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the localization of open metal contact for 90nm node SOC is reported based on Electron Beam Absorbed Current (EBAC) technique and scan diagnosis for the first time. According to the detected excess carbon, silicon and oxygen signals obtained from X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), the failure was deemed to be caused by the incomplete removal of silicate photoresist polymer formed during the O2 plasma dry clean before copper plating. Based on this, we proposed to replac...

  17. Characteristics and Outcomes of Open Globe Trauma in the Urban versus Rural Population: A Single Center Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Roxana; Kancherla, Swarupa; Eller, Andrew W; Yu, Jenny Y

    2017-07-05

    To examine the characteristics and outcomes of open globe injuries sustained by the urban population compared to the rural population. This is a retrospective chart review of 429 patients presenting to University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Presbyterian Hospital with traumatic open globes from July 2005 to July 2013. Rural patients had a longer time which elapsed from injury to presentation (P = 0.023, average 12.04 hours vs 7.53 hours). There was a higher incidence of patient transfer prior to arrival to UPMC Presbyterian Hospital (P = 0.018), patient follow-up elsewhere (P = 0.049), and patients sustaining intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) (P = 0.009). Health care access is a well-known problem in rural areas and using rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) codes can help identify a population for risk factors or potential disparities in care. Rural patients sustained a higher rate of IOFBs; this should heighten the clinicians' suspicion during the evaluation of an open globe in other rural populations.

  18. Relative effectiveness of kinetic analysis vs single point readings for classifying environmental samples based on community-level physiological profiles (CLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.; Young, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of average-well-color-development-normalized single-point absorbance readings (AWCD) vs the kinetic parameters mu(m), lambda, A, and integral (AREA) of the modified Gompertz equation fit to the color development curve resulting from reduction of a redox sensitive dye from microbial respiration of 95 separate sole carbon sources in microplate wells was compared for a dilution series of rhizosphere samples from hydroponically grown wheat and potato ranging in inoculum densities of 1 x 10(4)-4 x 10(6) cells ml-1. Patterns generated with each parameter were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) to test relative resolving power. Samples of equivalent cell density (undiluted samples) were correctly classified by rhizosphere type for all parameters based on DFA analysis of the first five PC scores. Analysis of undiluted and 1:4 diluted samples resulted in misclassification of at least two of the wheat samples for all parameters except the AWCD normalized (0.50 abs. units) data, and analysis of undiluted, 1:4, and 1:16 diluted samples resulted in misclassification for all parameter types. Ordination of samples along the first principal component (PC) was correlated to inoculum density in analyses performed on all of the kinetic parameters, but no such influence was seen for AWCD-derived results. The carbon sources responsible for classification differed among the variable types with the exception of AREA and A, which were strongly correlated. These results indicate that the use of kinetic parameters for pattern analysis in CLPP may provide some additional information, but only if the influence of inoculum density is carefully considered. c2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil bacterial diversity screening using single 16S rRNA gene V regions coupled with multi-million read generating sequencing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Vasileiadis

    Full Text Available The novel multi-million read generating sequencing technologies are very promising for resolving the immense soil 16S rRNA gene bacterial diversity. Yet they have a limited maximum sequence length screening ability, restricting studies in screening DNA stretches of single 16S rRNA gene hypervariable (V regions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of properties of four consecutive V regions (V3-6 on commonly applied analytical methodologies in bacterial ecology studies. Using an in silico approach, the performance of each V region was compared with the complete 16S rRNA gene stretch. We assessed related properties of the soil derived bacterial sequence collection of the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP database and concomitantly performed simulations based on published datasets. Results indicate that overall the most prominent V region for soil bacterial diversity studies was V3, even though it was outperformed in some of the tests. Despite its high performance during most tests, V4 was less conserved along flanking sites, thus reducing its ability for bacterial diversity coverage. V5 performed well in the non-redundant RDP database based analysis. However V5 did not resemble the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence results as well as V3 and V4 did when the natural sequence frequency and occurrence approximation was considered in the virtual experiment. Although, the highly conserved flanking sequence regions of V6 provide the ability to amplify partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from very diverse owners, it was demonstrated that V6 was the least informative compared to the rest examined V regions. Our results indicate that environment specific database exploration and theoretical assessment of the experimental approach are strongly suggested in 16S rRNA gene based bacterial diversity studies.

  20. 19 CFR 103.1 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public reading rooms. 103.1 Section 103.1 Customs... reading rooms. Each office listed below will maintain a public reading room or public reading area where... Angeles Street, Los Angeles, California 90012. The reading rooms are open to the public during regular...

  1. Single-dose pharmacokinetic properties of esomeprazole in children aged 1 - 11 years with endoscopically proven GERD: a randomized, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nader N; Tron, Eduardo; Tolia, Vasundhara; Hamer-Maansson, Jennifer E; Lundborg, Per; Illueca, Marta

    2014-11-01

    To assess the overall exposure after a single dose of esomeprazole in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Oral esomeprazole administered as an intact capsule with 30 - 180 mL of water, or as an opened capsule mixed with as much as 1 tablespoon of applesauce followed by 30 - 180 mL of water. In this randomized, open-label study of children aged 1 - 11 years with endoscopically proven GERD, patients weighing 8 - esomeprazole, and patients weighing >= 20 kg were randomized to a single 10- or 20-mg oral dose of esomeprazole. Esomeprazole exposure (AUC(0-∞)), AUC from zero to last measurable concentration (AUC(0-t)), maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), time to C(max) (t(max)), terminal-phase half-life, apparent oral clearance, and apparent volume of distribution were determined. 28 patients were randomized to receive esomeprazole: 14 patients weighing 8 to esomeprazole 5 mg (n = 7) or 10 mg (n = 7), and 14 patients weighing ≥20 kg received esomeprazole 10 mg (n = 6) or 20 mg (n = 8). Children weighing 8 - = 20 kg). The pharmacokinetics of single-dose esomeprazole were dose-dependent in children weighing >= 20 kg but not in children weighing 8 to < 20 kg.

  2. A History of Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Yalçınkaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of reading according to Alberto Manguel is to have the art of giving life to a message which comes from past to today. Reading is the objective/ intellectual context of starting up and shutting the time. Reading is an open ended tool that makes it possible to know the words/thoughts which spoke to humanity from long time ago. The books/libraries offer a way to look at the nature, understand history, live and interpret the life. In other words, the books/libraries are natural spaces of the freedom of opinion. The reading action is a great need to redefine the Universe, realize  miracles, oppose injustice. In essence, the life is focused on the  reader from the beginning of transferring the words by writing. The history of reading started when the first writer drew and gave voice to the first letters. In brief, the history of reading is considered as the  reading action within a wide context. Now, we know there is a history of the reading…

  3. A new near-linear scaling, efficient and accurate, open-shell domain-based local pair natural orbital coupled cluster singles and doubles theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitow, Masaaki; Becker, Ute; Riplinger, Christoph; Valeev, Edward F.; Neese, Frank

    2017-04-01

    The Coupled-Cluster expansion, truncated after single and double excitations (CCSD), provides accurate and reliable molecular electronic wave functions and energies for many molecular systems around their equilibrium geometries. However, the high computational cost, which is well-known to scale as O(N6) with system size N, has limited its practical application to small systems consisting of not more than approximately 20-30 atoms. To overcome these limitations, low-order scaling approximations to CCSD have been intensively investigated over the past few years. In our previous work, we have shown that by combining the pair natural orbital (PNO) approach and the concept of orbital domains it is possible to achieve fully linear scaling CC implementations (DLPNO-CCSD and DLPNO-CCSD(T)) that recover around 99.9% of the total correlation energy [C. Riplinger et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 024109 (2016)]. The production level implementations of the DLPNO-CCSD and DLPNO-CCSD(T) methods were shown to be applicable to realistic systems composed of a few hundred atoms in a routine, black-box fashion on relatively modest hardware. In 2011, a reduced-scaling CCSD approach for high-spin open-shell unrestricted Hartree-Fock reference wave functions was proposed (UHF-LPNO-CCSD) [A. Hansen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 214102 (2011)]. After a few years of experience with this method, a few shortcomings of UHF-LPNO-CCSD were noticed that required a redesign of the method, which is the subject of this paper. To this end, we employ the high-spin open-shell variant of the N-electron valence perturbation theory formalism to define the initial guess wave function, and consequently also the open-shell PNOs. The new PNO ansatz properly converges to the closed-shell limit since all truncations and approximations have been made in strict analogy to the closed-shell case. Furthermore, given the fact that the formalism uses a single set of orbitals, only a single PNO integral transformation is

  4. Expansion of the mammalian 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/plant dihydroflavonol reductase superfamily to include a bacterial cholesterol dehydrogenase, a bacterial UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, and open reading frames in vaccinia virus and fish lymphocystis disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M E; Blasco, R

    1992-04-13

    Mammalian 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and plant dihydroflavonol reductases are descended from a common ancestor. Here we present evidence that Nocardia cholesterol dehydrogenase, E. coli UDP-galactose-4 epimerase, and open reading frames in vaccinia virus and fish lymphocystis disease virus are homologous to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and dihydroflavonol reductase. Analysis of a multiple alignment of these sequences indicates that viral ORFs are most closely related to the mammalian 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. The ancestral protein of this superfamily is likely to be one that metabolized sugar nucleotides. The sequence similarity between 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the viral ORFs is sufficient to suggest that these ORFs have an activity that is similar to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase or cholesterol dehydrogenase, although the putative substrates are not yet known.

  5. Recent Advances and Open Questions in Neutrino-induced Quasi-elastic Scattering and Single Photon Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos; Harris, D. A. [Fermilab; Tanaka, H. A. [British Columbia U.; Tayloe, R. [Indiana U.; Zeller, G. P. [Fermilab

    2015-06-15

    The study of neutrino–nucleus interactions has recently seen rapid development with a new generation of accelerator-based neutrino experiments employing medium and heavy nuclear targets for the study of neutrino oscillations. A few unexpected results in the study of quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production have spurred a revisiting of the underlying nuclear physics and connections to electron–nucleus scattering. A thorough understanding and resolution of these issues is essential for future progress in the study of neutrino oscillations.

  6. The effects of A single dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on behavior of rats in Morris's water maze and in the open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a sublethal dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n=9) were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy of gamma-rays from a 60 Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in Morris water maze (MWM) (2 sessions per day) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in MWM. The horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings of the center of the field and the washing behavior were recorded during an 8-minute test in the open field. The results obtained show, that radiation didn't altered significantly the dynamic of learning in MWM during the experiment. The level of horizontal and vertical locomotory activity in open field was lower in irradiated group in comparison with controls. The number of the crossings of the field's center, related to the level of anxiozity of animals was non-significantly lower in irradiated animals, whereas no differences in number of washing between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different level of their control and coordination in CNS. (authors)

  7. Clock domain crossing modules for OCP-style read/write interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlev, Mathias; Sparsø, Jens

    The open core protocol (OCP) is an openly licensed, configurable, and scalable interface protocol for on-chip subsystem communications. The protocol defines read and write transactions from a master towards a slave across a point-to-point connection and the protocol assumes a single common clock....... This paper presents the design of two OCP clock domain crossing interface modules, that can be used to construct systems with multiple clock domains. One module (called OCPio) supports a single word read-write interface and the other module (called OCPburst) supports a four word burst read-write interface...... to connect the Processor and its cache controllers to a shared o_-chip memory. While the problem of synchronizing a simple streaming interface is well described in the literature and often solved using bi-synchronous FIFOs we found surprisingly little published material addressing synchronization of bus...

  8. Cost analysis of minimally invasive hysterectomy vs open approach performed by a single surgeon in an Italian center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Antonio; Damiani, Gianluca Raffaello; Fachechi, Giorgio; Corso, Silvia; Pirovano, Cecilia; Trio, Claudia; Villa, Mario; Turoli, Daniela; Youssef, Aly

    2017-06-01

    Despite the rapid uptake of robotic surgery, the effectiveness of robotically assisted hysterectomy (RAH) remains uncertain, due to the costs widely variable. Observed the different related costs of robotic procedures, in different countries, we performed a detailed economic analysis of the cost of RAH compared with total laparoscopic (TLH) and open hysterectomy (OH). The three surgical routes were matched according to age, BMI, and comorbidities. Hysterectomy costs were collected prospectively from September 2014 to September 2015. Direct costs were determined by examining the overall medical pathway for each type of intervention. Surgical procedure cost for RAH was €3598 compared with €912 for TLH and €1094 for OH. The cost of the robot-specific supplies was €2705 per intervention. When considering overall medical surgical care, the patient treatment average cost of a RAH was €4695 with a hospital stay (HS) of 2 days (range 2-4) compared with €2053 for TLH and €2846 for OH. The main driver of additional costs is disposable instruments of the robot, which is not compensated by the hospital room costs and by an experienced team staff. Implementation of strategies to reduce the cost of robotic instrumentation is due. No significant cost difference among the three procedures was observed; however, despite the optimal operative time, the experienced, surgeon and the lower HS, RAH resulted 2, 3 times and 1, 6 times more expensive in our institution than TLH and OH, respectively.

  9. Efficacy of Modified Atkins Ketogenic Diet in Chronic Cluster Headache: An Open-Label, Single-Arm, Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubino Di Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDrug-resistant cluster headache (CH is still an open clinical challenge. Recently, our group observed the clinical efficacy of a ketogenic diet (KD, usually adopted to treat drug-resistant epilepsies, on migraine.AimHere, we aim to detect the effect of KD in a group of drug-resistant chronic CH (CCH patients.Materials and methodsEighteen drug-resistant CCH patients underwent a 12-week KD (Modified Atkins Diet, MAD, and the clinical response was evaluated in terms of response (≥50% attack reduction.ResultsOf the 18 CCH patients, 15 were considered responders to the diet (11 experienced a full resolution of headache, and 4 had a headache reduction of at least 50% in terms of mean monthly number of attacks during the diet. The mean monthly number of attacks for each patient at the baseline was 108.71 (SD = 81.71; at the end of the third month of diet, it was reduced to 31.44 (SD = 84.61.ConclusionWe observed for the first time that a 3-month ketogenesis ameliorates clinical features of CCH.Clinical Trial Registrationwww.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03244735.

  10. Differentially expressed genes from RNA-Seq and functional enrichment results are affected by the choice of single-end versus paired-end reads and stranded versus non-stranded protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Susan M; MacKenzie, Karen L; Beverdam, Annemiek; Roddam, Louise F; Wilkins, Marc R

    2017-05-23

    RNA-Seq is now widely used as a research tool. Choices must be made whether to use paired-end (PE) or single-end (SE) sequencing, and whether to use strand-specific or non-specific (NS) library preparation kits. To date there has been no analysis of the effect of these choices on identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between controls and treated samples and on downstream functional analysis. We undertook four mammalian transcriptomics experiments to compare the effect of SE and PE protocols on read mapping, feature counting, identification of DEGs and functional analysis. For three of these experiments we also compared a non-stranded (NS) and a strand-specific approach to mapping the paired-end data. SE mapping resulted in a reduced number of reads mapped to features, in all four experiments, and lower read count per gene. Up to 4.3% of genes in the SE data and up to 12.3% of genes in the NS data had read counts which were significantly different compared to the PE data. Comparison of DEGs showed the presence of false positives (average 5%, using voom) and false negatives (average 5%, using voom) using the SE reads. These increased further, by one or two percentage points, with the NS data. Gene ontology functional enrichment (GO) of the DEGs arising from SE or NS approaches, revealed striking differences in the top 20 GO terms, with as little as 40% concordance with PE results. Caution is therefore advised in the interpretation of such results. By comparison, there was overall consistency in gene set enrichment analysis results. A strand-specific protocol should be used in library preparation to generate the most reliable and accurate profile of expression. Ideally PE reads are also recommended particularly for transcriptome assembly. Whilst SE reads produce a DEG list with around 5% of false positives and false negatives, this method can substantially reduce sequencing cost and this saving could be used to increase the number of biological replicates

  11. Alveolar ridge preservation with an open-healing approach using single-layer or double-layer coverage with collagen membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ho-Keun; Cho, Hag-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Jo; Cho, In-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Seung; Koo, Ki-Tae; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Park, Jung-Chul

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this prospective pilot study was to compare alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) procedures with open-healing approach using a single-layer and a double-layer coverage with collagen membranes using radiographic and clinical analyses. Eleven molars from 9 healthy patients requiring extraction of the maxillary or mandibular posterior teeth were included and allocated into 2 groups. After tooth extraction, deproteinized bovine bone mineral mixed with 10% collagen was grafted into the socket and covered either with a double-layer of resorbable non-cross-linked collagen membranes (DL group, n=6) or with a single-layer (SL group, n=5). Primary closure was not obtained. Cone-beam computed tomography images were taken immediately after the ARP procedure and after a healing period of 4 months before implant placement. Radiographic measurements were made of the width and height changes of the alveolar ridge. All sites healed without any complications, and dental implants were placed at all operated sites with acceptable initial stability. The measurements showed that the reductions in width at the level 1 mm apical from the alveolar crest (including the bone graft) were -1.7±0.5 mm in the SL group and -1.8±0.4 mm in the DL group, and the horizontal changes in the other areas were also similar in the DL and SL groups. The reductions in height were also comparable between groups. Within the limitations of this study, single-layer and double-layer coverage with collagen membranes after ARP failed to show substantial differences in the preservation of horizontal or vertical dimensions or in clinical healing. Thus, both approaches seem to be suitable for open-healing ridge preservation procedures.

  12. Laparoscopic and open postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with advanced testicular cancer – a single center analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busch Jonas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The open approach represents the gold standard for postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (O-PCLND in patients with residual testicular cancer. We analyzed laparoscopic postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (L-PCLND and O-PCLND at our institution. Methods Patients underwent either L-PCLND (n = 43 or O-PCLND (n = 24. Categorical and continuous variables were compared using the Fisher exact test and Mann–Whitney U test respectively. Overall survival was evaluated with the log-rank test. Results Primary histology was embryonal cell carcinomas (18 patients, pure seminoma (2 cases and mixed NSGCTs (47 patients. According to the IGCCCG patients were categorized into “good”, “intermediate” and “poor prognosis” disease in 55.2%, 14.9% and 20.8%, respectively. Median operative time for L-PCLND was 212 min and 232 min for O-PCLND (p = 0.256. Median postoperative duration of drainage and hospital stay was shorter after L-PCLND (0.0 vs. 3.5 days; p 500 ml was almost equally distributed (8.6% vs. 14.2%: p = 0.076. No significant differences were observed for injuries of major vessels and postoperative complications (p = 0.758; p = 0.370. Tumor recurrence occurred in 8.6% following L-PCLND and in 14.2% following O-PCLND with a mean disease-free survival of 76.6 and 89.2 months, respectively. Overall survival was 83.3 and 95.0 months for L-PCNLD and O-PCLND, respectively (p = 0.447. Conclusions L-PCLND represents a safe surgical option for well selected patients at an experienced center.

  13. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses ...... these aspects by drawing on typography history, designers’ ideas, and available scientific data concerning the reading process....

  14. Against Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Edmundson states that if he could make one wish for the members of his profession, college and university professors of literature, he would wish that for one year, two, three, or five, they would give up readings. By "a reading," he means the application of an analytical vocabulary to describe and (usually) to judge a work of literary art.…

  15. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...... these aspects by drawing on typography history, designers’ ideas, and available scientific data concerning the reading process....

  16. ALMA continuum observations of the protoplanetary disk AS 209. Evidence of multiple gaps opened by a single planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, D.; Tazzari, M.; Booth, R.; Testi, L.; Clarke, C. J.; Pascucci, I.; Kospal, A.; Semenov, D.; Bruderer, S.; Henning, Th.; Teague, R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents new high angular resolution ALMA 1.3 mm dust continuum observations of the protoplanetary system AS 209 in the Ophiuchus star forming region. The dust continuum emission is characterized by a main central core and two prominent rings at r = 75 au and r = 130 au intervaled by two gaps at r = 62 au and r = 103 au. The two gaps have different widths and depths, with the inner one being narrower and shallower. We determined the surface density of the millimeter dust grains using the 3D radiative transfer disk code DALI. According to our fiducial model the inner gap is partially filled with millimeter grains while the outer gap is largely devoid of dust. The inferred surface density is compared to 3D hydrodynamical simulations (FARGO-3D) of planet-disk interaction. The outer dust gap is consistent with the presence of a giant planet (Mplanet 0.7 MSaturn); the planet is responsible for the gap opening and for the pile-up of dust at the outer edge of the planet orbit. The simulations also show that the same planet could be the origin of the inner gap at r = 62 au. The relative position of the two dust gaps is close to the 2:1 resonance and we have investigated the possibility of a second planet inside the inner gap. The resulting surface density (including location, width and depth of the two dust gaps) are in agreement with the observations. The properties of the inner gap pose a strong constraint to the mass of the inner planet (Mplanet age of the system (0.5-1 Myr), this result implies that the formation of giant planets occurs on a timescale of ≲1 Myr. The reduced image (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A24

  17. Traditional open-bay versus single-family room neonatal intensive care unit: a comparison of selected nutrition outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Erickson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina Erickson1, Kendra Kattelmann1, Jessica Remington1, Cuirong Ren2, Carol C Helseth3, Dennis C Stevens31Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, 2Department of Plant Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Sanford Children's Hospital, Sioux Falls, SD, USABackground: In contrast to the traditional open-bay–type design of the neonatal intensive care unit (tNICU, infants in developmentally appropriate NICU (dNICU are housed in individual rooms with greater control of light and noise. Previous reports have documented positive influence of the dNICU in cardiorespiratory status, physiologic stability, and weight gain of the infants. The objective of this study was to explore selected nutrition outcomes of infants in the dNICU versus tNICU.Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted on infants with birth weight of 1500 g or less cared for in dNICU (n = 42 or tNICU (n = 31. Differences between days to reach full parenteral nutrition, full enteral nutrition, or full bottling were determined using analysis of covariance controlling for gestational age, birth weight, and clinical risk index for babies (CRIB acuity score.Results: There were no differences between the two groups in days to reach full parenteral and bottle feeding. The infants in the dNICU took fewer days to reach full enteral nutrition (20.8 days, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 17, 24.6 (dNICU vs 23.3 days, 95% CI: 17.1, 29.6 (tNICU, P = 0.04 than those in the tNICU.Conclusions: Although the two groups of infants only differed in the days to reach full enteral feeding, it is important to remember that the lack of difference may be clinically significant. Clinically, the infants in the dNICU were younger (gestational age and sicker (CRIB acuity score than the infants in the tNICU. Consequently, the results of this study support the change to dNICU, as the private room model provides a supportive environment for growth as evidenced by similar

  18. An Open-label, Single-dose, Pharmacokinetic Study of Factor VIII Activity After Administration of Moroctocog Alfa (AF-CC) in Male Chinese Patients With Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhong; Wu, Runhui; Hu, Pei; Sun, Feifei; Xu, Lihong; Liang, Yali; Nepal, Sunil; Qu, Peng Roger; Huard, Francois; Korth-Bradley, Joan M

    2017-07-01

    Hemophilia A represents up to 80% of all hemophilia cases in China. In patients with this condition, bleeding can be prevented and controlled by administering clotting factor VIII (FVIII). Since their initial availability, recombinant FVIII products have undergone several iterations to enhance their safety. Moroctocog alfa albumin-free cell culture (AF-CC) is among the third generation of recombinant FVIII products and received regulatory approval in China in August 2012. The present study characterizes the single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of FVIII activity (FVIII:C) after administration of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) in male Chinese patients with hemophilia A. This multicenter, open-label, single-dose study enrolled 13 male Chinese patients diagnosed with severe hemophilia A (FVIII:C hemophilia A. The pharmacokinetic profile in older patients was similar to that previously reported with recombinant FVIII products in studies with a predominantly white population; younger patients had reduced exposure to FVIII:C. The single doses of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) were well tolerated; 2 cases of transient, low-titer FVIII inhibitor development were observed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02461992. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Single-stage endoscopic treatment for mild to moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis: a multicenter, non-randomized, open-label and exploratory clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kazunori; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Haba, Shin; Yamato, Hiroaki; Okuda, Toshinori; Yane, Kei; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Ehira, Nobuyuki; Onodera, Manabu; Matsumoto, Ryusuke; Matsubara, Yu; Takagi, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2015-12-01

    Two-stage treatment involving stone removal after drainage is recommended for mild to moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis. However, single-stage treatment has some advantages. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of single-stage endoscopic treatment for mild to moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis. A multicenter, non-randomized, open-label, exploratory clinical trial was performed in 12 institutions. A total of 50 patients with a naïve papilla and a body temperature ≥37 °C who were diagnosed with mild to moderate cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis were enrolled between August 2012 and February 2014. Of the 50 patients, 15 had mild cholangitis and 35 had moderate cholangitis. The median number of common bile duct stones was 2 (range, 1-8), and the median diameter of the common bile duct stones was 7.5 mm (range, 1-18). The cure rate of acute cholangitis within 4 days after single-stage treatment was 90% (45/50) based on a body temperature choledocholithiasis (clinical trial registration number: UMIN000008494). © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  20. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.

  1. Taking Children's Literature Seriously: Reading for Pleasure and Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian

    1997-01-01

    Investigates how multiple stances in reading can reveal new insights into texts. Demonstrates three ways that a single text can be read from the perspectives of a pleasurable reading, a postcolonial reading, and a critical multicultural reading. Argues that readers will confirm existing meanings determined by others' ideologies unless they are…

  2. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  3. Evaluation of J and CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement) fracture parameters for pipeline steels using Single Edge Notch Tension SE(T) specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes Tobar, Lenin Marcelo; Ruggieri, Claudio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Oceanica

    2009-12-19

    This work presents an evaluation procedure to determine the elastic-plastic J-integral and CTOD for pin-loaded and clamped single edge notch tension (SE(T)) specimens based upon the eta-method. The primary objective is to derive estimation equations applicable to determine J and CTOD fracture parameters for a wide range of a/W-ratios and material flow properties. Very detailed non-linear finite element analyses for plane-strain and full-thickness, 3-D models provide the evolution of load with increased crack mouth opening displacement which is required for the estimation procedure. The present analyses, when taken together with previous studies provide a fairly extensive body of results which serve to determine parameters J and CTOD for different materials using tension specimens with varying geometries. (author)

  4. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  5. A Complex Multiherbal Regimen Based on Ayurveda Medicine for the Management of Hepatic Cirrhosis Complicated by Ascites: Nonrandomized, Uncontrolled, Single Group, Open-Label Observational Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish V; Patel, Kalapi B; Gupta, Shivenarain; Michalsen, Andreas; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Kessler, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially if complicated by ascites. This chronic condition can be related to the classical disease entity jalodara in Traditional Indian Medicine (Ayurveda). The present paper aims to evaluate the general potential of Ayurvedic therapy for overall clinical outcomes in hepatic cirrhosis complicated by ascites (HCcA). In form of a nonrandomized, uncontrolled, single group, open-label observational clinical study, 56 patients fulfilling standardized diagnostic criteria for HCcA were observed during their treatment at the P. D. Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad, India. Based on Ayurvedic tradition, a standardized treatment protocol was developed and implemented, consisting of oral administration of single and compound herbal preparations combined with purificatory measures as well as dietary and lifestyle regimens. The outcomes were assessed by measuring liver functions through specific clinical features and laboratory parameters and by evaluating the Child-Pugh prognostic grade score. After 6 weeks of treatment and a follow-up period of 18 weeks, the outcomes showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements. Further larger and randomized trials on effectiveness, safety, and quality of the Ayurvedic approach in the treatment of HCcA are warranted to support these preliminary findings.

  6. Effectiveness of a single application of 0·25% fipronil solution for the treatment of hirstiellosis in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana): an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmaki, Rania; Simou, Chrisa; Papadopoulos, Elias; Koutinas, Alexander F; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2013-08-01

    Hirstiella spp. are common ectoparasites of captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Suggested treatments are empirical and some of them are of low efficacy and potentially toxic. The objective of this open-label study was to investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of a single application of 0·25% fipronil solution for the treatment of hirstiellosis. The skin of 50 green iguanas was thoroughly examined with the aid of bright light and magnifying lenses. A total of 21 iguanas were found to be infested, harbouring 1-24 mites (median: 5). All 35 mites collected from 17 iguanas were identified as Hirstiella sp. Both infested and non-infested lizards, sharing the same enclosure, were carefully wiped with 0·25% fipronil solution. The safety and the efficacy of the treatment were evaluated after 2 days in 47/50 (94%) and 7 days in 29/50 (58%) iguanas. Compared with pre-treatment levels, the parasitic load did not changed significantly on the second day but was significantly lower on day 7 (P = 0·006). No adverse reactions were noticed. Based on these results a single whole-body application of 0·25% fipronil solution can be considered a safe and effective treatment for the reduction of parasitic burden in captive green iguanas infested by Hirstiella sp. mites.

