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Sample records for single normal distribution

  1. The N'ormal Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An optimal way of choosing sample size in an opinion poll is indicated using the normal distribution. Introduction. In this article, the ubiquitous normal distribution is intro- duced as a convenient approximation for computing bino- mial probabilities for large values of n. Stirling's formula. • and DeMoivre-Laplace theorem ...

  2. Type I error rates of rare single nucleotide variants are inflated in tests of association with non-normally distributed traits using simple linear regression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Sung, Heejong; Sabourin, Jeremy A; Justice, Cristina M; Sorant, Alexa J M; Wilson, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of (a) the minor allele frequency of the single nucleotide variant (SNV), (b) the degree of departure from normality of the trait, and (c) the position of the SNVs on type I error rates were investigated in the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 19 whole exome sequence data. To test the distribution of the type I error rate, 5 simulated traits were considered: standard normal and gamma distributed traits; 2 transformed versions of the gamma trait (log 10 and rank-based inverse normal transformations); and trait Q1 provided by GAW 19. Each trait was tested with 313,340 SNVs. Tests of association were performed with simple linear regression and average type I error rates were determined for minor allele frequency classes. Rare SNVs (minor allele frequency < 0.05) showed inflated type I error rates for non-normally distributed traits that increased as the minor allele frequency decreased. The inflation of average type I error rates increased as the significance threshold decreased. Normally distributed traits did not show inflated type I error rates with respect to the minor allele frequency for rare SNVs. There was no consistent effect of transformation on the uniformity of the distribution of the location of SNVs with a type I error.

  3. A locally adaptive normal distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvanitidis, Georgios; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hauberg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    entropy distribution under the given metric. The underlying metric is, however, non-parametric. We develop a maximum likelihood algorithm to infer the distribution parameters that relies on a combination of gradient descent and Monte Carlo integration. We further extend the LAND to mixture models......The multivariate normal density is a monotonic function of the distance to the mean, and its ellipsoidal shape is due to the underlying Euclidean metric. We suggest to replace this metric with a locally adaptive, smoothly changing (Riemannian) metric that favors regions of high local density...

  4. Understanding a Normal Distribution of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltenfort, Mitchell G

    2015-12-01

    Assuming data follow a normal distribution is essential for many common statistical tests. However, what are normal data and when can we assume that a data set follows this distribution? What can be done to analyze non-normal data?

  5. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  6. Externally studentized normal midrange distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dêivide de Oliveira Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of externally studentized midrange was created based on the original studentization procedures of Student and was inspired in the distribution of the externally studentized range. The large use of the externally studentized range in multiple comparisons was also a motivation for developing this new distribution. This work aimed to derive analytic equations to distribution of the externally studentized midrange, obtaining the cumulative distribution, probability density and quantile functions and generating random values. This is a new distribution that the authors could not find any report in the literature. A second objective was to build an R package for obtaining numerically the probability density, cumulative distribution and quantile functions and make it available to the scientific community. The algorithms were proposed and implemented using Gauss-Legendre quadrature and the Newton-Raphson method in R software, resulting in the SMR package, available for download in the CRAN site. The implemented routines showed high accuracy proved by using Monte Carlo simulations and by comparing results with different number of quadrature points. Regarding to the precision to obtain the quantiles for cases where the degrees of freedom are close to 1 and the percentiles are close to 100%, it is recommended to use more than 64 quadrature points.

  7. A New Distribution-Random Limit Normal Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xiaolin; Yang, Shuzhen

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new distribution to improve tail risk modeling. Based on the classical normal distribution, we define a new distribution by a series of heat equations. Then, we use market data to verify our model.

  8. Sampling from the normal and exponential distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, K.R.; Wills, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for generating random numbers from the normal and exponential distributions are described. These involve dividing each function into subregions, and for each of these developing a method of sampling usually based on an acceptance rejection technique. When sampling from the normal or exponential distribution, each subregion provides the required random value with probability equal to the ratio of its area to the total area. Procedures written in FORTRAN for the CYBER 175/CDC 6600 system are provided to implement the two algorithms

  9. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Janssens (Artiena Soe); R. Heide (Rogier); J.C. den Hollander (Jan); P.G.M. Mulder (P. G M); B. Tank (Bhupendra); A.P. Oranje (Arnold)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__AIMS:__ To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. __METHODS:__ Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults.

  10. Ventilation-perfusion distribution in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth C; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P; Wilson, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Functional values of LogSD of the ventilation distribution (σ(V)) have been reported previously, but functional values of LogSD of the perfusion distribution (σ(q)) and the coefficient of correlation between ventilation and perfusion (ρ) have not been measured in humans. Here, we report values for σ(V), σ(q), and ρ obtained from wash-in data for three gases, helium and two soluble gases, acetylene and dimethyl ether. Normal subjects inspired gas containing the test gases, and the concentrations of the gases at end-expiration during the first 10 breaths were measured with the subjects at rest and at increasing levels of exercise. The regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was described by a bivariate log-normal distribution with parameters σ(V), σ(q), and ρ, and these parameters were evaluated by matching the values of expired gas concentrations calculated for this distribution to the measured values. Values of cardiac output and LogSD ventilation/perfusion (Va/Q) were obtained. At rest, σ(q) is high (1.08 ± 0.12). With the onset of ventilation, σ(q) decreases to 0.85 ± 0.09 but remains higher than σ(V) (0.43 ± 0.09) at all exercise levels. Rho increases to 0.87 ± 0.07, and the value of LogSD Va/Q for light and moderate exercise is primarily the result of the difference between the magnitudes of σ(q) and σ(V). With known values for the parameters, the bivariate distribution describes the comprehensive distribution of ventilation and perfusion that underlies the distribution of the Va/Q ratio.

  11. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, A S; Heide, R; den Hollander, J C; Mulder, P G M; Tank, B; Oranje, A P

    2005-03-01

    To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults. There was an uneven distribution of MCs in different body sites using the anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody technique. Numbers of MCs on the trunk, upper arm, and upper leg were similar, but were significantly different from those found on the lower leg and forearm. Two distinct groups were formed--proximal and distal. There were 77.0 MCs/mm2 at proximal body sites and 108.2 MCs/mm2 at distal sites. Adjusted for the adjacent diagnosis and age, this difference was consistent. The numbers of MCs in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders were not different from those in the control group. Differences in the numbers of MCs between the distal and the proximal body sites must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. A pilot study in patients with mastocytosis underlined the variation in the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin, but showed a considerable overlap. The observed numbers of MCs in adults cannot be extrapolated to children. MC numbers varied significantly between proximal and distal body sites and these differences must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. There was a considerable overlap between the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin.

  12. Single particle distributions, ch.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokzijl, R.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of inclusive single particle distributions is given for various particles. A comparison of particle cross-sections measured in K - p experiments at different center of mass energies shows that some of these cross-sections remain almost constant over a wide range of incoming K - momenta

  13. Radiation distribution sensing with normal optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawarabayashi, Jun; Mizuno, Ryoji; Naka, Ryotaro; Uritani, Akira; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Nagoya Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Tsujimura, Norio [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a radiation distribution monitor using a normal plastic optical fiber. The monitor has a long operating length (10m-100m) and can obtain continuous radiation distributions. A principle of the position sensing is based on a time-of-flight technique. The characteristics of this monitor to beta particles, gamma rays and fast neutrons were obtained. The spatial resolutions for beta particles ({sup 90}Sr{sup -90}Y), gamma rays ({sup 137}Cs) and D-T neutrons were 30 cm, 37 cm and 13 cm, respectively. The detection efficiencies for the beta rays, the gamma rays and D-T neutrons were 0.11%, 1.6x10{sup -5}% and 5.4x10{sup -4}%, respectively. The effective attenuation length of the detection efficiency was 18m. New principle of the position sensing based on spectroscopic analysis was also proposed. A preliminary test showed that the spectrum observed at the end of the fiber depended on the position of the irradiated point. This fact shows that the radiation distributions were calculated from the spectrum by mathematical deconvolution technique. (author)

  14. Radiation distribution sensing with normal optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarabayashi, Jun; Mizuno, Ryoji; Naka, Ryotaro; Uritani, Akira; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Tsujimura, Norio

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a radiation distribution monitor using a normal plastic optical fiber. The monitor has a long operating length (10m-100m) and can obtain continuous radiation distributions. A principle of the position sensing is based on a time-of-flight technique. The characteristics of this monitor to beta particles, gamma rays and fast neutrons were obtained. The spatial resolutions for beta particles ( 90 Sr -90 Y), gamma rays ( 137 Cs) and D-T neutrons were 30 cm, 37 cm and 13 cm, respectively. The detection efficiencies for the beta rays, the gamma rays and D-T neutrons were 0.11%, 1.6x10 -5 % and 5.4x10 -4 %, respectively. The effective attenuation length of the detection efficiency was 18m. New principle of the position sensing based on spectroscopic analysis was also proposed. A preliminary test showed that the spectrum observed at the end of the fiber depended on the position of the irradiated point. This fact shows that the radiation distributions were calculated from the spectrum by mathematical deconvolution technique. (author)

  15. Radiation distribution sensing with normal optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Kawarabayashi, J; Naka, R; Uritani, A; Watanabe, K I; Iguchi, T; Tsujimura, N

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a radiation distribution monitor using a normal plastic optical fiber. The monitor has a long operating length (10m-100m) and can obtain continuous radiation distributions. A principle of the position sensing is based on a time-of-flight technique. The characteristics of this monitor to beta particles, gamma rays and fast neutrons were obtained. The spatial resolutions for beta particles ( sup 9 sup 0 Sr sup - sup 9 sup 0 Y), gamma rays ( sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs) and D-T neutrons were 30 cm, 37 cm and 13 cm, respectively. The detection efficiencies for the beta rays, the gamma rays and D-T neutrons were 0.11%, 1.6x10 sup - sup 5 % and 5.4x10 sup - sup 4 %, respectively. The effective attenuation length of the detection efficiency was 18m. New principle of the position sensing based on spectroscopic analysis was also proposed. A preliminary test showed that the spectrum observed at the end of the fiber depended on the position of the irradiated point. This fact shows that t...

  16. Correlated random sampling for multivariate normal and log-normal distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej; Kodeli, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for correlated random sampling is presented. Representative samples for multivariate normal or log-normal distribution can be produced. Furthermore, any combination of normally and log-normally distributed correlated variables may be sampled to any requested accuracy. Possible applications of the method include sampling of resonance parameters which are used for reactor calculations.

  17. About normal distribution on SO(3) group in texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savyolova, T. I.; Filatov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    This article studies and compares different normal distributions (NDs) on SO(3) group, which are used in texture analysis. Those NDs are: Fisher normal distribution (FND), Bunge normal distribution (BND), central normal distribution (CND) and wrapped normal distribution (WND). All of the previously mentioned NDs are central functions on SO(3) group. CND is a subcase for normal CLT-motivated distributions on SO(3) (CLT here is Parthasarathy’s central limit theorem). WND is motivated by CLT in R 3 and mapped to SO(3) group. A Monte Carlo method for modeling normally distributed values was studied for both CND and WND. All of the NDs mentioned above are used for modeling different components of crystallites orientation distribution function in texture analysis.

  18. Scale and shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Arellano-Valle, Reinaldo B.; Ferreira, Clé cio S.; Genton, Marc G.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a broad and flexible class of multivariate distributions obtained by both scale and shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions. We present the probabilistic properties of this family of distributions in detail and lay down

  19. A study of Huntington disease-like syndromes in black South African patients reveals a single SCA2 mutation and a unique distribution of normal alleles across five repeat loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Fiona K; Peerbhai, Nabeelah; Krause, Amanda

    2018-07-15

    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterised by a triad of movement disorder, emotional and behavioural disturbances and cognitive impairment. The underlying cause is an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. For a small proportion of patients presenting with HD-like symptoms, the mutation in this gene is not identified and they are said to have a HD "phenocopy". South Africa has the highest number of recorded cases of an African-specific phenocopy, Huntington disease-like 2 (HDL2), caused by a repeat expansion in the junctophilin-3 gene. However, a significant proportion of black patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of HD still test negative for HD and HDL2. This study thus aimed to investigate five other loci associated with HD phenocopy syndromes - ATN1, ATXN2, ATXN7, TBP and C9orf72. In a sample of patients in whom HD and HDL2 had been excluded, a single expansion was identified in the ATXN2 gene, confirming a diagnosis of Spinocerebellar ataxia 2. The results indicate that common repeat expansion disorders do not contribute significantly to the HD-like phenotype in black South African patients. Importantly, allele sizing reveals unique distributions of normal repeat lengths across the associated loci in the African population studied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Normal regional distribution of cerebral blood flow in dogs: comparison between (99m) Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer and (99m) Tc- hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Antita; Polis, Ingeborgh; Waelbers, Tim; Vandermeulen, Eva; Dobbeleir, André; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging provides important insights into canine brain pathologies such as behavioral problems. Two (99m) Tc-labeled single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow tracers-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) and hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-are commonly used in human medicine and have been used previously in dogs but intrasubject comparison of both tracers in dogs is lacking. Therefore, this study investigated whether regional distribution differences between both tracers occur in dogs as is reported in humans. Eight beagles underwent two SPECT examinations first with (99m) Tc-ECD and followed by (99m) Tc-HMPAO. SPECT scanning was performed with a triple head gamma camera equipped with ultrahigh resolution parallel hole collimators. Images were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with a Butterworth filter. Emission data were fitted to a template permitting semiquantification using predefined regions or volumes of interest (VOIs). For each VOI, perfusion indices were calculated by normalizing the regional counts per voxel to total brain counts per voxel. The obtained perfusion indices for each region for both tracers were compared with a paired Student's T-test. Significant (P < 0.05) regional differences were seen in the subcortical region and the cerebellum. Both tracers can be used to visualize regional cerebral blood flow in dogs, however, due to the observed regional differences, they are not entirely interchangeable. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  1. Determining Normal-Distribution Tolerance Bounds Graphically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical method requires calculations and table lookup. Distribution established from only three points: mean upper and lower confidence bounds and lower confidence bound of standard deviation. Method requires only few calculations with simple equations. Graphical procedure establishes best-fit line for measured data and bounds for selected confidence level and any distribution percentile.

  2. The exp-normal distribution is infinitely divisible

    OpenAIRE

    Pinelis, Iosif

    2018-01-01

    Let $Z$ be a standard normal random variable (r.v.). It is shown that the distribution of the r.v. $\\ln|Z|$ is infinitely divisible; equivalently, the standard normal distribution considered as the distribution on the multiplicative group over $\\mathbb{R}\\setminus\\{0\\}$ is infinitely divisible.

  3. Modified Normal Demand Distributions in (R,S)-Inventory Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbosch, L.W.G.; Moors, J.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    To model demand, the normal distribution is by far the most popular; the disadvantage that it takes negative values is taken for granted.This paper proposes two modi.cations of the normal distribution, both taking non-negative values only.Safety factors and order-up-to-levels for the familiar (R,

  4. Inheritance of Properties of Normal and Non-Normal Distributions after Transformation of Scores to Ranks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how population parameters representing heterogeneity of variance, skewness, kurtosis, bimodality, and outlier-proneness, drawn from normal and eleven non-normal distributions, also characterized the ranks corresponding to independent samples of scores. When the parameters of population distributions from which samples were…

  5. Statistical properties of the normalized ice particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoë, Julien; Protat, Alain; Testud, Jacques; Bouniol, Dominique; Heymsfield, A. J.; Bansemer, A.; Brown, P. R. A.; Forbes, R. M.

    2005-05-01

    Testud et al. (2001) have recently developed a formalism, known as the "normalized particle size distribution (PSD)", which consists in scaling the diameter and concentration axes in such a way that the normalized PSDs are independent of water content and mean volume-weighted diameter. In this paper we investigate the statistical properties of the normalized PSD for the particular case of ice clouds, which are known to play a crucial role in the Earth's radiation balance. To do so, an extensive database of airborne in situ microphysical measurements has been constructed. A remarkable stability in shape of the normalized PSD is obtained. The impact of using a single analytical shape to represent all PSDs in the database is estimated through an error analysis on the instrumental (radar reflectivity and attenuation) and cloud (ice water content, effective radius, terminal fall velocity of ice crystals, visible extinction) properties. This resulted in a roughly unbiased estimate of the instrumental and cloud parameters, with small standard deviations ranging from 5 to 12%. This error is found to be roughly independent of the temperature range. This stability in shape and its single analytical approximation implies that two parameters are now sufficient to describe any normalized PSD in ice clouds: the intercept parameter N*0 and the mean volume-weighted diameter Dm. Statistical relationships (parameterizations) between N*0 and Dm have then been evaluated in order to reduce again the number of unknowns. It has been shown that a parameterization of N*0 and Dm by temperature could not be envisaged to retrieve the cloud parameters. Nevertheless, Dm-T and mean maximum dimension diameter -T parameterizations have been derived and compared to the parameterization of Kristjánsson et al. (2000) currently used to characterize particle size in climate models. The new parameterization generally produces larger particle sizes at any temperature than the Kristjánsson et al. (2000

  6. Software reliability growth models with normal failure time distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Hiroyuki; Dohi, Tadashi; Osaki, Shunji

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes software reliability growth models (SRGM) where the software failure time follows a normal distribution. The proposed model is mathematically tractable and has sufficient ability of fitting to the software failure data. In particular, we consider the parameter estimation algorithm for the SRGM with normal distribution. The developed algorithm is based on an EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm and is quite simple for implementation as software application. Numerical experiment is devoted to investigating the fitting ability of the SRGMs with normal distribution through 16 types of failure time data collected in real software projects

  7. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used in child......Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used...

  8. Application of a truncated normal failure distribution in reliability testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, C., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Statistical truncated normal distribution function is applied as a time-to-failure distribution function in equipment reliability estimations. Age-dependent characteristics of the truncated function provide a basis for formulating a system of high-reliability testing that effectively merges statistical, engineering, and cost considerations.

  9. Reliability assessment based on small samples of normal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhibo; Zhu Jianshi; Xu Naixin

    2003-01-01

    When the pertinent parameter involved in reliability definition complies with normal distribution, the conjugate prior of its distributing parameters (μ, h) is of normal-gamma distribution. With the help of maximum entropy and the moments-equivalence principles, the subjective information of the parameter and the sampling data of its independent variables are transformed to a Bayesian prior of (μ,h). The desired estimates are obtained from either the prior or the posterior which is formed by combining the prior and sampling data. Computing methods are described and examples are presented to give demonstrations

  10. Scale and shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Arellano-Valle, Reinaldo B.

    2018-02-26

    We introduce a broad and flexible class of multivariate distributions obtained by both scale and shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions. We present the probabilistic properties of this family of distributions in detail and lay down the theoretical foundations for subsequent inference with this model. In particular, we study linear transformations, marginal distributions, selection representations, stochastic representations and hierarchical representations. We also describe an EM-type algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of the model and demonstrate its implementation on a wind dataset. Our family of multivariate distributions unifies and extends many existing models of the literature that can be seen as submodels of our proposal.

  11. Visualizing Tensor Normal Distributions at Multiple Levels of Detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasloo, Amin; Wiens, Vitalis; Hermann, Max; Schultz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Despite the widely recognized importance of symmetric second order tensor fields in medicine and engineering, the visualization of data uncertainty in tensor fields is still in its infancy. A recently proposed tensorial normal distribution, involving a fourth order covariance tensor, provides a mathematical description of how different aspects of the tensor field, such as trace, anisotropy, or orientation, vary and covary at each point. However, this wealth of information is far too rich for a human analyst to take in at a single glance, and no suitable visualization tools are available. We propose a novel approach that facilitates visual analysis of tensor covariance at multiple levels of detail. We start with a visual abstraction that uses slice views and direct volume rendering to indicate large-scale changes in the covariance structure, and locations with high overall variance. We then provide tools for interactive exploration, making it possible to drill down into different types of variability, such as in shape or orientation. Finally, we allow the analyst to focus on specific locations of the field, and provide tensor glyph animations and overlays that intuitively depict confidence intervals at those points. Our system is demonstrated by investigating the effects of measurement noise on diffusion tensor MRI, and by analyzing two ensembles of stress tensor fields from solid mechanics.

  12. Single cell analysis of normal and leukemic hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Benjamin J; Rodriguez-Meira, Alba; Mead, Adam J

    2018-02-01

    The hematopoietic system is well established as a paradigm for the study of cellular hierarchies, their disruption in disease and therapeutic use in regenerative medicine. Traditional approaches to study hematopoiesis involve purification of cell populations based on a small number of surface markers. However, such population-based analysis obscures underlying heterogeneity contained within any phenotypically defined cell population. This heterogeneity can only be resolved through single cell analysis. Recent advances in single cell techniques allow analysis of the genome, transcriptome, epigenome and proteome in single cells at an unprecedented scale. The application of these new single cell methods to investigate the hematopoietic system has led to paradigm shifts in our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in hematopoiesis and how this is disrupted in disease. In this review, we summarize how single cell techniques have been applied to the analysis of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in normal and malignant hematopoiesis, with a particular focus on recent advances in single-cell genomics, including how these might be utilized for clinical application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Multivariate stochastic simulation with subjective multivariate normal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Ince; J. Buongiorno

    1991-01-01

    In many applications of Monte Carlo simulation in forestry or forest products, it may be known that some variables are correlated. However, for simplicity, in most simulations it has been assumed that random variables are independently distributed. This report describes an alternative Monte Carlo simulation technique for subjectively assesed multivariate normal...

  14. Sketching Curves for Normal Distributions--Geometric Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Within statistics instruction, students are often requested to sketch the curve representing a normal distribution with a given mean and standard deviation. Unfortunately, these sketches are often notoriously imprecise. Poor sketches are usually the result of missing mathematical knowledge. This paper considers relationships which exist among…

  15. Improved Root Normal Size Distributions for Liquid Atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    ANSI Std. Z39.18 j CONVERSION TABLE Conversion Factors for U.S. Customary to metric (SI) units of measurement. MULTIPLY BY TO...Gray (Gy) coulomb /kilogram (C/kg) second (s) kilogram (kg) kilo pascal (kPa) 1 Improved Root Normal Size Distributions for Liquid

  16. Confidence bounds for normal and lognormal distribution coefficients of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares the so-called exact approach for obtaining confidence intervals on normal distribution coefficients of variation to approximate methods. Approximate approaches were found to perform less well than the exact approach for large coefficients of variation and small sample sizes. Web-based computer programs are described for calculating confidence...

  17. RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-cell Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgashev, Valery A; Higo, Toshiyasu; Nantista, Christopher D; Tantawi, Sami G

    2005-01-01

    Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials an...

  18. Evaluating Transfer Entropy for Normal and y-Order Normal Distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváčková-Schindler, Kateřina; Toulias, T. L.; Kitsos, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2016), s. 1-20 ISSN 2231-0851 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Transfer entropy * time series * Kullback-Leibler divergence * causality * generalized normal distribution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/hlavackova-schindler-0461261.pdf

  19. Percentile estimation using the normal and lognormal probability distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bement, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    Implicitly or explicitly percentile estimation is an important aspect of the analysis of aerial radiometric survey data. Standard deviation maps are produced for quadrangles which are surveyed as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. These maps show where variables differ from their mean values by more than one, two or three standard deviations. Data may or may not be log-transformed prior to analysis. These maps have specific percentile interpretations only when proper distributional assumptions are met. Monte Carlo results are presented in this paper which show the consequences of estimating percentiles by: (1) assuming normality when the data are really from a lognormal distribution; and (2) assuming lognormality when the data are really from a normal distribution

  20. Single-mode biological distributed feedback laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Lemmer, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Single-mode second order distributed feedback (DFB) lasers of riboflavin (vitamin B2) doped gelatine films on nanostructured low refractive index material are demonstrated. Manufacturing is based on a simple UV nanoimprint and spin-coating. Emission wavelengths of 543 nm and 562 nm for two...

  1. Optimum parameters in a model for tumour control probability, including interpatient heterogeneity: evaluation of the log-normal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, P J; Webb, S

    2007-01-01

    The heterogeneity of human tumour radiation response is well known. Researchers have used the normal distribution to describe interpatient tumour radiosensitivity. However, many natural phenomena show a log-normal distribution. Log-normal distributions are common when mean values are low, variances are large and values cannot be negative. These conditions apply to radiosensitivity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the log-normal distribution to predict clinical tumour control probability (TCP) data and to compare the results with the homogeneous (δ-function with single α-value) and normal distributions. The clinically derived TCP data for four tumour types-melanoma, breast, squamous cell carcinoma and nodes-were used to fit the TCP models. Three forms of interpatient tumour radiosensitivity were considered: the log-normal, normal and δ-function. The free parameters in the models were the radiosensitivity mean, standard deviation and clonogenic cell density. The evaluation metric was the deviance of the maximum likelihood estimation of the fit of the TCP calculated using the predicted parameters to the clinical data. We conclude that (1) the log-normal and normal distributions of interpatient tumour radiosensitivity heterogeneity more closely describe clinical TCP data than a single radiosensitivity value and (2) the log-normal distribution has some theoretical and practical advantages over the normal distribution. Further work is needed to test these models on higher quality clinical outcome datasets

  2. Transformation of an empirical distribution to normal distribution by the use of Johnson system of translation and symmetrical quantile method

    OpenAIRE

    Ludvík Friebel; Jana Friebelová

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with approximation of empirical distribution to standard normal distribution using Johnson transformation. This transformation enables us to approximate wide spectrum of continuous distributions with a normal distribution. The estimation of parameters of transformation formulas is based on percentiles of empirical distribution. There are derived theoretical probability distribution functions of random variable obtained on the base of backward transformation standard normal ...

  3. Principal Component Analysis for Normal-Distribution-Valued Symbolic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiwen; Chen, Meiling; Shi, Xiaojun; Li, Nan

    2016-02-01

    This paper puts forward a new approach to principal component analysis (PCA) for normal-distribution-valued symbolic data, which has a vast potential of applications in the economic and management field. We derive a full set of numerical characteristics and variance-covariance structure for such data, which forms the foundation for our analytical PCA approach. Our approach is able to use all of the variance information in the original data than the prevailing representative-type approach in the literature which only uses centers, vertices, etc. The paper also provides an accurate approach to constructing the observations in a PC space based on the linear additivity property of normal distribution. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by simulated numerical experiments. At last, our method is applied to explain the puzzle of risk-return tradeoff in China's stock market.

  4. Distributive justice and cognitive enhancement in lower, normal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mikael; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    There exists a significant disparity within society between individuals in terms of intelligence. While intelligence varies naturally throughout society, the extent to which this impacts on the life opportunities it affords to each individual is greatly undervalued. Intelligence appears to have a prominent effect over a broad range of social and economic life outcomes. Many key determinants of well-being correlate highly with the results of IQ tests, and other measures of intelligence, and an IQ of 75 is generally accepted as the most important threshold in modern life. The ability to enhance our cognitive capacities offers an exciting opportunity to correct disabling natural variation and inequality in intelligence. Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, such as modafinil and methylphenidate, have been shown to have the capacity to enhance cognition in normal, healthy individuals. Perhaps of most relevance is the presence of an 'inverted U effect' for most pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, whereby the degree of enhancement increases as intelligence levels deviate further below the mean. Although enhancement, including cognitive enhancement, has been much debated recently, we argue that there are egalitarian reasons to enhance individuals with low but normal intelligence. Under egalitarianism, cognitive enhancement has the potential to reduce opportunity inequality and contribute to relative income and welfare equality in the lower, normal intelligence subgroup. Cognitive enhancement use is justifiable under prioritarianism through various means of distribution; selective access to the lower, normal intelligence subgroup, universal access, or paradoxically through access primarily to the average and above average intelligence subgroups. Similarly, an aggregate increase in social well-being is achieved through similar means of distribution under utilitarianism. In addition, the use of cognitive enhancement within the lower, normal intelligence subgroup negates, or at

  5. RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Nantista, C.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.

    2006-01-01

    Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM 01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials and preparation techniques with short turn-around time. Simple 2D geometry of the test structures simplifies modeling of the breakdown currents and their thermal effects

  6. Distribution of normal superficial ocular vessels in digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Touka; Ehsaei, Asieh; Pourreza, Hamidreza; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Basiri, Mohsen; Daneshvar Kakhki, Ramin; Pourreza, Reza

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the distribution of different-sized vessels in the digital images of the ocular surface, an endeavor which may provide useful information for future studies. This study included 295 healthy individuals. From each participant, four digital photographs of the superior and inferior conjunctivae of both eyes, with a fixed succession of photography (right upper, right lower, left upper, left lower), were taken with a slit lamp mounted camera. Photographs were then analyzed by a previously described algorithm for vessel detection in the digital images. The area (of the image) occupied by vessels (AOV) of different sizes was measured. Height, weight, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and hemoglobin levels were also measured and the relationship between these parameters and the AOV was investigated. These findings indicated a statistically significant difference in the distribution of the AOV among the four conjunctival areas. No significant correlations were noted between the AOV of each conjunctival area and the different demographic and biometric factors. Medium-sized vessels were the most abundant vessels in the photographs of the four investigated conjunctival areas. The AOV of the different sizes of vessels follows a normal distribution curve in the four areas of the conjunctiva. The distribution of the vessels in successive photographs changes in a specific manner, with the mean AOV becoming larger as the photos were taken from the right upper to the left lower area. The AOV of vessel sizes has a normal distribution curve and medium-sized vessels occupy the largest area of the photograph. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The normal distribution of thoracoabdominal aorta small branch artery ostia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, Paul; Williams, David M.; Vellody, Ranjith; Kelly, Aine Marie; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Carlos, Ruth C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal distribution of aortic branch artery ostia. CT scans of 100 subjects were retrospectively reviewed. The angular distributions of the aorta with respect to the center of the T3 to L4 vertebral bodies, and of branch artery origins with respect to the center of the aorta were measured. At each vertebral body level the distribution of intercostal/lumbar arteries and other branch arteries were calculated. The proximal descending aorta is posteriorly placed becoming a midline structure, at the thoracolumbar junction, and remains anterior to the vertebral bodies within the abdomen. The intercostal and lumbar artery ostia have a distinct distribution. At each vertebral level from T3 caudally, one intercostal artery originates from the posterior wall of the aorta throughout the thoracic aorta, while the other intercostal artery originates from the medial wall of the descending thoracic aorta high in the chest, posteromedially from the mid-thoracic aorta, and from the posterior wall of the aorta low in the chest. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Lumbar branches originate only from the posterior wall of the abdominal aorta. Aortic branch artery origins arise with a bimodal distribution and have a characteristic location. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Knowing the location of aortic branch artery ostia may help distinguish branch artery pseudoaneurysms from penetrating ulcers.

  8. Computation of distribution of minimum resolution for log-normal distribution of chromatographic peak heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe M

    2011-10-28

    General equations are derived for the distribution of minimum resolution between two chromatographic peaks, when peak heights in a multi-component chromatogram follow a continuous statistical distribution. The derivation draws on published theory by relating the area under the distribution of minimum resolution to the area under the distribution of the ratio of peak heights, which in turn is derived from the peak-height distribution. Two procedures are proposed for the equations' numerical solution. The procedures are applied to the log-normal distribution, which recently was reported to describe the distribution of component concentrations in three complex natural mixtures. For published statistical parameters of these mixtures, the distribution of minimum resolution is similar to that for the commonly assumed exponential distribution of peak heights used in statistical-overlap theory. However, these two distributions of minimum resolution can differ markedly, depending on the scale parameter of the log-normal distribution. Theory for the computation of the distribution of minimum resolution is extended to other cases of interest. With the log-normal distribution of peak heights as an example, the distribution of minimum resolution is computed when small peaks are lost due to noise or detection limits, and when the height of at least one peak is less than an upper limit. The distribution of minimum resolution shifts slightly to lower resolution values in the first case and to markedly larger resolution values in the second one. The theory and numerical procedure are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distributed quantum computing with single photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beige, A.; Kwek, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Distributed quantum computing requires the ability to perform nonlocal gate operations between the distant nodes (stationary qubits) of a large network. To achieve this, it has been proposed to interconvert stationary qubits with flying qubits. In contrast to this, we show that distributed quantum computing only requires the ability to encode stationary qubits into flying qubits but not the conversion of flying qubits into stationary qubits. We describe a scheme for the realization of an eventually deterministic controlled phase gate by performing measurements on pairs of flying qubits. Our scheme could be implemented with a linear optics quantum computing setup including sources for the generation of single photons on demand, linear optics elements and photon detectors. In the presence of photon loss and finite detector efficiencies, the scheme could be used to build large cluster states for one way quantum computing with a high fidelity. (author)

  10. Concentration distribution of trace elements: from normal distribution to Levy flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses a nature of concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, which were measured by using the X-ray fluorescence techniques (XRF, TXRF). Our earlier observation, that the lognormal distribution well describes the measured concentration distribution is explained here on a more general ground. Particularly, the role of random multiplicative process, which models the concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, is discussed in detail. It is demonstrated that the lognormal distribution, appearing when the multiplicative process is driven by normal distribution, can be generalized to the so-called log-stable distribution. Such distribution describes the random multiplicative process, which is driven, instead of normal distribution, by more general stable distribution, being known as the Levy flights. The presented ideas are exemplified by the results of the study of trace element concentration distributions in selected biomedical samples, obtained by using the conventional (XRF) and (TXRF) X-ray fluorescence methods. Particularly, the first observation of log-stable concentration distribution of trace elements is reported and discussed here in detail

  11. Characteristic functions of scale mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoung-Moon

    2011-08-01

    We obtain the characteristic function of scale mixtures of skew-normal distributions both in the univariate and multivariate cases. The derivation uses the simple stochastic relationship between skew-normal distributions and scale mixtures of skew-normal distributions. In particular, we describe the characteristic function of skew-normal, skew-t, and other related distributions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Single versus mixture Weibull distributions for nonparametric satellite reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Long recognized as a critical design attribute for space systems, satellite reliability has not yet received the proper attention as limited on-orbit failure data and statistical analyses can be found in the technical literature. To fill this gap, we recently conducted a nonparametric analysis of satellite reliability for 1584 Earth-orbiting satellites launched between January 1990 and October 2008. In this paper, we provide an advanced parametric fit, based on mixture of Weibull distributions, and compare it with the single Weibull distribution model obtained with the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method. We demonstrate that both parametric fits are good approximations of the nonparametric satellite reliability, but that the mixture Weibull distribution provides significant accuracy in capturing all the failure trends in the failure data, as evidenced by the analysis of the residuals and their quasi-normal dispersion.

  13. Basic study on radiation distribution sensing with normal optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, R.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Uritani, A.; Iguchi, T.; Kaneko, J.; Takeuchi, H.; Kakuta, T.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, some methods of radiation distribution sensing with optical fibers have been proposed. These methods employ scintillating fibers or scintillators with wavelength-shifting fibers. The positions of radiation interactions are detected by applying a time-of-flight (TOF) technique to the scintillation photon propagation. In the former method, the attenuation length for the scintillation photons in the scintillating fiber is relatively short, so that the operating length of the sensor is limited to several meters. In the latter method, a radiation distribution cannot continuously be obtained but discretely. To improve these shortcomings, a normal optical fiber made of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is used in this study. Although the scintillation efficiency of PMMA is very low, several photons are emitted through interaction with a radiation. The fiber is transparent for the emitted photons to have a relatively long operating length. A radiation distribution can continuously be obtained. This paper describes a principle of the position sensing method based on the time of flight technique and preliminary results obtained for 90 Sr- 90 Y beta rays, 137 Cs gamma rays, and 14 MeV neutrons. The spatial resolutions for the above three kinds of radiations are 0.30 m, 0.37 m, 0.13 m, and the detection efficiencies are 1.1 x 10 -3 , 1.6 x 10 -7 , 5.4 x 10 -6 , respectively, with 10 m operation length. The results of a spectroscopic study on the optical property of the fiber are also described. (author)

  14. Normal distribution of /sup 111/In chloride on scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, K; Machida, K; Hayashi, S; Watari, T; Akaike, A

    1977-05-01

    Indium-111-chloride (/sup 111/InCl/sub 3/) was used as a bone marrow imaging and a tumor-localizing agent in 38 patients (46 scintigrams), who were suspected of, or diagnosed as, having malignant disease, and who were irradiated for malignant disease. The regions of suspected malignant disease, of abnormally accumulated on scintigrams, and the target irradiated, were excluded to estimate the normal distribution of /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/. Scintigrams were taken 48 hrs after intravenous injection of /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ 1 to 3 mCi. The percent and score distribution of /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ were noted in 23 regions. As the liver showed the highest accumulation of /sup 111/In on all scintigrams, the liver was designated as 2+. Comparing with the radioactivity in the liver, other regions had similar (2+), moderately decreased (+), or severely decreased (-) accumulation on scintigram. The score is given one for 2+, 0.5 for +, 0 for -. The score and percentage distributions were: liver 100 (100%), lumbar vertebra 58.5 (100%), mediastinum 55 (100%), nasopharynx 50 (100%), testis 47.5 (59%), heart 44.5 (89%), and pelvis 43.5 (78%). Comparing this study with a previous study of /sup 111/In-BLM, score distribution in lumbar vertebra, pelvis, and skull were similar. /sup 111/In-BLM is excreted rapidly after injection, but little /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is excreted. Accumulation of /sup 111/In in bone marrow depends upon the amount of /sup 111/In-transferrin in blood. High accumulation in the lumbar vertebra and pelvis shows that /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ would be effective as a bone marrow imaging agent.

  15. Dobinski-type relations and the log-normal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, P; Penson, K A; Solomon, A I

    2003-01-01

    We consider sequences of generalized Bell numbers B(n), n = 1, 2, ..., which can be represented by Dobinski-type summation formulae, i.e. B(n) = 1/C Σ k =0 ∞ [P(k)] n /D(k), with P(k) a polynomial, D(k) a function of k and C = const. They include the standard Bell numbers (P(k) k, D(k) = k!, C = e), their generalizations B r,r (n), r = 2, 3, ..., appearing in the normal ordering of powers of boson monomials (P(k) (k+r)!/k!, D(k) = k!, C = e), variants of 'ordered' Bell numbers B o (p) (n) (P(k) = k, D(k) = (p+1/p) k , C = 1 + p, p = 1, 2 ...), etc. We demonstrate that for α, β, γ, t positive integers (α, t ≠ 0), [B(αn 2 + βn + γ)] t is the nth moment of a positive function on (0, ∞) which is a weighted infinite sum of log-normal distributions. (letter to the editor)

  16. Characteristic functions of scale mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoung-Moon; Genton, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the characteristic function of scale mixtures of skew-normal distributions both in the univariate and multivariate cases. The derivation uses the simple stochastic relationship between skew-normal distributions and scale mixtures of skew

  17. Comparing of Normal Stress Distribution in Static and Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholdebarin, Alireza; Massumi, Ali; Davoodi, Mohammad; Tabatabaiefar, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    It is important to consider the vertical component of earthquake loading and inertia force in soil-structure interaction analyses. In most circumstances, design engineers are primarily concerned about the analysis of behavior of foundations subjected to earthquake-induced forces transmitted from the bedrock. In this research, a single rigid foundation with designated geometrical parameters located on sandy-clay soil has been modeled in FLAC software with Finite Different Method and subjected to three different vertical components of earthquake records. In these cases, it is important to evaluate effect of footing on underlying soil and to consider normal stress in soil with and without footing. The distribution of normal stress under the footing in static and dynamic states has been studied and compared. This Comparison indicated that, increasing in normal stress under the footing caused by vertical component of ground excitations, has decreased dynamic vertical settlement in comparison with static state

  18. Retention and subcellular distribution of 67Ga in normal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, A.; Ando, I.; Hiraki, T.

    1986-01-01

    Using normal rats, retention values and subcellular distribution of 67 Ga in each organ were investigated. At 10 min after administration of 67 Ga-citrate the retention value of 67 Ga in blood was 6.77% dose/g, and this value decreased with time. The values for skeletal muscle, lung, pancreas, adrenal, heart muscle, brain, small intestine, large intestine and spinal cord were the highest at 10 min after administration, and they decreased with time. Conversely this value in bone increased until 10 days after injection. But in the liver, kidney, and stomach, these values increased with time after administration and were highest 24 h or 48 h after injection. After that, they decreased with time. The value in spleen reached a plateau 48 h after administration, and hardly varied for 10 days. From the results of subcellular fractionation, it was deduced that lysosome plays quite an important role in the concentration of 67 Ga in small intestine, stomach, lung, kidney and pancreas; a lesser role in its concentration in heart muscle, and hardly any role in the 67 Ga accumulation in skeletal muscle. In spleen, the contents in nuclear, mitochrondrial, microsomal, and supernatant fractions all contributed to the accumulation of 67 Ga. (orig.) [de

  19. Unexpectedly normal phase behavior of single homopolymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, W.; Strauch, T.; Rampf, F.; Binder, K.

    2007-01-01

    Employing Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the topology of the phase diagram of a single flexible homopolymer chain changes in dependence on the range of an attractive square well interaction between the monomers. For a range of attraction larger than a critical value, the equilibrium phase diagram of the single polymer chain and the corresponding polymer solution phase diagram exhibit vapor (swollen coil, dilute solution), liquid (collapsed globule, dense solution), and solid phases. Otherwise, the liquid-vapor transition vanishes from the equilibrium phase diagram for both the single chain and the polymer solution. This change in topology of the phase diagram resembles the behavior known for colloidal dispersions. The interplay of enthalpy and conformational entropy in the polymer case thus can lead to the same topology of phase diagrams as the interplay of enthalpy and translational entropy in simple liquids

  20. Log-Normal Distribution in a Growing System with Weighted and Multiplicatively Interacting Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya

    2018-03-01

    A growing system with weighted and multiplicatively interacting particles is investigated. Each particle has a quantity that changes multiplicatively after a binary interaction, with its growth rate controlled by a weight parameter in a homogeneous symmetric kernel. We consider the system using moment inequalities and analytically derive the log-normal-type tail in the probability distribution function of quantities when the parameter is negative, which is different from the result for single-body multiplicative processes. We also find that the system approaches a winner-take-all state when the parameter is positive.

  1. Distributed Processing Using Single-chip Microcomputers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchett, William

    1996-01-01

    This project investigates the use of single-chip microprocessors as nodes in a token ring control network and explores the implementation of a protocol to manage communication across such a network...

  2. A general approach to double-moment normalization of drop size distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, G.W.; Zawadzki, I.; Szyrmer, W.; Sempere Torres, D.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2004-01-01

    Normalization of drop size distributions (DSDs) is reexamined here. First, an extension of the scaling normalization that uses one moment of the DSD as a scaling parameter to a more general scaling normalization that uses two moments as scaling parameters of the normalization is presented. In

  3. Breast cancer subtype distribution is different in normal weight, overweight, and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershuni, Victoria; Li, Yun R; Williams, Austin D; So, Alycia; Steel, Laura; Carrigan, Elena; Tchou, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with tumor promoting pathways related to insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation which have been linked to various disease states, including cancer. Many studies have focused on the relationship between obesity and increased estrogen production, which contributes to the pathogenesis of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. The link between obesity and other breast cancer subtypes, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and Her2/neu+ (Her2+) breast cancer, is less clear. We hypothesize that obesity may be associated with the pathogenesis of specific breast cancer subtypes resulting in a different subtype distribution than normal weight women. A single-institution, retrospective analysis of tumor characteristics of 848 patients diagnosed with primary operable breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 was performed to evaluate the association between BMI and clinical outcome. Patients were grouped based on their BMI at time of diagnosis stratified into three subgroups: normal weight (BMI = 18-24.9), overweight (BMI = 25-29.9), and obese (BMI > 30). The distribution of breast cancer subtypes across the three BMI subgroups was compared. Obese and overweight women were more likely to present with TNBC and normal weight women with Her2+ breast cancer (p = 0.008). We demonstrated, for the first time, that breast cancer subtype distribution varied significantly according to BMI status. Our results suggested that obesity might activate molecular pathways other than the well-known obesity/estrogen circuit in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Future studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms that drive the variation in subtype distribution across BMI subgroups.

  4. Distribution of lead in single atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Murphy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Three independent single particle mass spectrometers measured Pb in individual aerosol particles. These data provide unprecedented sensitivity and statistical significance for the measurement of Pb in single particles. This paper explores the reasons for the frequency of Pb in fine particles now that most gasoline is unleaded. Trace amounts of Pb were found in 5 to 25% of 250 to 3000 nm diameter particles sampled by both aircraft and surface instruments in the eastern and western United States. Over 5% of particles at a mountain site in Switzerland contained Pb. Particles smaller than 100 nm with high Pb content were also observed by an instrument that was only operated in urban areas. Lead was found on all types of particles, including Pb present on biomass burning particles from remote fires. Less common particles with high Pb contents contributed a majority of the total amount of Pb. Single particles with high Pb content often also contained alkali metals, Zn, Cu, Sn, As, and Sb. The association of Pb with Zn and other metals is also found in IMPROVE network filter data from surface sites. Sources of airborne Pb in the United States are reviewed for consistency with these data. The frequent appearance of trace Pb is consistent with widespread emissions of fine Pb particles from combustion sources followed by coagulation with larger particles during long-range transport. Industrial sources that directly emit Pb-rich particles also contribute to the observations. Clean regions of the western United States show some transport of Pb from Asia but most Pb over the United States comes from North American sources. Resuspension of Pb from soil contaminated by the years of leaded gasoline was not directly apparent.

  5. Distribution of lead in single atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D. M.; Hudson, P. K.; Cziczo, D. J.; Gallavardin, S.; Froyd, K. D.; Johnston, M. V.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Reinard, M. S.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Wexler, A. S.

    2007-06-01

    Three independent single particle mass spectrometers measured Pb in individual aerosol particles. These data provide unprecedented sensitivity and statistical significance for the measurement of Pb in single particles. This paper explores the reasons for the frequency of Pb in fine particles now that most gasoline is unleaded. Trace amounts of Pb were found in 5 to 25% of 250 to 3000 nm diameter particles sampled by both aircraft and surface instruments in the eastern and western United States. Over 5% of particles at a mountain site in Switzerland contained Pb. Particles smaller than 100 nm with high Pb content were also observed by an instrument that was only operated in urban areas. Lead was found on all types of particles, including Pb present on biomass burning particles from remote fires. Less common particles with high Pb contents contributed a majority of the total amount of Pb. Single particles with high Pb content often also contained alkali metals, Zn, Cu, Sn, As, and Sb. The association of Pb with Zn and other metals is also found in IMPROVE network filter data from surface sites. Sources of airborne Pb in the United States are reviewed for consistency with these data. The frequent appearance of trace Pb is consistent with widespread emissions of fine Pb particles from combustion sources followed by coagulation with larger particles during long-range transport. Industrial sources that directly emit Pb-rich particles also contribute to the observations. Clean regions of the western United States show some transport of Pb from Asia but most Pb over the United States comes from North American sources. Resuspension of Pb from soil contaminated by the years of leaded gasoline was not directly apparent.

  6. Stellar Distributions and NIR Colours of Normal Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Grijs, R. de

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: We discuss some results of a morphological study of edge-on galaxies, based on optical and especially near-infrared surface photometry. We find that the vertical surface brightness distributions of galaxies are fitted very well by exponential profiles, much better than by isothermal

  7. GROWTH RATE DISTRIBUTION OF BORAX SINGLE CRYSTALS ON THE (001 FACE UNDER VARIOUS FLOW RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth rates of borax single crystals from aqueous solutions at various flow rates in the (001 direction were measured using in situ cell method. From the growth rate data obtained, the growth rate distribution of borax crystals was investigated using Minitab Software and SPSS Software at relative supersaturation of 0807 and temperature of 25 °C. The result shows that normal, gamma, and log-normal distribution give a reasonably good fit to GRD. However, there is no correlation between growth rate distribution and flow rate of solution.   Keywords: growth rate dispersion (GRD, borax, flow rate

  8. Log-normal distribution from a process that is not multiplicative but is additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Hideaki

    2013-10-01

    The central limit theorem ensures that a sum of random variables tends to a Gaussian distribution as their total number tends to infinity. However, for a class of positive random variables, we find that the sum tends faster to a log-normal distribution. Although the sum tends eventually to a Gaussian distribution, the distribution of the sum is always close to a log-normal distribution rather than to any Gaussian distribution if the summands are numerous enough. This is in contrast to the current consensus that any log-normal distribution is due to a product of random variables, i.e., a multiplicative process, or equivalently to nonlinearity of the system. In fact, the log-normal distribution is also observable for a sum, i.e., an additive process that is typical of linear systems. We show conditions for such a sum, an analytical example, and an application to random scalar fields such as those of turbulence.

  9. Penalized Maximum Likelihood Estimation for univariate normal mixture distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridolfi, A.; Idier, J.

    2001-01-01

    Due to singularities of the likelihood function, the maximum likelihood approach for the estimation of the parameters of normal mixture models is an acknowledged ill posed optimization problem. Ill posedness is solved by penalizing the likelihood function. In the Bayesian framework, it amounts to incorporating an inverted gamma prior in the likelihood function. A penalized version of the EM algorithm is derived, which is still explicit and which intrinsically assures that the estimates are not singular. Numerical evidence of the latter property is put forward with a test

  10. The retest distribution of the visual field summary index mean deviation is close to normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew J; Cheng, Allan C Y; Lau, Samantha; Le-Pham, Anne; Liu, Victor; Rahman, Farahnaz

    2016-09-01

    When modelling optimum strategies for how best to determine visual field progression in glaucoma, it is commonly assumed that the summary index mean deviation (MD) is normally distributed on repeated testing. Here we tested whether this assumption is correct. We obtained 42 reliable 24-2 Humphrey Field Analyzer SITA standard visual fields from one eye of each of five healthy young observers, with the first two fields excluded from analysis. Previous work has shown that although MD variability is higher in glaucoma, the shape of the MD distribution is similar to that found in normal visual fields. A Shapiro-Wilks test determined any deviation from normality. Kurtosis values for the distributions were also calculated. Data from each observer passed the Shapiro-Wilks normality test. Bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals for kurtosis encompassed the value for a normal distribution in four of five observers. When examined with quantile-quantile plots, distributions were close to normal and showed no consistent deviations across observers. The retest distribution of MD is not significantly different from normal in healthy observers, and so is likely also normally distributed - or nearly so - in those with glaucoma. Our results increase our confidence in the results of influential modelling studies where a normal distribution for MD was assumed. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallidge, S.T.; Baker, T.T.; VanLeeuwen, D.; Gould, W.R.; Thompson, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  12. A novel generalized normal distribution for human longevity and other negatively skewed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Henry T; Allison, David B

    2012-01-01

    Negatively skewed data arise occasionally in statistical practice; perhaps the most familiar example is the distribution of human longevity. Although other generalizations of the normal distribution exist, we demonstrate a new alternative that apparently fits human longevity data better. We propose an alternative approach of a normal distribution whose scale parameter is conditioned on attained age. This approach is consistent with previous findings that longevity conditioned on survival to the modal age behaves like a normal distribution. We derive such a distribution and demonstrate its accuracy in modeling human longevity data from life tables. The new distribution is characterized by 1. An intuitively straightforward genesis; 2. Closed forms for the pdf, cdf, mode, quantile, and hazard functions; and 3. Accessibility to non-statisticians, based on its close relationship to the normal distribution.

  13. Is Middle-Upper Arm Circumference "normally" distributed? Secondary data analysis of 852 nutrition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Severine; Checchi, Francesco; Kerac, Marko; Nicholas, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Wasting is a major public health issue throughout the developing world. Out of the 6.9 million estimated deaths among children under five annually, over 800,000 deaths (11.6 %) are attributed to wasting. Wasting is quantified as low Weight-For-Height (WFH) and/or low Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) (since 2005). Many statistical procedures are based on the assumption that the data used are normally distributed. Analyses have been conducted on the distribution of WFH but there are no equivalent studies on the distribution of MUAC. This secondary data analysis assesses the normality of the MUAC distributions of 852 nutrition cross-sectional survey datasets of children from 6 to 59 months old and examines different approaches to normalise "non-normal" distributions. The distribution of MUAC showed no departure from a normal distribution in 319 (37.7 %) distributions using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Out of the 533 surveys showing departure from a normal distribution, 183 (34.3 %) were skewed (D'Agostino test) and 196 (36.8 %) had a kurtosis different to the one observed in the normal distribution (Anscombe-Glynn test). Testing for normality can be sensitive to data quality, design effect and sample size. Out of the 533 surveys showing departure from a normal distribution, 294 (55.2 %) showed high digit preference, 164 (30.8 %) had a large design effect, and 204 (38.3 %) a large sample size. Spline and LOESS smoothing techniques were explored and both techniques work well. After Spline smoothing, 56.7 % of the MUAC distributions showing departure from normality were "normalised" and 59.7 % after LOESS. Box-Cox power transformation had similar results on distributions showing departure from normality with 57 % of distributions approximating "normal" after transformation. Applying Box-Cox transformation after Spline or Loess smoothing techniques increased that proportion to 82.4 and 82.7 % respectively. This suggests that statistical approaches relying on the

  14. Back to Normal! Gaussianizing posterior distributions for cosmological probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Robert L.; Joachimi, Benjamin; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to map multivariate non-Gaussian posterior probability densities into Gaussian ones via nonlinear Box-Cox transformations, and generalizations thereof. This is analogous to the search for normal parameters in the CMB, but can in principle be applied to any probability density that is continuous and unimodal. The search for the optimally Gaussianizing transformation amongst the Box-Cox family is performed via a maximum likelihood formalism. We can judge the quality of the found transformation a posteriori: qualitatively via statistical tests of Gaussianity, and more illustratively by how well it reproduces the credible regions. The method permits an analytical reconstruction of the posterior from a sample, e.g. a Markov chain, and simplifies the subsequent joint analysis with other experiments. Furthermore, it permits the characterization of a non-Gaussian posterior in a compact and efficient way. The expression for the non-Gaussian posterior can be employed to find analytic formulae for the Bayesian evidence, and consequently be used for model comparison.

  15. Annual rainfall statistics for stations in the Top End of Australia: normal and log-normal distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardavas, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    A simple procedure is presented for the statistical analysis of measurement data where the primary concern is the determination of the value corresponding to a specified average exceedance probability. The analysis employs the normal and log-normal frequency distributions together with a χ 2 -test and an error analysis. The error analysis introduces the concept of a counting error criterion, or ζ-test, to test whether the data are sufficient to make the Z 2 -test reliable. The procedure is applied to the analysis of annual rainfall data recorded at stations in the tropical Top End of Australia where the Ranger uranium deposit is situated. 9 refs., 12 tabs., 9 figs

  16. Estimation of value at risk and conditional value at risk using normal mixture distributions model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzzaman, Zetty Ain; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    Normal mixture distributions model has been successfully applied in financial time series analysis. In this paper, we estimate the return distribution, value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) for monthly and weekly rates of returns for FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (FBMKLCI) from July 1990 until July 2010 using the two component univariate normal mixture distributions model. First, we present the application of normal mixture distributions model in empirical finance where we fit our real data. Second, we present the application of normal mixture distributions model in risk analysis where we apply the normal mixture distributions model to evaluate the value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) with model validation for both risk measures. The empirical results provide evidence that using the two components normal mixture distributions model can fit the data well and can perform better in estimating value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) where it can capture the stylized facts of non-normality and leptokurtosis in returns distribution.

  17. Normal and student´s t distributions and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad; Shakil, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The most important properties of normal and Student t-distributions are presented. A number of applications of these properties are demonstrated. New related results dealing with the distributions of the sum, product and ratio of the independent normal and Student distributions are presented. The materials will be useful to the advanced undergraduate and graduate students and practitioners in the various fields of science and engineering.

  18. Kullback–Leibler Divergence of the γ–ordered Normal over t–distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Toulias, T-L.; Kitsos, C-P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and study the Kullback–Leibler divergence of the γ–ordered Normal distribution, a generalization of Normal distribution emerged from the generalized Fisher’s information measure, over the scaled t–distribution. We investigate this evaluation through a series of bounds and approximations while the asymptotic behavior of the divergence is also studied. Moreover, we obtain a generalization of the known Kullback–Leibler information measure betwe...

  19. The law of distribution of light beam direction fluctuations in telescopes. [normal density functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divinskiy, M. L.; Kolchinskiy, I. G.

    1974-01-01

    The distribution of deviations from mean star trail directions was studied on the basis of 105 star trails. It was found that about 93% of the trails yield a distribution in agreement with the normal law. About 4% of the star trails agree with the Charlier distribution.