  7. Comparative Fasting Bioavailability of 2 Different Betahistine Dihydrochloride 24-mg Tablets: A Single- Dose, Randomized-Sequence, Open-Label, 2-Period Crossover Study in Healthy Thai Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinpilai Jutasompakorn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the bioequivalence of 24 mg betahistine dihydrochloride tablets between the test product (Stei® and the reference product (Serc® in healthy Thai volunteers. Methods: This was an open-label, randomized sequence, single-dose, two-period crossover study in 24 healthy volunteers. Half of the volunteers received a single dose of test product 24 mg and then reference product 24 mg after a minimum 7-day washout period. The remaining half of volunteers received the reference product first and then the test product with the same washout period. Blood samples were obtained at pre-dose and over 14 hours after dosing. Plasma concentrations of 2-pyridylacetic acid (2-PAA, a major metabolite of betahistine were quantified by using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Tolerability in volunteers were assessed during the study. Results: Statistical comparison of the main pharmacokinetic parameters showed no significant difference between test and reference. The geometric mean ratios of 2-PAA between the test and reference products were 96.44%, 96.99%, and 94.56% for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞, respectively. These pharmacokinetic parameter values lie within the FDA and European Medicines Agency specified bioequivalence limit (80-125%. No serious adverse events related to the studied drugs were found. Conclusion: It can be concluded that these two betahistine dihydrochloride products were considered bioequivalent.

  8. The influence of social, individual and linguistic factors on children's performance in tasks of reading single words aloud / A Influência de fatores sociais, individuais e lingüísticos no desempenho de crianças na leitura em voz alta de palavras isoladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva Lúcio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates social, individual and linguistic factors in the performance of a single- word reading aloud task. A group of 1st to 4th grade school children from Belo Horizonte-MG (N = 333 read aloud 323 single words presented in a computer screen. Measures of reaction time (RT and error scores were collected. The Generalized Estimating Equations method exhibited the grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme regularity effect in reading and also showed an impact on the number of categories of regularity in this effect. No social factor was important to explain the results, but their mothers' education was correlated to the error scores (in opposite direction. There was no gender effect. Other factors rather than the traditional ones were also relevant, such as the age of reading acquisition and the verbal comprehension. The work brings important theoretical issues to cognitive reading assessment in Brazil.

  9. The Brain Might Read That Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Bolger, Donald J.

    2004-01-01

    Research on how the brain implements reading has produced results of remarkable consistency, especially on the functional anatomy of single word reading. We examine the general features of this emerging knowledge and draw attention to the extent to which it converges with results from other methods of reading science in several areas: reading…

  10. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as comp...

  11. Does E-Reading Enhance Reading Fluency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Rahima S.; Taqi, Hanan A.; Dashti, Abdulmohsin A.; Sadeq, Taiba M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is reading as much as possible, for one's own pleasure, at a difficulty level at which one can read smoothly and quickly. In the domain of reading, this paper investigates the effect of extensive reading from e-books, through utilizing a number of downloadable reading application programs on the students' e-devices, as opposed to…

  12. Development of an R4 dual-site (R4DS gateway cloning system enabling the efficient simultaneous cloning of two desired sets of promoters and open reading frames in a binary vector for plant research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Aboulela

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of proteins work cooperatively to exert their functions in various cells. In order to understand the functions and molecular mechanisms of these proteins in plants, analyses of transgenic plants that concomitantly express two protein-coding genes are often required. We developed a novel Gateway cloning technology-compatible binary vector system, the R4 dual-site (R4DS Gateway cloning system, which enables the easy and efficient cloning of two desired sets of promoters and open reading frames (ORFs into a binary vector using promoter and ORF entry clones. In this system, C-terminal fusions with 17 kinds of tags including visible reporters and epitope tags are available for each ORF, and selection by four kinds of resistance markers is possible. We verified that the R4DS Gateway cloning system functioned well in Arabidopsis thaliana by observing the expression and localization patterns of fluorescent proteins fused with organelle-targeting signals and driven by stomatal-lineage specific promoters. We also confirmed that the two cloning sites in the R4DS Gateway cloning system were equivalent and independently regulated. The results obtained indicate that the R4DS Gateway cloning system facilitates detailed comparisons of the expression patterns of two promoters as well as co-localization and interaction analyses of two proteins in specific cells in plants.

  13. Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannervik, M; Fan, S; Ström, A C

    1999-01-01

    of the viral E4 open reading frame 4 (E4-ORF4) protein. This effect does not to require the retinoblastoma protein that previously has been shown to regulate E2F activity. The inhibitory activity of E4-ORF4 appears to be specific because E4-ORF4 had little effect on, for example, E4-ORF6/7 transactivation......Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle-regulated E2F transcription factor is subjected to both positive and negative control by phosphorylation. Here we show that in transient transfection experiments, adenovirus E1A activation of the viral E2 promoter is abrogated by coexpression...... during virus growth. E4-ORF4 has previously been shown to bind to and activate the cellular protein phosphatase 2A. The inhibitory effect of E4-ORF4 was relieved by okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatase 2A activity, suggesting that E4-ORF4 represses E2 transcription by inducing transcription...

  14. Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannervik, M; Fan, S; Ström, A C

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle-regulated E2F transcription factor is subjected to both positive and negative control by phosphorylation. Here we show that in transient transfection experiments, adenovirus E1A activation of the viral E2 promoter is abrogated by coexpression...... of the viral E4 open reading frame 4 (E4-ORF4) protein. This effect does not to require the retinoblastoma protein that previously has been shown to regulate E2F activity. The inhibitory activity of E4-ORF4 appears to be specific because E4-ORF4 had little effect on, for example, E4-ORF6/7 transactivation...... of the E2 promoter. We further show that the repressive effect of E4-ORF4 on E2 transcription works mainly through the E2F DNA-binding sites in the E2 promoter. In agreement with this, we find that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2F-1/DP-1-mediated transactivation. We also show that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2 mRNA expression...

  15. The Impact of Single-Sex Education on Male and Female Gains in Mathematics and Reading at the Elementary Level in a Selected School in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The gender gap in achievement and the increasing awareness of differences between male and female cognitive development have ignited a growing interest in single-sex education. No Child Left Behind legislation and amendments to Title IX legislation have increased the number of schools in America offering single-sex education. This 2-year…

  16. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  17. Pharmacokinetic Properties and Tolerability of Cycloserine Following Oral Administration in Healthy Chinese Volunteers: A Randomized, Open-Label, Single- and Multiple-Dose 3-Way Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huili; Wu, Guolan; Hu, Xingjiang; Zhu, Meixiang; Zhai, You; Liu, Jian; Shentu, Jianzhong; Wu, Lihua

    2015-06-01

    A new generic formulation of cycloserine has been developed in China but the pharmacokinetic properties of cycloserine in the Chinese population have not been reported. The aim of our study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability of single and multiple oral administrations of cycloserine capsules in healthy Chinese volunteers. This open-label, single- and multiple-dose 3-way crossover study was conducted in healthy Chinese volunteers. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of cycloserine (250, 500, or 1000 mg) in separate trial periods, with a 1-week washout between periods. Those allocated to the 250-mg dose continued into the multiple-dose phase, in which they received 250 mg BID for 5 consecutive days. During the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected at regular intervals from 0 to 72 hours after drug administration and the concentrations of cycloserine were determined using LC-MS/MS. During the multiple-dose phase, blood samples were obtained before drug administration on Days 4, 5, and 6 to determine the Cmin at steady state. On Day 6, blood samples were also collected from 0 to 72 hours after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods. Tolerability was determined using clinical evaluation and monitoring of adverse events. The study enrolled 12 healthy Chinese volunteers (6 men: mean [SD] age = 23.0 [2.6] years, weight = 60.2 [6.2] kg, height = 170.0 [3.0] cm, and body mass index = 20.7 [1.7]; 6 women: mean [SD] age = 25.3 [1.4] years, weight = 51.5 [3.3] kg, height = 160.0 [4.0] cm, and body mass index = 20.1 [0.9]). After administration of a single dose, cycloserine was rapidly absorbed, reaching peak plasma concentrations approximately 0.84 hours after oral administration, and t½ in plasma was about 13.0 hours. The geometric mean (SD) Cmax value increased in proportion to cycloserine dose, from 19.42 (5.89) to 84.76 (21.74) mg/L, and the geometric mean (SD) AUC0

  18. Reading Disorders:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaber, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between eating disorders and reading behaviors, arguing that there is a meaningful difference in a minority of readers' approach to and understanding of anorexia life-writing, and of literary texts more broadly. To illuminate this distinction, this article begins by considering the reported deleterious influence of Marya Hornbacher’s anorexia memoir, Wasted, elaborating the ways Hornbacher offers a positive presentation of anorexia nervosa that may, intentionally or not, induce certain readers to “try it” themselves. This is followed by an exploration of how Hornbacher’s own reading praxis is implicated in a discursive feedback loop around anorexia narratives. It concludes with a discussion of disordered reading attitudes in relation to the emergence of the “pro-anorexia” phenomenon. PMID:28569728

  19. An Integrated Pipeline of Open Source Software Adapted for Multi-CPU Architectures: Use in the Large-Scale Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jayashree

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of EST sequence data available from a single species of an organism as well as for several species within a genus provide an easy source of identification of intra- and interspecies single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. In the case of model organisms, the data available are numerous, given the degree of redundancy in the deposited EST data. There are several available bioinformatics tools that can be used to mine this data; however, using them requires a certain level of expertise: the tools have to be used sequentially with accompanying format conversion and steps like clustering and assembly of sequences become time-intensive jobs even for moderately sized datasets. We report here a pipeline of open source software extended to run on multiple CPU architectures that can be used to mine large EST datasets for SNPs and identify restriction sites for assaying the SNPs so that cost-effective CAPS assays can be developed for SNP genotyping in genetics and breeding applications. At the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT, the pipeline has been implemented to run on a Paracel high-performance system consisting of four dual AMD Opteron processors running Linux with MPICH. The pipeline can be accessed through user-friendly web interfaces at http://hpc.icrisat.cgiar.org/PBSWeb and is available on request for academic use. We have validated the developed pipeline by mining chickpea ESTs for interspecies SNPs, development of CAPS assays for SNP genotyping, and confirmation of restriction digestion pattern at the sequence level.

  20. A simplified fracture network model for studying the efficiency of a single well semi open loop heat exchanger in fractured crystalline rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Bour, Olivier; Thierion, Charlotte; Ausseur, Jean-Yves; Lesuer, Hervé; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source particularly attractive due to associated low greenhouse gas emission rates. Crystalline rocks are in general considered of poor interest for geothermal applications at shallow depths (energy storage at these shallow depths is still remaining very challenging because of the complexity of fractured media. The purpose of this study is to test the possibility of efficient thermal energy storage in shallow fractured rocks with a single well semi open loop heat exchanger (standing column well). For doing so, a simplified numerical model of fractured media is considered with few fractures. Here we present the different steps for building the model and for achieving the sensitivity analysis. First, an analytical and dimensional study on the equations has been achieved to highlight the main parameters that control the optimization of the system. In a second step, multiphysics software COMSOL was used to achieve numerical simulations in a very simplified model of fractured media. The objective was to test the efficiency of such a system to store and recover thermal energy depending on i) the few parameters controlling fracture network geometry (size and number of fractures) and ii) the frequency of cycles used to store and recover thermal energy. The results have then been compared to reference shallow geothermal systems already set up for porous media. Through this study, relationships between structure, heat exchanges and storage may be highlighted.

  1. Timing of dose relative to sexual intercourse attempt in previous sildenafil citrate users treated with tadalafil: a geographical comparison from a single arm, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Glina, Sidney; Abdo, Carmita H N; Hernandez-Serrano, Ruben; Rampazzo, Claudia; Sotomayor, Mariano; West, Teena M; Gallagher, Gabrielle L; Lenero, Enrique

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that sildenafil citrate users alter dosing-sexual attempt behavior when switched to tadalafil. The impact of geography and culture on sexual behavior with phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor treatment has not been fully investigated. To describe and compare the changes in dosing-sexual attempt behavior with sildenafil citrate vs. tadalafil treatment across four distinct geographies: Asia, Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Central Eastern Europe/Middle East (CEE/ME), and Latin America (LA). Data from a single-arm, open-label clinical trial conducted in 21 countries from November 2002 to May 2004 were used in this analysis. Men with erectile dysfunction and a history of > or =6-week prior sildenafil citrate use continued sildenafil citrate treatment for 4 weeks then switched to tadalafil for 8 weeks. Dosing instructions were provided. Timing of dose and sexual intercourse was assessed through patient diaries for the final 4 weeks of each treatment period. A total of 2,760 men were enrolled: Asia 15.8%; ANZ 29.4%; CEE/ME 19.7%; LA 35.1%. The median time from dosing to intercourse was significantly increased during tadalafil treatment across all geographical regions; however, the magnitude of increase differed significantly by geography (P geography. However, the extent to which sexual behavior alters is not uniform across geographical regions, suggesting that dosing instructions and duration of drug effectiveness, in combination with personal and cultural preferences, may determine sexual behavior with PDE5 inhibitor use.

  2. Transverse single-spin asymmetry in the low-virtuality leptoproduction of open charm as a probe of the gluon Sivers function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Rohini M.; Kaushik, Abhiram; Misra, Anuradha

    2018-04-01

    We study the low-virtuality inclusive leptoproduction of open charm, p↑l →D0+X as a probe of the gluon Sivers function. We perform the analysis in a generalized parton model framework. At leading order, this process is sensitive only to the gluon content of the proton. Hence any detection of a transverse single-spin asymmetry in this process would be clear indication of a non-zero gluon Sivers function (GSF). Considering COMPASS and a future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), we present predictions for asymmetry using fits for the GSF available in literature. Predictions for peak asymmetry values lie in the range of 0.8% to 13%. We also present estimates of the upper bound on the asymmetry as obtained with a maximal gluon Sivers function. Further, for the case of the Electron-Ion Collider, we evaluate the asymmetry in the muons decaying from the D -meson and find that the asymmetry is well preserved in the kinematics of the muons. Peak values of the muon asymmetry are close to those obtained for the D -meson and lie in the range 0.75% to 11%.

  3. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of paliperidone palmitate 3-month formulation in patients with schizophrenia: A phase-1, single-dose, randomized, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenstijn, Paulien; Remmerie, Bart; Savitz, Adam; Samtani, Mahesh N; Nuamah, Isaac; Chang, Cheng-Tao; De Meulder, Marc; Hough, David; Gopal, Srihari

    2016-03-01

    This multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, phase-1 study assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of the investigational intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 3-month (PP3M) formulation in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A total of 328 patients (men or women, aged 18-65 years) were enrolled in 1 of 4 separately conducted panels (A to D). Each panel had 2 single-dose treatment periods (period 1, 1 mg intramuscular paliperidone immediate release [IR]; period 2, intramuscular PP3M 75-525 mg eq) separated by a washout of 7-21 days. Overall, 245 of 308 (79.5%) PP3M-dosed patients completed the study. Because the PK studies of panels A and C were compromised by incomplete injection in some patients, PK data from only panels B and D are presented. Safety data from all panels are presented. Peak paliperidone plasma concentration was achieved between 23 and 34 days, and apparent half-life was ∼2-4 months. Mean plasma AUC∞ and Cmax of paliperidone appeared to be dose-proportional. Relative bioavailability in comparison with paliperidone was ∼100% independent of the dose and injection site. Headache and nasopharyngitis were the most common (>7%) treatment-emergent adverse events. Overall, safety and tolerability were similar to those of the 1-month formulation. Results support a once-every-3-months dosing interval in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  4. Average bioequivalence of single 500 mg doses of two oral formulations of levofloxacin: a randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy adult Brazilian volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Kazue Kano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Average bioequivalence of two 500 mg levofloxacin formulations available in Brazil, Tavanic(c (Sanofi-Aventis Farmacêutica Ltda, Brazil, reference product and Levaquin(c (Janssen-Cilag Farmacêutica Ltda, Brazil, test product was evaluated by means of a randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover study performed in 26 healthy Brazilian volunteers under fasting conditions. A single dose of 500 mg levofloxacin tablets was orally administered, and blood samples were collected over a period of 48 hours. Levofloxacin plasmatic concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, Kel, T1/2el, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Bioequivalence was determined by calculating 90% confidence intervals (90% CI for the ratio of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf values for test and reference products, using logarithmic transformed data. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory analysis results, by subject interviews and by spontaneous report of adverse events. 90% CIs for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf were 92.1% - 108.2%, 90.7% - 98.0%, and 94.8% - 100.0%, respectively. Observed adverse events were nausea and headache. It was concluded that Tavanic(c and Levaquin(c are bioequivalent, since 90% CIs are within the 80% - 125% interval proposed by regulatory agencies.

  5. An open-label, single-arm study assessing the efficacy and safety of L: -menthol sprayed onto the gastric mucosa during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiki, Naoki; Kaminishi, Michio; Tanabe, Satoshi; Fujisaki, Junko; Yoshino, Junji; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Kawabe, Takao; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Nomura, Sachiyo; Yahagi, Naohisa; Tajiri, Hisao; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2011-07-01

    The results of a phase III, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that endoscopic direct spraying of L: -menthol onto the gastric mucosa effectively suppressed gastric peristalsis in the study patients. The aim of the study reported here was to determine whether the anti-peristaltic effect of an L: -menthol preparation facilitates endoscopic examinations in a clinical setting. This was a multicenter, open-label, single-arm trial in which the study cohort comprised patients in whom L: -menthol was likely to be used to facilitate endoscopic examination in clinical settings. The primary outcome was the proportion of subjects with no peristalsis (Grade 1) after treatment and at the end of endoscopy (defined as the complete suppression of gastric peristalsis). This variable was assessed according to the level of anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, pepsinogen test results, whether sedation was performed, and whether subjects were considered unsuitable for the use of conventional antispasmodics. Of the 119 enrolled subjects, data from 112 were included in the primary efficacy analysis. Gastric peristalsis was completely suppressed in 37.5% of the patients [42/112 patients; 95% confidence interval (CI) 28.5-47.1]. Subgroup analyses revealed that the rate of peristalsis suppression was significantly higher in patients with elevated levels of anti-H. pylori IgG antibody (26/44, 59.1%; 95% CI 43.2-73.7); P peristalsis during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  6. Effect of enzyme therapy and prognostic factors in 69 adults with Pompe disease: an open-label single-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Juna M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT in adults with Pompe disease, a progressive neuromuscular disorder, is of promising but variable efficacy. We investigated whether it alters the course of disease, and also identified potential prognostic factors. Methods Patients in this open-label single-center study were treated biweekly with 20 mg/kg alglucosidase alfa. Muscle strength, muscle function, and pulmonary function were assessed every 3–6 months and analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Results Sixty-nine patients (median age 52.1 years were followed for a median of 23 months. Muscle strength increased after start of ERT (manual muscle testing 1.4 percentage points per year (pp/y; hand-held dynamometry 4.0 pp/y; both p Relative to the pre-treatment period (49 patients with 14 months pre-ERT and 22 months ERT median follow-up, ERT affected muscle strength positively (manual muscle testing +3.3 pp/y, p Conclusions We conclude that ERT positively alters the natural course of Pompe disease in adult patients; muscle strength increased and upright FVC stabilized. Functional outcome is probably best when ERT intervention is timely.

  7. Clinical, Etiological and Therapeutic Features of Jaw-opening and Jaw-closing Oromandibular Dystonias: A Decade of Experience at a Single Treatment Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dystonia is a heterogeneous hyperkinetic disorder. The anatomical location of the dystonia helps clinicians guide their evaluation and treatment plan. When dystonia involves masticatory, lingual, and pharyngeal muscles, it is referred to as oromandibular dystonia (OMD.Methods: We identified patients diagnosed with OMD in a Movement Disorders Clinic and Laryngeal Movement Disorders Clinic from a single institution. Demographic, etiological, clinical, and therapeutic information was retrospectively reviewed for patients with jaw‐opening (O‐OMD and jaw‐closing (C‐OMD OMD.Results: Twenty‐seven patients were included. Their average age of onset was in the sixth decade of life and there was a female predominance. Etiological factors linked in this study to OMD included a family history of dystonia or essential tremor, occupation, cerebellar disease, a dental disorder, and tardive syndrome. Clinically, patients with C‐OMD presented with more prominent feeding difficulties, but seemed to respond better to therapy than those with O‐OMD. In addition to the known benefits of botulinum toxin therapy, patients who described sensory tricks obtained benefit from the use of customized dental prosthesis.Discussion: This works provides useful information on potential etiological factors for OMD and its response to therapy, and highlights the potential benefit of dental prosthesis for the treatment of OMD.

  8. Psoriasis responds to intralesional injections of alefacept and may predict systemic response to intramuscular alefacept: interim results of a single-arm, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattu, Shilpa; Busse, Kristine; Bhutani, Tina; Chiang, Charles; Nguyen, Thao; Becker, Emily; Koo, John Y M

    2012-04-01

    Alefacept is a remittive treatment for generalized psoriasis but is rarely used due to its erratic efficacy. To determine if psoriasis plaques will respond to intralesional alefacept and if this predicts a systemic response to intramuscular (IM) alefacept. We describe a 25-week, single-center, open-label study. Patients received weekly intralesional alefacept of increasing concentrations into target plaques for 3 weeks followed by IM injections for 12 weeks and concluded with an observation period of 9 weeks. The psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) was used to assess the efficacy of IM alefacept. Interim results are reported for the first seven patients enrolled. Two patients responded intralesionally to the most dilute 1:100 concentration of alefacept to sterile water and achieved a 59% and 100% improvement in PASI. Five patients did not respond intralesionally to the most dilute form of alefacept and none achieved PASI 75. Two of these five patients did not respond to any concentration and achieved a 26% and 38% improvement in PASI. Limitations to this study include a small sample size and being non-placebo-controlled. Alefacept is effective intralesionally and may predict a systemic response - challenging the concept that biologics must work systemically.

  9. Implementasi dan Evaluasi Kinerja Multi Input SingleOutput Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MISO OFDM Menggunakan Wireless Open Access Research Platform (WARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Permana Putra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi komunikasi nirkabel terus berkembang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan manusia akan koneksi informasi yang cepat, pengiriman data yang berkapasitas besar dan dapat diandalkan. Di dalam proses tersebut banyak sekali gangguan yang dapat mempengaruhi penurunan kinerja komunikasi diantaranya adalah multipath fading [1]. Multi Input Single Output (MISO merupakan salah satu teknik space diversity yang menggunakan banyak antena dengan tujuan untuk mengatasi multipath fading. Adapun pada proses transmisi digunakan teknik Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM yang bertujuan memberikan keuntungan dalam hal efisiensi pada saat transmisi data dan mampu menghindari Inter Simbol Interference (ISI. Pada penelitian ini akan dibandingkan kinerja sistem MISO OFDM dan SISO OFDM yang akan disimulasikan dan di implementasikan pada modul Wireless Open Access Penelitian Platform (WARP untuk mengevaluasi kinerja BER sebagai fungsi dari daya pancar dan jarak variasi. Parameter yang digunakan di dalam pengukuran berdasarkan IEEE 802.11 a/g karena menggunakan frekuensi 2,4 Ghz. Terdapat dua skema pengukuran yaitu SISO OFDM dan MISO OFDM dengan variasi jarak 4,6 dan 8 meter dengan variasi daya pancar -35 s/d -4 dBm dengan peningkatan gain 5 kali secara berkala. Dari dua skema yang dilaksanakan dapat disimpulkan bahwa semakin jauh jarak antara pemancar dan penerima maka dibutuhkan penambahan gain untuk menjaga kualitas data yang dikirimkan. Disamping itu, terdapat perbedaan nilai gain untuk mencapai nilai BER = dibutuhkan penambahan gain = - 33 sedangkan pada SISO OFM dibutuhkan penambahan gain = -18.

  10. The beta-hCG+erythropoietin in acute stroke (BETAS) study: a 3-center, single-dose, open-label, noncontrolled, phase IIa safety trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Steven C; Fitzpatrick, Camille; Warren, Michael; Hill, Michael D; Brown, David; Whitaker, Laura; Ryckborst, Karla J; Plon, Lawrence

    2010-05-01

    Animal data suggest the use of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin followed by erythropoietin to promote brain repair after stroke. The current study directly translated these results by evaluating safety of this sequential growth factor therapy through a 3-center, single-dose, open-label, noncontrolled, Phase IIa trial. Patients with ischemic stroke 24 to 48 hours old and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 6 to 24 started a 9-day course of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (once daily on Days 1, 3, and 5 of study participation) followed by erythropoietin (once daily on Days 7, 8, and 9 of study participation). This study also evaluated performance of serially measured domain-specific end points. A total of 15 patients were enrolled. Two deaths occurred, neither related to study medications. No safety concerns were noted among clinical or laboratory measures, including screening for deep vein thrombosis and serial measures of serum hemoglobin. In several instances, domain-specific end points provided greater insight into impairments as compared with global outcome measures. Results support the safety of this sequential, 2-growth factor therapy initiated 24 to 48 hours after stroke onset.

  11. A Single-Dose, Two-Way Crossover, Open-Label Bioequivalence Study of an Amphetamine Extended-Release Oral Suspension in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Carolyn; Stark, Jeffrey G; McMahen, Russ; Engelking, Dorothy

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of a new extended-release amphetamine oral suspension (AMP XR-OS) with a standard extended-release mixed amphetamine salts product, Adderall XR®. In this single-dose, open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment crossover study, 42 healthy adult volunteers received 15 mL of AMP XR-OS in one period and a 30 mg Adderall XR capsule in another period (both containing 18.8 mg of amphetamine base) under fasted conditions. Blood samples were analyzed for d- and l-amphetamine concentrations, and pharmacokinetic parameters C max , AUC 0-5 , AUC 5-last , and AUC inf were calculated to determine bioequivalence. Safety was monitored throughout the study. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the log-transformed C max , AUC 0-5 , AUC 5-last , and AUC inf fell within the accepted 80% to 125% range for establishing bioequivalence for d- and l-amphetamine. The most common adverse events were nausea and decreased appetite. AMP XR-OS is bioequivalent to Adderall XR in healthy adult participants.

  12. Reading Rembrandt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition explores the potential for an interdisciplinary methodology between visual art and literature. In a series of close analyses of works by "Rembrandt" - works as we see them today, through all the ways of seeing and commenting that precede - and

  13. Pharmacokinetics of a telmisartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study in healthy Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Dong Woo; Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Son, Hankil; Jang, Seong Bok; Seo, Jeong Min; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo

    2015-10-01

    As hypertension and dyslipidemia are frequent comorbidities, antihypertensive drugs and lipid-lowering agents are often prescribed together for their treatment. Telmisartan and rosuvastatin are widely used together to treat hypertension and dyslipidemia. A combination formulation of these two drugs would improve patient compliance due to ease of dosing. The purpose of this study was to assess bioequivalence of single-dose administration of a newly-developed fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet containing telmisartan/rosuvastatin 80/20 mg (test treatment) and coadministration of a telmisartan 80-mg tablet and a rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet (reference treatment) in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study enrolling healthy males aged 20 - 50 years with BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. Each subject received a single dose of the reference and test treatments with a 14-day washout period. Blood sampling was performed at prespecified intervals for up to 72 hours after dosing. Primary pharmacokinetic parameters were Cmax, AUClast, and AUC0-∞ of telmisartan, rosuvastatin, and N-desmethyl rosuvastatin. Bioequivalence was assessed by determining whether the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios (test treatment/reference treatment) of these parameters were within the standard range of 80% to 125%. Adverse events were monitored via regular interviews with the subjects and by physical examinations. 60 subjects were enrolled and 55 completed the study. The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios of Cmax, AUClast, and AUC00-∞ were 0.9262-1.1498, 0.9294-1.0313, and 0.9312-1.0320 for telmisartan, 0.9041-1.0428, 0.9262-1.0085, and 0.9307-1.0094 for rosuvastatin, and 0.8718-1.0022, 0.8901-0.9904, and 0.8872-0.9767 for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse events (AEs) (all of which were mild or moderate) between the reference and test

  14. Reading Clubs, Workshops, Reading in the Park

    OpenAIRE

    Banaurs, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Reading clubs are networks made up of book lovers who read the same book at the same time and then share their ideas and feelings inspired by that reading. This short paper discusses the benefits of reading clubs and reading workshops.

  15. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  16. Pharmacokinetics of armodafinil and modafinil after single and multiple doses in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with treated obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized, open-label, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; D'Andrea, Denise M; Yang, Ronghua; Hellriegel, Edward T; Robertson, Philmore

    2010-11-01

    Armodafinil (the R-isomer of racemic modafinil) and modafinil are wakefulness-promoting medications for excessive sleepiness associated with treated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The R-isomer of racemic modafinil has a half-life of approximately15 hours; the S-isomer has a half-life of 4 to 5 hours. The R-and S-isomers are equipotent, producing equivalent pharmacologic activity at equal concentrations. The aim of this work was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of armodafinil (R-modafinil) and modafinil (racemic mixture with equal quantities of R- and S-isomers) at equal doses in patients with residual excessive sleepiness associated with continuous positive airway pressure-treated OSA. This open-label study was conducted at 5 US centers from July 2008 to March 2009. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 crossover administration sequences, ABCD or BADC, where A was a single armodafinil 200-mg dose, B was a single modafinil 200-mg dose, C was multiple daily modafinil 200-mg doses, and D was multiple daily armodafinil 200-mg doses. During multiple-dose administration, patients received 100 mg once daily for days 1 and 2, and 200 mg once daily for days 3 through 10. The pharmacokinetic parameters of principal interest for assessing the bioequivalence of armodafinil and modafinil were maximum concentration at 7 to 11 hours after dosing and the concentration-versus-time curve for this period. Analysis was performed via achiral high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection using blood samples obtained over 72 hours after single-dose administration and over 24 hours after the multiple-dose regimen. For post hoc evaluation of bioequivalence, 90% CI values were also constructed for the geometric mean ratios of armodafinil to modafinil. Tolerability was assessed by the reported adverse events, clinical laboratory testing, vital sign measurements, ECGs, and physical exams. The study population was 83.3% male (35/42) and 76.2% white (32/42) with a mean

  17. Pharmacokinetic properties and safety profile of histamine dihydrochloride injection in Chinese healthy volunteers: a phase I, single-center, open-label, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiapeng; Huang, Xiaojun; Wang, Qian; Jing, Shan; Jiang, Hao; Wei, Zhongna; Zang, Yannan; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Libo; Fang, Yi; Feng, Wanyu

    2015-10-01

    Histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) injection has been approved in Europe for the treatment of adults with acute myeloid leukemia, used in combination therapy with the T-cell-derived cytokine interleukin-2. Despite years of clinical applications of HDC in Europe, no data are available on its tolerability and pharmacokinetic properties in Chinese patients. The objective of this study was to determine the safety profile and pharmacokinetic properties of HDC in Chinese healthy volunteers (HVs). In this Phase I, single-center, open-label, randomized study, 20 Chinese HVs were randomized to receive a single dose of 0.5 or 1.0 mg HDC via a 10-minute subcutaneous injection. Whole-blood and urine samples were collected at designated time points after dosing. Plasma and urine concentrations of histamine and metabolite N-methyl histamine were measured using a validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated through noncompartmental procedures based on concentration-time data. Adverse events and evaluation of clinical laboratory tests were used to assess the safety profile. The pharmacokinetic profile for a single-dose of 1.0 mg HDC in Chinese HVs was compared with that in Western HVs. No severe adverse events occurred in this study, and the severity of all adverse events was grade I according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. For the pharmacokinetic parameters of histamine at the 0.5-mg and 1.0-mg dose levels, t½ was 0.50 and 1.02 hours; Tmax was 0.15 and 0.14 hours; mean Cmax was 26.59 and 71.01 nmol/L; AUC0-t was 8.35 and 20.43 nmol/h/L; AUC0-∞ was 9.61 and 22.69 nmol/h/L; accumulated amount excreted in urine within 24 hours was 125.93 and 145.52 nmol; and maximum urine excretion rates were 21.85 and 38.94 nmol/h, respectively. For N-methyl histamine at the 0.5-mg and 1.0-mg dose levels, t½ was 0.58 and 0.66 hours; Tmax was 0.28 and 0.26 hours; mean Cmax was 17.01 and 23.54 nmol/L; AUC0-t was 7.72 and 17.08 nmol

  18. READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and kurtosis indices in the third edition (p. 34 and in the fifth edition (p.29 to see how the author revisits every single detail. Theory and practice always go hand in hand in all editions of the book. Re-reading previous editions (e.g. third edition before reading the fifth edition gives the impression that the author never stops ameliorating his instructional text writing methods. In brief, “Reading Statistics and Research” is among the best sources showing research consumers how to understand and critically assess the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. In this respect, the review written by Mirko Savić in Panoeconomicus (2008, 2, pp. 249-252 will help the readers to get a more detailed overview of each chapters. I cordially urge the beginning researchers to pick a highlighter to conduct a detailed reading with the book. A thorough reading of the source will make the researchers quite selective in appreciating the harmony between the data analysis, results and discussion sections of typical journal articles. If interested, beginning researchers might begin with this book to grasp the basics of research statistics, and prop up their critical research reading skills with some statistics package applications through the help of Dr. Andy Field’s book, Discovering Statistics using SPSS (second edition published by Sage in 2005.

  19. Emerson, Reading, and Democracy: Reading as Engaged Democratic Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Michael D.; Faust, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    "What is the right use of books?" Responding to the question he famously raised, Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote that "books are for nothing but to inspire," which we take as endorsing a pragmatic and pluralistic view of reading literature and other kinds of texts in a manner that keeps books open to a flow of continual questioning and renewal. The…

  20. Using Repeated Reading to Improve Reading Speed and Comprehension in Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluated whether children with visual impairments who receive repeated reading instruction exhibit an increase in their oral reading rate and comprehension and a decrease in oral reading error rates. Methods: A single-subject, changing-criterion design replicated across three participants was used to demonstrate the…

  1. Donepezil use in children and adolescents with tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an 18-week, single-center, dose-escalating, prospective, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Fernández Jaén, Alberto; Moreno, Celia; Anaya, Belén; González, Miguel; Kompoliti, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Striatal cholinergic dysfunction may be important in tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this study was to determine the safety profile of donepezil and whether it improves chronic tics in young patients with comorbid ADHD. This 18-week (14 weeks of open treatment followed by a 4-week washout period), single-center, dose-escalating, prospective, open-label trial was conducted in patients aged 7 to 17 years with tics, including chronic motor or vocal tics and Tourette's syndrome, and ADHD. Patients were treated with once-daily oral donepezil doses of 2.5 mg for 2 weeks, 5 mg for the next 6 weeks, and 10 mg for the last 6 weeks, followed by a 4-week washout period. Patients were evaluated using the Children's Global Assessment Scale; the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS); the Revised Conners' Parent Rating Scale; the Symbol and Digit Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; the Stroop black/white, color, and interference tests; the Rey Complex Figure Test; and the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale at 4 visits: baseline, week 8 (5-mg dose), week 14 (10-mg dose), and week 18 (washout). Seventeen males and 3 females (mean [SD] age, 11.3 [1.9] years [range, 8-14 years]; tic duration, 5.3 [1.9] years; ADHD duration, 6.5 [1.7] years) were included in this study. Tics were significantly reduced at the 10-mg (week-14) donepezil visit compared with the baseline and washout visits based on the total mean (SD) tic score of the YGTSS (18.6 [9.3] vs 12.2 [11.0]; P = 0.006). Fifty percent of patients withdrew and 65% experienced adverse events. These preliminary results suggest that donepezil significantly reduced tics in these children and adolescents with comorbid ADHD who completed the study. No significant improvement in the symptoms of comorbid ADHD was found with the use of donepezil 10 mg. Donepezil 5 and 10 mg were not well tolerated in these children and adolescents.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of subcutaneous recombinant parathyroid hormone (1-84) in patients with hypoparathyroidism: an open-label, single-dose, phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L; Kay Berg, Jolene; Fox, John; Cyran, Jane A; Lagast, Hjalmar

    2014-05-01

    Impaired mineral homeostasis affecting calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is a result of parathyroid hormone (PTH) deficiency in hypoparathyroidism. The current standard of treatment with active vitamin D and oral calcium does not control levels of these major minerals. Recombinant full-length human PTH 1-84 (rhPTH[1-84]) is being developed for the treatment of hypoparathyroidism. The goal of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single subcutaneous injection of rhPTH(1-84) in patients with hypoparathyroidism. This was an open-label, dose-escalating study of single subcutaneous administration of 50 µg and then 100 µg of rhPTH(1-84). Enrolled patients (age range, 25-85 years) had ≥12 months of diagnosed hypoparathyroidism defined according to biochemical evidence of hypocalcemia with concomitant low-serum intact PTH and were taking doses ≥1000 mg/d of oral calcium and ≥0.25 µg/d of active vitamin D (oral calcitriol). The patient's prescribed dose of calcitriol was taken the day preceding but not on the day of or during the 24 hours after rhPTH(1-84) administration. Each patient received a single 50-µg rhPTH(1-84) dose, had at least a 7-day washout interval, and then received a single 100-µg rhPTH(1-84) dose. The following parameters were assessed: plasma PTH; serum and urine total calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and creatinine; and urine cyclic adenosine monophosphate. After administration of rhPTH(1-84) 50 µg (n = 6) and 100 µg (n = 7), the approximate t½ was 2.5 to 3 hours. Plasma PTH levels increased rapidly, then declined gradually back to predose levels at ~12 hours. The median AUC was similar with calcitriol and rhPTH(1-84) for serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol, 123-227 pg · h/mL; rhPTH[1-84], 101-276 pg · h/mL), calcium (calcitriol, 3.3-3.7 mg · h/dL; rhPTH[1-84], 3.3-7.6 mg · h/dL), and magnesium (calcitriol, 0.7-0.9 mg · h/dL; rhPTH[1-84], 1.3-2.8 mg · h/dL). In contrast, the median AUC for

  3. Bioavailability of two single-dose oral formulations of omeprazole 20 mg: an open-label, randomized sequence, two-period crossover comparison in healthy Mexican adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poo, Jorge Luis; Galán, Juan Francisco; Rosete, Alejandra; de Lago, Alberto; Oliva, Iván; González-de la Parra, Mario; Jiménez, Patricia; Burke-Fraga, Victoria; Namur, Salvador

    2008-04-01

    Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor that acts to reduce acid secretion in the stomach and is used for treating various acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. There are several generic formulations of omeprazole available in Mexico; however, a literature search failed to identify published data concerning the bioavailability of these formulations in the Mexican population. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability of 2 oral formulations of omeprazole 20-mg capsules, marketed for use in Mexico, in healthy volunteers: Inhibitron (test formulation) and LosecA 20 mg (reference formulation). This study used a single-dose, open-label, randomized sequence, 2 x 2 crossover (2 administration periods x 2 treatments) design to compare the 2 formulations. Eligible subjects were healthy adult Mexican volunteers of both sexes. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 20-mg dose of the test formulation followed by the reference formulation, or vice versa, with a 7-day washout period between administration periods. After a 12-hour (overnight) fast, subjects received a single, 20-mg dose of the corresponding formulation. Plasma samples were obtained over a 12-hour period after administration. Plasma omeprazole concentrations were analyzed by a nonstereospecific high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC from time 0 (baseline) to time t (AUC(0-t)), and AUC from baseline to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)), blood samples were drawn at baseline and 0.17, 0.33, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2, 2.50, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the natural log (ln)-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range of 80% to 125%, and if P disability, or required intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage. Thirty-four subjects were enrolled and completed the study (25 men and 9

  4. Open areas and open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    One objective of the two open areas in the present ISABELLE design is to provide flexibility with respect to the size and shape of experimental equipment that would eventually be installed there. No permanent building would be installed initially. A second objective of the design of open areas is to keep initial costs as low as practicable. Another objective is open access. This note explores this idea and some design concepts based on it. It would permit inserting large pieces of experimental equipment quickly and removing them with equal ease and speed. Entire experiments would be moved in a single piece (or a few) by building them on movable platforms with capacities of up to about 1000 tons per platform. Most experiments could be built on a single platform or on a few. The shielding must also be moved. It must also be organized into a small number of large units. A scheme using large tanks filled with water is described. It is important to make the equipment on a given platform as complete and self-contained as possible, with a minimum of interconnections for power, coolant, controls, data transmission, etc. 5 figures

  5. Single-arm open-label study of Durolane (NASHA nonanimal hyaluronic acid for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the thumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco E

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eloisa Velasco,1 Mª Victoria Ribera,2 Joan Pi3 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital de Sant Joan Despí Moisés Broggi, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Parc Taulí University Hospital, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain Introduction: Osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC joint of the thumb – also known as rhizarthrosis – is painful and has a significant impact on quality of life. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid may potentially meet the need for effective, minimally invasive intervention in patients not responding adequately to initial treatment. We aimed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of viscosupplementation with Durolane (NASHA nonanimal hyaluronic acid in rhizarthrosis.Patients and methods: This was a prospective, single-arm, multicenter, open-label study with a 6-month follow-up period. Eligible patients had Eaton–Littler grade II–III rhizarthrosis in one TMC joint with pain and visual analog scale (VAS pain score ≥4 (scale: 0–10. A single injection of NASHA was administered to the affected TMC joint. The primary effectiveness variable was change from baseline in VAS pain score.Results: Thirty-five patients (mean age 60.8 years; 85.7% female received NASHA and completed the study. The least-squares mean change from baseline in VAS pain score over 6 months was –2.00, a reduction of 27.8% (p<0.001. The reduction in pain exceeded 25% as early as month 1 (26.5%, and gradual improvement was observed throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Secondary effectiveness parameters included QuickDASH (shortened version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [DASH], Kapandji thumb opposition test, radial abduction, metacarpophalangeal (MCP joint flexion, and pinch (clamp strength. Most of these measurements showed statistically significant improvements from baseline over 6 months. Five

  6. A bioabsorbable everolimus-eluting coronary stent system for patients with single de-novo coronary artery lesions (ABSORB): a prospective open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, John A; Serruys, Patrick W; Regar, Evelyn; Dudek, Dariusz; Thuesen, Leif; Webster, Mark W I; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; McGreevy, Robert; Veldhof, Susan

    2008-03-15

    A fully bioabsorbable drug-eluting coronary stent that scaffolds the vessel wall when needed and then disappears once the acute recoil and constrictive remodelling processes have subsided has theoretical advantages. The bioasorbable everolimus-eluting stent (BVS) has a backbone of poly-L-lactic acid that provides the support and a coating of poly-D,L-lactic acid that contains and controls the release of the antiproliferative agent everolimus. We assessed the feasibility and safety of this BVS stent. In this prospective, open-label study we enrolled 30 patients who had either stable, unstable, or silent ischaemia and a single de-novo lesion that was suitable for treatment with a single 3.0 x 12 mm or 3.0 x 18 mm stent. Patients were enrolled from four academic hospitals in Auckland, Rotterdam, Krakow, and Skejby. The composite endpoint was cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and ischaemia-driven target lesion revascularisation. Angiographic endpoints were available for 26 patients and intravascular-ultrasound endpoints for 24 patients. Clinical endpoints were assessed in all 30 patients at 6 and 12 months. In a subset of 13 patients, optical coherence tomography was undertaken at baseline and follow-up. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00300131. Procedural success was 100% (30/30 patients), and device success 94% (29/31 attempts at implantation of the stent). At 1 year, the rate of major adverse cardiac events was 3.3%, with only one patient having a non-Q wave myocardial infarction and no target lesion revascularisations. No late stent thromboses were recorded. At 6-month follow-up, the angiographic in-stent late loss was 0.44 (0.35) mm and was mainly due to a mild reduction of the stent area (-11.8%) as measured by intravascular ultrasound. The neointimal area was small (0.30 [SD 0.44] mm2), with a minimal area obstruction of 5.5%. This study shows the feasibility of implantation of the bioabsorbable

  7. The Efficacy and Tolerability of the Clonidine Transdermal Patch in the Treatment for Children with Tic Disorders: A Prospective, Open, Single-Group, Self-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pan-Pan; Jiang, Li; Li, Xiu-Juan; Hong, Si-Qi; Li, Shuang-Zi; Hu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a clonidine transdermal patch in the treatment of children with tic disorders (TD) and to establish a predictive model for patients. Forty-one patients who met the inclusion criteria entered into 12 weeks of prospective, open, single-group, self-controlled treatment with a clonidine transdermal patch. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) was employed before therapy (baseline) and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after therapy. (1) The total effect rates of treatment with a clonidine transdermal patch were 29.27, 53.66, and 63.41% at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, respectively. Compared with the baseline, the differences were significant at three different observation periods. (2) Compared to the level of 25% reduction, there were significant decreases in the score-reducing rate of motor tic and total tic severities at 12 weeks. (3) If the disease course was ≤24 months and the motor tic score was tic score was >16, there was an effective rate of 57.1%. If the disease course was >24 months and the clinical classification was chronic TD, there was an effective rate of 62.5%. If the disease course was >24 months and the clinical classification was Tourette's syndrome, 90% of the patients were invalid. (4) The main adverse events were rash, slight dizziness, and headache. (1) When patients were pretreated with a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist that was ineffective or not tolerated well, switching to a clonidine transdermal patch treatment was effective and safe. (2) A clonidine transdermal patch could be a first-line medication for mild and moderate TD cases that are characterized by motor tics.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Rasagiline in Healthy Adult Chinese Volunteers with Various Genotypes: A Single-Center, Open-Label, Multiple-Dose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Zhao, Qian; Jiang, Ji; Liu, Jian; Hu, Pei

    2016-05-01

    Although there is evidence indicating cytochome P450 (CYP) 1A2 is responsible for the metabolism of rasagiline, the role of other CYP isoforms is unclear. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of rasagiline in adult Chinese healthy volunteers with various CYP genotypes. This single-center, open-label study was conducted in 12 subjects. Fasted subjects received rasagiline 1 mg daily for 7 days. Blood samples were taken to determine plasma concentrations of rasagiline, its major metabolite R-1-aminoindan (AI), and the genotyping of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. Safety was also assessed. After oral administration, rasagiline was absorbed with a median time to reach maximum concentration (tmax) of 0.5 h. Overall systemic exposure was approximately theefold on day 7 versus day 1. The mean terminal elimination half-life (t½) was nearly doubled on day 7 compared to day 1. AI was rapidly quantifiable in plasma with median t max occurring 1-1.5 h post-dose. Overall exposure to AI on day 7 was approximately twofold higher than on day 1. Overall systemic exposure to AI was approximately four- to sixfold greater than exposure to rasagiline, whereas maximum concentration (C max) was approximately half that of rasagiline. The mean t½ for AI was longer than for the parent drug, and was similar between the sexes and days. Inferred metabolic status did not appear to affect the pharmacokinetics of rasagiline or AI. All adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. Multiple oral administration of rasagiline 1 mg tablet in Chinese healthy adults resulted in similar pharmacokinetics of both rasagiline and AI compared to those previously observed in Caucasians. Rasagiline was safe and well tolerated in Chinese healthy volunteers.

  9. Tomato juice intake increases resting energy expenditure and improves hypertriglyceridemia in middle-aged women: an open-label, single-arm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Asuka; Terauchi, Masakazu; Tamura, Moe; Akiyoshi, Mihoko; Owa, Yoko; Kato, Kiyoko; Kubota, Toshiro

    2015-04-08

    Tomato-based food products have health-promoting and disease-preventing effects. Some tomato juice ingredients may have health benefits for middle-aged women, including women with menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the net effect of tomato juice intake on several health parameters in women in this age group. An open-label, single-arm study was conducted, involving 95 women (40-60-years-old) who had at least one menopausal symptom. The participants refrained from foods and drinks rich in tomato and tomato-based products for 2 weeks prior to the study and during the 8 weeks of tomato juice consumption. After the run-in period, the women were asked to consume 200 mL of unsalted tomato juice, twice daily for 8 weeks. Their menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Menopausal Symptom Scale (MSS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) before the study, and at 4 and 8 weeks after study commencement. At the same times, body composition; blood pressure; heart rate; resting energy expenditures (REEs); and serum levels of triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, glucose, and hemoglobin A1c were measured. Ninety-three women (98%) completed the study. The following parameters showed significant changes, compared with baseline, at study weeks 4 and 8 (mean ± standard deviation at baseline, week 4, and week 8): (1) the MSS score improved (9.9 ± 5.2, 8.5 ± 5.0, 8.3 ± 5.0; P Tomato juice intake alleviated menopausal symptoms, including anxiety, increased REEs and heart rate, and lowered high baseline serum TG levels in middle-aged women. UMIN-CTR UMIN000011877 .

  10. Return to work following robot-assisted laparoscopic and open retropubic radical prostatectomy: A single-center cohort study to compare duration of sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mechow, Stefanie; Graefen, Markus; Haese, Alexander; Tennstedt, Pierre; Pehrke, Dirk; Friedersdorff, Frank; Beyer, Burkhard

    2018-03-15

    To compare the duration of sick leave in patients with localized prostate cancer after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and open retropubic RP (ORP) at a German high-volume prostate cancer center. The data of 1,415 patients treated with RP at Martini Klinik, Prostate Cancer Center between 2012 and 2016 were, retrospectively, analyzed. Information on employment status, monthly revenues and days of work missed due to sickness were assessed via online questionnaire. Additional data were retrieved from our institutional database. Medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) were reported for continuous data. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to compare both surgical techniques for return to work time after RP. Median time elapsed between surgery and return to work comprised 42 days in patients undergoing RARP (IQR: 21-70) and ORP (IQR: 28-84, P = 0.05). In Cox regression analysis, surgical approach showed no impact on return to work time (RARP vs. ORP hazard ratio = 1, 95% CI: 0.91-1.16, P = 0.69). Return to work time was significantly associated with employment status, physical workload and monthly income (all P<0.001). Limitation of this study is the nonrandomized design in a single-center. As the surgical approach did not show any influence on the number of days missed from work in patients undergoing RP, no superiority of either RARP or ORP could be identified for return to work time in a German cohort. Both surgical approaches are safe options usually allowing the patients to resume normal activities including work after an appropriate convalescence period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. goGPS: open source software for enhancing the accuracy of low-cost receivers by single-frequency relative kinematic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realini, Eugenio; Reguzzoni, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    goGPS is a free and open source satellite positioning software package aiming to provide a collaborative platform for research and teaching purposes. It was first published in 2009 and since then several related projects are on-going. Its objective is the investigation of strategies for enhancing the accuracy of low-cost single-frequency GPS receivers, mainly by relative positioning with respect to a base station and by a tailored extended Kalman filter working directly on code and phase observations. In this paper, the positioning algorithms implemented in goGPS are presented, emphasizing the modularity of the software design; two specific strategies to support the navigation with low-cost receivers are also proposed and discussed, namely an empirical observation weighting function calibrated on the receiver signal-to-noise ratio and the inclusion of height information from a digital terrain model as an additional observation in the Kalman filter. The former is crucial when working with high-sensitivity receivers, while the latter can significantly improve the positioning in the vertical direction. The overall goGPS positioning accuracy is assessed by comparison with a dual-frequency receiver and with the positioning computed by a standard low-cost receiver. The benefits of the calibrated weighting function and the digital terrain model are investigated by an experiment in a dense urban environment. It comes out that the use of goGPS and low-cost receivers leads to results comparable with those obtained by higher level receivers; goGPS has good performances also in a dense urban environment, where its additional features play an important role. (paper)

  12. Local Heat Application for the Treatment of Buruli Ulcer: Results of a Phase II Open Label Single Center Non Comparative Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bratschi, Martin W; Bolz, Miriam; Um Boock, Alphonse; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pluschke, Gerd; Junghanss, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease most prevalent among West African children. The causative organism, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is sensitive to temperatures above 37°C. We investigated the safety and efficacy of a local heat application device based on phase change material. In a phase II open label single center noncomparative clinical trial (ISRCTN 72102977) under GCP standards in Cameroon, laboratory confirmed BU patients received up to 8 weeks of heat treatment. We assessed efficacy based on the endpoints 'absence of clinical BU specific features' or 'wound closure' within 6 months ("primary cure"), and 'absence of clinical recurrence within 24 month' ("definite cure"). Of 53 patients 51 (96%) had ulcerative disease. 62% were classified as World Health Organization category II, 19% each as category I and III. The average lesion size was 45 cm(2). Within 6 months after completion of heat treatment 92.4% (49 of 53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 81.8% to 98.0%) achieved cure of their primary lesion. At 24 months follow-up 83.7% (41 of 49, 95% CI, 70.3% to 92.7%) of patients with primary cure remained free of recurrence. Heat treatment was well tolerated; adverse effects were occasional mild local skin reactions. Local thermotherapy is a highly effective, simple, cheap and safe treatment for M. ulcerans disease. It has in particular potential as home-based remedy for BU suspicious lesions at community level where laboratory confirmation is not available. ISRCT 72102977. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Effect of the Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii on Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Particles in Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Single-Arm, Open-Label Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer Joan; Hanes, Douglas Allen; Schafer, Morgan Beth; Mikolai, Jeremy; Zwickey, Heather

    2015-05-01

    Elevated blood cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Probiotics have been investigated as potential cholesterol-lowering therapies, but no previous studies have assessed the effect of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii on cholesterol levels in human volunteers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of S. boulardii on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein particles in hypercholesterolemic adults. This study was a single-arm, open-label pilot study. Twelve hypercholesterolemic participants were recruited into the study; one dropped out. Participants took 5.6×10(10) colony forming unit (CFU) encapsulated S. boulardii (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-1079) twice daily for an 8-week period. Fasting concentrations of cholesterol (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], and triglycerides), lipoprotein particles (very-low-density lipoprotein-particle [VLDL-P], remnant lipoprotein particle [RLP-P], total LDL-P, LDL III-P, LDL IV-P, total HDL-P, and HDL 2b-P), and additional cardiovascular biomarkers (apo B-100, lipoprotein [a], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, fibrinogen, and insulin) were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks. Remnant lipoprotein particles decreased by 15.5% (p=0.03) over the 8-week period. The remaining outcome measures were not significantly altered. In this pilot study, 8 weeks of daily supplementation with S. boulardii lowered remnant lipoprotein, a predictive biomarker and potential therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of coronary artery disease.

  14. Comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity with non-rebreathing, open-circuit CO pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Oscar E; Thomas, Suchmor; Beck, Kenneth C; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N

    2006-11-01

    The standard technique for assessing pulmonary diffusing capacity of the lungs (DL) for carbon monoxide (CO) is the single breath (SB) technique. SB_DLco in children can be problematic because it requires a vital capacity >1.5 L. We have developed an open-circuit technique (OC), which uses the wash-in of CO over a series of 8-10 normal breaths that does not require rebreathing. In this study, we compared the SB_DLco against the OC_DLco. Nineteen healthy children between 7 and 18 years performed SB_DLco and OC_DLco tests. The mean SB_DLco was significantly larger than the mean OC_DLco. The mean difference OC_DLco minus SB_ DLco was: -2.92 +/- 4.21 ml/min/mm Hg, though the difference was negatively correlated with the mean of the two (r = 0.73). The lower mean OC_DLco was in part due to lower lung volume (as measured by alveolar volume (VA)) during the maneuver. In both groups there was a positive correlation between VA and DLco, and the mean VA was -2.17 +/- 1.07 L lower using OC compared to SB. The difference was again negatively correlated with the mean (r = 0.82). The mean OC minus SB difference in DLco/VA was: 6.06 +/- 1.98 ml/min/mm Hg/L, though this difference was positively correlated with the mean, r = 0.76. We found a good correlation between both techniques for DLco, VA, and DLco/VA. The OC offers the advantage of minimal subject cooperation, and may be preferable to use in children.