  20. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol response to single oral cholecalciferol loading in the normal weight, overweight, and obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzi, V; Frigo, A C; Zaninotto, M; Sanguin, F; Plebani, M; Boscaro, M; Schiavon, L; Luisetto, G

    2016-08-01

    After a single cholecalciferol load, peak serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD) is lower in individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI), probably due to it being distributed in a greater volume. Its subsequent disappearance from the serum is slower the higher the individual's BMI, probably due to the combination of a larger body volume and a slower release into the circulation of vitamin D stored in adipose tissue. The aim of the study is to examine 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD) response to a single oral load of cholecalciferol in the normal weight, overweight, and obese. We considered 55 healthy women aged from 25 to 67 years (mean ± SD, 50.8 ± 9.5) with a BMI ranging from 18.7 to 42 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD, 27.1 ± 6.0). The sample was divided into three groups by BMI: 20 were normal weight (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2)), 21 overweight (25.1 ≤ BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/ m(2)), and 14 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Each subject was given 300,000 IU of cholecalciferol orally during lunch. A fasting blood test was obtained before cholecalciferol loading and then 7, 30, and 90 days afterwards to measure serum 25OHD, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25 (OH)2D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P). Participants' absolute fat mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The fat mass of the normal weight subjects was significantly lower than that of the overweight, which in turn was lower than that of the obese participants. Serum 25OHD levels increased significantly in all groups, peaking 1 week after the cholecalciferol load. Peak serum 25OHD levels were lower the higher the individuals' BMI. After peaking, the 25OHD levels gradually decreased, following a significantly different trend in the three groups. The slope was similar for the overweight and obese, declining significantly more slowly than in the normal weight group. In the sample as a whole, there was a weakly significant negative correlation

  1. Distributed Feedback Laser Based on Single Crystal Perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a single crystal perovskite based, with grating-structured photoresist on top, highly polarized distributed feedback laser. A lower laser threshold than the Fabry-Perot mode lasers from the same single crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 microplate was obtained. Single crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 microplates was synthesized with one-step solution processed precipitation method. Once the photoresist on top of the microplate was patterned with electron beam, the device was realized. This one-step fabrication process utilized the advantage of single crystal to the greatest extend. The ultra-low defect density in single crystalline microplate offer an opportunity for lower threshold lasing action compare with poly-crystal perovskite films. In the experiment, the lasing action based on the distributed feedback grating design was found with lower threshold and higher intensity than the Fabry-Perot mode lasers supported by the flat facets of the same microplate.

  2. A general approach to double-moment normalization of drop size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G. W.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Zawadzki, I.

    2003-04-01

    Normalization of drop size distributions (DSDs) is re-examined here. First, we present an extension of scaling normalization using one moment of the DSD as a parameter (as introduced by Sempere-Torres et al, 1994) to a scaling normalization using two moments as parameters of the normalization. It is shown that the normalization of Testud et al. (2001) is a particular case of the two-moment scaling normalization. Thus, a unified vision of the question of DSDs normalization and a good model representation of DSDs is given. Data analysis shows that from the point of view of moment estimation least square regression is slightly more effective than moment estimation from the normalized average DSD.

  3. The approximation of the normal distribution by means of chaotic expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawnik, M

    2014-01-01

    The approximation of the normal distribution by means of a chaotic expression is achieved by means of Weierstrass function, where, for a certain set of parameters, the density of the derived recurrence renders good approximation of the bell curve

  4. Confidence bounds and hypothesis tests for normal distribution coefficients of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; Richard A. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    For normally distributed populations, we obtain confidence bounds on a ratio of two coefficients of variation, provide a test for the equality of k coefficients of variation, and provide confidence bounds on a coefficient of variation shared by k populations.

  5. An Evaluation of Normal versus Lognormal Distribution in Data Description and Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Rekha

    2017-01-01

    Many existing methods of statistical inference and analysis rely heavily on the assumption that the data are normally distributed. However, the normality assumption is not fulfilled when dealing with data which does not contain negative values or are otherwise skewed--a common occurrence in diverse disciplines such as finance, economics, political…

  6. Normal state resistivity of single crystalline V3Si as a function of neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, R.; Viswanathan, R.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the normal state resistivity of a neutron damaged single crystal of V 3 Si shows two different regions of behavior: one for T/sub c/ equal to or greater than 10 0 K and another for T/sub c/ equal to or less than 10 0 K

  7. Normalization of High Dimensional Genomics Data Where the Distribution of the Altered Variables Is Skewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfors, Mattias; Philip, Philge; Rydén, Patrik; Stenberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis of gene expression or protein binding patterns using different array or sequencing based technologies is now routinely performed to compare different populations, such as treatment and reference groups. It is often necessary to normalize the data obtained to remove technical variation introduced in the course of conducting experimental work, but standard normalization techniques are not capable of eliminating technical bias in cases where the distribution of the truly altered variables is skewed, i.e. when a large fraction of the variables are either positively or negatively affected by the treatment. However, several experiments are likely to generate such skewed distributions, including ChIP-chip experiments for the study of chromatin, gene expression experiments for the study of apoptosis, and SNP-studies of copy number variation in normal and tumour tissues. A preliminary study using spike-in array data established that the capacity of an experiment to identify altered variables and generate unbiased estimates of the fold change decreases as the fraction of altered variables and the skewness increases. We propose the following work-flow for analyzing high-dimensional experiments with regions of altered variables: (1) Pre-process raw data using one of the standard normalization techniques. (2) Investigate if the distribution of the altered variables is skewed. (3) If the distribution is not believed to be skewed, no additional normalization is needed. Otherwise, re-normalize the data using a novel HMM-assisted normalization procedure. (4) Perform downstream analysis. Here, ChIP-chip data and simulated data were used to evaluate the performance of the work-flow. It was found that skewed distributions can be detected by using the novel DSE-test (Detection of Skewed Experiments). Furthermore, applying the HMM-assisted normalization to experiments where the distribution of the truly altered variables is skewed results in considerably higher

  8. visnormsc: A Graphical User Interface to Normalize Single-cell RNA Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lijun; Zhou, Nan

    2017-12-26

    Single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) allows the analysis of gene expression with high resolution. The intrinsic defects of this promising technology imports technical noise into the single-cell RNA-seq data, increasing the difficulty of accurate downstream inference. Normalization is a crucial step in single-cell RNA-seq data pre-processing. SCnorm is an accurate and efficient method that can be used for this purpose. An R implementation of this method is currently available. On one hand, the R package possesses many excellent features from R. On the other hand, R programming ability is required, which prevents the biologists who lack the skills from learning to use it quickly. To make this method more user-friendly, we developed a graphical user interface, visnormsc, for normalization of single-cell RNA-seq data. It is implemented in Python and is freely available at https://github.com/solo7773/visnormsc . Although visnormsc is based on the existing method, it contributes to this field by offering a user-friendly alternative. The out-of-the-box and cross-platform features make visnormsc easy to learn and to use. It is expected to serve biologists by simplifying single-cell RNA-seq normalization.

  9. Computer program determines exact two-sided tolerance limits for normal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H. A.; Webb, S. R.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program determines by numerical integration the exact statistical two-sided tolerance limits, when the proportion between the limits is at least a specified number. The program is limited to situations in which the underlying probability distribution for the population sampled is the normal distribution with unknown mean and variance.

  10. Adaptive Bayesian inference on the mean of an infinite-dimensional normal distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belitser, E.; Ghosal, S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the mean of an infinite-break dimensional normal distribution from the Bayesian perspective. Under the assumption that the unknown true mean satisfies a "smoothness condition," we first derive the convergence rate of the posterior distribution for a prior that

  11. A study of the up-and-down method for non-normal distribution functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibholm, Svend; Thyregod, Poul

    1988-01-01

    The assessment of breakdown probabilities is examined by the up-and-down method. The exact maximum-likelihood estimates for a number of response patterns are calculated for three different distribution functions and are compared with the estimates corresponding to the normal distribution. Estimates...

  12. Comparison of CSF Distribution between Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Ishikawa, M; Yamamoto, K

    2016-07-01

    CSF volumes in the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure are increased in both idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, though the differences in these volumes in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease have not been well-described. Using CSF segmentation and volume quantification, we compared the distribution of CSF in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease. CSF volumes were extracted from T2-weighted 3D spin-echo sequences on 3T MR imaging and quantified semi-automatically. We compared the volumes and ratios of the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces after classification in 30 patients diagnosed with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, 10 with concurrent idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, 18 with Alzheimer disease, and 26 control subjects 60 years of age or older. Brain to ventricle ratios at the anterior and posterior commissure levels and 3D volumetric convexity cistern to ventricle ratios were useful indices for the differential diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus or idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease from Alzheimer disease, similar to the z-Evans index and callosal angle. The most distinctive characteristics of the CSF distribution in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were small convexity subarachnoid spaces and the large volume of the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure. The distribution of the subarachnoid spaces in the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was the most deformed among these 3 groups, though the mean ventricular volume of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was intermediate between that of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease groups. The z-axial expansion of the lateral ventricle and compression of the brain just above the ventricle were the common findings in the parameters for differentiating

  13. Distributed-feedback single heterojunction GaAs diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scifres, D.R.; Burnham, R.D.; Streifer, W.

    1974-01-01

    Laser operation of single-heterojunction GaAl As/GaAs diode lasers using a periodic structure within the gain medium of the device, thereby obviating the need for carefully cleaved end crystal faces to produce feedback, is reported. By varying the grating period, wavelengths from 8430 to 8560 A were observed. The threshold current densities were of the same order as for normal single heterojunction diode lasers. Some advantages in output wavelengths were observed over lasers with cleared faces. (U.S.)

  14. Single-server queues with spatially distributed arrivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Dirk; Schmidt, Volker

    1994-01-01

    Consider a queueing system where customers arrive at a circle according to a homogeneous Poisson process. After choosing their positions on the circle, according to a uniform distribution, they wait for a single server who travels on the circle. The server's movement is modelled by a Brownian motion

  15. The PDF of fluid particle acceleration in turbulent flow with underlying normal distribution of velocity fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aringazin, A.K.; Mazhitov, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a formal procedure to obtain and specify the general form of a marginal distribution for the Lagrangian acceleration of fluid particle in developed turbulent flow using Langevin type equation and the assumption that velocity fluctuation u follows a normal distribution with zero mean, in accord to the Heisenberg-Yaglom picture. For a particular representation, β=exp[u], of the fluctuating parameter β, we reproduce the underlying log-normal distribution and the associated marginal distribution, which was found to be in a very good agreement with the new experimental data by Crawford, Mordant, and Bodenschatz on the acceleration statistics. We discuss on arising possibilities to make refinements of the log-normal model

  16. Resistivity distribution of silicon single crystals using codoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong Hoe

    2005-07-01

    Numerous studies including continuous Czochralski method and double crucible technique have been reported on the control of macroscopic axial resistivity distribution in bulk crystal growth. The simple codoping method for improving the productivity of silicon single-crystal growth by controlling axial specific resistivity distribution was proposed by Wang [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43 (2004) 4079]. Wang [J. Crystal Growth 275 (2005) e73] demonstrated using numerical analysis and by experimental results that the axial specific resistivity distribution can be modified in melt growth of silicon crystals and relatively uniform profile is possible by B-P codoping method. In this work, the basic characteristic of 8 in silicon single crystal grown using codoping method is studied and whether proposed method has advantage for the silicon crystal growth is discussed.

  17. The rank of a normally distributed matrix and positive definiteness of a noncentral Wishart distributed matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steerneman, A. G. M.; van Perlo-ten Kleij, Frederieke

    2008-01-01

    If X similar to N-nxk(M, I-n circle times Sigma), then S = X'X has the noncentral Wishart distribution W-k(')(n, Sigma; A), where Lambda = M'M. Here Sigma is allowed to be singular. It is well known that if Lambda = 0, then S has a (central) Wishart distribution and. S is positive definite with

  18. PROCESS CAPABILITY ESTIMATION FOR NON-NORMALLY DISTRIBUTED DATA USING ROBUST METHODS - A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerriswamy Wooluru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Process capability indices are very important process quality assessment tools in automotive industries. The common process capability indices (PCIs Cp, Cpk, Cpm are widely used in practice. The use of these PCIs based on the assumption that process is in control and its output is normally distributed. In practice, normality is not always fulfilled. Indices developed based on normality assumption are very sensitive to non- normal processes. When distribution of a product quality characteristic is non-normal, Cp and Cpk indices calculated using conventional methods often lead to erroneous interpretation of process capability. In the literature, various methods have been proposed for surrogate process capability indices under non normality but few literature sources offer their comprehensive evaluation and comparison of their ability to capture true capability in non-normal situation. In this paper, five methods have been reviewed and capability evaluation is carried out for the data pertaining to resistivity of silicon wafer. The final results revealed that the Burr based percentile method is better than Clements method. Modelling of non-normal data and Box-Cox transformation method using statistical software (Minitab 14 provides reasonably good result as they are very promising methods for non - normal and moderately skewed data (Skewness <= 1.5.

  19. Probabilistic analysis in normal operation of distribution system with distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafafila-Robles, R.; Sumper, A.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the incorporation of high levels of small-scale non-dispatchable distributed generation is leading to the transition from the traditional 'vertical' power system structure to a 'horizontally-operated' power system, where the distribution networks contain both stochastic generation...... and load. This fact increases the number of stochastic inputs and dependence structures between them need to be considered. The deterministic analysis is not enough to cope with these issues and a new approach is needed. Probabilistic analysis provides a better approach. Moreover, as distribution systems...

  20. Optimal transformations leading to normal distributions of positron emission tomography standardized uptake values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpelli, Matthew; Eickhoff, Jens; Cuna, Enrique; Perlman, Scott; Jeraj, Robert

    2018-02-01

    The statistical analysis of positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements is challenging due to the skewed nature of SUV distributions. This limits utilization of powerful parametric statistical models for analyzing SUV measurements. An ad-hoc approach, which is frequently used in practice, is to blindly use a log transformation, which may or may not result in normal SUV distributions. This study sought to identify optimal transformations leading to normally distributed PET SUVs extracted from tumors and assess the effects of therapy on the optimal transformations. Methods. The optimal transformation for producing normal distributions of tumor SUVs was identified by iterating the Box-Cox transformation parameter (λ) and selecting the parameter that maximized the Shapiro-Wilk P-value. Optimal transformations were identified for tumor SUVmax distributions at both pre and post treatment. This study included 57 patients that underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET scans (publically available dataset). In addition, to test the generality of our transformation methodology, we included analysis of 27 patients that underwent 18F-Fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) PET scans at our institution. Results. After applying the optimal Box-Cox transformations, neither the pre nor the post treatment 18F-FDG SUV distributions deviated significantly from normality (P  >  0.10). Similar results were found for 18F-FLT PET SUV distributions (P  >  0.10). For both 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT SUV distributions, the skewness and kurtosis increased from pre to post treatment, leading to a decrease in the optimal Box-Cox transformation parameter from pre to post treatment. There were types of distributions encountered for both 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT where a log transformation was not optimal for providing normal SUV distributions. Conclusion. Optimization of the Box-Cox transformation, offers a solution for identifying normal SUV transformations for when

  1. LOG-NORMAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC VOIDS IN SIMULATIONS AND MOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.; Pycke, J.-R., E-mail: er111@nyu.edu, E-mail: jrp15@nyu.edu [Division of Science and Mathematics, New York University Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 129188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2017-01-20

    Following up on previous studies, we complete here a full analysis of the void size distributions of the Cosmic Void Catalog based on three different simulation and mock catalogs: dark matter (DM), haloes, and galaxies. Based on this analysis, we attempt to answer two questions: Is a three-parameter log-normal distribution a good candidate to satisfy the void size distributions obtained from different types of environments? Is there a direct relation between the shape parameters of the void size distribution and the environmental effects? In an attempt to answer these questions, we find here that all void size distributions of these data samples satisfy the three-parameter log-normal distribution whether the environment is dominated by DM, haloes, or galaxies. In addition, the shape parameters of the three-parameter log-normal void size distribution seem highly affected by environment, particularly existing substructures. Therefore, we show two quantitative relations given by linear equations between the skewness and the maximum tree depth, and between the variance of the void size distribution and the maximum tree depth, directly from the simulated data. In addition to this, we find that the percentage of voids with nonzero central density in the data sets has a critical importance. If the number of voids with nonzero central density reaches ≥3.84% in a simulation/mock sample, then a second population is observed in the void size distributions. This second population emerges as a second peak in the log-normal void size distribution at larger radius.

  2. Generating log-normally distributed random numbers by using the Ziggurat algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty analyses are usually based on the Monte Carlo method. Using an efficient random number generator(RNG) is a key element in success of Monte Carlo simulations. Log-normal distributed variates are very typical in NPP PSAs. This paper proposes an approach to generate log normally distributed variates based on the Ziggurat algorithm and evaluates the efficiency of the proposed Ziggurat RNG. The proposed RNG can be helpful to improve the uncertainty analysis of NPP PSAs. This paper focuses on evaluating the efficiency of the Ziggurat algorithm from a NPP PSA point of view. From this study, we can draw the following conclusions. - The Ziggurat algorithm is one of perfect random number generators to product normal distributed variates. - The Ziggurat algorithm is computationally much faster than the most commonly used method, Marsaglia polar method

  3. Validation of MCDS by comparison of predicted with experimental velocity distribution functions in rarefied normal shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Van-diep, Gerald C.; Erwin, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    Velocity distribution functions in normal shock waves in argon and helium are calculated using Monte Carlo direct simulation. These are compared with experimental results for argon at M = 7.18 and for helium at M = 1.59 and 20. For both argon and helium, the variable-hard-sphere (VHS) model is used for the elastic scattering cross section, with the velocity dependence derived from a viscosity-temperature power-law relationship in the way normally used by Bird (1976).

  4. Single Frequency Network Based Distributed Passive Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Xian-rong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and application of passive radar are heading from single transmitter-receiver pair to multiple transmitter-receiver pairs. As an important class of the illuminators of opportunity, most of modern digital broadcasting and television systems work on Single Frequency Network (SFN, which intrinsically determines that the passive radar based on such illuminators must be distributed and networked. In consideration of the remarkable working and processing mode of passive radar under SFN configuration, this paper proposes the concept of SFN-based Distributed Passive Radar (SDPR. The main characteristics and key problems of SDPR are first described. Then several potential solutions are discussed for part of the key technologies. The feasibility of SDPR is demonstrated by preliminary experimental results. Finally, the concept of four network convergence that includes the broadcast based passive radar network is conceived, and its application prospects are discussed.

  5. Neutron importance and the generalized Green function for the conventionally critical reactor with normalized neutron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromov, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The notion of neutron importance when applied to nuclear reactor statics problems described by time-independent homogeneous equations of neutron transport with provision for normalization of neutron distribution is considered. An equation has been obtained for the function of neutron importance in a conditionally critical reactor with respect to an arbitrary nons linear functional determined for the normalized neutron distribution. Relation between this function and the generalized Green function of the selfconjugated operator of the reactor equation is determined and the formula of small perturbations for the functionals of a conditionally critical reactor is deduced

  6. Characterizing single-molecule FRET dynamics with probability distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Yusdi; Torella, Joseph P; Kapanidis, Achillefs N

    2010-07-12

    Probability distribution analysis (PDA) is a recently developed statistical tool for predicting the shapes of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) histograms, which allows the identification of single or multiple static molecular species within a single histogram. We used a generalized PDA method to predict the shapes of FRET histograms for molecules interconverting dynamically between multiple states. This method is tested on a series of model systems, including both static DNA fragments and dynamic DNA hairpins. By fitting the shape of this expected distribution to experimental data, the timescale of hairpin conformational fluctuations can be recovered, in good agreement with earlier published results obtained using different techniques. This method is also applied to studying the conformational fluctuations in the unliganded Klenow fragment (KF) of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, which allows both confirmation of the consistency of a simple, two-state kinetic model with the observed smFRET distribution of unliganded KF and extraction of a millisecond fluctuation timescale, in good agreement with rates reported elsewhere. We expect this method to be useful in extracting rates from processes exhibiting dynamic FRET, and in hypothesis-testing models of conformational dynamics against experimental data.

  7. The Fate of a Normal Human Cell Traversed by a Single Charged Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C.; Zahnreich, S.; Kraft, D.; Friedrich, T.; Voss, K.-O.; Durante, M.; Ritter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term “fate” of normal human cells after single hits of charged particles is one of the oldest unsolved issues in radiation protection and cellular radiobiology. Using a high-precision heavy-ion microbeam we could target normal human fibroblasts with exactly one or five carbon ions and measured the early cytogenetic damage and the late behaviour using single-cell cloning. Around 70% of the first cycle cells presented visible aberrations in mFISH after a single ion traversal, and about 5% of the cells were still able to form colonies. In one third of selected high-proliferative colonies we observed clonal (radiation-induced) aberrations. Terminal differentiation and markers of senescence (PCNA, p16) in the descendants of cells traversed by one carbon ion occurred earlier than in controls, but no evidence of radiation-induced chromosomal instability was found. We conclude that cells surviving single-ion traversal, often carrying clonal chromosome aberrations, undergo accelerated senescence but maintain chromosomal stability. PMID:22966418

  8. Austenite Grain Size Estimtion from Chord Lengths of Logarithmic-Normal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear section of grains in polyhedral material microstructure is a system of chords. The mean length of chords is the linear grain size of the microstructure. For the prior austenite grains of low alloy structural steels, the chord length is a random variable of gamma- or logarithmic-normal distribution. The statistical grain size estimation belongs to the quantitative metallographic problems. The so-called point estimation is a well known procedure. The interval estimation (grain size confidence interval for the gamma distribution was given elsewhere, but for the logarithmic-normal distribution is the subject of the present contribution. The statistical analysis is analogous to the one for the gamma distribution.

  9. Divisive normalization and neuronal oscillations in a single hierarchical framework of selective visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorrit Steven Montijn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In divisive normalization models of covert attention, spike rate modulations are commonly used as indicators of the effect of top-down attention. In addition, an increasing number of studies have shown that top-down attention increases the synchronization of neuronal oscillations as well, particularly those in gamma-band frequencies (25 to 100 Hz. Although modulations of spike rate and synchronous oscillations are not mutually exclusive as mechanisms of attention, there has thus far been little effort to integrate these concepts into a single framework of attention. Here, we aim to provide such a unified framework by expanding the normalization model of attention with a time dimension; allowing the simulation of a recently reported backward progression of attentional effects along the visual cortical hierarchy. A simple hierarchical cascade of normalization models simulating different cortical areas however leads to signal degradation and a loss of discriminability over time. To negate this degradation and ensure stable neuronal stimulus representations, we incorporate oscillatory phase entrainment into our model, a mechanism previously proposed as the communication-through-coherence (CTC hypothesis. Our analysis shows that divisive normalization and oscillation models can complement each other in a unified account of the neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. The resulting hierarchical normalization and oscillation (HNO model reproduces several additional spatial and temporal aspects of attentional modulation.

  10. Divisive normalization and neuronal oscillations in a single hierarchical framework of selective visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montijn, Jorrit Steven; Klink, P Christaan; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2012-01-01

    Divisive normalization models of covert attention commonly use spike rate modulations as indicators of the effect of top-down attention. In addition, an increasing number of studies have shown that top-down attention increases the synchronization of neuronal oscillations as well, particularly in gamma-band frequencies (25-100 Hz). Although modulations of spike rate and synchronous oscillations are not mutually exclusive as mechanisms of attention, there has thus far been little effort to integrate these concepts into a single framework of attention. Here, we aim to provide such a unified framework by expanding the normalization model of attention with a multi-level hierarchical structure and a time dimension; allowing the simulation of a recently reported backward progression of attentional effects along the visual cortical hierarchy. A simple cascade of normalization models simulating different cortical areas is shown to cause signal degradation and a loss of stimulus discriminability over time. To negate this degradation and ensure stable neuronal stimulus representations, we incorporate a kind of oscillatory phase entrainment into our model that has previously been proposed as the "communication-through-coherence" (CTC) hypothesis. Our analysis shows that divisive normalization and oscillation models can complement each other in a unified account of the neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. The resulting hierarchical normalization and oscillation (HNO) model reproduces several additional spatial and temporal aspects of attentional modulation and predicts a latency effect on neuronal responses as a result of cued attention.

  11. Elastin distribution in the normal uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei-Qiang; Ma, Rong; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Gong, Zhi-Jing

    2006-04-01

    To describe the histologic distribution of elastin in the nonpregnant human uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas. Uteri were obtained from women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions, including 26 cases of uterine leiomyomas, 24 cases of adenomyosis, 18 adenomyomas and 6 cases of autopsy specimens. Specific histochemical staining techniques were employed in order to demonstrate the distribution of elastin. The distribution of elastin components in the uterus was markedly uneven and showed a decreasing gradient from outer to inner myometrium. No elastin was present within leiomyomas, adenomyomas or adenomyosis. The distribution of elastin may help explain the normal function of the myometrium in labor. It implies that the uneven distribution of elastin components and absence of elastin within leiomyomas, adenomyomas and adenomyosis could be of some clinical significance. The altered elastin distribution in disease states may help explain such symptoms as dysmenorrhea in uterine endometriosis.

  12. Energy dependence of angular distributions of sputtered particles by ion-beam bombardment at normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Yasutoshi; Uchino, Kiichiro; Muraoka, Katsunori; Maeda, Mitsuo; Akazaki, Masanori; Yamamura, Yasunori.

    1986-01-01

    The angular distributions of sputtered Fe-atoms were measured using the laser fluorescence technique during Ar-ion bombardment for energies of 0.6, 1, 2 and 3 keV at normal incidence. The measured cosine distribution at 0.6 keV progressively deviated to an over-cosine distribution at higher energies, and at 3 keV the angular distribution was an overcosine distribution of about 20 %. The experimental results agree qualitatively with calculations by a recent computer simulation code, ACAT. The results are explained by the competition between surface scattering and the effects of primary knock-on atoms, which tend to make the angular distributions over-cosine and under-cosine, respectively. (author)

  13. An empirical multivariate log-normal distribution representing uncertainty of biokinetic parameters for 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Martz, H.; Bertelli, L.; Melo, D.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified biokinetic model for 137 Cs has six parameters representing transfer of material to and from various compartments. Using a Bayesian analysis, the joint probability distribution of these six parameters is determined empirically for two cases with quite a lot of bioassay data. The distribution is found to be a multivariate log-normal. Correlations between different parameters are obtained. The method utilises a fairly large number of pre-determined forward biokinetic calculations, whose results are stored in interpolation tables. Four different methods to sample the multidimensional parameter space with a limited number of samples are investigated: random, stratified, Latin Hypercube sampling with a uniform distribution of parameters and importance sampling using a lognormal distribution that approximates the posterior distribution. The importance sampling method gives much smaller sampling uncertainty. No sampling method-dependent differences are perceptible for the uniform distribution methods. (authors)

  14. The Distribution of the Product Explains Normal Theory Mediation Confidence Interval Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; MacKinnon, David P; Miočević, Milica

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of the product has several useful applications. One of these applications is its use to form confidence intervals for the indirect effect as the product of 2 regression coefficients. The purpose of this article is to investigate how the moments of the distribution of the product explain normal theory mediation confidence interval coverage and imbalance. Values of the critical ratio for each random variable are used to demonstrate how the moments of the distribution of the product change across values of the critical ratio observed in research studies. Results of the simulation study showed that as skewness in absolute value increases, coverage decreases. And as skewness in absolute value and kurtosis increases, imbalance increases. The difference between testing the significance of the indirect effect using the normal theory versus the asymmetric distribution of the product is further illustrated with a real data example. This article is the first study to show the direct link between the distribution of the product and indirect effect confidence intervals and clarifies the results of previous simulation studies by showing why normal theory confidence intervals for indirect effects are often less accurate than those obtained from the asymmetric distribution of the product or from resampling methods.

  15. Distribution of the anticancer drugs doxorubicin, mitoxantrone and topotecan in tumors and normal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krupa J; Trédan, Olivier; Tannock, Ian F

    2013-07-01

    Pharmacokinetic analyses estimate the mean concentration of drug within a given tissue as a function of time, but do not give information about the spatial distribution of drugs within that tissue. Here, we compare the time-dependent spatial distribution of three anticancer drugs within tumors, heart, kidney, liver and brain. Mice bearing various xenografts were treated with doxorubicin, mitoxantrone or topotecan. At various times after injection, tumors and samples of heart, kidney, liver and brain were excised. Within solid tumors, the distribution of doxorubicin, mitoxantrone and topotecan was limited to perivascular regions at 10 min after administration and the distance from blood vessels at which drug intensity fell to half was ~25-75 μm. Although drug distribution improved after 3 and 24 h, there remained a significant decrease in drug fluorescence with increasing distance from tumor blood vessels. Drug distribution was relatively uniform in the heart, kidney and liver with substantially greater perivascular drug uptake than in tumors. There was significantly higher total drug fluorescence in the liver than in tumors after 10 min, 3 and 24 h. Little to no drug fluorescence was observed in the brain. There are marked differences in the spatial distributions of three anticancer drugs within tumor tissue and normal tissues over time, with greater exposure to most normal tissues and limited drug distribution to many cells in tumors. Studies of the spatial distribution of drugs are required to complement pharmacokinetic data in order to better understand and predict drug effects and toxicities.

  16. Optimization of b-value distribution for biexponential diffusion-weighted MR imaging of normal prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Ivan; Merisaari, Harri; Aronen, Hannu J; Järvinen, Jukka; Saunavaara, Jani; Kauko, Tommi; Borra, Ronald; Pesola, Marko

    2014-05-01

    To determine the optimal b-value distribution for biexponential diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of normal prostate using both a computer modeling approach and in vivo measurements. Optimal b-value distributions for the fit of three parameters (fast diffusion Df, slow diffusion Ds, and fraction of fast diffusion f) were determined using Monte-Carlo simulations. The optimal b-value distribution was calculated using four individual optimization methods. Eight healthy volunteers underwent four repeated 3 Tesla prostate DWI scans using both 16 equally distributed b-values and an optimized b-value distribution obtained from the simulations. The b-value distributions were compared in terms of measurement reliability and repeatability using Shrout-Fleiss analysis. Using low noise levels, the optimal b-value distribution formed three separate clusters at low (0-400 s/mm2), mid-range (650-1200 s/mm2), and high b-values (1700-2000 s/mm2). Higher noise levels resulted into less pronounced clustering of b-values. The clustered optimized b-value distribution demonstrated better measurement reliability and repeatability in Shrout-Fleiss analysis compared with 16 equally distributed b-values. The optimal b-value distribution was found to be a clustered distribution with b-values concentrated in the low, mid, and high ranges and was shown to improve the estimation quality of biexponential DWI parameters of in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Confidence Intervals for True Scores Using the Skew-Normal Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    A recent comparative analysis of alternative interval estimation approaches and procedures has shown that confidence intervals (CIs) for true raw scores determined with the Score method--which uses the normal approximation to the binomial distribution--have actual coverage probabilities that are closest to their nominal level. It has also recently…

  18. Reply to: Are There More Gifted People than Would Be Expected on a Normal Distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The author responds to the article by Warne, Godwin, and Smith (2013) on the question of whether there are more gifted people than would be expected in a Gaussian normal distribution. He asserts that the answer to this question is yes, based on (a) data that he and his colleagues have collected, (b) data that are already available and quoted by…

  19. The Weight of Euro Coins: Its Distribution Might Not Be as Normal as You Would Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkedy, Ziv; Aerts, Marc; Callaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Classical regression models, ANOVA models and linear mixed models are just three examples (out of many) in which the normal distribution of the response is an essential assumption of the model. In this paper we use a dataset of 2000 euro coins containing information (up to the milligram) about the weight of each coin, to illustrate that the…

  20. Using an APOS Framework to Understand Teachers' Responses to Questions on the Normal Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansilal, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study is an exploration of teachers' engagement with concepts embedded in the normal distribution. The participants were a group of 290 in-service teachers enrolled in a teacher development program. The research instrument was an assessment task that can be described as an "unknown percentage" problem, which required the application…

  1. Normal Approximations to the Distributions of the Wilcoxon Statistics: Accurate to What "N"? Graphical Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellera, Carine A.; Julien, Marilyse; Hanley, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Wilcoxon statistics are usually taught as nonparametric alternatives for the 1- and 2-sample Student-"t" statistics in situations where the data appear to arise from non-normal distributions, or where sample sizes are so small that we cannot check whether they do. In the past, critical values, based on exact tail areas, were…

  2. Confidence bounds and hypothesis tests for normal distribution coefficients of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve P. Verrill; Richard A. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    For normally distributed populations, we obtain confidence bounds on a ratio of two coefficients of variation, provide a test for the equality of k coefficients of variation, and provide confidence bounds on a coefficient of variation shared by k populations. To develop these confidence bounds and test, we first establish that estimators based on Newton steps from n-...

  3. A simple approximation to the bivariate normal distribution with large correlation coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The bivariate normal distribution function is approximated with emphasis on situations where the correlation coefficient is large. The high accuracy of the approximation is illustrated by numerical examples. Moreover, exact upper and lower bounds are presented as well as asymptotic results on the

  4. Sample size determination for logistic regression on a logit-normal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongho; Heath, Elisabeth; Heilbrun, Lance

    2017-06-01

    Although the sample size for simple logistic regression can be readily determined using currently available methods, the sample size calculation for multiple logistic regression requires some additional information, such as the coefficient of determination ([Formula: see text]) of a covariate of interest with other covariates, which is often unavailable in practice. The response variable of logistic regression follows a logit-normal distribution which can be generated from a logistic transformation of a normal distribution. Using this property of logistic regression, we propose new methods of determining the sample size for simple and multiple logistic regressions using a normal transformation of outcome measures. Simulation studies and a motivating example show several advantages of the proposed methods over the existing methods: (i) no need for [Formula: see text] for multiple logistic regression, (ii) available interim or group-sequential designs, and (iii) much smaller required sample size.

  5. MR imaging of the bone marrow using short TI IR, 1. Normal and pathological intensity distribution of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Mikiko; Tomioka, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Kanako; Sato, Noriko; Nagai, Teruo; Heshiki, Atsuko; Amanuma, Makoto; Mizuno, Hitomi.

    1989-02-01

    Normal vertebral bone marrow intensity distribution and its alteration in various anemias were evaluated on short TI IR sequences. Material consists of 73 individuals, 48 normals and 25 anemic patients excluding neoplastic conditions. All normal and reactive hypercellular bone marrow revealed characteristic intensity distribution; marginal high intensity and central low intensity, corresponding well to normal distribution of red and yellow marrows and their physiological or reactive conversion between red and yellow marrows. Aplastic anemia did not reveal normal intensity distribution, presumably due to autonomous condition.

  6. Estimating Non-Normal Latent Trait Distributions within Item Response Theory Using True and Estimated Item Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, D. A.; Schmitt, T. A.; Walker, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) procedures have been used extensively to study normal latent trait distributions and have been shown to perform well; however, less is known concerning the performance of IRT with non-normal latent trait distributions. This study investigated the degree of latent trait estimation error under normal and non-normal…

  7. Flux distribution in single phase, Si-Fe, wound transformer cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loizos, George; Kefalas, Themistoklis; Kladas, Antonios; Souflaris, Thanassis; Paparigas, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows experimental results of longitudinal flux density and its harmonics at the limb, the yoke and the corner as well as normal flux in the step lap joint of a single phase, Si-Fe, wound transformer core. Results show that the flux density as well as the harmonics content is higher in the inner (window) side of the core and reduces gradually towards the outer side. Variations of flux density distribution between the limb and the corner or the yoke of the core were observed. A full record of normal flux around the step lap region of the model core was also obtained. Longitudinal and normal flux findings will enable the development of more accurate numerical models that describe the magnetic behavior of magnetic cores

  8. Photoacoustic wave propagating from normal into superconductive phases in Pb single crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanaga, Masanobu

    2005-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) wave has been examined in a superconductor of the first kind, Pb single crystal. The PA wave is induced by optical excitation of electronic state and propagates from normal into superconductive phases below T$_{\\rm C}$. It is clearly shown by wavelet analysis that the measured PA wave includes two different components. The high-frequency component is MHz-ultrasonic and the relative low-frequency one is induced by thermal wave. The latter is observed in a similar manner irre...

  9. Authenticated Quantum Key Distribution with Collective Detection using Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Bing-Jie; Duan, Ji-Tong; Liu, Bin; Su, Qi; He, Yuan-Hang; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2016-10-01

    We present two authenticated quantum key distribution (AQKD) protocols by utilizing the idea of collective (eavesdropping) detection. One is a two-party AQKD protocol, the other is a multiparty AQKD protocol with star network topology. In these protocols, the classical channels need not be assumed to be authenticated and the single photons are used as the quantum information carriers. To achieve mutual identity authentication and establish a random key in each of the proposed protocols, only one participant should be capable of preparing and measuring single photons, and the main quantum ability that the rest of the participants should have is just performing certain unitary operations. Security analysis shows that these protocols are free from various kinds of attacks, especially the impersonation attack and the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.

  10. Repair of single-strand breaks in normal and trisomic lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.C.; Merz, T.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, Athanasiou and colleagues (1981) reported a deficiency in the capacity of lymphocytes from persons with Down's syndrome to repair single-strand DNA breaks. They found that 1 h after exposure to 160 Gray, repair processes had restored the sedimentation profile of DNA from normal lymphocytes to control values, whereas the relative average molecular weight of DNA from irradiated lymphocytes from persons with Down's syndrome showed no increase during the repair interval. They have suggested that their data, in conjunction with the earlier data concerning the frequencies of induced chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes from persons with Down's syndrome, reflect a decreased efficiency in some aspect of DNA repair in trisomic cells. However, for further studies of this hypothesis, it is more appropriate to study the rejoining of DNA single-strand breaks after doses comparable to those used in tests for chromosomal aberrations. (orig.)

  11. Interpretation of single grain De distributions and calculation of De

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Z.; Duller, G.A.T.; Wintle, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Recent development of an instrument for measuring the optically stimulated luminescence signal from individual mineral grains has made it practicable to measure the equivalent dose (D e ) from many hundreds or thousands of single mineral grains from a sample. Such measurements can potentially be used to address issues such as sample integrity, and to make it possible to obtain ages from samples that consist of mixtures of grains, enlarging the range of materials to which luminescence dating can be applied. However, for reliable ages to be obtained, the characteristics of the equipment and the sample being analysed need to be understood. Using sensitised sedimentary quartz grains, the instrumental uncertainty in repeated optically stimulated luminescence measurements made using a single grain laser luminescence unit attached to a conventional luminescence reader was evaluated; a value of 1.2% was obtained. Grains from this sample were then used to investigate the uncertainty in a measured dose distribution obtained using the single aliquot measurement protocol on each grain that had previously received a known laboratory dose; after systematic rejection of grains that did not pass defined acceptance criteria, overdispersion of 7% was found. Additional spread in data was found when uniform aeolian sands were examined, resulting in overdispersion of ∼12%; this was attributed to a combination of factors relating to differences in field and laboratory conditions. A similar value was found for an archaeological horizon below this sand. For another sample from the same section, a significantly larger value was found, ∼29%; on this basis the finite mixture model was applied to obtain the likely dose components. The paper demonstrates the importance of correct assessment of error terms when analysing single grain D e distributions and a number of rejection criteria that are vital to avoid the inclusion of data that could lead to misinterpretation of the degree of

  12. Authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution with single particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gong-De; Ye, Guo-Hua; Du, Hong-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Fen

    2016-03-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been growing rapidly in recent years and becomes one of the hottest issues in quantum information science. During the implementation of QKD on a network, identity authentication has been one main problem. In this paper, an efficient authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution (MQKD) protocol with single particles is proposed. In this protocol, any two users on a quantum network can perform mutual authentication and share a secure session key with the assistance of a semi-honest center. Meanwhile, the particles, which are used as quantum information carriers, are not required to be stored, therefore the proposed protocol is feasible with current technology. Finally, security analysis shows that this protocol is secure in theory.

  13. Distribution of Different Sized Ocular Surface Vessels in Diabetics and Normal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Touka; Pourreza, Hamidreza; Doosti, Hassan; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Ehsaei, Asieh; Basiry, Mohsen; Pourreza, Reza

    2017-01-01

    To compare the distribution of different sized vessels using digital photographs of the ocular surface of diabetic and normal individuals. In this cross-sectional study, red-free conjunctival photographs of diabetic and normal individuals, aged 30-60 years, were taken under defined conditions and analyzed using a Radon transform-based algorithm for vascular segmentation. The image areas occupied by vessels (AOV) of different diameters were calculated. The main outcome measure was the distribution curve of mean AOV of different sized vessels. Secondary outcome measures included total AOV and standard deviation (SD) of AOV of different sized vessels. Two hundred and sixty-eight diabetic patients and 297 normal (control) individuals were included, differing in age (45.50 ± 5.19 vs. 40.38 ± 6.19 years, P distribution curves of mean AOV differed between patients and controls (smaller AOV for larger vessels in patients; P distribution curve of vessels compared to controls. Presence of diabetes mellitus is associated with contraction of larger vessels in the conjunctiva. Smaller vessels dilate with diabetic retinopathy. These findings may be useful in the photographic screening of diabetes mellitus and retinopathy.

  14. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyar, V A; Eremin, V V

    2002-01-01

    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well

  15. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyar, V.A.; Eremin, A.V.; Eremin, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well [ru

  16. An efficient algorithm for generating random number pairs drawn from a bivariate normal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for generating random number pairs from a bivariate normal distribution was developed. Any desired value of the two means, two standard deviations, and correlation coefficient can be selected. Theoretically the technique is exact and in practice its accuracy is limited only by the quality of the uniform distribution random number generator, inaccuracies in computer function evaluation, and arithmetic. A FORTRAN routine was written to check the algorithm and good accuracy was obtained. Some small errors in the correlation coefficient were observed to vary in a surprisingly regular manner. A simple model was developed which explained the qualities aspects of the errors.

  17. Distribution of inorganic elements in single cells of Chara corallina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zijie; Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang; Yu Ming; Zhou Yunlong

    2005-01-01

    There are actually 20 chemical elements necessary or beneficial for plant growth. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are supplied by air and water. The six macronutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium., calcium, magnesium, and sulfur are required by plants in large amounts. The rest of the elements are required in trace amounts (micronutrients). Essential trace elements include boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, sodium, zinc, molybdenum, and nickel. Beneficial mineral elements include silicon and cobalt. The functions of the inorganic elements closely related to their destinations in plant cells. Plant cells have unique structures, including a central vacuole, plastids, and a thick cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane. Generally, it is very difficult to determine concentrations of inorganic elements in a single plant cell. Chara corallina is a freshwater plant that inhabits temperate zone ponds and lakes. It consists of alternating nodes and internodes. Each internodal segment is a single large cell, up to 10 cm in length, and 1 mm in diameter. With this species it was possible to isolate subcellular fractions with surgical methods with minimal risk of cross contamination. In this study, concentrations of magnesium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, and molybdenum in the cell wall, cytoplasm, and vacuole of single cells of Chara corallina were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The distribution characteristics of these elements in the cell components were discussed.

  18. Size distribution of interstellar particles. III. Peculiar extinctions and normal infrared extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.; Wallenhorst, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of changing the upper and lower size limits of a distribution of bare graphite and silicate particles with n(a)αa/sup -q/ is investigated. Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck showed that the normal extinction is matched very well by having the small-size cutoff, a/sub -/, roughly-equal0.005 or 0.01 μm, and the large size a/sub +/, about 0.25 μm, and q = 3.5 for both substances. We consider the progressively peculiar extinctions exhibited by the well-observed stars, sigma Sco, rho Oph, and theta 1 Ori C, with values of R/sub v/[equivalentA/sub v//E(B--V)] of 3.4, 4.4, and 5.5 compared to the normal 3.1. Two (sigma Sco, rho Oph) are in a neutral dense cloud; theta 1 Ori C is in the Orion Nebula. We find that sigma Sco has a normal graphite distribution but has had its small silicate particles removed, so that a/sub -/(sil)roughly-equal0.04 μm if q = 3.5, or q(sil) = 2.6 if the size limits are fixed. However, the upper size limit on silicates remains normal. In rho Oph, the graphite is still normal, but both a/sub -/(sil) and a/sub +/(sil) are increased, to about 0.04 μm and 0.4 or 0.5 μm, respectively, if q = 3.5, or q(sil)roughly-equal1.3 if the size limits are fixed. In theta 1 Ori, the small limit on graphite has increased to about 0.04 μm, or q(gra)roughly-equal3, while the silicates are about like those in rho Oph. The calculated lambda2175 bump is broader than the observed, but normal foreground extinction probably contributes appreciably to the observed bump. The absolute amount of extinction per H atom for rho Oph is not explained. The column density of H is so large that systematic effects might be present. Very large graphite particles (a>3 μm) are required to ''hide'' the graphite without overly affecting the visual extinction, but a normal (small) graphite size distribution is required by the lambda2175 bump. We feel that it is unlikely that such a bimodal distribution exists

  19. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  20. On the possible ''normalization'' of experimental curves of 230Th vertical distribution in abyssal oceanic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Al'terman, Eh.I.; Lisitsyn, A.P.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Okeanologii)

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities of the method of normalization of experimental ionic curves in reference to dating of abyssal sediments and establishing their accumulation rapidities are studied. The method is based on using correlation between ionic curves extrema and variations of Fe, Mn, C org., and P contents in abyssal oceanic sediments. It has been found that the above method can be successfully applied for correction of 230 Th vertical distribution data obtained by low-background γ-spectrometry. The method leads to most reliable results in those cases when the vertical distribution curves in sediments of elements concentrators of 230 Th are symbasic between themselves. The normalization of experimental ionic curves in many cases gives the possibility to realize the sediment age stratification [ru

  1. Spatial arrangement and size distribution of normal faults, Buckskin detachment upper plate, Western Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Hundley, T. H.; Hooker, J. N.; Marrett, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Fault arrays typically include a wide range of fault sizes and those faults may be randomly located, clustered together, or regularly or periodically located in a rock volume. Here, we investigate size distribution and spatial arrangement of normal faults using rigorous size-scaling methods and normalized correlation count (NCC). Outcrop data from Miocene sedimentary rocks in the immediate upper plate of the regional Buckskin detachment-low angle normal-fault, have differing patterns of spatial arrangement as a function of displacement (offset). Using lower size-thresholds of 1, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 m, displacements range over 5 orders of magnitude and have power-law frequency distributions spanning ∼ four orders of magnitude from less than 0.001 m to more than 100 m, with exponents of -0.6 and -0.9. The largest faults with >1 m displacement have a shallower size-distribution slope and regular spacing of about 20 m. In contrast, smaller faults have steep size-distribution slopes and irregular spacing, with NCC plateau patterns indicating imposed clustering. Cluster widths are 15 m for the 0.1-m threshold, 14 m for 0.01-m, and 1 m for 0.001-m displacement threshold faults. Results demonstrate normalized correlation count effectively characterizes the spatial arrangement patterns of these faults. Our example from a high-strain fault pattern above a detachment is compatible with size and spatial organization that was influenced primarily by boundary conditions such as fault shape, mechanical unit thickness and internal stratigraphy on a range of scales rather than purely by interaction among faults during their propagation.

  2. Normal cranial bone marrow MR imaging pattern with age-related ADC value distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Pan Shinong; Yin Yuming; Li Wei; Chen Zhian; Liu Yunhui; Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine MRI appearances of normal age-related cranial bone marrow and the relationship between MRI patterns and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Methods: Five hundred subjects were divided into seven groups based on ages. Cranial bone marrow MRI patterns were performed based on different thickness of the diploe and signal intensity distribution characteristics. ADC values of the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal bones on DWI were measured and calculated. Correlations between ages and ADC values, between patterns and ADC values, as well as the distribution of ADC values were analyzed. Results: Normal cranial bone marrow was divided into four types and six subtypes, Type I, II, III and IV, which had positive correlation with age increasing (χ 2 = 266.36, P 0.05). In addition, there was significant negative correlation between the ADC values and MRI patterns in the normal parietal and occipital bones (r = -0.691 and -0.750, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The combination of MRI features and ADC values changes in different cranial bones showed significant correlation with age increasing. Familiar with the MRI appearance of the normal bone marrow conversion pattern in different age group and their ADC value will aid the diagnosis and differential of the cranial bone pathology.

  3. Distribution and elimination of intravenously administered atrial natriuretic hormone(ANH) to normal and nephrectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, E.; Artman, L.; Budzik, G.; Bush, E.; Holleman, W.

    1986-01-01

    The 24 amino acid peptide, ANH(5-28), was N-terminally labeled with I-125 Bolton-Hunter reagent, iodo-N-succinimidyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate. The I-125 peptide plus 1μg/kg of the I-127 Bolton-Hunter peptide was injected into normal and nephrectomized anesthetized (Nembutal) rats. Blood samples were drawn into a cocktail developed to inhibit plasma induced degradation. Radiolabeled peptides were analyzed by HPLC. A biphasic curve of I-125 ANH(5-28) elimination was obtained, the first phase (t 1/2 = 15 sec) representing in vivo distribution and the second phase (t 1/2 = 7-10 min) a measurement of elimination. This biphasic elimination curve was similar in normal and nephrectomized rats. The apparent volumes of distribution were 15-20 ml for the first phase and > 300 ml for the second phase. In order to examine the tissue distribution of the peptide, animals were sacrificed at 2 minutes and the I-125 tissue contents were quantitated. The majority of the label was located in the liver (50%), kidneys (21%) and the lung (5%). The degradative peptides appearing in the plasma and urine of normal rats were identical. No intact radiolabeled ANH(5-28) was found in the urine. In conclusion, iodinated Bolton-Hunter labeled ANH(5-28) is rapidly removed from the circulation by the liver and to a lesser extent by the kidney, but the rate of elimination is not decreased by nephrectomy

  4. Thermal modelling of normal distributed nanoparticles through thickness in an inorganic material matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latré, S.; Desplentere, F.; De Pooter, S.; Seveno, D.

    2017-10-01

    Nanoscale materials showing superior thermal properties have raised the interest of the building industry. By adding these materials to conventional construction materials, it is possible to decrease the total thermal conductivity by almost one order of magnitude. This conductivity is mainly influenced by the dispersion quality within the matrix material. At the industrial scale, the main challenge is to control this dispersion to reduce or even eliminate thermal bridges. This allows to reach an industrially relevant process to balance out the high material cost and their superior thermal insulation properties. Therefore, a methodology is required to measure and describe these nanoscale distributions within the inorganic matrix material. These distributions are either random or normally distributed through thickness within the matrix material. We show that the influence of these distributions is meaningful and modifies the thermal conductivity of the building material. Hence, this strategy will generate a thermal model allowing to predict the thermal behavior of the nanoscale particles and their distributions. This thermal model will be validated by the hot wire technique. For the moment, a good correlation is found between the numerical results and experimental data for a randomly distributed form of nanoparticles in all directions.

  5. Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami Keshmarzi, Elham; Tait, R Niall; Berini, Pierre

    2018-03-29

    Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are realized in the near infrared using a two-dimensional non-uniform long-range surface plasmon polariton structure. The surface plasmon mode is excited onto a 20 nm-thick, 1 μm-wide metal stripe (Ag or Au) on a silica substrate, where the stripe is stepped in width periodically, forming a 1st order Bragg grating. Optical gain is provided by optically pumping a 450 nm-thick IR-140 doped PMMA layer as the top cladding, which covers the entire length of the Bragg grating, thus creating a DFB laser. Single-mode lasing peaks of very narrow linewidth were observed for Ag and Au DFBs near 882 nm at room temperature. The narrow linewidths are explained by the low spontaneous emission rate into the surface plasmon lasing mode as well as the high quality factor of the DFB structure. The lasing emission is exclusively TM polarized. Kinks in light-light curves accompanied by spectrum narrowing were observed, from which threshold pump power densities can be clearly identified (0.78 MW cm-2 and 1.04 MW cm-2 for Ag and Au DFB lasers, respectively). The Schawlow-Townes linewidth for our Ag and Au DFB lasers is estimated and very narrow linewidths are predicted for the lasers. The lasers are suitable as inexpensive, recyclable and highly coherent sources of surface plasmons, or for integration with other surface plasmon elements of similar structure.

  6. The Comparing the Leg Muscles Electromyography during Single Leg Drop Landing in Pesplanus and Normal Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa bazvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: pesplanus is one of the changes that brings about changes in muscle activation patterns. Being aware of muscles activity changes in various standing positions among pesplanus patients provides insights into preventing lower extremity injuries in this population. The aim of this study was to compare leg muscles electromyography during various standing positions in pesplanus and normal subjects. Methods: 60 healthy male university students, 30 subjects with pesplanus deformity (with average age 23/54±3/57 year, average height 175/34±7/62 cm, average weight 74/87±10/72 kg and 30 normal subjects (with average age 22/97±2/38 year, average height 176/6±5/59 cm, average weight 73/58±8/36 kg participated in this comparative study. Deformity of pesplanus was assessed with navicular drop test. Each subject performed single-leg landing dropping from 30cm height onto a force platform where muscles activity was recorded with EMG device. For data analysis, Matlab and Spss softwares were used and independent sample t-test was used to compare the dependent variables at a significance level of P &le 0/05. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups for the activities of the longus peroneus and anterior tibialis muscles ( p&le0/05 while no significant differences were observed in other muscles. Conclusion: The changes in the normal structure of the foot might affect muscle activities during standing, which can cause changes in the injury patterns. Therefore, it is proposed that focusing on corrective exercises and therapy plan can reduce these risks.

  7. Single-cell analysis of ploidy and centrosomes underscores the peculiarity of normal hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Faggioli

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is the most well recognized feature of the liver. Yet, a quantitative and behavioral analysis of centrosomes and DNA content in normal hepatocytes has been limited by the technical challenges of methods available. By using a novel approach employing FISH for chromosomes 18, X and Y we provide, for the first time, a detailed analysis of DNA copies during physiological development in the liver at single cell level. We demonstrate that aneuploidy and unbalanced DNA content in binucleated hepatocytes are common features in normal adult liver. Despite the common belief that hepatocytes contain 1, 2 or no more than 4 centrosomes, our double staining for centrosome associated proteins reveals extranumerary centrosomes in a high percentage of cells as early as 15 days of age. We show that in murine liver the period between 15 days and 1.5 months marks the transition from a prevalence of mononucleated cells to up to 75% of binucleated cells. Our data demonstrate that this timing correlates with a switch in centrosomes number. At 15 days the expected 1 or 2 centrosomes converge with several hepatocytes that contain 3 centrosomes; at 1.5 months the percentage of cells with 3 centrosomes decreases concomitantly with the increase of cells with more than 4 centrosomes. Our analysis shows that the extranumerary centrosomes emerge in concomitance with the process of binucleation and polyploidization and maintain α-tubulin nucleation activity. Finally, by integrating interphase FISH and immunofluorescent approaches, we detected an imbalance between centrosome number and DNA content in liver cells that deviates from the equilibrium expected in normal cells. We speculate that these unique features are relevant to the peculiar biological function of liver cells which are continuously challenged by stress, a condition that could predispose to genomic instability.

  8. A framework for analysis of abortive colony size distributions using a model of branching processes in irradiated normal human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kawaguchi, Isao; Ouchi, Noriyuki B; Hara, Takamitsu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2013-01-01

    Clonogenicity gives important information about the cellular reproductive potential following ionizing irradiation, but an abortive colony that fails to continue to grow remains poorly characterized. It was recently reported that the fraction of abortive colonies increases with increasing dose. Thus, we set out to investigate the production kinetics of abortive colonies using a model of branching processes. We firstly plotted the experimentally determined colony size distribution of abortive colonies in irradiated normal human fibroblasts, and found the linear relationship on the log-linear or log-log plot. By applying the simple model of branching processes to the linear relationship, we found the persistent reproductive cell death (RCD) over several generations following irradiation. To verify the estimated probability of RCD, abortive colony size distribution (≤ 15 cells) and the surviving fraction were simulated by the Monte Carlo computational approach for colony expansion. Parameters estimated from the log-log fit demonstrated the good performance in both simulations than those from the log-linear fit. Radiation-induced RCD, i.e. excess probability, lasted over 16 generations and mainly consisted of two components in the early (probability over 5 generations, whereas abortive colony size distribution was robust against it. These results suggest that, whereas short-term RCD is critical to the abortive colony size distribution, long-lasting RCD is important for the dose response of the surviving fraction. Our present model provides a single framework for understanding the behavior of primary cell colonies in culture following irradiation.

  9. SINGLE FIXED CRANE OPTIMISATION WITHIN A DISTRIBUTION CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Matthews

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper considersthe optimisation of the movement of a fixed crane operating in a single aisle of a distribution centre. The crane must move pallets in inventory between docking bays, storage locations, and picking lines. Both a static and a dynamic approach to the problem are presented. The optimisation is performed by means of tabu search, ant colony metaheuristics,and hybrids of these two methods. All these solution approaches were tested on real life data obtained from an operational distribution centre. Results indicate that the hybrid methods outperform the other approaches.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die optimisering van die beweging van 'n vaste hyskraan in 'n enkele gang van 'n distribusiesentrum word in hierdie artikel beskou. Die hyskraan moet pallette vervoer tussen dokhokke, stoorposisies, en opmaaklyne. Beide 'n statiese en 'n dinamiese benadering tot die probleem word aangebied. Die optimisering word gedoen met behulp van tabu-soektogte, mierkolonieoptimisering,en hibriede van hierdie twee metodes. Al die oplossingsbenaderings is getoets met werklike data wat van 'n operasionele distribusiesentrum verkry is. Die resultate toon aan dat die hibriedmetodes die beste oplossings lewer.

  10. Probabilistic modeling using bivariate normal distributions for identification of flow and displacement intervals in longwall overburden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacan, C.O.; Goodman, G.V.R. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Off Mine Safety & Health Research

    2011-01-15

    Gob gas ventholes (GGV) are used to control methane emissions in longwall mines by capturing it within the overlying fractured strata before it enters the work environment. In order for GGVs to effectively capture more methane and less mine air, the length of the slotted sections and their proximity to top of the coal bed should be designed based on the potential gas sources and their locations, as well as the displacements in the overburden that will create potential flow paths for the gas. In this paper, an approach to determine the conditional probabilities of depth-displacement, depth-flow percentage, depth-formation and depth-gas content of the formations was developed using bivariate normal distributions. The flow percentage, displacement and formation data as a function of distance from coal bed used in this study were obtained from a series of borehole experiments contracted by the former US Bureau of Mines as part of a research project. Each of these parameters was tested for normality and was modeled using bivariate normal distributions to determine all tail probabilities. In addition, the probability of coal bed gas content as a function of depth was determined using the same techniques. The tail probabilities at various depths were used to calculate conditional probabilities for each of the parameters. The conditional probabilities predicted for various values of the critical parameters can be used with the measurements of flow and methane percentage at gob gas ventholes to optimize their performance.

  11. Impact of foot progression angle on the distribution of plantar pressure in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Pan, Hui-Fen; Chang, Wei-Ning; Hsu, Chien-Jen; Renn, Jenn-Huei

    2014-02-01

    Plantar pressure distribution during walking is affected by several gait factors, most especially the foot progression angle which has been studied in children with neuromuscular diseases. However, this relationship in normal children has only been reported in limited studies. The purpose of this study is to clarify the correlation between foot progression angle and plantar pressure distribution in normal children, as well as the impacts of age and sex on this correlation. This study retrospectively reviewed dynamic pedobarographic data that were included in the gait laboratory database of our institution. In total, 77 normally developed children aged 5-16 years who were treated between 2004 and 2009 were included. Each child's footprint was divided into 5 segments: lateral forefoot, medial forefoot, lateral midfoot, medial midfoot, and heel. The percentages of impulse exerted at the medial foot, forefoot, midfoot, and heel were calculated. The average foot progression angle was 5.03° toe-out. Most of the total impulse was exerted on the forefoot (52.0%). Toe-out gait was positively correlated with high medial (r = 0.274; P plantar pressure as part of the treatment of various foot pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional roles of these 2 extracellular matrix proteins

  13. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Design: Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti–collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. Results: When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. Conclusions: We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional

  14. A Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm for Sampling from Distributions with Intractable Normalizing Constants

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming; Jin, Ick-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Simulating from distributions with intractable normalizing constants has been a long-standing problem inmachine learning. In this letter, we propose a new algorithm, the Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings (MCMH) algorithm, for tackling this problem. The MCMH algorithm is a Monte Carlo version of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. It replaces the unknown normalizing constant ratio by a Monte Carlo estimate in simulations, while still converges, as shown in the letter, to the desired target distribution under mild conditions. The MCMH algorithm is illustrated with spatial autologistic models and exponential random graph models. Unlike other auxiliary variable Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, such as the Møller and exchange algorithms, the MCMH algorithm avoids the requirement for perfect sampling, and thus can be applied to many statistical models for which perfect sampling is not available or very expensive. TheMCMHalgorithm can also be applied to Bayesian inference for random effect models and missing data problems that involve simulations from a distribution with intractable integrals. © 2013 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  15. A Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm for Sampling from Distributions with Intractable Normalizing Constants

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2013-08-01

    Simulating from distributions with intractable normalizing constants has been a long-standing problem inmachine learning. In this letter, we propose a new algorithm, the Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings (MCMH) algorithm, for tackling this problem. The MCMH algorithm is a Monte Carlo version of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. It replaces the unknown normalizing constant ratio by a Monte Carlo estimate in simulations, while still converges, as shown in the letter, to the desired target distribution under mild conditions. The MCMH algorithm is illustrated with spatial autologistic models and exponential random graph models. Unlike other auxiliary variable Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, such as the Møller and exchange algorithms, the MCMH algorithm avoids the requirement for perfect sampling, and thus can be applied to many statistical models for which perfect sampling is not available or very expensive. TheMCMHalgorithm can also be applied to Bayesian inference for random effect models and missing data problems that involve simulations from a distribution with intractable integrals. © 2013 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  16. Transformation of correlation coefficients between normal and lognormal distribution and implications for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žerovnik, Gašper, E-mail: gasper.zerovnik@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Trkov, Andrej, E-mail: andrej.trkov@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Smith, Donald L., E-mail: donald.l.smith@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 1710 Avenida del Mundo, Coronado, CA 92118-3073 (United States); Capote, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.capotenoy@iaea.org [NAPC–Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, PO Box 100, Vienna-A-1400 (Austria)

    2013-11-01

    Inherently positive parameters with large relative uncertainties (typically ≳30%) are often considered to be governed by the lognormal distribution. This assumption has the practical benefit of avoiding the possibility of sampling negative values in stochastic applications. Furthermore, it is typically assumed that the correlation coefficients for comparable multivariate normal and lognormal distributions are equivalent. However, this ideal situation is approached only in the linear approximation which happens to be applicable just for small uncertainties. This paper derives and discusses the proper transformation of correlation coefficients between both distributions for the most general case which is applicable for arbitrary uncertainties. It is seen that for lognormal distributions with large relative uncertainties strong anti-correlations (negative correlations) are mathematically forbidden. This is due to the asymmetry that is an inherent feature of these distributions. Some implications of these results for practical nuclear applications are discussed and they are illustrated with examples in this paper. Finally, modifications to the ENDF-6 format used for representing uncertainties in evaluated nuclear data libraries are suggested, as needed to deal with this issue.

  17. Transformation of correlation coefficients between normal and lognormal distribution and implications for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej; Smith, Donald L.; Capote, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Inherently positive parameters with large relative uncertainties (typically ≳30%) are often considered to be governed by the lognormal distribution. This assumption has the practical benefit of avoiding the possibility of sampling negative values in stochastic applications. Furthermore, it is typically assumed that the correlation coefficients for comparable multivariate normal and lognormal distributions are equivalent. However, this ideal situation is approached only in the linear approximation which happens to be applicable just for small uncertainties. This paper derives and discusses the proper transformation of correlation coefficients between both distributions for the most general case which is applicable for arbitrary uncertainties. It is seen that for lognormal distributions with large relative uncertainties strong anti-correlations (negative correlations) are mathematically forbidden. This is due to the asymmetry that is an inherent feature of these distributions. Some implications of these results for practical nuclear applications are discussed and they are illustrated with examples in this paper. Finally, modifications to the ENDF-6 format used for representing uncertainties in evaluated nuclear data libraries are suggested, as needed to deal with this issue

  18. Effects of a primordial magnetic field with log-normal distribution on the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Dai G.; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We assume the spectrum of PMFs is described by log-normal distribution which has a characteristic scale, rather than power-law spectrum. This scale is expected to reflect the generation mechanisms and our analysis is complementary to previous studies with power-law spectrum. We calculate power spectra of energy density and Lorentz force of the log-normal PMFs, and then calculate CMB temperature and polarization angular power spectra from scalar, vector, and tensor modes of perturbations generated from such PMFs. By comparing these spectra with WMAP7, QUaD, CBI, Boomerang, and ACBAR data sets, we find that the current CMB data set places the strongest constraint at k≅10 -2.5 Mpc -1 with the upper limit B < or approx. 3 nG.

  19. The distribution of YKL-40 in osteoarthritic and normal human articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volck, B; Ostergaard, K; Johansen, J S

    1999-01-01

    YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39, is a major secretory protein of human chondrocytes in cell culture. YKL-40 mRNA is expressed by cartilage from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but is not detectable in normal human cartilage. The aim was to investigate the distribution of YKL......-40 in osteoarthritic (n=9) and macroscopically normal (n=5) human articular cartilage, collected from 12 pre-selected areas of the femoral head, to discover a potential role for YKL-40 in cartilage remodelling in osteoarthritis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that YKL-40 staining was found...... in chondrocytes of osteoarthritic cartilage mainly in the superficial and middle zone of the cartilage rather than the deep zone. There was a tendency for high number of YKL-40 positive chondrocytes in areas of the femoral head with a considerable biomechanical load. The number of chondrocytes with a positive...

  20. Use of critical pathway models and log-normal frequency distributions for siting nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; Denham, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of potential sites for nuclear facilities are evaluated through the use of environmental pathway and log-normal distribution analysis. Environmental considerations of nuclear facility siting are necessarily geared to the identification of media believed to be sifnificant in terms of dose to man or to be potential centres for long-term accumulation of contaminants. To aid in meeting the scope and purpose of this identification, an exposure pathway diagram must be developed. This type of diagram helps to locate pertinent environmental media, points of expected long-term contaminant accumulation, and points of population/contaminant interface for both radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants. Confirmation of facility siting conclusions drawn from pathway considerations must usually be derived from an investigatory environmental surveillance programme. Battelle's experience with environmental surveillance data interpretation using log-normal techniques indicates that this distribution has much to offer in the planning, execution and analysis phases of such a programme. How these basic principles apply to the actual siting of a nuclear facility is demonstrated for a centrifuge-type uranium enrichment facility as an example. A model facility is examined to the extent of available data in terms of potential contaminants and facility general environmental needs. A critical exposure pathway diagram is developed to the point of prescribing the characteristics of an optimum site for such a facility. Possible necessary deviations from climatic constraints are reviewed and reconciled with conclusions drawn from the exposure pathway analysis. Details of log-normal distribution analysis techniques are presented, with examples of environmental surveillance data to illustrate data manipulation techniques and interpretation procedures as they affect the investigatory environmental surveillance programme. Appropriate consideration is given these

  1. Normal formation and repair of γ-radiation-induced single and double strand DNA breaks in Down syndrome fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.E.; Woods, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts from patients with Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) were examined for repair capability of γ-radiation-induced single strand and double strand DNA breaks. Formation and repair of DNA breaks were determined by DNA alkaline and non-denaturing elution techniques. Down syndrome fibroblasts were found to repair single strand and double strand breaks as well as fibroblasts from normal controls. (orig.)

  2. Random phenotypic variation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) single-gene knockouts fits a double pareto-lognormal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John H; Robb, Daniel T; Poe, Amy R

    2012-01-01

    Distributed robustness is thought to influence the buffering of random phenotypic variation through the scale-free topology of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. If this hypothesis is true, then the phenotypic response to the perturbation of particular nodes in such a network should be proportional to the number of links those nodes make with neighboring nodes. This suggests a probability distribution approximating an inverse power-law of random phenotypic variation. Zero phenotypic variation, however, is impossible, because random molecular and cellular processes are essential to normal development. Consequently, a more realistic distribution should have a y-intercept close to zero in the lower tail, a mode greater than zero, and a long (fat) upper tail. The double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution is an ideal candidate distribution. It consists of a mixture of a lognormal body and upper and lower power-law tails. If our assumptions are true, the DPLN distribution should provide a better fit to random phenotypic variation in a large series of single-gene knockout lines than other skewed or symmetrical distributions. We fit a large published data set of single-gene knockout lines in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to seven different probability distributions: DPLN, right Pareto-lognormal (RPLN), left Pareto-lognormal (LPLN), normal, lognormal, exponential, and Pareto. The best model was judged by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Phenotypic variation among gene knockouts in S. cerevisiae fits a double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution better than any of the alternative distributions, including the right Pareto-lognormal and lognormal distributions. A DPLN distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that developmental stability is mediated, in part, by distributed robustness, the resilience of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. Alternatively, multiplicative cell growth, and the mixing of

  3. Very short-term probabilistic forecasting of wind power with generalized logit-Normal distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    and probability masses at the bounds. Both auto-regressive and conditional parametric auto-regressive models are considered for the dynamics of their location and scale parameters. Estimation is performed in a recursive least squares framework with exponential forgetting. The superiority of this proposal over......Very-short-term probabilistic forecasts, which are essential for an optimal management of wind generation, ought to account for the non-linear and double-bounded nature of that stochastic process. They take here the form of discrete–continuous mixtures of generalized logit–normal distributions...

  4. American Option Pricing using GARCH models and the Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In this paper we propose a feasible way to price American options in a model with time varying volatility and conditional skewness and leptokurtosis using GARCH processes and the Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution. We show how the risk neutral dynamics can be obtained in this model, we interpret...... properties shows that there are important option pricing differences compared to the Gaussian case as well as to the symmetric special case. A large scale empirical examination shows that our model outperforms the Gaussian case for pricing options on three large US stocks as well as a major index...

  5. The distribution of YKL-40 in osteoarthritic and normal human articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volck, B; Ostergaard, K; Johansen, J S

    1999-01-01

    YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39, is a major secretory protein of human chondrocytes in cell culture. YKL-40 mRNA is expressed by cartilage from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but is not detectable in normal human cartilage. The aim was to investigate the distribution of YKL...... in chondrocytes of osteoarthritic cartilage mainly in the superficial and middle zone of the cartilage rather than the deep zone. There was a tendency for high number of YKL-40 positive chondrocytes in areas of the femoral head with a considerable biomechanical load. The number of chondrocytes with a positive...

  6. On the Use of the Log-Normal Particle Size Distribution to Characterize Global Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Rincon, Rafael; Liao, Liang

    2003-01-01

    Although most parameterizations of the drop size distributions (DSD) use the gamma function, there are several advantages to the log-normal form, particularly if we want to characterize the large scale space-time variability of the DSD and rain rate. The advantages of the distribution are twofold: the logarithm of any moment can be expressed as a linear combination of the individual parameters of the distribution; the parameters of the distribution are approximately normally distributed. Since all radar and rainfall-related parameters can be written approximately as a moment of the DSD, the first property allows us to express the logarithm of any radar/rainfall variable as a linear combination of the individual DSD parameters. Another consequence is that any power law relationship between rain rate, reflectivity factor, specific attenuation or water content can be expressed in terms of the covariance matrix of the DSD parameters. The joint-normal property of the DSD parameters has applications to the description of the space-time variation of rainfall in the sense that any radar-rainfall quantity can be specified by the covariance matrix associated with the DSD parameters at two arbitrary space-time points. As such, the parameterization provides a means by which we can use the spaceborne radar-derived DSD parameters to specify in part the covariance matrices globally. However, since satellite observations have coarse temporal sampling, the specification of the temporal covariance must be derived from ancillary measurements and models. Work is presently underway to determine whether the use of instantaneous rain rate data from the TRMM Precipitation Radar can provide good estimates of the spatial correlation in rain rate from data collected in 5(sup 0)x 5(sup 0) x 1 month space-time boxes. To characterize the temporal characteristics of the DSD parameters, disdrometer data are being used from the Wallops Flight Facility site where as many as 4 disdrometers have been

  7. Exact, time-independent estimation of clone size distributions in normal and mutated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, A; Jones, P H; Greenman, C D

    2014-10-06

    Biological tools such as genetic lineage tracing, three-dimensional confocal microscopy and next-generation DNA sequencing are providing new ways to quantify the distribution of clones of normal and mutated cells. Understanding population-wide clone size distributions in vivo is complicated by multiple cell types within observed tissues, and overlapping birth and death processes. This has led to the increased need for mathematically informed models to understand their biological significance. Standard approaches usually require knowledge of clonal age. We show that modelling on clone size independent of time is an alternative method that offers certain analytical advantages; it can help parametrize these models, and obtain distributions for counts of mutated or proliferating cells, for example. When applied to a general birth-death process common in epithelial progenitors, this takes the form of a gambler's ruin problem, the solution of which relates to counting Motzkin lattice paths. Applying this approach to mutational processes, alternative, exact, formulations of classic Luria-Delbrück-type problems emerge. This approach can be extended beyond neutral models of mutant clonal evolution. Applications of these approaches are twofold. First, we resolve the probability of progenitor cells generating proliferating or differentiating progeny in clonal lineage tracing experiments in vivo or cell culture assays where clone age is not known. Second, we model mutation frequency distributions that deep sequencing of subclonal samples produce.

  8. TumorBoost: Normalization of allele-specific tumor copy numbers from a single pair of tumor-normal genotyping microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuvial Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput genotyping microarrays assess both total DNA copy number and allelic composition, which makes them a tool of choice for copy number studies in cancer, including total copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH analyses. Even after state of the art preprocessing methods, allelic signal estimates from genotyping arrays still suffer from systematic effects that make them difficult to use effectively for such downstream analyses. Results We propose a method, TumorBoost, for normalizing allelic estimates of one tumor sample based on estimates from a single matched normal. The method applies to any paired tumor-normal estimates from any microarray-based technology, combined with any preprocessing method. We demonstrate that it increases the signal-to-noise ratio of allelic signals, making it significantly easier to detect allelic imbalances. Conclusions TumorBoost increases the power to detect somatic copy-number events (including copy-neutral LOH in the tumor from allelic signals of Affymetrix or Illumina origin. We also conclude that high-precision allelic estimates can be obtained from a single pair of tumor-normal hybridizations, if TumorBoost is combined with single-array preprocessing methods such as (allele-specific CRMA v2 for Affymetrix or BeadStudio's (proprietary XY-normalization method for Illumina. A bounded-memory implementation is available in the open-source and cross-platform R package aroma.cn, which is part of the Aroma Project (http://www.aroma-project.org/.

  9. Non-linear learning in online tutorial to enhance students’ knowledge on normal distribution application topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartono; Suryadi, D.; Herman, T.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the enhancement of non-linear learning (NLL) in the online tutorial (OT) content to students’ knowledge of normal distribution application (KONDA). KONDA is a competence expected to be achieved after students studied the topic of normal distribution application in the course named Education Statistics. The analysis was performed by quasi-experiment study design. The subject of the study was divided into an experimental class that was given OT content in NLL model and a control class which was given OT content in conventional learning (CL) model. Data used in this study were the results of online objective tests to measure students’ statistical prior knowledge (SPK) and students’ pre- and post-test of KONDA. The statistical analysis test of a gain score of KONDA of students who had low and moderate SPK’s scores showed students’ KONDA who learn OT content with NLL model was better than students’ KONDA who learn OT content with CL model. Meanwhile, for students who had high SPK’s scores, the gain score of students who learn OT content with NLL model had relatively similar with the gain score of students who learn OT content with CL model. Based on those findings it could be concluded that the NLL model applied to OT content could enhance KONDA of students in low and moderate SPK’s levels. Extra and more challenging didactical situation was needed for students in high SPK’s level to achieve the significant gain score.

  10. Elastic microfibril distribution in the cornea: Differences between normal and keratoconic stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tomas L; Lewis, Philip N; Young, Robert D; Kitazawa, Koji; Inatomi, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Meek, Keith M

    2017-06-01

    The optical and biomechanical properties of the cornea are largely governed by the collagen-rich stroma, a layer that represents approximately 90% of the total thickness. Within the stroma, the specific arrangement of superimposed lamellae provides the tissue with tensile strength, whilst the spatial arrangement of individual collagen fibrils within the lamellae confers transparency. In keratoconus, this precise stromal arrangement is lost, resulting in ectasia and visual impairment. In the normal cornea, we previously characterised the three-dimensional arrangement of an elastic fiber network spanning the posterior stroma from limbus-to-limbus. In the peripheral cornea/limbus there are elastin-containing sheets or broad fibers, most of which become microfibril bundles (MBs) with little or no elastin component when reaching the central cornea. The purpose of the current study was to compare this network with the elastic fiber distribution in post-surgical keratoconic corneal buttons, using serial block face scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We have demonstrated that the MB distribution is very different in keratoconus. MBs are absent from a region of stroma anterior to Descemet's membrane, an area that is densely populated in normal cornea, whilst being concentrated below the epithelium, an area in which they are absent in normal cornea. We contend that these latter microfibrils are produced as a biomechanical response to provide additional strength to the anterior stroma in order to prevent tissue rupture at the apex of the cone. A lack of MBs anterior to Descemet's membrane in keratoconus would alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue, potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Goodness-of-Fit Tests for Generalized Normal Distribution for Use in Hydrological Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samiran

    2018-04-01

    The use of three-parameter generalized normal (GNO) as a hydrological frequency distribution is well recognized, but its application is limited due to unavailability of popular goodness-of-fit (GOF) test statistics. This study develops popular empirical distribution function (EDF)-based test statistics to investigate the goodness-of-fit of the GNO distribution. The focus is on the case most relevant to the hydrologist, namely, that in which the parameter values are unidentified and estimated from a sample using the method of L-moments. The widely used EDF tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Cramer von Mises, and Anderson-Darling (AD) are considered in this study. A modified version of AD, namely, the Modified Anderson-Darling (MAD) test, is also considered and its performance is assessed against other EDF tests using a power study that incorporates six specific Wakeby distributions (WA-1, WA-2, WA-3, WA-4, WA-5, and WA-6) as the alternative distributions. The critical values of the proposed test statistics are approximated using Monte Carlo techniques and are summarized in chart and regression equation form to show the dependence of shape parameter and sample size. The performance results obtained from the power study suggest that the AD and a variant of the MAD (MAD-L) are the most powerful tests. Finally, the study performs case studies involving annual maximum flow data of selected gauged sites from Irish and US catchments to show the application of the derived critical values and recommends further assessments to be carried out on flow data sets of rivers with various hydrological regimes.

  12. A Platoon Dispersion Model Based on a Truncated Normal Distribution of Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding platoon dispersion is critical for the coordination of traffic signal control in an urban traffic network. Assuming that platoon speed follows a truncated normal distribution, ranging from minimum speed to maximum speed, this paper develops a piecewise density function that describes platoon dispersion characteristics as the platoon moves from an upstream to a downstream intersection. Based on this density function, the expected number of cars in the platoon that pass the downstream intersection, and the expected number of cars in the platoon that do not pass the downstream point are calculated. To facilitate coordination in a traffic signal control system, dispersion models for the front and the rear of the platoon are also derived. Finally, a numeric computation for the coordination of successive signals is presented to illustrate the validity of the proposed model.

  13. Financing options and economic impact: distributed generation using solar photovoltaic systems in Normal, Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H. Jo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing price volatility in fossil-fuel-produced energy, the demand for clean, renewable, and abundant energy is more prevalent than in past years. Solar photovoltaic (PV systems have been well documented for their ability to produce electrical energy while at the same time offering support to mitigate the negative externalities associated with fossil fuel combustion. Prices for PV systems have decreased over the past few years, however residential and commercial owners may still opt out of purchasing a system due to the overall price required for a PV system installation. Therefore, determining optimal financing options for residential and small-scale purchasers is a necessity. We report on payment methods currently used for distributed community solar projects throughout the US and suggest appropriate options for purchasers in Normal, Illinois given their economic status. We also examine the jobs and total economic impact of a PV system implementation in the case study area.

  14. Topographical Distribution of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in the Normal Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Agersnap; Pakkenberg, H.; Damsgaard, Else

    1979-01-01

    The concentrations of arsenic, manganese and selenium per gram wet tissue weight were determined in samples from 24 areas of normal human brains from 5 persons with ages ranging from 15 to 81 years of age. The concentrations of the 3 elements were determined for each sample by means of neutron...... activation analysis with radiochemical separation. Distinct patterns of distribution were shown for each of the 3 elements. Variations between individuals were found for some but not all brain areas, resulting in coefficients of variation between individuals of about 30% for arsenic, 10% for manganese and 20......% for selenium. The results seem to indicate that arsenic is associated with the lipid phase, manganese with the dry matter and selenium with the aqueous phase of brain tissue....

  15. Skewed Normal Distribution Of Return Assets In Call European Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Sulistianingsih

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Option is one of security derivates. In financial market, option is a contract that gives a right (notthe obligation for its owner to buy or sell a particular asset for a certain price at a certain time.Option can give a guarantee for a risk that can be faced in a market.This paper studies about theuse of Skewed Normal Distribution (SN in call europeanoption pricing. The SN provides aflexible framework that captures the skewness of log return. We obtain aclosed form solution forthe european call option pricing when log return follow the SN. Then, we will compare optionprices that is obtained by the SN and the Black-Scholes model with the option prices of market. Keywords: skewed normaldistribution, log return, options.

  16. TOTAL NUMBER, DISTRIBUTION, AND PHENOTYPE OF CELLS EXPRESSING CHONDROITIN SULPHATE PROTEOGLYCANS IN THE NORMAL HUMAN AMYGDALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, Harry; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Berretta, Sabina

    2009-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a key structural component of the brain extracellular matrix. They are involved in critical neurodevelopmental functions and are one of the main components of pericellular aggregates known as perineuronal nets. As a step toward investigating their functional and pathophysiological roles in the human amygdala, we assessed the pattern of CSPG expression in the normal human amygdala using wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) lectin-histochemistry. Total numbers of WFA-labeled elements were measured in the lateral (LN), basal (BN), accessory basal (ABN) and cortical (CO) nuclei of the amygdala from 15 normal adult human subjects. For interspecies qualitative comparison, we also investigated the pattern of WFA labeling in the amygdala of naïve rats (n=32) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n=6). In human amygdala, WFA lectin-histochemistry resulted in labeling of perineuronal nets and cells with clear glial morphology, while neurons did not show WFA-labeling. Total numbers of WFA-labeled glial cells showed high interindividual variability. These cells aggregated in clusters with a consistent between-subjects spatial distribution. In a subset of human subjects (n=5), dual color fluorescence using an antibody raised against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and WFA showed that the majority (93.7%) of WFA-labeled glial cells correspond to astrocytes. In rat and monkey amygdala, WFA histochemistry labeled perineuronal nets, but not glial cells. These results suggest that astrocytes are the main cell type expressing CSPGs in the adult human amygdala. Their highly segregated distribution pattern suggests that these cells serve specialized functions within human amygdalar nuclei. PMID:18374308

  17. Even-odd charged multiplicity distributions and energy dependence of normalized multiplicity moments in different rapidity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou

    1990-01-01

    The even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows are calculated, starting from a simple picture for charge correlation with non-zero correlation length. The coincidence and separation of these distributions are explained. The calculated window-and energy-dependence of normalized moments recovered the behaviour found in experiments. A new definition for normalized moments is propossed, especially suitable for narrow rapidity windows

  18. Measurement of activity-weighted size distributions of radon decay products in a normally occupied home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Wasiolek, P.; Montassier, N.; Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Socolow, R.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the exposure of individuals to the presence of indoor radioactivity arising from the decay of radon, an automated, semicontinuous graded screen array system was developed to permit the measurement of the activity-weighted size distributions of the radon progeny in homes. The system has been modified so that the electronics and sampling heads can be separated from the pump by approximately 15 m. The system was placed in the living room of a one-storey house with basement in Princeton, NJ and operated for 2 weeks while the house was occupied by the home owners in their normal manner. One of the house occupants was a cigarette smoker. Radon and potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) measurements were also made, but condensation nuclei counts were not performed. PAEC values ranged from 23.4 to 461.6 mWL. In the measured activity size distributions, the amount of activity in the 0.5-1.5 nm size range can be considered to be the unattached fraction. The mean value for the 218 Po unattached fraction is 0.217 with a range of 0.054-0.549. The median value for the unattached fraction of PAEC is 0.077 with a range of 0.022-0.178. (author)

  19. Detecting and correcting for publication bias in meta-analysis - A truncated normal distribution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiaohao; Carriere, K C

    2016-01-01

    Publication bias can significantly limit the validity of meta-analysis when trying to draw conclusion about a research question from independent studies. Most research on detection and correction for publication bias in meta-analysis focus mainly on funnel plot-based methodologies or selection models. In this paper, we formulate publication bias as a truncated distribution problem, and propose new parametric solutions. We develop methodologies of estimating the underlying overall effect size and the severity of publication bias. We distinguish the two major situations, in which publication bias may be induced by: (1) small effect size or (2) large p-value. We consider both fixed and random effects models, and derive estimators for the overall mean and the truncation proportion. These estimators will be obtained using maximum likelihood estimation and method of moments under fixed- and random-effects models, respectively. We carried out extensive simulation studies to evaluate the performance of our methodology, and to compare with the non-parametric Trim and Fill method based on funnel plot. We find that our methods based on truncated normal distribution perform consistently well, both in detecting and correcting publication bias under various situations.

  20. [Calbindin and parvalbumin distribution in spinal cord of normal and rabies-infected mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Gómez, Jeison; Torres-Fernández, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal infectious disease of the nervous system; however, the knowledge about the pathogenic neural mechanisms in rabies is scarce. In addition, there are few studies of rabies pathology of the spinal cord. To study the distribution of calcium binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin and assessing the effect of rabies virus infection on their expression in the spinal cord of mice. MATERIALES Y METHODS: Mice were inoculated with rabies virus, by intracerebral or intramuscular route. The spinal cord was extracted to perform some crosscuts which were treated by immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to reveal the presence of the two proteins in normal and rabies infected mice. We did qualitative and quantitative analyses of the immunoreactivity of the two proteins. Calbindin and parvalbumin showed differential distribution in Rexed laminae. Rabies infection produced a decrease in the expression of calbindin. On the contrary, the infection caused an increased expression of parvalbumin. The effect of rabies infection on the two proteins expression was similar when comparing both routes of inoculation. The differential effect of rabies virus infection on the expression of calbindin and parvalbumin in the spinal cord of mice was similar to that previously reported for brain areas. This result suggests uniformity in the response to rabies infection throughout the central nervous system. This is an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of rabies.

  1. Distribution Log Normal of 222 Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of 222 Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of 222 Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of 222 Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of 222 Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m 3 are presented. (Author)

  2. Effect of EMIC Wave Normal Angle Distribution on Relativistic Electron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2006-01-01

    calculate the pitch-angle diffusion coefficients using the typical wave normal distributions obtained from our self-consistent ring current-EMIC wave model, and try to quantify the effect of EMIC wave normal angle characteristics on relativistic electron scattering.

  3. Heterogeneous distribution of a diffusional tracer in the aortic wall of normal and atherosclerotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, H.; Tomoike, H.; Nakamura, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tracer distribution as an index of nutritional support across the thoracic and abdominal aortas in rabbits in the presence or absence of atherosclerotic lesions was evaluated using [ 14 C]antipyrine, a metabolically inert, diffusible indicator. Intimal plaques were produced by endothelial balloon denudation of the thoracic aorta and a 1% cholesterol diet. After a steady intravenous infusion of 200 microCi of [ 14 C]antipyrine for 60 seconds, thoracic and abdominal aortas and the heart were excised, and autoradiograms of 20-microns-thick sections were quantified, using microcomputer-aided densitometry. Regional radioactivity and regional diffusional support, as an index of nutritional flow estimated from the timed collections of arterial blood, was 367 and 421 nCi.g-1 (82 and 106 ml.min-1.100 g-1) in thoracic aortic media of the normal and atherosclerotic rabbits, respectively. Radioactivity at the thickened intima was 179 nCi.g-1 (p less than 0.01 versus media). The gruel was noted at a deeper site within the thickened intima, and diffusional support here was 110 nCi.g-1 (p less than 0.01 versus an average radioactivity at the thickened intima). After ligating the intercostal arteries, regional tracer distribution in the media beneath the fibrofatty lesion, but not the plaque-free intima, was reduced to 46%. Thus, in the presence of advanced intimal thickening, the heterogeneous distribution of diffusional flow is prominent across the vessel wall, and abluminal routes are crucial to meet the increased demands of nutritional requirements

  4. Single-quadrature continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    Most continuous-variable quantum key distribution schemes are based on the Gaussian modulation of coherent states followed by continuous quadrature detection using homodyne detectors. In all previous schemes, the Gaussian modulation has been carried out in conjugate quadratures thus requiring two...... commercialization of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, provided that the low noise requirement can be achieved....

  5. Short-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumped in double-pulse single-beam non-normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, D.; Ros, D.; Guilbaud, O.; Habib, J.; Kazamias, S.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Ecker, B.; Aurand, B.; Kuehl, T.; Hochhaus, D. C.; Neumayer, P.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated a 7.36 nm Ni-like samarium soft-x-ray laser, pumped by 36 J of a neodymium:glass chirped-pulse amplification laser. Double-pulse single-beam non-normal-incidence pumping was applied for efficient soft-x-ray laser generation. In this case, the applied technique included a single-optic focusing geometry for large beam diameters, a single-pass grating compressor, traveling-wave tuning capability, and an optimized high-energy laser double pulse. This scheme has the potential for even shorter-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumping.

  6. Stimulus-Dominance Effects and Lateral Asymmetries for Language in Normal Subjects and in Patients with a Single Functional Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Marirosa; Marano, Elena; Viti, Marzia

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of language laterality by the dichotic fused-words test may be impaired by interference effects revealed by the dominant report of one member of the stimuli-pair. Stimulus-dominance and ear asymmetry were evaluated in normal population (48 subjects of both sex and handedness) and in 2 patients with a single functional hemisphere.…

  7. Deterministic Single-Photon Source for Distributed Quantum Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, Axel; Hennrich, Markus; Rempe, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    A sequence of single photons is emitted on demand from a single three-level atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity. The photons are generated by an adiabatically driven stimulated Raman transition between two atomic ground states, with the vacuum field of the cavity stimulating one branch of the transition, and laser pulses deterministically driving the other branch. This process is unitary and therefore intrinsically reversible, which is essential for quantum communication and networking, and the photons should be appropriate for all-optical quantum information processing

  8. Effect of EMIC Wave Normal Angle Distribution on Relativistic Electron Scattering in Outer RB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.

    2007-01-01

    We present the equatorial and bounce average pitch angle diffusion coefficients for scattering of relativistic electrons by the H+ mode of EMIC waves. Both the model (prescribed) and self consistent distributions over the wave normal angle are considered. The main results of our calculation can be summarized as follows: First, in comparison with field aligned waves, the intermediate and highly oblique waves reduce the pitch angle range subject to diffusion, and strongly suppress the scattering rate for low energy electrons (E less than 2 MeV). Second, for electron energies greater than 5 MeV, the |n| = 1 resonances operate only in a narrow region at large pitch-angles, and despite their greatest contribution in case of field aligned waves, cannot cause electron diffusion into the loss cone. For those energies, oblique waves at |n| greater than 1 resonances are more effective, extending the range of pitch angle diffusion down to the loss cone boundary, and increasing diffusion at small pitch angles by orders of magnitude.

  9. Absolute quantification of pharmacokinetic distribution of RES colloids in individuals with normal liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.; Spohr, G.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates of the radiation dose resulting from liver-spleen scintigraphy 99 TCsup(m)-labelled colloids are based on pharmacokinetic data mainly determined in animals. The aim of this study was to check the pharmacokinetic data by direct, absolute in vivo quantification in man. Liver and spleen activities were directly measured using a double-energy window technique. Activities in other organs were quantified by conjugate whole-body scans. All measurement procedures were checked using the whole-body Alderson phantom. Pharmacokinetic data for sulphur colloid, tin colloid, human serum albumin (HSA) millimicrospheres, and phytate were obtained in 13 to 20 normal subjects for each type of colloid. Depending on the colloid type liver uptake was between 54 and 75% of the total administered dose (TAD) and spleen uptake was 3.5 to 21% TAD. Activity measured in blood, urine, lung and thyroid proved to be far from negligible. The results of this work suggest a correction of the animal-based data of colloid distribution and radiation dose on the basis of the direct measurement of absolute uptake in man. (author)

  10. A branching process model for the analysis of abortive colony size distributions in carbon ion-irradiated normal human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kawaguchi, Isao; Hara, Takamitsu; Saito, Kimiaki

    2014-01-01

    A single cell can form a colony, and ionizing irradiation has long been known to reduce such a cellular clonogenic potential. Analysis of abortive colonies unable to continue to grow should provide important information on the reproductive cell death (RCD) following irradiation. Our previous analysis with a branching process model showed that the RCD in normal human fibroblasts can persist over 16 generations following irradiation with low linear energy transfer (LET) γ-rays. Here we further set out to evaluate the RCD persistency in abortive colonies arising from normal human fibroblasts exposed to high-LET carbon ions (18.3 MeV/u, 108 keV/μm). We found that the abortive colony size distribution determined by biological experiments follows a linear relationship on the log–log plot, and that the Monte Carlo simulation using the RCD probability estimated from such a linear relationship well simulates the experimentally determined surviving fraction and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). We identified the short-term phase and long-term phase for the persistent RCD following carbon-ion irradiation, which were similar to those previously identified following γ-irradiation. Taken together, our results suggest that subsequent secondary or tertiary colony formation would be invaluable for understanding the long-lasting RCD. All together, our framework for analysis with a branching process model and a colony formation assay is applicable to determination of cellular responses to low- and high-LET radiation, and suggests that the long-lasting RCD is a pivotal determinant of the surviving fraction and the RBE. (author)

  11. Microscopic prediction of speech intelligibility in spatially distributed speech-shaped noise for normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geravanchizadeh, Masoud; Fallah, Ali

    2015-12-01

    A binaural and psychoacoustically motivated intelligibility model, based on a well-known monaural microscopic model is proposed. This model simulates a phoneme recognition task in the presence of spatially distributed speech-shaped noise in anechoic scenarios. In the proposed model, binaural advantage effects are considered by generating a feature vector for a dynamic-time-warping speech recognizer. This vector consists of three subvectors incorporating two monaural subvectors to model the better-ear hearing, and a binaural subvector to simulate the binaural unmasking effect. The binaural unit of the model is based on equalization-cancellation theory. This model operates blindly, which means separate recordings of speech and noise are not required for the predictions. Speech intelligibility tests were conducted with 12 normal hearing listeners by collecting speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in the presence of single and multiple sources of speech-shaped noise. The comparison of the model predictions with the measured binaural SRTs, and with the predictions of a macroscopic binaural model called extended equalization-cancellation, shows that this approach predicts the intelligibility in anechoic scenarios with good precision. The square of the correlation coefficient (r(2)) and the mean-absolute error between the model predictions and the measurements are 0.98 and 0.62 dB, respectively.

  12. Divisive normalization and neuronal oscillations in a single hierarchical framework of selective visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montijn, J.S.; Klink, P.C.; van Wezel, R.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Divisive normalization models of covert attention commonly use spike rate modulations as indicators of the effect of top-down attention. In addition, an increasing number of studies have shown that top-down attention increases the synchronization of neuronal oscillations as well, particularly in

  13. Distributed Detection with Collisions in a Random, Single-Hop Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-26

    public release; distribution is unlimited. Distributed detection with collisions in a random, single-hop wireless sensor network The views, opinions...1274 2 ABSTRACT Distributed detection with collisions in a random, single-hop wireless sensor network Report Title We consider the problem of... WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK Gene T. Whipps?† Emre Ertin† Randolph L. Moses† ?U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 †The Ohio State University

  14. A different approach to obtain Mayer’s extension to stationary single particle Wigner distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Anirban; Janaki, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the stationary collisionless single-particle Wigner equation in one dimension containing quantum corrections at the lowest order is satisfied by a distribution function that is similar in form to the Maxwellian distribution with an effective mass and a generalized potential. The distribution is used to study quantum corrections to electron hole solutions.

  15. Sub-cellular force microscopy in single normal and cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babahosseini, H.; Carmichael, B.; Strobl, J.S.; Mahmoodi, S.N.; Agah, M.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the biomechanical properties of sub-cellular structures of breast cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cells are modeled as a triple-layered structure where the Generalized Maxwell model is applied to experimental data from AFM stress-relaxation tests to extract the elastic modulus, the apparent viscosity, and the relaxation time of sub-cellular structures. The triple-layered modeling results allow for determination and comparison of the biomechanical properties of the three major sub-cellular structures between normal and cancerous cells: the up plasma membrane/actin cortex, the mid cytoplasm/nucleus, and the low nuclear/integrin sub-domains. The results reveal that the sub-domains become stiffer and significantly more viscous with depth, regardless of cell type. In addition, there is a decreasing trend in the average elastic modulus and apparent viscosity of the all corresponding sub-cellular structures from normal to cancerous cells, which becomes most remarkable in the deeper sub-domain. The presented modeling in this work constitutes a unique AFM-based experimental framework to study the biomechanics of sub-cellular structures. - Highlights: • The cells are modeled as a triple-layered structure using Generalized Maxwell model. • The sub-domains include membrane/cortex, cytoplasm/nucleus, and nuclear/integrin. • Biomechanics of corresponding sub-domains are compared among normal and cancer cells. • Viscoelasticity of sub-domains show a decreasing trend from normal to cancer cells. • The decreasing trend becomes most significant in the deeper sub-domain

  16. Sub-cellular force microscopy in single normal and cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babahosseini, H. [VT MEMS Laboratory, The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Carmichael, B. [Nonlinear Intelligent Structures Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0276 (United States); Strobl, J.S. [VT MEMS Laboratory, The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Mahmoodi, S.N., E-mail: nmahmoodi@eng.ua.edu [Nonlinear Intelligent Structures Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0276 (United States); Agah, M., E-mail: agah@vt.edu [VT MEMS Laboratory, The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2015-08-07

    This work investigates the biomechanical properties of sub-cellular structures of breast cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cells are modeled as a triple-layered structure where the Generalized Maxwell model is applied to experimental data from AFM stress-relaxation tests to extract the elastic modulus, the apparent viscosity, and the relaxation time of sub-cellular structures. The triple-layered modeling results allow for determination and comparison of the biomechanical properties of the three major sub-cellular structures between normal and cancerous cells: the up plasma membrane/actin cortex, the mid cytoplasm/nucleus, and the low nuclear/integrin sub-domains. The results reveal that the sub-domains become stiffer and significantly more viscous with depth, regardless of cell type. In addition, there is a decreasing trend in the average elastic modulus and apparent viscosity of the all corresponding sub-cellular structures from normal to cancerous cells, which becomes most remarkable in the deeper sub-domain. The presented modeling in this work constitutes a unique AFM-based experimental framework to study the biomechanics of sub-cellular structures. - Highlights: • The cells are modeled as a triple-layered structure using Generalized Maxwell model. • The sub-domains include membrane/cortex, cytoplasm/nucleus, and nuclear/integrin. • Biomechanics of corresponding sub-domains are compared among normal and cancer cells. • Viscoelasticity of sub-domains show a decreasing trend from normal to cancer cells. • The decreasing trend becomes most significant in the deeper sub-domain.

  17. Divisive Normalization and Neuronal Oscillations in a Single Hierarchical Framework of Selective Visual Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Montijn, Jorrit Steven; Klink, P. Christaan; van Wezel, Richard J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Divisive normalization models of covert attention commonly use spike rate modulations as indicators of the effect of top-down attention. In addition, an increasing number of studies have shown that top-down attention increases the synchronization of neuronal oscillations as well, particularly in gamma-band frequencies (25–100 Hz). Although modulations of spike rate and synchronous oscillations are not mutually exclusive as mechanisms of attention, there has thus far been little effort to inte...

  18. On generalisations of the log-Normal distribution by means of a new product definition in the Kapteyn process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M.

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the modification of the Kapteyn multiplicative process using the q-product of Borges [E.P. Borges, A possible deformed algebra and calculus inspired in nonextensive thermostatistics, Physica A 340 (2004) 95]. Depending on the value of the index q a generalisation of the log-Normal distribution is yielded. Namely, the distribution increases the tail for small (when q1) values of the variable upon analysis. The usual log-Normal distribution is retrieved when q=1, which corresponds to the traditional Kapteyn multiplicative process. The main statistical features of this distribution as well as related random number generators and tables of quantiles of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance are presented. Finally, we illustrate the validity of this scenario by describing a set of variables of biological and financial origin.

  19. Analysis of a hundred-years series of magnetic activity indices. III. Is the frequency distribution logarithmo-normal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayaud, P.N.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the various components of positive conservation existing in the series of aa indices, their frequency distribution is necessarily distorted with respect to any random distribution. However when one takes these various components into account, the observed distribution can be considered as being a logarithmo-normal distribution. This implies that the geomagnetic activity satisfies the conditions of the central limit theorem, according to which a phenomenon which presents such a distribution is due to independent causes whose effects are multiplicative. Furthermore, the distorsion of the frequency distribution caused by the 11-year and 90-year cycles corresponds to a pure attenuation effect; an interpretation by the solar 'coronal holes' is proposed [fr

  20. Distribution of CD163-positive cell and MHC class II-positive cell in the normal equine uveal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the uveal tract participate in ocular immunity including immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of uveitis. In horses, although uveitis is the most common ocular disorder, little is known about ocular immunity, such as the distribution of APCs. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CD163-positive and MHC II-positive cells in the normal equine uveal tract using an immunofluorescence technique. Eleven eyes from 10 Thoroughbred horses aged 1 to 24 years old were used. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed using the primary antibodies CD163, MHC class II (MHC II) and CD20. To demonstrate the site of their greatest distribution, positive cells were manually counted in 3 different parts of the uveal tract (ciliary body, iris and choroid), and their average number was assessed by statistical analysis. The distribution of pleomorphic CD163- and MHC II-expressed cells was detected throughout the equine uveal tract, but no CD20-expressed cells were detected. The statistical analysis demonstrated the distribution of CD163- and MHC II-positive cells focusing on the ciliary body. These results demonstrated that the ciliary body is the largest site of their distribution in the normal equine uveal tract, and the ciliary body is considered to play important roles in uveal and/or ocular immune homeostasis. The data provided in this study will help further understanding of equine ocular immunity in the normal state and might be beneficial for understanding of mechanisms of ocular disorders, such as equine uveitis.

  1. The skin immune system (SIS): distribution and immunophenotype of lymphocyte subpopulations in normal human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. D.; Zonneveld, I.; Das, P. K.; Krieg, S. R.; van der Loos, C. M.; Kapsenberg, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    The complexity of immune response-associated cells present in normal human skin was recently redefined as the skin immune system (SIS). In the present study, the exact immunophenotypes of lymphocyte subpopulations with their localizations in normal human skin were determined quantitatively. B cells

  2. Sub-cellular force microscopy in single normal and cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babahosseini, H; Carmichael, B; Strobl, J S; Mahmoodi, S N; Agah, M

    2015-08-07

    This work investigates the biomechanical properties of sub-cellular structures of breast cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cells are modeled as a triple-layered structure where the Generalized Maxwell model is applied to experimental data from AFM stress-relaxation tests to extract the elastic modulus, the apparent viscosity, and the relaxation time of sub-cellular structures. The triple-layered modeling results allow for determination and comparison of the biomechanical properties of the three major sub-cellular structures between normal and cancerous cells: the up plasma membrane/actin cortex, the mid cytoplasm/nucleus, and the low nuclear/integrin sub-domains. The results reveal that the sub-domains become stiffer and significantly more viscous with depth, regardless of cell type. In addition, there is a decreasing trend in the average elastic modulus and apparent viscosity of the all corresponding sub-cellular structures from normal to cancerous cells, which becomes most remarkable in the deeper sub-domain. The presented modeling in this work constitutes a unique AFM-based experimental framework to study the biomechanics of sub-cellular structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Drug binding affinities and potencies are best described by a log-normal distribution and use of geometric means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanisic, D.; Hancock, A.A.; Kyncl, J.J.; Lin, C.T.; Bush, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    (-)-Norepinephrine (NE) is used as an internal standard in their in vitro adrenergic assays, and the concentration of NE which produces a half-maximal inhibition of specific radioligand binding (affinity; K/sub I/), or half-maximal contractile response (potency; ED 50 ) has been measured numerous times. The goodness-of-fit test for normality was performed on both normal (Gaussian) or log 10 -normal frequency histograms of these data using the SAS Univariate procedure. Specific binding of 3 H-prazosin to rat liver (α 1 -), 3 H rauwolscine to rat cortex (α 2 -) and 3 H-dihydroalprenolol to rat ventricle (β 1 -) or rat lung (β 2 -receptors) was inhibited by NE; the distributions of NE K/sub I/'s at all these sites were skewed to the right, with highly significant (p 50 's of NE in isolated rabbit aorta (α 1 ), phenoxybenzamine-treated dog saphenous vein (α 2 ) and guinea pig atrium (β 1 ). The vasorelaxant potency of atrial natriuretic hormone in histamine-contracted rabbit aorta also was better described by a log-normal distribution, indicating that log-normalcy is probably a general phenomenon of drug-receptor interactions. Because data of this type appear to be log-normally distributed, geometric means should be used in parametric statistical analyses

  4. Distributions of hit-numbers in single targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J F [Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1966-07-01

    Very general models can be proposed for relating the surviving proportion of an irradiated population of cells or bacteria to the absorbed dose, but if the number of free parameters is large the model can never be tested experimentally (Zimmer; Zirkie; Tobias). A relatively simple model is therefore proposed here, based on the physical facts of energy deposition in small volumes which are currently under active investigation (Rossi), and on cell-survival experiments over a wide range of LET (e.g. Barendsen et al.; Barendsen). It is not suggested that the model is correct or final, but only that its shortcomings should be demonstrated by comparison with experimental results before more complicated models are worth pursuing. It is basically a multihit model applied first to a single target volume, but also applicable to the situation where only one out of many potential target volumes has to be inactivated to kill the organism. It can be extended to two or more target volumes if necessary. Emphasis is placed upon the amount of energy locally deposited in certain sensitive volumes called 'target volumes'.

  5. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions, Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    New results and insights concerning a previously published iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions were discussed. It was shown that the procedure converges locally to the consistent maximum likelihood estimate as long as a specified parameter is bounded between two limits. Bound values were given to yield optimal local convergence.

  6. Are There More Gifted People Than Would Be Expected in a Normal Distribution? An Investigation of the Overabundance Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; Godwin, Lindsey R.; Smith, Kyle V.

    2013-01-01

    Among some gifted education researchers, advocates, and practitioners, it is sometimes believed that there is a larger number of gifted people in the general population than would be predicted from a normal distribution (e.g., Gallagher, 2008; N. M. Robinson, Zigler, & Gallagher, 2000; Silverman, 1995, 2009), a belief that we termed the…

  7. Enhanced power quality based single phase photovoltaic distributed generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Aurobinda; Pathak, M. K.; Srivastava, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a novel control strategy for a 1-ϕ 2-level grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) inverter to enhance the power quality (PQ) of a PV distributed generation (PVDG) system. The objective is to obtain the maximum benefits from the grid-tie PV inverter by introducing current harmonics as well as reactive power compensation schemes in its control strategy, thereby controlling the PV inverter to achieve multiple functions in the PVDG system such as: (1) active power flow control between the PV inverter and the grid, (2) reactive power compensation, and (3) grid current harmonics compensation. A PQ enhancement controller (PQEC) has been designed to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The issue of underutilisation of the PV inverter in nighttime has also been addressed in this article and for the optimal use of the system; the PV inverter is used as a shunt active power filter in nighttime. A prototype model of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory, to validate the effectiveness of the control scheme, and is tested with the help of the dSPACE DS1104 platform.

  8. A normalization method for combination of laboratory test results from different electronic healthcare databases in a distributed research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dukyong; Schuemie, Martijn J; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Dong Ki; Park, Man Young; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Jung, Eun-Young; Park, Dong Kyun; Cho, Soo Yeon; Shin, Dahye; Hwang, Yeonsoo; Park, Rae Woong

    2016-03-01

    Distributed research networks (DRNs) afford statistical power by integrating observational data from multiple partners for retrospective studies. However, laboratory test results across care sites are derived using different assays from varying patient populations, making it difficult to simply combine data for analysis. Additionally, existing normalization methods are not suitable for retrospective studies. We normalized laboratory results from different data sources by adjusting for heterogeneous clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of the data and called this the subgroup-adjusted normalization (SAN) method. Subgroup-adjusted normalization renders the means and standard deviations of distributions identical under population structure-adjusted conditions. To evaluate its performance, we compared SAN with existing methods for simulated and real datasets consisting of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum potassium, and total bilirubin. Various clinico-epidemiologic characteristics can be applied together in SAN. For simplicity of comparison, age and gender were used to adjust population heterogeneity in this study. In simulations, SAN had the lowest standardized difference in means (SDM) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov values for all tests (p normalization performed better than normalization using other methods. The SAN method is applicable in a DRN environment and should facilitate analysis of data integrated across DRN partners for retrospective observational studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Optimal noise reduction in 3D reconstructions of single particles using a volume-normalized filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Charles V.; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The high noise level found in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) image data presents a special challenge for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the imaged molecules. The spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SSNR) and related Fourier shell correlation (FSC) functions are commonly used to assess and mitigate the noise-generated error in the reconstruction. Calculation of the SSNR and FSC usually includes the noise in the solvent region surrounding the particle and therefore does not accurately reflect the signal in the particle density itself. Here we show that the SSNR in a reconstructed 3D particle map is linearly proportional to the fractional volume occupied by the particle. Using this relationship, we devise a novel filter (the “single-particle Wiener filter”) to minimize the error in a reconstructed particle map, if the particle volume is known. Moreover, we show how to approximate this filter even when the volume of the particle is not known, by optimizing the signal within a representative interior region of the particle. We show that the new filter improves on previously proposed error-reduction schemes, including the conventional Wiener filter as well as figure-of-merit weighting, and quantify the relationship between all of these methods by theoretical analysis as well as numeric evaluation of both simulated and experimentally collected data. The single-particle Wiener filter is applicable across a broad range of existing 3D reconstruction techniques, but is particularly well suited to the Fourier inversion method, leading to an efficient and accurate implementation. PMID:22613568

  10. A fast simulation method for the Log-normal sum distribution using a hazard rate twisting technique

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2015-06-08

    The probability density function of the sum of Log-normally distributed random variables (RVs) is a well-known challenging problem. For instance, an analytical closed-form expression of the Log-normal sum distribution does not exist and is still an open problem. A crude Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is of course an alternative approach. However, this technique is computationally expensive especially when dealing with rare events (i.e. events with very small probabilities). Importance Sampling (IS) is a method that improves the computational efficiency of MC simulations. In this paper, we develop an efficient IS method for the estimation of the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) of the sum of independent and not identically distributed Log-normal RVs. This technique is based on constructing a sampling distribution via twisting the hazard rate of the original probability measure. Our main result is that the estimation of the CCDF is asymptotically optimal using the proposed IS hazard rate twisting technique. We also offer some selected simulation results illustrating the considerable computational gain of the IS method compared to the naive MC simulation approach.

  11. A fast simulation method for the Log-normal sum distribution using a hazard rate twisting technique

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.; Benkhelifa, Fatma; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The probability density function of the sum of Log-normally distributed random variables (RVs) is a well-known challenging problem. For instance, an analytical closed-form expression of the Log-normal sum distribution does not exist and is still an open problem. A crude Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is of course an alternative approach. However, this technique is computationally expensive especially when dealing with rare events (i.e. events with very small probabilities). Importance Sampling (IS) is a method that improves the computational efficiency of MC simulations. In this paper, we develop an efficient IS method for the estimation of the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) of the sum of independent and not identically distributed Log-normal RVs. This technique is based on constructing a sampling distribution via twisting the hazard rate of the original probability measure. Our main result is that the estimation of the CCDF is asymptotically optimal using the proposed IS hazard rate twisting technique. We also offer some selected simulation results illustrating the considerable computational gain of the IS method compared to the naive MC simulation approach.