  15. HEAD - TO - HEAD COMPARISON OF TOLERABILITY AND ACCEPTABILITY OF SINGLE DOSE OF FOUR TOPICAL NSAIDS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING CATARACT SURGERY : A RANDOMIZED OPEN LABEL PARALLEL GROUP STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Ophthalmic NSAIDs are used to control pain , discomfort and inflammation associated with ocular conditions and also , following ophthalmic cataract surgeries. These drugs can cause ocular discomfort following administration which lasts for a short duration. However , there exist differences in the intensity and duration of burning sensation among the c ommonly used ophthalmic NSAIDs. Hence , we evaluated the tolerability and acceptability of four topical NSAIDS i.e. , 0.3% nepafenac (N , 0.5% ketorolac (K , 0.4% ketorolac (K LS and 0.09% bromfenac (B after instilling a single drop. METHODS: This randomized , open label , parallel group study was conducted in the department of Ophthalmology in Narayana Medical College , Nellore. A total number of 80 patients participated in the study. Randomization list was computer generated in a ratio of 1:1:1:1 of N , K , K L Sand B. Each patient received one drop of the study drug either in right or left eye which was also decidedat random.Patients of either gender above21 years of age , having no ocular surface pathology and eligible for cataract surgery were include d in the study. Outcome variables included ocular burning intensity on VAS (0 - 100 mm at 0 min (immediately , 2 min and 6 min after administration of medications , time to complete pain relief and global medication performance rated by patient as 0 (bad , 1 (fair , 2(good or 3 (severe . RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 52.85±17.46 years. All groups were age matched , however there were more females than males (pN>K LS >K on global medication performance. CONCLUSION: Bromfenac had better tolerability and acceptability as compared to other tested topical NSAIDs , which was in the order of B>N> K LS >K.

  16. Bioavailability of everolimus administered as a single 5 mg tablet versus five 1 mg tablets: a randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thudium, Karen; Gallo, Jorge; Bouillaud, Emmanuel; Sachs, Carolin; Eddy, Simantini; Cheung, Wing

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus has a well-established pharmacokinetics profile. We conducted a randomized, single-center, open-label, two-sequence, two-period crossover study of healthy volunteers to assess the relative bioavailability of everolimus administered as one 5 mg tablet or five 1 mg tablets. Subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive everolimus dosed as one 5 mg tablet or as five 1 mg tablets on day 1, followed by a washout period on days 8-14 and then the opposite formulation on day 15. Blood sampling for pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed at prespecified time points, with 17 samples taken for each treatment period. Primary variables for evaluation of relative bioavailability were area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUCinf) and maximum blood concentration (Cmax). Safety was assessed by reporting the incidence of adverse events (AEs). Twenty-two participants received everolimus as one 5 mg tablet followed by five 1 mg tablets (n=11) or the opposite sequence (n=11). The Cmax of five 1 mg tablets was 48% higher than that of one 5 mg tablet (geometric mean ratio, 1.48; 90% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-1.62). AUCinf was similar (geometric mean ratio, 1.08; 90% CI, 1.02-1.16), as were the extent of absorption and the distribution and elimination kinetics. AEs, all grade 1 or 2, were observed in 54.5% of subjects. Although the extent of absorption was similar, the Cmax of five 1 mg tablets was higher than that of one 5 mg tablet, suggesting these formulations lead to different peak blood concentrations and are not interchangeable at the dose tested.

  17. Hermeneutic reading of classic texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Camilla A-L; Lindström, Unni Å

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to broaden the understandinfg of the hermeneutic reading of classic texts. The aim is to show how the choice of a specific scientific tradition in conjunction with a methodological approach creates the foundation that clarifies the actual realization of the reading. This hermeneutic reading of classic texts is inspired by Gadamer's notion that it is the researcher's own research tradition and a clearly formulated theoretical fundamental order that shape the researcher's attitude towards texts and create the starting point that guides all reading, uncovering and interpretation. The researcher's ethical position originates in a will to openness towards what is different in the text and which constantly sets the researcher's preunderstanding and research tradition in movement. It is the researcher's attitude towards the text that allows the text to address, touch and arouse wonder. Through a flexible, lingering and repeated reading of classic texts, what is different emerges with a timeless value. The reading of classic texts is an act that may rediscover and create understanding for essential dimensions and of human beings' reality on a deeper level. The hermeneutic reading of classic texts thus brings to light constantly new possibilities of uncovering for a new envisioning and interpretation for a new understanding of the essential concepts and phenomena within caring science. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Open3DALIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Description Open3DALIGN is an open-source software aimed at unsupervised molecular alignment. Open3DALIGN is a command-line tool which is operated by means of a few commands which can be entered interactively from a command prompt, read from a batch script or piped through standard input. If Py...... the template(s) are chosen out of the conformational pool. Interestingly, conformational flexibility may also be taken into account for templates 4.Finally, an SDF database constituted by the dataset compounds aligned to each of the templates is obtained The QMD search is accomplished running a number of short...

  19. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-01-01

    A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation....

  20. Acheta domesticus Volvovirus, a Novel Single-Stranded Circular DNA Virus of the House Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hanh T; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-03-14

    The genome of a novel virus of the house cricket consists of a 2,517-nucleotide (nt) circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecule with 4 open reading frames (ORFs). One ORF had a low identity to circovirus nucleotide sequences (NS). The unique properties of this volvovirus suggested that it belongs to a new virus family or genus.

  1. Acheta domesticus Volvovirus, a Novel Single-Stranded Circular DNA Virus of the House Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hanh T.; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The genome of a novel virus of the house cricket consists of a 2,517-nucleotide (nt) circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecule with 4 open reading frames (ORFs). One ORF had a low identity to circovirus nucleotide sequences (NS). The unique properties of this volvovirus suggested that it belongs to a new virus family or genus.

  2. A long-term, open-label safety study of single-entity hydrocodone bitartrate extended release for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamachu S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Srinivas Nalamachu,1,2 Richard L Rauck,3 Martin E Hale,4 Orlando G Florete Jr,5 Cynthia Y Robinson,6 Stephen J Farr,6 1International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, USA; 2Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3Carolinas Pain Institute, Center for Clinical Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Gold Coast Research, LLC, Weston, FL, USA; 5Institute of Pain Management, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 6Zogenix, Inc., Emeryville, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the long-term safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of single-entity extended-release hydrocodone in opioid-experienced subjects with moderate to severe chronic pain not receiving adequate pain relief or experiencing intolerable side effects from their current opioid. Methods: This multicenter, open-label study started with a conversion/titration phase (≤6 weeks where subjects (n=638 were converted to individualized doses (range 20–300 mg of extended-release hydrocodone dosed every 12 hours, followed by a 48-week maintenance phase (n=424. The primary objective (safety and tolerability and the secondary objective (long-term efficacy as measured by change in average pain score; 0= no pain, 10= worst imaginable pain were monitored throughout the study. Results: Subjects were treated for a range of chronic pain etiologies, including osteoarthritis, low back pain, and neuropathic and musculoskeletal conditions. The mean hydrocodone equivalent dose at screening was 68.9±62.2 mg/day and increased to 139.5±81.7 mg/day at the start of the maintenance phase. Unlimited dose adjustments were permitted at the investigator's discretion during the maintenance phase, reflecting typical clinical practice. No unexpected safety issues were reported. Common adverse events during the conversion/titration and maintenance phases, respectively, were constipation (11.3% and 12.5%, nausea (10.7% and 9.9%, vomiting (4.1% and 9.7%, and somnolence (7

  3. Laser characterisation of a 3D single-type column p-type prototype module read out with ATLAS SCT electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrich, T.; Kuehn, S.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Eckert, S.; Jakobs, K.; Maassen, M.; Parzefall, U.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper measurements of a 3D single-type column (3D-stc) microstrip silicon device are shown. The 3D-stc sensor has n-type columns in p-type substrate. It has been connected to an ATLAS SCT ABCD3T chip and is readout with ATLAS SCT electronics at 40 MHz. Spatial measurements were done with a laser setup to investigate the expected low field region in 3D devices. An influence of the p-stops on the collected charge has been observed

  4. Laser characterisation of a 3D single-type column p-type prototype module read out with ATLAS SCT electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrich, T. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kuehn, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: susanne.kuehn@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F. [ITC-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, S.; Jakobs, K.; Maassen, M.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N. [ITC-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2007-12-11

    In this paper measurements of a 3D single-type column (3D-stc) microstrip silicon device are shown. The 3D-stc sensor has n-type columns in p-type substrate. It has been connected to an ATLAS SCT ABCD3T chip and is readout with ATLAS SCT electronics at 40 MHz. Spatial measurements were done with a laser setup to investigate the expected low field region in 3D devices. An influence of the p-stops on the collected charge has been observed.

  5. Deletions of the hypervariable region (HVR) in open reading frame 1 of hepatitis E virus do not abolish virus infectivity: evidence for attenuation of HVR deletion mutants in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudupakam, R S; Huang, Y W; Opriessnig, T; Halbur, P G; Pierson, F W; Meng, X J

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen, although little is known about its biology and replication. Comparative sequence analysis revealed a hypervariable region (HVR) with extensive sequence variations in open reading frame 1 of HEV. To elucidate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we first constructed two HVR deletion mutants, hHVRd1 and hHVRd2, with in-frame deletion of amino acids (aa) 711 to 777 and 747 to 761 in the HVR of a genotype 1 human HEV replicon. Evidence of HEV replication was detected in Huh7 cells transfected with RNA transcripts from mutant hHVRd2, as evidenced by expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein. To confirm the in vitro results, we constructed three avian HEV mutants with various HVR deletions: mutants aHVRd1, with deletion of aa 557 to 585 (Delta557-585); aHVRd2 (Delta612-641); and aHVRd3 (Delta557-641). Chickens intrahepatically inoculated with capped RNA transcripts from mutants aHVRd1 and aHVRd2 developed active viral infection, as evidenced by seroconversion, viremia, and fecal virus shedding, although mutant aHVRd3, with complete HVR deletion, was apparently attenuated in chickens. To further verify the results, we constructed four additional HVR deletion mutants using the genotype 3 swine HEV as the backbone. Mutants sHVRd2 (Delta722-781), sHVRd3 (Delta735-765), and sHVRd4 (Delta712-765) were shown to tolerate deletions and were infectious in pigs intrahepatically inoculated with capped RNA transcripts from the mutants, whereas mutant sHVRd1 (Delta712-790), with a nearly complete HVR deletion, exhibited an attenuation phenotype in infected pigs. The data from these studies indicate that deletions in HVR do not abolish HEV infectivity in vitro or in vivo, although evidence for attenuation was observed for HEV mutants with a larger or nearly complete HVR deletion.

  6. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

  7. Reading for Pleasure: A Reading Resource Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battles, Jane; Tambuscio, Colleen

    1991-01-01

    A reading resource room was developed for 59 deaf and hard-of-hearing secondary-level students, to improve vocabulary and reading skills and encourage reading for pleasure. Books of interest to teenagers with limited reading levels were located from several publishing companies and were arranged in a space with shelves and comfortable seating.…

  8. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  9. Sirolimus in patients with clinically active systemic lupus erythematosus resistant to, or intolerant of, conventional medications: a single-arm, open-label, phase 1/2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhi-Wei; Kelly, Ryan; Winans, Thomas; Marchena, Ivan; Shadakshari, Ashwini; Yu, Julie; Dawood, Maha; Garcia, Ricardo; Tily, Hajra; Francis, Lisa; Faraone, Stephen V; Phillips, Paul E; Perl, Andras

    2018-03-24

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have T-cell dysfunction that has been attributed to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Rapamycin inhibits antigen-induced T-cell proliferation and has been developed as a medication under the generic designation of sirolimus. We assessed safety, tolerance, and efficacy of sirolimus in a prospective, biomarker-driven, open-label clinical trial. We did a single-arm, open-label, phase 1/2 trial of sirolimus in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus disease unresponsive to, or intolerant of, conventional medications at the State University of New York Upstate Medical University (Syracuse, NY, USA). Eligible participants (aged ≥18 years) had active systemic lupus erythematosus fulfilling four or more of 11 diagnostic criteria defined by the American College of Rheumatology. We excluded patients with allergy or intolerance to sirolimus, patients with life-threatening manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, proteinuria, a urine protein to creatinine ratio higher than 0·5, anaemia, leucopenia, or thrombocytopenia. Patients received oral sirolimus at a starting dose of 2 mg per day, with dose adjusted according to tolerance and to maintain a therapeutic range of 6-15 ng/mL. Patients were treated with sirolimus for 12 months. Safety outcomes included tolerance as assessed by the occurrence of common side-effects. The primary efficacy endpoint was decrease in disease activity, assessed using the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Blood samples of 56 matched healthy individuals were obtained as controls for immunobiological outcomes monitored at each visit. The primary efficacy endpoint was assessed in all patients who completed 12 months of treatment, and all patients who received at least one dose of treatment were included in the safety analyses. This trial is registered with Clinical

  10. Co-reading: investigating collaborative group reading.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, J.; Owen, T.; Thimbleby, H. W.; Buchanan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative reading, or co-reading as we call it, is ubiquitous—it occurs, for instance, in classrooms, book-clubs, and in less coordinated ways through mass media. While individual digital reading has been the subject of much investigation, research into co-reading is scarce. We report a two-phase field study of group reading to identify an initial set of user requirements. A co-reading interface is then designed that facilitates the coordination of group reading by providing temporary ‘Po...

  11. Developing reading literacy by reading badge

    OpenAIRE

    Rejc, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    Reading is a fundamental activity of our society and is present in all areas of a person’s life. Authors who deal with reading define reading with different definitions, some of them I also presented in my master’s degree thesis. The ways of reading, typology of readers and knowledge of different reading models are only some of the important theoretical facts that serve as a basis for the research and defining reading. Reading motivation is an important motivational factor, which encourages a...

  12. Open3DQSAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    integration with OpenBabel, PyMOL, gnuplot •Multi-threaded computation of MIFs (both MM and QM); support for MMFF94 and GAFF force-fields with automated assignment of atom types to the imported molecular structures •Comprehensive output, including SDF molecular databases, 3D maps and many different plots......-friendly interface to Molecular Discovery GRID to compute GRID MIFs from within Open3DQSAR Open3DQSAR is controlled through a command line interface; commands can be either entered interactively from a command prompt or read from a batch script. If PyMOL is installed on the system while Open3DQSAR is being operated...... threads. The modular nature of the code allows for easy implementation of new features, so that the core application can be customized to meet individual needs. A detailed ChangeLog is kept to keep track of the additions and modifications during Open3DQSAR's development....

  13. Viability testing and transplantation of marginal livers (VITTAL) using normothermic machine perfusion: study protocol for an open-label, non-randomised, prospective, single-arm trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Richard W; Mergental, Hynek; Yap, Christina; Kirkham, Amanda; Whilku, Manpreet; Barton, Darren; Curbishley, Stuart; Boteon, Yuri L; Neil, Desley A; Hübscher, Stefan G; Perera, M Thamara P R; Muiesan, Paolo; Isaac, John; Roberts, Keith J; Cilliers, Hentie; Afford, Simon C; Mirza, Darius F

    2017-11-28

    The use of marginal or extended criteria donor livers is increasing. These organs carry a greater risk of initial dysfunction and early failure, as well as inferior long-term outcomes. As such, many are rejected due to a perceived risk of use and use varies widely between centres. Ex situ normothermic machine perfusion of the liver (NMP-L) may enable the safe transplantation of organs that meet defined objective criteria denoting their high-risk status and are currently being declined for use by all the UK transplant centres. Viability testing and transplantation of marginal livers is an open-label, non-randomised, prospective, single-arm trial designed to determine whether currently unused donor livers can be salvaged and safely transplanted with equivalent outcomes in terms of patient survival. The procured rejected livers must meet predefined criteria that objectively denote their marginal condition. The liver is subjected to NMP-L following a period of static cold storage. Organs metabolising lactate to ≤2.5 mmol/L within 4 hours of the perfusion commencing in combination with two or more of the following parameters-bile production, metabolism of glucose, a hepatic arterial flow rate ≥150 mL/min and a portal venous flow rate ≥500 mL/min, a pH ≥7.30 and/or maintain a homogeneous perfusion-will be considered viable and transplanted into a suitable consented recipient. The coprimary outcome measures are the success rate of NMP-L to produce a transplantable organ and 90-day patient post-transplant survival. The protocol was approved by the National Research Ethics Service (London-Dulwich Research Ethics Committee, 16/LO/1056), the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency and is endorsed by the National Health Service Blood and Transplant Research, Innovation and Novel Technologies Advisory Group. The findings of this trial will be disseminated through national and international presentations and peer-reviewed publications. NCT02740608

  14. Integrated MRSA-Management (IMM with prolonged decolonization treatment after hospital discharge is effective: a single centre, non-randomised open-label trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Jahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the control of hospital-acquired MRSA include decolonization measures to end MRSA carrier status in colonized and infected patients. Successful decolonization typically requires up to 22 days of treatment, which is longer than the average hospital length of stay (LOS. Incomplete decolonization is therefore common, with long-term MRSA carriage as a consequence. To overcome this, we developed an integrated MRSA Management (IMM by extending MRSA decolonization to the outpatient and domestic setting. The protocol makes use of polyhexanide-based products, in view of reported qac-mediated resistance to chlorhexidine in S. aureus and MRSA. Methods This is a prospective, single centre, controlled, non-randomized, open-label study to evaluate the efficiency of the IMM concept. The outcome of guideline-approved decolonization during hospital stay only (control group; n = 201 was compared to the outcome following IMM treatment whereby decolonization was continued after discharge in the domestic setting or in a long-term care facility (study group; n = 99. As a secondary outcome, the effect of MRSA-status of skin alterations was assessed. Results The overall decolonization rate was 47 % in the IMM patient group compared to 12 % in the control group (p  0.05. For patients with skin alterations (e.g. wounds and entry sites, decolonization success was 50 % if the skin alterations were MRSA-negative at baseline, compared to 22 % success for patients entering the study with MRSA-positive skin alterations (p < 0.01. Conclusions The IMM strategy offers an MRSA decolonization protocol that is feasible in the domestic setting and is equally effective compared with inpatient decolonization treatment when hospital LOS is long enough to complete the treatment. Moreover, for patients with average LOS, decolonization rates obtained with IMM are significantly higher than for in-hospital treatment. IMM is a promising

  15. A Restricted Open Configuration Interaction with Singles Method To Calculate Valence-to-Core Resonant X-ray Emission Spectra: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganas, Dimitrios; DeBeer, Serena; Neese, Frank

    2017-10-02

    In this work, a new protocol for the calculation of valence-to-core resonant X-ray emission (VtC RXES) spectra is introduced. The approach is based on the previously developed restricted open configuration interaction with singles (ROCIS) method and its parametrized version, based on a ground-state Kohn-Sham determinant (DFT/ROCIS) method. The ROCIS approach has the following features: (1) In the first step approximation, many-particle eigenstates are calculated in which the total spin is retained as a good quantum number. (2) The ground state with total spin S and excited states with spin S' = S, S ± 1, are obtained. (3) These states have a qualitatively correct multiplet structure. (4) Quasi-degenerate perturbation theory is used to treat the spin-orbit coupling operator variationally at the many-particle level. (5) Transition moments are obtained between the relativistic many-particle states. The method has shown great potential in the field of X-ray spectroscopy, in particular in the field of transition-metal L-edge, which cannot be described correctly with particle-hole theories. In this work, the method is extended to the calculation of resonant VtC RXES [alternatively referred to as 1s-VtC resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS)] spectra. The complete Kramers-Dirac-Heisenerg equation is taken into account. Thus, state interference effects are treated naturally within this protocol. As a first application of this protocol, a computational study on the previously reported VtC RXES plane on a molecular managanese(V) complex is performed. Starting from conventional X-ray absorption spectra (XAS), we present a systematic study that involves calculations and electronic structure analysis of both the XAS and non-resonant and resonant VtC XES spectra. The very good agreement between theory and experiment, observed in all cases, allows us to unravel the complicated intensity mechanism of these spectroscopic techniques as a synergic function of state polarization

  16. Efficacy and safety of flexibly dosed paliperidone palmitate in Chinese patients with acute schizophrenia: an open-label, single-arm, prospective, interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si TM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tianmei Si,1 Kerang Zhang,2 Jisheng Tang,3 Maosheng Fang,4 Keqing Li,5 Jianmin Zhuo,6 Yu Feng6 1Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanxi Medical University First Hospital, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China; 3Mental Health Center of Shandong Province, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 4Mental Health Center, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 5Mental Health Center of Hebei Province, Hebei, People’s Republic of China; 6Janssen Research and Development, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: This open-label, single-arm, multicenter, 13-week, prospective study explored the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of paliperidone palmitate (150 milligram equivalents [mg eq] [day 1], 100 mg eq [day 8], both deltoid injections; 75–150 mg eq, deltoid/gluteal injection in Chinese patients with acute schizophrenia (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] total score ≥70, who previously had unsatisfactory therapeutic effect following oral antipsychotic treatment (without washout period. Primary efficacy endpoint was percentage of patients with ≥30% improvement in the PANSS total score at the end of 13 weeks. Secondary efficacy endpoints included change from baseline to end of week 13 in PANSS total score, PANSS subscale scores, Marder factor scores, Clinical Global Impressions–Severity score, and Personal and Social Performance Scale scores. Overall, 477/610 enrolled patients (full analysis set, 78.2% completed the study (men: 55.1%; women: 44.9%; mean age: 31.5 years. Total, 443/610 (72.6%, full analysis set patients achieved primary endpoint (mean [standard deviation] change from baseline: –30.9 [19.51]. All secondary endpoints demonstrated significant improvement at the end of 13 weeks. One death occurred during this acute phase. The most common (>5

  17. Improvement in social and cognitive functioning associated with paliperidone extended-release treatment in patients with schizophrenia: a 24-week, single arm, open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chuan Shi,1–4 Shu Qiao Yao,5 Yi Feng Xu,6 Jian Guo Shi,7 Xiu Feng Xu,8 Cong Pei Zhang,9 Hua Jin,10 Xin Yu1–4 1Clinical Research Center, Peking University Sixth Hospital, 2Clinical Research Center, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, 3Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health (Peking University, 4National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University Sixth Hospital, Beijing, 5Clinical Center of Psychology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, 6Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Mental Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 7Department of Psychiatry, Xi’an Mental Health Center, Xian, Shanxi Province, 8Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical School, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 9Department of Psychiatry, The First Haerbin Psychiatric Hospital, Haerbin, Heilongjiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 10Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: This single-arm, open-label study aimed to explore the effects of extended-release paliperidone on social and cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Paliperidone extended-release (flexible dose ranging from 3 to 12 mg/day orally was administered for 24 weeks in patients with schizophrenia. Patient function was assessed using the personal and social performance scale, measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia initiative-consensus cognitive battery, positive and negative syndrome scale, and clinical global impression-severity.Results: Ninety patients were included in the full analysis set, while 72 patients were included in the per protocol set. The personal and social performance score was 54.3±14.3 at baseline, and significantly increased to 73.4±12.6 at week 24 (P<0.001. For the measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia

  18. Efficacy and safety of Everolimus in children with TSC - associated epilepsy – Pilot data from an open single-center prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Samueli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy occurs in up to 90 % of all individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC. In 67 % disease onset is during childhood. In ≥ 50 % seizures are refractory to currently available treatment options. The mTOR-Inhibitor Everolimus (Votubia® was approved for the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA and renal angiomyolipoma (AML in Europe in 2011. It’s anticonvulsive/antiepileptic properties are promising, but evidence is still limited. Study aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Everolimus in children and adolescents with TSC-associated epilepsies. Methods Inclusion-criteria of this investigator-initiated, single-center, open, prospective study were: 1 the ascertained diagnosis of TSC; 2 age ≤ 18 years; 3 treatment indication for Votubia® according to the European Commission guidelines; 4 drug-resistant TSC-associated epilepsy, 5 prospective continuous follow-up for at least 6 months after treatment initiation and 6 informed consent to participate. Votubia® was orally administered once/day, starting with 4.5 mg/m2 and titrated to achieve blood trough concentrations between 5 and 15 ng/ml. Primary endpoint was the reduction in seizure frequency of ≥ 50 % compared to baseline. Results Fifteen patients (nine male with a median age of six (range; 1–18 years fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 26 % (4/15 had TSC1, 66 % (10/15 had TSC2 mutations. In one patient no mutation was found. Time of observation after treatment initiation was median 22 (range; 6–50 months. At last observation, 80 % (12/15 of the patients were responders, 58 % of them (7/12 were seizure free. The overall reduction in seizure frequency was 60 % in focal seizures, 80 % in generalized tonic clonic seizures and 87 % in drop attacks. The effect of Everolimus was seen already at low doses, early after treatment initiation. Loss of efficacy over time was not observed. Transient side effects were seen in 93

  19. Single-dose, subcutaneous recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in adult patients with phenylketonuria: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O; Burton, Barbara K; Grange, Dorothy K; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M; Dorenbaum, Alejandro; Neuenburg, Jutta K; Musson, Donald G; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-07-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy of recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (produced in Escherichia coli) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (rAvPAL-PEG) in reducing phenylalanine concentrations in adult patients with phenylketonuria. In this open-label, phase 1, multicentre trial, single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG were given in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·010, 0·030, and 0·100 mg/kg) to adults with phenylketonuria. Participants aged 18 years or older with blood phenylalanine concentrations of 600 μmol/L or higher were recruited from among patients attending metabolic disease clinics in the USA. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of rAvPAL-PEG. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug and its effect on concentrations of phenylalanine. Participants and investigators were not masked to assigned dose group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00925054. 25 participants were recruited from seven centres between May 6, 2008, and April 15, 2009, with five participants assigned to each escalating dose group. All participants were included in the safety population. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness, which were self-limited and without sequelae. Two participants had serious adverse reactions to intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug that contains polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three of five participants given the highest dose of rAvPAL-PEG (0·100 mg/kg) developed a generalised skin rash

  20. Regulatory T Cell Responses in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes after a Single Dose of Interleukin-2: A Non-Randomised, Open Label, Adaptive Dose-Finding Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Todd

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL-2 has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs. Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D. Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2, which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs.To define the aldesleukin dose response for Tregs and to find doses that increase Tregs physiologically for treatment of T1D, a statistical and systematic approach was taken by analysing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of subcutaneous aldesleukin in the Adaptive Study of IL-2 Dose on Regulatory T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes (DILT1D, a single centre, non-randomised, open label, adaptive dose-finding trial with 40 adult participants with recently diagnosed T1D. The primary endpoint was the maximum percentage increase in Tregs (defined as CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low from the baseline frequency in each participant measured over the 7 d following treatment. There was an initial learning phase with five pairs of participants, each pair receiving one of five pre-assigned single doses from 0.04 × 106 to 1.5 × 106 IU/m2, in order to model the dose-response curve. Results from each participant were then incorporated into interim statistical modelling to target the two doses most likely to induce 10% and 20% increases in Treg frequencies. Primary analysis of the evaluable population (n = 39 found that the optimal doses of aldesleukin to induce 10% and 20% increases in Tregs were 0.101 × 106 IU/m2 (standard error [SE] = 0.078, 95% CI = -0.052, 0.254 and 0.497

  1. Musical notation reading in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Wong, Yetta K.

    2017-01-01

    -term memory capacity was intact in the left visual field.1 We investigated KH's letter and note reading using simultaneous matching tasks with stimuli presented slightly to the left of fixation. KH was compared to 9 controls matched for age, education, and music reading experience, using single case......Abstract Pure alexia (PA) is an acquired reading disorder following lesions to left ventral temporo-occipital cortex. Patients with PA read slowly but correctly, and show an abnormal effect of word length on RTs. However, it is unclear how pure alexia may affect musical notation reading. We report...... a pure alexic patient, KH, who was a highly skilled amateur musician before a stroke that resulted in PA (elevated reading RTs; word length effect; intact writing and language) and right hemianopia. KH experienced difficulties in note reading and playing by notes post-stroke. KH's visual short...

  2. Open Access Makes an Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Böker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymers published its first issue in December 2009. At that time, the editorial board and publisher were determined to lead the journal to become another MDPI success story, proving that open access publishing and high quality publications, ensured by a rigorous peer-review procedure, followed by fast publication of accepted manuscripts can be achieved. Three and a half years later, after more than 153,000 article downloads in 2012, the journal received its first impact factor (2012 JCR IF: 1.687. Today, Polymers is proud to be the number one open access journal in the category of “Polymer Science”. In order to achieve this, we relied on an editorial board with well-known members from the polymer community, a professional staff and a vision that there is room alongside the established “high impact” journals for publishing science. Recently, the editor in chief of Science, Bruce Alberts, wrote an editorial [1] in favor of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA, which states that the impact factor must not be used as “a surrogate measure of the quality of individual research articles [2]”. Even though the impact factor certainly is so far the best available measure of the quality of a journal and its impact on the scientific community, when it comes to the single manuscripts published, “there is still no other way to evaluate the quality of scientific papers, but to read them [3]”. Therefore, Polymers celebrates its first impact factor with an appropriate critical distance towards bibliometric data and feels encouraged to continue on the chosen path. With this in mind, I encourage you, our readers, to continuously evaluate the scientific quality of the articles published in Polymers by reading, discussing and citing them.