  12. Errors in Computing the Normalized Protein Catabolic Rate due to Use of Single-pool Urea Kinetic Modeling or to Omission of the Residual Kidney Urea Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugirdas, John T

    2017-07-01

    The protein catabolic rate normalized to body size (PCRn) often is computed in dialysis units to obtain information about protein ingestion. However, errors can manifest when inappropriate modeling methods are used. We used a variable volume 2-pool urea kinetic model to examine the percent errors in PCRn due to use of a 1-pool urea kinetic model or after omission of residual urea clearance (Kru). When a single-pool model was used, 2 sources of errors were identified. The first, dependent on the ratio of dialyzer urea clearance to urea distribution volume (K/V), resulted in a 7% inflation of the PCRn when K/V was in the range of 6 mL/min per L. A second, larger error appeared when Kt/V values were below 1.0 and was related to underestimation of urea distribution volume (due to overestimation of effective clearance) by the single-pool model. A previously reported prediction equation for PCRn was valid, but data suggest that it should be modified using 2-pool eKt/V and V coefficients instead of single-pool values. A third source of error, this one unrelated to use of a single-pool model, namely omission of Kru, was shown to result in an underestimation of PCRn, such that each ml/minute Kru per 35 L of V caused a 5.6% underestimate in PCRn. Marked overestimation of PCRn can result due to inappropriate use of a single-pool urea kinetic model, particularly when Kt/V <1.0 (as in short daily dialysis), or after omission of residual native kidney clearance. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon K-shell photoionization of CO: Molecular frame angular distributions of normal and conjugate shakeup satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, T.; Titze, J.; Foucar, L.; Wallauer, R.; Osipov, T.; Benis, E.P.; Jagutzki, O.; Arnold, W.; Czasch, A.; Staudte, A.; Schoeffler, M.; Alnaser, A.; Weber, T.; Prior, M.H.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the molecular frame angular distributions of photoelectrons emitted from the Carbon K-shell of fixed-in-space CO molecules for the case of simultaneous excitation of the remaining molecular ion. Normal and conjugate shakeup states are observed. Photoelectrons belonging to normal Σ-satellite lines show an angular distribution resembling that observed for the main photoline at the same electron energy. Surprisingly a similar shape is found for conjugate shakeup states with Π-symmetry. In our data we identify shake rather than electron scattering (PEVE) as the mechanism producing the conjugate lines. The angular distributions clearly show the presence of a Σ shape resonance for all of the satellite lines.

  14. Probability distribution of atmospheric pollutants: comparison among four methods for the determination of the log-normal distribution parameters; La distribuzione di probabilita` degli inquinanti atmosferici: confronto tra quattro metodi per la determinazione dei parametri della distribuzione log-normale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellasio, R [Enviroware s.r.l., Agrate Brianza, Milan (Italy). Centro Direzionale Colleoni; Lanzani, G; Ripamonti, M; Valore, M [Amministrazione Provinciale, Como (Italy)

    1998-04-01

    This work illustrates the possibility to interpolate the measured concentrations of CO, NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} during one year (1995) at the 13 stations of the air quality monitoring station network of the Provinces of Como and Lecco (Italy) by means of a log-normal distribution. Particular attention was given in choosing the method for the determination of the log-normal distribution parameters among four possible methods: I natural, II percentiles, III moments, IV maximum likelihood. In order to evaluate the goodness of fit a ranking procedure was carried out over the values of four indices: absolute deviation, weighted absolute deviation, Kolmogorov-Smirnov index and Cramer-von Mises-Smirnov index. The capability of the log-normal distribution to fit the measured data is then discussed as a function of the pollutant and of the monitoring station. Finally an example of application is given: the effect of an emission reduction strategy in Lombardy Region (the so called `bollino blu`) is evaluated using a log-normal distribution. [Italiano] In questo lavoro si discute la possibilita` di interpolare le concentrazioni misurate di CO, NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} durante un anno solare (il 1995) nelle 13 stazioni della Rete di Rilevamento della qualita` dell`aria delle Provincie di Como e di Lecco mediante una funzione log-normale. In particolare si discute quale metodo e` meglio usare per l`individuazione dei 2 parametri caratteristici della log-normale, tra 4 teoreticamente possibili: I naturale, II dei percentili, III dei momenti, IV della massima verosimiglianza. Per valutare i risultati ottenuti si usano: la deviazione assoluta, la deviazione pesata, il parametro di Kolmogorov-Smirnov e quello di Cramer-von Mises-Smirnov effettuando un ranking tra i metodi in funzione degli inquinanti e della stazione di misura. Ancora in funzione degli inquinanti e delle diverse stazioni di misura si discute poi la capacita` della funzione log-normale di

  15. Comparison of single, fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation on the development of normal tissue damage in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, P.G.S.; Kimler, B.F.; Giri, U.P.; Cox, G.G.; Reddy, E.K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of fractionated thoracic irradiation on the development of normal tissue damage in rats was compared to that produced by single doses. Animals received a single dose of 15 Gy, 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (fractionation), or 30 Gy in 30 fractions of 1 Gy each 3 times a day (hyperfractionation). The treatments produced minimal lethality since a total of only 6 animals died between days 273 and 475 after the initiation of treatment, with no difference in survival observed between the control and any of the 3 treated groups. Despite the lack of lethality, evidence of lung damage was obtained by histological examination. Animals that had received either single doses or fractionated doses had more of the pulmonary parenchyma involved than did animals that had received hyperfractionated doses. The authors conclude that, in the rat lung model, a total radiation dose of 30 Gy fractionated over 14 days produces no more lethality nor damage to lung tissue than does 15 Gy delivered as a single dose. However, long-term effects as evidenced by deposits of collagen and development of fibrosis are significantly reduced by hyperfractionation when compared to single doses and daily fractionation

  16. ACUTE RENAL FAILURE WITH NORMAL PLASMA UREA LEVEL SECONDARY TO ACUTE PYELONEPHITIS IN A SINGLE KIDNEY PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imperiali N

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYAcute renal failure is a syndrome that usually runs with an increase in creatinine and urea plasma levels. However, there are clinical situations in which this syndrome may run with an increase in plasma creatinine keeping normal the urea one.In this report we present a case of acute renal failure with normal plasma urea level secondary to an acute pyelonephritis in a single kidney patient. The patient had an increased fractional excretion of urea which could explain the normal plasma urea levels found despite of his reduced glomerular filtration. This increased urea excretion state was interpreted as a consequence of the nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and alteration of the intra-renal urea reciclying process that the acute pyelonephritis induced. In conclusion: Acute pyelonephritis in a single kidney patient can appear as a pattern of acute renal failure with normal plasma urea levels. RESUMEN:La insuficiencia renal aguda es un sindrome que característicamente cursa con niveles plasmáticos elevados de urea y creatinina. Sin embargo, hay situaciones clínicas en las cuales este sindrome puede cursar con un incremento de la creatininemia sin presentar elevación de la uremia.En este reporte presentamos un caso clínico de una insuficiencia renal aguda con uremia normal secundaria a una pielonefritis aguda en un paciente con riñón único. El paciente presentaba una elevada excreción fraccional de urea lo cual podía explicar su uremia normal pese a estar cursando una caída del filtrado gomerular. Dicha excreción de urea elevada fue interpretada como secundaria a una diabetes insipida nefrogénica y una alteración en el recirculado intra-renal de la urea ambos producto de la pielonefritis aguda. Concluimos que la pielonefritis aguda en un paciente mono-reno puede presentarse con un patrón de insuficiencia renal aguda con uremia normal.

  17. ACUTE RENAL FAILURE WITH NORMAL PLASMA UREA LEVEL SECONDARY TO ACUTE PYELONEPHITIS IN A SINGLE KIDNEY PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algranati L

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Acute renal failure is a syndrome that usually runs with an increase in creatinine and urea plasma levels. However, there are clinical situations in which this syndrome may run with an increase in plasma creatinine keeping normal the urea one. In this report we present a case of acute renal failure with normal plasma urea level secondary to an acute pyelonephritis in a single kidney patient. The patient had an increased fractional excretion of urea which could explain the normal plasma urea levels found despite of his reduced glomerular filtration. This increased urea excretion state was interpreted as a consequence of the nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and alteration of the intra-renal urea reciclying process that the acute pyelonephritis induced. In conclusion: Acute pyelonephritis in a single kidney patient can appear as a pattern of acute renal failure with normal plasma urea levels.RESUMEN: La insuficiencia renal aguda es un sindrome que característicamente cursa con niveles plasmáticos elevados de urea y creatinina. Sin embargo, hay situaciones clínicas en las cuales este sindrome puede cursar con un incremento de la creatininemia sin presentar elevación de la uremia. En este reporte presentamos un caso clínico de una insuficiencia renal aguda con uremia normal secundaria a una pielonefritis aguda en un paciente con riñón único. El paciente presentaba una elevada excreción fraccional de urea lo cual podía explicar su uremia normal pese a estar cursando una caída del filtrado gomerular. Dicha excreción de urea elevada fue interpretada como secundaria a una diabetes insipida nefrogénica y una alteración en el recirculado intra-renal de la urea ambos producto de la pielonefritis aguda. Concluimos que la pielonefritis aguda en un paciente mono-reno puede presentarse con un patrón de insuficiencia renal aguda con uremia normal.

  18. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, I-H.; Huang, W.-S.; Yeh, C.-B.; Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H.; Liu, J.-C.; Ma, K.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [ 123 I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [ 123 I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 and [ 123 I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  19. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I-H. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, W.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C.-B. [Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, 325 Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-C. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Ma, K.-H. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuohsing91@yahoo.com.tw

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [{sup 123}I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and [{sup 123}I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  20. 10 Gb/s bidirectional single fibre long reach PON link with distributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Kjær, Rasmus; Jeppesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only.......We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only....

  1. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy for characterization of the protein/peptide distribution in single microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study establishes a visualization method for the measurement of the distribution and localization of protein/peptide constituents within a single poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microsphere using synchrotron radiation–based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy (SR-FTIR. The representative infrared wavenumbers specific for protein/peptide (Exenatide and excipient (PLGA were identified and chemical maps at the single microsphere level were generated by measuring and plotting the intensity of these specific bands. For quantitative analysis of the distribution within microspheres, Matlab software was used to transform the map file into a 3D matrix and the matrix values specific for the drug and excipient were extracted. Comparison of the normalized SR-FTIR maps of PLGA and Exenatide indicated that PLGA was uniformly distributed, while Exenatide was relatively non-uniformly distributed in the microspheres. In conclusion, SR-FTIR is a rapid, nondestructive and sensitive detection technology to provide the distribution of chemical constituents and functional groups in microparticles and microspheres.

  2. Dementia due to normal-pressure hydrocephalus by single photon emission computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, K.; Kordas, M.; Kadar, K.; Nyary, I.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Once a diagnosis of dementia is established, the irreversible and degenerative types of dementia should be differentiated from those with potentially treatable causes. Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a reversible and poorly understood cause of mental impairment. Ventricular enlargement as registered by Computer Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) might be neurologically stable or progressive in nature. CT/MRI can display the exact size and shape of the ventricles. However, either CT or MRI cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow studies are unable to predict the response to shunt operation. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of 99m Tc-HMPAO regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT combined with 99m Tc-DTPA CSF-SPECT in the preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic hydrocephalus. Methods: 103 consecutive studies were carried out where patient management was of concern with a standard technique for each patient (555 MBq 99mTc-HMPAO/ECD; 250 MBq 99mTc-DTPA, 1/3/6/24 h planar, 6/24h SPECT; double head ADAC SPECT camera). RCBF SPECT studies were analysed visually and by a special region of interests (ROIs) program. Circular ROIs were placed over the striatum, thalamus, white matter, frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital cortex, and cerebellum. ROIs were normalized to the whole brain average. The statistical analysis was considered significant at P≤0.05. The results of combined SPECT studies were correlated with CT/MRI, and clinical findings. Results: In 75 cases the hydrocephalus appeared to be communicating. In 19 cases there was a contradiction between the results of CT/MRI and CSF SPECT. 67 ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantations were carried out on the basis of combined SPECT studies. In 67 patients the rCBF SPECT except for hydrocephalus, demonstrated decreased rCBF in the periventricular white matter, thalamus and basal ganglia. There were additional bilateral rCBF abnormalities in the frontal or fronto

  3. Evaluation of the probability distribution of intake from a single measurement on a personal air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Muirhead, C.R.; James, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical expression has been derived for the k-sum distribution, formed by summing k random variables from a lognormal population. Poisson statistics are used with this distribution to derive distribution of intake when breathing an atmosphere with a constant particle number concentration. Bayesian inference is then used to calculate the posterior probability distribution of concentrations from a given measurement. This is combined with the above intake distribution to give the probability distribution of intake resulting from a single measurement of activity made by an ideal sampler. It is shown that the probability distribution of intake is very dependent on the prior distribution used in Bayes' theorem. The usual prior assumption, that all number concentrations are equally probable, leads to an imbalance in the posterior intake distribution. This can be resolved if a new prior proportional to w -2/3 is used, where w is the expected number of particles collected. (author)

  4. Subchondral bone density distribution of the talus in clinically normal Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemanse, W; Müller-Gerbl, M; Jonkers, I; Vander Sloten, J; van Bree, H; Gielen, I

    2016-03-15

    Bones continually adapt their morphology to their load bearing function. At the level of the subchondral bone, the density distribution is highly correlated with the loading distribution of the joint. Therefore, subchondral bone density distribution can be used to study joint biomechanics non-invasively. In addition physiological and pathological joint loading is an important aspect of orthopaedic disease, and research focusing on joint biomechanics will benefit veterinary orthopaedics. This study was conducted to evaluate density distribution in the subchondral bone of the canine talus, as a parameter reflecting the long-term joint loading in the tarsocrural joint. Two main density maxima were found, one proximally on the medial trochlear ridge and one distally on the lateral trochlear ridge. All joints showed very similar density distribution patterns and no significant differences were found in the localisation of the density maxima between left and right limbs and between dogs. Based on the density distribution the lateral trochlear ridge is most likely subjected to highest loads within the tarsocrural joint. The joint loading distribution is very similar between dogs of the same breed. In addition, the joint loading distribution supports previous suggestions of the important role of biomechanics in the development of OC lesions in the tarsus. Important benefits of computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry (CTOAM), i.e. the possibility of in vivo imaging and temporal evaluation, make this technique a valuable addition to the field of veterinary orthopaedic research.

  5. An inexact log-normal distribution-based stochastic chance-constrained model for agricultural water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Fan, Jie; Xu, Ye; Sun, Wei; Chen, Dong

    2018-05-01

    In this study, an inexact log-normal-based stochastic chance-constrained programming model was developed for solving the non-point source pollution issues caused by agricultural activities. Compared to the general stochastic chance-constrained programming model, the main advantage of the proposed model is that it allows random variables to be expressed as a log-normal distribution, rather than a general normal distribution. Possible deviations in solutions caused by irrational parameter assumptions were avoided. The agricultural system management in the Erhai Lake watershed was used as a case study, where critical system factors, including rainfall and runoff amounts, show characteristics of a log-normal distribution. Several interval solutions were obtained under different constraint-satisfaction levels, which were useful in evaluating the trade-off between system economy and reliability. The applied results show that the proposed model could help decision makers to design optimal production patterns under complex uncertainties. The successful application of this model is expected to provide a good example for agricultural management in many other watersheds.

  6. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with /sup 133/Xe inhalation and dynamic single photon emission computer tomography. Normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootwelt, K; Dybevold, S; Nyberg-Hansen, R; Russell, D

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow was studied by /sup 133/Xe inhalation tomography in 25 healthy subjects. Mean age was 41 years and range 23-66 years. Mean hemispheric CBF at rest was 59.8 ml/100 g/min, and cerebellar flow 60.8 ml/100 g/min. The distribution of CBF values was skewed and approximated a log normal distribution. Estimated lower and upper normal reference range limits calculated as mean (log) = - 2 S.D. (log) were 47-74 ml/100 g/min. Women had approximately 5 ml/100 g/min higher CBF values than men, corresponding to the difference in hematocrit. Neither in men or women was there any tendency to age dependent reduction or increase in flow. In both sexes hemispheric regional CBF (rCBF) was asymmetric with higher flow values in the right cerebral hemisphere; particularly in the anterior distribution territory of the middle cerebral artery. Emotional activation as a consequence of the study conditions is assumed to be the cause of this observed asymmetry. Cerebellar flow was not assymetric. No significant difference in cerebellar or hemispheric CBF was found when a second study followed the first by 3-15 months, PCO/sub 2/ correction of flow improved reproducibility. Acetazolamide responses are reported.

  7. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with 133Xe inhalation and dynamic single photon emission computer tomography. Normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootwelt, Kjell; Dybevold, Synnoeve; Nyberg-Hansen, Rolf; Russell, David

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow was studied by 133 Xe inhalation tomography in 25 healthy subjects. Mean age was 41 years and range 23-66 years. Mean hemispheric CBF at rest was 59.8 ml/100 g/min, and cerebellar flow 60.8 ml/100 g/min. The distribution of CBF values was skewed and approximated a log normal distribution. Estimated lower and upper normal reference range limits calculated as mean (log) = - 2 S.D. (log) were 47-74 ml/100 g/min. Women had approximately 5 ml/100 g/min higher CBF values than men, corresponding to the difference in hematocrit. Neither in men or women was there any tendency to age dependent reduction or increase in flow. In both sexes hemispheric regional CBF (rCBF) was asymmetric with higher flow values in the right cerebral hemisphere; particularly in the anterior distribution territory of the middle cerebral artery. Emotional activation as a consequence of the study conditions is assumed to be the cause of this observed asymmetry. Cerebellar flow was not assymetric. No significant difference in cerebellar or hemispheric CBF was found when a second study followed the first by 3-15 months, PCO 2 correction of flow improved reproducibility. Acetazolamide responses are reported. (author)

  8. Enhancement of in vitro interleukin-2 production in normal subjects following a single spinal manipulative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Glen M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence supports somato-visceral effects of manual therapies. We have previously demonstrated that a single spinal manipulative treatment (SMT accompanied by audible release has an inhibitory effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic subjects. The purpose of this study is to report on SMT-related changes in the production of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2 and to investigate whether such changes might differ with respect to the treatment approach related to the presence or absence of an audible release (joint cavitation. Methods Of 76 asymptomatic subjects, 29 received SMT with cavitation (SMT-C, 23 were treated with SMT without cavitation (SMT-NC and 24 comprised the venipuncture control (VC group. The SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects received a single, similar force high velocity low amplitude manipulation, in the upper thoracic spine. However, in SMT-NC subjects, positioning and line of drive were not conducive to cavitation. Blood and serum samples were obtained before and then at 20 and 120 min post-intervention. The production of IL-2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures was induced by activation for 48 hr with Staphylococcal protein A (SPA and, in parallel preparations, with the combination of phorbol ester (TPA and calcium ionophore. The levels of IL-2 in culture supernatants and serum were assessed by specific immunoassays. Results Compared with VC and their respective baselines, SPA-induced secretion of IL-2 increased significantly in cultures established from both SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects at 20 min post-intervention. At 2 hr post-treatment, significant elevation of IL-2 synthesis was still apparent in preparations from SMT-treated groups though it became somewhat attenuated in SMT-NC subjects. Conversely, IL-2 synthesis induced by TPA and calcium ionophore was unaltered by either type of SMT and was comparable to that in VC group at all time points. No

  9. Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifier as an Effective Example to Teach Normalization, Conduction Modes, and Circuit Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Pejovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of a single phase rectifier as an example in teaching circuit modeling, normalization, operating modes of nonlinear circuits, and circuit analysis methods is proposed.The rectifier supplied from a voltage source by an inductive impedance is analyzed in the discontinuous as well as in the continuous conduction mode. Completely analytical solution for the continuous conduction mode is derived. Appropriate numerical methods are proposed to obtain the circuit waveforms in both of the operating modes, and to compute the performance parameters. Source code of the program that performs such computation is provided.

  10. Normal lumbar spine bone mineral densities with single-energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrick, R.E.; Ritenour, E.R.; Geis, J.R.; Thickman, D.; Freeman, K.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report trabecular spine densities determined by single-energy CT in 267 healthy women, aged 22 to 75 years. Volunteers were scanned at eight sites with use of identical fourth-generation CT scanners, postpatient calibration phantoms, and analysis software that accounts for beam hardening as a function of patient size. Results indicate that a cubic polynomial best represents the decrease in bone density (in milligrams per milliliter of K 2 HPO 4 ) with age (in years): Bone Density = 140.9 + 4.44(Age) - 0.133(Age) 2 + 0.0008(Age) 3 , with statistical significance over the best linear and quadratic polynomial fits (P < .001). The mean bone densities of healthy women above age 30 years are found to be lower by an average of 8 mg/mL than reported by Cann et al, whose data indicate that the greatest loss in trabecular bone density in healthy women occurs in the 50-59-year group, while out data indicate greatest loss in the 60-75 year age group

  11. Different percentages of false-positive results obtained using five methods for the calculation of reference change values based on simulated normal and ln-normal distributions of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    a homeostatic set point that follows a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This set point (or baseline in steady-state) should be estimated from a set of previous samples, but, in practice, decisions based on reference change value are often based on only two consecutive results. The original reference change value......-positive results. The aim of this study was to investigate false-positive results using five different published methods for calculation of reference change value. METHODS: The five reference change value methods were examined using normally and ln-normally distributed simulated data. RESULTS: One method performed...... best in approaching the theoretical false-positive percentages on normally distributed data and another method performed best on ln-normally distributed data. The commonly used reference change value method based on two results (without use of estimated set point) performed worst both on normally...

  12. Linking the Value Assessment of Oil and Gas Firms to Ambidexterity Theory Using a Mixture of Normal Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casault Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration and production firms have return profiles that are not easily explained by current financial theory – the variation in their market returns is non-Gaussian. In this paper, the nature and underlying reason for these significant deviations from expected behavior are considered. Understanding these differences in financial market behavior is important for a wide range of reasons, including: assessing investments, investor relations, decisions to raise capital, assessment of firm and management performance. We show that using a “thicker tailed” mixture of two normal distributions offers a significantly more accurate model than the traditionally Gaussian approach in describing the behavior of the value of oil and gas firms. This mixture of normal distribution is also more effective in bridging the gap between management theory and practice without the need to introduce complex time-sensitive GARCH and/or jump diffusion dynamics. The mixture distribution is consistent with ambidexterity theory that suggests firms operate in two distinct states driven by the primary focus of the firm: an exploration state with high uncertainty and, an exploitation (or production state with lower uncertainty. The findings have direct implications on improving the accuracy of real option pricing techniques and futures analysis of risk management. Traditional options pricing models assume that commercial returns from these assets are described by a normal random walk. However, a normal random walk model discounts the possibility of large changes to the marketplace from events such as the discovery of important reserves or the introduction of new technology. The mixture distribution proves to be well suited to inherently describe the unusually large risks and opportunities associated with oil and gas production and exploration. A significance testing study of 554 oil and gas exploration and production firms empirically supports using a mixture

  13. Software Application Profile: RVPedigree: a suite of family-based rare variant association tests for normally and non-normally distributed quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oualkacha, Karim; Lakhal-Chaieb, Lajmi; Greenwood, Celia Mt

    2016-04-01

    RVPedigree (Rare Variant association tests in Pedigrees) implements a suite of programs facilitating genome-wide analysis of association between a quantitative trait and autosomal region-based genetic variation. The main features here are the ability to appropriately test for association of rare variants with non-normally distributed quantitative traits, and also to appropriately adjust for related individuals, either from families or from population structure and cryptic relatedness. RVPedigree is available as an R package. The package includes calculation of kinship matrices, various options for coping with non-normality, three different ways of estimating statistical significance incorporating triaging to enable efficient use of the most computationally-intensive calculations, and a parallelization option for genome-wide analysis. The software is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network [CRAN.R-project.org] under the name 'RVPedigree' and at [https://github.com/GreenwoodLab]. It has been published under General Public License (GPL) version 3 or newer. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  14. Single Cell Chemical Cytometry of Akt Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Normal Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes in Response to Tumor Necrosis Factor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Emilie R; Serafin, D Stephen; Nguyen, Tuong T; Tarrant, Teresa K; Sims, Christopher E; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2016-08-02

    The etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is poorly understood, and 30% of patients are unresponsive to established treatments targeting tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Akt kinase is implicated in TNFα signaling and may act as a barometer of patient responses to biologic therapies. Fluorescent peptide sensors and chemical cytometry were employed to directly measure Akt activity as well as proteolytic activity in individual fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from RA and normal subjects. The specificity of the peptide reporter was evaluated and shown to be a valid measure of Akt activity in single cells. The effect of TNFα treatment on Akt activity was highly heterogeneous between normal and RA subjects, which was not observable in bulk analyses. In 2 RA subjects, a bimodal distribution of Akt activity was observed, primarily due to a subpopulation (21.7%: RA Subject 5; 23.8%: RA Subject 6) of cells in which >60% of the reporter was phosphorylated. These subjects also possessed statistically elevated proteolytic cleavage of the reporter relative to normal subjects, suggesting heterogeneity in Akt and protease activity that may play a role in the RA-affected joint. We expect that chemical cytometry studies pairing peptide reporters with capillary electrophoresis will provide valuable data regarding aberrant kinase activity from small samples of clinical interest.

  15. Nuclear method for determination of nitrogen depth distributions in single seeds. [/sup 14/N tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, B; Gonczi, L; Koersner, I; Bergman, R; Lindh, U

    1974-01-01

    (d,p) reactions in /sup 14/N were used for probing single kernels of seed for nitrogen content and nitrogen depth distributions. Comparison with the Kjeldahl method was made on individual peas and beans. The results were found to be strongly correlated. The technique to obtain depth distributions of nitrogen was also used on high- and low-lysine varieties of barley for which large differences in nitrogen distributions were found.

  16. An analysis of longitudinal data with nonignorable dropout using the truncated multivariate normal distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolani, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    For a vector of multivariate normal when some elements, but not necessarily all, are truncated, we derive the moment generating function and obtain expressions for the first two moments involving the multivariate hazard gradient. To show one of many applications of these moments, we then extend the

  17. Site-dependent distribution of macrophages in normal human extraocular muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, E. D.; van der Gaag, R.; Mourits, M. P.; Koornneef, L.

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE: Clinical data indicate that extraocular muscles have different susceptibilities for some orbital immune disorders depending on their anatomic location. The resident immunocompetent cells may be important mediators in the local pathogenesis of such disorders so the distribution of these

  18. Preparation, distribution, stability and tumor imaging properties of [62Zn] Bleomycin complex in normal and tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian, A.R.; Fateh, B.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Karimian, A.; Matloobi, M.; Moradkhani, S.; Kamalidehghan, M.; Tabeie, F.

    2003-01-01

    Backgrounds: Bleomycin (BLM) has been labeled with radioisotopes and widely used in therapy and diagnosis. In this study BLM was labeled with [ 62 Zn] zinc chloride for oncologic PET studies. Materials and methods: The complex was obtained at the P H=2 normal saline at 90 d eg C in 60 min. Radio-TLC showed on overall radiochemical yield of 95-97% (radiochemical purity>97%). Stability of complex was checked in vitro in mice and human plasma/urine. Results: Preliminary in vitro studies performed to determined complex stability and distribution of [ 62 Zn] BLM in normal and fibrosarcoma tumors in mice according to bio-distribution/imaging studies. Conclusion: [ 62 Zn] BLM can be used in PET oncology studies due to its suitable physico-chemical propertied as a diagnostic complex behavior in higher animals

  19. Partial LVAD restores ventricular outputs and normalizes LV but not RV stress distributions in the acutely failing heart in silico

    OpenAIRE

    Sack, Kevin L.; Baillargeon, Brian; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Genet, Martin; Rebelo, Nuno; Kuhl, Ellen; Klein, Liviu; Weiselthaler, Georg M.; Burkhoff, Daniel; Franz, Thomas; Guccione, Julius M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Heart failure is a worldwide epidemic that is unlikely to change as the population ages and life expectancy increases. We sought to detail significant recent improvements to the Dassault Systèmes Living Heart Model (LHM) and use the LHM to compute left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myofiber stress distributions under the following 4 conditions: (1) normal cardiac function; (2) acute left heart failure (ALHF); (3) ALHF treated using an LV assist device (LVAD) flow rate o...

  20. Problems with using the normal distribution--and ways to improve quality and efficiency of data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckhard Limpert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gaussian or normal distribution is the most established model to characterize quantitative variation of original data. Accordingly, data are summarized using the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation, by mean ± SD, or with the standard error of the mean, mean ± SEM. This, together with corresponding bars in graphical displays has become the standard to characterize variation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we question the adequacy of this characterization, and of the model. The published literature provides numerous examples for which such descriptions appear inappropriate because, based on the "95% range check", their distributions are obviously skewed. In these cases, the symmetric characterization is a poor description and may trigger wrong conclusions. To solve the problem, it is enlightening to regard causes of variation. Multiplicative causes are by far more important than additive ones, in general, and benefit from a multiplicative (or log- normal approach. Fortunately, quite similar to the normal, the log-normal distribution can now be handled easily and characterized at the level of the original data with the help of both, a new sign, x/, times-divide, and notation. Analogous to mean ± SD, it connects the multiplicative (or geometric mean mean * and the multiplicative standard deviation s* in the form mean * x/s*, that is advantageous and recommended. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The corresponding shift from the symmetric to the asymmetric view will substantially increase both, recognition of data distributions, and interpretation quality. It will allow for savings in sample size that can be considerable. Moreover, this is in line with ethical responsibility. Adequate models will improve concepts and theories, and provide deeper insight into science and life.

  1. Similar distributions of repaired sites in chromatin of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells damaged by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Excision repair of damage from ultraviolet light in both normal and xeroderma pigmentosum variant fibroblasts at early times after irradiation occurred preferentially in regions of DNA accessible to micrococcal nuclease digestion. These regions are predominantly the linker regions between nucleosomes in chromatin. The alterations reported at polymerization and ligation steps of excision repair in the variant are therefore not associated with changes in the relative distributions of repair sites in linker and core particle regions of DNA. (Auth.)

  2. The pharmacokinetics, distribution and degradation of human recombinant interleukin 1 beta in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, L D; Welinder, B; Hejnaes, K R

    1991-01-01

    -lives of distribution (T1/2 alpha) and elimination phases (T1/2 beta) of human recombinant interleukin 1 beta (rIL-1 beta), and its tissue distribution and cellular localization by means of mono-labelled, biologically active 125I-rIL-1 beta. After intravenous (i.v.) injection, 125I-rIL-1 beta was eliminated from...... the circulation with a T1/2 alpha of 2.9 min and a T1/2 beta of 41.1 min. The central and peripheral volume of distribution was 20.7 and 19.1 ml/rat, respectively, and the metabolic clearance rate was 16.9 ml/min/kg. The kidney and liver showed the highest accumulation of tracer, and autoradiography demonstrated...

  3. Rough Sets and Stomped Normal Distribution for Simultaneous Segmentation and Bias Field Correction in Brain MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhirup; Maji, Pradipta

    2015-12-01

    The segmentation of brain MR images into different tissue classes is an important task for automatic image analysis technique, particularly due to the presence of intensity inhomogeneity artifact in MR images. In this regard, this paper presents a novel approach for simultaneous segmentation and bias field correction in brain MR images. It integrates judiciously the concept of rough sets and the merit of a novel probability distribution, called stomped normal (SN) distribution. The intensity distribution of a tissue class is represented by SN distribution, where each tissue class consists of a crisp lower approximation and a probabilistic boundary region. The intensity distribution of brain MR image is modeled as a mixture of finite number of SN distributions and one uniform distribution. The proposed method incorporates both the expectation-maximization and hidden Markov random field frameworks to provide an accurate and robust segmentation. The performance of the proposed approach, along with a comparison with related methods, is demonstrated on a set of synthetic and real brain MR images for different bias fields and noise levels.

  4. Distributed hierarchical control architecture for integrating smart grid assets during normal and disrupted operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Karan; Fuller, Jason C.; Somani, Abhishek; Pratt, Robert G.; Chassin, David P.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2017-09-12

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for facilitating operation and control of a resource distribution system (such as a power grid). Among the disclosed embodiments is a distributed hierarchical control architecture (DHCA) that enables smart grid assets to effectively contribute to grid operations in a controllable manner, while helping to ensure system stability and equitably rewarding their contribution. Embodiments of the disclosed architecture can help unify the dispatch of these resources to provide both market-based and balancing services.

  5. Log-normal spray drop distribution...analyzed by two new computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald S. Walton

    1968-01-01

    Results of U.S. Forest Service research on chemical insecticides suggest that large drops are not as effective as small drops in carrying insecticides to target insects. Two new computer programs have been written to analyze size distribution properties of drops from spray nozzles. Coded in Fortran IV, the programs have been tested on both the CDC 6400 and the IBM 7094...

  6. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

  7. Simulation study of pO2 distribution in induced tumour masses and normal tissues within a microcirculation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Li, Yan; Wen, Peng Paul

    2014-01-01

    The biological microenvironment is interrupted when tumour masses are introduced because of the strong competition for oxygen. During the period of avascular growth of tumours, capillaries that existed play a crucial role in supplying oxygen to both tumourous and healthy cells. Due to limitations of oxygen supply from capillaries, healthy cells have to compete for oxygen with tumourous cells. In this study, an improved Krogh's cylinder model which is more realistic than the previously reported assumption that oxygen is homogeneously distributed in a microenvironment, is proposed to describe the process of the oxygen diffusion from a capillary to its surrounding environment. The capillary wall permeability is also taken into account. The simulation study is conducted and the results show that when tumour masses are implanted at the upstream part of a capillary and followed by normal tissues, the whole normal tissues suffer from hypoxia. In contrast, when normal tissues are ahead of tumour masses, their pO2 is sufficient. In both situations, the pO2 in the whole normal tissues drops significantly due to the axial diffusion at the interface of normal tissues and tumourous cells. As the existence of the axial oxygen diffusion cannot supply the whole tumour masses, only these tumourous cells that are near the interface can be partially supplied, and have a small chance to survive.

  8. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' region of the estrogen receptor 1 gene in normal and cryptorchid Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Indunil Nishantha; Tanaka, Kakeru; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tsuji, Makoto; Kida, Kayoko; Hatoya, Shingo; Inaba, Toshio; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2010-08-01

    This study was performed to examine the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated haplotypes in the canine estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene (ESR1) and the association of them with different phenotypes of cryptorchidism (CO) in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas. Forty CO and 68 normal dogs were used, and CO was classified into unilateral (UCO; n=33) and bilateral CO (BCO; n=5) or into abdominal (ACO; n=16) and inguinal CO (ICO; n=22). Thirteen DNA fragments located in the 70-kb region at the 3' end of ESR1 were amplified by PCR and sequenced to examine 13 SNPs (#1-#13) reported in a canine SNP database. Ten SNPs (#1-#4, #7, #8, #10-#13) were not polymorphic, and 5 new SNPs (#14-#18) were discovered. A common haplotype block in normal, CO and CO phenotypes was identified for an approximately 20-kb region encompassing 4 SNPs (#14-#17). Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies in CO without classification by phenotype and also in UCO, ACO and ICO phenotypes were not statistically different from the normal group. Significant differences in genotype frequencies and homozygosity for the estimated GTTG haplotype within the block were observed in BCO compared with the normal group, although the number of BCO animals was small. Our results demonstrate that the examined SNPs and haplotypes in the 3' end of canine ESR1 are not associated with unilateral, abdominal and inguinal CO phenotypes and CO per se in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas. Further studies are necessary to suggest a clear association between the ESR1 SNPs and bilateral CO in dogs.

  9. Evaluation of myocardial distribution of iodine-123 labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tamaki, Nagara; Shirakawa, Seishi; Fujita, Toru; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji; Nohara, Ryuji; Sasayama, Shigetake; Nishioka, Kenya

    1994-01-01

    The normal pattern of the myocardial sympathetic innervation was studied in 15 subjects using gamma camera scintigraphy with iodine-123 labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG). Seven younger subjects (mean age 24.6±3.6) and eight older patients (mean age 60.9±8.4) with normal cardiac function were studied. Planar imaging was obtained at 15 minutes and 3 hours, and SPECT was also performed 3 hours after injection of 111 MBq (3 mCi) of MIBG. The younger subjects showed higher the heart to mediastinum count ratio (2.91±0.25 vs. 2.67±0.34; p<0.05) and higher inferior to anterior count ratio (1.19±0.15 vs. 0.97±0.13; p<0.05) on the late scan. The bull's-eye polar map also differences in counts in the mid-inferior (p<0.005), basal-inferior (p<0.005) and mid-lateral sectors (p<0.01). But there was no significant difference in MIBG washout rate from myocardium between two groups. These data suggest that there is a difference of the cardiac sympathetic innervation, with older subjects having fewer sympathetic nerve terminals, especially in inferior than younger subjects. We conclude that the age difference in sympathetic nerve function should be considered in the interpretation of MIBG scan. (author)

  10. Effects of adipose tissue distribution on maximum lipid oxidation rate during exercise in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, L; Thivel, D; Duclos, M; Aucouturier, J; Boisseau, N

    2014-06-01

    Fat mass localization affects lipid metabolism differently at rest and during exercise in overweight and normal-weight subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a low vs high ratio of abdominal to lower-body fat mass (index of adipose tissue distribution) on the exercise intensity (Lipox(max)) that elicits the maximum lipid oxidation rate in normal-weight women. Twenty-one normal-weight women (22.0 ± 0.6 years, 22.3 ± 0.1 kg.m(-2)) were separated into two groups of either a low or high abdominal to lower-body fat mass ratio [L-A/LB (n = 11) or H-A/LB (n = 10), respectively]. Lipox(max) and maximum lipid oxidation rate (MLOR) were determined during a submaximum incremental exercise test. Abdominal and lower-body fat mass were determined from DXA scans. The two groups did not differ in aerobic fitness, total fat mass, or total and localized fat-free mass. Lipox(max) and MLOR were significantly lower in H-A/LB vs L-A/LB women (43 ± 3% VO(2max) vs 54 ± 4% VO(2max), and 4.8 ± 0.6 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1)vs 8.4 ± 0.9 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1), respectively; P normal-weight women, a predominantly abdominal fat mass distribution compared with a predominantly peripheral fat mass distribution is associated with a lower capacity to maximize lipid oxidation during exercise, as evidenced by their lower Lipox(max) and MLOR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Normal loads program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory. [evaluation of spanwise and chordwise loading distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medan, R. T.; Ray, K. S.

    1974-01-01

    A description of and users manual are presented for a U.S.A. FORTRAN 4 computer program which evaluates spanwise and chordwise loading distributions, lift coefficient, pitching moment coefficient, and other stability derivatives for thin wings in linearized, steady, subsonic flow. The program is based on a kernel function method lifting surface theory and is applicable to a large class of planforms including asymmetrical ones and ones with mixed straight and curved edges.

  12. The pharmacokinetics, distribution and degradation of human recombinant interleukin 1 beta in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J; Wogensen, L D; Welinder, B

    1991-01-01

    Based upon in vivo rat experiments it was recently suggested that interleukin 1 in the circulation may be implicated in the initial events of beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in humans. The aim of the present study was to estimate half-lives of distribut......Based upon in vivo rat experiments it was recently suggested that interleukin 1 in the circulation may be implicated in the initial events of beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in humans. The aim of the present study was to estimate half......-lives of distribution (T1/2 alpha) and elimination phases (T1/2 beta) of human recombinant interleukin 1 beta (rIL-1 beta), and its tissue distribution and cellular localization by means of mono-labelled, biologically active 125I-rIL-1 beta. After intravenous (i.v.) injection, 125I-rIL-1 beta was eliminated from.......v., intraperitoneal (i.p.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) injections, as demonstrated by high performance size exclusion chromatography, trichloracetic acid precipitation and SDS-PAGE until 5 h after tracer injection. Pre-treatment with 'cold' rIL-1 beta enhanced degradation of a subsequent injection of tracer. The route...

  13. Comparison of plantar pressure distribution in subjects with normal and flat feet during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluisio Otavio Vargas Avila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possible relationship between loss of thenormal medial longitudinal arch measured by the height of the navicular bone in a static situationand variables related to plantar pressure distribution measured in a dynamic situation. Elevenmen (21 ± 3 years, 74 ± 10 kg and 175 ± 4 cm participated in the study. The Novel Emed-ATSystem was used for the acquisition of plantar pressure distribution data (peak pressure, meanpressure, contact area, and relative load at a sampling rate of 50 Hz. The navicular drop testproposed by Brody (1982 was used to assess the height of the navicular bone for classificationof the subjects. The results were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, with the level of significanceset at p ≤ 0.05. Differences were observed between the two groups in the mid-foot regionfor all variables studied, with the observation of higher mean values in subjects with flat feet.There were also significant differences in contact area, relative load, peak pressure, and meanpressure between groups. The present study demonstrates the importance of paying attentionto subjects with flat feet because changes in plantar pressure distribution are associated withdiscomfort and injuries.

  14. Cross correlations of quantum key distribution based on single-photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangli; Wang Xiaobo; Zhang Guofeng; Sun Jianhu; Zhang Fang; Xiao Liantuan; Jia Suotang

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the second-order correlation function in a quantum key distribution system with real single-photon sources. Based on single-event photon statistics, the influence of the modification caused by an eavesdropper's intervention and the effects of background signals on the cross correlations between authorized partners are presented. On this basis, we have shown a secure range of correlation against the intercept-resend attacks.

  15. Even distribution/dividing of single-phase fluids by symmetric bifurcation of flow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Li, Peiwen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We addressed an issue of distributing a flow to a number of flow channels uniformly. ► The flow distribution is accomplished through bifurcation of channels. ► Some key parameters to the flow distribution uniformity have been identified. ► Flow uniformity was studied for several versions of flow distributor designs. ► A novel fluid packaging device of high efficiency was provided. -- Abstract: This study addresses a fundamental issue of distributing a single-phase fluid flow into a number of flow channels uniformly. A basic mechanism of flow distribution is accomplished through bifurcation of channels that symmetrically split one flow channel into two downstream channels. Applying the basic mechanism, cascades flow distributions are designed to split one flow into a large number of downstream flows uniformly. Some key parameters decisive to the flow distribution uniformity in such a system have been identified, and the flow distribution uniformity of air was studied for several versions of flow distributor designs using CFD analysis. The effect of the key parameters of the flow channel designs to the flow distribution uniformity was investigated. As an example of industrial application, a novel fluid packaging device of high efficiency was proposed and some CFD analysis results for the device were provided. The optimized flow distributor makes a very good uniform flow distribution which will significantly improve the efficiency of fluid packaging. The technology is expected to be of great significance to many industrial devices that require high uniformity of flow distribution

  16. One-dimensional time-dependent conduction states and temperature distribution along a normal zone during a quench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.

    1991-01-01

    The quench simulations of a superconducting (s.c.) magnet requires some assumptions about the evolution of the normal zone and its temperature profile. The axial evolution of the normal zone is considered through the longitudinal quench velocity. However, the transversal quench propagation may be considered through the transversal quench velocity or with the turn-to-turn time delay quench propagation. The temperature distribution has been assumed adiabatic-like or cosine-like in two different computer programs. Although both profiles are different, they bring about more or less the same qualitative quench results differing only in about 8%. Unfortunately, there are not experimental data for the temperature profile along the conductor in a quench event to have a realistic comparison. Little attention has received the temperature profile, mainly because it is not so critical parameter in the quench analysis. Nonetheless, a confident quench analysis requires that the temperature distribution along the normal zone be taken into account with good approximation. In this paper, an analytical study is made about the temperature profile

  17. Comparison of Normalized and Unnormalized Single Cell and Population Assemblies (MICW - Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugenholtz, Phil

    2011-10-12

    University of Queensland's Phil Hugenholtz on "Comparison of Normalized and Unnormalized Single Cell and Population Assemblies" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  18. Accuracy in radiosurgery: The influence of collimator diameters and arc weights on the dose distribution for single target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plazas, M S [National Univ. of Colombia (Colombia); Lefkopoulus, D; Schlienger, M [Service de Radiotherapie, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France). Unite de Radiophysique; Merienne, L [Hopital Sainte Anne, Paris (France). Service de Neurochirurgie

    1996-08-01

    The dosimetric characteristics of mini-beams and dose distributions in beams used for radio surgery defer substantially from beams used in common radiotherapy. The aim of radio surgery is to deliver a high dose to the lesion in one single fraction, while minimizing the dose delivered to the surrounding normal brain tissue. This type of irradiation is performed with a number of continuous arcs located in various corneal (patient sitting) or sagittal (patient in a supine position) inclined planes using a linear accelerator. A treatment planning system should take into account a large number of irradiation parameters such as the collimator diameter, number of arcs, their angular positions, length and weight of the arcs. We analysed the influence of collimator diameters in the range of 6 to 20 mm using 15 MV X-rays and stereo-tactic irradiation of ellipsoidal inclined arterio venous malformations (AVMs) with a single isocenter. Special arc weights were used to obtain an optimized dose distribution with 13 arcs distributed over an angular sector of 120 deg. x 13 deg. In the two studies made we used 3 dimensional dosimetric calculations. The results were used for the treatment of patients and enabled the choice of the optimal irradiation configuration for each patient. (author). 10 refs, 9 figs.

  19. Distance Determination Method for Normally Distributed Obstacle Avoidance of Mobile Robots in Stochastic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Noh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obstacle avoidance methods require knowledge of the distance between a mobile robot and obstacles in the environment. However, in stochastic environments, distance determination is difficult because objects have position uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distance between a robot and obstacles represented by probability distributions. Distance determination for obstacle avoidance should consider position uncertainty, computational cost and collision probability. The proposed method considers all of these conditions, unlike conventional methods. It determines the obstacle region using the collision probability density threshold. Furthermore, it defines a minimum distance function to the boundary of the obstacle region with a Lagrange multiplier method. Finally, it computes the distance numerically. Simulations were executed in order to compare the performance of the distance determination methods. Our method demonstrated a faster and more accurate performance than conventional methods. It may help overcome position uncertainty issues pertaining to obstacle avoidance, such as low accuracy sensors, environments with poor visibility or unpredictable obstacle motion.

  20. Control Method of Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, L.; Zeng, X.

    2016-01-01

    of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks. An active grounding system based on single-phase inverter is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between output current of the system and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral......The asymmetry of the inherent distributed capacitances causes the rise of neutral-to-ground voltage in ungrounded system or high resistance grounded system. Overvoltage may occur in resonant grounded system if Petersen coil is resonant with the distributed capacitances. Thus, the restraint...

  1. Some case studies of skewed (and other ab-normal) data distributions arising in low-level environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Three general classes of skewed data distributions have been encountered in research on background radiation, chemical and radiochemical blanks, and low levels of 85 Kr and 14 C in the atmosphere and the cryosphere. The first class of skewed data can be considered to be theoretically, or fundamentally skewed. It is typified by the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times for nuclear counting events for a Poisson process. As part of a study of the nature of low-level (anti-coincidence) Geiger- Mueller counter background radiation, tests were performed on the Poisson distribution of counts, the uniform distribution of arrival times, and the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times. The real laboratory system, of course, failed the (inter-arrival time) test - for very interesting reasons, linked to the physics of the measurement process. The second, computationally skewed, class relates to skewness induced by non-linear transformations. It is illustrated by non-linear concentration estimates from inverse calibration, and bivariate blank corrections for low-level 14 C- 12 C aerosol data that led to highly asymmetric uncertainty intervals for the biomass carbon contribution to urban ''soot''. The third, environmentally skewed, data class relates to a universal problem for the detection of excursions above blank or baseline levels: namely, the widespread occurrence of ab-normal distributions of environmental and laboratory blanks. This is illustrated by the search for fundamental factors that lurk behind skewed frequency distributions of sulfur laboratory blanks and 85 Kr environmental baselines, and the application of robust statistical procedures for reliable detection decisions in the face of skewed isotopic carbon procedural blanks with few degrees of freedom. (orig.)

  2. Some case studies of skewed (and other ab-normal) data distributions arising in low-level environmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, L A

    2001-07-01

    Three general classes of skewed data distributions have been encountered in research on background radiation, chemical and radiochemical blanks, and low levels of 85Kr and 14C in the atmosphere and the cryosphere. The first class of skewed data can be considered to be theoretically, or fundamentally skewed. It is typified by the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times for nuclear counting events for a Poisson process. As part of a study of the nature of low-level (anti-coincidence) Geiger-Muller counter background radiation, tests were performed on the Poisson distribution of counts, the uniform distribution of arrival times, and the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times. The real laboratory system, of course, failed the (inter-arrival time) test--for very interesting reasons, linked to the physics of the measurement process. The second, computationally skewed, class relates to skewness induced by non-linear transformations. It is illustrated by non-linear concentration estimates from inverse calibration, and bivariate blank corrections for low-level 14C-12C aerosol data that led to highly asymmetric uncertainty intervals for the biomass carbon contribution to urban "soot". The third, environmentally, skewed, data class relates to a universal problem for the detection of excursions above blank or baseline levels: namely, the widespread occurrence of ab-normal distributions of environmental and laboratory blanks. This is illustrated by the search for fundamental factors that lurk behind skewed frequency distributions of sulfur laboratory blanks and 85Kr environmental baselines, and the application of robust statistical procedures for reliable detection decisions in the face of skewed isotopic carbon procedural blanks with few degrees of freedom.

  3. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. I - Pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions are derived for the pressure distribution in the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. The undisturbed boundary layer is characterized by the law of the wall and the law of the wake for compressible flow. In the limiting case considered, for 'high' transonic speeds, the sonic line is very close to the wall. Comparisons with experiment are shown, with corrections included for the effect of longitudinal wall curvature and for the boundary-layer displacement effect in a circular pipe.

  4. Diffusion tensor trace mapping in normal adult brain using single-shot EPI technique: A methodological study of the aging brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.G.; Hindmarsh, T.; Li, T.Q.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify age-related changes of the average diffusion coefficient value in normal adult brain using orientation-independent diffusion tensor trace mapping and to address the methodological influences on diffusion quantification. Material and Methods: Fifty-four normal subjects (aged 20-79 years) were studied on a 1.5-T whole-body MR medical unit using a diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging technique. Orientation-independent diffusion tensor trace maps were constructed for each subject using diffusion-weighted MR measurements in four different directions using a tetrahedral gradient combination pattern. The global average (including cerebral spinal fluid) and the tissue average of diffusion coefficients in adult brains were determined by analyzing the diffusion coefficient distribution histogram for the entire brain. Methodological influences on the measured diffusion coefficient were also investigated by comparing the results obtained using different experimental settings. Results: Both global and tissue averages of the diffusion coefficient are significantly correlated with age (p<0.03). The global average of the diffusion coefficient increases 3% per decade after the age of 40, whereas the increase in the tissue average of diffusion coefficient is about 1% per decade. Experimental settings for self-diffusion measurements, such as data acquisition methods and number of b-values, can slightly influence the statistical distribution histogram of the diffusion tensor trace and its average value. Conclusion: Increased average diffusion coefficient in adult brains with aging are consistent with findings regarding structural changes in the brain that have been associated with aging. The study also demonstrates that it is desirable to use the same experimental parameters for diffusion coefficient quantification when comparing between different subjects and groups of interest

  5. A luminescence imaging system for the routine measurement of single-grain OSL dose distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kook, Myung Ho; Lapp, Torben; Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    the potential of an electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD), providing extremely low level light detection. We characterize the performance of the device by discussing reproducibility and evaluating uncertainties in OSL signals. Finally we derive a typical single grain natural dose distribution...

  6. Strain distribution in single, suspended germanium nanowires studied using nanofocused x-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keplinger, Mario; Grifone, Raphael; Greil, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Within the quest for direct band-gap group IV materials, strain engineering in germanium is one promising route. We present a study of the strain distribution in single, suspended germanium nanowires using nanofocused synchrotron radiation. Evaluating the probed Bragg reflection for different ill...

  7. Potential pitfalls of single phasing operation in a three phase distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, V S

    1986-07-01

    Finding it difficult to cope with the increased demand for electric power, some electricity boards have resorted to single phasing techniques in distribution system. This practice is harmful to the equipment in the power system. Some of the potential dangers associated with this undesirable practice are briefly discussed.

  8. Determination of the mass-ratio distribution, I: single-lined spectroscopic binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    For single-lined spectroscopic binary stars (sbi), the mass ratio q = Msec=Mprim is calculated from the mass function f(m), which is determined from observations. For statistical investigations of the mass-ratio distribution, the term sin^3 i, that remains in the cubic equation from which q is

  9. A simulation study on the dose distribution for a single beam of the gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-cheng; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Lee, Chung-chi; Shiau, Cheng-Ying

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the tissue heterogeneity on the dose distribution for a single beam of the gamma knife. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate both depth and radial profiles of the radiation dose in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms, respectively. The results are compared with the dose distribution calculated using the mathematical model of Gamma Plan, the treatment planning system of the gamma knife. The skull and sinus heterogeneity were simulated by a Teflon shell and an air shell, respectively. It was found that the tissue heterogeneity caused significant perturbation on the absolute depth dose at the focus as well as on the depth-dose distribution near the phantom surface and/or at the interface but little effect on the radial dose distribution. The effect of the beam aperture on the depth-dose distribution was also investigated in this study. (author)

  10. M-dwarf exoplanet surface density distribution. A log-normal fit from 0.07 to 400 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael R.; Amara, Adam; Reggiani, Maddalena; Quanz, Sascha P.

    2018-04-01

    Aims: We fit a log-normal function to the M-dwarf orbital surface density distribution of gas giant planets, over the mass range 1-10 times that of Jupiter, from 0.07 to 400 AU. Methods: We used a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to explore the likelihoods of various parameter values consistent with point estimates of the data given our assumed functional form. Results: This fit is consistent with radial velocity, microlensing, and direct-imaging observations, is well-motivated from theoretical and phenomenological points of view, and predicts results of future surveys. We present probability distributions for each parameter and a maximum likelihood estimate solution. Conclusions: We suggest that this function makes more physical sense than other widely used functions, and we explore the implications of our results on the design of future exoplanet surveys.

  11. The dose dependency of the over-dispersion of quartz OSL single grain dose distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    The use of single grain quartz OSL dating has become widespread over the past decade, particularly with application to samples likely to have been incompletely bleached before burial. By reducing the aliquot size to a single grain the probability of identifying the grain population most likely...... to have been well-bleached at deposition is maximised and thus the accuracy with which the equivalent dose can be determined is – at least in principle – improved. However, analysis of single grain dose distributions requires knowledge of the dispersion of the well-bleached part of the dose distribution....... This can be estimated by measurement of a suitable analogue, e.g. a well-bleached aeolian sample, but this requires such an analogue to be available, and in addition the assumptions that the sample is in fact a) well-bleached, and b) has a similar dose rate heterogeneity to the fossil deposit. Finally...

  12. Finite-size effects in transcript sequencing count distribution: its power-law correction necessarily precedes downstream normalization and comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing-Cheong; Ng, Hong-Kiat; Tantoso, Erwin; Soong, Richie; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2018-02-12

    Though earlier works on modelling transcript abundance from vertebrates to lower eukaroytes have specifically singled out the Zip's law, the observed distributions often deviate from a single power-law slope. In hindsight, while power-laws of critical phenomena are derived asymptotically under the conditions of infinite observations, real world observations are finite where the finite-size effects will set in to force a power-law distribution into an exponential decay and consequently, manifests as a curvature (i.e., varying exponent values) in a log-log plot. If transcript abundance is truly power-law distributed, the varying exponent signifies changing mathematical moments (e.g., mean, variance) and creates heteroskedasticity which compromises statistical rigor in analysis. The impact of this deviation from the asymptotic power-law on sequencing count data has never truly been examined and quantified. The anecdotal description of transcript abundance being almost Zipf's law-like distributed can be conceptualized as the imperfect mathematical rendition of the Pareto power-law distribution when subjected to the finite-size effects in the real world; This is regardless of the advancement in sequencing technology since sampling is finite in practice. Our conceptualization agrees well with our empirical analysis of two modern day NGS (Next-generation sequencing) datasets: an in-house generated dilution miRNA study of two gastric cancer cell lines (NUGC3 and AGS) and a publicly available spike-in miRNA data; Firstly, the finite-size effects causes the deviations of sequencing count data from Zipf's law and issues of reproducibility in sequencing experiments. Secondly, it manifests as heteroskedasticity among experimental replicates to bring about statistical woes. Surprisingly, a straightforward power-law correction that restores the distribution distortion to a single exponent value can dramatically reduce data heteroskedasticity to invoke an instant increase in

  13. Screen-Space Normal Distribution Function Caching for Consistent Multi-Resolution Rendering of Large Particle Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Wickenhauser, Patrick; Rautek, Peter; Reina, Guido; Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

  14. The effect of signal variability on the histograms of anthropomorphic channel outputs: factors resulting in non-normally distributed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahaby, Fatma E. A.; Ghaly, Michael; Jha, Abhinav K.; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Model Observers are widely used in medical imaging for the optimization and evaluation of instrumentation, acquisition parameters and image reconstruction and processing methods. The channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) is a commonly used model observer in nuclear medicine and has seen increasing use in other modalities. An anthropmorphic CHO consists of a set of channels that model some aspects of the human visual system and the Hotelling Observer, which is the optimal linear discriminant. The optimality of the CHO is based on the assumption that the channel outputs for data with and without the signal present have a multivariate normal distribution with equal class covariance matrices. The channel outputs result from the dot product of channel templates with input images and are thus the sum of a large number of random variables. The central limit theorem is thus often used to justify the assumption that the channel outputs are normally distributed. In this work, we aim to examine this assumption for realistically simulated nuclear medicine images when various types of signal variability are present.

  15. Screen-Space Normal Distribution Function Caching for Consistent Multi-Resolution Rendering of Large Particle Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2017-08-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

  16. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  17. Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in Forward Angle Inelastic Electron-Proton Scattering using the Q-Weak Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ., Nuruzzaman [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Q-weak experiment in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has made the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton through the precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer. There is also a parity conserving Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry or transverse asymmetry (B_n) on H_2 with a sin(phi)-like dependence due to two-photon exchange. If the size of elastic B_n is a few ppm, then a few percent residual transverse polarization in the beam, combined with small broken azimuthal symmetries in the detector, would require a few ppb correction to the Q-weak data. As part of a program of B_n background studies, we made the first measurement of B_n in the N-to-Delta(1232) transition using the Q-weak apparatus. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, was found to be B_n = 42.82 ± 2.45 (stat) ± 16.07 (sys) ppm at beam energy E_beam = 1.155 GeV, scattering angle theta = 8.3 deg, and missing mass W = 1.2 GeV. B_n from electron-nucleon scattering is a unique tool to study the gamma^* Delta Delta form factors, and this measurement will help to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process. To help correct false asymmetries from beam noise, a beam modulation system was implemented to induce small position, angle, and energy changes at the target to characterize detector response to the beam jitter. Two air-core dipoles separated by ~10 m were pulsed at a time to produce position and angle changes at the target, for virtually any tune of the beamline. The beam energy was modulated using an SRF cavity. The hardware and associated control instrumentation will be described in this dissertation. Preliminary detector sensitivities were extracted which helped to reduce the width of the measured asymmetry. The beam modulation system

  18. A preliminary evaluation of myoelectrical energy distribution of the front neck muscles in pharyngeal phase during normal swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingxing Zhu; Wanzhang Yang; Samuel, Oluwarotimi Williams; Yun Xiang; Jianping Huang; Haiqing Zou; Guanglin Li

    2016-08-01

    Pharyngeal phase is a central hub of swallowing in which food bolus pass through from the oral cavity to the esophageal. Proper understanding of the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase is useful for assessing swallowing function and the occurrence of dysphagia in humans. In this study, high-density (HD) surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to study the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase during swallowing tasks involving three healthy male subjects. The root mean square (RMS) of the HD sEMG data was computed by using a series of segmented windows as myoelectrical energy. And the RMS of each window covering all channels (16×5) formed a matrix. During the pharyngeal phase of swallowing, three of the matrixes were chosen and normalized to obtain the HD energy maps and the statistical parameter. The maps across different viscosity levels offered the energy distribution which showed the muscular activities of the left and right sides of the front neck muscles. In addition, the normalized average RMS (NARE) across different viscosity levels revealed a left-right significant correlation (r=0.868±0.629, pstronger correlation when swallowing water. This pilot study suggests that HD sEMG would be a potential tool to evaluate muscular activities in pharyngeal phase during normal swallowing. Also, it might provide useful information for dysphagia diagnosis.

  19. Global Bi-ventricular endocardial distribution of activation rate during long duration ventricular fibrillation in normal and heart failure canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingzhi; Jin, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Han, Yanxin; Wang, Yilong; Huang, Shangwei; Lin, Changjian; Ling, Tianyou; Chen, Kang; Pan, Wenqi; Wu, Liqun

    2017-04-13

    The objective of this study was to detect differences in the distribution of the left and right ventricle (LV & RV) activation rate (AR) during short-duration ventricular fibrillation (SDVF, 1 min) in normal and heart failure (HF) canine hearts. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced in six healthy dogs (control group) and six dogs with right ventricular pacing-induced congestive HF (HF group). Two 64-electrode basket catheters deployed in the LV and RV were used for global endocardium electrical mapping. The AR of VF was estimated by fast Fourier transform analysis from each electrode. In the control group, the LV was activated faster than the RV in the first 20 s, after which there was no detectable difference in the AR between them. When analyzing the distribution of the AR within the bi-ventricles at 3 min of LDVF, the posterior LV was activated fastest, while the anterior was slowest. In the HF group, a detectable AR gradient existed between the two ventricles within 3 min of VF, with the LV activating more quickly than the RV. When analyzing the distribution of the AR within the bi-ventricles at 3 min of LDVF, the septum of the LV was activated fastest, while the anterior was activated slowest. A global bi-ventricular endocardial AR gradient existed within the first 20 s of VF but disappeared in the LDVF in healthy hearts. However, the AR gradient was always observed in both SDVF and LDVF in HF hearts. The findings of this study suggest that LDVF in HF hearts can be maintained differently from normal hearts, which accordingly should lead to the development of different management strategies for LDVF resuscitation.

  20. Spatial Distribution of Iron Within the Normal Human Liver Using Dual-Source Dual-Energy CT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadia, Andres F; Grant, Katharine L; Carey, Kathleen E; Bolch, Wesley E; Morin, Richard L

    2017-11-01

    Explore the potential of dual-source dual-energy (DSDE) computed tomography (CT) to retrospectively analyze the uniformity of iron distribution and establish iron concentration ranges and distribution patterns found in healthy livers. Ten mixtures consisting of an iron nitrate solution and deionized water were prepared in test tubes and scanned using a DSDE 128-slice CT system. Iron images were derived from a 3-material decomposition algorithm (optimized for the quantification of iron). A conversion factor (mg Fe/mL per Hounsfield unit) was calculated from this phantom study as the quotient of known tube concentrations and their corresponding CT values. Retrospective analysis was performed of patients who had undergone DSDE imaging for renal stones. Thirty-seven patients with normal liver function were randomly selected (mean age, 52.5 years). The examinations were processed for iron concentration. Multiple regions of interest were analyzed, and iron concentration (mg Fe/mL) and distribution was reported. The mean conversion factor obtained from the phantom study was 0.15 mg Fe/mL per Hounsfield unit. Whole-liver mean iron concentrations yielded a range of 0.0 to 2.91 mg Fe/mL, with 94.6% (35/37) of the patients exhibiting mean concentrations below 1.0 mg Fe/mL. The most important finding was that iron concentration was not uniform and patients exhibited regionally high concentrations (36/37). These regions of higher concentration were observed to be dominant in the middle-to-upper part of the liver (75%), medially (72.2%), and anteriorly (83.3%). Dual-source dual-energy CT can be used to assess the uniformity of iron distribution in healthy subjects. Applying similar techniques to unhealthy livers, future research may focus on the impact of hepatic iron content and distribution for noninvasive assessment in diseased subjects.

  1. Quantitative myocardial thallium single-photon emission computed tomography in normal women: demonstration of age-related differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Touzery, C.; Cottin, Y.; Benoit, T.; Athis, P. d'; Roy, S.; Louis, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Rigo, P.; Brunotte, F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is the development of a database of normal women for quantitative analysis of exercise and reinjection myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET). We studied 101 subjects (40 males and 61 females) with less than 5% likelihood of coronary artery disease. All patients underwent stress and rest thallium-201 myocardial SPET. Myocardial stress was induced by bicycle exercise test (n=51), dipyridamole infusion (n=27) or a combined test (n=23). Multivariate ANOVA showed that the type of stress did not influence the percentage of thallium uptake for each region. Significant differences between men and women were found for the percentage of uptake in the inferior and the anterior wall. The most original finding of this study is the correlation between age and thallium uptake in the three regions of the anterior wall, showing an increase in measured thallium uptake with age for women. Consequently, two groups of women, those under and those over 55 years old, were separated, with a significantly lower tracer uptake in the anterior wall in the younger age group. (orig./MG)

  2. Distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in the skins of normal and albino adult turbot, Scophthalmus Maximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huarong; HUANG Bing; QI Fei; ZHANG Shicui

    2007-01-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in skins of normal and albino adult turbots were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three types of pigment cells of melanophore, iridophore and xanthophore have been recognized in adult turbot skins. The skin color depends mainly on the amount and distribution of melanophore and iridophore, as xanthophore is quite rare. No pigment cells can be found in the epidermis of the skins. In the pigmented ocular skin of the turbot, melanophore and iridophore are usually co-localized in the dermis. This is quite different from the distribution in larvae skin. In albino and white blind skins of adult turbots, however, only iridophore monolayer still exists, while the melanophore monolayer disappears. This cytological evidence explains why the albino adult turbot, unlike its larvae, could never resume its body color no matter what environmental and nutritional conditions were provided. Endocytosis is quite active in the cellular membrane of the iridophore. This might be related to the formation of reflective platelet and stability of the iridophore.

  3. Combining counts and incidence data: an efficient approach for estimating the log-normal species abundance distribution and diversity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellier, Edwige; Grøtan, Vidar; Engen, Steinar; Schartau, Ann Kristin; Diserud, Ola H; Finstad, Anders G

    2012-10-01

    Obtaining accurate estimates of diversity indices is difficult because the number of species encountered in a sample increases with sampling intensity. We introduce a novel method that requires that the presence of species in a sample to be assessed while the counts of the number of individuals per species are only required for just a small part of the sample. To account for species included as incidence data in the species abundance distribution, we modify the likelihood function of the classical Poisson log-normal distribution. Using simulated community assemblages, we contrast diversity estimates based on a community sample, a subsample randomly extracted from the community sample, and a mixture sample where incidence data are added to a subsample. We show that the mixture sampling approach provides more accurate estimates than the subsample and at little extra cost. Diversity indices estimated from a freshwater zooplankton community sampled using the mixture approach show the same pattern of results as the simulation study. Our method efficiently increases the accuracy of diversity estimates and comprehension of the left tail of the species abundance distribution. We show how to choose the scale of sample size needed for a compromise between information gained, accuracy of the estimates and cost expended when assessing biological diversity. The sample size estimates are obtained from key community characteristics, such as the expected number of species in the community, the expected number of individuals in a sample and the evenness of the community.

  4. Ultrasound-mediated delivery and distribution of polymeric nanoparticles in the normal brain parenchyma of a metastatic brain tumour model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Baghirov

    Full Text Available The treatment of brain diseases is hindered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB preventing most drugs from entering the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS with microbubbles can open the BBB safely and reversibly. Systemic drug injection might induce toxicity, but encapsulation into nanoparticles reduces accumulation in normal tissue. Here we used a novel platform based on poly(2-ethyl-butyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticle-stabilized microbubbles to permeabilize the BBB in a melanoma brain metastasis model. With a dual-frequency ultrasound transducer generating FUS at 1.1 MHz and 7.8 MHz, we opened the BBB using nanoparticle-microbubbles and low-frequency FUS, and applied high-frequency FUS to generate acoustic radiation force and push nanoparticles through the extracellular matrix. Using confocal microscopy and image analysis, we quantified nanoparticle extravasation and distribution in the brain parenchyma. We also evaluated haemorrhage, as well as the expression of P-glycoprotein, a key BBB component. FUS and microbubbles distributed nanoparticles in the brain parenchyma, and the distribution depended on the extent of BBB opening. The results from acoustic radiation force were not conclusive, but in a few animals some effect could be detected. P-glycoprotein was not significantly altered immediately after sonication. In summary, FUS with our nanoparticle-stabilized microbubbles can achieve accumulation and displacement of nanoparticles in the brain parenchyma.

  5. Spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 in normal canine central and peripheral nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Freundt-Revilla

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the normal canine CNS and PNS. Immunohistochemistry of several regions of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves from a healthy four-week-old puppy, three six-month-old dogs, and one ten-year-old dog revealed strong dot-like immunoreactivity in the neuropil of the cerebral cortex, Cornu Ammonis (CA and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and grey matter of the spinal cord. Dense CB1 expression was found in fibres of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra surrounding immunonegative neurons. Astrocytes were constantly positive in all examined regions. CB1 labelled neurons and satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglia, and myelinating Schwann cells in the PNS. These results demonstrate for the first time the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the healthy canine CNS and PNS. These results can be used as a basis for further studies aiming to elucidate the physiological consequences of this particular anatomical and cellular distribution.

  6. An approach to normal forms of Kuramoto model with distributed delays and the effect of minimal delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Ben, E-mail: niubenhit@163.com [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Guo, Yuxiao [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Heterogeneous delays with positive lower bound (gap) are taken into consideration in Kuramoto model. On the Ott–Antonsen's manifold, the dynamical transitional behavior from incoherence to coherence is mediated by Hopf bifurcation. We establish a perturbation technique on complex domain, by which universal normal forms, stability and criticality of the Hopf bifurcation are obtained. Theoretically, a hysteresis loop is found near the subcritically bifurcated coherent state. With respect to Gamma distributed delay with fixed mean and variance, we find that the large gap decreases Hopf bifurcation value, induces supercritical bifurcations, avoids the hysteresis loop and significantly increases in the number of coexisting coherent states. The effect of gap is finally interpreted from the viewpoint of excess kurtosis of Gamma distribution. - Highlights: • Heterogeneously delay-coupled Kuramoto model with minimal delay is considered. • Perturbation technique on complex domain is established for bifurcation analysis. • Hysteresis phenomenon is investigated in a theoretical way. • The effect of excess kurtosis of distributed delays is discussed.

  7. Ultrasound-mediated delivery and distribution of polymeric nanoparticles in the normal brain parenchyma of a metastatic brain tumour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghirov, Habib; Snipstad, Sofie; Sulheim, Einar; Berg, Sigrid; Hansen, Rune; Thorsen, Frits; Mørch, Yrr; Åslund, Andreas K. O.

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of brain diseases is hindered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) preventing most drugs from entering the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can open the BBB safely and reversibly. Systemic drug injection might induce toxicity, but encapsulation into nanoparticles reduces accumulation in normal tissue. Here we used a novel platform based on poly(2-ethyl-butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticle-stabilized microbubbles to permeabilize the BBB in a melanoma brain metastasis model. With a dual-frequency ultrasound transducer generating FUS at 1.1 MHz and 7.8 MHz, we opened the BBB using nanoparticle-microbubbles and low-frequency FUS, and applied high-frequency FUS to generate acoustic radiation force and push nanoparticles through the extracellular matrix. Using confocal microscopy and image analysis, we quantified nanoparticle extravasation and distribution in the brain parenchyma. We also evaluated haemorrhage, as well as the expression of P-glycoprotein, a key BBB component. FUS and microbubbles distributed nanoparticles in the brain parenchyma, and the distribution depended on the extent of BBB opening. The results from acoustic radiation force were not conclusive, but in a few animals some effect could be detected. P-glycoprotein was not significantly altered immediately after sonication. In summary, FUS with our nanoparticle-stabilized microbubbles can achieve accumulation and displacement of nanoparticles in the brain parenchyma. PMID:29338016

  8. Attacking quantum key distribution with single-photon two-qubit quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2006-01-01

    The Fuchs-Peres-Brandt (FPB) probe realizes the most powerful individual attack on Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution (BB84 QKD) by means of a single controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate. This paper describes a complete physical simulation of the FPB-probe attack on polarization-based BB84 QKD using a deterministic CNOT constructed from single-photon two-qubit quantum logic. Adding polarization-preserving quantum nondemolition measurements of photon number to this configuration converts the physical simulation into a true deterministic realization of the FPB attack

  9. Cross-correlated imaging of single-mode photonic crystal rod fiber with distributed mode filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Barankov, Roman; Jørgensen, Mette Marie

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal bandgap fibers employing distributed mode filtering design provide near diffraction-limited light outputs, a critical property of fiber-based high-power lasers. Microstructure of the fibers is tailored to achieve single-mode operation at specific wavelength by resonant mode...... identify regimes of resonant coupling between higher-order core modes and cladding band. We demonstrate a passive fiber design in which the higher-order modal content inside the single-mode guiding regime is suppressed by at least 20 dB even for significantly misaligned input-coupling configurations....

  10. Integrated Spectral Energy Distributions and Absorption Feature Indices of Single Stellar Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2004-01-01

    Using evolutionary population synthesis, we present integrated spectral energy distributions and absorption-line indices defined by the Lick Observatory image dissector scanner (referred to as Lick/IDS) system, for an extensive set of instantaneous burst single stellar populations (SSPs). The ages of the SSPs are in the range 1-19 Gyr and the metallicities [Fe/H] are in the range -2.3 - 0.2. Our models use the rapid single stellar evolution algorithm of Hurley, Pols and Tout for the stellar e...

  11. A 3% Measurement of the Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in Forward Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering using the Qweak Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidyawansa, Dinayadura Buddhini [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The beam normal single spin asymmetry generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nucleons is an observable of the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange process. Moreover, it is a potential source of false asymmetry in parity violating electron scattering experiments. The Q{sub weak} experiment uses parity violating electron scattering to make a direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton. The targeted 4% measurement of the weak charge of the proton probes for parity violating new physics beyond the Standard Model. The beam normal single spin asymmetry at Q{sub weak} kinematics is at least three orders of magnitude larger than 5 ppb precision of the parity violating asymmetry. To better understand this parity conserving background, the Q{sub weak} Collaboration has performed elastic scattering measurements with fully transversely polarized electron beam on the proton and aluminum. This dissertation presents the analysis of the 3% measurement (1.3% statistical and 2.6% systematic) of beam normal single spin asymmetry in electronproton scattering at a Q2 of 0.025 (GeV/c)2. It is the most precise existing measurement of beam normal single spin asymmetry available at the time. A measurement of this precision helps to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process.

  12. Determination and correlation of spatial distribution of trace elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues evaluated by μ-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.P.; Oliveira, M.A.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Some trace elements, naturally present in breast tissues, participate in a large number of biological processes, which include among others, activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions and changes on cell membranes permeability, suggesting that these elements may influence carcinogenic processes. Thus, knowledge of the amounts of these elements and their spatial distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues may help in understanding the role of these elements in the carcinogenic process and tumor progression of breast cancers. Concentrations of trace elements like Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, previously studied at LNLS using TXRF and conventional XRF, were elevated in neoplastic breast tissues compared to normal tissues. In this study we determined the spatial distribution of these elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues using μ-XRF technique. We analyzed 22 samples of normal and neoplastic breast tissues (malignant and benign) obtained from paraffin blocks available for study at the Department of Pathology HC-FMRP/USP. From the blocks, a small fraction of material was removed and subjected to histological sections of 60 μm thick made with a microtome. The slices where placed in holder samples and covered with ultralen film. Tissue samples were irradiated with a white beam of synchrotron radiation. The samples were positioned at 45 degrees with respect to the incident beam on a table with 3 freedom degrees (x, y and z), allowing independent positioning of the sample in these directions. The white beam was collimated by a 20 μm microcapillary and samples were fully scanned. At each step, a spectrum was detected for 10 s. The fluorescence emitted by elements present in the sample was detected by a Si (Li) detector with 165 eV at 5.9 keV energy resolution, placed at 90 deg with respect to the incident beam. Results reveal that trace elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman

  13. Quantum key distribution with a single photon from a squeezed coherent state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Masahiro; Hirano, Takuya

    2003-01-01

    Squeezing of the coherent state by optical parametric amplifier is shown to efficiently produce single-photon states with reduced multiphoton probabilities compared with the weak coherent light. It can be a better source for a longer-distance quantum key distribution and also for other quantum optical experiments. The necessary condition for a secure quantum key distribution given by Brassard et al. is analyzed as functions of the coherent-state amplitude and squeeze parameter. Similarly, the rate of the gained secure bits G after error correction and privacy amplification given by Luetkenhaus is calculated. Compared with the weak coherent light, it is found that G is about ten times larger and its high level continues on about two times longer distance. By improvement of the detector efficiency it is shown that the distance extends further. Measurement of the intensity correlation function and the relation to photon antibunching are discussed for the experimental verification of the single-photon generation

  14. Exciting Normal Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Karl Josef; Simonovits, Reinhard; Thaller, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a high school project where the mathematics teaching and learning software M@th Desktop (MD) based on the Computer Algebra System Mathematica was used for symbolical and numerical calculations and for visualisation. The mathematics teaching and learning software M@th Desktop 2.0 (MD) contains the modules Basics including tools…

  15. Power-Law-Distributed Dark States are the Main Pathway for Photobleaching of Single Organic Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogenboom, J.P.; Hoogenboom, Jacob; van Dijk, E.M.H.P.; Hernando Campos, J.; van Hulst, N.F.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    We exploit the strong excitonic coupling in a superradiant trimer molecule to distinguish between long-lived collective dark states and photobleaching events. The population and depopulation kinetics of the dark states in a single molecule follow power-law statistics over 5 orders of magnitude in time. This result is consistent with the formation of a radical unit via electron tunneling to a time-varying distribution of trapping sites in the surrounding polymer matrix. We furthermore demonstr...

  16. Particle trapping in 3-D using a single fiber probe with an annular light distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R; Hnatovsky, C

    2003-10-20

    A single optical fiber probe has been used to trap a solid 2 ìm diameter glass bead in 3-D in water. Optical confinement in 2-D was produced by the annular light distribution emerging from a selectively chemically etched, tapered, hollow tipped metalized fiber probe. Confinement of the bead in 3-D was achieved by balancing an electrostatic force of attraction towards the tip and the optical scattering force pushing the particle away from the tip.

  17. Direct calculation of unambiguous electron-density distributions of Langmuir-Blodgett films normal to the membrane plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieling, M. von; Bradaczek, H.

    1990-01-01

    In regard to X-ray diffraction, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films consisting of lipid bilayers represent a 'one-dimensional crystal' with a very small number of unit cells in the direction of stacking. Such bounded systems yield X-ray diffraction diagrams which, in certain respects, contain more information than those of the conventional effectively infinite single crystals. This additional information consists of the profiles of the broadened reflections and their dislocation from the reciprocal-lattice points. These profiles are specific for each different structure and hence enable the direct calculation of unambiguous electron-density distributions from a single set of intensity data. At first, the Q function (the generalized Patterson function), i.e. the distance statistics of the structure sought after is calculated from the intensity data. Thereafter, the unambiguous convolution square root of the Q function must be determined, which is identical to the unknown electron-density distribution. For this purpose two mathematically completely different methods were established and compared. They were applied to diffraction patterns of Langmuir-Blodgett films of simple synthetic lipids with characteristic molecular subunits and showed identical results within the experimental resolution. This verifies the structures and the methods to calculate them. Furthermore, all features of the simple structures were compatible with the expectations. All one-dimensional electron-density distributions showed the common features of lipid bilayers. The characteristic molecular subunits can be recognized and reveal some interesting details. In general, they yield information about orientation, conformation and localization of molecular subunits and membrane components. (orig.)

  18. Vibrational Spectra And Potential Energy Distributions of Normal Modes of N,N'-Etilenbis(P-Toluen sulfonamide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyar, S.

    2008-01-01

    N-substituted sulfonamides are well known for their diuretic, antidiabetic, antibacterial and antifungal, anticancer e.g., and are widely used in the therapy of patients. These important bioactive properties are strongly affected by the special features of -CH 2 -SO 2 -NR-linker and intramolecular motion Thus, the studies of energetic and spatial properties on N-substituted sulfonamides are of great importance to improve our understanding of their biological activities and enhance abilities to predict new drugs. Density Functional Theory B3LYP /6-31G(d,p) level has been applied to obtain the vibrational force field for the most stable conformation of N,N'-etilenbis(p-toluensulfonamit)(ptsen)having sulfonamide moiety. The results of these calculation have been compared with spectroscopic data to verify accuracy of calculation and applicability of the DFT approach to ptsen. Additionally, complete normal coordinate analyses with quantum mechanical scaling (SQM) were performed to derive the potential energy distributions (PE)

  19. High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su, E-mail: 2010thzz@sina.com [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2017-04-25

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.

  20. High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Bao, Wan-Su; Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.

  1. Single-frequency thulium-doped distributed-feedback fibre laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Søren; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Varming, Poul

    2004-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a single-frequency distributed-feedback (DFB) thulium-doped silica fiber laser emitting at a wavelength of 1735 nm. The laser cavity is less than 5 cm long and is formed by intracore UV-written Bragg gratings with a phase shift. The laser is pumped at 790 nm from...... a Ti:sapphire laser and has a threshold pump power of 59 mW. The laser has a maximum output power of 1 mW in a singlefrequency, single-polarization radiation mode and is tunable over a few nanometers. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of a single-frequency DFB fiber laser...... that uses thulium as the amplifying medium. The lasing wavelength is the longest demonstrated with DFB fiber lasers and yet is among the shortest obtained for thulium-doped silica fiber lasers....

  2. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of obtaining numerically maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions is addressed. In recent literature, a certain successive approximations procedure, based on the likelihood equations, is shown empirically to be effective in numerically approximating such maximum-likelihood estimates; however, the reliability of this procedure was not established theoretically. Here, a general iterative procedure is introduced, of the generalized steepest-ascent (deflected-gradient) type, which is just the procedure known in the literature when the step-size is taken to be 1. With probability 1 as the sample size grows large, it is shown that this procedure converges locally to the strongly consistent maximum-likelihood estimate whenever the step-size lies between 0 and 2. The step-size which yields optimal local convergence rates for large samples is determined in a sense by the separation of the component normal densities and is bounded below by a number between 1 and 2.

  3. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining numerically maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions. In recent literature, a certain successive-approximations procedure, based on the likelihood equations, was shown empirically to be effective in numerically approximating such maximum-likelihood estimates; however, the reliability of this procedure was not established theoretically. Here, we introduce a general iterative procedure, of the generalized steepest-ascent (deflected-gradient) type, which is just the procedure known in the literature when the step-size is taken to be 1. We show that, with probability 1 as the sample size grows large, this procedure converges locally to the strongly consistent maximum-likelihood estimate whenever the step-size lies between 0 and 2. We also show that the step-size which yields optimal local convergence rates for large samples is determined in a sense by the 'separation' of the component normal densities and is bounded below by a number between 1 and 2.

  4. Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry in Deep-Inelastic Scattering from the Reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katich, Joseph; Qian, Xin; Zhao, Yuxiang; Allada, Kalyan; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Averett, Todd; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Bradshaw, Elliott; Bosted, Peter; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei; Chirapatpimol, Khem; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Cornejo, Juan; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; Deconinck, Wouter; De Jager, Cornelis; De Leo, Raffaele; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Ding, Huaibo; Dolph, Peter; Dutta, Chiranjib; Dutta, Dipangkar; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gilad, Gilad; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Golge, Serkan; Guo, Lei; Hamilton, David; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jijun; Huang, Min; Ibrahim Abdalla, Hassan; Iodice, Mauro; Jin, Ge; Jones, Mark; Kelleher, Aidan; Kim, Wooyoung; Kolarkar, Ameya; Korsch, Wolfgang; LeRose, John; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Y; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Long, Elena; Lu, Hai-jiang; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; McNulty, Dustin; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nanda, Sirish; Narayan, Amrendra; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Oh, Yoomin; Osipenko, Mikhail; Parno, Diana; Peng, Jen-chieh; Phillips, Sarah; Posik, Matthew; Puckett, Andrew; Qiang, Yi; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Ransome, Ronald; Riordan, Seamus; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Schulte, Elaine; Shahinyan, Albert; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Sirca, Simon; Stepanyan, Stepan; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tang, Liguang; Tobias, William; Urciuoli, Guido; Vilardi, Ignazio; Wang, Kebin; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Z; Yuan, Lulin; Zhan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, Bo; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zong, Xing

    2014-07-01

    We report the first measurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in deep-inelastic scattering from the inclusive reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X on a 3He gas target polarized normal to the lepton plane. Assuming time-reversal invariance, this asymmetry is strictly zero in the Born approximation. The experiment, conducted at Jefferson Lab using a 5.89 GeV electron beam, covers a range of 1.72 GeV, which is non-zero at the 2.75sigma level. Theoretical calculations, which assume two-photon exchange with quasi-free quarks, predict a neutron asymmetry of O(10−4) when both photons couple to one quark, and O(10−2) for the photons coupling to different quarks. Our measured asymmetry agrees both in sign and magnitude with the prediction that uses input based on the Sivers transverse momentum distribution obtained from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  5. Point-contact spectroscopic studies on normal and superconducting AFe2As2-type iron pnictide single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xin; Park, W K; Greene, L H; Yuan, H Q; Chen, G F; Luo, G L; Wang, N L; Sefat, A S; McGuire, M A; Jin, R; Sales, B C; Mandrus, D; Gillett, J; Sebastian, Suchitra E

    2010-01-01

    Point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy is applied to investigate the gap structure in iron pnictide single-crystal superconductors of the AFe 2 As 2 (A = Ba, Sr) family ('Fe-122'). The observed point-contact junction conductance curves, G(V), can be divided into two categories: one where Andreev reflection is present for both (Ba 0.6 K 0.4 )Fe 2 As 2 and Ba(Fe 0.9 Co 0.1 ) 2 As 2 , and the other with a V 2/3 background conductance universally observed, extending even up to 100 meV for Sr 0.6 Na 0.4 Fe 2 As 2 and Sr(Fe 0.9 Co 0.1 ) 2 As 2 . The latter is also observed in point-contact junctions on the nonsuperconducting parent compound BaFe 2 As 2 and superconducting (Ba 0.6 K 0.4 )Fe 2 As 2 crystals. Mesoscopic phase-separated coexistence of magnetic and superconducting orders is considered to explain distinct behaviors in the superconducting samples. For Ba 0.6 K 0.4 Fe 2 As 2 , double peaks due to Andreev reflection with a strongly sloping background are frequently observed for point contacts on freshly cleaved c-axis surfaces. If normalized using a background baseline and analyzed using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model, the data show a gap size of ∼ 3.0-4.0 meV with 2Δ 0 /k B T c ∼ 2.0-2.6, consistent with the smaller gap size reported for the LnFeAsO family ('Fe-1111'). For the Ba(Fe 0.9 Co 0.1 ) 2 As 2 , the G(V) curves typically display a zero-bias conductance peak.

  6. How to resolve microsecond current fluctuations in single ion channels: The power of beta distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A main ingredient for the understanding of structure/function correlates of ion channels is the quantitative description of single-channel gating and conductance. However, a wealth of information provided from fast current fluctuations beyond the temporal resolution of the recording system is often ignored, even though it is close to the time window accessible to molecular dynamics simulations. This kind of current fluctuations provide a special technical challenge, because individual opening/closing or blocking/unblocking events cannot be resolved, and the resulting averaging over undetected events decreases the single-channel current. Here, I briefly summarize the history of fast-current fluctuation analysis and focus on the so-called “beta distributions.” This tool exploits characteristics of current fluctuation-induced excess noise on the current amplitude histograms to reconstruct the true single-channel current and kinetic parameters. A guideline for the analysis and recent applications demonstrate that a construction of theoretical beta distributions by Markov Model simulations offers maximum flexibility as compared to analytical solutions. PMID:26368656

  7. An Analytical Method for Determining the Load Distribution of Single-Column Multibolt Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirut Konkong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of geometric variables on the bolt load distributions of a cold-formed steel bolt connection. The study was conducted using an experimental test, finite element analysis, and an analytical method. The experimental study was performed using single-lap shear testing of a concentrically loaded bolt connection fabricated from G550 cold-formed steel. Finite element analysis with shell elements was used to model the cold-formed steel plate while solid elements were used to model the bolt fastener for the purpose of studying the structural behavior of the bolt connections. Material nonlinearities, contact problems, and a geometric nonlinearity procedure were used to predict the failure behavior of the bolt connections. The analytical method was generated using the spring model. The bolt-plate interaction stiffness was newly proposed which was verified by the experiment and finite element model. It was applied to examine the effect of geometric variables on the single-column multibolt connection. The effects were studied of varying bolt diameter, plate thickness, and the plate thickness ratio (t2/t1 on the bolt load distribution. The results of the parametric study showed that the t2/t1 ratio controlled the efficiency of the bolt load distribution more than the other parameters studied.

  8. Correlations between clinical normal tissue radiosensitivity and single nucleotide polymorphisms in ATM, XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX, SOD2, and TGF-B1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsner, Jan; Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Overgaard, Marie

    in biological pathways suspected to underlie phenotypes of interest. These variants can be either common alterations like single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs, or rare variants in potential susceptibility loci like ATM. In parallel, we are using microarray analysis on normal fibroblasts isolated from patients...

  9. Fluid Distribution Pattern in Adult-Onset Congenital, Idiopathic, and Secondary Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus: Implications for Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    In spite of growing evidence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), a viewpoint about clinical care for idiopathic NPH is still controversial. A continuous divergence of viewpoints might be due to confusing classifications of idiopathic and adult-onset congenital NPH. To elucidate the classification of NPH, we propose that adult-onset congenital NPH should be explicitly distinguished from idiopathic and secondary NPH. On the basis of conventional CT scan or MRI, idiopathic NPH was defined as narrow sulci at the high convexity in concurrent with enlargement of the ventricles, basal cistern and Sylvian fissure, whereas adult-onset congenital NPH was defined as huge ventricles without high-convexity tightness. We compared clinical characteristics and cerebrospinal fluid distribution among 85 patients diagnosed with idiopathic NPH, 17 patients with secondary NPH, and 7 patients with adult-onset congenital NPH. All patients underwent 3-T MRI examinations and tap-tests. The volumes of ventricles and subarachnoid spaces were measured using a 3D workstation based on T2-weighted 3D sequences. The mean intracranial volume for the patients with adult-onset congenital NPH was almost 100 mL larger than the volumes for patients with idiopathic and secondary NPH. Compared with the patients with idiopathic or secondary NPH, patients with adult-onset congenital NPH exhibited larger ventricles but normal sized subarachnoid spaces. The mean volume ratio of the high-convexity subarachnoid space was significantly less in idiopathic NPH than in adult-onset congenital NPH, whereas the mean volume ratio of the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure in idiopathic NPH was >2 times larger than that in adult-onset congenital NPH. The symptoms of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence in patients with adult-onset congenital NPH tended to progress more slowly compared to their progress in patients with idiopathic NPH. Cerebrospinal fluid distributions and

  10. Single phase inverter for a three phase power generation and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindena, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A breadboard design of a single-phase inverter with sinusoidal output voltage for a three-phase power generation and distribution system was developed. The three-phase system consists of three single-phase inverters, whose output voltages are connected in a delta configuration. Upon failure of one inverter the two remaining inverters will continue to deliver three-phase power. Parallel redundancy as offered by two three-phase inverters is substituted by one three-phase inverter assembly with high savings in volume, weight, components count and complexity, and a considerable increase in reliability. The following requirements must be met: (1) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of being synchronized to a three-phase reference system such that its output voltage remains phaselocked to its respective reference voltage. (2) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of accepting leading and lagging power factors over a range from -0.7 through 1 to +0.7.

  11. The dose dependency of the over-dispersion of quartz OSL single grain dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Kristina J.; Murray, Andrew; Jain, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    The use of single grain quartz OSL dating has become widespread over the past decade, particularly with application to samples likely to have been incompletely bleached before burial. By reducing the aliquot size to a single grain the probability of identifying the grain population most likely to have been well-bleached at deposition is maximised and thus the accuracy with which the equivalent dose can be determined is – at least in principle – improved. However, analysis of single grain dose distributions requires knowledge of the dispersion of the well-bleached part of the dose distribution. This can be estimated by measurement of a suitable analogue, e.g. a well-bleached aeolian sample, but this requires such an analogue to be available, and in addition the assumptions that the sample is in fact a) well-bleached, and b) has a similar dose rate heterogeneity to the fossil deposit. Finally, it is an implicit assumption in such analysis that any over-dispersion is not significantly dose dependent. In this study we have undertaken laboratory investigations of the dose dependency of over-dispersion using a well-bleached modern sample with an average measured dose of 36 ± 3 mGy. This sample was prepared as heated (750 °C for 1 h), bleached and untreated portions which were then given uniform gamma doses ranging from 100 mGy to 208 Gy. We show that for these samples the relative laboratory over-dispersion is not constant as a function of dose and that the over-dispersion is smaller in heated samples. We also show that the dim grains in the distributions have a greater over-dispersion than the bright grains, implying that insensitive samples will have greater values of over-dispersion than sensitive samples.

  12. Single- versus dual-process models of lexical decision performance: insights from response time distributional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J; Balota, David A; Cortese, Michael J; Watson, Jason M

    2006-12-01

    This article evaluates 2 competing models that address the decision-making processes mediating word recognition and lexical decision performance: a hybrid 2-stage model of lexical decision performance and a random-walk model. In 2 experiments, nonword type and word frequency were manipulated across 2 contrasts (pseudohomophone-legal nonword and legal-illegal nonword). When nonwords became more wordlike (i.e., BRNTA vs. BRANT vs. BRANE), response latencies to nonwords were slowed and the word frequency effect increased. More important, distributional analyses revealed that the Nonword Type = Word Frequency interaction was modulated by different components of the response time distribution, depending on the specific nonword contrast. A single-process random-walk model was able to account for this particular set of findings more successfully than the hybrid 2-stage model. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Spectroscopic study of the diameter distribution of B-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Soria, G.; Pichler, T.; Ayala, P. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Daothong, S. [Chiang Mai University, Faculty of Science, 50200 Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we report on the diameter distribution of boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes grown from triethyl borate with high vacuum chemical vapor deposition, using multi-frequency Raman resonance spectroscopy. The nanotube yield is higher than in previously reported material produced with the same method. Our results suggest that the amount of as-grown material and the range of diameters are directly correlated with feedstock used in the synthesis. The I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio shows that the morphology of the samples is critically affected by the temperature. The population of diameters in the optimal conditions shows a Poisson distribution with a mean value at {proportional_to}1.15 nm. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Single-Particle Momentum Distributions of Efimov States in Mixed-Species Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Yamashita, M.; F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.

    2013-01-01

    to derive formulas for the scaling factor of the Efimov spectrum for any mass ratio assuming either that two or three of the two-body subsystems have a bound state at zero energy. We consider the single-particle momentum distribution analytically and numerically and analyse the tail of the momentum......We solve the three-body bound state problem in three dimensions for mass imbalanced systems of two identical bosons and a third particle in the universal limit where the interactions are assumed to be of zero-range. The system displays the Efimov effect and we use the momentum-space wave equation...... distribution to obtain the three-body contact parameter. Our finding demonstrate that the functional form of the three-body contact term depends on the mass ratio and we obtain an analytic expression for this behavior. To exemplify our results, we consider mixtures of Lithium with either two Caesium or Rubium...

  15. Neutron and PIMC determination of the longitudinal momentum distribution of HCP, BCC and normal liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasdell, R.C.; Ceperley, D.M.; Simmons, R.O.

    1993-07-01

    Deep inelastic neutron scattering has been used to measure the neutron Compton profile (NCP) of a series of condensed 4 He samples at densities from 28.8 atoms/nm 3 (essentially the minimum possible density in the solid phase) up to 39.8 atoms/nm 3 using a chopper spectrometer at the Argonne National Laboratory Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. At the lowest density, the NCP was measured along an isochore through the hcp, bcc, and normal liquid phases. Average atomic kinetic energies are extracted from each of the data sets and are compared to both published and new path integral Monte-Carlo (PIMC) calculations as well as other theoretical predictions. In this preliminary analysis of the data, account is taken of the effects of instrumental resolution, multiple scattering, and final-state interactions. Both our measurements and the PIMC theory show that there are only small differences in the kinetic energy and longitudinal momentum distribution of isochoric helium samples, regardless of their phase or crystal structure

  16. Uncertainty analysis of the radiological characteristics of radioactive waste using a method based on log-normal distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigase, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainty on characteristics of radioactive LILW waste packages is difficult to determine and often very large. This results from a lack of knowledge of the constitution of the waste package and of the composition of the radioactive sources inside. To calculate a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty on a characteristic of a waste package one has to combine these various uncertainties. This paper discusses an approach to this problem, based on the use of the log-normal distribution, which is both elegant and easy to use. It can provide as example quantitative estimates of uncertainty intervals that 'make sense'. The purpose is to develop a pragmatic approach that can be integrated into existing characterization methods. In this paper we show how our method can be applied to the scaling factor method. We also explain how it can be used when estimating other more complex characteristics such as the total uncertainty of a collection of waste packages. This method could have applications in radioactive waste management, more in particular in those decision processes where the uncertainty on the amount of activity is considered to be important such as in probability risk assessment or the definition of criteria for acceptance or categorization. (author)

  17. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies and prostatic tissue distribution of fosfomycin tromethamine in bacterial prostatitis or normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; Shang, X; Zhu, J; Ma, B; Zhang, Q

    2018-05-02

    In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effects of fosfomycin tromethamine (FT) in a bacterial prostatitis (BP) rat model. The BP model was induced by Escherichia coli and was demonstrated after 7 days microbiologically and histologically. Then, 25 BP rats selected were randomly divided into five treatment groups: model group, positive group, FT-3 day group, FT-7 day group and FT-14 day group. Ventral lobes of prostate from all animals were removed, and the serum samples were collected at the end of the experiments. Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in FT-treatment groups compared with the model group, indicating that FT against prostatic infection induced by E. coli showed good antibacterial effects. Moreover, plasma pharmacokinetics and prostatic distribution of fosfomycin were studied and compared in BP and normal rats. The concentrations of fosfomycin in samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. There were no differences in plasma pharmacokinetic parameters between two groups. But significantly higher penetration of fosfomycin into prostatic tissues was found in BP rats. We therefore suggested that FT had a good therapeutic effect on BP and it might be used in curing masculine reproductive system diseases. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Comparative pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Wang, Chang-Hong; Tao, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-10-10

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is a herbal product for the treatment of liver fibrosis approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), but its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution had not been investigated. In this study, the liver fibrotic model was induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and FZHY was given orally to the model and normal rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components from FZHY were analyzed in the normal and fibrotic rat groups using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. Results revealed that the bioavailabilities of danshensu (DSS), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (ROS) in liver fibrotic rats increased 1.49, 3.31 and 2.37-fold, respectively, compared to normal rats. There was no obvious difference in the pharmacokinetics of amygdalin (AMY) between the normal and fibrotic rats. The tissue distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY trended to be mostly in the kidney and lung. The distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY in liver tissue of the model rats was significantly decreased compared to the normal rats. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of DSS, ROS, SAB and AMY were observed in rats with hepatic fibrosis after oral administration of FZHY. These results provide a meaningful basis for developing a clinical dosage regimen in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis by FZHY. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in Korean soils determined by single and sequential extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Ahn, Byung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of thallium in soils collected near suspected areas such as cement plants, active and closed mines, and smelters and to examine the extraction of thallium in the soils using 19 single chemical and sequential chemical extraction procedures. Thallium concentrations in soils near cement plants were distributed between 1.20 and 12.91 mg kg(-1). However, soils near mines and smelters contained relatively low thallium concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1.09 mg kg(-1). Thallium extractability with 19 single chemical extractants from selected soils near cement plants ranged from 0.10% to 8.20% of the total thallium concentration. In particular, 1.0 M NH4Cl, 1.0 M (NH4)2SO4, and 1.0 M CH3COONH4 extracted more thallium than other extractants. Sequential fractionation results of thallium from different soils such as industrially and artificially contaminated soils varied with the soil properties, especially soil pH and the duration of thallium contamination.

  20. Generalization of the normal-exponential model: exploration of a more accurate parametrisation for the signal distribution on Illumina BeadArrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancade, Sandra; Rozenholc, Yves; Lund, Eiliv

    2012-12-11

    Illumina BeadArray technology includes non specific negative control features that allow a precise estimation of the background noise. As an alternative to the background subtraction proposed in BeadStudio which leads to an important loss of information by generating negative values, a background correction method modeling the observed intensities as the sum of the exponentially distributed signal and normally distributed noise has been developed. Nevertheless, Wang and Ye (2012) display a kernel-based estimator of the signal distribution on Illumina BeadArrays and suggest that a gamma distribution would represent a better modeling of the signal density. Hence, the normal-exponential modeling may not be appropriate for Illumina data and background corrections derived from this model may lead to wrong estimation. We propose a more flexible modeling based on a gamma distributed signal and a normal distributed background noise and develop the associated background correction, implemented in the R-package NormalGamma. Our model proves to be markedly more accurate to model Illumina BeadArrays: on the one hand, it is shown on two types of Illumina BeadChips that this model offers a more correct fit of the observed intensities. On the other hand, the comparison of the operating characteristics of several background correction procedures on spike-in and on normal-gamma simulated data shows high similarities, reinforcing the validation of the normal-gamma modeling. The performance of the background corrections based on the normal-gamma and normal-exponential models are compared on two dilution data sets, through testing procedures which represent various experimental designs. Surprisingly, we observe that the implementation of a more accurate parametrisation in the model-based background correction does not increase the sensitivity. These results may be explained by the operating characteristics of the estimators: the normal-gamma background correction offers an improvement

  1. Temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of metallic Y-Ba-Cu-O single crystals in the normal phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljak, M.; Zlatic, V.; Kos, I.; Aviani, I.; Hamzic, A.; Collin, G.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy measurements of metallic Y-Ba-Cu-O compounds in the normal phase reveal a temperature-dependent diamagnetic component of the susceptibility that increases with decreasing temperature. The temperature variation of the susceptibility anisotropy and its total change do not seem to be much affected by the presence of the superconductivity at some lower temperature and could not be accounted for by superconducting fluctuations. Rather, the data remind one of the behavior of some quasi-two-dimensional metals with anisotropic Fermi surfaces, reflecting the properties of the low-energy excitations in the normal phase. The anisotropy measurements above the bulk superconducting transition temperature T c reveal the nonlinear effects, which are due to the onset of superconductivity in disconnected grains. The existence of a two-step transition, typical for granular superconductors, should be taken into consideration if the normal-phase susceptibility data are compared with the theoretical predictions in the vicinity of T c

  2. Multi-channel distributed coordinated function over single radio in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carlene E-A; Loo, Kok-Keong Jonathan; Gemikonakli, Orhan; Khan, Shafiullah; Singh, Dhananjay

    2011-01-01

    Multi-channel assignments are becoming the solution of choice to improve performance in single radio for wireless networks. Multi-channel allows wireless networks to assign different channels to different nodes in real-time transmission. In this paper, we propose a new approach, Multi-channel Distributed Coordinated Function (MC-DCF) which takes advantage of multi-channel assignment. The backoff algorithm of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) was modified to invoke channel switching, based on threshold criteria in order to improve the overall throughput for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) over 802.11 networks. We presented simulation experiments in order to investigate the characteristics of multi-channel communication in wireless sensor networks using an NS2 platform. Nodes only use a single radio and perform channel switching only after specified threshold is reached. Single radio can only work on one channel at any given time. All nodes initiate constant bit rate streams towards the receiving nodes. In this work, we studied the impact of non-overlapping channels in the 2.4 frequency band on: constant bit rate (CBR) streams, node density, source nodes sending data directly to sink and signal strength by varying distances between the sensor nodes and operating frequencies of the radios with different data rates. We showed that multi-channel enhancement using our proposed algorithm provides significant improvement in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio and delay. This technique can be considered for WSNs future use in 802.11 networks especially when the IEEE 802.11n becomes popular thereby may prevent the 802.15.4 network from operating effectively in the 2.4 GHz frequency band.

  3. Radical distributions in ammonium tartrate single crystals exposed to photon and neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrale, M.; Longo, A.; Brai, M.; Barbon, A.; Brustolon, M.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation therapy carried out by means of heavy charged particles (such as carbon ions) and neutrons is rapidly becoming widespread worldwide. The success of these radiation therapies relies on the high density of energy released by these particles or by secondary particles produced after primary interaction with matter. The biological damages produced by ionising radiations in tissues and cells depend more properly on the energy released per unit pathlength, which is the linear energy transfer and which determines the radiation quality. To improve the therapy effectiveness, it is necessary to grasp the mechanisms of free radical production and distribution after irradiation with these particles when compared with the photon beams. In this work some preliminary results on the analysis of the spatial distributions of the free radicals produced after exposure of ammonium tartrate crystals to various radiation beams ( 60 Co gamma photons and thermal neutrons) were reported. Electron spin resonance analyses were performed by the electron spin echo technique, which allows the determination of local spin concentrations and by double electron-electron resonance technique, which is able to measure the spatial distance distribution (range 1.5-8 nm) among pairs of radicals in solids. The results of these analyses are discussed on the basis of the different distributions of free radicals produced by the two different radiation beams used. This paper extends to the single crystal case, a similar work done on AT powder irradiated with different beams, with assessment of microscopic radical concentration by determining the amount of ID contribution and obtaining the inter-radical distance distributions by double microwave irradiation. In this paper single crystals of AT have been exposed to 60 Co photons and neutrons. The results confirm that advanced pulse EPR techniques allow the direct measurement of the local free radical concentration and provide information about the

  4. Single-photon semiconductor photodiodes for distributed optical fiber sensors: state of the art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Lacaita, Andrea L.

    1993-03-01

    The extreme sensitivity and time resolution of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM- APDs) have already been exploited for optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR). Better than 1 cm spatial resolution in Rayleigh scattering detection was demonstrated. Distributed and quasi-distributed optical fiber sensors can take advantage of the capabilities of GM-APDs. Extensive studies have recently disclosed the main characteristics and limitations of silicon devices, both commercially available and developmental. In this paper we report an analysis of the performance of these detectors. The main characteristics of GM-APDs of interest for distributed optical fiber sensors are briefly reviewed. Command electronics (active quenching) is then introduced. The detector timing performance sets the maximum spatial resolution in experiments employing OTDR techniques. We highlight that the achievable time resolution depends on the physics of the avalanche spreading over the device area. On the basis of these results, trade-off between the important parameters (quantum efficiency, time resolution, background noise, and afterpulsing effects) is considered. Finally, we show first results on Germanium devices, capable of single photon sensitivity at 1.3 and 1.5 micrometers with sub- nanosecond time resolution.

  5. Single-user MIMO versus multi-user MIMO in distributed antenna systems with limited feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Heath, Robert W.; Rupp, Markus

    2013-12-01

    This article investigates the performance of cellular networks employing distributed antennas in addition to the central antennas of the base station. Distributed antennas are likely to be implemented using remote radio units, which is enabled by a low latency and high bandwidth dedicated link to the base station. This facilitates coherent transmission from potentially all available antennas at the same time. Such distributed antenna system (DAS) is an effective way to deal with path loss and large-scale fading in cellular systems. DAS can apply precoding across multiple transmission points to implement single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO) and multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) transmission. The throughput performance of various SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO transmission strategies is investigated in this article, employing a Long-Term evolution (LTE) standard compliant simulation framework. The previously theoretically established cell-capacity improvement of MU-MIMO in comparison to SU-MIMO in DASs is confirmed under the practical constraints imposed by the LTE standard, even under the assumption of imperfect channel state information (CSI) at the base station. Because practical systems will use quantized feedback, the performance of different CSI feedback algorithms for DASs is investigated. It is shown that significant gains in the CSI quantization accuracy and in the throughput of especially MU-MIMO systems can be achieved with relatively simple quantization codebook constructions that exploit the available temporal correlation and channel gain differences.

  6. Boosting up quantum key distribution by learning statistics of practical single-photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Yoritoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple quantum-key-distribution (QKD) scheme for practical single-photon sources (SPSs), which works even with a moderate suppression of the second-order correlation g (2) of the source. The scheme utilizes a passive preparation of a decoy state by monitoring a fraction of the signal via an additional beam splitter and a detector at the sender's side to monitor photon-number splitting attacks. We show that the achievable distance increases with the precision with which the sub-Poissonian tendency is confirmed in higher photon-number distribution of the source, rather than with actual suppression of the multiphoton emission events. We present an example of the secure key generation rate in the case of a poor SPS with g (2) =0.19, in which no secure key is produced with the conventional QKD scheme, and show that learning the photon-number distribution up to several numbers is sufficient for achieving almost the same distance as that of an ideal SPS.

  7. Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to fungicide resistance and implications for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heyden, H; Dutilleul, P; Brodeur, L; Carisse, O

    2014-06-01

    Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to fungicide resistance was studied for Botrytis cinerea populations in vineyards and for B. squamosa populations in onion fields. Heterogeneity in this distribution was characterized by performing geostatistical analyses based on semivariograms and through the fitting of discrete probability distributions. Two SNPs known to be responsible for boscalid resistance (H272R and H272Y), both located on the B subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase gene, and one SNP known to be responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S) were chosen for B. cinerea in grape. For B. squamosa in onion, one SNP responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S homologous) was chosen. One onion field was sampled in 2009 and another one was sampled in 2010 for B. squamosa, and two vineyards were sampled in 2011 for B. cinerea, for a total of four sampled sites. Cluster sampling was carried on a 10-by-10 grid, each of the 100 nodes being the center of a 10-by-10-m quadrat. In each quadrat, 10 samples were collected and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or allele specific PCR. Mean SNP incidence varied from 16 to 68%, with an overall mean incidence of 43%. In the geostatistical analyses, omnidirectional variograms showed spatial autocorrelation characterized by ranges of 21 to 1 m. Various levels of anisotropy were detected, however, with variograms computed in four directions (at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° from the within-row direction used as reference), indicating that spatial autocorrelation was prevalent or characterized by a longer range in one direction. For all eight data sets, the β-binomial distribution was found to fit the data better than the binomial distribution. This indicates local aggregation of fungicide resistance among sampling units, as supported by estimates of the parameter θ of the β-binomial distribution of 0.09 to 0.23 (overall median value = 0

  8. MRI ductography of contrast agent distribution and leakage in normal mouse mammary ducts and ducts with in situ cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Conzen, Suzanne D; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2017-07-01

    High resolution 3D MRI was used to study contrast agent distribution and leakage in normal mouse mammary glands and glands containing in situ cancer after intra-ductal injection. Five female FVB/N mice (~19weeks old) with no detectable mammary cancer and eight C3(1) SV40 Tag virgin female mice (~15weeks old) with extensive in situ cancer were studied. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25μL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple and approximately 15μL of a Gadodiamide was injected slowly over 1min into the nipple and throughout the duct on one side of the inguinal gland. Following injection, the mouse was placed in a 9.4T MRI scanner, and a series of high resolution 3D T1-weighted images was acquired with a temporal resolution of 9.1min to follow contrast agent leakage from the ducts. The first image was acquired at about 12min after injection. Ductal enhancement regions detected in images acquired between 12 and 21min after contrast agent injection was five times smaller in SV40 mouse mammary ducts (pcontrast agent from the SV40 ducts. The contrast agent washout rate measured between 12min and 90min after injection was ~20% faster (p<0.004) in SV40 mammary ducts than in FVB/N mammary ducts. These results may be due to higher permeability of the SV40 ducts, likely due to the presence of in situ cancers. Therefore, increased permeability of ducts may indicate early stage breast cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. GaSb-based single-mode distributed feedback lasers for sensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, James A.; Bezinger, Andrew; Lapointe, Jean; Poitras, Daniel; Aers, Geof C.