  3. Reading with Love: Reading of Life Narrative of a Mother of a Child with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercieca, Daniela; Mercieca, Duncan P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws upon Deleuze and Guattari's ideas to suggest a different kind of reading of a narrative of a mother of a child with severe disability, and thus a different kind of ethical response to them. This reading gives readers the possibility of opening up experiences of parents and children with disability, rather than…

  4. Rearing a reading habit

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.

  5. What's the story? The tale of reading fluency told at speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Christopher F A; Gaab, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    Fluent readers process written text rapidly and accurately, and comprehend what they read. Historically, reading fluency has been modeled as the product of discrete skills such as single word decoding. More recent conceptualizations emphasize that fluent reading is the product of competency in, and the coordination of, multiple cognitive sub-skills (a multi-componential view). In this study, we examined how the pattern of activation in core reading regions changes as the ability to read fluently is manipulated through reading speed. We evaluated 13 right-handed adults with a novel fMRI task assessing fluent sentence reading and lower-order letter reading at each participant's normal fluent reading speed, as well as constrained (slowed) and accelerated reading speeds. Comparing fluent reading conditions with rest revealed regions including bilateral occipito-fusiform, left middle temporal, and inferior frontal gyral clusters across reading speeds. The selectivity of these regions' responses to fluent sentence reading was shown by comparison with the letter reading task. Region of interest analyses showed that at constrained and accelerated speeds these regions responded significantly more to fluent sentence reading. Critically, as reading speed increased, activation increased in a single reading-related region: occipital/fusiform cortex (left > right). These results demonstrate that while brain regions engaged in reading respond selectively during fluent reading, these regions respond differently as the ability to read fluently is manipulated. Implications for our understanding of reading fluency, reading development, and reading disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  7. Read-Aloud Accommodations, Expository Text, and Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nancy K.; Bouck, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with learning disabilities in reading have difficulties with reading and understanding difficult gradelevel curricular material. One frequently used method of support is using read-aloud accommodations, which can be live read-alouds or text-to-speech (TTS) read-alouds. A single case alternating treatment design was used to examine the…

  8. Pembrolizumab in advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and bone sarcoma (SARC028): a multicentre, two-cohort, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawbi, Hussein A; Burgess, Melissa; Bolejack, Vanessa; Van Tine, Brian A; Schuetze, Scott M; Hu, James; D'Angelo, Sandra; Attia, Steven; Riedel, Richard F; Priebat, Dennis A; Movva, Sujana; Davis, Lara E; Okuno, Scott H; Reed, Damon R; Crowley, John; Butterfield, Lisa H; Salazar, Ruth; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Lazar, Alexander J; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Baker, Laurence H; Maki, Robert G; Reinke, Denise; Patel, Shreyaskumar

    2017-11-01

    Patients with advanced sarcomas have a poor prognosis and few treatment options that improve overall survival. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies offer short-lived disease control. We assessed pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, for safety and activity in patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma or bone sarcoma. In this two-cohort, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study, we enrolled patients with soft-tissue sarcoma or bone sarcoma from 12 academic centres in the USA that were members of the Sarcoma Alliance for Research through Collaboration (SARC). Patients with soft-tissue sarcoma had to be aged 18 years or older to enrol; patients with bone sarcoma could enrol if they were aged 12 years or older. Patients had histological evidence of metastatic or surgically unresectable locally advanced sarcoma, had received up to three previous lines of systemic anticancer therapy, had at least one measurable lesion according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1, and had at least one lesion accessible for biopsy. All patients were treated with 200 mg intravenous pembrolizumab every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response. Patients who received at least one dose of pembrolizumab were included in the safety analysis and patients who progressed or reached at least one scan assessment were included in the activity analysis. Accrual is ongoing in some disease cohorts. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02301039. Between March 13, 2015, and Feb 18, 2016, we enrolled 86 patients, 84 of whom received pembrolizumab (42 in each disease cohort) and 80 of whom were evaluable for response (40 in each disease cohort). Median follow-up was 17·8 months (IQR 12·3-19·3). Seven (18%) of 40 patients with soft-tissue sarcoma had an objective response, including four (40%) of ten patients with undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, two (20%) of ten patients with liposarcoma, and one (10%) of ten patients

  9. Open Chemistry: Realizing Open Data, Open Standards, and Open Source

    OpenAIRE

    Hanwell, Marcus; Harris, Chris; Lonie, David; Lutz, Kyle; Cole, David

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Obelisk has brought together the computational chemistry community and those who are passionate about Open Chemistry and realizing the promise of Open Data, Open Standards, and Open Software (ODOSOS); the three pillars the group promotes. We will present current work that has taken place over the past five years, which is inspired by these pillars, and present plans for future work.The group is actively engaged in multiple open source projects that rely on and promote open standards ...

  10. The effect of mirtazapine in panic disorder : an open label pilot study with a single-blind placebo run-in period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuisen, ML; Slaap, BR; Vester-Blokland, ED; den Boer, JA

    2001-01-01

    In this open label pilot study, we studied the efficacy of mirtazapine (Remeron) in panic disorder. Twenty-eight patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia (10 males/18 females), were included and 19 patients completed the study. The 15-week trial started with a

  11. Enhancing academic reading skills through extensive reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study applied a reading comprehension pre-test and post-test design, as well as three-minute reading speed preand post-tests. Using SPSS statistical analysis, three paired-samples t-tests were administered and the progress from the reading speed pre-test to the post-test was found to be significant. Study results ...

  12. Cosmetology Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Cosmetology Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to cosmetology instruction. Each…

  13. Developing Students' Reading Ability through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanshao

    2009-01-01

    A good reading competence is a necessity for those studying English for academic and occupational purposes. Based on the results of previous research, theory and practice on L2 Extensive Reading, this paper analyses current situation for teaching and learning reading in our Chinese universities and proposes practical applications of extensive…

  14. Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

  15. ADOPT Open Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Are you writing a theoretical paper? An experimental one? Or one about instrumentation? You can publish it in Open Access. Now. Read how... You might have heard about Open Access, the next big thing in scientific publishing. The idea is to make the results of your (publicly funded) research free to read for everyone out there ... not only those lucky ones who work in places where libraries can afford to purchase the expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. CERN, DESY and other particle physics institutes have accepted an offer by one of the leading journals in High Energy Physics, JHEP: our libraries will pay a special subscription fee, and, in exchange, all articles with at least one author from our institutes will be published in Open Access. Anyone, anywhere and anytime will be able to read them, without any financial barrier! If you are writing an instrumentation paper, you can submit it to JINST and benefit from the same offer. This is a major step forward in the planned conversion of existi...

  16. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation. The strategy was evolved in the continuity of reading. Students were encouraged to read extensively in and outside class. The findings indicated that the implementation could improve students’ reading readability.This attainment demonstrated that students’ reading readabilityis frosted through the continuity of reading. Other facts showed that students enjoyed reading. Students’ curiosity was also a significant factor. Their high curiosity explained why students continued reading though they realized that materials they read were difficult enough. Students’ self-confidence was also built as they were required to write a retelling story and to share their previous reading. Instead of their retelling and summarizing, students felt to be appreciated as readers. This appreciation indirectly helped students to improve the reading fondness.

  17. Single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis treated with mini-open anterior debridement and fusion in combination with posterior percutaneous fixation via a modified anterior lumbar interbody fusion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Li, Feng; Chen, Wenjian; Zeng, Heng; Chen, Anmin; Xiong, Wei

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of mini-open anterior debridement and lumbar interbody fusion in combination with posterior percutaneous fixation for single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis. This is a retrospective study. Twenty-two patients with single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis underwent mini-open anterior debridement and lumbar interbody fusion in combination with posterior percutaneous fixation via a modified anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) approach. Patients underwent follow-up for 24 to 38 months. Clinical data, etiological examinations, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) lumbar function score, visual analog scale (VAS) score, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), postoperative complications, and the bony fusion rate were recorded. The mean operative time was 181.1 ± 22.6 minutes (range 155-240 minutes). The mean intraoperative blood loss was 173.2 ± 70.1 ml (range 100-400 ml). Infection was found in lumbar vertebrae L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 in 2, 6, and 14 patients, respectively. Bacterial cultures were positive in 15 patients, including 4 with Staphylococcus aureus, 6 with Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 with Streptococcus, and 1 with Escherichia coli. Postoperative complications included urinary retention, constipation, and numbness in the thigh in 5, 3, and 2 patients, respectively. Compared with before surgery, the VAS scores and ODI were significantly lower at the final follow-up, the JOA scores were significantly higher, and the ASIA grades had improved. All patients achieved good intervertebral bony fusion. Mini-open anterior debridement and lumbar interbody fusion in combination with posterior percutaneous fixation via a modified ALIF approach results in little surgical trauma and intraoperative blood loss, acceptable postoperative complications, and is effective and safe for the treatment of single-level lumbar pyogenic

  18. Reading charts in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, W

    2017-08-01

    A new generation of logarithmic reading charts has sparked interest in standardized reading performance analyses. Such reading charts have been developed according to the standards of the International Council of Ophthalmology. The print size progression in these calibrated charts is in accordance with the mathematical background of EN ISO 8596. These reading charts are: the Bailey-Lovie Word Reading Chart, the Colenbrander English Continuous Text Near Vision Cards, the Oculus Reading Probe II, the MNREAD Charts, the SKread Charts, and the RADNER Reading Charts. The test items used for these reading charts differ among the charts and are standardized to various extents. The Bailey-Lovie Charts, MNREAD Charts, SKread Charts, and RADNER Charts are also meant to measure reading speed and allow determination of further reading parameters such as reading acuity, reading speed based on reading acuity, critical print size, reading score, and logMAR/logRAD ratio. Such calibrated reading charts have already provided valuable insights into the reading performance of patients in many research studies. They are available in many languages and thus facilitate international communication about near visual performance. In the present review article, the backgrounds of these modern reading charts are presented, and their different levels of test-item standardization are discussed. Clinical research studies are mentioned, and a discussion about the immoderately high number of reading acuity notations is included. Using the logReading Acuity Determination ([logRAD] = reading acuity equivalent of logMAR) measure for research purposes would give reading acuity its own identity as a standardized reading parameter in ophthalmology.

  19. Beach Books: 2014-2016. What Do Colleges and Universities Want Students to Read outside Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of American colleges and universities continue to assign a summer reading to entering freshmen--typically one book, which the students are asked to read outside their courses. Many institutions embed the common reading in a larger program of campus activities: typically, they invite the common reading author to help open the academic year…

  20. Slower saccadic reading in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehangir, Naz; Yu, Caroline Yizhu; Song, Jeehey; Shariati, Mohammad Ali; Binder, Steven; Beyer, Jill; Santini, Veronica; Poston, Kathleen; Liao, Yaping Joyce

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic and other neurons, leading to motor and non-motor deficits. Abnormal eye movements in PD, including fixations, saccades, and convergence, are well described. However, saccadic reading, which requires serial and alternating saccades and fixations, is not well studied, despite its obvious impact on the quality of life. In this study, we assessed saccadic reading using variations of the King-Devick (KD) test, a rapid single digit number naming test, as a way to assess the ability to make serial left-to-right ocular motor movements necessary for reading. We recruited 42 treated PD patients and 80 age-matched controls and compared their reading times with a variety of measures, including age, duration of disease, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the National Eye Institute 25-Item Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25), and Montreal Cognitive assessment (MoCA) test. The subjects performed 4 trials of reading 120 single digit numbers aloud as fast as possible without making errors. In each trial, they read 3 pages (KD1, KD2, and KD3), and each page contained 40 numbers per page in 8 lines with 5 numbers/line. We found that PD patients read about 20% slower than controls on all tests (KD1, 2, and 3 tests) (p read irregularly spaced numbers slower than regularly spaced numbers. Having lines between numbers to guide reading (KD1 tests) did not impact reading time in both PD and controls, but increased visual crowding as a result of decreased spacing between numbers (KD3 tests) was associated with significantly slower reading times in both PD and control groups. Our study revealed that saccadic reading is slower in PD, but controls and PD patients are both impacted by visuospatial planning challenges posed by increased visual crowding and irregularity of number spacing. Reading time did not correlate with UPDRS or MoCA scores in PD patients but significantly correlated

  1. Effects of a Syllable-Based Reading Intervention in Poor-Reading Fourth Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Müller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In transparent orthographies, persistent reading fluency difficulties are a major cause of poor reading skills in primary school. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of a syllable-based reading intervention on word reading fluency and reading comprehension among German-speaking poor readers in Grade 4. The 16-session intervention was based on analyzing the syllabic structure of words to strengthen the mental representations of syllables and words that consist of these syllables. The training materials were designed using the 500 most frequent syllables typically read by fourth graders. The 75 poor readers were randomly allocated to the treatment or the control group. Results indicate a significant and strong effect on the fluency of recognizing single words, whereas text-level reading comprehension was not significantly improved by the training. The specific treatment effect provides evidence that a short syllable-based approach works even in older poor readers at the end of primary school.

  2. Using Speed Reading and Extensive Reading Activities to Improve Students’ Reading Fluency

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Wardani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study examines the implementation of Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities to improve students’ reading fluency of students. Using a Classroom Action Research, Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities was applied in 2 cycles with 2 x 45 minutes per week. Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities were taught using three phase techniques: Pre-Reading, Whilst-Reading, and Post-Reading. Speed Reading was implemented through some techniques including scanning, sk...

  3. Reading: A Motivating and Interactive Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoyo Brigitte

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was primarily intended for those who are professionally concerned with the teaching of a foreign language, and especially for those who consider reading to be one of the most important sources for developing comprehension and production processes. We wanted our students to develop reading strategies by means of meaningful and motivating stories. Meaningful, because interesting stories encourage them to improve, and motivating, because they open the doors to multiple possibilities, thereby reinforcing other abilities.

  4. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  5. Measuring Reading Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, William E., Ed.; And Others

    Designed to provide solutions to some of the problems related to measuring reading behavior, this publication explores some of the problems of test selection and usage which confront educators. Contents include "Reading Testing for Reading Evaluation" by Walter R. Hill, "Reading Tests and the Disadvantaged" by Thomas J. Fitzgibbon, "What Is…

  6. Interscalene brachial plexus block for open-shoulder surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial between single-shot anesthesia and patient-controlled catheter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Sascha; Stehle, Jens; Schwemmer, Ulrich; Reppenhagen, Stephan; Rath, Beatrice; Gohlke, Frank

    2010-04-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) is widely used as an adjuvant regional pain therapy in patients undergoing major shoulder surgery and has proved its effectiveness on postoperative pain reduction and opioid-sparing effect. This single-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled study was to compare the effectiveness of a single-shot and a patient-controlled catheter insertion ISB system after major open-shoulder surgeries. Seventy patients were entered to receive an ISB and a patient-controlled interscalene catheter. The catheter was inserted under ultrasound guidance. Patients were then assigned to receive one of two different postoperative infusions, either 0.2% ropivacaine (catheter group) or normal saline solution (single-shot group) via a disposable patient-controlled infusion pump. The study variables were amount of rescue medication, pain at rest and during physiotherapy, patient satisfaction and incidence of unwanted side effects. The ropivacaine group revealed significantly less consumption of rescue medication within the first 24 h after surgery. Incidence of side effects did not differ between the two groups. Based on our results, we recommend the use of interscalene plexus block in combination with a patient-controlled catheter system under ultrasound guidance only for the first 24 h after major open-shoulder surgery.

  7. Effervescent N-Acetylcysteine Tablets versus Oral Solution N-Acetylcysteine in Fasting Healthy Adults: An Open-Label, Randomized, Single-Dose, Crossover, Relative Bioavailability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer C. Greene, MD, FACEP, FACMT

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Data from this study of a single dose of 11 g oral NAC demonstrated that effervescent NAC tablets and oral solution NAC met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence in fasting healthy adult subjects. Effervescent NAC tablets appear to be a more palatable alternative for treatment of acetaminophen overdose. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02723669.

  8. Second-line pemetrexed treatment in Taiwanese patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: An open-label single-arm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gee-Chen Chang

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: The objective response rate, disease control rate, and safety and tolerability profile in this population of Taiwanese patients were consistent with the published findings that were conducted using Asian and Western populations. These findings support the use of single-agent, second-line pemetrexed for the treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer in Taiwanese patients.

  9. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  10. RADAR: A novel fast-screening method for reading difficulties with special focus on dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrnakis, Ioannis; Andreadakis, Vassilios; Selimis, Vassilios; Kalaitzakis, Michail; Bachourou, Theodora; Kaloutsakis, Georgios; Kymionis, George D.; Smirnakis, Stelios; Aslanides, Ioannis M.

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is a developmental learning disorder of single word reading accuracy and/or fluency, with compelling research directed towards understanding the contributions of the visual system. While dyslexia is not an oculomotor disease, readers with dyslexia have shown different eye movements than typically developing students during text reading. Readers with dyslexia exhibit longer and more frequent fixations, shorter saccade lengths, more backward refixations than typical readers. Furthermore, readers with dyslexia are known to have difficulty in reading long words, lower skipping rate of short words, and high gaze duration on many words. It is an open question whether it is possible to harness these distinctive oculomotor scanning patterns observed during reading in order to develop a screening tool that can reliably identify struggling readers, who may be candidates for dyslexia. Here, we introduce a novel, fast, objective, non-invasive method, named Rapid Assessment of Difficulties and Abnormalities in Reading (RADAR) that screens for features associated with the aberrant visual scanning of reading text seen in dyslexia. Eye tracking parameter measurements that are stable under retest and have high discriminative power, as indicated by their ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves, were obtained during silent text reading. These parameters were combined to derive a total reading score (TRS) that can reliably separate readers with dyslexia from typical readers. We tested TRS in a group of school-age children ranging from 8.5 to 12.5 years of age. TRS achieved 94.2% correct classification of children tested. Specifically, 35 out of 37 control (specificity 94.6%) and 30 out of 32 readers with dyslexia (sensitivity 93.8%) were classified correctly using RADAR, under a circular validation condition (see section Results/Total Reading Score) where the individual evaluated was not included in the test construction group. In conclusion, RADAR is a novel

  11. RADAR: A novel fast-screening method for reading difficulties with special focus on dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Smyrnakis

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is a developmental learning disorder of single word reading accuracy and/or fluency, with compelling research directed towards understanding the contributions of the visual system. While dyslexia is not an oculomotor disease, readers with dyslexia have shown different eye movements than typically developing students during text reading. Readers with dyslexia exhibit longer and more frequent fixations, shorter saccade lengths, more backward refixations than typical readers. Furthermore, readers with dyslexia are known to have difficulty in reading long words, lower skipping rate of short words, and high gaze duration on many words. It is an open question whether it is possible to harness these distinctive oculomotor scanning patterns observed during reading in order to develop a screening tool that can reliably identify struggling readers, who may be candidates for dyslexia. Here, we introduce a novel, fast, objective, non-invasive method, named Rapid Assessment of Difficulties and Abnormalities in Reading (RADAR that screens for features associated with the aberrant visual scanning of reading text seen in dyslexia. Eye tracking parameter measurements that are stable under retest and have high discriminative power, as indicated by their ROC (receiver operating characteristic curves, were obtained during silent text reading. These parameters were combined to derive a total reading score (TRS that can reliably separate readers with dyslexia from typical readers. We tested TRS in a group of school-age children ranging from 8.5 to 12.5 years of age. TRS achieved 94.2% correct classification of children tested. Specifically, 35 out of 37 control (specificity 94.6% and 30 out of 32 readers with dyslexia (sensitivity 93.8% were classified correctly using RADAR, under a circular validation condition (see section Results/Total Reading Score where the individual evaluated was not included in the test construction group. In conclusion, RADAR is a

  12. RADAR: A novel fast-screening method for reading difficulties with special focus on dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrnakis, Ioannis; Andreadakis, Vassilios; Selimis, Vassilios; Kalaitzakis, Michail; Bachourou, Theodora; Kaloutsakis, Georgios; Kymionis, George D; Smirnakis, Stelios; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is a developmental learning disorder of single word reading accuracy and/or fluency, with compelling research directed towards understanding the contributions of the visual system. While dyslexia is not an oculomotor disease, readers with dyslexia have shown different eye movements than typically developing students during text reading. Readers with dyslexia exhibit longer and more frequent fixations, shorter saccade lengths, more backward refixations than typical readers. Furthermore, readers with dyslexia are known to have difficulty in reading long words, lower skipping rate of short words, and high gaze duration on many words. It is an open question whether it is possible to harness these distinctive oculomotor scanning patterns observed during reading in order to develop a screening tool that can reliably identify struggling readers, who may be candidates for dyslexia. Here, we introduce a novel, fast, objective, non-invasive method, named Rapid Assessment of Difficulties and Abnormalities in Reading (RADAR) that screens for features associated with the aberrant visual scanning of reading text seen in dyslexia. Eye tracking parameter measurements that are stable under retest and have high discriminative power, as indicated by their ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves, were obtained during silent text reading. These parameters were combined to derive a total reading score (TRS) that can reliably separate readers with dyslexia from typical readers. We tested TRS in a group of school-age children ranging from 8.5 to 12.5 years of age. TRS achieved 94.2% correct classification of children tested. Specifically, 35 out of 37 control (specificity 94.6%) and 30 out of 32 readers with dyslexia (sensitivity 93.8%) were classified correctly using RADAR, under a circular validation condition (see section Results/Total Reading Score) where the individual evaluated was not included in the test construction group. In conclusion, RADAR is a novel

  13. A single-blind randomised trial comparing adrenaline 1.0% with dipivalyl epinephrine (propine) 0.1% in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, K B; Jacobs, N A

    1988-01-01

    The results of this single-blind randomised trial comparing adrenaline 1% with dipivalyl epinephrine (Propine) 0.1% confirm that both have a significant effect in lowering the intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension, but it is generally insufficient to warrant their use as the first line medical treatment of these two conditions. There was no significant difference between the intraocular lowering effect of the two preparations, and 60% of patients receiving Propine and 66% of those receiving adrenaline noted side effects. PMID:3291940

  14. Easy-DHPSF open-source software for three-dimensional localization of single molecules with precision beyond the optical diffraction limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Matthew D; von Diezmann, Alexander R S; Moerner, W E

    2013-02-25

    Automated processing of double-helix (DH) microscope images of single molecules (SMs) streamlines the protocol required to obtain super-resolved three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of ultrastructures in biological samples by single-molecule active control microscopy. Here, we present a suite of MATLAB subroutines, bundled with an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI), that facilitates 3D localization of single emitters (e.g. SMs, fluorescent beads, or quantum dots) with precisions of tens of nanometers in multi-frame movies acquired using a wide-field DH epifluorescence microscope. The algorithmic approach is based upon template matching for SM recognition and least-squares fitting for 3D position measurement, both of which are computationally expedient and precise. Overlapping images of SMs are ignored, and the precision of least-squares fitting is not as high as maximum likelihood-based methods. However, once calibrated, the algorithm can fit 15-30 molecules per second on a 3 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo workstation, thereby producing a 3D super-resolution reconstruction of 100,000 molecules over a 20×20×2 μm field of view (processing 128×128 pixels × 20000 frames) in 75 min.

  15. Nurturing a lexical legacy: reading experience is critical for the development of word reading skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate

    2017-12-01

    The scientific study of reading has taught us much about the beginnings of reading in childhood, with clear evidence that the gateway to reading opens when children are able to decode, or `sound out' written words. Similarly, there is a large evidence base charting the cognitive processes that characterise skilled word recognition in adults. Less understood is how children develop word reading expertise. Once basic reading skills are in place, what factors are critical for children to move from novice to expert? This paper outlines the role of reading experience in this transition. Encountering individual words in text provides opportunities for children to refine their knowledge about how spelling represents spoken language. Alongside this, however, reading experience provides much more than repeated exposure to individual words in isolation. According to the lexical legacy perspective, outlined in this paper, experiencing words in diverse and meaningful language environments is critical for the development of word reading skill. At its heart is the idea that reading provides exposure to words in many different contexts, episodes and experiences which, over time, sum to a rich and nuanced database about their lexical history within an individual's experience. These rich and diverse encounters bring about local variation at the word level: a lexical legacy that is measurable during word reading behaviour, even in skilled adults.

  16. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  17. Inferring viral quasispecies spectra from 454 pyrosequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Măndoiu Ion

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA viruses infecting a host usually exist as a set of closely related sequences, referred to as quasispecies. The genomic diversity of viral quasispecies is a subject of great interest, particularly for chronic infections, since it can lead to resistance to existing therapies. High-throughput sequencing is a promising approach to characterizing viral diversity, but unfortunately standard assembly software was originally designed for single genome assembly and cannot be used to simultaneously assemble and estimate the abundance of multiple closely related quasispecies sequences. Results In this paper, we introduce a new Viral Spectrum Assembler (ViSpA method for quasispecies spectrum reconstruction and compare it with the state-of-the-art ShoRAH tool on both simulated and real 454 pyrosequencing shotgun reads from HCV and HIV quasispecies. Experimental results show that ViSpA outperforms ShoRAH on simulated error-free reads, correctly assembling 10 out of 10 quasispecies and 29 sequences out of 40 quasispecies. While ShoRAH has a significant advantage over ViSpA on reads simulated with sequencing errors due to its advanced error correction algorithm, ViSpA is better at assembling the simulated reads after they have been corrected by ShoRAH. ViSpA also outperforms ShoRAH on real 454 reads. Indeed, 7 most frequent sequences reconstructed by ViSpA from a real HCV dataset are viable (do not contain internal stop codons, and the most frequent sequence was within 1% of the actual open reading frame obtained by cloning and Sanger sequencing. In contrast, only one of the sequences reconstructed by ShoRAH is viable. On a real HIV dataset, ShoRAH correctly inferred only 2 quasispecies sequences with at most 4 mismatches whereas ViSpA correctly reconstructed 5 quasispecies with at most 2 mismatches, and 2 out of 5 sequences were inferred without any mismatches. ViSpA source code is available at http

  18. A non-randomized, open-label, single-arm, Phase 2 study of emibetuzumab in Asian patients with MET diagnostic positive, advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Oh, Do-Youn; Park, Se Hoon; Kadowaki, Shigenori; Kim, Yeul Hong; Tsuji, Akihito; Komatsu, Yoshito; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Uenaka, Kazunori; Wijayawardana, Sameera R; Wacheck, Volker; Wang, Xuejing; Yamamura, Ayuko; Doi, Toshihiko

    2017-12-01

    Mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) is expressed in gastric cancer and associated with poor clinical outcomes. We assessed activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics of emibetuzumab, a bivalent monoclonal anti-MET antibody that blocks ligand-dependent and ligand-independent MET signaling. This non-randomized, single-arm, Phase 2 study enrolled Asian patients with MET diagnostic positive advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Emibetuzumab (2000 mg, intravenous) was given on days 1 and 15 (28-day cycle). The primary endpoint was 8-week progression-free survival rate. Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics, overall survival, and change in tumor size. Tumors from 65 patients were immunohistochemically screened to enroll 15 MET diagnostic positive patients (23% positivity; 8 Japanese, 7 Korean; 10 male). Eight-week progression-free survival rate was 0.47 (70% CI, 0.33-0.59). Disease control rate was 40% (target lesion decreases, three patients; no complete/partial responses according to RECIST). Median overall survival was 17.1 weeks (95% CI, 6.3-not achievable). No serious emibetuzumab-related adverse events or new safety signals emerged. Grade ≥ 3 possibly drug-related adverse events were hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and hyperuricemia (one each). Emibetuzumab's pharmacokinetics profile was similar to that observed previously. MET expression and clinical outcomes were not obviously associated. Emibetuzumab was well tolerated with limited single-agent activity in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma.