    2017-02-01

    GaSb-based tunable single-mode diode lasers can enable rapid, highly-selective and highly-sensitive absorption spectroscopy systems for gas sensing. In this work, single-mode distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes were developed for the detection of various trace gases in the 2-3.3um range, including CO2, CO, HF, H2S, H2O and CH4. The lasers were fabricated using an index-coupled grating process without epitaxial regrowth, making the process significantly less expensive than conventional DFB fabrication. The devices are based on InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb separate confinement heterostructures grown on GaSb by molecular beam epitaxy. DFB lasers were produced using a two step etch process. Narrow ridge waveguides were first defined by optical lithography and etched into the semiconductor. Lateral gratings were then defined on both sides of the ridge using electron-beam lithography and etched to produce the index-grating. Effective index modeling was used to optimize the ridge width, etch depths and the grating pitch to ensure single-lateral-mode operation and adequate coupling strength. The effective index method was further used to simulate the DFB laser emission spectrum, based on a transfer matrix model for light transmission through the periodic structure. The fabricated lasers exhibit single-mode operation which is tunable through the absorption features of the various target gases by adjustment of the drive current. In addition to the established open-path sensing applications, these devices have great potential for optoelectronic integrated gas sensors, making use of integrated photodetectors and possibly on-chip Si photonics waveguide structures.

  10. CAN'T MISS--conquer any number task by making important statistics simple. Part 2. Probability, populations, samples, and normal distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John P

    2003-01-01

    Healthcare quality improvement professionals need to understand and use inferential statistics to interpret sample data from their organizations. In quality improvement and healthcare research studies all the data from a population often are not available, so investigators take samples and make inferences about the population by using inferential statistics. This three-part series will give readers an understanding of the concepts of inferential statistics as well as the specific tools for calculating confidence intervals for samples of data. This article, Part 2, describes probability, populations, and samples. The uses of descriptive and inferential statistics are outlined. The article also discusses the properties and probability of normal distributions, including the standard normal distribution.

  11. Normal bone and soft tissue distribution of fluorine-18-sodium fluoride and artifacts on 18F-NaF PET/CT bone scan: a pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ismet; Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Sarikaya, Ali; Alfeeli, Mahmoud

    2017-10-01

    Fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) PET/CT is a relatively new and high-resolution bone imaging modality. Since the use of F-NaF PET/CT has been increasing, it is important to accurately assess the images and be aware of normal distribution and major artifacts. In this pictorial review article, we will describe the normal uptake patterns of F-NaF in the bone tissues, particularly in complex structures, as well as its physiologic soft tissue distribution and certain artifacts seen on F-NaF PET/CT images.

  12. Security of a single-state semi-quantum key distribution protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2018-06-01

    Semi-quantum key distribution protocols are allowed to set up a secure secret key between two users. Compared with their full quantum counterparts, one of the two users is restricted to perform some "classical" or "semi-quantum" operations, which potentially makes them easily realizable by using less quantum resource. However, the semi-quantum key distribution protocols mainly rely on a two-way quantum channel. The eavesdropper has two opportunities to intercept the quantum states transmitted in the quantum communication stage. It may allow the eavesdropper to get more information and make the security analysis more complicated. In the past ten years, many semi-quantum key distribution protocols have been proposed and proved to be robust. However, there are few works concerning their unconditional security. It is doubted that how secure the semi-quantum ones are and how much noise they can tolerate to establish a secure secret key. In this paper, we prove the unconditional security of a single-state semi-quantum key distribution protocol proposed by Zou et al. (Phys Rev A 79:052312, 2009). We present a complete proof from information theory aspect by deriving a lower bound of the protocol's key rate in the asymptotic scenario. Using this bound, we figure out an error threshold value such that for all error rates that are less than this threshold value, the secure secret key can be established between the legitimate users definitely. Otherwise, the users should abort the protocol. We make an illustration of the protocol under the circumstance that the reverse quantum channel is a depolarizing one with parameter q. Additionally, we compare the error threshold value with some full quantum protocols and several existing semi-quantum ones whose unconditional security proofs have been provided recently.

  13. Design optimization of the distributed modal filtering rod fiber for increasing single mode bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Laurila, Marko

    2012-01-01

    . Large preform tolerances are compensated during the fiber draw resulting in ultra low NA fibers with very large cores. In this paper, design optimization of the SM bandwidth of the DMF rod fiber is presented. Analysis of band gap properties results in a fourfold increase of the SM bandwidth compared...... LMA fiber amplifiers having high pump absorption through a pump cladding that is decoupled from the outer fiber. However, achieving ultra low NA for single-mode (SM) guidance is challenging, and thus different design strategies must be applied to filter out higher order modes (HOMs). The novel...... distributed modal filtering (DMF) design presented here enables SM guidance, and previous results have shown a SM mode field diameter of 60 μm operating in a 20 nm SM bandwidth. The DMF rod fiber has high index ring-shaped inclusions acting as resonators enabling SM guidance through modal filtering of HOMs...

  14. Theoretical Analysis of Stress Distribution in Bonded Single Strap and Stiffened Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Ghoddous

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, distribution of peeling stress in two types of adhesively-bonded joints is investigated. The joints are a single strap and a stiffened joint. Theses joints are under uniform tensile load and materials are assumed orthotropic. Layers can be identical or different in mechanical or geometrical properties. A two-dimensional elasticity theory that includes the complete stress-strain and the complete strain-displacement relations for adhesive and adherends is used in this analysis. The displacement is assumed to be linear in the adhesive layer. A set of differential equations was derived and solved by using appropriate boundary conditions. Results revealed that the peak peeling stress developed within the adhesive layer is a function of geometrical and mechanical properties. FEM solution is used as the second method to verify the analytical results. A good agreement is observed between analytical and FEM solutions.

  15. Reference-Frame-Independent and Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Using One Single Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Wei, Kejin; Pei, Changxing

    2018-04-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all detector side-channel attacks. However, practical implementations of MDI-QKD, which require two-photon interferences from separated independent single-photon sources and a nontrivial reference alignment procedure, are still challenging with current technologies. Here, we propose a scheme that significantly reduces the experimental complexity of two-photon interferences and eliminates reference frame alignment by the combination of plug-and-play and reference frame independent MDI-QKD. Simulation results show that the secure communication distance can be up to 219 km in the finite-data case and the scheme has good potential for practical MDI-QKD systems.

  16. Stable Single-Mode Operation of Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser by Optimized Reflectivity Facet Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Cheng, Feng-Min; Zhao, Yue; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Shu-Man; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2018-02-01

    In this work, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on strain compensation combined with two-phonon resonance design are presented. Distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at 4.76 μm was fabricated through a standard buried first-order grating and buried heterostructure (BH) processing. Stable single-mode emission is achieved under all injection currents and temperature conditions without any mode hop by the optimized antireflection (AR) coating on the front facet. The AR coating consists of a double layer dielectric of Al2O3 and Ge. For a 2-mm laser cavity, the maximum output power of the AR-coated DFB-QCL was more than 170 mW at 20 °C with a high wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of 4.7% in a continuous-wave (CW) mode.

  17. Subcellular distribution of glycogen and decreased tetanic Ca2+ in fatigued single intact mouse muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Cheng, Arthur J; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In skeletal muscle fibres, glycogen has been shown to be stored at different subcellular locations: (i) between the myofibrils (intermyofibrillar); (ii) within the myofibrils (intramyofibrillar); and (iii) subsarcolemmal. Of these, intramyofibrillar glycogen has been implied as a critical regulator...... of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. The aim of the present study was to test directly how the decrease in cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) during repeated tetanic contractions relates to the subcellular glycogen distribution. Single fibres of mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscles were fatigued with 70 Hz...... in tetanic [Ca(2+)]i, and hence force, is accompanied by major reductions in inter- and intramyofibrillar glycogen. The stronger correlation between decreased tetanic [Ca(2+)]i and reduced intramyofibrillar glycogen implies that sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release critically depends on energy supply from...

  18. Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Dortu, Fabian; Schrevens, Olivier; Giannone, Domenico; Bouville, David; Cassan, Eric; Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Sohlström, Hans; Sanchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Hill, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present an efficient and highly alignment-tolerant light coupling and distribution system for a multichannel Si3N4/SiO2 single-mode photonics sensing chip. The design of the input and output couplers and the distribution splitters is discussed. Examples of multichannel data obtained with the system are given.

  19. Ultra-thin distributed Bragg reflectors via stacked single-crystal silicon nanomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Minkyu; Seo, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jaeseong; Mi, Hongyi; Kim, Munho; Ma, Zhenqiang, E-mail: mazq@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zhao, Deyin; Zhou, Weidong [Nanophotonics Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States); Yin, Xin; Wang, Xudong [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, we report ultra-thin distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) via stacked single-crystal silicon (Si) nanomembranes (NMs). Mesh hole-free single-crystal Si NMs were released from a Si-on-insulator substrate and transferred to quartz and Si substrates. Thermal oxidation was applied to the transferred Si NM to form high-quality SiO{sub 2} and thus a Si/SiO{sub 2} pair with uniform and precisely controlled thicknesses. The Si/SiO{sub 2} layers, as smooth as epitaxial grown layers, minimize scattering loss at the interface and in between the layers. As a result, a reflection of 99.8% at the wavelength range from 1350 nm to 1650 nm can be measured from a 2.5-pair DBR on a quartz substrate and 3-pair DBR on a Si substrate with thickness of 0.87 μm and 1.14 μm, respectively. The high reflection, ultra-thin DBRs developed here, which can be applied to almost any devices and materials, holds potential for application in high performance optoelectronic devices and photonics applications.

  20. Accuracy and uncertainty analysis of soil Bbf spatial distribution estimation at a coking plant-contaminated site based on normalization geostatistical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin

    2015-12-01

    Data distribution is usually skewed severely by the presence of hot spots in contaminated sites. This causes difficulties for accurate geostatistical data transformation. Three types of typical normal distribution transformation methods termed the normal score, Johnson, and Box-Cox transformations were applied to compare the effects of spatial interpolation with normal distribution transformation data of benzo(b)fluoranthene in a large-scale coking plant-contaminated site in north China. Three normal transformation methods decreased the skewness and kurtosis of the benzo(b)fluoranthene, and all the transformed data passed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test threshold. Cross validation showed that Johnson ordinary kriging has a minimum root-mean-square error of 1.17 and a mean error of 0.19, which was more accurate than the other two models. The area with fewer sampling points and that with high levels of contamination showed the largest prediction standard errors based on the Johnson ordinary kriging prediction map. We introduce an ideal normal transformation method prior to geostatistical estimation for severely skewed data, which enhances the reliability of risk estimation and improves the accuracy for determination of remediation boundaries.

  1. Distribution and clearance of PEG-single-walled carbon nanotube cancer drug delivery vehicles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhirde, Ashwin A; Patel, Sachin; Sousa, Alioscka A; Patel, Vyomesh; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Ji, Youngmi; Leapman, Richard D; Gutkind, J Silvio; Rusling, James F

    2010-12-01

    To study the distribution and clearance of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNTs) as drug delivery vehicles for the anticancer drug cisplatin in mice. PEG layers were attached to SWCNTs and dispersed in aqueous media and characterized using dynamic light scattering, scanning transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity was assessed in vitro using Annexin-V assay, and the distribution and clearance pathways in mice were studied by histological staining and Raman spectroscopy. Efficacy of PEG-SWCNT-cisplatin for tumor growth inhibition was studied in mice. PEG-SWCNTs were efficiently dispersed in aqueous media compared with controls, and did not induce apoptosis in vitro. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Raman bands for SWCNTs in tissues from several vital organs from mice injected intravenously with nanotube bioconjugates revealed that control SWCNTs were lodged in lung tissue as large aggregates compared with the PEG-SWCNTs, which showed little or no accumulation. Characteristic SWCNT Raman bands in feces revealed the presence of bilary or renal excretion routes. Attachment of cisplatin on bioconjugates was visualized with Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy. PEG-SWCNT-cisplatin with the attached targeting ligand EGF successfully inhibited growth of head and neck tumor xenografts in mice. PEG-SWCNTs, as opposed to control SWCNTs, form more highly dispersed delivery vehicles that, when loaded with both cisplatin and EGF, inhibit growth of squamous cell tumors.

  2. Tissue distribution and elimination of BDE 47 in mice following a single oral dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staskal, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Diliberto, J.; DeVito, M.; Birnbaum, L. [US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, RTP (United States)

    2004-09-15

    2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) is a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener which is part of a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) commonly used in a variety of highly flammable consumer goods. Concern for the effects of PBDEs has increased significantly in recent years as their presence has been detected in environmental samples and in human tissues at steadily increasing concentrations. Despite its small contribution to the PBDE global production and usage, BDE 47 is the major congener found in environmental samples and human tissue. Limited toxicology studies suggest that BDE 47 is a developmental neurotoxicant and an endocrine disruptor however, several data gaps exist and must be investigated in order to evaluate the human health risk of BDE 47. This study investigated basic toxicokinetic properties of BDE 47 in female C57BL/6J mice. Here we report the effect of time on the absorption, distribution, and excretion following a single, oral dose of 14C-labeled BDE 47. Animals were administered 1.0mg BDE 47/kg bw, a dose chosen based on previous studies. Distribution and elimination were monitored at several time points ranging from 1 hour to 21 days following exposure. Data from these basic toxicokinetic studies will be applied to studies investigating the toxicokinetics of BDE 47 in a developmental model as well as in the development of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model.

  3. Effects of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance on cerebral 18F-FDG distribution in cognitively normal older subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Airin; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Background Increasing plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance can alter the distribution pattern of fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the brain and relatively reduce 18F-FDG uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related hypometabolic regions, leading to the appearance of an AD-like pattern. However, its relationship with plasma insulin levels is unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images. Methods Fifty-nine cognitively normal older subjects (age = 75.7 ± 6.4 years) underwent 18F-FDG positron emission tomography along with measurement of plasma glucose and insulin levels. As an index of insulin resistance, the Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Results Plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels, and HOMA-IR were 102.2 ± 8.1 mg/dL, 4.1 ± 1.9 μU/mL, and 1.0 ± 0.5, respectively. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis showed a negative correlation of 18F-FDG uptake with plasma glucose levels in the precuneus and lateral parietotemporal regions (cluster-corrected p < 0.05), and no correlation with plasma insulin levels or HOMA-IR. In the significant cluster, 18F-FDG uptake decreased by approximately 4–5% when plasma glucose levels increased by 20 mg/dL. In the precuneus region, volume-of-interest analysis confirmed a negative correlation of 18F-FDG uptake with plasma glucose levels (r = -0.376, p = 0.002), and no correlation with plasma insulin levels (r = 0.156, p = 0.12) or HOMA-IR (r = 0.096, p = 0.24). Conclusion This study suggests that, of the three parameters, plasma glucose levels have the greatest effect on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images. PMID:28715453

  4. Effects of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance on cerebral 18F-FDG distribution in cognitively normal older subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ishibashi

    Full Text Available Increasing plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance can alter the distribution pattern of fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG in the brain and relatively reduce 18F-FDG uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD-related hypometabolic regions, leading to the appearance of an AD-like pattern. However, its relationship with plasma insulin levels is unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images.Fifty-nine cognitively normal older subjects (age = 75.7 ± 6.4 years underwent 18F-FDG positron emission tomography along with measurement of plasma glucose and insulin levels. As an index of insulin resistance, the Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated.Plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels, and HOMA-IR were 102.2 ± 8.1 mg/dL, 4.1 ± 1.9 μU/mL, and 1.0 ± 0.5, respectively. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis showed a negative correlation of 18F-FDG uptake with plasma glucose levels in the precuneus and lateral parietotemporal regions (cluster-corrected p < 0.05, and no correlation with plasma insulin levels or HOMA-IR. In the significant cluster, 18F-FDG uptake decreased by approximately 4-5% when plasma glucose levels increased by 20 mg/dL. In the precuneus region, volume-of-interest analysis confirmed a negative correlation of 18F-FDG uptake with plasma glucose levels (r = -0.376, p = 0.002, and no correlation with plasma insulin levels (r = 0.156, p = 0.12 or HOMA-IR (r = 0.096, p = 0.24.This study suggests that, of the three parameters, plasma glucose levels have the greatest effect on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images.

  5. Spin fluctuations in liquid 3He: a strong-coupling calculation of T/sub c/ and the normal-state distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, D.; Layzer, A.

    1975-01-01

    The Berk--Schrieffer method of strong-coupling superconductivity for nearly ferromagnetic systems is generalized to arbitrary L-state pairing and realistic (hard-core) potentials. Application to 3 He yields a P-state transition but very low values for T/sub c/ and an unsatisfactory normal-state momentum distribution

  6. Predicting the required number of training samples. [for remotely sensed image data based on covariance matrix estimate quality criterion of normal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayeh, H. M.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    A criterion which measures the quality of the estimate of the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal distribution is developed. Based on this criterion, the necessary number of training samples is predicted. Experimental results which are used as a guide for determining the number of training samples are included. Previously announced in STAR as N82-28109

  7. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after single intramuscular injection in Pacific white shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X; Zhou, J; Liu, X

    2018-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties and tissue distribution of enrofloxacin (EF) were investigated after single intramuscular (i.m.) dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) in Pacific white shrimp at 22 to 25°C. EF and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CF) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After i.m. administration, EF was absorbed quickly, and the peak of EF concentration (C max ) reached at first time point in hemolymph. The volume of distribution V d(area) of EF was 3.84 L/kg, indicating that the distribution of EF was good. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of EF was 90.1 and 274.2 μg hr/ml in muscle and hepatopancreas, respectively, which was higher than 75.8 μg hr/ml in hemolymph. The EF elimination was slow in muscle and hepatopancreas with the half-life (T 1/2β ) of 52.3 and 75.8 hr, respectively. CF, the mainly metabolite of EF, was detected in hemolymph, muscle and hepatopancreas. The C max was 0.030, 0.013 and 0.218 μg/ml, respectively. Based on a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.006-0.032 μg/ml for susceptible strains, EF i.m. injected at a dose 10 mg/kg could be efficacious against common pathogenic bacteria of Pacific white shrimp. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Single ionization of Ne, Ar and Kr by proton impact: Single differential distributions in energy and angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otranto, S [CONICET and Dto. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET and Universidad de Buenos Aires C1428EGA (Argentina); Olson, R E, E-mail: sotranto@uns.edu.a [Physics Department, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla MO 65409 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    In this work we present a theoretical study of singly differential cross sections in energy and angle for the single ionization of neon, argon and krypton by proton impact. Theoretical results obtained by means of the Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) model are compared to those provided by the First Born Approximation (FBA) and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method as well as to experimental data from several laboratories. We note in particular for argon, that the CDW-EIS model does not reproduce the experimental data as accurately as expected, while the CTMC instead is in very good agreement.

  9. Distribution pattern of urine albumin creatinine ratio and the prevalence of high-normal levels in untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmaru, Natsuki; Nakatsu, Takaaki; Izumi, Reishi; Mashima, Keiichi; Toki, Misako; Kobayashi, Asako; Ogawa, Hiroko; Hirohata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Satoru; Kusachi, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Even high-normal albuminuria is reportedly associated with cardiovascular events. We determined the urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in spot urine samples and analyzed the UACR distribution and the prevalence of high-normal levels. The UACR was determined using immunoturbidimetry in 332 untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic Japanese patients with hypertension and in 69 control subjects. The microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels were defined as a UCAR ≥30 and creatinine and a UCAR ≥300 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. The distribution patterns showed a highly skewed distribution for the lower levels, and a common logarithmic transformation produced a close fit to a Gaussian distribution with median, 25th and 75th percentile values of 22.6, 13.5 and 48.2 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. When a high-normal UACR was set at >20 to creatinine, 19.9% (66/332) of the hypertensive patients exhibited a high-normal UACR. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were observed in 36.1% (120/336) and 2.1% (7/332) of the patients, respectively. UACR was significantly correlated with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the pulse pressure. A stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that these pressures as well as age were independent factors that increased UACR. The UACR distribution exhibited a highly skewed pattern, with approximately 60% of untreated, non-diabetic hypertensive patients exhibiting a high-normal or larger UACR. Both hypertension and age are independent risk factors that increase the UACR. The present study indicated that a considerable percentage of patients require anti-hypertensive drugs with antiproteinuric effects at the start of treatment.

  10. Assessment of cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography in normal subjects and in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effects of region of interest selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J J [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands) Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Harskamp, F van [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Breteler, M M.B. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E P [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cammen, T.J.M. van der (Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Hofman, A [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Univ. Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hasan, D [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-10-01

    We compared three different ROIs in a SPET study with 60 controls and in 48 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed with SPET using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ([sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO), normalized to the mean activity in a cerebellar reference slice. The three different ROIs were: a multi-slice and a single-slice ROI with reference to the normal brain anatomy (using an anatomical atlas), and a rectangular (2x4 pixels) ROI in the frontal, temporal, temporoparietal and occipital cortices. No differences were observed for the means of rCBF values between the single-slice and multi-slice ROI's with reference to the normal anatomy, but some variability was present for individual comparisons. In contrast, significantly higher mean rCBF values were obtained with the single-slice rectangular ROIs in all four regions for both patients and controls and considerable variability was shown for individual subjects. After analysis with multivariate logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic curves, the ability of SPET to discriminate between controls and Alzheimer patients was similar in the three methods for mild and moderate Alzheimer patients (Global Deterioration Scale = GDS of 3 and 4). However, with increasing dementia severity (GDS>4) the rectangular ROIs showed lower ability to discriminate between groups compared to the single-slice and multi-slice anatomically defined ROIs. This study suggests that results of rCBF assessment with SPET using [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease are influenced by the shape and size of the ROI. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography in normal subjects and in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effects of region of interest selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Harskamp, F. van; Breteler, M.M.B.; Krenning, E.P.; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Hasan, D.

    1994-01-01

    We compared three different ROIs in a SPET study with 60 controls and in 48 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed with SPET using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO), normalized to the mean activity in a cerebellar reference slice. The three different ROIs were: a multi-slice and a single-slice ROI with reference to the normal brain anatomy (using an anatomical atlas), and a rectangular (2x4 pixels) ROI in the frontal, temporal, temporoparietal and occipital cortices. No differences were observed for the means of rCBF values between the single-slice and multi-slice ROI's with reference to the normal anatomy, but some variability was present for individual comparisons. In contrast, significantly higher mean rCBF values were obtained with the single-slice rectangular ROIs in all four regions for both patients and controls and considerable variability was shown for individual subjects. After analysis with multivariate logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic curves, the ability of SPET to discriminate between controls and Alzheimer patients was similar in the three methods for mild and moderate Alzheimer patients (Global Deterioration Scale = GDS of 3 and 4). However, with increasing dementia severity (GDS>4) the rectangular ROIs showed lower ability to discriminate between groups compared to the single-slice and multi-slice anatomically defined ROIs. This study suggests that results of rCBF assessment with SPET using 99m Tc-HMPAO in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease are influenced by the shape and size of the ROI. (orig.)

  12. mPeriod2 Brdm1 and other single Period mutant mice have normal food anticipatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S; Wendroth, Robert H; Stenner, Rio C; Keil, Charles D; Yamazaki, Shin

    2017-11-14

    Animals anticipate the timing of food availability via the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO). The anatomical location and timekeeping mechanism of the FEO are unknown. Several studies showed the circadian gene, Period 2, is critical for FEO timekeeping. However, other studies concluded that canonical circadian genes are not essential for FEO timekeeping. In this study, we re-examined the effects of the Per2 Brdm1 mutation on food entrainment using methods that have revealed robust food anticipatory activity in other mutant lines. We examined food anticipatory activity, which is the output of the FEO, in single Period mutant mice. Single Per1, Per2, and Per3 mutant mice had robust food anticipatory activity during restricted feeding. In addition, we found that two different lines of Per2 mutant mice (ldc and Brdm1) anticipated restricted food availability. To determine if FEO timekeeping persisted in the absence of the food cue, we assessed activity during fasting. Food anticipatory (wheel-running) activity in all Period mutant mice was also robust during food deprivation. Together, our studies demonstrate that the Period genes are not necessary for the expression of food anticipatory activity.

  13. Formation of DNA single-strand breaks by near-ultraviolet and gamma-rays in normal and Bloom's syndrome skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschi, M.; Netrawali, M.S.; Remsen, J.F.; Cerutti, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of single-strand breaks by near-ultraviolet light at 313 nm and by aerobic gamma-rays was compared for skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from 4 normal donors (NF) and 8 patients with Bloom's syndrome (BS) by the alkaline elution method. In 6 of 8 BS strains, the number of breaks induced by near-ultraviolet light, 2.25 kJ/sq m, at 0 degrees was comparable to NF, while elevated breakage was observed in BS strains HG 369 and HG 916. Breakage frequencies were increased substantially in 6 of 8 BS strains relative to NF when the near-ultraviolet light exposure was at 37 degrees. BS strain GM 2520 represents an exception since normal breakage frequencies were induced both at 0 degrees and 37 degrees. Aerobic gamma-rays (75 R) induced comparable numbers of single-strand breaks in BS and NF strains at 0 degrees. The breakage frequencies were reduced an average of 17% in NF when the same dose was given at 30 degrees followed by 6 min incubation. Under the same conditions, the breakage frequencies were on the average reduced by 42% relative to 0 degrees in the BS strains, indicating that they possess normal or possibly slightly increased capacities for the rejoining of gamma-ray-induced breaks

  14. Noncentral Chi-Square versus Normal Distributions in Describing the Likelihood Ratio Statistic: The Univariate Case and Its Multivariate Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2008-01-01

    In the literature of mean and covariance structure analysis, noncentral chi-square distribution is commonly used to describe the behavior of the likelihood ratio (LR) statistic under alternative hypothesis. Due to the inaccessibility of the rather technical literature for the distribution of the LR statistic, it is widely believed that the…

  15. A narrow-band k-distribution model with single mixture gas assumption for radiative flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Min; Kim, Jae Won; Kwon, Oh Joon

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, the narrow-band k-distribution (NBK) model parameters for mixtures of H2O, CO2, and CO are proposed by utilizing the line-by-line (LBL) calculations with a single mixture gas assumption. For the application of the NBK model to radiative flows, a radiative transfer equation (RTE) solver based on a finite-volume method on unstructured meshes was developed. The NBK model and the RTE solver were verified by solving two benchmark problems including the spectral radiance distribution emitted from one-dimensional slabs and the radiative heat transfer in a truncated conical enclosure. It was shown that the results are accurate and physically reliable by comparing with available data. To examine the applicability of the methods to realistic multi-dimensional problems in non-isothermal and non-homogeneous conditions, radiation in an axisymmetric combustion chamber was analyzed, and then the infrared signature emitted from an aircraft exhaust plume was predicted. For modeling the plume flow involving radiative cooling, a flow-radiation coupled procedure was devised in a loosely coupled manner by adopting a Navier-Stokes flow solver based on unstructured meshes. It was shown that the predicted radiative cooling for the combustion chamber is physically more accurate than other predictions, and is as accurate as that by the LBL calculations. It was found that the infrared signature of aircraft exhaust plume can also be obtained accurately, equivalent to the LBL calculations, by using the present narrow-band approach with a much improved numerical efficiency.

  16. The distribution of cerebral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in vivo in patients with dementia. A controlled study with 123IQNB and single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, D.R.; Gibson, R.; Coppola, R.; Jones, D.W.; Molchan, S.; Sunderland, T.; Berman, K.F.; Reba, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A high-affinity muscarinic receptor antagonist, 123IQNB (3-quinuclidinyl-4-iodobenzilate labeled with iodine 123), was used with single photon emission computed tomography to image muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in 14 patients with dementia and in 11 healthy controls. High-resolution single photon emission computed tomographic scanning was performed 21 hours after the intravenous administration of approximately 5 mCi of IQNB. In normal subjects, the images of retained ligand showed a consistent regional pattern that correlated with postmortem studies of the relative distribution of muscarinic receptors in the normal human brain, having high radioactivity counts in the basal ganglia, occipital cortex, and insular cortex, low counts in the thalamus, and virtually no counts in the cerebellum. Eight of 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease had obvious focal cortical defects in either frontal or posterior temporal cortex. Both patients with a clinical diagnosis of Pick's disease had obvious frontal and anterior temporal defects. A region of interest statistical analysis of relative regional activity revealed a significant reduction bilaterally in the posterior temporal cortex of the patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. This study demonstrates the practicability of acetylcholine receptor imaging with 123IQNB and single photon emission computed tomography. The data suggest that focal abnormalities in muscarinic binding in vivo may characterize some patients with Alzheimer's disease and Pick's disease, but further studies are needed to address questions about partial volume artifacts and receptor quantification

  17. Normal stress-only myocardial single photon emission computed tomography predicts good outcome in patients with coronary artery stenoses between 40 and 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhixin; Liu, Yangqing; Xin, Chaofan; Zhou, Yanli; Wang, Cheng; Zhao, Zhongqiang; Li, Chunxiang; Li, Dianfu

    2016-09-01

    Normal stress myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) usually indicates good physiologic function of all coronary lesions, and also indicates a good outcome. We hypothesize that it can still predict good outcome in patients with coronary stenoses between 40 and 70%. A group of patients who underwent stress myocardial SPECT after coronary angiography were consecutively recruited in our center. Patients were eligible if they had one or more coronary stenoses between 40 and 70%. Patients with coronary stenoses greater than 50% diameter of left main or greater than 70% diameter of nonleft main epicardial vessels, and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 50% were excluded. The outcome was defined as major adverse events, including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularization. Patients' survival curves were constructed accorded to the method of Kaplan and Meier and compared using the log-rank test. A study cohort of 77 patients was enrolled. According to the summed stress score, 43 patients were assigned to the perfusion defect group and 34 patients were assigned to the perfusion normal group. The follow-up duration was 6.4±0.3 years. In the perfusion normal group, only one of 34 (2.9%) patients developed major adverse events. In the perfusion defect group, six of 43 (14%) developed major adverse events, P-value of 0.041. It is safe to defer a percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with coronary stenoses between 40 and 70% and normal stress myocardial SPECT.

  18. Anatomic distribution of culprit lesions in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and normal ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Abdelmoniem; Abi-Saleh, Bernard; El-Baba, Mohammad; Hamoui, Omar; AlJaroudi, Wael

    2016-02-01

    In patients presenting with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and three-vessel disease are the most commonly encountered culprit lesions in the presence of ST depression, while one third of patients with left circumflex (LCX) artery related infarction have normal ECG. We sought to determine the predictors of presence of culprit lesion in NSTEMI patients based on ECG, echocardiographic, and clinical characteristics. Patients admitted to the coronary care unit with the diagnosis of NSTEMI between June 2012 and December 2013 were retrospectively identified. Admission ECG was interpreted by an electrophysiologist that was blinded to the result of the coronary angiogram. Patients were dichotomized into either normal or abnormal ECG group. The primary endpoint was presence of culprit lesion. Secondary endpoints included length of stay, re-hospitalization within 60 days, and in-hospital mortality. A total of 118 patients that were identified; 47 with normal and 71 with abnormal ECG. At least one culprit lesion was identified in 101 patients (86%), and significantly more among those with abnormal ECG (91.5% vs. 76.6%, P=0.041).The LAD was the most frequently detected culprit lesion in both groups. There was a higher incidence of two and three-vessel disease in the abnormal ECG group (P=0.041).On the other hand, there was a trend of higher LCX involvement (25% vs. 13.8%, P=0.18) and more normal coronary arteries in the normal ECG group (23.4% vs. 8.5%, P=0.041). On multivariate analysis, prior history of coronary artery disease (CAD) [odds ratio (OR) 6.4 (0.8-52)], male gender [OR 5.0 (1.5-17)], and abnormal admission ECG [OR 3.6 (1.12-12)], were independent predictors of a culprit lesion. There was no difference in secondary endpoints between those with normal and abnormal ECG. Among patients presenting with NSTEMI, prior history of CAD, male gender and abnormal admission ECG were independent predictors of a

  19. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases with Single-Isocenter VMAT: Optimizing Treatment Geometry to Reduce Normal Brain Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q; Snyder, K; Liu, C; Huang, Y; Li, H; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an optimization algorithm to reduce normal brain dose by optimizing couch and collimator angles for single isocenter multiple targets treatment of stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Three metastatic brain lesions were retrospectively planned using single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Three matrices were developed to calculate the projection of each lesion on Beam’s Eye View (BEV) by the rotating couch, collimator and gantry respectively. The island blocking problem was addressed by computing the total area of open space between any two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. The couch and collimator angles resulting in the smallest open areas were the optimized angles for each treatment arc. Two treatment plans with and without couch and collimator angle optimization were developed using the same objective functions and to achieve 99% of each target volume receiving full prescription dose of 18Gy. Plan quality was evaluated by calculating each target’s Conformity Index (CI), Gradient Index (GI), and Homogeneity index (HI), and absolute volume of normal brain V8Gy, V10Gy, V12Gy, and V14Gy. Results: Using the new couch/collimator optimization strategy, dose to normal brain tissue was reduced substantially. V8, V10, V12, and V14 decreased by 2.3%, 3.6%, 3.5%, and 6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the conformity index, gradient index, and homogeneity index between two treatment plans with and without the new optimization algorithm. Conclusion: We have developed a solution to the island blocking problem in delivering radiation to multiple brain metastases with shared isocenter. Significant reduction in dose to normal brain was achieved by using optimal couch and collimator angles that minimize total area of open space between any of the two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. This technique has been integrated into Eclipse treatment system using scripting API

  20. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases with Single-Isocenter VMAT: Optimizing Treatment Geometry to Reduce Normal Brain Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Snyder, K; Liu, C; Huang, Y; Li, H; Chetty, I; Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an optimization algorithm to reduce normal brain dose by optimizing couch and collimator angles for single isocenter multiple targets treatment of stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Three metastatic brain lesions were retrospectively planned using single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Three matrices were developed to calculate the projection of each lesion on Beam’s Eye View (BEV) by the rotating couch, collimator and gantry respectively. The island blocking problem was addressed by computing the total area of open space between any two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. The couch and collimator angles resulting in the smallest open areas were the optimized angles for each treatment arc. Two treatment plans with and without couch and collimator angle optimization were developed using the same objective functions and to achieve 99% of each target volume receiving full prescription dose of 18Gy. Plan quality was evaluated by calculating each target’s Conformity Index (CI), Gradient Index (GI), and Homogeneity index (HI), and absolute volume of normal brain V8Gy, V10Gy, V12Gy, and V14Gy. Results: Using the new couch/collimator optimization strategy, dose to normal brain tissue was reduced substantially. V8, V10, V12, and V14 decreased by 2.3%, 3.6%, 3.5%, and 6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the conformity index, gradient index, and homogeneity index between two treatment plans with and without the new optimization algorithm. Conclusion: We have developed a solution to the island blocking problem in delivering radiation to multiple brain metastases with shared isocenter. Significant reduction in dose to normal brain was achieved by using optimal couch and collimator angles that minimize total area of open space between any of the two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. This technique has been integrated into Eclipse treatment system using scripting API.

  1. Boosted top production: factorization and resummation for single-particle inclusive distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroglia, Andrea; Marzani, Simone; Pecjak, Ben D.; Yang, Li Lin

    2014-01-01

    We study single-particle inclusive (1PI) distributions in top-quark pair production at hadron colliders, working in the highly boosted regime where the top-quark p T is much larger than its mass. In particular, we derive a novel factorization formula valid in the small-mass and soft limits of the differential partonic cross section. This provides a framework for the simultaneous resummation of soft gluon corrections and small-mass logarithms, and also an efficient means of obtaining higher-order corrections to the differential cross section in this limit. The result involves five distinct one-scale functions, three of which arise through the subfactorization of soft real radiation in the small-mass limit. We list the NNLO corrections to each of these functions, building on results in the literature by performing a new calculation of a soft function involving four light-like Wilson lines to this order. We thus obtain a nearly complete description of the small-mass limit of the differential partonic cross section at NNLO near threshold, missing only terms involving closed top-quark loops in the virtual corrections

  2. A distributive peptide cyclase processes multiple microviridin core peptides within a single polypeptide substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Kunhua; Yang, Guang; McBride, Joshua L; Bruner, Steven D; Ding, Yousong

    2018-05-03

    Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are an important family of natural products. Their biosynthesis follows a common scheme in which the leader peptide of a precursor peptide guides the modifications of a single core peptide. Here we describe biochemical studies of the processing of multiple core peptides within a precursor peptide, rare in RiPP biosynthesis. In a cyanobacterial microviridin pathway, an ATP-grasp ligase, AMdnC, installs up to two macrolactones on each of the three core peptides within AMdnA. The enzyme catalysis occurs in a distributive fashion and follows an unstrict N-to-C overall directionality, but a strict order in macrolactonizing each core peptide. Furthermore, AMdnC is catalytically versatile to process unnatural substrates carrying one to four core peptides, and kinetic studies provide insights into its catalytic properties. Collectively, our results reveal a distinct biosynthetic logic of RiPPs, opening up the possibility of modular production via synthetic biology approaches.

  3. Distribution and excretion of mercury compounds in rats over a long period after a single injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swensson, A; Ulfvarson, U

    1968-01-01

    Rats were given single subcutaneous injections of methyl mercuric hydroxide, mercury (II) nitrate and phenyl mercuric hydroxide. The elimination of the compounds and the concentration in the organs at different times were followed by means of isotope techniques, for almost 6 months. The rate of excretion changes during the observation period. A calculated biological half-life therefore will be different from time to time. If the elimination during the first 9 days is considered the half-life is 5 days for mercury (II) nitrate and phenyl mercuric hydroxide and 16 days for methyl mercuric hydroxide. After this the excretion rate becomes slower and slower. The distribution in the organs varies during the first part of the period. The blood concentration decreases rapidly for all compounds, while the concentrations in the kidneys increases and reaches a maximum after some days. The same holds true for the brain and testis when mercury (II) nitrate and methyl mercuric hydroxide are considered. The elimination from the kidneys, the brain and the testes is slower than from other organs for all compounds. The concentrations in different parts of the brain are rather similar, though somewhat higher concentration in lobus olfactorius is indicated.

  4. Distribution and evolution of stable single α-helices (SAH domains in myosin motor proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Simm

    Full Text Available Stable single-alpha helices (SAHs are versatile structural elements in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins acting as semi-flexible linkers and constant force springs. This way SAH-domains function as part of the lever of many different myosins. Canonical myosin levers consist of one or several IQ-motifs to which light chains such as calmodulin bind. SAH-domains provide flexibility in length and stiffness to the myosin levers, and may be particularly suited for myosins working in crowded cellular environments. Although the function of the SAH-domains in human class-6 and class-10 myosins has well been characterised, the distribution of the SAH-domain in all myosin subfamilies and across the eukaryotic tree of life remained elusive. Here, we analysed the largest available myosin sequence dataset consisting of 7919 manually annotated myosin sequences from 938 species representing all major eukaryotic branches using the SAH-prediction algorithm of Waggawagga, a recently developed tool for the identification of SAH-domains. With this approach we identified SAH-domains in more than one third of the supposed 79 myosin subfamilies. Depending on the myosin class, the presence of SAH-domains can range from a few to almost all class members indicating complex patterns of independent and taxon-specific SAH-domain gain and loss.

  5. A Monte Carlo Study of Levene's Test of Homogeneity of Variance: Empirical Frequencies of Type I Error in Normal Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, John H.; Stallings, William M.

    An influential statistics test recommends a Levene text for homogeneity of variance. A recent note suggests that Levene's test is upwardly biased for small samples. Another report shows inflated Alpha estimates and low power. Neither study utilized more than two sample sizes. This Monte Carlo study involved sampling from a normal population for…

  6. Normal spectrum of pulmonary parametric response map to differentiate lung collapsibility: distribution of densitometric classifications in healthy adult volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mario; Nemec, Stefan F.; Dufresne, Valerie; Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H.; Bankier, Alexander A.; Chamberlain, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary parametric response map (PRM) was proposed for quantitative densitometric phenotypization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known about this technique in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal spectrum of densitometric classification of pulmonary PRM in a group of healthy adults. 15 healthy volunteers underwent spirometrically monitored chest CT at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC). The paired CT scans were analyzed by PRM for voxel-by-voxel characterization of lung parenchyma according to 4 densitometric classifications: normal lung (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU); expiratory low attenuation area (LAA) (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); dual LAA (TLC<-950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); uncharacterized (TLC < -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU). PRM spectrum was 78 % ± 10 % normal lung, 20 % ± 8 % expiratory LAA, and 1 % ± 1 % dual LAA. PRM was similar between genders, there was moderate correlation between dual LAA and spirometrically assessed TLC (R = 0.531; p = 0.042), and between expiratory LAA and Vol Exp/Insp ratio (R = -0.572; p = 0.026). PRM reflects the predominance of normal lung parenchyma in a group of healthy volunteers. However, PRM also confirms the presence of physiological expiratory LAA seemingly related to air trapping and a minimal amount of dual LAA likely reflecting emphysema. (orig.)

  7. Investigation of stress distribution in normal and oblique partial penetration. Welded nozzles by 3-D photoelastic stress freezing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Kubo, M.; Katori, T.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental investigation by 3-D photoelasticity has been carried out to measure the stress distribution of partial penetration welded nozzles attached to the bottom head of a pressure vessel. A 3-D photoelastic stress freezing method was chosen as the most effective means of observation of the stress distribution in the vicinity of the nozzle/wall weld. The experimental model was a 1:20 scale spherical bottom head. Both an axisymmetric nozzle and an asymmetric nozzle were investigated. Epoxy resin, which is a thermosetting plastic, was used as the model material. The oblique effect was examined by comparing the stress distribution of the asymmetric nozzle with that of the axisymmetric nozzle. Furthermore, the experimental results were compared with the analytical results using 3-D finite element method (FEM). The stress distributions obtained from the frozen fringe pattern of the 3-D photoelastic model were in good agreement with those by 3-D FEM. (orig.)

  8. Differing effects of attention in single-units and populations are well predicted by heterogeneous tuning and the normalization model of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuko; Pestilli, Franco; Gardner, Justin L

    2014-01-01

    Single-unit measurements have reported many different effects of attention on contrast-response (e.g., contrast-gain, response-gain, additive-offset dependent on visibility), while functional imaging measurements have more uniformly reported increases in response across all contrasts (additive-offset). The normalization model of attention elegantly predicts the diversity of effects of attention reported in single-units well-tuned to the stimulus, but what predictions does it make for more realistic populations of neurons with heterogeneous tuning? Are predictions in accordance with population-scale measurements? We used functional imaging data from humans to determine a realistic ratio of attention-field to stimulus-drive size (a key parameter for the model) and predicted effects of attention in a population of model neurons with heterogeneous tuning. We found that within the population, neurons well-tuned to the stimulus showed a response-gain effect, while less-well-tuned neurons showed a contrast-gain effect. Averaged across the population, these disparate effects of attention gave rise to additive-offsets in contrast-response, similar to reports in human functional imaging as well as population averages of single-units. Differences in predictions for single-units and populations were observed across a wide range of model parameters (ratios of attention-field to stimulus-drive size and the amount of baseline response modifiable by attention), offering an explanation for disparity in physiological reports. Thus, by accounting for heterogeneity in tuning of realistic neuronal populations, the normalization model of attention can not only predict responses of well-tuned neurons, but also the activity of large populations of neurons. More generally, computational models can unify physiological findings across different scales of measurement, and make links to behavior, but only if factors such as heterogeneous tuning within a population are properly accounted for.

  9. Bile Salt Homeostasis in Normal and Bsep Gene Knockout Rats with Single and Repeated Doses of Troglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yaofeng; Chen, Shenjue; Freeden, Chris; Chen, Weiqi; Zhang, Yueping; Abraham, Pamela; Nelson, David M; Humphreys, W Griffith; Gan, Jinping; Lai, Yurong

    2017-09-01

    The interference of bile acid secretion through bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition is one of the mechanisms for troglitazone (TGZ)-induced hepatotoxicity. Here, we investigated the impact of single or repeated oral doses of TGZ (200 mg/kg/day, 7 days) on bile acid homoeostasis in wild-type (WT) and Bsep knockout (KO) rats. Following oral doses, plasma exposures of TGZ were not different between WT and KO rats, and were similar on day 1 and day 7. However, plasma exposures of the major metabolite, troglitazone sulfate (TS), in KO rats were 7.6- and 9.3-fold lower than in WT on day 1 and day 7, respectively, due to increased TS biliary excretion. With Bsep KO, the mRNA levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), Mrp3, Mrp4, Mdr1, breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, small heterodimer partner, and Sult2A1 were significantly altered in KO rats. Following seven daily TGZ treatments, Cyp7A1 was significantly increased in both WT and KO rats. In the vehicle groups, plasma exposures of individual bile acids demonstrated variable changes in KO rats as compared with WT. WT rats dosed with TGZ showed an increase of many bile acid species in plasma on day 1, suggesting the inhibition of Bsep. Conversely, these changes returned to base levels on day 7. In KO rats, alterations of most bile acids were observed after seven doses of TGZ. Collectively, bile acid homeostasis in rats was regulated through bile acid synthesis and transport in response to Bsep deficiency and TGZ inhibition. Additionally, our study is the first to demonstrate that repeated TGZ doses can upregulate Cyp7A1 in rats. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Biodistribution and dosimetry of 195mPt-cisplatin in normal volunteers. Imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathekge, M; Wagener, J; Smith, S V; Soni, N; Marjanovic-Painter, B; Zinn, C; Van de Wiele, C; D'Asseler, Y; Perkins, G; Zeevaart, J R

    2013-12-13

    195mPt-cisplatin is regarded as a promising imaging agent for optimizing dosage in patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. We investigated the whole-body distribution and radiation dosimetry of 195mPt-cisplatin in humans. Whole-body scans were obtained up to 144 h after intravenous injection of 112.4 MBq 195mPt-cisplatin in each of five subjects. Blood samples were taken at various times up to 144 h after injection. Urine was collected up to 114 h after injection for calculation of renal clearance and whole-body clearance. Time/activity curves were generated by fitting the organ-specific geometric mean counts, obtained from regions of interest, on the respective images as a function of the time after injection. OLINDA software package was applied to calculate the absorbed radiation dose for various organs. Most of the activity (32 ± 4%) was excreted in the urine during the first 5 h. The effective clearance half-life derived from extrapolation of the whole-body curve was 40 hours (1.7 days). On average, the highest dose was received by the kidneys (mean dose received 2.68 ± 1.5 mGy/MBq), followed by the spleen (mean dose received 1.6 ± 0.8 mGy/MBq) followed by the liver (mean dose received 1.45 ± 0.38 mGy/MBq). The estimated mean effective dose for the adult subject was 0.185 ± 0.034 mSv/MBq. 195mPt-cisplatin proved a safe radiopharmaceutical with a favourable biodistribution for early and delayed imaging of pathology above the diaphragm. The ED obtained was 0.185 ± 0.034 mSv/MBq. The highest organ dose was received by the kidneys (2.68 ± 1.5 mGy/MBq).

  11. The normal and abnormal distribution of the adrenomedullary imaging agent m-[I-131]iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) in man: evaluation by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, M.; Shapiro, B.; Copp, J.; Kalff, V.; Gross, M.D.; Sisson, J.C.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scintigraphic distribution of m-[ 131 I]iodobenzylguanidine (I- 131 MIBG), an adrenal medullary imaging agent, was studied to determine the patterns of uptake of this agent in man. The normal distribution of I- 131 MIBG includes clear portrayal of the salivary glands, liver, spleen, and urinary bladder. The heart, middle and lower lung zones, and colon were less frequently or less clearly seen. The upper lung zones and kidneys were seldom visualized. The thyroid appeared only in cases of inadequate thyroidal blockade. The ''normal'' adrenal glands were seldom seen and faintly imaged in 2% at 24 hr after injection and in 16% at 48 hr, in patients shown not to have pheochromocytomas, whereas intra-adrenal, extraadrenal, and malignant pheochromocytomas usually appeared as intense focal areas of I- 131 MIBG uptake at 24 through 72 hr

  12. Normal and abnormal distribution of the adrenomedullary imaging agent m-[I-131]iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) in man; evaluation by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, M.; Shapiro, B.; Copp, J.; Kalff, V.; Gross, M.D.; Sisson, J.C.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scintigraphic distribution of m-[ 131 I]iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG), an adrenal medullary imaging agent, was studied to determine the patterns of uptake of this agent in man. The normal distribution of I-131 MIBG includes clear portrayal of the salivary glands, liver, spleen, and urinary bladder. The heart, middle and lower lung zones, and colon were less frequently or less clearly seen. The upper lung zones and kidneys were seldom visualized. The thyroid appeared only in cases of inadequate thyroidal blockade. The normal adrenal glands were seldom seen and faintly imaged in 2% at 24 h after injection and in 16% at 48 h, in patients shown not to have pheochromocytomas, whereas intra-adrenal, extra-adrenal, and malignant pheochromocytomas usually appeared as intense focal areas of I-131 MIBG uptake at 24 through 72 h

  13. Effect of vanadium treatment on tissue distribution of biotrace elements in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Simultaneous analysis of V and Zn using radioactive multitracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Hiroyuki; Takino, Toshikazu; Fugono, Jun; Sakurai, Hiromu [Department of Analytical and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi [Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Because vanadium ions such as vanadyl (VO{sup 2+}) and vanadate (VO{sup 3-}) ions were demonstrated to normalize blood glucose levels of diabetic animals and patients, the action mechanism of vanadium treatment has been of interest. In this study, we focused on understanding interactions among trace elements in diabetic rats, in which a multitracer technique was used. The effects of vanadyl sulfate (VS)-treatment on the tissue distribution of trace vanadium ({sup 48}V) and zinc ({sup 65}Zn) in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were examined, and were evaluated in terms of the uptake ratio. The uptake ratio of both elements in tissues significantly changed between STZ-rats and those treated with VS. These results indicated that vanadium treatment in STZ-rats alters the tissue distribution of endogenous elements, suggesting the importance of the relationship between biotrace elements and pathophysiology. (author)

  14. Effect of vanadium treatment on tissue distribution of biotrace elements in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Simultaneous analysis of V and Zn using radioactive multitracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Hiroyuki; Takino, Toshikazu; Fugono, Jun; Sakurai, Hiromu; Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Because vanadium ions such as vanadyl (VO 2+ ) and vanadate (VO 3- ) ions were demonstrated to normalize blood glucose levels of diabetic animals and patients, the action mechanism of vanadium treatment has been of interest. In this study, we focused on understanding interactions among trace elements in diabetic rats, in which a multitracer technique was used. The effects of vanadyl sulfate (VS)-treatment on the tissue distribution of trace vanadium ( 48 V) and zinc ( 65 Zn) in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were examined, and were evaluated in terms of the uptake ratio. The uptake ratio of both elements in tissues significantly changed between STZ-rats and those treated with VS. These results indicated that vanadium treatment in STZ-rats alters the tissue distribution of endogenous elements, suggesting the importance of the relationship between biotrace elements and pathophysiology. (author)

  15. Distribution of erlotinib in rash and normal skin in cancer patients receiving erlotinib visualized by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Meiko; Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Mizutani, Yu; Takenaka, Kei; Imamura, Yoshinori; Chayahara, Naoko; Toyoda, Masanori; Kiyota, Naomi; Mukohara, Toru; Aikawa, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hamada, Akinobu; Minami, Hironobu

    2018-04-06

    The development of skin rashes is the most common adverse event observed in cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as erlotinib. However, the pharmacological evidence has not been fully revealed. Erlotinib distribution in the rashes was more heterogeneous than that in the normal skin, and the rashes contained statistically higher concentrations of erlotinib than adjacent normal skin in the superficial skin layer (229 ± 192 vs. 120 ± 103 ions/mm 2 ; P = 0.009 in paired t -test). LC-MS/MS confirmed that the concentration of erlotinib in the skin rashes was higher than that in normal skin in the superficial skin layer (1946 ± 1258 vs. 1174 ± 662 ng/cm 3 ; P = 0.028 in paired t -test). The results of MALDI-MSI and LC-MS/MS were well correlated (coefficient of correlation 0.879, P distribution of erlotinib in the skin tissue was visualized using non-labeled MALDI-MSI. Erlotinib concentration in the superficial layer of the skin rashes was higher than that in the adjacent normal skin. We examined patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who developed skin rashes after treatment with erlotinib and gemcitabine. We biopsied both the rash and adjacent normal skin tissues, and visualized and compared the distribution of erlotinib within the skin using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). The tissue concentration of erlotinib was also measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with laser microdissection.

  16. Computation of fission product distribution in core and primary circuit of a high temperature reactor during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattke, U.H.

    1991-08-01

    The fission product release during normal operation from the core of a high temperature reactor is well known to be very low. A HTR-Modul-reactor with a reduced power of 170 MW th is examined under the aspect whether the contamination with Cs-137 as most important nuclide will be so low that a helium turbine in the primary circuit is possible. The program SPTRAN is the tool for the computations and siumlations of fission product transport in HTRs. The program initially developed for computations of accident events has been enlarged for computing the fission product transport under the conditions of normal operation. The theoretical basis, the used programs and data basis are presented followed by the results of the computations. These results are explained and discussed; moreover the consequences and future possibilities of development are shown. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of five active ingredients of Eucommiae cortex in normal and ovariectomized mice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Hu, Fangdi; Wang, Changhong; Zhang, Zijia; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-09-01

    1. Pinoresinol di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG), geniposide (GE), geniposidic acid (GA), aucubin (AN) and chlorogenic acid (CA) are the representative active ingredients in Eucommiae cortex (EC), which may be estrogenic. 2. The ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the five ingredients showed good linearity, low limits of quantification and high extraction recoveries, as well as acceptable precision, accuracy and stability in mice plasma and tissue samples (liver, spleen, kidney and uterus). It was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of PDG, GE, GA, AN and CA between normal and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. 3. The results indicated that except CA, the plasma and tissue concentrations of PDG, GE, GA in OVX mice were all greater than those in normal mice. AN could only be detected in the plasma and liver homogenate of normal mice, which was poorly absorbed in OVX mice and low in other measured tissues. PDG, GE and GA seem to be better absorbed in OVX mice than in normal mice proved by the remarkable increased value of AUC0-∞ and Cmax. It is beneficial that PDG, GE, GA have better plasma absorption and tissue distribution in pathological state.

  18. Control of the Diameter and Chiral Angle Distributions during Production of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Many applications of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), especially in microelectronics, will benefit from use of certain (n,m) nanotube types (metallic, small gap semiconductor, etc.) Especially fascinating is the possibility of quantum conductors that require metallic armchair nanotubes. However, as produced SWCNT samples are polydisperse, with many (n,m) types present and typical approx.1:2 metal/semiconductor ratio. Nanotube nucleation models predict that armchair nuclei are energetically preferential due to formation of partial triple bonds along the armchair edge. However, nuclei can not reach any meaningful thermal equilibrium in a rapidly expanding and cooling plume of carbon clusters, leading to polydispersity. In the present work, SWCNTs were produced by a pulsed laser vaporization (PLV) technique. The carbon vapor plume cooling rate was either increased by change in the oven temperature (expansion into colder gas), or decreased via "warm-up" with a laser pulse at the moment of nucleation. The effect of oven temperature and "warm-up" on nanotube type population was studied via photoluminescence, UV-Vis-NIR absorption and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that reduced temperatures leads to smaller average diameters, progressively narrower diameter distributions, and some preference toward armchair structures. "Warm-up" shifts nanotube population towards arm-chair structures as well, but the effect is small. Possible improvement of the "warm-up" approach to produce armchair SWCNTs will be discussed. These results demonstrate that PLV production technique can provide at least partial control over the nanotube (n,m) population. In addition, these results have implications for the understanding the nanotube nucleation mechanism in the laser oven.

  19. The mining of toxin-like polypeptides from EST database by single residue distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Sergey; Grishin, Eugene

    2011-01-31

    Novel high throughput sequencing technologies require permanent development of bioinformatics data processing methods. Among them, rapid and reliable identification of encoded proteins plays a pivotal role. To search for particular protein families, the amino acid sequence motifs suitable for selective screening of nucleotide sequence databases may be used. In this work, we suggest a novel method for simplified representation of protein amino acid sequences named Single Residue Distribution Analysis, which is applicable both for homology search and database screening. Using the procedure developed, a search for amino acid sequence motifs in sea anemone polypeptides was performed, and 14 different motifs with broad and low specificity were discriminated. The adequacy of motifs for mining toxin-like sequences was confirmed by their ability to identify 100% toxin-like anemone polypeptides in the reference polypeptide database. The employment of novel motifs for the search of polypeptide toxins in Anemonia viridis EST dataset allowed us to identify 89 putative toxin precursors. The translated and modified ESTs were scanned using a special algorithm. In addition to direct comparison with the motifs developed, the putative signal peptides were predicted and homology with known structures was examined. The suggested method may be used to retrieve structures of interest from the EST databases using simple amino acid sequence motifs as templates. The efficiency of the procedure for directed search of polypeptides is higher than that of most currently used methods. Analysis of 39939 ESTs of sea anemone Anemonia viridis resulted in identification of five protein precursors of earlier described toxins, discovery of 43 novel polypeptide toxins, and prediction of 39 putative polypeptide toxin sequences. In addition, two precursors of novel peptides presumably displaying neuronal function were disclosed.

  20. The mining of toxin-like polypeptides from EST database by single residue distribution analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishin Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel high throughput sequencing technologies require permanent development of bioinformatics data processing methods. Among them, rapid and reliable identification of encoded proteins plays a pivotal role. To search for particular protein families, the amino acid sequence motifs suitable for selective screening of nucleotide sequence databases may be used. In this work, we suggest a novel method for simplified representation of protein amino acid sequences named Single Residue Distribution Analysis, which is applicable both for homology search and database screening. Results Using the procedure developed, a search for amino acid sequence motifs in sea anemone polypeptides was performed, and 14 different motifs with broad and low specificity were discriminated. The adequacy of motifs for mining toxin-like sequences was confirmed by their ability to identify 100% toxin-like anemone polypeptides in the reference polypeptide database. The employment of novel motifs for the search of polypeptide toxins in Anemonia viridis EST dataset allowed us to identify 89 putative toxin precursors. The translated and modified ESTs were scanned using a special algorithm. In addition to direct comparison with the motifs developed, the putative signal peptides were predicted and homology with known structures was examined. Conclusions The suggested method may be used to retrieve structures of interest from the EST databases using simple amino acid sequence motifs as templates. The efficiency of the procedure for directed search of polypeptides is higher than that of most currently used methods. Analysis of 39939 ESTs of sea anemone Anemonia viridis resulted in identification of five protein precursors of earlier described toxins, discovery of 43 novel polypeptide toxins, and prediction of 39 putative polypeptide toxin sequences. In addition, two precursors of novel peptides presumably displaying neuronal function were disclosed.

  1. Nonrandom Distribution of miRNAs Genes and Single Nucleotide Variants in Keratoconus Loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M Nowak

    Full Text Available Despite numerous studies, the causes of both development and progression of keratoconus remain elusive. Previous studies of this disorder focused mainly on one or two genetic factors only. However, in the analysis of such complex diseases all potential factors should be taken into consideration. The purpose of this study was a comprehensive analysis of known keratoconus loci to uncover genetic factors involved in this disease causation in the general population, which could be omitted in the original studies. In this investigation genomic data available in various databases and experimental own data were assessed. The lists of single nucleotide variants and miRNA genes localized in reported keratoconus loci were obtained from Ensembl and miRBase, respectively. The potential impact of nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions on protein structure and function was assessed with PolyPhen-2 and SIFT. For selected protein genes the ranking was made to choose those most promising for keratoconus development. Ranking results were based on topological features in the protein-protein interaction network. High specificity for the populations in which the causative sequence variants have been identified was found. In addition, the possibility of links between previously analyzed keratoconus loci was confirmed including miRNA-gene interactions. Identified number of genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory agents corroborated the hypothesis of their effect on the disease etiology. Distribution of the numerous sequences variants within both exons and mature miRNA which forces you to search for a broader look at the determinants of keratoconus. Our findings highlight the complexity of the keratoconus genetics.

  2. Determination and shaping of the ion-velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1971-01-01

    An electrostatic energy analyzer with a resolution better than 0.03 eV was constructed. This analyzer was used to determine the ion-velocity distribution function at different densities and plate temperatures in a single-ended Q machine. In all regions good agreement with theoretical predictions...... based on simple, physical pictures is obtained. It is shown that within certain limits the velocity distribution function can be shaped; double-humped distribution functions have been obtained. The technique used here is suggested as an accurate method for determination of plasma densities within 10...

  3. Evaluation of the Weibull and log normal distribution functions as survival models of Escherichia coli under isothermal and non isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragao, Glaucia M F; Corradini, Maria G; Normand, Mark D; Peleg, Micha

    2007-11-01

    Published survival curves of Escherichia coli in two growth media, with and without the presence of salt, at various temperatures and in a Greek eggplant salad having various levels of essential oil, all had a characteristic downward concavity when plotted on semi logarithmic coordinates. Some also exhibited what appeared as a 'shoulder' of considerable length. Regardless of whether a shoulder was noticed, the survival pattern could be considered as a manifestation of an underlying unimodal distribution of the cells' death times. Mathematically, the data could be described equally well by the Weibull and log normal distribution functions, which had similar modes, means, standard deviations and coefficients of skewness. When plotted in their probability density function (PDF) form, the curves also appeared very similar visually. This enabled us to quantify and compare the effect of temperature or essential oil concentration on the organism's survival in terms of these temporal distributions' characteristics. Increased lethality was generally expressed in a shorter mean and mode, a smaller standard deviation and increased overall symmetry as judged by the distributions' degree of skewness. The 'shoulder', as expected, simply indicated that the distribution's standard deviation was much smaller than its mode. Rate models based on the two distribution functions could be used to predict non isothermal survival patterns. They were derived on the assumption that the momentary inactivation rate is the isothermal rate at the momentary temperature at a time that corresponds to the momentary survival ratio. In this application, however, the Weibullian model with a fixed power was not only simpler and more convenient mathematically than the one based on the log normal distribution, but it also provided more accurate estimates of the dynamic inactivation patterns.

  4. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  5. Competition between clonal plasma cells and normal cells for potentially overlapping bone marrow niches is associated with a progressively altered cellular distribution in MGUS vs myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, B; Pérez-Andrés, M; Vídriales, M-B; Almeida, J; de las Heras, N; Mateos, M-V; López-Corral, L; Gutiérrez, N C; Blanco, J; Oriol, A; Hernández, M T; de Arriba, F; de Coca, A G; Terol, M-J; de la Rubia, J; González, Y; Martín, A; Sureda, A; Schmidt-Hieber, M; Schmitz, A; Johnsen, H E; Lahuerta, J-J; Bladé, J; San-Miguel, J F; Orfao, A

    2011-04-01

    Disappearance of normal bone marrow (BM) plasma cells (PC) predicts malignant transformation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM) into symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). The homing, behavior and survival of normal PC, but also CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), B-cell precursors, and clonal PC largely depends on their interaction with stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) expressing, potentially overlapping BM stromal cell niches. Here, we investigate the distribution, phenotypic characteristics and competitive migration capacity of these cell populations in patients with MGUS, SMM and MM vs healthy adults (HA) aged >60 years. Our results show that BM and peripheral blood (PB) clonal PC progressively increase from MGUS to MM, the latter showing a slightly more immature immunophenotype. Of note, such increased number of clonal PC is associated with progressive depletion of normal PC, B-cell precursors and CD34(+) HSC in the BM, also with a parallel increase in PB. In an ex vivo model, normal PC, B-cell precursors and CD34(+) HSC from MGUS and SMM, but not MM patients, were able to abrogate the migration of clonal PC into serial concentrations of SDF-1. Overall, our results show that progressive competition and replacement of normal BM cells by clonal PC is associated with more advanced disease in patients with MGUS, SMM and MM.

  6. Theoretical study of the dependence of single impurity Anderson model on various parameters within distributional exact diagonalization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaina, L. P.; Majidi, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Single impurity Anderson model describes a system consisting of non-interacting conduction electrons coupled with a localized orbital having strongly interacting electrons at a particular site. This model has been proven successful to explain the phenomenon of metal-insulator transition through Anderson localization. Despite the well-understood behaviors of the model, little has been explored theoretically on how the model properties gradually evolve as functions of hybridization parameter, interaction energy, impurity concentration, and temperature. Here, we propose to do a theoretical study on those aspects of a single impurity Anderson model using the distributional exact diagonalization method. We solve the model Hamiltonian by randomly generating sampling distribution of some conducting electron energy levels with various number of occupying electrons. The resulting eigenvalues and eigenstates are then used to define the local single-particle Green function for each sampled electron energy distribution using Lehmann representation. Later, we extract the corresponding self-energy of each distribution, then average over all the distributions and construct the local Green function of the system to calculate the density of states. We repeat this procedure for various values of those controllable parameters, and discuss our results in connection with the criteria of the occurrence of metal-insulator transition in this system.

  7. Analysis of the performance of fuel cells PWR with a single enrichment and radial distribution of enrichments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, S.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Alonso, G.; Del Valle, E.; Xolocostli M, J. V.

    2008-01-01

    One of the main challenges in the design of fuel assemblies is the efficient use of uranium achieving burnt homogeneous of the fuel rods as well as the burnt maximum possible of the same ones to the unload. In the case of the assemblies type PWR has been decided actually for fuel assemblies with a single radial enrichment. The present work has like effect to show the because of this decision, reason why a comparison of the neutronic performance of two fuel cells takes place with the same enrichment average but one of them with radial distribution of enrichment and the other with a single enrichment equal to the average. The results shown in the present study of the behavior of the neutron flow as well as the power distribution through of assembly sustain the because of a single radial enrichment. (Author)

  8. Using virtual reality to distinguish subjects with multiple- but not single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Kargar, Mahmoud; Hesami, Ehsan

    2018-03-01

    Spatial disorientation is a hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Our aim was to use virtual reality to determine the allocentric and egocentric memory deficits of subjects with single-domain aMCI (aMCIsd) and multiple-domain aMCI (aMCImd). For this purpose, we introduced an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) to distinguish these deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease (miAD), aMCIsd, and aMCImd. The VRNT performance of 110 subjects, including 20 with miAD, 30 with pure aMCIsd, 30 with pure aMCImd, and 30 cognitively normal controls was compared. Our newly developed VRNT consists of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and virtual maze (egocentric memory). Verbal and visuospatial memory impairments were also examined with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, respectively. We found that miAD and aMCImd subjects were impaired in both allocentric and egocentric memory, but aMCIsd subjects performed similarly to the normal controls on both tasks. The miAD, aMCImd, and aMCIsd subjects performed worse on finding the target or required more time in the virtual environment than the aMCImd, aMCIsd, and normal controls, respectively. Our findings indicated the aMCImd and miAD subjects, as well as the aMCIsd subjects, were more impaired in egocentric orientation than allocentric orientation. We concluded that VRNT can distinguish aMCImd subjects, but not aMCIsd subjects, from normal elderly subjects. The VRNT, along with the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, can be used as a valid diagnostic tool for properly distinguishing different forms of aMCI. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. Tritium distribution ratios between the 30 % tributyl phosphate(TBP)-normal dodecane(nDD) organic phase and uranyl nitrate-nitric acid aqueous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzou; Sugikawa, Susumu; Maeda, Mitsuru; Tsujino, Takeshi.

    1989-10-01

    Tritium distribution ratios between the organic and aqueous phases were measured for the system of 30 % tributyl phosphate(TBP)-normal dodecane(nDD)/uranyl nitrate-nitric acid water. It was confirmed that tritium is extracted by TBP into the organic phase in both chemical forms of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated nitric acid (TNO 3 ). The value of tritium distribution ratio ranged from 0.002 to 0.005 for the conditions of 0-6 mol/L nitric acid, 0.5-800 mCi/L tritium in aqueous phase, and 0-125 g-U/L uranium in organic phase. Isotopic distribution coefficient of tritium between the organic and aqueous phases was observed to be about 0.95. (author)

  10. A quantitative index of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid distribution in normal pressure hydrocephalus using an MRI-based processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, A; Mitsuoka, H; Sato, K; Kanayama, S

    2000-06-01

    Our purpose was to quantify the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume components using an original MRI-based segmentation technique and to investigate whether a CSF volume index is useful for diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). We studied 59 subjects: 16 patients with NPH, 14 young and 13 elderly normal volunteers, and 16 patients with cerebrovascular disease. Images were acquired on a 1.5-T system, using a 3D-fast asymmetrical spin-echo (FASE) method. A region-growing method (RGM) was used to extract the CSF spaces from the FASE images. Ventricular volume (VV) and intracranial CSF volume (ICV) were measured, and a VV/ICV ratio was calculated. Mean VV and VV/ICV ratio were higher in the NPH group than in the other groups, and the differences were statistically significant, whereas the mean ICV value in the NPH group was not significantly increased. Of the 16 patients in the NPH group, 13 had VV/ICV ratios above 30%. In contrast, no subject in the other groups had a VV/ICV ratios higher than 30%. We conclude that these CSF volume parameters, especially the VV/ICV ratio, are useful for the diagnosis of NPH.

  11. A quantitative index of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid distribution in normal pressure hydrocephalus using an MRI-based processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, A.; Mitsuoka, H.; Sato, K.; Kanayama, S.

    2000-01-01

    Our purpose was to quantify the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume components using an original MRI-based segmentation technique and to investigate whether a CSF volume index is useful for diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). We studied 59 subjects: 16 patients with NPH, 14 young and 13 elderly normal volunteers, and 16 patients with cerebrovascular disease. Images were acquired on a 1.5-T system, using a 3D-fast asymmetrical spin- echo (FASE) method. A region-growing method (RGM) was used to extract the CSF spaces from the FASE images. Ventricular volume (VV) and intracranial CSF volume (ICV) were measured, and a VV/ICV ratio was calculated. Mean VV and VV/ICV ratio were higher in the NPH group than in the other groups, and the differences were statistically significant, whereas the mean ICV value in the NPH group was not significantly increased. Of the 16 patients in the NPH group, 13 had VV/ICV ratios above 30%. In contrast, no subject in the other groups had a VV/ICV ratios higher than 30%. We conclude that these CSF volume parameters, especially the VV/ICV ratio, are useful for the diagnosis of NPH. (orig.)

  12. A quantitative index of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid distribution in normal pressure hydrocephalus using an MRI-based processing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Koshigaya Municipal Hospital, 10-47-1 Higashikoshigaya, Koshigaya City, Saitama 343-0023 (Japan); Mitsuoka, H.; Sato, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Juntendo University (Japan); Kanayama, S. [Research and Development Centre, Toshiba Corporation (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    Our purpose was to quantify the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume components using an original MRI-based segmentation technique and to investigate whether a CSF volume index is useful for diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). We studied 59 subjects: 16 patients with NPH, 14 young and 13 elderly normal volunteers, and 16 patients with cerebrovascular disease. Images were acquired on a 1.5-T system, using a 3D-fast asymmetrical spin- echo (FASE) method. A region-growing method (RGM) was used to extract the CSF spaces from the FASE images. Ventricular volume (VV) and intracranial CSF volume (ICV) were measured, and a VV/ICV ratio was calculated. Mean VV and VV/ICV ratio were higher in the NPH group than in the other groups, and the differences were statistically significant, whereas the mean ICV value in the NPH group was not significantly increased. Of the 16 patients in the NPH group, 13 had VV/ICV ratios above 30%. In contrast, no subject in the other groups had a VV/ICV ratios higher than 30%. We conclude that these CSF volume parameters, especially the VV/ICV ratio, are useful for the diagnosis of NPH. (orig.)

  13. Direct assignment of molecular vibrations via normal mode analysis of the neutron dynamic pair distribution function technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry-Petit, A. M.; Sheckelton, J. P.; McQueen, T. M.; Rebola, A. F.; Fennie, C. J.; Mourigal, M.; Valentine, M.; Drichko, N.

    2015-01-01

    For over a century, vibrational spectroscopy has enhanced the study of materials. Yet, assignment of particular molecular motions to vibrational excitations has relied on indirect methods. Here, we demonstrate that applying group theoretical methods to the dynamic pair distribution function analysis of neutron scattering data provides direct access to the individual atomic displacements responsible for these excitations. Applied to the molecule-based frustrated magnet with a potential magnetic valence-bond state, LiZn 2 Mo 3 O 8 , this approach allows direct assignment of the constrained rotational mode of Mo 3 O 13 clusters and internal modes of MoO 6 polyhedra. We anticipate that coupling this well known data analysis technique with dynamic pair distribution function analysis will have broad application in connecting structural dynamics to physical properties in a wide range of molecular and solid state systems

  14. Performance of single wire earth return transformers with amorphous alloy core in a rural electric energy distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Antonio Luciano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented some considerations about the performance of single wire earth return amorphous alloy core transformers in comparison with conventional silicon steel sheets cores transformers used in rural electric energy distribution network. It has been recognized that amorphous metal core transformers improve electrical power distribution efficiency by reducing transformer core losses. This reduction is due to some electromagnetic properties of the amorphous alloys such as: high magnetic permeability, high resistivity, and low coercivity. Experimental results obtained with some single-phase, 60 Hz, 5 kVA amorphous core transformers installed in a rural area electric distribution system in Northern Brazil have been confirming their superior performance in comparison to identical nominal rated transformers built with conventional silicon steel cores, particularly with regard to the excitation power and to the no-load losses.

  15. Investigation of distribution microhomogeneity of doped elements in oxide single crystals by means of LMA-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, L.; Krasnobaeva, N.; Manuilov, N.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of V and Ti in oxide single crystals Al 2 O 3 :V 3+ , Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :V 3+ , Al 2 O 3 :Ti 3+ , Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ti 3+ is investigated by laser emission microspectral analysis with photographic registration of spectra. Single crystals have been grown by the method of vertical directed crystallization (method of Bridgman-Stockbarger). For evaluation of microhomogeneity of the investigated elements distribution the following statistical methods are applied: one-way variance analysis, two-way variance analysis, regression models and gradient method. A PC programme package is developed allowing to process photoregistration data, to choose the internal standard line by scatter diagrams, to perform all statistical analysis and to plot the distribution diagrams of the elements in the samples. 2 refs. (author)

  16. Wealth of the world's richest publicly traded companies per industry and per employee: Gamma, Log-normal and Pareto power-law as universal distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Hernández, P.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Campirán-Chávez, I.; Montemayor-Aldrete, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Forbes Magazine published its list of leading or strongest publicly-traded two thousand companies in the world (G-2000) based on four independent metrics: sales or revenues, profits, assets and market value. Every one of these wealth metrics yields particular information on the corporate size or wealth size of each firm. The G-2000 cumulative probability wealth distribution per employee (per capita) for all four metrics exhibits a two-class structure: quasi-exponential in the lower part, and a Pareto power-law in the higher part. These two-class structure per capita distributions are qualitatively similar to income and wealth distributions in many countries of the world, but the fraction of firms per employee within the high-class Pareto is about 49% in sales per employee, and 33% after averaging on the four metrics, whereas in countries the fraction of rich agents in the Pareto zone is less than 10%. The quasi-exponential zone can be adjusted by Gamma or Log-normal distributions. On the other hand, Forbes classifies the G-2000 firms in 82 different industries or economic activities. Within each industry, the wealth distribution per employee also follows a two-class structure, but when the aggregate wealth of firms in each industry for the four metrics is divided by the total number of employees in that industry, then the 82 points of the aggregate wealth distribution by industry per employee can be well adjusted by quasi-exponential curves for the four metrics.

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of lignan components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Zheng, Tian-Hui; Tao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-05-26

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is formulated on the basis of Chinese medicine theory in treating liver fibrosis. To illuminate the influence of the pathological state of liver fibrosis on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of lignan components from FZHY. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group and Hepatic fibrosis group (induced by dimethylnitrosamine). Six lignan components were detected and quantified by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UHPLC-MS/MS)in the plasma and tissue of normal and hepatic fibrosis rats. A rapid, sensitive and convenient UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six lignan components in different rat biological samples successfully. After oral administration of FZHY at a dose of 15g/kg, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of schizandrin A (SIA), schizandrin B (SIB), schizandrin C (SIC), schisandrol A (SOA), Schisandrol B (SOB) and schisantherin A (STA) have been significantly changed in hepatic fibrosis rats compared with the normal rats, and their AUC(0-t) values were increased by 235.09%, 388.44%, 223.30%, 669.30%, 295.08% and 267.63% orderly (Pdistribution results showed the amount of SIA, SIB, SOA and SOB were significant increased in heart, lung, spleen and kidney of hepatic fibrosis rats compared with normal rats at most of the time point (Pdistribution of lignan components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats. The hepatic fibrosis could alter the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of lignan components in rats after administration of FZHY. The results might be helpful for guide the clinical application of this medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in normal and breast tumor tissues and their link with breast cancer prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Daniela; Lemieux, Julie; Côté, Marc-André; Provencher, Louise; Laflamme, Christian; Barabé, Frédéric; Jacob, Simon; Michaud, Annick; Diorio, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene is associated with worse prognosis and decreased overall survival in breast cancer patients. The HER2 gene contains several polymorphisms; two of the best-characterized HER2 polymorphisms are Ile655Val and Ala1170Pro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between these two HER2 polymorphisms in normal breast and breast cancer tissues and known breast cancer prognostic factors in a retrospective cohort study of 73 women with non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. HER2 polymorphisms were assessed in breast cancer tissue and normal breast tissue using TaqMan assay. Ala1170Pro polymorphism in normal breast tissue was associated with age at diagnosis (p = 0.007), tumor size (p = 0.004) and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.06). Similar significant associations in cancer tissues were observed. No association between the Ile655Val polymorphism and prognostic factors were observed. However, we found significant differences in the distribution of Ile655Val (p = 0.03) and Ala1170Pro (p = 0.01) genotypes between normal breast and breast tumor tissues. This study demonstrates that only the Ala1170Pro polymorphism is associated with prognostic factors in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Moreover, our results suggest that both HER2 polymorphisms could play a significant role in carcinogenesis in non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of the spatial distribution of traps using space-charge-limited current measurements in an organic single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2012-09-06

    We used a mobility edge transport model and solved the drift-diffusion equation to characterize the space-charge-limited current of a rubrene single-crystal hole-only diode. The current-voltage characteristics suggest that current is injection-limited at high voltage when holes are injected from the bottom contact (reverse bias). In contrast, the low-voltage regime shows that the current is higher when holes are injected from the bottom contact as compared to hole injection from the top contact (forward bias), which does not exhibit injection-limited current in the measured voltage range. This behavior is attributed to an asymmetric distribution of trap states in the semiconductor, specifically, a distribution of traps located near the top contact. Accounting for a localized trap distribution near the contact allows us to reproduce the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics in forward and reverse bias simultaneously, i.e., with a single set of model parameters. We estimated that the local trap distribution contains 1.19×1011 cm -2 states and decays as exp(-x/32.3nm) away from the semiconductor-contact interface. The local trap distribution near one contact mainly affects injection from the same contact, hence breaking the symmetry in the charge transport. The model also provides information of the band mobility, energy barrier at the contacts, and bulk trap distribution with their corresponding confidence intervals. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  20. Extreme-value limit of the convolution of exponential and multivariate normal distributions: Link to the Hüsler–Reiß distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Krupskii, Pavel; Joe, Harry; Lee, David; Genton, Marc G.

    2017-01-01

    The multivariate Hüsler–Reiß copula is obtained as a direct extreme-value limit from the convolution of a multivariate normal random vector and an exponential random variable multiplied by a vector of constants. It is shown how the set of Hüsler–Reiß parameters can be mapped to the parameters of this convolution model. Assuming there are no singular components in the Hüsler–Reiß copula, the convolution model leads to exact and approximate simulation methods. An application of simulation is to check if the Hüsler–Reiß copula with different parsimonious dependence structures provides adequate fit to some data consisting of multivariate extremes.

  1. Extreme-value limit of the convolution of exponential and multivariate normal distributions: Link to the Hüsler–Reiß distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Krupskii, Pavel

    2017-11-02

    The multivariate Hüsler–Reiß copula is obtained as a direct extreme-value limit from the convolution of a multivariate normal random vector and an exponential random variable multiplied by a vector of constants. It is shown how the set of Hüsler–Reiß parameters can be mapped to the parameters of this convolution model. Assuming there are no singular components in the Hüsler–Reiß copula, the convolution model leads to exact and approximate simulation methods. An application of simulation is to check if the Hüsler–Reiß copula with different parsimonious dependence structures provides adequate fit to some data consisting of multivariate extremes.

  2. Effect of acetylation on monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 Fab': Distribution in normal and tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarburton, J.P.; Halpern, S.E.; Hagan, P.L.; Sudora, E.; Chen, A.; Fridman, D.M.; Pfaff, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine in vitro and in vivo effects of acetylation on Fab' fragments of ZCE-025, a monoclonal anti-CEA antibody. Isoelectric focusing revealed a drop in isoelectric point of 1.7 pI units following acetylation. Biodistribution studies of acetylated and nonacetylated [111In]Fab' were performed in normal BALB/c mice and in nude mice bearing the T-380 CEA-producing human colon tumor. The acetylated fragments remained in the vascular compartment longer and had significantly diminished renal uptake of 111In compared to controls. While acetylation itself effected a 50% drop in immunoreactivity, tumor uptake of the acetylated and nonacetylated 111In-labeled Fab' fragments was comparable, with the exception of one data point, through 72 h

  3. Distribution of water, fat, and metals in normal liver and in liver metastases influencing attenuation on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, J.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kenko, Y.; Koike, H.; Kubo, T.; Takano, Y.; Hara, K.; Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka; Osaka National Hospital

    1988-01-01

    The quantity of water, lipid and some metals was measured in autopsy specimens of 8 normal livers, 9 livers with fatty change, and in 12 livers with metastases of various origins. These parameters contribute to the CT number measured in the liver. Water played a major role in demonstration of liver metastases as a low-density area on CT. Other contributory factors include iron, magnesium and zinc. Lipid and calcium had no influence in this respect. Heavy accumulation of calcium in a metastatic lesion gives a high-density area on CT. However, even when a metastatic lesion was perceived on CT as a low-density area, the calcium content of the lesion was not always lower than that of the non-tumour region. (orig.)

  4. CELL AVERAGING CFAR DETECTOR WITH SCALE FACTOR CORRECTION THROUGH THE METHOD OF MOMENTS FOR THE LOG-NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el nuevo detector LN-MoM-CA-CFAR que tiene una desviación reducida en la tasa de probabilidad de falsa alarma operacional con respecto al valor concebido de diseño. La solución corrige un problema fundamental de los procesadores CFAR que ha sido ignora-do en múltiples desarrollos. En efecto, la mayoría de los esquemas previamente propuestos tratan con los cambios bruscos del nivel del clutter mientras que la presente solución corrige los cambios lentos estadísticos de la señal de fondo. Se ha demostrado que estos tienen una influencia marcada en la selección del factor de ajuste multiplicativo CFAR, y consecuen-temente en el mantenimiento de la probabilidad de falsa alarma. Los autores aprovecharon la alta precisión que se alcanza en la estimación del parámetro de forma Log-Normal con el MoM, y la amplia aplicación de esta distribución en la modelación del clutter, para crear una arquitectura que ofrece resultados precisos y con bajo costo computacional. Luego de un procesamiento intensivo de 100 millones de muestras Log-Normal, se creó un esquema que, mejorando el desempeño del clásico CA-CFAR a través de la corrección continua de su fac-tor de ajuste, opera con una excelente estabilidad alcanzando una desviación de solamente 0,2884 % para la probabilidad de falsa alarma de 0,01.

  5. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiter, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived which incorporate additional physical effects as higher order terms for the case when the sonic line is very close to the wall. The functional form used for the undisturbed velocity profile is described to indicate how various parameters will be calculated for later comparison with experiment. The basic solutions for the pressure distribution are derived. Corrections are added for flow along a wall having longitudinal curvature and for flow in a circular pipe, and comparisons with available experimental data are shown.

  6. Single Ih channels in pyramidal neuron dendrites: properties, distribution, and impact on action potential output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Hallermann, Stefan; Stuart, Greg J.

    2006-01-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability, yet its native single-channel properties in the brain are essentially unknown. Here we use variance-mean analysis to study the properties of single Ih channels in the apical dendrites of

  7. Determination of PVB interlayer’s shear modulus and its effect on normal stress distribution in laminated glass panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hána, T.; Eliášová, M.; Machalická, K.; Vokáč, M.

    2017-10-01

    Noticing the current architecture, there are many examples of glass bearing members such as beams, panes, ribs stairs or even columns. Most of these elements are made of laminated glass from panes bonded by polymer interlayer so the task of transferring shear forces between the glass panes needs to be investigated due to the lack of knowledge. This transfer depends on stiffness of polymer material, which is affected by temperature and load duration. It is essential to catch the safe side with limit cases when designing these members if the exact material behaviour is not specified. There are lots of interlayers for structural laminated glass applications available on a market. Most of them exhibit different properties, which need to be experimentally verified. This paper is focused on tangent shear modulus of PVB (polyvinyl-buthyral) interlayer and its effect on the stress distribution in glass panes when loaded. This distribution may be determined experimentally or numerically, respectively. This enables to design structural laminated glass members more effectively regarding price and safety. Furthermore, this is the way, how to extend the use of laminated glass in architectural design.

  8. Single-Size Thermometric Measurements on a Size Distribution of Neutral Fullerenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauchy, C.; Bakker, J. M.; Huismans, Y.; Rouzee, A.; Redlich, B.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Bordas, C.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Lepine, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons emitted from mass-selected neutral fullerenes, performed at the intracavity free electron laser FELICE. We make use of mass-specific vibrational resonances in the infrared domain to selectively heat up one out of a distribution of

  9. Normal values of regional left ventricular myocardial thickness, mass and distribution-assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsø, Louise; Fuchs, Andreas; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias

    2017-01-01

    regional normal reference values of the left ventricle. The aim of this study was to derive reference values of regional LV myocardial thickness (LVMT) and mass (LVMM) from a healthy study group of the general population using cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We wanted to introduce LV...... myocardial distribution (LVMD) as a measure of regional variation of the LVMT. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these parameters varied between men and women. We studied 568 (181 men; 32%) adults, free of cardiovascular disease and risk factors, who underwent 320-detector CCTA. Mean age was 55 (range...... 40-84) years. Regional LVMT and LVMM were measured, according to the American Heart Association's 17 segment model, using semi-automatic software. Mean LVMT were 6.6 mm for men and 5.4 mm for women (p normal LV was thickest in the basal septum (segment 3; men = 8.3 mm; women = 7.2 mm...

  10. Distribution of intravenously administered acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and acetylcholinesterase activity in the adrenal gland: 11C-donepezil PET study in the normal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Tadashi; Naka, Sadahiro; Ikeda, Hayato; Horitsugi, Genki; Kanai, Yasukazu; Isohashi, Kayako; Ishibashi, Mana; Kato, Hiroki; Shimosegawa, Eku; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, its pharmacokinetics in non-target organs other than the brain has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the whole-body distribution of intravenously administered (11)C-Donepezil (DNP) and the AChE activity in the normal rat, with special focus on the adrenal glands. The distribution of (11)C-DNP was investigated by PET/CT in 6 normal male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, body weight  = 220 ± 8.9 g). A 30-min dynamic scan was started simultaneously with an intravenous bolus injection of (11)C-DNP (45.0 ± 10.7 MBq). The whole-body distribution of the (11)C-DNP PET was evaluated based on the Vt (total distribution volume) by Logan-plot analysis. A fluorometric assay was performed to quantify the AChE activity in homogenized tissue solutions of the major organs. The PET analysis using Vt showed that the adrenal glands had the 2nd highest level of (11)C-DNP in the body (following the liver) (13.33 ± 1.08 and 19.43 ± 1.29 ml/cm(3), respectively), indicating that the distribution of (11)C-DNP was the highest in the adrenal glands, except for that in the excretory organs. The AChE activity was the third highest in the adrenal glands (following the small intestine and the stomach) (24.9 ± 1.6, 83.1 ± 3.0, and 38.5 ± 8.1 mU/mg, respectively), indicating high activity of AChE in the adrenal glands. We demonstrated the whole-body distribution of (11)C-DNP by PET and the AChE activity in the major organs by fluorometric assay in the normal rat. High accumulation of (11)C-DNP was observed in the adrenal glands, which suggested the risk of enhanced cholinergic synaptic transmission by the use of AChE inhibitors.

  11. Distribution of intravenously administered acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and acetylcholinesterase activity in the adrenal gland: 11C-donepezil PET study in the normal rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Watabe

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors have been used for patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, its pharmacokinetics in non-target organs other than the brain has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the whole-body distribution of intravenously administered (11C-Donepezil (DNP and the AChE activity in the normal rat, with special focus on the adrenal glands. METHODS: The distribution of (11C-DNP was investigated by PET/CT in 6 normal male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, body weight  = 220 ± 8.9 g. A 30-min dynamic scan was started simultaneously with an intravenous bolus injection of (11C-DNP (45.0 ± 10.7 MBq. The whole-body distribution of the (11C-DNP PET was evaluated based on the Vt (total distribution volume by Logan-plot analysis. A fluorometric assay was performed to quantify the AChE activity in homogenized tissue solutions of the major organs. RESULTS: The PET analysis using Vt showed that the adrenal glands had the 2nd highest level of (11C-DNP in the body (following the liver (13.33 ± 1.08 and 19.43 ± 1.29 ml/cm(3, respectively, indicating that the distribution of (11C-DNP was the highest in the adrenal glands, except for that in the excretory organs. The AChE activity was the third highest in the adrenal glands (following the small intestine and the stomach (24.9 ± 1.6, 83.1 ± 3.0, and 38.5 ± 8.1 mU/mg, respectively, indicating high activity of AChE in the adrenal glands. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the whole-body distribution of (11C-DNP by PET and the AChE activity in the major organs by fluorometric assay in the normal rat. High accumulation of (11C-DNP was observed in the adrenal glands, which suggested the risk of enhanced cholinergic synaptic transmission by the use of AChE inhibitors.

  12. Stromal laminin chain distribution in normal, hyperplastic and malignant oral mucosa: relation to myofibroblast occurrence and vessel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marcus; Wolheim, Anke; Richter, Petra; Umbreit, Claudia; Dahse, Regine; Driemel, Oliver; Hyckel, Peter; Virtanen, Ismo; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Berndt, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of stromal laminin chain expression to malignant potential, tumour stroma reorganization and vessel formation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is not fully understood. Therefore, the expression of the laminin chains alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 in the stromal compartment/vascular structures in OSCC was analysed. Frozen tissue of OSCC (9x G1, 24x G2, 8x G3) and normal (2x)/hyperplastic (11x) oral mucosa was subjected to laminin chain and alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) immunohistochemistry. Results were correlated to tumour grade. The relation of laminin chain positive vessels to total vessel number was assessed by immunofluorescence double labelling with CD31. Stromal laminin alpha2 chain significantly decreases and alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 chains and also ASMA significantly increase with rising grade. The amount of stromal alpha3, alpha4 and gamma2 chains significantly increased with rising ASMA positivity. There is a significant decrease in alpha3 chain positive vessels with neoplastic transformation. Mediated by myofibroblasts, OSCC development is associated with a stromal up-regulation of laminin isoforms possibly contributing to a migration promoting microenvironment. A vascular basement membrane reorganization concerning alpha3 and gamma2 chain laminins during tumour angioneogenesis is suggested.

  13. Estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals: II. Tissue distribution of 17 α-methylestradiol in normal and tumor-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, A.; Vaalburg, W.; Nolten, G.M.J.; Reiffers, S.; Talma, A.G.; Wiegman, T.; van der Molen, H.D.; Woldring, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Tritiated 17α-methylestradiol was synthesized to investigate the potential of the carbon-11-labeled analog as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical. In vitro, 17α-methylestradiol is bound with high affinity to the cytoplasmic estrogen receptor from rabbit uterus (K/sub d/ = 1.96 x 10 -10 M), and it sediments as an 8S hormone-receptor complex in sucrose gradients. The compound shows specific uptake in the uterus of the adult rat, within 1 h after injection. In female rats bearing DMBA-induced tumors, specific uterine and tumor uptakes were observed, although at 30 min the tumor uptake was only 23 to 30% of the uptake in the uterus. Tritiated 17α-methylestradiol with a specific activity of 6 Ci/mmole showed a similar tissue distribution. Our results indicate that a 17 α-methylestradiol is promising as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical

  14. Priority of a Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relation with a Normal Distribution in Meteorological Disaster Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Gong, Zaiwu

    2017-10-10

    As meteorological disaster systems are large complex systems, disaster reduction programs must be based on risk analysis. Consequently, judgment by an expert based on his or her experience (also known as qualitative evaluation) is an important link in meteorological disaster risk assessment. In some complex and non-procedural meteorological disaster risk assessments, a hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation (HFLPR) is often used to deal with a situation in which experts may be hesitant while providing preference information of a pairwise comparison of alternatives, that is, the degree of preference of one alternative over another. This study explores hesitation from the perspective of statistical distributions, and obtains an optimal ranking of an HFLPR based on chance-restricted programming, which provides a new approach for hesitant fuzzy optimisation of decision-making in meteorological disaster risk assessments.

  15. Analytical solution for the normal emission portion of the averaged Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzvieskii-Paddack coefficient for a single facet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuja, Antonella A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-02-01

    The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzvieskii-Paddack (YORP) effect has been well studied for asteroids. This paper develops an analytic solution to find the normal emission YORP component for a single facet. The solution presented here does not account for self-shadowing or self-heating. The YORP coefficient for all facets can be summed together to find the total coefficient of the asteroid. The normal emission component of YORP has been shown to be the most important for asteroids and it directly affects the rate of change of the asteroid's spin period. The analytical solution found is a sole function of the facet's geometry and the obliquity of the asteroid. This solution is universal for any facet and its orientation. The behaviour of the coefficient is analysed with this analytical solution. The closed-form solution is used to find the total YORP coefficient for the asteroids Apollo and 1998 ML14 whose shape models are composed of different numbers of facets. The results are then compared to published results and those obtained through numerical quadrature for validation.

  16. UPLC-MS method for quantification of pterostilbene and its application to comparative study of bioavailability and tissue distribution in normal and Lewis lung carcinoma bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Li, Yongzhi; Zhang, Xinshi; Chen, Bo; Deng, Yulin; Li, Yujuan

    2015-10-10

    A UPLC-MS method was developed for determination of pterostilbene (PTS) in plasma and tissues of mice. PTS was separated on Agilent Zorbax XDB-C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.2 ml/min. The detection was performed by negative ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linear calibration curve of PTS in mouse plasma and tissues ranged from 1.0 to 5000 and 0.50 to 500 ng/ml (r(2)>0.9979), respectively, with lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ) were between 0.5 and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The accuracy and precision of the assay were satisfactory. The validated method was applied to the study of bioavailability and tissue distribution of PTS in normal and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) bearing mice. The bioavailability of PTS (dose 14, 28 and 56 mg/kg) in normal mice were 11.9%, 13.9% and 26.4%, respectively; and the maximum level (82.1 ± 14.2 μg/g) was found in stomach (dose 28 mg/kg). The bioavailability, peak concentration (Cmax), time to peak concentration (Tmax) of PTS in LLC mice was increased compared with normal mice. The results indicated the UPLC-MS method is reliable and bioavailability and tissue distribution of PTS in normal and LLC mice were dramatically different. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of 14C-APX001 after Single-Dose Administration to Rats and Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Mansbach, Robert; Shaw, Karen J; Hodges, Michael R; Coleman, Samantha; Fitzsimmons, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background APX001 is a small-molecule therapeutic agent in clinical development for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFI). Methods The absorption, distribution and excretion profiles of [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity were determined in rats (albino and pigmented) and monkeys. Rats (some implanted with bile duct cannulae) were administered a single 100 mg/kg oral dose or a 30 mg/kg intravenous (IV) dose. Monkeys were administered a single 6 mg/kg IV dose. Samples of blo...

  18. Differential distribution of striatal [123I]β-CIT in Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, evaluated with single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messa, C.; Volonte, M.A.; Fazio, F.; Zito, F.; Carpinelli, A.; D'Amico, A.; Rizzo, G.; Moresco, R.M.; Paulesu, E.; Franceschi, M.; Lucignani, G.

    1998-01-01

    Functional imaging of the presynaptic dopaminergic activity using single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and iodine-123 labelled 2-β-carboxymethoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]β-CIT) is important for the assessment of disease severity and progression in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its capability to discriminate between different extrapyramidal disorders has not yet been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of differentiating patients with PD and with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) by means of this method. The distribution of [ 123 I]β-CIT in the basal ganglia was assessed in six normal subjects, 13 petients with PD and five patients with PSP in whom the disease was mild. SPET images were obtained 24±2 h after i.v. injection of the tracer using a brain-dedicated system (CERASPECT). MR and SPET images were co-registered in four normal subjects and used to define a standard set of 16 circular regions of interest (ROIs) on the slice showing the highest striatal activity. The basal ganglia ROIs corresponded to (1) the head of caudate, (2) a region of transition between the head of caudate and the anterior putamen, (3) the anterior putamen and (4) the posterior putamen. A ratio of specific to non-displaceable striatal uptake was calculated normalising the activity of the basal ganglia ROIs to that of the occipital cortex (V3''). ANOVA revealed a global reduction of V3'' in all ROIs of PD and PSP patients compared with normal controls (P 123 I]β-CIT distribution in discrete striatal areas provides information on the relative caudate-putamen damage, with different values being obtained in patients clinically diagnosed as having either PD or PSP. (orig.)

  19. Quantitative single-photon emission tomography for cerebral flow and receptor distribution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in single-photon emission tomography for two major reasons. First, correction methods have been devised for attenuation compensation, nonuniform resolution, and scattered radiation. Second, new radiopharmaceuticals with 1-5% uptake in the brain provide adequate statistics for quantitative imaging of flow using properly designed single-photon tomographic instruments. The lack of commercially available instruments designed specifically to optimize sensitivity for a resolution finer than 15 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) seems now to be the major deterrent to the widespread use of single-photon emission tomography. But it appears now that some development in this respect also might lead to a widespread renewed interest in single-photon tomography of the brain. Major activities of the past few years can be placed in three distinct categories of instrumentation and methodology

  20. Interferometric detection of single gold nanoparticles calibrated against TEM size distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lixue; Christensen, Sune; Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Single nanoparticle analysis: An interferometric optical approach calibrates sizes of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from the interference intensities by calibrating their interferometric signals against the corresponding transmission electron microscopy measurements. This method is used to investigate...

  1. Normal distribution and medullary-to-cortical shift of Nestin-expressing cells in acute renal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patschan, D; Michurina, T; Shi, H K; Dolff, S; Brodsky, S V; Vasilieva, T; Cohen-Gould, L; Winaver, J; Chander, P N; Enikolopov, G; Goligorsky, M S

    2007-04-01

    Nestin, a marker of multi-lineage stem and progenitor cells, is a member of intermediate filament family, which is expressed in neuroepithelial stem cells, several embryonic cell types, including mesonephric mesenchyme, endothelial cells of developing blood vessels, and in the adult kidney. We used Nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice to characterize its expression in normal and post-ischemic kidneys. Nestin-GFP-expressing cells were detected in large clusters within the papilla, along the vasa rectae, and, less prominently, in the glomeruli and juxta-glomerular arterioles. In mice subjected to 30 min bilateral renal ischemia, glomerular, endothelial, and perivascular cells showed increased Nestin expression. In the post-ischemic period, there was an increase in fluorescence intensity with no significant changes in the total number of Nestin-GFP-expressing cells. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy performed before and after ischemia ruled out the possibility of engraftment by the circulating Nestin-expressing cells, at least within the first 3 h post-ischemia. Incubation of non-perfused kidney sections resulted in a medullary-to-cortical migration of Nestin-GFP-positive cells with the rate of expansion of their front averaging 40 microm/30 min during the first 3 h and was detectable already after 30 min of incubation. Explant matrigel cultures of the kidney and aorta exhibited sprouting angiogenesis with cells co-expressing Nestin and endothelial marker, Tie-2. In conclusion, several lines of circumstantial evidence identify a sub-population of Nestin-expressing cells with the mural cells, which are recruited in the post-ischemic period to migrate from the medulla toward the renal cortex. These migrating Nestin-positive cells may be involved in the process of post-ischemic tissue regeneration.

  2. The role of the extracellular matrix in tissue distribution of macromolecules in normal and pathological tissues: potential therapeutic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Helge; Gyenge, Christina; Iversen, Per Ole; Gullberg, Donald; Tenstad, Olav

    2008-05-01

    The interstitial space is a dynamic microenvironment that consists of interstitial fluid and structural molecules of the extracellular matrix, such as glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronan and proteoglycans) and collagen. Macromolecules can distribute in the interstitium only in those spaces unoccupied by structural components, a phenomenon called interstitial exclusion. The exclusion phenomenon has direct consequences for plasma volume regulation. Early studies have assigned a major role to collagen as an excluding agent that accounts for the sterical (geometrical) exclusion. More recently, it has been shown that the contribution of negatively charged glycosaminoglycans might also be significant, resulting in an additional electrostatical exclusion effect. This charge effect may be of importance for drug uptake and suggests that either the glycosaminoglycans or the net charge of macromolecular substances to be delivered may be targeted to increase the available volume and uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents in tumor tissue. Here, we provide an overview of the structural components of the interstitium and discuss the importance the sterical and electrostatical components have on the dynamics of transcapillary fluid exchange.

  3. The implications of autoantibodies to a single islet antigen in relatives with normal glucose tolerance: development of other autoantibodies and progression to type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingley, Polly J; Boulware, David C; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2016-03-01

    Autoantibodies directed at single islet autoantigens are associated with lower overall risk of type 1 diabetes than multiple autoantibodies, but individuals with one autoantibody may progress to higher risk categories. We examined the characteristics of this progression in relatives followed prospectively in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention. The study population comprised 983 relatives who were single autoantibody positive with normal baseline glucose tolerance (median age 16.2 years). Samples were screened for antibodies to GAD, insulinoma-associated antigen 2 (IA-2) and insulin, and all positive samples tested for antibodies to zinc transporter 8 and islet cell antibodies. Antibodies to at least one additional islet autoantigen appeared in 118 of 983 relatives (overall 5 year risk 22%, 95% CI [17.9, 26.1]). At baseline, antibodies to GAD alone (68%) were more frequent than antibodies to insulin (26%) or IA-2 (6%), but all were associated with a similar risk of developing additional autoantibodies. Risk was associated with younger age (p = 0.002) and HLA class II genotype, but was similar in high and intermediate genetic risk groups (p = 0.65). Relatives who became multiple autoantibody positive during the follow-up had increased risk of developing diabetes comparable with the risk in relatives with multiple autoantibodies at study entry. Progression of islet autoimmunity in single autoantibody positive relatives in late childhood/adult life is associated with a predominance of autoantibodies to GAD and a distinct HLA risk profile. This heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes autoimmunity has potentially important implications for disease prevention.

  4. Single-size thermometric measurements on a size distribution of neutral fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchy, C; Bakker, J M; Huismans, Y; Rouzée, A; Redlich, B; van der Meer, A F G; Bordas, C; Vrakking, M J J; Lépine, F

    2013-05-10

    We present measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons emitted from mass-selected neutral fullerenes, performed at the intracavity free electron laser FELICE. We make use of mass-specific vibrational resonances in the infrared domain to selectively heat up one out of a distribution of several fullerene species. Efficient energy redistribution leads to decay via thermionic emission. Time-resolved electron kinetic energy distributions measured give information on the decay rate of the selected fullerene. This method is generally applicable to all neutral species that exhibit thermionic emission and provides a unique tool to study the stability of mass-selected neutral clusters and molecules that are only available as part of a size distribution.

  5. Challenging the present definition of "normal" vitamin D levels obtained by a single blood test. Can we develop a formula to predict vitamin D levels in the 4 seasons from a single season's measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandeter, Howard

    2014-08-01

    Publications on the health effects of vitamin D (25(OH) D) had almost triplicate in the last 10years, not only for its known "calcemic effects" (calcium, phosphor, PTH), but for the more recent findings on its "non-calcemic effects" (all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and relation with certain types of cancer). Part of these publications deal with the definition of what is a "normal" circulating level of 25(OH) D that may distinguish between health and disease. The literature also deals with seasonal variations of vitamin D, showing levels that rise in summer and fall in winter and with DBP phenotypes and geographical location that affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements. Despite the knowledge of the existence of these phenomena many studies on vitamin D fail to acknowledge the time of the year the blood sample was extracted. Thus, when we compare results from different studies without defining the season that the samples were drawn, we compare incomparable figures. Furthermore, it is quite absurd to define "normal levels" as a static measure (over or under a certain value) using a single blood test when the value measured is known to change with seasons. Knowing that people have different vitamin D levels in different seasons of the year, we should ask ourselves which of these measurements should be used to define a "real" or "normal" level? Is it the lower one? Is there a "mean measure" that should be used for this matter? If yes, how do we obtain it? Do we have to make 4 seasonal measurements in each patient? Alternatively, might there be a possibility of developing a formula to help us obtain the mean from a single season's measure or one season's prediction from another season's measurement? And knowing that DBP phenotypes and geographical location affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements; shouldn't we include this in the equation? In this article I will discuss the hypothetical existence of an Individual Mean Annual vitamin D level that I will

  6. The distribution of 32P in the rice plant applied to a single root and to the whole root system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.; Gandanegara, S.; Sisworo, W.H.; Rasyid, H.; Sumarna, Nana

    1982-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments to study the distribution of 32 P applied to a single root and to the whole root system have been carried out. Data from experiment 1 showed that 32 P activity in shoots rose with the progress of time; where 32 P was applied to a single root 6 hours after isotope application the 32 P activity in the shoots of plants was higher than if the isotope was applied to the whole root system. Three hours after 32 P application, plants with 50% of roots had a higher 32 P activity than plants with no root cutting. Data from experiment 2 showed that 32 P activity of plants that received 32 P through a single root only was lower than those that received 32 P through the whole root system. This was in contradiction with the data obtained in experiment 1. Experiment 2 also showed that 32 P activity increased with time. Autoradiographs of plants in experiment 1 and 2 showed that 32 P was distributed through the whole plant, although when the isotope was only applied to a single root. (author)

  7. Distribution and migration of aftershocks of the 2010 Mw 7.4 Ogasawara Islands intraplate normal-faulting earthquake related to a fracture zone in the Pacific plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; No, Tetsuo; Kaiho, Yuka; Kodaira, Shuichi; Yamashita, Mikiya; Sato, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takeshi

    2014-04-01

    describe the aftershocks of a Mw 7.4 intraplate normal-faulting earthquake that occurred 150 km east Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, on 21 December 2010. It occurred beneath the outer trench slope of the Izu-Ogasawara trench, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plate. Aftershock observations using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) began soon after the earthquake and multichannel seismic reflection surveys were conducted across the aftershock area. Aftershocks were distributed in a NW-SE belt 140 km long, oblique to the N-S trench axis. They formed three subparallel lineations along a fracture zone in the Pacific plate. The OBS observations combined with data from stations on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands revealed a migration of the aftershock activity. The first hour, which likely outlines the main shock rupture, was limited to an 80 km long area in the central part of the subsequent aftershock area. The first hour activity occurred mainly around, and appears to have been influenced by, nearby large seamounts and oceanic plateau, such as the Ogasawara Plateau and the Uyeda Ridge. Over the following days, the aftershocks expanded beyond or into these seamounts and plateau. The aftershock distribution and migration suggest that crustal heterogeneities related to a fracture zone and large seamounts and oceanic plateau in the incoming Pacific plate affected the rupture of the main shock. Such preexisting structures may influence intraplate normal-faulting earthquakes in other regions of plate flexure prior to subduction.

  8. Feasibility of optimizing the dose distribution in lung tumors using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography guided dose prescriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Miften, M.M.; Zhou, S.; Bell, M.; Munley, M.T.; Whiddon, C.S.; Craciunescu, O.; Baydush, A.H.; Wong, T.; Rosenman, J.G.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Marks, L.B.

    2004-01-01

    The information provided by functional images may be used to guide radiotherapy planning by identifying regions that require higher radiation dose. In this work we investigate the dosimetric feasibility of delivering dose to lung tumors in proportion to the fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose activity distribution from positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). The rationale for delivering dose in proportion to the tumor FDG-PET activity distribution is based on studies showing that FDG uptake is correlated to tumor cell proliferation rate, which is shown to imply that this dose delivery strategy is theoretically capable of providing the same duration of local control at all voxels in tumor. Target dose delivery was constrained by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) maps of normal lung perfusion, which restricted irradiation of highly perfused lung and imposed dose-function constraints. Dose-volume constraints were imposed on all other critical structures. All dose-volume/function constraints were considered to be soft, i.e., critical structure doses corresponding to volume/function constraint levels were minimized while satisfying the target prescription, thus permitting critical structure doses to minimally exceed dose constraint levels. An intensity modulation optimization methodology was developed to deliver this radiation, and applied to two lung cancer patients. Dosimetric feasibility was assessed by comparing spatially normalized dose-volume histograms from the nonuniform dose prescription (FDG-PET proportional) to those from a uniform dose prescription with equivalent tumor integral dose. In both patients, the optimization was capable of delivering the nonuniform target prescription with the same ease as the uniform target prescription, despite SPECT restrictions that effectively diverted dose from high to low perfused normal lung. In one patient, both prescriptions incurred similar critical structure dosages, below dose-volume/function limits

  9. A comparison study of steady-state vibrations with single fractional-order and distributed-order derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Jun-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a detailed study and comparison for the one-degree-of-freedom steady-state vibrations under harmonic driving with a single fractional-order derivative and a distributed-order derivative. For each of the two vibration systems, we consider the stiffness contribution factor and damping contribution factor of the term of fractional derivatives, the amplitude and the phase difference for the response. The effects of driving frequency on these response quantities are discussed. Also the influences of the order α of the fractional derivative and the parameter γ parameterizing the weight function in the distributed-order derivative are analyzed. Two cases display similar response behaviors, but the stiffness contribution factor and damping contribution factor of the distributed-order derivative are almost monotonic change with the parameter γ, not exactly like the case of single fractional-order derivative for the order α. The case of the distributed-order derivative provides us more options for the weight function and parameters.

  10. Controlling charges distribution at the surface of a single GaN nanowire by in-situ strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the strain on the charge distribution at the surface of a GaN semiconductor nanowire (NW has been investigated inside transmission electron microscope (TEM by in-situ off-axis electron holography. The outer and inner surfaces of the NW bent axially under compression of two Au electrodes were differently strained, resulting in difference of their Fermi levels. Consequently, the free electrons flow from the high Fermi level to the low level until the two Fermi levels aligned in a line. The potential distributions induced by charge redistribution in the two vacuum sides of the bent NW were examined respectively, and the opposite nature of the bounded charges on the outer and inner surfaces of the bent NW was identified. The results provide experimental evidence that the charge distribution at the surfaces of a single GaN NW can be controlled by different strains created along the NW.

  11. Estimating statistical uncertainty of Monte Carlo efficiency-gain in the context of a correlated sampling Monte Carlo code for brachytherapy treatment planning with non-normal dose distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D; Sampson, Andrew J; Deniz, Daniel; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun; Williamson, Jeffrey; Malusek, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    Correlated sampling Monte Carlo methods can shorten computing times in brachytherapy treatment planning. Monte Carlo efficiency is typically estimated via efficiency gain, defined as the reduction in computing time by correlated sampling relative to conventional Monte Carlo methods when equal statistical uncertainties have been achieved. The determination of the efficiency gain uncertainty arising from random effects, however, is not a straightforward task specially when the error distribution is non-normal. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the F distribution and standardized uncertainty propagation methods (widely used in metrology to estimate uncertainty of physical measurements) for predicting confidence intervals about efficiency gain estimates derived from single Monte Carlo runs using fixed-collision correlated sampling in a simplified brachytherapy geometry. A bootstrap based algorithm was used to simulate the probability distribution of the efficiency gain estimates and the shortest 95% confidence interval was estimated from this distribution. It was found that the corresponding relative uncertainty was as large as 37% for this particular problem. The uncertainty propagation framework predicted confidence intervals reasonably well; however its main disadvantage was that uncertainties of input quantities had to be calculated in a separate run via a Monte Carlo method. The F distribution noticeably underestimated the confidence interval. These discrepancies were influenced by several photons with large statistical weights which made extremely large contributions to the scored absorbed dose difference. The mechanism of acquiring high statistical weights in the fixed-collision correlated sampling method was explained and a mitigation strategy was proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of the structure and composition of Au-Ag bimetallic spherical nanoparticles using single particle ICP-MS measurements performed with normal and high temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéri, Albert; Kálomista, Ildikó; Ungor, Ditta; Bélteki, Ádám; Csapó, Edit; Dékány, Imre; Prohaska, Thomas; Galbács, Gábor

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the information that can be obtained by combining normal and high resolution single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) measurements for spherical bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) was assessed. One commercial certified core-shell Au-Ag nanoparticle and three newly synthesized and fully characterized homogenous alloy Au-Ag nanoparticle batches of different composition were used in the experiments as BNP samples. By scrutinizing the high resolution spICP-MS signal time profiles, it was revealed that the width of the signal peak linearly correlates with the diameter of nanoparticles. It was also observed that the width of the peak for same-size nanoparticles is always significantly larger for Au than for Ag. It was also found that it can be reliably determined whether a BNP is of homogeneus alloy or core-shell structure and that, in the case of the latter, the core comprises of which element. We also assessed the performance of several ICP-MS based analytical methods in the analysis of the quantitative composition of bimetallic nanoparticles. Out of the three methods (normal resolution spICP-MS, direct NP nebulization with solution-mode ICP-MS, and solution-mode ICP-MS after the acid dissolution of the nanoparticles), the best accuracy and precision was achieved by spICP-MS. This method allows the determination of the composition with less than 10% relative inaccuracy and better than 3% precision. The analysis is fast and only requires the usual standard colloids for size calibration. Combining the results from both quantitative and structural analyses, the core diameter and shell thickness of core-shell particles can also be calculated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Single-mode biological distributed feedback lasers based on vitamin B2 doped gelatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Maier-Flaig, F.; Lemmer, U.