  19. General method of analysis of kinetic equations for multistep reversible mechanisms in the single-exponential regime: application to kinetics of open complex formation between Esigma70 RNA polymerase and lambdaP(R) promoter DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsodikov, O V; Record, M T

    1999-03-01

    A novel analytical method based on the exact solution of equations of kinetics of unbranched first- and pseudofirst-order mechanisms is developed for application to the process of Esigma70 RNA polymerase (R)-lambdaPR promoter (P) open complex formation, which is described by the minimal three-step mechanism with two kinetically significant intermediates (I1, I2), [equation: see text], where the final product is an open complex RPo. The kinetics of reversible and irreversible association (pseudofirst order, [R] > [P]) to form long-lived complexes (RPo and I2) and the kinetics of dissociation of long-lived complexes both exhibit single exponential behavior. In this situation, the analytical method provides explicit expressions relating observed rate constants to the microscopic rate constants of mechanism steps without use of rapid equilibrium or steady-state approximations, and thereby provides a basis for interpreting the composite rate constants of association (ka), isomerization (ki), and dissociation (kd) obtained from experiment for this or any other sequential mechanism of any number of steps. In subsequent papers, we apply this formalism to analyze kinetic data obtained in the reversible and irreversible binding regimes of Esigma70 RNA polymerase (R)-lambdaP(R) promoter (P) open complex formation.

  20. To read or not to read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading

  1. Oral Reading Intonation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Andrea

    A study investigated whether fluency in oral reading, as indicated by proper intonation, could be used as a measure of college students' reading comprehension. The study was designed to look at the three features of intonation--pitch, stress, and juncture--separately and in combination to determine whether any one or a combination of all the…

  2. Measuring reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Gary S

    2013-09-20

    Despite significant changes in the treatment of common eye conditions like cataract and age-related macular degeneration, reading difficulty remains the most common complaint of patients referred for low vision services. Clinical reading tests have been widely used since Jaeger introduced his test types in 1854. A brief review of the major developments in clinical reading tests is provided, followed by a discussion of some of the main controversies in clinical reading assessment. Data for the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) study demonstrate that standardised clinical reading tests are highly predictive of reading performance under natural, real world conditions, and that discrepancies between self-reported reading ability and measured reading performance may be indicative of people who are at a pre-clinical stage of disability, but are at risk for progression to clinical disability. If measured reading performance is to continue to increase in importance as a clinical outcome measure, there must be agreement on what should be measured (e.g. speed or comprehension) and how it should be measured (e.g. reading silently or aloud). Perhaps most important, the methods for assessing reading performance and the algorithms for scoring reading tests need to be optimised so that the reliability and responsiveness of reading tests can be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The efficacy of preventive parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on intubation time, blood gas parameters, narcotic requirement, and pain relief after open heart surgery: A randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Saeidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postsurgical pain usually results in some complications in the patients. This study has tried to investigate the effects of parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on postoperative pulmonary and pain consequences in patients after open heart surgery. Methods: : In a prospective double blind clinical study, 100 consenting patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were randomized into two groups. In case group, bupivacaine was injected at both sides of sternum, immediately before sternal closure. In the control group, no intervention was performed. Then, the patients were investigated regarding intubation period, length of ICU stay, arterial blood gas (ABG parameters, morphine requirement, and their severity of postoperative pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS device. Results: No differences were found between the two groups regarding to age, sex, pump time, operation time, and body mass index and preoperative cardiac ejection fraction. Mean intubation length in case group was much shorter than that in control group. Mean PaO 2 in case group was lower in different checking times in postoperative period. The patients in the case group needed less morphine compared to those in the control group during the 24-hour observation period in the ICU. Finally, mean VAS scores of pain in case group were significantly lower than those in control group at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Conclusions: Patients′ pain relief by parasternal single injection of bupivacaine in early postoperative period can facilitate earlier ventilator weaning and tracheal extubation after open heart surgery as well as achieving lower pain scores and narcotic requirements.

  4. S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Augmentation in Patients with Stage II Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Label, Fixed Dose, Single-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico De Berardis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the efficacy of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe augmentation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder (TRD. Thirty-three outpatients with major depressive episode who failed to respond to at least 8 weeks of treatment with two adequate and stable doses of antidepressants were treated openly with fixed dose of SAMe (800 mg for 8 weeks, added to existing medication. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in total score on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. The Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I was rated at the endpoint. Patients with a reduction of 50% or more on HAM-D total score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 at endpoint were considered responders; remission was defined as a HAM-D score ≤7. Secondary outcome measures included the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS. At 8 weeks, a significant decrease in HAM-D score was observed with response achieved by 60% of the patients and remission by 36%. Also a statistically significant reduction in SHAPS and SDS was observed. Our findings indicate that SAMe augmentation may be effective and well tolerated in stage II TRD. However, limitations of the present study must be considered and further placebo-controlled trials are needed.

  5. An Open-label, Single-center, Retrospective Study of Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane and Umbilical Cord Tissue as an Adjunct for Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Meredith; Lasyone, Lukas

    2014-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare preoperative assessments with postoperative outcomes from patients undergoing foot and ankle revisions and/or complex reconstructions with tendon and/or nerve involvement using cryopreserved human amniotic membrane and umbilical cord (cHAM/UC). We hypothesized complex foot and ankle surgery using amniotic membrane would be an effective treatment leading to reduced pain and improved functional outcomes. Fourteen patients (6 male and 8 female) underwent open foot and ankle surgery during the study period. All 14 patients included in this cohort reported improvement, namely, lessened pain intensity both on the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale and the pain numeric rating scale (NRS), as well as improved functional status. The mean AOFAS score improved from 50 (range, 17-79) preoperatively to 85 (range, 67-100) postoperatively. The mean NRS score also improved from 8 (range, 4-10) preoperatively to 2 (range, 0-6) postoperatively with a mean percent change in pain NRS of 78% (range 17-100%). Both outcome-scoring systems showed statistically significant differences (p < .0001) when we compared the preoperative and postoperative results. All patients included in the cohort showed improvement in both outcome measures. Further study of long-term endpoints is warranted.

  6. Open Content in Open Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  7. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja; Petersen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    . In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a disorder of face processing in the absence of brain injury, and in the context of normal intelligence and general cognitive......Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition...... development. In three experiments, we investigated reading performance in a group of 11 participants with DP and matched controls: First, we examined if reading speed was affected by word length. Secondly, we compared RTs for single word and single letter stimuli. Third, we measured the word superiority...

  8. Can Reading Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  9. Developmental reading disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain does not properly recognize and process certain symbols. It is also called dyslexia. Causes Developmental reading ... child's early reading skills are based on word recognition. That involves being able to separate out the ...

  10. An open-label phase 1 dose-escalation clinical trial of a single intravenous administration of gemcitabine in dogs with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconato, L; Finotello, R; Bonfanti, U; Dacasto, M; Beatrice, L; Pizzoni, S; Leone, V F; Balestra, G; Furlanello, T; Rohrer Bley, C; Aresu, L

    2015-01-01

    A broad range of gemcitabine dosages have been used in dogs. To determine maximally tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and preliminary antitumor activity of intravenous administration of gemcitabine in dogs with advanced solid tumors. Twenty-two client-owned dogs. Dogs with advanced cancer were prospectively enrolled in an open-label Phase 1 study of gemcitabine. Gemcitabine was administered as a 30-minute intravenous bolus starting at 800 mg/m(2), using escalation of 50 mg/m(2) increments with 3 dogs per dose level. MTD was established based on the number of dogs experiencing DLT assessed after 1 cycle. Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicosis. Additional dogs were enrolled at MTD to better characterize tolerability, and to assess the extent and duration of gemcitabine excretion. Twenty-two dogs were treated at 4 dose levels, ranging from 800 to 950 mg/m(2). Neutropenia was identified as DLT. MTD was 900 mg/m(2). DLT consisting of grade 4 febrile neutropenia was observed at 950 mg/m(2) in 2 dogs. There were no nonhematologic DLTs. Twenty dogs received multiple doses, and none had evidence of severe toxicosis from any of their subsequent treatments. At 900 mg/m(2), 2 complete and 5 partial responses were observed in dogs with measurable tumors. The amount of gemcitabine excreted in urine decreased over time, and was undetectable after the first 24 hours. The recommended dose of gemcitabine for future Phase 2 studies is weekly 900 mg/m(2). In chemotherapy-naïve dogs with advanced solid tumor this dose level merits further evaluation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Weak openness and almost openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rose

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak openness and almost openness for arbitrary functions between topological spaces are defined as duals to the weak continuity of Levine and the almost continuity of Husain respectively. Independence of these two openness conditions is noted and comparison is made between these and the almost openness of Singal and Singal. Some results dual to those known for weak continuity and almost continuity are obtained. Nearly almost openness is defined and used to obtain an improved link from weak continuity to almost continuity.

  12. Short-Read Sequencing for Genomic Analysis of the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Tang; A. D. Perkins; T. S. Sonstegard; S. G. Schroeder; S. C. Burgess; S. V. Diehl

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of short-read sequencing for genomic analysis was demonstrated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. The effect of read quality on genomic assembly was assessed by filtering Illumina GAIIx reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75-nucleotide read length and 300-bp fragment...

  13. The Differential Effect of Storybook Reading on Preschoolers' Acquisition of Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senechal, Monique

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the effect of didactic techniques used during storybook reading on young children's acquisition of new vocabulary introduced in storybooks under three reading conditions: single-reading; repeated-reading and questioning. Findings suggest that didactic techniques used by adults have differential effects on preschoolers' receptive and…

  14. Reading to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  15. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  16. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  17. Reading Difficulties in Albanian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years…

  18. Tips in Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Some tips can assist teachers in guiding each pupil to achieve more optimally, with respect to the ability to read well and reading comprehension. Among these 10 specific tips are: (1) teach individualized phonics in context; (2) assist the student to read in proper thought units by covering up words in sentences for clarification; (3) assist…

  19. Free Voluntary Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çetin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless to say, the contribution of reading skill to first and second language acquisition is enormous. From one‟s speaking and writing we can more or less conclude how much s/he has read. We can list the characteristics of good readers as follows: rich vocabulary knowledge advanced reading comprehension, accurate grammar usage, broad general knowledge, correct spelling and punctuation, writing ability, and so on. If reading is so powerful, why cannot we promote reading books in our society, particularly among young people? The fact that we are imposed to read books which we think are necessary or compulsory rather than the ones which we would like to read voluntarily, is the main reason why many of us are not able to develop a life-time reading habit. Since compulsory books, such as teacher-selected books are outside one‟s interest; they are destined to be forgotten sometime, or they suffer form shallow reading, or they are mostly returned to their place on the shelf after browsing the initial pages. However, if people of all ages, especially children would read self-selected books they enjoy, they would be surprised to notice the great change inside them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to revitalize free voluntary reading by referring to Krashen‟s well-known hypotheses. Also, it aims to revive the reader‟s belief in free voluntary reading with theoretical and practical examples

  20. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  1. Comparison of dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional insulin pump therapy for glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes: an open-label randomised controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Ahmad; Legault, Laurent; Messier, Virginie; Mitre, Tina Maria; Leroux, Catherine; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    The artificial pancreas is an emerging technology for the treatment of type 1 diabetes and two configurations have been proposed: single-hormone (insulin alone) and dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon). We aimed to delineate the usefulness of glucagon in the artificial pancreas system. We did a randomised crossover trial of dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional insulin pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion) in participants aged 12 years or older with type 1 diabetes. Participants were assigned in a 1:1:1:1:1:1 ratio with blocked randomisation to the three interventions and attended a research facility for three 24-h study visits. During visits when the patient used the single-hormone artificial pancreas, insulin was delivered based on glucose sensor readings and a predictive dosing algorithm. During dual-hormone artificial pancreas visits, glucagon was also delivered during low or falling glucose. During conventional insulin pump therapy visits, patients received continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The study was not masked. The primary outcome was the time for which plasma glucose concentrations were in the target range (4·0-10·0 mmol/L for 2 h postprandially and 4·0-8·0 mmol/L otherwise). Hypoglycaemic events were defined as plasma glucose concentration of less than 3·3 mmol/L with symptoms or less than 3·0 mmol/L irrespective of symptoms. Analysis was by modified intention to treat, in which we included data for all patients who completed at least two visits. A p value of less than 0·0167 (0·05/3) was regarded as significant. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01754337. The mean proportion of time spent in the plasma glucose target range over 24 h was 62% (SD 18), 63% (18), and 51% (19) with single-hormone artificial pancreas, dual-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional insulin pump therapy, respectively. The mean difference in time spent in the target

  2. Federal Reading Rooms for Risk Management Plans (RMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Rooms, listed here by state, are open to the public by either appointment or walk-in. You may access Off-Site Consequence Analysis (scenarios) portions of RMPs, and take notes but not remove or reproduce materials.

  3. Designing legible fonts for distance reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews existing knowledge on distance legibility of fonts, and finds that for optimal distance reading, letters and numbers benefit from relative wide shapes, open inner counters and a large x-height; fonts should further be widely spaced, and the weight should not be too heavy or t...... light. Research also indicates that serifs on the vertical extremes improve legibility under such reading conditions.......This chapter reviews existing knowledge on distance legibility of fonts, and finds that for optimal distance reading, letters and numbers benefit from relative wide shapes, open inner counters and a large x-height; fonts should further be widely spaced, and the weight should not be too heavy or too...

  4. Repeated readings and science: Fluency with expository passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated readings to a fluency criterion (RRFC) for seven students with disabilities using science text. The study employed a single subject design, specifically, two multiple probe multiple baselines across subjects, to evaluate the effects of the RRFC intervention. Results indicated that students met criterion (200 or more correct words per minute with 2 or fewer errors) on four consecutive passages. A majority of students displayed accelerations to correct words per minute and decelerations to incorrect words per minute on successive initial, intervention readings suggesting reading transfer. Students' reading scores during posttest and maintenance out performed pre-test and baseline readings provided additional measures of reading transfer. For a relationship to comprehension, students scored higher on oral retell measures after meeting criterion as compared to initial readings. Overall, the research findings suggested that the RRFC intervention improves science reading fluency for students with disabilities, and may also indirectly benefit comprehension.

  5. Open Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Gassmann, Oliver; Enkel, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    In the past 10 years, numerous interesting articles, book chapters, and books have been written on open innovation strategies in mainly large companies. While closed innovation models have resulted in important breakthrough innovations, many large companies have abandoned vertical integration strategies in recent years and have moved toward a combination of both closed and open innovation models that are used for reaching different sets of innovative goals. The definition of open innovation a...

  6. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  7. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural equation model was constructed to estimate the unique relations between reading strategies and reading comprehension, while controlling for reading...

  8. Improvement of Reading Speed and Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Yokoi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have examined eye movements in reading, little is known which factors differentiate slow and fast readers. Recently, Rayner et al. (2010 reported that fast readers had a larger effective visual field than did slow readers by using the gaze-contingent window method. The fast readers they selected, however, may have acquired better attentional skills inherently or through long experience, and this visual superiority would improve reading performance. To clarify this issue, we investigated eye movements in reading while practicing speed reading. Participants (approx. 600 letters per minute in Japanese exercised speed reading programs for half an hour per day for about 30 days. Reading performance of Japanese editorial articles was recorded every five days of training by the gaze-contingent window method. Our results showed that the size of the effective visual field did not increase in the same manner as reading speed (up to 1000 lpm. Instead, we found that saccadic length became longer and less varied. Fixation duration and the number of regressions were also reduced. These findings suggest that efficiency of comprehension at a single gaze may be the important factor for reading speed.

  9. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Chesbrough, Henry; Moedas, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Open innovation is now a widely used concept in academia, business, and policy making. This article describes the state of open innovation at the intersection of research, practice, and policy. It discusses some key trends (e.g., digital transformation), challenges (e.g., uncertainty......), and potential solutions (e.g., EU funding programs) in the context of open innovation and innovation policy. With this background, the authors introduce select papers published in this Special Section of California Management Review that were originally presented at the second annual World Open Innovation...

  10. pyLIMA: An Open-source Package for Microlensing Modeling. I. Presentation of the Software and Analysis of Single-lens Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, E.; Norbury, M.; Bozza, V.; Street, R.

    2017-11-01

    Microlensing is a unique tool, capable of detecting the “cold” planets between ˜1 and 10 au from their host stars and even unbound “free-floating” planets. This regime has been poorly sampled to date owing to the limitations of alternative planet-finding methods, but a watershed in discoveries is anticipated in the near future thanks to the planned microlensing surveys of WFIRST-AFTA and Euclid's Extended Mission. Of the many challenges inherent in these missions, the modeling of microlensing events will be of primary importance, yet it is often time-consuming, complex, and perceived as a daunting barrier to participation in the field. The large scale of future survey data products will require thorough but efficient modeling software, but, unlike other areas of exoplanet research, microlensing currently lacks a publicly available, well-documented package to conduct this type of analysis. We present version 1.0 of the python Lightcurve Identification and Microlensing Analysis (pyLIMA). This software is written in Python and uses existing packages as much as possible to make it widely accessible. In this paper, we describe the overall architecture of the software and the core modules for modeling single-lens events. To verify the performance of this software, we use it to model both real data sets from events published in the literature and generated test data produced using pyLIMA's simulation module. The results demonstrate that pyLIMA is an efficient tool for microlensing modeling. We will expand pyLIMA to consider more complex phenomena in the following papers.

  11. International Chelpanov Readings 2014: Moscow Scientific and Practical Conference on the 100th Anniversary of the Grand Opening of Psychological Institute named after L.G. Schukina (1914-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serova O.E

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the commemorative events in Psychological Institute marking the 100th anniversary of its grand opening, which were prepared and conducted together with the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education. A brief historical background is provided; the events during two days of the conference are observed. Scientific events that took place within it revealed the wide range of scientific and psychological studies that are currently done by the Institute's employees, have confirmed their implications for improving the process of psychological education, and demonstrated a willingness Psychological Institute of the creative solution of modern socio-cultural problems.

  12. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor

  13. Reading use in preschool

    OpenAIRE

    Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...

  14. Single-electron analysis and open charm cross section in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasel, Markus

    2012-11-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the world's highest energy hadron collider, providing protonproton collisions currently at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=8 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV. This opens a new energy regime, which allows the study of QCD in elementary pp-collisions and in the extreme environment of Pb-Pb collisions, as well as providing a discovery potential for rare and exotic particles. ALICE is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the LHC. The experiment is optimised to provide excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities, in particular at low-p{sub t}, where the bulk of the particles is produced in heavy-ion collisions as well as in proton-proton collisions. The production of heavy quarks is described in proton-proton collisions by next-to-leading order perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations. Thus, the measurement of heavy-quark production in proton-proton collisions serves as a test of pQCD. Measurements performed at SPS, RHIC, and Tevatron experiments showed a good agreement with pQCD, where the data were usually at the upper limit of the prediction. In addition, measurements in proton-proton collisions serve as reference for heavy-ion collisions, in which heavy quarks are essential probes for parton energy loss in a deconfined medium. Heavy-quark production can be studied either with hadronic or in semi-leptonic decay channels. The analysis presented in this thesis is performed in the semi-electronic decay channel with the ALICE apparatus. A crucial device for the electron selection is the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), which provides an important contribution to the electron-pion separation for momenta larger than 1 GeV/c. In November 2010, the first data were recorded with the experiment. The electron selection performance was studied for the first time on real data using data-driven methods. A pion-rejection factor of 23 at a momentum of 2 GeV/c was obtained using a likelihood method on

  15. Improving Reading Comprehension in Reading and Listening Settings: The Effect of Two Training Programmes Focusing on Metacognition and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Caldarola, Nadia; Tencati, Chiara; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metacognition and working memory (WM) have been found associated with success in reading comprehension, but no studies have examined their combined effect on the training of reading comprehension. Another open question concerns the role of listening comprehension: In particular, it is not clear whether training to improve reading…

  16. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K.; Petersen, Anders

    was abnormal. First, we examined if reading speed was affected by word length in any of the subjects. Secondly, we compared performance with single word and single letter stimuli using RT measures. Third, we measured the word superiority effect in accuracy of word and letter report with brief exposure...... test, they show normal RTs, and no abnormal word length effects. As a group, they also show an RT advantage for short words over single letters, as we have previously found in normal subjects.2 In the word superiority experiment, the group of prosopagnosics show the typical word superiority effect......, reflected in better overall accuracy, a lower perceptual threshold, and higher processing speed for words compared to letters. In sum, we find no evidence that reading skills are abnormal in developmental prosopagnosia, a finding that may challenge the recently proposed hypothesis that reading development...

  17. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  18. Open Revolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean R Eddy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sean Eddy reviews "Opening Up Education," a collection of essays that explores how leaders in the "open education movement" intend to exploit digital communications technology, develop innovative and freely redistributable educational methods and resources, and improve education on a global level.

  19. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  20. ASElux: An Ultra-Fast and Accurate Allelic Reads Counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zong; Alvarez, Marcus; Pajukanta, Päivi; Ko, Arthur

    2017-11-23

    Mapping bias causes preferential alignment to the reference allele, forming a major obstacle in allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis. The existing methods, such as simulation and SNP-aware alignment, are either inaccurate or relatively slow. To fast and accurately count allelic reads for ASE analysis, we developed a novel approach, ASElux, which utilizes the personal SNP information and counts allelic reads directly from unmapped RNA-sequence (RNA-seq) data. ASElux significantly reduces runtime by disregarding reads outside single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) during the alignment. When compared to other tools on simulated and experimental data, ASElux achieves a higher accuracy on ASE estimation than non-SNP-aware aligners and requires a much shorter time than the benchmark SNP-aware aligner, GSNAP with just a slight loss in performance. ASElux can process 40 million read-pairs from an RNA-sequence (RNA-seq) sample and count allelic reads within 10 minutes, which is comparable to directly counting the allelic reads from alignments based on other tools. Furthermore, processing an RNA-seq sample using ASElux in conjunction with a general aligner, such as STAR, is more accurate and still ∼4X faster than STAR+WASP, and ∼33X faster than the lead SNP-aware aligner, GSNAP, making ASElux ideal for ASE analysis of large-scale transcriptomic studies. We applied ASElux to 273 lung RNA-seq samples from GTEx and identified a splice-QTL rs11078928 in lung which explains the mechanism underlying an asthma GWAS SNP rs11078927. Thus, our analysis demonstrated ASE as a highly powerful complementary tool to cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. The software can be downloaded from https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B7E7HSjQ-SumQmlPc1Z0aUR5Sk0. a5ko@ucla.edu (Arthur Ko), zmiao@ucla.edu (Zong Miao). Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  1. Accurate reading comprehension rate as an indicator of broad reading in students in first, second, and third grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, Dennis; Thompson, Kelly; Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reading comprehension rate measures and broad reading skill development was examined using data from approximately 1425 students (grades 1-3). Students read 3 passages, from a pool of 30, and answered open-ended comprehension questions. Accurate reading comprehension rate (ARCR) was calculated by dividing the percentage of questions answered correctly (%QC) by seconds required to read the passage. Across all 30 passages, ARCR and its two components, %QC correct and time spent reading (1/seconds spent reading the passage), were significantly correlated with broad reading scores, with %QC resulting in the lowest correlations. Two sequential regressions supported previous findings which suggest that ARCR measures consistently produced meaningful incremental increases beyond %QC in the amount of variance explained in broad reading skill; however, ARCR produced small or no incremental increases beyond reading time. Discussion focuses on the importance of the measure of reading time embedded in brief accurate reading rate measures and directions for future research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Impact of Electronic Reading Devices on Reading Speed and Comfort in Patients with Decreased Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Henry L; Roth, Daniel B; Fine, Howard F; Prenner, Jonathan L; Modi, Kunjal K; Feuer, William J

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims . To evaluate the impact of back-illuminated and nonilluminated electronic reading devices on reading speed and comfort in patients with decreased vision. Methods . A prospective study involving a convenience sample of 167 patients at a single retina practice from January 2011 to December 2012. Participants were asked to read five different excerpts on five different media in a randomly assigned order. Media included a printed book at 12-point font (12PF), iPad2 at 12PF, iPad2 at 18-point font (18PF), Kindle2 at 12PF, and Kindle2 at 18PF. Reading speed in words per minute (WPM) and medium preference were recorded and stratified by visual acuity (VA). Results . Mean reading speeds in WPM: iPad2 at 18PF (217.0), iPad2 at 12PF (209.1), Kindle2 at 18PF (183.3), Kindle2 at 12PF (177.7), and printed book at 12PF (176.8). Reading speed was faster on back-illuminated media compared to nonilluminated media. Text magnification minimized losses in reading performance with worsening patient VA. The majority of participants preferred reading on the iPad2 at 18PF. Conclusions . Back-illuminated devices may increase reading speed and comfort relative to nonilluminated devices and printed text, particularly in patients with decreased VA.

  3. SchemaOnRead: A Package for Schema-on-Read in R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J.

    2016-08-01

    Schema-on-read is an agile approach to data storage and retrieval that defers investments in data organization until production queries need to be run by working with data directly in native form. Schema-on-read functions have been implemented in a wide range of analytical systems, most notably Hadoop. SchemaOnRead is a CRAN package that uses R’s flexible data representations to provide transparent and convenient support for the schema-on-read paradigm in R. The schema-on- read tools within the package include a single function call that recursively reads folders with text, comma separated value, raster image, R data, HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet, Weka, Epi Info, Pajek network, R network, HTML, SPSS, Systat, and Stata files. The provided tools can be used as-is or easily adapted to implement customized schema-on-read tool chains in R. This paper’s contribution is that it introduces and describes SchemaOnRead, the first R package specifically focused on providing explicit schema-on-read support in R.

  4. The Impact of Electronic Reading Devices on Reading Speed and Comfort in Patients with Decreased Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry L. Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. To evaluate the impact of back-illuminated and nonilluminated electronic reading devices on reading speed and comfort in patients with decreased vision. Methods. A prospective study involving a convenience sample of 167 patients at a single retina practice from January 2011 to December 2012. Participants were asked to read five different excerpts on five different media in a randomly assigned order. Media included a printed book at 12-point font (12PF, iPad2 at 12PF, iPad2 at 18-point font (18PF, Kindle2 at 12PF, and Kindle2 at 18PF. Reading speed in words per minute (WPM and medium preference were recorded and stratified by visual acuity (VA. Results. Mean reading speeds in WPM: iPad2 at 18PF (217.0, iPad2 at 12PF (209.1, Kindle2 at 18PF (183.3, Kindle2 at 12PF (177.7, and printed book at 12PF (176.8. Reading speed was faster on back-illuminated media compared to nonilluminated media. Text magnification minimized losses in reading performance with worsening patient VA. The majority of participants preferred reading on the iPad2 at 18PF. Conclusions. Back-illuminated devices may increase reading speed and comfort relative to nonilluminated devices and printed text, particularly in patients with decreased VA.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF READING TOPIC AND TOPIC PREFERENCE ON READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesty Widiastuty

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating the interaction effect of reading topic and topic preference, the effect of reading topic, and the effect of topic preference on Physics score, Biology score, and Chemistry score of single cause-multiple effects text. The population of this study was the eleventh grade of IPA students of SMA Negeri 2 Kuala Kapuas in Academic Year 2008/2009. There were 64 students of two classes (XI IA1 and IX IA2 as the sample of this study chosen by using cluster random sampling. It was used experimental research with factorial experimental design. The data were processed and analyzed through these steps: taking the data, coding scoring, tabulating, analyzing the data by using statistic technique of ANOVA processed by using SPSS 15 and taking the conclusion based on the statistical result. The results show that: (1 there was significant interaction effect among reading topic and topic preference on Physics score, Biology score, and Chemistry score of single cause-multiple effects text, (2 there was no significance effect of reading topic of single cause-multiple effects text, and (3 there was no significance effect of topic preference on Physics score, Biology score, and Chemistry score of single cause-multiple effects text. Keywords: reading topic, topic preference, reading comprehension

  6. Open Source and Open Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Publication reference: Koper, R. (2008). Open Source and Open Standards. In J. M. Spector, M. Merrill, J. van Merriënboer & M. P. Driscol (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (3rd ed., pp. 355-368). New York: Routledge.

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  8. Training for developing reading comprehension and reading for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pribac, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a readed text is the aim of reading at school. A reader reads to understand the meaning of a readed text and possibly use acquired informations in new sizuations. Student books and other written material is commonly used at schools. Reading comprehension difficulties lead toward loweer grades and consequently, to learning insuccess. Among students whit reading comprehension difficulties are some whit lacks in specific learning areas, such as difficulties at reading and writt...

  9. Switching to Tenofovir Alafenamide, Coformulated With Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, and Emtricitabine, in HIV-Infected Patients With Renal Impairment: 48-Week Results From a Single-Arm, Multicenter, Open-Label Phase 3 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Anton; Arribas, Jose R; Gathe, Joseph; Gupta, Samir K; Post, Frank A; Bloch, Mark; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Crofoot, Gordon; Benson, Paul; Lichtenstein, Kenneth; Ramgopal, Moti; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Custodio, Joseph M; Abram, Michael E; Wei, Xuelian; Cheng, Andrew; McCallister, Scott; SenGupta, Devi; Fordyce, Marshall W

    2016-04-15

    Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel tenofovir prodrug with improved renal and bone safety compared with TDF-containing regimens. We report the 48 week safety and efficacy of a once-daily single tablet regimen of elvitegravir 150 mg (E), cobicistat 150 mg (C), emtricitabine 200 mg (F), and TAF 10 mg (E/C/F/TAF) in HIV-1-infected patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. We enrolled virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected subjects with estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl) 30-69 mL/min in a single-arm, open-label study to switch regimens to E/C/F/TAF. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in glomerular filtration rate estimated using various formulae. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01818596. We enrolled and treated 242 patients with mean age 58 years, 18% Black, 39% hypertension, 14% diabetes. Through week 48, no significant change in estimated CrCl was observed. Two patients (0.8%) discontinued study drug for decreased creatinine clearance, neither had evidence of renal tubulopathy and both had uncontrolled hypertension. Subjects had significant improvements in proteinuria, albuminuria, and tubular proteinuria (P Proteinuria, albuminuria and bone mineral density significantly improved. These data support the efficacy and safety of once daily E/C/F/TAF in HIV+ patients with mild or moderate renal impairment without dose adjustment.

  10. Clinical and instrumental evaluation of a cross-linked hyaluronic acid filler dermal injection: effects on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation from a single-dose, monocentric, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Serio, Mirko; Berardesca, Enzo

    2016-10-01

    When a hyaluronic acid dermal device to fill soft tissues is chosen, efficacy, safety and durability are key concerns. This is an open-label prospective study to instrumentally evaluate the effects of HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation. A single Italian site treated female subjects aged 40-55, for nasolabial folds, with a single standardized injection. The outcome was evaluated with objective quantitative measurements after 90 (T1) and 180 days (T2) from the injection comparing to baseline (T0) by means of Corneometer (skin hydration measurement), Cutometer (skin elasticity measurement), and Visioface devices for digital and UV computerized image analysis. Secondary endpoints were safety assessment, subject investigator satisfaction with the intervention. Assessment of aesthetic results included photographic documentation. The computerized image analysis confirmed the clinical assessment showing statistically significant reduction in nasolabial folds both at T1 and T2. Visioface® indexes showed a marked and statistical significant response. An excellent profile of satisfaction of the product at T2 from investigators and patients was recorded. Skin hydration and elasticity did not show significant changes. In our study, a standardized HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds did not influence skin biophysical parameters such as skin hydration and elasticity. Nasolabial folds showed a persistent and significative response at T2 confirmed by instrumental evaluation. The tolerability and safety profile of the product was excellent.

  11. Anterior corpectomy via the mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach combined with short-segment posterior fixation for single-level traumatic lumbar burst fractures: analysis of health-related quality of life outcomes and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologis, Alexander A; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Toogood, Paul; Kennedy, Abbey; Birk, Harjus; McClellan, R Trigg; Pekmezci, Murat

    2016-01-01

    .4%) and mental health outcomes (SF-12 mental component score 50.2% ± 11.6%) after surgery. Anterior corpectomy and cage placement via a mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach supplemented by short-segment posterior instrumentation is a safe, effective alternative to conventional approaches in the treatment of single-level unstable burst fractures and is associated with excellent functional outcomes and patient satisfaction.

  12. Motivational reading on education, meaningful reading realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Qafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

  13. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  14. Improve your reading

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.

  15. 10 CFR 1703.103 - Requests for board records available through the public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reading room. 1703.103 Section 1703.103 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1703.103 Requests for board records available through the public reading room. (a) A Public Reading Room will be maintained at the Board's headquarters and will be open between 8:30 a.m. and...

  16. Reading apps for children: Readability from the design perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Wasan Abdulwahab; Husni, Husniza

    2017-10-01

    Electronic reading for young children opens new avenues especially with the advance of modern reading devices. The readability of mobile learning applications has received extensive attention by the designers and developers. The reason for such concern is due to its importance in determining usability related issues especially in the design context for children. In many cases, children find it difficult to interact with mobile reading apps. This is because apps for reading and for entertainment require different features. As such, this study sets out three objectives: 1) to evaluate five reading apps for young children from design perspectives; 2) to examine the readability for current existing mobile apps for reading and 3) to propose and evaluate mobile apps UI guideline for readability. Readability indices, observation and interview were conducted on 6 - 8 years old students. The obtained result showed that certain reading apps provide better reading experience for children than others. Some of the reasons are mostly related to the design characteristics embedded within the app. In addition, the use of animation was found to stimulate children reading experience as it is believed to offer the interactivity elements to gain their interest and willingness to read. These findings are believed to provide the recommendations and insights for designers of reading apps for children.

  17. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Dysli

    Full Text Available Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls.Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus.Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades.Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity might be the primary causes for reading impairment.

  18. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Muriel; Abegg, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls. Methods Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus. Results Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades. Conclusions Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity) might be the primary causes for reading impairment. PMID:27391149

  19. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  20. Compact, open-architecture computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.; Lim, A.; Kangarloo, H.; Eldredge, S.; Loloyan, M.; Chuang, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) was introduced in 1982, and its basic system design has not changed. Current CR systems have certain limitations: spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratios are lower than those of screen-film systems, they are complicated and expensive to build, and they have a closed architecture. The authors of this paper designed and implemented a simpler, lower-cost, compact, open-architecture CR system to overcome some of these limitations. The open-architecture system is a manual-load-single-plate reader that can fit on a desk top. Phosphor images are stored in a local disk and can be sent to any other computer through standard interfaces. Any manufacturer's plate can be read with a scanning time of 90 second for a 35 x 43-cm plate. The standard pixel size is 174 μm and can be adjusted for higher spatial resolution. The data resolution is 12 bits/pixel over an x-ray exposure range of 0.01-100 mR

  1. Publishing in Open Access Journals

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mbrunet

    While most open access journals are peer‐reviewed and high quality, there are a number of questionable journals, i.e. journals that do not subscribe to most or any of the practices of legitimate, academic journals. There is no single rule or test to indicate whether an open access journal is reputable. But here is what you ...

  2. A better sequence-read simulator program for metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Stephen; Trost, Brett; Long, Jeffrey R; Pittet, Vanessa; Kusalik, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Background There are many programs available for generating simulated whole-genome shotgun sequence reads. The data generated by many of these programs follow predefined models, which limits their use to the authors' original intentions. For example, many models assume that read lengths follow a uniform or normal distribution. Other programs generate models from actual sequencing data, but are limited to reads from single-genome studies. To our knowledge, there are no programs that allow a us...

  3. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  4. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  5. Developmental Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Swart, Nicole M.; Steenbeek-Planting, Esther G.; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural…

  6. Framework for inculcation of reading skills in children with reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most children are likely to learn how to read but a percentage of them need special help in order to master the skill. When this assistance is lacking the reading-impaired children tend to have difficulties in learning in later years as the switch is made from learning to read to reading to learn. Reading difficulties may deter a ...

  7. Developmental Relations Between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G,.; Droop, M.; Verhoeven, L.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  8. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A Christodoulou

    Full Text Available Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  9. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  10. Bible reading in Africa: the shaping of a reformed perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wielenga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I try to develop a reformed perspective on Bible reading in Africa by ordinary readers. I explore the concept of ordinary readers in the context of recent hermeneutical discus-sions, and of the differences between their mode of reading and that of biblical scholars against the background ofthe reality of the oral or semi-literate cultures of Africa. A reformed perspec-tive, with its emphasis on the church as locus for Bible reading under the operation of the Holy Spirit, opens up a way forward out of the dilemma between ordinary and professional Bible reading. A reformed perspective can also clear the way for a gender-sensitive reading of the Bible in a continent where most Bible readers are women. This requires from those who read the Bible together an attitude of humility.

  11. TOOL: The Open Opinion Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Masum, Hassan

    2002-01-01

    Shared opinions drive society: what we read, how we vote, and where we shop are all heavily influenced by the choices of others. However, the cost in time and money to systematically share opinions remains high, while the actual performance history of opinion generators is often not tracked. This article explores the development of a distributed open opinion layer, which is given the generic name of TOOL. Similar to the evolution of network protocols as an underlying layer for many comput...

  12. Compound list: captopril [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available captopril CAP 00094 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/captopril....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/captopril....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/captopril...open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/captopril.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc....jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/captopril.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip ftp://ftp.b

  13. Compound list: ketoconazole [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ketoconazole KC 00047 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/ketoc...onazole.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/ketoc...onazole.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/ketoc...jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/ketoconazole.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/ketoconazole.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Singl

  14. Compound list: allopurinol [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available allopurinol APL 00028 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/allopurin...ol.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/allopurin...ol.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/allopurin...archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/allopurinol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://ftp.bios...ciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/allopurinol.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip

  15. Compound list: omeprazole [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omeprazole OPZ 00012 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/omeprazole....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/omeprazole....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/omeprazole...ive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/omeprazole.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://ftp.bioscienc...edbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/omeprazole.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip ftp:/

  16. Compound list: imipramine [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available imipramine IMI 00069 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/imipramine....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/imipramine....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/imipramine...ive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/imipramine.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://ftp.bioscienc...edbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/imipramine.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip ftp:/

  17. Effects of visual span on reading speed and parafoveal processing in eye movements during sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, Sarah

    2014-07-15

    The visual span (or ‘‘uncrowded window’’), which limits the sensory information on each fixation, has been shown to determine reading speed in tasks involving rapid serial visual presentation of single words. The present study investigated whether this is also true for fixation durations during sentence reading when all words are presented at the same time and parafoveal preview of words prior to fixation typically reduces later word-recognition times. If so, a larger visual span may allow more efficient parafoveal processing and thus faster reading. In order to test this hypothesis, visual span profiles (VSPs) were collected from 60 participants and related to data from an eye-tracking reading experiment. The results confirmed a positive relationship between the readers’ VSPs and fixation-based reading speed. However, this relationship was not determined by parafoveal processing. There was no evidence that individual differences in VSPs predicted differences in parafoveal preview benefit. Nevertheless, preview benefit correlated with reading speed, suggesting an independent effect on oculomotor control during reading. In summary, the present results indicate a more complex relationship between the visual span, parafoveal processing, and reading speed than initially assumed. © 2014 ARVO.

  18. Reading, Writing, and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reist, Kay M.

    2010-01-01

    With No Child Left Behind, schools are cutting extracurricular activities, doing away with aides, and even getting rid of art and physical education so that reading specialists and writing tutors can be hired. But what can the art teachers do to assist in teaching reading and writing skills? The author believes they need to provide their students…

  19. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  20. Assistive Technologies for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Tiece M.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

  1. Teaching Grammar and Reading

    OpenAIRE

    高棹, 聰子

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore what effectiveness of teaching grammar would be expected in reading, analyzing the statistical data. The data show the lack of the students' motivation and their reluctance about reading the whole passage. In conclusion, we should think out the problems caused by methodology as well as course design.

  2. Superheroes and Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)

  3. Reading, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, George; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and hard-core unemployed youth. The objectives of this reading curriculum are to develop skills of retarded readers, further develop skills of adequate readers, and develop an appreciation for reading.…

  4. Reading and company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    in the environment where one engages in individual silent reading. The primary goal of the study was to explore the role and possible associations of a number of variables (text type, purpose, device) in selecting generic (e.g. indoors vs outdoors) as well as specific (e.g. home vs library) reading environments...

  5. Cognitive coupling during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Caitlin; Graesser, Art; Risko, Evan F; D'Mello, Sidney K

    2017-06-01

    We hypothesize that cognitively engaged readers dynamically adjust their reading times with respect to text complexity (i.e., reading times should increase for difficult sections and decrease for easier ones) and failure to do so should impair comprehension. This hypothesis is consistent with theories of text comprehension but has surprisingly been untested. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing 4 datasets in which participants (N = 484) read expository texts using a self-paced reading paradigm. Participants self-reported mind wandering in response to pseudorandom thought-probes during reading and completed comprehension assessments after reading. We computed two measures of cognitive coupling by regressing each participant's paragraph-level reading times on two measures of text complexity: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Word Concreteness scores. The two coupling measures yielded convergent findings: coupling was a negative predictor of mind wandering and a positive predictor of both text- and inference-level comprehension. Goodness-of-fit, measured with Akaike information criterion, also improved after adding coupling to the reading-time only models. Furthermore, cognitive coupling mediated the relationship between mind wandering and comprehension, supporting the hypothesis that mind wandering engenders a decoupling of attention from external stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Aspects of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evertts, Eldonna L., Ed.

    Thirteen articles previously published in "Elementary English" are reprinted in this monograph. The articles focus on a wide range of topics but are drawn together by their emphasis on the teaching of reading. The first group of articles concerns the organization and evaluation of reading instruction, the next group discusses the place of…

  7. Does a laparoscopic approach attenuate the body weight loss and lean body mass loss observed in open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer? a single-institution exploratory analysis of the JCOG 0912 phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Sato, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Yamada, Takanobu; Cho, Haruhiko; Ogata, Takashi; Oba, Koji; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2018-03-01

    Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for gastric cancer may prevent the loss of body weight and lean body mass resulting from reduced surgical stress in comparison to open distal gastrectomy (ODG). A multicenter phase III trial conducted by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG0912 trial) was performed to confirm the non-inferiority of LADG to ODG for stage I gastric cancer in terms of relapse-free survival. This study was performed as a single-institution exploratory analysis using the data of the patients from our hospital who were enrolled in the JCOG0912 phase III trial. Body weight and lean body mass were evaluated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer within 1 week before and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. One-hundred six patients were randomized to undergo ODG (54 patients) or LADG (51 patients). Body weight loss at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months was -3.0%, -4.9%, and -5.4%, respectively, in the ODG group and -2.7%, -4.3%, and -5.7%, respectively, in the LADG group; the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.330, 0.166, and 0.656, respectively). Lean body mass loss at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months was -2.8%, -4.1%, and -2.3%, respectively, in the ODG group and -2.7%, -2.9%, and -3.0%, respectively, in the LADG group; the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.610, 0.413, and 0.925, respectively). The laparoscopic approach did not attenuate the loss of body weight and lean body mass in comparison to patients who underwent open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

  8. Randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, crossover, single-dose study to compare the pharmacodynamics of torasemide-PR 10 mg, torasemide-IR 10 mg, and furosemide-IR 40 mg, in patients with chronic heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Maria Rosa; Roig, Eulàlia; Gich, Ignasi; Puntes, Montse; Delgadillo, Joaquín; Santos, Benjamín; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diuretics are the primary treatment for the management of chronic heart failure (HF) symptoms and for the improvement of acute HF symptoms. The rate of delivery to the site of action has been suggested to affect diuretic pharmacodynamics. The main objective of this clinical trial was to explore whether a prolonged release tablet formulation of torasemide (torasemide-PR) was more natriuretically efficient in patients with chronic HF compared to immediate-release furosemide (furosemide-IR) after a single-dose administration. Moreover, the pharmacokinetics of torasemide-PR, furosemide-IR, and torasemide-IR were assessed in chronic HF patients as well as urine pharmacodynamics. Methods Randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, crossover, and single-dose Phase I clinical trial with three experimental periods. Torasemide-PR and furosemide-IR were administered as a single dose in a crossover fashion for the first two periods, and torasemide-IR 10 mg was administered for the third period. Blood and urine samples were collected at fixed timepoints. The primary endpoint was the natriuretic efficiency after administration of torasemide-PR and furosemide-IR, defined as the ratio between the average drug-induced natriuresis and the average drug recovered in urine over 24 hours. Results Ten patients were included and nine completed the study. Here, we present the results from nine patients. Torasemide-PR was more natriuretically efficient than furosemide-IR (0.096±0.03 mmol/μg vs 0.015±0.0007 mmol/μg; P<0.0001). Mictional urgency was lower and more delayed with torasemide-PR than with furosemide-IR. Conclusion In a study with a limited sample size, our results suggest that 10 mg of torasemide-PR is more natriuretically efficient than 40 mg of furosemide-IR after single-dose administration in patients with chronic HF over a 24-hour collection period. Further studies are necessary to evaluate potential pharmacodynamic differences between torasemide formulations and to

  9. Four Approaches to "Authentic" Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, Rebecca M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the types of readings students are likely to encounter in the "real" world and how they will interact with them. The four approaches discussed include reading in a daily-life context, reading for information, reading for pleasure, and participatory reading. (21 references) (Author/CK)

  10. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  11. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  12. The Social Weaving of a Reading Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeiros, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses how public library readers in Almeida Garrett, Porto, create a reading atmosphere, focusing on meanings associated with aural conditions. Through a qualitative, single case study, ethnographic and interview techniques were applied. Readers' actual practices and discourses, through a theoretical sample, and those of managers,…

  13. Stories to Be Read Aloud (Booksearch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presents junior and senior high school teachers' suggestions for short stories to read aloud in a single class period, including "The Laughing Man" (J. D. Salinger), "A & P" (John Updike), "Epicac" (Kurt Vonnegut), "The Story of an Hour" (Kate Chopin), and "The Yellow Wallpaper" (Charlotte…

  14. Research-Based Integrated Reading and Writing Course Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Calisa A.

    2017-01-01

    With the continuing national emphases on acceleration and completion, an integrated reading and writing course (a combined developmental reading and developmental writing course, with all levels compressed into a single course) is one way to move students more quickly and efficiently through the developmental sequence while still maintaining…

  15. Syllabic Complexity, Metalinguistic Deficits and Reading in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    A metalinguistic deficit in the awareness of phonological aspects of spoken language has long been assumed to be the single most important cause of reading failure among developmental dyslexics. Majority of this proposal's empirical support has come from examination of reading problems in irregular language like English and it's relation to the…

  16. TEACHING READING USING MAGAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way of teaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and many others. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process of communication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Magazine can be other alternative as reading material in the classroom. Magazine as reading material has appeal for the students. To make the students get information from magazine, the teacher can ask the students to observe table of content and giving the students training to use it. Like, what is done on text book. Distinguishing informative reading material with fictive reading, important to know students in reading magazine. Like analyzing advertisements to detect propaganda.

  17. Use of Schema on Read in Earth Science Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Hegde, M.; Smit, C.; Pilone, P.; Pham, L.

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, NASA Earth Science data archives have file-based storage using proprietary data file formats, such as HDF and HDF-EOS, which are optimized to support fast and efficient storage of spaceborne and model data as they are generated. The use of file-based storage essentially imposes an indexing strategy based on data dimensions. In most cases, NASA Earth Science data uses time as the primary index, leading to poor performance in accessing data in spatial dimensions. For example, producing a time series for a single spatial grid cell involves accessing a large number of data files. With exponential growth in data volume due to the ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolution of the data, using file-based archives poses significant performance and cost barriers to data discovery and access. Storing and disseminating data in proprietary data formats imposes an additional access barrier for users outside the mainstream research community. At the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC), we have evaluated applying the "schema-on-read" principle to data access and distribution. We used Apache Parquet to store geospatial data, and have exposed data through Amazon Web Services (AWS) Athena, AWS Simple Storage Service (S3), and Apache Spark. Using the "schema-on-read" approach allows customization of indexing—spatial or temporal—to suit the data access pattern. The storage of data in open formats such as Apache Parquet has widespread support in popular programming languages. A wide range of solutions for handling big data lowers the access barrier for all users. This presentation will discuss formats used for data storage, frameworks with support for "schema-on-read" used for data access, and common use cases covering data usage patterns seen in a geospatial data archive.

  18. Use of Schema on Read in Earth Science Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwara; Smit, Christine; Pilone, Paul; Petrenko, Maksym; Pham, Long

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, NASA Earth Science data archives have file-based storage using proprietary data file formats, such as HDF and HDF-EOS, which are optimized to support fast and efficient storage of spaceborne and model data as they are generated. The use of file-based storage essentially imposes an indexing strategy based on data dimensions. In most cases, NASA Earth Science data uses time as the primary index, leading to poor performance in accessing data in spatial dimensions. For example, producing a time series for a single spatial grid cell involves accessing a large number of data files. With exponential growth in data volume due to the ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolution of the data, using file-based archives poses significant performance and cost barriers to data discovery and access. Storing and disseminating data in proprietary data formats imposes an additional access barrier for users outside the mainstream research community. At the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC), we have evaluated applying the schema-on-read principle to data access and distribution. We used Apache Parquet to store geospatial data, and have exposed data through Amazon Web Services (AWS) Athena, AWS Simple Storage Service (S3), and Apache Spark. Using the schema-on-read approach allows customization of indexing spatially or temporally to suit the data access pattern. The storage of data in open formats such as Apache Parquet has widespread support in popular programming languages. A wide range of solutions for handling big data lowers the access barrier for all users. This presentation will discuss formats used for data storage, frameworks with This presentation will discuss formats used for data storage, frameworks with support for schema-on-read used for data access, and common use cases covering data usage patterns seen in a geospatial data archive.

  19. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  20. Reading ability and reading engagement in older adults with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Angeline M; van Landingham, Suzanne W; Massof, Robert W; Rubin, Gary S; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2014-07-22

    We evaluated the impact of glaucoma-related vision loss on reading ability and reading engagement in 10 reading activities. A total of 63 glaucoma patients and 59 glaucoma suspect controls self-rated their level of reading difficulty for 10 reading items, and responses were analyzed using Rasch analysis to determine reading ability. Reading engagement was assessed by asking subjects to report the number of days per week they engaged in each reading activity. Reading restriction was determined as a decrement in engagement. Glaucoma subjects more often described greater reading difficulty than controls for all tasks except puzzles (P reading tasks involved puzzles, books, and finances, while the least difficult reading tasks involved notes, bills, and mail. In multivariable weighted least squares regression models of Rasch-estimated person measures of reading ability, less reading ability was found for glaucoma patients compared to controls (β = -1.60 logits, P reading ability was associated with more severe visual field (VF) loss (β = -0.68 logits per 5-dB decrement in better-eye VF mean deviation [MD], P reading on 18% fewer days (P = 0.003) and newspaper reading on 10% fewer days (P = 0.008). No statistically significant reading restriction was observed for other reading activities (P > 0.05). Glaucoma patients have less reading ability and engage less in a variety of different reading activities, particularly those requiring sustained reading. Future work should evaluate the mechanisms underlying reading disability in glaucoma to determine how patients can maintain reading ability and engagement. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Influence of peer tutoring on reading and reading motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Slabe, Špela

    2013-01-01

    Reading is an important skill, which has influence not only on learning but also on individual’s self-esteem and their educational, employment and social opportunities. According to results of International Reading in Literacy Study (PIRLS, 2006) the number of students with reading difficulties in Slovenia is around 30% (Ivšek, 2011). Reading difficulties can occour due to general or specific learning disabilities. Students with reading difficultlties gradually start to refuse reading. With r...

  2. DistMap: a toolkit for distributed short read mapping on a Hadoop cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid and steady increase of next generation sequencing data output, the mapping of short reads has become a major data analysis bottleneck. On a single computer, it can take several days to map the vast quantity of reads produced from a single Illumina HiSeq lane. In an attempt to ameliorate this bottleneck we present a new tool, DistMap - a modular, scalable and integrated workflow to map reads in the Hadoop distributed computing framework. DistMap is easy to use, currently supports nine different short read mapping tools and can be run on all Unix-based operating systems. It accepts reads in FASTQ format as input and provides mapped reads in a SAM/BAM format. DistMap supports both paired-end and single-end reads thereby allowing the mapping of read data produced by different sequencing platforms. DistMap is available from http://code.google.com/p/distmap/

  3. The Influence of Hepatic and Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of a Treatment for Herpes Zoster, Amenamevir (ASP2151): Phase 1, Open-Label, Single-Dose, Parallel-Group Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusawake, Tomohiro; Kowalski, Donna; Takada, Akitsugu; Kato, Kota; Katashima, Masataka; Keirns, James J; Lewand, Michaelene; Lasseter, Kenneth C; Marbury, Thomas C; Preston, Richard A

    2017-12-01

    Amenamevir (ASP2151) is a nonnucleoside human herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor that was approved in Japan for the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles) in 2017. This article reports the results of two clinical trials that investigated the effects of renal and hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of amenamevir. These studies were phase 1, open-label, single-dose (oral 400 mg), parallel-group studies evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of amenamevir in healthy participants and participants with moderate hepatic impairment and mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment. In the hepatic impairment study, the pharmacokinetic profile of amenamevir in participants with moderate hepatic impairment was generally similar to that of participants with normal hepatic function. In the renal impairment study, the area under the amenamevir concentration versus time curve from the time of dosing up to the time of the last sample with extrapolation to infinity of the terminal phase was increased by 78.1% in participants with severe renal impairment. There was a positive relationship between creatinine clearance and oral and renal clearance for amenamevir in the renal impairment study. In both studies, amenamevir was safe and well tolerated. The findings of the hepatic impairment study indicate that no dosing adjustment is required in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. In the renal impairment study, systemic amenamevir exposure was increased by renal impairment. However, it is unlikely that renal impairment will have a significant effect on the safety of amenamevir given that in previous pharmacokinetic and safety studies in healthy individuals amenamevir was safe and well tolerated after a single dose (5-2400 mg, fasted condition) and repeated doses for 7 days (300 or 600 mg, fed condition), and the amount of amenamevir exposure in the renal impairment study was covered by those studies. These findings suggest that amenamevir does not

  4. Immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of a CRM-conjugated meningococcal ACWY vaccine in children and adolescents aged 2-18 years in Taiwan: results of an open label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Min; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-09-08

    MenACWY-CRM (Menveo®, Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy) is a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine developed to help prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W, and Y. It is approved within the European Union in persons >2 years of age and in persons from 2 months to 55 years of age in the United States, among other countries. Little is known about the immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine in Taiwanese children >2 years and adolescents. This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a single injection of MenACWY-CRM vaccine in Taiwanese subjects aged 2-18 years old. In this phase III, multicentre, open-label study 341 subjects received one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Immunogenicity measures were rates of seroresponse (defined as the proportion of subjects with a postvaccination hSBA ≥1:8 if the prevaccination (baseline) titre was CRM vaccination at Day 29 for the serogroups A, C, W, and Y were 83%, 93%, 50%, and 65%, respectively. At Day 29 the percentages of subjects with hSBA ≥1:8 against all four serogroups A, C, W and Y were: 83%, 96%, 96% and 82%, respectively. GMTs against all serogroups rose by ≥7-fold from baseline to Day 29. The vaccine was well tolerated. A single dose of MenACWY-CRM demonstrated a robust immune response, and an acceptable safety profile in Taiwanese children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of an Enrichment Reading Program on the Cognitive Processes and Neural Structures of Children Having Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül; Akyol, Hayati; Karli Oguz, Kader; Has, Arzu Ceylan

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study is to explain the effect of an enrichment reading program on the cognitive processes and neural structures of children experiencing reading difficulties. The current study was carried out in line with a single-subject research method and the between-subjects multiple probe design belonging to this method. This…

  6. Effects of a Metacognitive Reading Program on the Reading Achievement and Metacognitive Strategies of Students with Cases of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camahalan, Faye Marsha G.

    2006-01-01

    To study the effects of Metacognitve Reading Program on Reading achievement and metacognitive strategies of students with cases of dyslexia, the author conducted a single-case quasi-experimental. The conceptual framework of the study was based on the theories of cognitive processes stating that metacognition helps regulate the flow of information…

  7. Open data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Everyone wants open data, but the road towards it can be both difficult and long. Implementation of data portals and ICT solutions for support of the data infrastructure can be initiated from the central government through legislation, regulation and public procurement. This is what you would cal...

  8. opened capsule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The accuracy of the off-label opened capsule dosing method for stavudine is acceptable. There is no need to instruct caregivers to include sediment in the aliquot given to the infant. However, studies that confirm adequate bioavailability and efficacy are needed. In addition, it is important to avoid supplying generic capsules ...

  9. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, C. F.

    1987-09-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, it is indeed a great privilege and pleasure for me to present the opening address at this, the 17th International Congress on High Speed Photograpy and Photonics. Before turning to the business of the Congress, I would like to briefly introduce you to South Africa: its scientific past and its research challenges for the future.

  10. Open Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Museums around the world hold enormous troves of public domain artworks. In digitized form, they can be powerful tools for research and learning, as well as building blocks, in the hands of students, teachers, scholars, developers, and creative people. By opening up their digitized assets for reuse...

  11. The Relationships between Korean University Students' Reading Attitude, Reading Strategy Use, and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyangil

    2016-01-01

    This present study investigated the relationships among L2 readers' reading attitude, reading strategy use, and reading proficiency in order to identify patterns caused by individuals' differences. For this study, 153 Korean university students replied to a reading attitude and reading strategy questionnaire. An ANOVA and frequency analysis were…

  12. Effects of Differentiated Reading on Elementary Students' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes toward Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Evans, Linda; Ferron, John; Lindo, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined the effects of a differentiated reading approach on fourth grade students' reading comprehension and attitudes toward reading. Eight Title I schools within one urban district were randomly assigned to treatment (Schoolwide Enrichment Model-Reading [SEM-R]) or control (district reading curriculum) conditions.…

  13. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  14. Accuracy and reading time for six strategies using digital breast tomosynthesis in women with mammographically negative dense breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto Stefano; Calabrese, Massimo; Bignotti, Bianca; Signori, Alessio; Fisci, Erica; Rossi, Federica; Valdora, Francesca; Houssami, Nehmat

    2017-12-01

    To compare six strategies using digital breast tomosynthesis in women with mammographically negative dense breasts. This is a substudy of the 'ASTOUND' trial. 163 women who underwent tomosynthesis with synthetically reconstructed projection images (S-2D) inclusive of 13 (7.9%) cases diagnosed with breast cancer at histopathology after surgery were evaluated. Accuracy measures and screen-reading time of six reading strategies were assessed: (A) Single reading of S-2D alone, (B) single reading of tomosynthesis alone, (C) single reading of joint interpretation of tomosynthesis + S-2D, (D) double-reading of S-2D alone, (E) double reading of tomosynthesis alone, (F) double reading of joint interpretation of tomosynthesis + S-2D. The median age of the patients was 53 years (range, 36-88 years). The highest global accuracy was obtained with double reading of tomosynthesis + S2D (F) with an AUC of 0.979 (pstrategy (single reading of S-2D alone). The AUCs for the other five strategies did not differ from each other. Double reading of tomosynthesis+ S2D had the best accuracy of six screen-reading strategies although it had the longest reading time. • Tomosynthesis acquisitions are progressively implemented with reconstructed synthesized 2D images • Double reading using S-2D plus tomosynthesis had the highest global accuracy (p<0.001). • Double reading of S-2D plus tomosynthesis increased reading time.

  15. Reading between eye saccades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  16. Metacognitive awareness of TOEFL reading comprehension strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungatullina Dilyana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising demand for exchange and mobility programs as well as double diploma opportunities with world leading universities highlights the importance of ESL proficiency. TOEFL iBT as a test of EAP is accepted by most of the HEI in various countries. The aim of the present study is to determine students’ metacognitive awareness of global academic reading strategies, namely the use of context clues, within the framework of preparation for TOEFL reading section. The article establishes the connection between success in reading comprehension and the degree of students’ metacognitive awareness. The authors concentrate on expository texts from TOEFL reading section as a testing material and provide detailed description of single context clues types and double context clues patterns typical for this text structure. The following study is concerned with comparison and interpretation of the results obtained in three focus groups of students, who have accomplished reading comprehension task from TOEFL iBT with and without learning to employ the context clues reading strategy.

  17. Evaluation of the EmbaGYN™ pelvic floor muscle stimulator in addition to Kegel exercises for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a prospective, open-label, multicenter, single-arm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Scott Evan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of the EmbaGYN™ Pelvic Floor Exerciser, a battery-powered neuromuscular stimulation device with a vaginal, two-electrode stimulation probe in women with stress urinary incontinence. In this prospective, open-label, multicenter, single-arm study, patients with stress urinary incontinence (n = 83) underwent 12 weeks of treatment with EmbaGYN with Kegel exercises. At week 12, the mean number of incontinence episodes/day (primary end point) fell 56.2% (p = 0.152). A ≥50% decrease from baseline in incontinence episodes was seen in 65.3% of subjects (p = 0.006). The mean number of incontinence pads/day fell 57.1% (p = 0.001). Mean 24- and 1-h in-office urine loss declined 59.0% (p Kegel exercises resulted in significant reductions in urine loss, incontinence pad use and improved incontinence-related quality of life, but did not have a significant effect on incontinence episodes/day.

  18. The Intelence aNd pRezista Once A Day Study (INROADS): a multicentre, single-arm, open-label study of etravirine and darunavir/ritonavir as dual therapy in HIV-1-infected early treatment-experienced subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, P J; Brinson, C; Ramgopal, M; Ryan, R; Coate, B; Cho, M; Kakuda, T N; Anderson, D

    2015-05-01

    Following antiretroviral therapy failure, patients are often treated with a three-drug regimen that includes two nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [N(t)RTIs]. An alternative two-drug nucleoside-sparing regimen may decrease the pill burden and drug toxicities associated with the use of N(t)RTIs. The Intelence aNd pRezista Once A Day Study (INROADS; NCT01199939) evaluated the nucleoside-sparing regimen of etravirine 400 mg with darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once-daily in HIV-1-infected treatment-experienced subjects or treatment-naïve subjects with transmitted resistance. In this exploratory phase 2b, single-arm, open-label, multicentre, 48-week study, the primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects who achieved HIV-1 RNA treatment-experienced subjects or treatment-naïve subjects with transmitted resistance was virologically efficacious and well tolerated. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  19. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Attention and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

    2005-04-01

    Attention plays a critical role in information processing. Its adequate functioning is required for correct development of complex cognitive abilities and regular scholastic progress. Children with attention deficits often have difficulties in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The present study investigated interactions among reading skills, overall scholastic performance as rated by teachers, and components of attention: visual reaction time, simple immediate span of attention, and selectivity. The sample was 98 students in the first and second years of public junior high school (age range 11-14 years, M = 12.6, SD = 1.2), i.e., with expected already well-established reading. Reading was evaluated using Comprehension, Accuracy, and Speed tests. Overall scholastic performance was obtained by means of teachers' ratings. Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, and Color-Word Interference, included in a multitask computerized test, assessed attention. Analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the reading skills are strongly predictive of the Scholastic Assessment rated by the teachers. High scholastic ratings were correlated with Reading Speed and Accuracy rather than Reading Comprehension. Poor readers showed worse performances on the Digit Span test which measures simple immediate span of attention. Good and poor readers obtained a similar score on the Color-Word Interference task. This observation seems to contrast with the more common interpretation of this effect, suggesting that reading is an automatic process and, therefore, the semantic dimension overcomes the controlled perceptual one. According to other studies, an alternative explanation is suggested. In conclusion, present results confirm the hypothesis of a strong link among reading speed and accuracy, scholastic assessment as rated by teachers, simple immediate span of attention, and visual reaction time.

  1. A multiball read-out for the spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giganon, A.; Giomataris, I.; Gros, M.; Katsioulas, I.; Navick, X. F.; Tsiledakis, G.; Savvidis, I.; Dastgheibi-Fard, A.; Brossard, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a novel concept of proportional gas amplification for the read-out of the spherical proportional counter. The standard single-ball read-out presents limitations for large diameter spherical detectors and high-pressure operations. We have developed a multi-ball read-out system which consists of several balls placed at a fixed distance from the center of the spherical vessel. Such a module can tune the volume electric field at the desired value and can also provide detector segmentation with individual ball read-out. In the latter case, the large volume of the vessel becomes a spherical time projection chamber with 3D capabilities.

  2. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  3. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  4. Reading the Tourist Guidebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Anette; Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates tourists’ ways of reading their guidebooks on the basis of qualitative interviews with tourists visiting Copenhagen, Denmark. Tourist guidebooks have only been dealt with sporadically by tourism scholars. The relatively few studies that focus on guidebooks either present...... a historical perspective on the guidebook or centre on content analyses of place representation, whereas virtually no research exists on the way in which tourists read and use their guidebooks. This study reveals that tourists read the same guidebooks in a number of different ways regarding types...... of tourism destinations....

  5. A High Five for ChemistryOpen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, David; Ortúzar, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    Fabulous at five! When ChemistryOpen was launched in 2011, it was the first society-owned general chemistry journal to publish open-access articles exclusively. Five years down the line, it has featured excellent work in all fields of chemistry, leading to an impressive first full impact factor of 3.25. In this Editorial, read about how ChemistryOpen has grown over the past five years and made its mark as a high-quality open-access journal with impact.

  6. Using quality scores and longer reads improves accuracy of Solexa read mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Zhenyu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-generation sequencing has the potential to revolutionize genomics and impact all areas of biomedical science. New technologies will make re-sequencing widely available for such applications as identifying genome variations or interrogating the oligonucleotide content of a large sample (e.g. ChIP-sequencing. The increase in speed, sensitivity and availability of sequencing technology brings demand for advances in computational technology to perform associated analysis tasks. The Solexa/Illumina 1G sequencer can produce tens of millions of reads, ranging in length from ~25–50 nt, in a single experiment. Accurately mapping the reads back to a reference genome is a critical task in almost all applications. Two sources of information that are often ignored when mapping reads from the Solexa technology are the 3' ends of longer reads, which contain a much higher frequency of sequencing errors, and the base-call quality scores. Results To investigate whether these sources of information can be used to improve accuracy when mapping reads, we developed the RMAP tool, which can map reads having a wide range of lengths and allows base-call quality scores to determine which positions in each read are more important when mapping. We applied RMAP to analyze data re-sequenced from two human BAC regions for varying read lengths, and varying criteria for use of quality scores. RMAP is freely available for downloading at http://rulai.cshl.edu/rmap/. Conclusion Our results indicate that significant gains in Solexa read mapping performance can be achieved by considering the information in 3' ends of longer reads, and appropriately using the base-call quality scores. The RMAP tool we have developed will enable researchers to effectively exploit this information in targeted re-sequencing projects.

  7. Readings in artificial intelligence and software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Readings in Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering covers the main techniques and application of artificial intelligence and software engineering. The ultimate goal of artificial intelligence applied to software engineering is automatic programming. Automatic programming would allow a user to simply say what is wanted and have a program produced completely automatically. This book is organized into 11 parts encompassing 34 chapters that specifically tackle the topics of deductive synthesis, program transformations, program verification, and programming tutors. The opening parts p

  8. Open areas and open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The main objective of the two open areas in the present ISABELLE design has been to provide flexibility with respect to the size and shape of experimental equipment that would eventually be installed there. No permanent building would be installed initially. One possibility would be to enclose each experiment in a temporary structure that would provide weatherproofing and shielding; another possibility would be to erect a permanent building at a later time, when experience has made the needs clearer than they are at present. The secondary objective of the design of open areas has been to keep initial costs as low as practicable. Another objective might be added, however, which we indicate by the term ''open access.'' This note will explore this idea and some design concepts based on it. In the ISABELLE 1977 summer workshop there was considerable discussion of the importance of techniques for inserting large pieces of experimental equipment quickly and removing them with equal ease and speed. Since enclosed halls have certain restrictions in this respect, open areas may be helpful in providing this feature. If the mechanical and electrical aspects could be handled quickly, one might even attempt to reduce the time spent on bureaucratic procedures in order to expedite the introduction of new experiments and new ideas in these areas

  9. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in open innovation (OI) as a field of research has grown exponentially since the phrase was coined by Chesbrough in his 2003 book, with numerous articles, special issues, books, and conference sessions. Various reviews of the literature have summarized prior work, offered new frameworks......, and identified opportunities for future research. Here we summarize these opportunities, which include more research on outbound OI, the role of open innovation in services, and network forms of collaboration such as consortia, communities, ecosystems, and platforms. Research should also examine the use of OI...... is rejected, abandoned, or fails. Finally, we consider how OI can be better linked to prior theoretical research, including topics such as absorptive capacity, user innovation, resources, dynamic capabilities, business models, and the definition of the firm....

  10. OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Präsentationsfolien zum Vortrag „OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data“ in der Session „Ausgestaltung eines wissenschaftsadäquaten APC-Marktes: Grundsätze, Finanzierungsansätze und Management“ der Open-Access-Tage 2015 in Zürich (https://www.open-access.net/community/open-access-tage/open-access-tage-2015-zuerich/programm/#c1974)

  11. Opening remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    In his opening remarks Mr. David R. Kyd briefly described the IAEA mission. Then he outlined main aim of the seminar which is bring together journalists, educators, officials and other specialists to let them hear and put questions to experts on various aspects of nuclear energy and techniques. Further he analyzed problems and prospects of energy development in Asia and particularly in China, including environmental considerations. The final part of the remarks was devoted comparative evaluation of different energy production technologies

  12. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1993-01-01

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  13. Opening education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-02

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER.

  14. Critical Pedagogy Principles in Teaching EFL Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Wahyudi Yulianto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to reveal how the use of critical pedagogy principles in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL reading facilitates students to think critically. Additionally, it investigates and elaborates the benefits and challenges of using critical pedagogy principles in teaching EFL reading. The three critical pedagogy principles used in this study were dialogic education, democratic classroom, and reading the world and the word. Critical thinking skills and dispositions expected to be performed by the participants were analysis and evaluation skills, open-mindedness, and making reasoned decision. This is a case study design which was conducted in the form of teaching program. The teaching program which consisted of eight meetings was given to 59 EFL sophomores in the Reading in Professional Context class at a private teacher education in Bandung. Data in the form of classroom talks and activities and students‟ responses as well as their critical thinking skills self-assessment were collected by using video recordings, observation notes, interview guideline, students‟ learning journals, and questionnaires. It is revealed that the teaching program has facilitated students to think critically by providing four categories of activity. They are (1 offering problematic topics and reading materials that are linked to the students‟ lives, (2 encouraging students to read between the lines, (3 distributing classroom power, and (4 creating space for students‟ voices to be heard. Meanwhile, there are two benefits of the teaching program, namely (1 language development and (2 new knowledge as well as experience acquisition. However, there are three major challenges in conducting the teaching program that are (1 the lack of classroom-friendly authentic controversial reading materials, (2 the passive culture, and (3 the unpredictable classroom.

  15. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  16. What Are Reading Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and they are not a sign of lower intelligence or unwillingness to learn. People with reading disorders ... levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, ...

  17. Reading: Ave Atque Vale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Although basic literacy will continue to be necessary for survival, mass communications and information technology are bringing about an inevitable and lamentable decline in reading for pleasure and in the love of literature for its own sake. (TE)

  18. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Feb 19,2018 What do your ... this chart: English | Spanish | Traditional Chinese Enter Your Blood Pressure Systolic mm Hg (upper #) Diastolic mm Hg (lower #) ...

  19. Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ranolazine following single and multiple sustained-release doses in Chinese healthy adult volunteers: a randomized, open-label, Latin square design, phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qin-You; Li, Huan-De; Zhu, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Zhi; Zhang, Jun; Peng, Wen-Xing

    2013-02-01

    Ranolazine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2006 for the treatment of chronic angina pectoris, and is the first approved agent from a new class of anti-anginal drugs in almost 25 years. The primary objective of this study was to determine the concentration of ranolazine in human plasma using the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ranolazine after administration of single and multiple doses of ranolazine in healthy Chinese adult volunteers. A randomized, open-label, single- and multiple-dose study design was used in the study. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of 500, 1,000, or 1,500 mg of ranolazine. Those who received the single dose continued on to the multiple-dose phase and received 500 mg twice daily for 7 days. In the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected from 0 to 48 h after drug administration. In the multiple-dose phase, samples were obtained before drug administration at 8:00 am and 8:00 pm on days 6 and 7 to determine the minimum steady-state plasma concentration (C(min,ss)) of ranolazine; on day 8, samples were collected from 0 to 48 h after drug administration. All values were expressed as means (standard deviations [SDs]). Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study via subject interview, vital signs, and blood sampling. The LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. Twelve Chinese subjects (six men, six women) were enrolled in the single-dose phase of the pharmacokinetic study. The mean (SD) age of the subjects was 24.7 (1.6) years; their mean (SD) weight was 61.3 (6.4) kg, their mean (SD) height was 165.7 (4.5) cm, and their mean (SD) body mass index was 21.6 (6.6) kg/m(2). The main pharmacokinetic parameters [mean (SD)] for ranolazine after administration of a single oral dose of 500, 1,000, and 1,500 mg were as follows: maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) 741.5 (253.0), 1,355.0 (502.0), and 2

  20. Metacognition in Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Eda; Harputlu, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition is defined basically as thinking about thinking. It is a significant factor that affects many activities related to language use. Reading comprehension, which is an indispensable part of daily life and language classrooms, is affected by metacognition, too. Hence, this paper aims to present an overview of the recent theoretical and empirical studies about metacognition and reading comprehension. Firstly, it provides the definitions and the importance of metacognition. Secondly, ...

  1. "Read the Text, as if!"The Reading Retention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoll, Kent; Browning, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Students do not always read what is expected in college courses (Berry, Cook, Hill, & Stevens, 2010; Phillips & Phillips, 2007; Sikorski et al., 2002) or they read to cram for an exam or quiz (Clump, Bauer, & Bradley, 2004). The Reading Retention Strategy (RRS) is designed to motivate students to read and assist students in…

  2. When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

  3. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  4. Child-Centered Reading Intervention: See, Talk, Dictate, Read, Write!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Muhammet; Demirtas, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in…

  5. STUDENTS’ READING PRACTICES AND ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiza Johari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The challenges of reading are indeed apparent in most teaching and learning processes in ESL classrooms. As a result, this study is conducted to resolve the issues of students who seem to find reading to be unbearable. Many of them have limited ability to read well and hence, possess insufficient reading habits to become competent readers, particularly out-of-school context. Besides, poor home literacy environments also contribute to their shortcomings in reading. The main objectives of this study are to identify the students’ reasons for reading as well as to find out their home reading environments (reading backgrounds and habits; reading attitudes and motivation; reading exposure and supports. To identify these, questionnaires were distributed to 120 secondary school students (Form 4: 16 years old from one of the urban schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The findings indicate that the students read to gain information and knowledge though many chose reading as a hobby as their last choice in explaining their motives of reading. Besides, they preferred non-academic reading materials, mainly lighter forms reading materials such as comics, story books and magazines. Though the students acknowledged the importance of reading in their daily lives, their average reading habits, attitude, motivation, exposure and support within the home domain had suggested otherwise. They mainly read for instrumental purposes while reading for pleasure seemed not to be given priority. Besides, the respondents acknowledge that their parents and themselves did not read much at home. As an implication, it is vital for students to improve their reading perceptions, abilities and practices to achieve personal, societal and national progress. On a final note, parents’ early and continuous efforts to be involved in their children’s literacy events in an out-of-school context are believed to be vital to inculcate positive reading environments, habits and culture

  6. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in ...

  7. ARK: Aggregation of Reads by K-Means for Estimation of Bacterial Community Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslicki, David; Chatterjee, Saikat; Shahrivar, Damon; Walker, Alan W; Francis, Suzanna C; Fraser, Louise J; Vehkaperä, Mikko; Lan, Yueheng; Corander, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of bacterial community composition from high-throughput sequenced 16S rRNA gene amplicons is a key task in microbial ecology. Since the sequence data from each sample typically consist of a large number of reads and are adversely impacted by different levels of biological and technical noise, accurate analysis of such large datasets is challenging. There has been a recent surge of interest in using compressed sensing inspired and convex-optimization based methods to solve the estimation problem for bacterial community composition. These methods typically rely on summarizing the sequence data by frequencies of low-order k-mers and matching this information statistically with a taxonomically structured database. Here we show that the accuracy of the resulting community composition estimates can be substantially improved by aggregating the reads from a sample with an unsupervised machine learning approach prior to the estimation phase. The aggregation of reads is a pre-processing approach where we use a standard K-means clustering algorithm that partitions a large set of reads into subsets with reasonable computational cost to provide several vectors of first order statistics instead of only single statistical summarization in terms of k-mer frequencies. The output of the clustering is then processed further to obtain the final estimate for each sample. The resulting method is called Aggregation of Reads by K-means (ARK), and it is based on a statistical argument via mixture density formulation. ARK is found to improve the fidelity and robustness of several recently introduced methods, with only a modest increase in computational complexity. An open source, platform-independent implementation of the method in the Julia programming language is freely available at https://github.com/dkoslicki/ARK. A Matlab implementation is available at http://www.ee.kth.se/ctsoftware.

  8. ARK: Aggregation of Reads by K-Means for Estimation of Bacterial Community Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Koslicki

    Full Text Available Estimation of bacterial community composition from high-throughput sequenced 16S rRNA gene amplicons is a key task in microbial ecology. Since the sequence data from each sample typically consist of a large number of reads and are adversely impacted by different levels of biological and technical noise, accurate analysis of such large datasets is challenging.There has been a recent surge of interest in using compressed sensing inspired and convex-optimization based methods to solve the estimation problem for bacterial community composition. These methods typically rely on summarizing the sequence data by frequencies of low-order k-mers and matching this information statistically with a taxonomically structured database. Here we show that the accuracy of the resulting community composition estimates can be substantially improved by aggregating the reads from a sample with an unsupervised machine learning approach prior to the estimation phase. The aggregation of reads is a pre-processing approach where we use a standard K-means clustering algorithm that partitions a large set of reads into subsets with reasonable computational cost to provide several vectors of first order statistics instead of only single statistical summarization in terms of k-mer frequencies. The output of the clustering is then processed further to obtain the final estimate for each sample. The resulting method is called Aggregation of Reads by K-means (ARK, and it is based on a statistical argument via mixture density formulation. ARK is found to improve the fidelity and robustness of several recently introduced methods, with only a modest increase in computational complexity.An open source, platform-independent implementation of the method in the Julia programming language is freely available at https://github.com/dkoslicki/ARK. A Matlab implementation is available at http://www.ee.kth.se/ctsoftware.

  9. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  10. The Impact of Past Language Arts Teachers on the Reading Motivation of Twelfth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents' motivation to read continues to decline. The purpose of this embedded single case study was to explore adolescent reading motivation to determine some ways in which adolescents are motivated to read. Through purposeful sampling, the participants included seven twelfth grade students and three English Language Arts teachers in grades…

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Self-Monitoring on Reading Performance of K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Guadalupe; Goldberg, Taryn S.; Swanson, H. Lee

    2018-01-01

    The published single-case design (SCD) research (N = 19 articles) on self-monitoring and reading performance was synthesized. The following inclusion criteria were used: (a) the study must have been peer-reviewed, (b) implemented an intervention targeting student self-monitoring of reading skills, (c) included data on at least 1 reading outcome,…

  12. Using Dialogic Reading to Enhance Emergent Literacy Skills of Young Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huennekens, Mary Ellen; Xu, Yaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an early reading intervention on preschool-age dual language learners' (DLL) early literacy skills. Instruction in phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge was embedded in interactive reading strategies, also known as dialogic reading. A single subject multiple baseline across subjects design was applied to…

  13. [The Dutch version of the Radner Reading Chart for assessing vision function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaijwee, K.J.; Meulendijks, C.F.M.; Radner, W.; Meurs, J.C. van; Hoyng, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    A chart for measuring visual acuity is a better functional test than the routine distance visual acuity testing with single optotypes. The characteristics of a good reading chart are: logarithmically diminishing print size, simultaneous measurement of reading acuity and reading speed, and the

  14. Choosing Great Books for Babies: Helping Children Develop a Life-Long Love of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how a great choice of books could help children develop a life-long love of reading. Every teacher wants to boost a baby's chances in later success. The single most powerful tool a teacher has for awakening a deep love of books and learning is to read to children daily. Reading should become a loved, intimate activity filled…

  15. Learning to Read Chinese: The Relative Roles of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Phonological awareness and morphological awareness have been shown to affect Chinese children's reading development. Previous studies conducted in Hong Kong, which required children to read two-character words only or a mixture of single-character and two-character words in a Chinese reading test, exclusively found that morphological awareness was…

  16. Understanding Reading and Reading Difficulties Through Naming Speed Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Z. Al Dahhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although reading is an important and generative skill, it remains controversial how reading skills and reading difficulties develop. Currently, the fields of neuroscience, cognition, and education each have complex models to describe reading and elucidate where in the reading process deficits occur. We suggest that integrating the neural, cognitive, and educational accounts of reading offers the promise of transformative change in understanding reading development and reading difficulties. As a starting point for bridging the gaps among these fields, we used naming speed tasks as the basis for this review because they provide a “microcosm” of the processes involved during reading. We use naming speed tasks to investigate how incorporating cognitive psychology with neuroimaging techniques, under the guidance of educational theories, can further the understanding of learning and instruction, and may lead to the identification of the neural signatures of reading difficulties that might be hidden from view earlier in development.

  17. The role of visual processing speed in reading speed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Lobier

    Full Text Available A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span, predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children.

  18. The role of visual processing speed in reading speed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobier, Muriel; Dubois, Matthieu; Valdois, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span), predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children.

  19. Relative bioavailability of two formulations of nevirapine 200-mg tablets in healthy Chinese male volunteers: a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yubing; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Cuixia; Zou, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Hu, Yunfang

    2010-12-01

    Nevirapine was the first member of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor class to be approved for the treatment of HIV infection. It binds directly to the allosteric site on the reverse transcriptase and inhibits the activity of both RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerases. This study compared the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a test and reference formulation of nevirapine 200-mg tablets after single oral doses in healthy Chinese men to meet regulatory criteria for marketing of the new generic formulation. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-way crossover study was conducted at the Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Healthy male Chinese volunteers were randomized in a 1∶1 ratio to receive a single 200-mg (3.2-mg/kg) tablet of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 2-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 10-hour overnight fast. Concentrations of nevirapine were assayed using an HPLC-UV method. For analysis of nevirapine pharmacokinetic parameters, blood samples were obtained before dosing and at regularly scheduled intervals over 168 hours after administration. The 2 formulations would be assumed to be bioequivalent for regulatory purposes if the 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of nevirapine AUC and C(max) were within the range established by the US Food and Drug Administration (0.80-1.25). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study based on vital signs, physical examinations, 12-lead ECGs, and subject interviews concerning adverse events (AEs). Twenty Chinese male subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Their mean age was 23 years (range, 21-25 years), mean weight was 63 kg (range, 56-70 kg), and mean height was 171 cm (range, 166-176 cm). No period or sequence effect was observed. The mean (SD) t(½) was 38.12 (2.23) hours for the test tablet and 36.79 (5.06) hours for the

  20. Pharmacokinetic comparison of sustained- and immediate-release oral formulations of cilostazol in healthy Korean subjects: a randomized, open-label, 3-part, sequential, 2-period, crossover, single-dose, food-effect, and multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwan; Lim, Lay Ahyoung; Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Chung, Jae Yong; Choi, Jong Rak; Kim, Kiyoon; Park, Jin Woo; Yoon, Hosang; Lee, Jaeyong; Park, Min Soo; Park, Kyungsoo

    2011-12-01

    A sustained-release (SR) formulation of cilostazol was recently developed in Korea and was expected to yield a lower C(max) and a similar AUC to the immediate-release (IR) formulation. The goal of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of a newly developed SR formulation and an IR formulation of cilostazol after single- and multiple-dose administration and to evaluate the influence of food in healthy Korean subjects. This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized, 3-part, sequential, open-label, 2-period crossover study. Each part consisted of different subjects between the ages of 19 and 55 years. In part 1, each subject received a single dose of SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) and IR (100 mg × 2 tablets, BID) formulations of cilostazol orally 7 days apart in a fasted state. In part 2, each subject received a single dose of the SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) formulation of cilostazol 7 days apart in a fasted and a fed state. In part 3, each subject received multiple doses of the 2 formulations for 8 consecutive days 21 days apart. Blood samples were taken for 72 hours after the dose. Cilostazol pharmacokinetics were determined for both the parent drug and its metabolites (OPC-13015 and OPC-13213). Adverse events were evaluated through interviews and physical examinations. Among the 92 enrolled subjects (66 men, 26 women; part 1, n = 26; part 2, n = 26; part 3, n = 40), 87 completed the study. In part 1, all the primary pharmacokinetic parameters satisfied the criterion for assumed bioequivalence both in cilostazol and its metabolites, yielding 90% CI ratios of 0.9624 to 1.2323, 0.8873 to 1.1208, and 0.8919 to 1.1283 for C(max) and 0.8370 to 1.0134, 0.8204 to 0.9807, and 0.8134 to 0.9699 for AUC(0-last) of cilostazol, OPC-13015, and OPC-13213, respectively. In part 2, food intake increased C(max) and AUC significantly (P food and 23 with a high