    Biological second-order distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are presented. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) doped gelatin as active material is spin-coated onto nanoimprinted polymer with low refractive index. DFB grating periods of 368 nm and 384 nm yield laser emission at 543 nm and 562 nm, respectively....

  14. Species abundance distributions : moving beyond single prediction theories to integration within an ecological framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGill, Brian J.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Gray, John S.; Alonso, David; Anderson, Marti J.; Benecha, Habtamu Kassa; Dornelas, Maria; Enquist, Brian J.; Green, Jessica L.; He, Fangliang; Hurlbert, Allen H.; Magurran, Anne E.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Maurer, Brian A.; Ostling, Annette; Soykan, Candan U.; Ugland, Karl I.; White, Ethan P.

    2007-01-01

    Species abundance distributions (SADs) follow one of ecology's oldest and most universal laws - every community shows a hollow curve or hyperbolic shape on a histogram with many rare species and just a few common species. Here, we review theoretical, empirical and statistical developments in the

  15. Species abundance distributions: moving beyond single prediction theories to integration within an ecological framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGill, B.J.; Etienne, R.S.; Gray, J.S.; Alonso, D.; Anderson, M.J.; Benecha, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    Species abundance distributions (SADs) follow one of ecology's oldest and most universal laws ¿ every community shows a hollow curve or hyperbolic shape on a histogram with many rare species and just a few common species. Here, we review theoretical, empirical and statistical developments in the

  16. Test of Different Air Distribution Concepts for a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Damsgaard, Charlotte; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, air is supplied to the aircraft cabin either by individual nozzles or by supply slots. The air is expected to be fully mixed in the cabin, and the system is considered to be a mixing ventilation system. This paper will describe different air distribution systems known from other ap...

  17. Anatomy of the collecting system of lower pole of the kidney in patients with a single renal stone: a comparative study with individuals with normal kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorrodi, Afshar; Buhluli, Abulfazel; Fathi, Samad

    2010-07-01

    At least 5% of women and 12% of men during their lives will experience renal colic, at least once. Many theories have been suggested for the etiology of renal stones and variations in the anatomy of the collecting system have been suggested to have a role in stone formation. This study was conducted to examine the role of variation of lower pole collecting system in patients with lower pole kidney stone and compared the same in normal persons (kidney donors). Investigation for the anatomy of the lower pole of the kidney (angle between lower infundibulum and pelvis, length and diameter of the infundibulum and number and pattern distribution of calyces) was carried out using intravenous pyelogram (IVP) in 100 cases with urinary stone (study cases) and 400 persons with normal kidneys (control subjects). The study was a retrospective cross-sectional case control study. Results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney and independent sample chi square tests. The mean infundibulum-pelvic angle (IPA) in control subjects and in patients was 112.5 +/- 10.7 and 96.6 +/- 28.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between reduced angle and stone formation (P= kidney (IPIL) in controls and study patients was 22.5 +/- 4.1 and 27.5 +/- 7.7, respectively, which was statistically significant (Pkidney (LPCN) in controls and study patients was 2.6 +/- 0.6 and 3 +/- 0.9, respectively, which was statistically significant (P = or anatomy was more common in patients with lower pole kidney stone and should be considered a risk factor for forming lower pole kidney stone.

  18. Inhibition of nucleotide excision repair by fludarabine in normal lymphocytes in vitro, measured by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kawai, Yasukazu; Ueda, Takanori [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Alkylating agents or platinum analogues initiate several excision repair mechanisms, which involve incision of the DNA strand, excision of the damaged nucleotide, gap filling by DNA resynthesis, and rejoining by ligation. The previous study described that nucleotide excision repair permitted incorporation of fludarabine nucleoside (F-area-A) into the repair patch, thereby inhibiting the DNA resynthesis. In the present study, to clarify the repair kinetics in view of the inhibition by F-ara-A, normal lymphocytes were stimulated to undergo nucleotide excision repair by ultraviolet C (UV) irradiation in the presence or absence of F-ara-A. The repair kinetics were determined as DNA single strand breaks resulting from the incision and the rejoining using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. DNA resynthesis was evaluated in terms of the uptake of tritiated thymidine into DNA. The lymphocytes initiated the incision step maximally at 1 h, and completed the rejoining process within 4 h after UV exposure. UV also initiated thymidine uptake, which increased time-dependently and reached a plateau at 4 h. A 2-h pre-incubation with F-ara-A inhibited the repair in a concentration-dependent manner, with the maximal inhibition by 5 {mu}M. This inhibitory effect was demonstrated by the reduction of the thymidine uptake and by the inhibition of the rejoining. A DNA polymerase inhibitor, aphidicolin, and a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, hydroxyurea, were not so inhibitory to the repair process as F-ara-A at equimolar concentrations. The present findings suggest that inhibition of nucleotide excision repair may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer, especially in the context of resistant cells with an increased repair capacity. (author)

  19. Comparison of plantar pressure distribution in subjects with normal and flat feet during gait DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n4p290

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Felipe Nazario

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possible relationship between loss of the normal medial longitudinal arch measured by the height of the navicular bone in a static situation and variables related to plantar pressure distribution measured in a dynamic situation. Eleven men (21 ± 3 years, 74 ± 10 kg and 175 ± 4 cm participated in the study. The Novel Emed-AT System was used for the acquisition of plantar pressure distribution data (peak pressure, mean pressure, contact area, and relative load at a sampling rate of 50 Hz. The navicular drop test proposed by Brody (1982 was used to assess the height of the navicular bone for classification of the subjects. The results were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, with the level of significance set at p ≤ 0.05. Differences were observed between the two groups in the mid-foot region for all variables studied, with the observation of higher mean values in subjects with flat feet. There were also significant differences in contact area, relative load, peak pressure, and mean pressure between groups. The present study demonstrates the importance of paying attention to subjects with flat feet because changes in plantar pressure distribution are associated with discomfort and injuries.

  20. Type distribution of lymphomas in Lebanon: five-year single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader-Ghorra, Claude; Rassy, Marc; Naderi, Samah; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Kattan, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomas represent the fifth most frequent cancer in Lebanon. However, little is known concerning epidemiologic characteristics and distribution of lymphoid neoplasms according to the 2008 WHO classification. We conducted a retrospective study of lymphoma cases diagnosed from 2008 till 2012 at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital. A total of 502 new cases of lymphoma were diagnosed at our institution during a five year period: 119 cases (24%) were Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) and 383 cases (76%) were non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). HLs were equally distributed in both sexes with a mean age at diagnosis of 30 years. Among NHL, 87% (332 cases) were B cell lymphomas, 9% (34 cases) were T cell lymphomas and 4%(17 cases) were classified as precursor lymphoid neoplasms. Among B cell lymphomas, 44% (147 cases) were diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 20% (65 cases) follicular lymphomas and 8% (27 cases) mantle cell lymphomas. DLBCL were equally distributed in both sexes with a mean age of 58 years. Follicular lymphomas were characterized by a male predominance (57%) and a mean age of 60 years. Mantle cell lymphomas showed a pronounced male predominance (85%) with a mean age of 60 years in men and 70 years in women. Some 72% of patients having T cell lymphomas were men, with a mean age of 57 years in men and 45 years in women, while 65% of patients having precursor lymphoid neoplasms were women with a mean age of 22 years in women and 30 years in men. The lymphoma subtype distribution in Lebanon is unique when compared to other countries from around the world. In fact, Hodgkin and follicular lymphomas are more frequent than in most Far Eastern, European and American countries, while T-cell lymphomas and DLBCL are less frequent.

  1. Air flow distribution in and around a single-sided naturally ventilated room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eftekhari, M.M.; Marjanovic, L.D.; Pinnock, D.J. [Loughborough University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil and Building Engineering

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this research is to compare calculated and measured air flow distributions inside a test room which is naturally ventilated. The test room is situated in a relatively sheltered location and to visualise the resultant local wind pattern around the room for all prevailing wind directions, wind tunnel trials were carried out. Both the wind tunnel and full-scale measurements show that the wind direction at the test cell was generally restricted to either a westerly or an easterly direction. To investigate air flow inside the room, the air pressures and velocities across the openings together with indoor air temperature and velocity at four locations and six different levels are measured. The experimental results demonstrate that for both winter and summer the air was entering the test room at bottom and leaving at the top louvre. Separate air flow and thermal modelling programs are used to predict the spatial distribution of the air flow and thermal comfort. The air flow distribution was predicted using a network air flow program. The predicted flow showed similar trends and the simulation results were in agreement with the measured data. An explicit finite-difference thermal modeling simulation package was used to predict the thermal comfort indices.(author)

  2. A novel single-phase phase space-based voltage mode controller for distributed static compensator to improve voltage profile of distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, Abdollah; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Farhoodnea, Masoud; Zayandehroodi, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new phase space based voltage mode controller for D-STATCOM was proposed. • The proposed compensator was tested to mitigate voltage disturbances in distribution systems. • Voltage fluctuation, voltage sag and voltage swell are considered to evaluate the performance of the proposed compensator. - Abstract: Distribution static synchronous compensator (D-STATCOM) has been developed and attained a great interest to compensate the power quality disturbances of distribution systems. In this paper, a novel single-phase control scheme for D-STATCOM is proposed to improve voltage profile at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The proposed voltage mode (VM) controller is based on the phase space algorithm, which is able to rapidly detect and mitigate any voltage deviations from reference voltage including voltage sags and voltage swells. To investigate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed compensator, a system is modeled using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results approve the capability of the proposed VM controller to provide a regulated and disturbance-free voltage for the connected loads at the PCC

  3. Organ distribution of 111In-oxine labeled lymphocytes in normal subjects and in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shin; Uchida, Tatsumi; Yui, Tokuo; Kariyone, Shigeo

    1982-01-01

    T and B lymphocyte survival and organ distribution were studied by using 111 In-oxine labeled autologous lymphocytes in 3 normal subjects, 3 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 9 with malignant lymphoma (ML).FDisappearance curves of the labeled lymphocytes showed two exponential components in all cases. The half time of the first component was within 1 hour in all cases. That of the second one was 50.7 +- 6.4 hours for all lymphocytes, 52.0 +- 5.5 hours for T lymphocytes and 31.6 +- 4.9 hours for B lymphocytes in normal subjects, 192.6 hours for T-CLL and 57.7 +- 46.9 hours for B-CLL, and 60.2 +- 30.7 hours for T cell type of malignant lymphoma (T-ML) and 63.7 +- 24.5 hours for B cell type of malignant lymphoma (B-ML). These data might suggest that all lymphocyte disappearance curve reflected T lymphocyte disappearance curve chiefly, and the half time of B lymphocytes was shorter than that of T lymphocytes. In the T-CLL, the half time of the second component prolonged extremely in comparison with that of normal T lymphocytes. The labeled cells were accumulated in the lungs, spleen and liver immediately after the infusion, then in the spleen most remarkably 1 hour after the infusion in all cases. The radioactivity over the bone marrow was observed from 1 hour in all cases and that of lymph nodes were first noticed 18 hours after the infusion in T-CLL and T-ML, 68 hours in B-CLL but were not noticed in normal subjects and B-ML. The recovery of labeled cells in the blood was 28.5 +- 7.9% for all lymphocytes, 19.7 +- 1.9% for T lymphocytes and 11.0 +- 5.1% for B lymphocytes in normal subjects, 25.8 +- 1.6% for CLL, and 17.6 +- 11.0% for T-ML, 7.7 +- 5.2% for B-ML, respectively. (J.P.N.)

  4. Comparison of GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 mRNA and the subcellular distribution of their proteins in normal human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Gustafson, W. C.; Thompson, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Basal, "insulin-independent" glucose uptake into skeletal muscle is provided by glucose transporters positioned at the plasma membrane. The relative amount of the three glucose transporters expressed in muscle has not been previously quantified. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) methods, we found in normal human muscle that GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 mRNA were expressed at 90 +/- 10, 46 +/- 4, and 156 +/- 12 copies/ng RNA, respectively. Muscle was fractionated by DNase digestion and differential sedimentation into membrane fractions enriched in plasma membranes (PM) or low-density microsomes (LDM). GLUT1 and GLUT4 proteins were distributed 57% to 67% in LDM, whereas GLUT3 protein was at least 88% in the PM-enriched fractions. These data suggest that basal glucose uptake into resting human muscle could be provided in part by each of these three isoforms.

  5. Genotypic distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms in oral cancer: global scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Shaleen; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2016-11-01

    Globocan 2012 reports the global oral cancer incidence of 300,373 new oral cancer cases annually, contributing to 2.1 % of the world cancer burden. The major well-established risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco, betel/areca nut, alcohol and high-risk oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) 16/18. However, only 5-10 % of individuals with high-risk lifestyle develop oral cancer. Thus, genomic variants in individuals represented as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence susceptibility to oral cancer. With a view to understanding the role of genomic variants in oral cancer, we reviewed SNPs in case-control studies with a minimum of 100 cases and 100 controls. PubMed and HuGE navigator search engines were used to obtain data published from 1990 to 2015, which identified 67 articles investigating the role of SNPs in oral cancer. Single publications reported 93 SNPs in 55 genes, with 34 SNPs associated with a risk of oral cancer. Meta-analysis of data in multiple studies defined nine SNPs associated with a risk of oral cancer. The genes were associated with critical functions deregulated in cancers, including cell proliferation, immune function, inflammation, transcription, DNA repair and xenobiotic metabolism.

  6. Thermal Effects on the Single-Mode Regime of Distributed Modal Filtering Rod Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Poli, Federica; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2012-01-01

    Power scaling of fiber laser systems requires the development of innovative active fibers, capable of providing high pump absorption, ultralarge effective area, high-order mode suppression, and resilience to thermal effects. Thermally induced refractive index change has been recently appointed...... as one major limitation to the achievable power, causing degradation of the modal properties and preventing to obtain stable diffraction-limited output beam. In this paper, the effects of thermally induced refractive index change on the guiding properties of a double-cladding distributed modal filtering...

  7. Minimizing the energy spread within a single bunch by shaping its charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.W.

    1985-03-01

    It has been known for some time that partial compensation of the longitudinal wake field effects can be obtained for any bunch by placing it ahead of the accelerating crest (in space), thereby letting the positive rising sinusoidal field offset the negative beam loading field. The work presented in this paper shows that it is possible to obtain complete compensation, i.e., to reduce the energy spread essentially to zero by properly shaping the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and by placing it at the correct position on the wave. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Feasibility of quantification of the distribution of blood flow in the normal human fetal circulation using CMR: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seed Mike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the first phase contrast (PC cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR measurements of the distribution of blood flow in twelve late gestation human fetuses. These were obtained using a retrospective gating technique known as metric optimised gating (MOG. Methods A validation experiment was performed in five adult volunteers where conventional cardiac gating was compared with MOG. Linear regression and Bland Altman plots were used to compare MOG with the gold standard of conventional gating. Measurements using MOG were then made in twelve normal fetuses at a median gestational age of 37 weeks (range 30–39 weeks. Flow was measured in the major fetal vessels and indexed to the fetal weight. Results There was good correlation between the conventional gated and MOG measurements in the adult validation experiment (R=0.96. Mean flows in ml/min/kg with standard deviations in the major fetal vessels were as follows: combined ventricular output (CVO 540±101, main pulmonary artery (MPA 327±68, ascending aorta (AAo 198±38, superior vena cava (SVC 147±46, ductus arteriosus (DA 220±39,pulmonary blood flow (PBF 106±59,descending aorta (DAo 273±85, umbilical vein (UV 160±62, foramen ovale (FO107±54. Results expressed as mean percentages of the CVO with standard deviations were as follows: MPA 60±4, AAo37±4, SVC 28±7, DA 41±8, PBF 19±10, DAo50±12, UV 30±9, FO 21±12. Conclusion This study demonstrates how PC CMR with MOG is a feasible technique for measuring the distribution of the normal human fetal circulation in late pregnancy. Our preliminary results are in keeping with findings from previous experimental work in fetal lambs.

  9. Feasibility of quantification of the distribution of blood flow in the normal human fetal circulation using CMR: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Mike; van Amerom, Joshua F P; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Al Nafisi, Bahiyah; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Jaeggi, Edgar; Jansz, Michael S; Macgowan, Christopher K

    2012-11-26

    We present the first phase contrast (PC) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) measurements of the distribution of blood flow in twelve late gestation human fetuses. These were obtained using a retrospective gating technique known as metric optimised gating (MOG). A validation experiment was performed in five adult volunteers where conventional cardiac gating was compared with MOG. Linear regression and Bland Altman plots were used to compare MOG with the gold standard of conventional gating. Measurements using MOG were then made in twelve normal fetuses at a median gestational age of 37 weeks (range 30-39 weeks). Flow was measured in the major fetal vessels and indexed to the fetal weight. There was good correlation between the conventional gated and MOG measurements in the adult validation experiment (R=0.96). Mean flows in ml/min/kg with standard deviations in the major fetal vessels were as follows: combined ventricular output (CVO) 540 ± 101, main pulmonary artery (MPA) 327 ± 68, ascending aorta (AAo) 198 ± 38, superior vena cava (SVC) 147 ± 46, ductus arteriosus (DA) 220 ± 39,pulmonary blood flow (PBF) 106 ± 59,descending aorta (DAo) 273 ± 85, umbilical vein (UV) 160 ± 62, foramen ovale (FO)107 ± 54. Results expressed as mean percentages of the CVO with standard deviations were as follows: MPA 60 ± 4, AAo37 ± 4, SVC 28 ± 7, DA 41 ± 8, PBF 19 ± 10, DAo50 ± 12, UV 30 ± 9, FO 21 ± 12. This study demonstrates how PC CMR with MOG is a feasible technique for measuring the distribution of the normal human fetal circulation in late pregnancy. Our preliminary results are in keeping with findings from previous experimental work in fetal lambs.

  10. Visual CRO display of pulse height distribution including discriminator setting for a single channel X-ray analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    An outline for a simple pulse spectroscope which attaches to a standard laboratory CRO is presented. The peak amplitude voltage of each pulse from the linear amplifier of a single channel X-ray analyser is stored for the duration of one oscilloscope trace. For each amplifier pulse, input from the discriminator is tested and if these is coincidence of pulses the oscilloscope beam is blanked for approximately the first 2 cm of its traverse across the screen. Repetition of pulses forms a pulse height distribution with a rectangular dark area marking the position of the discriminator window. (author)

  11. Application of the single-channel continuous synthesis method to criticity and power distribution calculations in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano Asensio, Gregorio.

    1976-06-01

    A detailed power distribution calculation in a large power reactor requires the solution of the multigroup 3D diffusion equations. Using the finite difference method, this computation is too expensive to be performed for design purposes. This work is devoted to the single channel continous synthesis method: the choice of the trial functions and the determination of the mixing functions are discussed in details; 2D and 3D results are presented. The method is applied to the calculation of the IAEA ''Benchmark'' reactor and the results obtained are compared with a finite element resolution and with published results [fr

  12. Determination of stress distribution in III-V single crystal layers for heterogeneous integration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M.; Hayashi, S. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goorsky, M.S.; Sandhu, R.; Chang-Chien, P.; Gutierrez-Aitken, A.; Tsai, R. [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Noori, A.; Poust, B. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Double crystal X-ray diffraction imaging and a variable temperature stage are employed to determine the stress distribution in heterogeneous wafer bonded layers though the superposition of images produced at different rocking curve angles. The stress distribution in InP layers transferred to a silicon substrate at room temperature exhibits an anticlastic deformation, with different regions of the wafer experiencing different signs of curvature. Measurements at elevated temperatures ({<=}125 C) reveals that differences in thermal expansion coefficients dominate the stress and that interfacial particulates introduce very high local stress gradients that increase with increased temperature. For thinned GaAs substrates (100 {mu}m) bonded using patterned metal interlayers to a separate GaAs substrate at {approx}200 C, residual stresses are produced at room temperature due to local stress points from metallization contacts and vias and the complex stress patterns can be observed using the diffraction imaging technique. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Reliable Grid Condition Detection and Control of Single-Phase Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai

    standards addressed to the grid-connected systems will harmonize the combination of the DPGS and the classical power plants. Consequently, the major tasks of this thesis were to develop new grid condition detection techniques and intelligent control in order to allow the DPGS not only to deliver power...... to the utility grid but also to sustain it. This thesis was divided into two main parts, namely "Grid Condition Detection" and "Control of Single-Phase DPGS". In the first part, the main focus was on reliable Phase Locked Loop (PLL) techniques for monitoring the grid voltage and on grid impedance estimation...... techniques. Additionally, a new technique for detecting the islanding mode has been developed and successfully tested. In the second part, the main reported research was concentrated around adaptive current controllers based on the information provided by the grid condition detection techniques. To guarantee...

  14. Distributed MPC based consensus for single-integrator multi-agent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaomeng; Fan, Ming-Can; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses model predictive control schemes for consensus in multi-agent systems (MASs) with discrete-time single-integrator dynamics under switching directed interaction graphs. The control horizon is extended to be greater than one which endows the closed-loop system with extra degree of freedom. We derive sufficient conditions on the sampling period and the interaction graph to achieve consensus by using the property of infinite products of stochastic matrices. Consensus can be achieved asymptotically if the sampling period is selected such that the interaction graph among agents has a directed spanning tree jointly. Significantly, if the interaction graph always has a spanning tree, one can select an arbitrary large sampling period to guarantee consensus. Finally, several simulations are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-time monitoring of single-photon detectors against eavesdropping in quantum key distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago Ferreira; Xavier, Guilherme B; Temporão, Guilherme P; von der Weid, Jean Pierre

    2012-08-13

    By employing real-time monitoring of single-photon avalanche photodiodes we demonstrate how two types of practical eavesdropping strategies, the after-gate and time-shift attacks, may be detected. Both attacks are identified with the detectors operating without any special modifications, making this proposal well suited for real-world applications. The monitoring system is based on accumulating statistics of the times between consecutive detection events, and extracting the afterpulse and overall efficiency of the detectors in real-time using mathematical models fit to the measured data. We are able to directly observe changes in the afterpulse probabilities generated from the after-gate and faint after-gate attacks, as well as different timing signatures in the time-shift attack. We also discuss the applicability of our scheme to other general blinding attacks.

  16. Fast all-optical flip-flop based on a single distributed feedback laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Koen; Morthier, Geert; Baets, Roel

    2008-07-21

    Since there is an increasing demand for fast networks and switches, the electronic data processing imposes a severe bottleneck and all-optical processing techniques will be required in the future. All-optical flip-flops are one of the key components because they can act as temporary memory elements. Several designs have already been demonstrated but they are often relatively slow or complex to fabricate. We demonstrate experimentally fast flip-flop operation in a single DFB laser diode which is one of the standard elements in today's telecommunication industry. Injecting continuous wave light in the laser diode, a bistability is obtained due to the spatial hole burning effect. We can switch between the two states by using pulses with energies below 200 fJ resulting in flip-flop operation with switching times below 75 ps and repetition rates of up to 2 GHz.

  17. Pressure Distribution on Inner Wall of Parabolic Nozzle in Laser Propulsion with Single Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cunyan; Hong, Yanji; Wen, Ming; Song, Junling; Fang, Juan

    2011-11-01

    A system based of dynamic pressure sensors was established to study the time resolved pressure distribution on the inner wall of a parabolic nozzle in laser propulsion. Dynamic calibration and static calibration of the test system were made and the results showed that frequency response was up to 412 kHz and linear error was less than 10%. Experimental model was a parabolic nozzle and three test points were preset along one generating line. This study showed that experimental results agreed well with those obtained by numerical calculation way in pressure evolution tendency. The peak value of the calculation was higher than that of the experiment at each tested orifice because of the limitation of the numerical models. The results of this study were very useful for analyzing the energy deposition in laser propulsion and modifying numerical models.

  18. Diagnosis and Antibiotic Resistance Distribution in Children with Urinary Tract Infection: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime Renda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is a common disease in childhood. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of urinary analysis, assess the role of urine culture in determining its necessity and evaluate etiologic agents and antimicrobial resistance patterns in children with urinary tract infection.Methods: Our study was made by evaluating the patients who applied to the Antalya Research and Training Hospital- Turkey, between 2015 and 2017. A total 237 urine analysis and urine culture were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken a reference for microscopic and chemical examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated. The culture and antibiogram results were examined and antibiotic resistance with infectious agents frequency was evaluated.Results: The 42.4% of culture negative samples showed leukocyte esterase, nitrite, bacterial and leukocyte counts, which are indicative of infection in urine analysis, were found in normal range. The highest sensitivity (90% was in the presence of leucocyte esterase and bacteria, while the highest specificity (99.4% was in the presence of nitrite alone or with other components (leucocyte or leucocyte esterase. The highest antibiotic resistance was found in beta lactam antibiotics. The lowest antibiotic resistance was detected in the carbapenem followed by fluoroquinolone group antibiotics.Conclusion: Microscopic and chemical examination of urine analysis can give us information about urine culture requirement. The observation of increasing overall resistance to antibiotics authorize further studies that lead to new recommendations to antibiotic use in children and adolescents.

  19. Parametric analysis of plastic strain and force distribution in single pass metal spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, Shashank; Tejesh, Chiruvolu Mohan; Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash; Suresh, Kurra

    2013-01-01

    Metal spinning also known as spin forming is one of the sheet metal working processes by which an axis-symmetric part can be formed from a flat sheet metal blank. Parts are produced by pressing a blunt edged tool or roller on to the blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. This paper discusses about the setting up a 3-D finite element simulation of single pass metal spinning in LS-Dyna. Four parameters were considered namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, feed ratio and mandrel speed and the variation in forces and plastic strain were analysed using the full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) method of simulation experiments. For some of these DOE runs, physical experiments on extra deep drawing (EDD) sheet metal were carried out using En31 tool on a lathe machine. Simulation results are able to predict the zone of unsafe thinning in the sheet and high forming forces that are hint to the necessity for less-expensive and semi-automated machine tools to help the household and small scale spinning workers widely prevalent in India

  20. Parametric analysis of plastic strain and force distribution in single pass metal spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shashank; Tejesh, Chiruvolu Mohan; Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash; Suresh, Kurra

    2013-12-01

    Metal spinning also known as spin forming is one of the sheet metal working processes by which an axis-symmetric part can be formed from a flat sheet metal blank. Parts are produced by pressing a blunt edged tool or roller on to the blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. This paper discusses about the setting up a 3-D finite element simulation of single pass metal spinning in LS-Dyna. Four parameters were considered namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, feed ratio and mandrel speed and the variation in forces and plastic strain were analysed using the full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) method of simulation experiments. For some of these DOE runs, physical experiments on extra deep drawing (EDD) sheet metal were carried out using En31 tool on a lathe machine. Simulation results are able to predict the zone of unsafe thinning in the sheet and high forming forces that are hint to the necessity for less-expensive and semi-automated machine tools to help the household and small scale spinning workers widely prevalent in India.

  1. Parametric analysis of plastic strain and force distribution in single pass metal spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Shashank, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Tejesh, Chiruvolu Mohan, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Suresh, Kurra, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Shamirpet, Hyderabad, 500078, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2013-12-16

    Metal spinning also known as spin forming is one of the sheet metal working processes by which an axis-symmetric part can be formed from a flat sheet metal blank. Parts are produced by pressing a blunt edged tool or roller on to the blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. This paper discusses about the setting up a 3-D finite element simulation of single pass metal spinning in LS-Dyna. Four parameters were considered namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, feed ratio and mandrel speed and the variation in forces and plastic strain were analysed using the full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) method of simulation experiments. For some of these DOE runs, physical experiments on extra deep drawing (EDD) sheet metal were carried out using En31 tool on a lathe machine. Simulation results are able to predict the zone of unsafe thinning in the sheet and high forming forces that are hint to the necessity for less-expensive and semi-automated machine tools to help the household and small scale spinning workers widely prevalent in India.

  2. Hiding the Complexity: Building a Distributed ATLAS Tier-2 with a Single Resource Interface using ARC Middleware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, S; Stewart, G; Skipsey, S; Washbrook, A; Bhimji, W; Filipcic, A; Kenyon, M

    2011-01-01

    Since their inception, Grids for high energy physics have found management of data to be the most challenging aspect of operations. This problem has generally been tackled by the experiment's data management framework controlling in fine detail the distribution of data around the grid and the careful brokering of jobs to sites with co-located data. This approach, however, presents experiments with a difficult and complex system to manage as well as introducing a rigidity into the framework which is very far from the original conception of the grid. In this paper we describe how the ScotGrid distributed Tier-2, which has sites in Glasgow, Edinburgh and Durham, was presented to ATLAS as a single, unified resource using the ARC middleware stack. In this model the ScotGrid 'data store' is hosted at Glasgow and presented as a single ATLAS storage resource. As jobs are taken from the ATLAS PanDA framework, they are dispatched to the computing cluster with the fastest response time. An ARC compute element at each site then asynchronously stages the data from the data store into a local cache hosted at each site. The job is then launched in the batch system and accesses data locally. We discuss the merits of this system compared to other operational models and consider, from the point of view of the resource providers (sites), and from the resource consumers (experiments); and consider issues involved in transitions to this model.

  3. Dwell-Time Distribution, Long Pausing and Arrest of Single-Ribosome Translation through the mRNA Duplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping

    2015-10-09

    Proteins in the cell are synthesized by a ribosome translating the genetic information encoded on the single-stranded messenger RNA (mRNA). It has been shown that the ribosome can also translate through the duplex region of the mRNA by unwinding the duplex. Here, based on our proposed model of the ribosome translation through the mRNA duplex we study theoretically the distribution of dwell times of the ribosome translation through the mRNA duplex under the effect of a pulling force externally applied to the ends of the mRNA to unzip the duplex. We provide quantitative explanations of the available single molecule experimental data on the distribution of dwell times with both short and long durations, on rescuing of the long paused ribosomes by raising the pulling force to unzip the duplex, on translational arrests induced by the mRNA duplex and Shine-Dalgarno(SD)-like sequence in the mRNA. The functional consequences of the pauses or arrests caused by the mRNA duplex and the SD sequence are discussed and compared with those obtained from other types of pausing, such as those induced by "hungry" codons or interactions of specific sequences in the nascent chain with the ribosomal exit tunnel.

  4. Stress Distribution in Single Dental Implant System: Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Based on an In Vitro Experimental Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Carlos Eduardo Edwards; Chase-Diaz, Melody; Costa, Max Doria; Albarracin, Max Laurent; Paschoeto, Gabriela; Sousa, Edson Antonio Capello; Rubo, José Henrique; Borges, Ana Flávia Sanches

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the stress distribution in single implant system and to evaluate the compatibility of an in vitro model with finite element (FE) model. The in vitro model consisted of Brånemark implant; multiunit set abutment of 5 mm height; metal-ceramic screw-retained crown, and polyurethane simulating the bone. Deformations were recorded in the peri-implant region in the mesial and distal aspects, after an axial 300 N load application at the center of the occlusal aspect of the crown, using strain gauges. This in vitro model was scanned with micro CT to design a three-dimensional FE model and the strains in the peri-implant bone region were registered to check the compatibility between both models. The FE model was used to evaluate stress distribution in different parts of the system. The values obtained from the in vitro model (20-587 με) and the finite element analysis (81-588 με) showed agreement among them. The highest stresses because of axial and oblique load, respectively were 5.83 and 40 MPa for the cortical bone, 55 and 1200 MPa for the implant, and 80 and 470 MPa for the abutment screw. The FE method proved to be effective for evaluating the deformation around single implant. Oblique loads lead to higher stress concentrations.

  5. Minimizing the energy spread within a single bunch by shaping its charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.

    1984-06-01

    When electrons or positrons in a bunch pass through the periodic structure of a linear accelerator, they leave behind them energy in the form of longitudinal wake fields. The longitudinal fields left behind by early particles in a bunch decrease the energy of later particles. For a linear collider, the energy spread introduced within the bunches by this beam loading effect must be minimized because it limits the degree to which the particles can be focused to a small spot due to chromatic effects in the final focus system. For example, for the SLC, the allowable energy spread is +-0.5%. It has been known for some time that partial compensation of the longitudinal wake field effects can be obtained for any bunch by placing it ahead of the accelerating crest (in space), thereby letting the positive rising sinusoidal field offset the negative beam loading field. The work presented in this report shows that it is possible to obtain complete compensation, i.e., to reduce the energy spread essentially to zero by properly shaping the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and by placing it at the correct position on the wave

  6. Computer generation of cobalt-60 single beam dose distribution using an analytical beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, S.

    1981-01-01

    A beam dose calculation model based on evaluation of tissue air ratios (TAR) and scatter air ratios (SAR) for cobalt-60 beams of rectangular cross section has been developed. Off-central axis fall-off of primary radiation intensity is derived by an empirical formulation involving an arctangent function with the slope of the geometrical penumbra acting as an essential constant. Central axis TAR and SAR values are assessed by semi-empirical polynomial expressions employing the two sides of the rectangular field as the bariables. The model utilises a minimum number of parametric constants and is useful for computer generation of isodose curves. The model is capable of accounting for situations where wedge filters or split field shielding blocks, are encountered. Further it could be widely applied with minor modifications to several makes of the currently available cobalt-60 units. The paper explains the model and shows examples of the results obtained in comparison with the corresponding experimentally determined dose distributions. (orig.) [de

  7. Charge distribution of metallic single walled carbon nanotube–graphene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, P T; Danneau, R

    2014-01-01

    We report numeric and analytic calculations of the electrostatic properties for armchair carbon nanotube–graphene junctions. Using a semi-empirical method we first demonstrate that the equilibrium distance between a carbon nanotube and a graphene sheet varies with respect to the diameter of the carbon nanotube. We find significantly reduced values compared to AB-stacked graphene sheets in graphite, while even smaller value is found for a fullerene C 60 implying a dimensionality dependence of the equilibrium distance between graphene and the other sp 2 carbon allotropes. Then, we use conformal mapping and a charge–dipole model to study the charge distribution of the carbon nanotube–graphene junctions in various configurations. We observe that the charges are accumulated/depleted at and near the vicinity of the junctions and that capped carbon nanotubes induce a significantly smaller charge concentration at their ends than the open-end nanotubes. We demonstrate that the carbon nanotube influence on the graphene sheet is limited to only few atomic rows. Such an influence strongly depends on the distance between carbon nanotube and the graphene sheet and scales with the carbon nanotube radius, while the potential difference does not modify the length over which the charge concentration is disturbed by the presence of the tube. By studying the potential landscape of carbon nanotube–graphene junctions, our work could be used as a starting point to model the charge carrier injection in these unconventional systems. (paper)

  8. Magnetization distribution of single-particle states and 2/sup +/ rotational states from muonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Backe, H; Engfer, R; Kankeleit, E; Link, R; Michaelsen, R; Petitjean, C; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Schröder, W U; Vuilleumier, J L; Walter, H K; Zehnder, A

    1973-01-01

    The lowest states in muonic atoms are rather sensitive to the spatial distribution of the nuclear magnetization density, and several results were deduced from the broadening of the muonic 2p/sub 1/2/-1s/sub 1/2/ and 3d/sub 3/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transitions. By measuring low energetic transitions such as the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transition or nuclear gamma -transitions, it is possible to resolve the magnetic hyperfine splittings. The magnetic hf splitting of the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transition in mu /sup 115/In and of the 3/2/sup +/-1/2/sup +/ nuclear gamma -transitions in mu /sup 203/Tl at 279 keV, and in mu /sup 205/Tl at 204 keV, have been resolved. For the 2/sup +/-0/sup +/ nuclear gamma -transition in mu /sup 190,192/Os at 187 keV and 206 keV, respectively, the magnetic hf splitting of the 2/sup +/ rotational levels and the intensities of the hf components were determined from a nearly resolved doublet splitting. (7 refs).

  9. Single-mode distributed feedback laser operation with no dependence on the morphology of the gain medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umar, Muhammad [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyungtaek [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Inter-university Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heonsu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghwan [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Organic distributed feedback (DFB) lasers can be useful photonic tools for biological applications where the roles of organic materials are important, because highly coherent single mode emission with broad tuning range can be obtained. However, the formulaic structures of organic lasers, and the uses of gain media as resonators themselves, are not suitable for inducing laser emission from irregular shaped gain media, such as dye-staining cells and tissues. Here, we report a reusable photonic template comprising an exceedingly thin and discrete titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) layer on a one-dimensional (1D) quartz grating to induce single mode DFB lasing from a variety of states of optical gain media. Using the same template, the external gain media of optically thick and thin casted film, liquid, and a free-standing thick film reveal single mode lasing with reliable performance. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the 25-nm thick TiO{sub 2} disconnected grating lines support a spatially confined DFB mode in the vertical direction, even under no index difference between superstrate and substrate. Additionally, not using the typical waveguide gain layer promises high sensitivity and detection limit in refractometric sensing. These results suggest that the photonic structure may serve as a versatile sensing platform for bioapplications. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. 2D modeling of moderator flow and temperature distribution around a single channel after pressure tube/calandria tube contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behdadi, A.; Luxat, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    A 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to calculate the moderator velocity field and temperature distribution around a single channel inside the moderator of a CANDU reactor after a postulated ballooning deformation of the pressure tube (PT) into contact with the calandria tube (CT). Following contact between the hot PT and the relatively cold CT, there is a spike in heat flux to the moderator surrounding the CT which may lead to sustained CT dryout. This can detrimentally affect channel integrity if the CT post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high to result in thermal creep strain deformation. The present research is focused on establishing the limits for dryout occurrence on the CTs for the situation in which pressure tube-calandria tube contact occurs. In order to consider different location of the channels inside the calandria, both upward and downward flow directions have been analyzed. The standard κ - ε turbulence model associated with logarithmic wall function is applied to predict the effects of turbulence. The governing equations are solved by the finite element software package COMSOL. The buoyancy driven natural convection on the outer surface of a CT has been analyzed to predict the flow and temperature distribution around the single CT considering the local moderator subcooling, wall temperature and heat flux. The model also shows the effect of high CT temperature on the flow and subcooling around the CTs at higher/lower elevation depending on the flow direction in the domain. According to the flow pattern and temperature distribution, it is predicted that stable film boiling generates in the stagnation region on the cylinder. (author)

  11. Stress distribution in a transversely loaded cross-shaped single fiber SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, S.G.; Gundel, D.B.; Majumdar, B.S.; Miracle, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    In most structural applications utilizing fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs), the mechanical response normal to the fiber direction has to be considered. The transverse response is very sensitive to the interface bond strength, which has commonly been determined by testing straight-sided 90 degree specimens and interpreting debond initiation from the knee in the stress-strain curve as well as from a sudden drop in the Poisson's ratio. In an attempt to modify the debond initiation site to an internal location free of uncharacteristic states of stress, a cross-shaped specimen has been developed. Experiments conducted by Gundel et al. indicated that this geometry was successful in obtaining the appropriate crack initiation site. In the present study, finite element analysis (FEA) was done on the cross-shaped specimen to obtain the stress distribution in the composite under transverse loading, in an effort to corroborate the success of this geometry in determining the true transverse response of the composite

  12. Composition and conductance distributions of single GeSi quantum rings studied by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Cui, J; Jiang, Z M; Yang, X J

    2013-02-15

    Atomic force microscopy imaging combined with selective chemical etching is employed to quantitatively investigate three-dimensional (3D) composition distributions of single GeSi quantum rings (QRs). In addition, the 3D quantitative composition distributions and the corresponding conductance distributions are simultaneously obtained on the same single GeSi QRs by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching, allowing us to investigate the correlations between the conductance and composition distributions of single QRs. The results show that the QRs' central holes have higher Ge content, but exhibit lower conductance, indicating that the QRs' conductance distribution is not consistent with their composition distribution. By comparing the topography, composition and conductance profiles of the same single QRs before and after different etching processes, it is found that the conductance distributions of GeSi QRs do not vary with the change of composition distribution. Instead, the QRs' conductance distributions are found to be consistent with their topographic shapes, which can be supposed to be due to the shape determined electronic structures.

  13. Effect of two-step aging on spatial distribution of γ-phase particles and mechanical properties of Ni-14at.% Al single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyapkin, Yu.D.; Travina, N.T.; Ugarova, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscope images were processed by statistical methods to investigate the space distribution of particles of the γ'-phase (formation of ''quasiperiodic micro-lattices'') after various conditions of single- and double-stage aging of the Ni-14 at.% Al alloy. Mechanical properties in uniaxial tension of single crystals were studied. Parameters of the space distribution of particles have been correlated with the mechanical properties

  14. Myocardial perfusion assessed by contrast echocardiography and single photon emission computed tomography in the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain and normal electrocardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, J. Jr.; Ferreira, S.M.A.; Matias, W. Jr.; Giorgi, M.C.P.; Izaki, M.; Luz, P.L.; Ramires, J.A.F.; Meneghetti, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim : Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) in comparison with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the detection of myocardial ischemia in patients with acute chest pain. Material and Methods : Eighteen patients (pts) with chest pain lasting ≥30 minutes, occurring within 6 hours of emergency room presentation and a normal or no diagnostic electrocardiogram were studied. Pts underwent rest MCE and SPECT. For both exams myocardial perfusion was assessed in the same 7 segments (apical, anterior, inferior, anteroseptal, inferoseptal, lateral and posterior) of left ventricle. A total of 126 segments were analyzed. Images were classified as positive for ischemia if they had a perfusion defect. Coronary angiography was performed if MCE or SPECT images were classified as positive for ischemia or by clinical indication. Otherwise the patients underwent stress SPECT. Significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as ≥70% stenosis in a major coronary artery or its branches. Final diagnosis of an acute coronary event (ACE) was established in the presence of positive findings in MCE or SPECT in addition to significant CAD in the corresponding territory. Kappa statistics were calculated to evaluate the concordance between MCE and SPECT. κ values of ≤0.4, >0.4 and >0.7 indicate fair, good and excellent agreement, respectively. Results: Thirteen out of 18 pts underwent coronary angiography (seven pts had positive findings on SPECT, 2 on MCE, 2 on both exams and 1 had clinical indication). Significant CAD was detected on six. Five pts underwent stress SPECT and no perfusion defect was detected. Therefore, six pts (33.3%) had an ACE and 12 (66.6%) had not. There were no statistical differences between groups according to age, gender, duration of pain, free pain interval, presence of risk factors and antecedents. Concordance between MCE and SPECT for evaluation of perfusion defects showed a ? coefficient of 0

  15. Modelling normal tissue isoeffect distribution in conformal radiotherapy of glioblastoma provides an alternative dose escalation pattern through hypofractionation without reducing the total dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangel, L.; Skriba, Z.; Major, T.; Polgar, C.; Fodor, J.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove that by using conformal external beam radiotherapy (RT) normal brain structures can be protected even when applying an alternative approach of biological dose escalation: hypofractionation (HOF) without total dose reduction (TDR). Traditional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans were prepared for 10 gliomas representing the subanatomical sites of the supratentorial brain. Isoeffect distributions were generated by the biologically effective dose (BED) formula to analyse the effect of conventionally fractionated (CF) and HOF schedules on both the spatial biological dose distribution and biological dose-volume histograms. A comparison was made between 2D-CF (2.0 Gy/day) and 3D-HOF (2.5 Gy/day) regimens, applying the same 60 Gy total doses. Integral biologically effective dose (IBED) and volumes received biologically equivalent to a dose of 54 Gy or more (V-BED54) were calculated for the lower and upper brain stem as organs of risk. The IBED values were lower with the 3D-HOF than with the 2D-CF schedule in each tumour location, means 22.7±17.1 and 40.4±16.9 in Gy, respectively (p<0.0001). The V-BED54 values were also smaller or equal in 90% of the cases favouring the 3D-HOF scheme. The means were 2.7±4.8 ccm for 3D-HOF and 10.7±12.7 ccm for 2D-CF (p=0.0006). Our results suggest that with conformal RT, fraction size can gradually be increased. HOF radiotherapy regimens without TDR shorten the treatment time and seem to be an alternative way of dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma

  16. Modelling normal tissue isoeffect distribution in conformal radiotherapy of glioblastoma provides an alternative dose escalation pattern through hypofractionation without reducing the total dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangel, L.; Skriba, Z.; Major, T.; Polgar, C.; Fodor, J.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G. [National Research Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove that by using conformal external beam radiotherapy (RT) normal brain structures can be protected even when applying an alternative approach of biological dose escalation: hypofractionation (HOF) without total dose reduction (TDR). Traditional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans were prepared for 10 gliomas representing the subanatomical sites of the supratentorial brain. Isoeffect distributions were generated by the biologically effective dose (BED) formula to analyse the effect of conventionally fractionated (CF) and HOF schedules on both the spatial biological dose distribution and biological dose-volume histograms. A comparison was made between 2D-CF (2.0 Gy/day) and 3D-HOF (2.5 Gy/day) regimens, applying the same 60 Gy total doses. Integral biologically effective dose (IBED) and volumes received biologically equivalent to a dose of 54 Gy or more (V-BED54) were calculated for the lower and upper brain stem as organs of risk. The IBED values were lower with the 3D-HOF than with the 2D-CF schedule in each tumour location, means 22.7{+-}17.1 and 40.4{+-}16.9 in Gy, respectively (p<0.0001). The V-BED54 values were also smaller or equal in 90% of the cases favouring the 3D-HOF scheme. The means were 2.7{+-}4.8 ccm for 3D-HOF and 10.7{+-}12.7 ccm for 2D-CF (p=0.0006). Our results suggest that with conformal RT, fraction size can gradually be increased. HOF radiotherapy regimens without TDR shorten the treatment time and seem to be an alternative way of dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  17. Quantitative analysis of drug distribution by ambient mass spectrometry imaging method with signal extinction normalization strategy and inkjet-printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhigang; He, Jingjing; He, Jiuming; Huang, Lan; Song, Xiaowei; Li, Xin; Abliz, Zeper

    2018-03-01

    Quantitative mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a robust approach that provides both quantitative and spatial information for drug candidates' research. However, because of complicated signal suppression and interference, acquiring accurate quantitative information from MSI data remains a challenge, especially for whole-body tissue sample. Ambient MSI techniques using spray-based ionization appear to be ideal for pharmaceutical quantitative MSI analysis. However, it is more challenging, as it involves almost no sample preparation and is more susceptible to ion suppression/enhancement. Herein, based on our developed air flow-assisted desorption electrospray ionization (AFADESI)-MSI technology, an ambient quantitative MSI method was introduced by integrating inkjet-printing technology with normalization of the signal extinction coefficient (SEC) using the target compound itself. The method utilized a single calibration curve to quantify multiple tissue types. Basic blue 7 and an antitumor drug candidate (S-(+)-deoxytylophorinidine, CAT) were chosen to initially validate the feasibility and reliability of the quantitative MSI method. Rat tissue sections (heart, kidney, and brain) administered with CAT was then analyzed. The quantitative MSI analysis results were cross-validated by LC-MS/MS analysis data of the same tissues. The consistency suggests that the approach is able to fast obtain the quantitative MSI data without introducing interference into the in-situ environment of the tissue sample, and is potential to provide a high-throughput, economical and reliable approach for drug discovery and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  19. Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of 14C-APX001 after Single-Dose Administration to Rats and Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, Robert; Shaw, Karen J; Hodges, Michael R; Coleman, Samantha; Fitzsimmons, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background APX001 is a small-molecule therapeutic agent in clinical development for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFI). Methods The absorption, distribution and excretion profiles of [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity were determined in rats (albino and pigmented) and monkeys. Rats (some implanted with bile duct cannulae) were administered a single 100 mg/kg oral dose or a 30 mg/kg intravenous (IV) dose. Monkeys were administered a single 6 mg/kg IV dose. Samples of blood, urine, feces and bile, as well as carcasses, were collected through 168 hours after dosing. Samples were analyzed for total radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting, and carcasses were analyzed by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. Results [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity was rapidly and extensively absorbed and extensively distributed to most tissues for both routes of administration in both species. In rats, tissues with the highest radioactivity Cmax values included bile, abdominal fat, reproductive fat, subcutaneous fat, and liver, but radioactivity was also detected in tissues associated with IFI, including lung, brain and eye. In monkeys, the highest Cmax values were in bile, urine, uveal tract, bone marrow, abdominal fat, liver, and kidney cortex. Liver and kidney were the tissues with highest radioactivity, but as in the rat, radioactivity was also detected in lung, brain and eye tissues. In pigmented rats, radiocarbon was densely distributed into pigmented tissue and more slowly cleared than from other tissues. Mean recovery of radioactivity in rats was approximately 95–100%. In bile duct-intact rats, >90% of radioactivity was recovered in feces. In cannulated rats, biliary excretion of radioactivity was the major route of elimination and accounted for 88.8% of the dose, whereas urinary and fecal excretion of radioactivity was minor and accounted for 2.56% and 5.42% of the dose, respectively. In monkeys, the overall recovery of radioactivity

  20. Single Shot Measurements of the 4-Dimensional Transverse Phase Space Distribution of Intense Ion Beams at the UNILAC at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Groening, L

    2003-01-01

    The UNILAC is used as an injector for the synchrotron SIS. It is designed to fill the synchrotron up to its space charge limit. The upper limit for the useful beam emittance of the UNILAC is given by the finite acceptance of the SIS during the injection process. In order to remain within this acceptance the emittance growth during beam acceleration and transportation due to space charge effects must be minimized by applying an appropriate beam focusing. Therefore, the influence of the magnetic focusing strength on the beam emittance growth was investigated experimentally for different beam currents. Measurements of transverse phase space distributions were performed before and after the Alvarez accelerator with a periodic focusing channel, respectively. In order to perform such a wide parameter scan within a reasonable time with respect to machine stability, the pepper pot technique was applied. The pepper pot method allows for single-pulse measurements. For comparison several measurements using the slit-grid...

  1. Obtaining better performance in the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin

    2017-11-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) has been widely investigated due to its remarkable advantages on the achievable transmission distance and practical security. However, the relative low key generation rate limits its real-life implementations. In this work, we adopt the newly proposed four-intensity decoy-state scheme [Phys. Rev. A 93, 042324 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.042324] to study the performance of MDI-QKD with heralded single-photon sources (HSPS). Corresponding simulation results demonstrate that the four-intensity decoy-state scheme combining HSPS can drastically improve both the key generation rate and transmission distance in MDI-QKD, which may be very promising in future MDI-QKD systems.

  2. Large rotating field entropy change in ErFeO3 single crystal with angular distribution contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruoxiang; Cao, Shixun; Ren, Wei; Zhan, Sheng; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang

    2013-10-01

    We report the rotating field entropy of ErFeO3 single-crystal in a temperature range of 3-40 K. The giant magnetic entropy change, ΔSM = -20.7 J/(kg K), and the refrigerant capacity, RC = 273.5 J/kg, are observed near T =6 K. The anisotropic constants at 6 K, K1 = 1.24× 103 J/kg, K2 = 0.74 × 103 J/kg, in the bc plane are obtained. By considering the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and Fermi-Dirac angular distribution along the orientation of spontaneous magnetization, the experimental results can be well simulated. Our present work demonstrates that ErFeO3 crystal may find practical use for low temperature anisotropic magnetic refrigeration.

  3. Normal distribution of urinary polyphenol excretion among Egyptian males 7-14 years old and changes following nutritional intervention with tomato juice (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Laila; Medina, Alexander; Barrionnevo, Ana; Lammuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    The urinary flavonoids are considered a reliable biomarker for the intake of polyphenol-rich foods. To assess the normal distribution of urinary polyphenol [PP] excretion among healthy male children and adolescents on a typical Egyptian diet. To follow up the impact of nutritional intervention with tomato juice on the urinary excretion of [PP]. Forty-nine male subjects 7-14 years old collected a 24-h urine sample and filled a dietary record during a 7-day period. A daily serving of 230 g fresh tomato juice was followed for 18 days in a subgroup. Total urinary [PP] excretions were measured before and after termination of the intervention program. The total urinary [PP] was analyzed after a clean-up solid-phase extraction step by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent in the 96 micro plates. The results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The urinary [PP] excretion averaged 48.6+/-5.5 mg GAE/24 h, equivalent to 89.5+/-8.4 mg GAE/g creatinine. The mean urinary [PP] excretion increased significantly (Ptomato juice (287.4+/-64.3 mg GAE/g creatinine) compared with the respective mean baseline level (94.5+/-8.92 mg GAE/g creatinine). Clinical laboratory reference limits for urinary polyphenols are presented for Egyptian male children and adolescents. Measuring the urinary polyphenol excretion proved a good biomarker for the dietary polyphenol intake and the results demonstrated that tomato [PP] was highly bioavailable in the human body.

  4. Comparisons of the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of withanolide B after intragastric administration of the effective part of Datura metel L. in normal and psoriasis guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianrong; Meng, Xin; Kuang, Haixue

    2018-04-15

    A simple, highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography- electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method has been developed to quantify of withanolide B and obakunone (IS) in guinea pig plasma and tissues, and to compare the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of withanolide B in normal and psoriasis guinea pigs. After mixing with IS, plasma and tissues were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using aqueous (0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) solutions at 0.4 mL/min as the mobile phase. The gradient program was selected (0-4.0 min, 2-98% B; 4.0-4.5 min, 98-2% B; and 4.5-5 min, 2% B). Detection was performed on a 4000 QTRAP UPLC-ESI-MS/MS system from AB Sciex in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Withanolide B and obakunone (IS) were monitored under positive ionization conditions. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 455.1/109.4 for withanolide B and 455.1/161.1 for obakunone. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  6. Classic maximum entropy recovery of the average joint distribution of apparent FRET efficiency and fluorescence photons for single-molecule burst measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Matthew S; Gull, Stephen F; Johnson, Carey K

    2012-04-05

    We describe a method for analysis of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) burst measurements using classic maximum entropy. Classic maximum entropy determines the Bayesian inference for the joint probability describing the total fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency. The method was tested with simulated data and then with DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes. The most probable joint distribution can be marginalized to obtain both the overall distribution of fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency distribution. This method proves to be ideal for determining the distance distribution of FRET-labeled biomolecules, and it successfully predicts the shape of the recovered distributions.

  7. Quantitative imaging of magnesium distribution at single-cell resolution in brain tumors and infiltrating tumor cells with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Parker, Dylan J.; Barth, Rolf F.; Pannullo, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest forms of human brain tumors. The infiltrative pattern of growth of these tumors includes the spread of individual and/or clusters of tumor cells at some distance from the main tumor mass in parts of the brain protected by an intact blood-brain-barrier. Pathophysiological studies of GBM could be greatly enhanced by analytical techniques capable of in situ single-cell resolution measurements of infiltrating tumor cells. Magnesium homeostasis is an area of active investigation in high grade gliomas. In the present study, we have used the F98 rat glioma as a model of human GBM and an elemental/isotopic imaging technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), a CAMECA IMS-3f ion microscope, for studying Mg distributions with single-cell resolution in freeze-dried brain tissue cryosections. Quantitative observations were made on tumor cells in the main tumor mass, contiguous brain tissue, and infiltrating tumor cells in adjacent normal brain. The brain tissue contained a significantly lower total Mg concentration of 4.70 ± 0.93 mmol/Kg wet weight (mean ± SD) in comparison to 11.64 ± 1.96 mmol/Kg wet weight in tumor cells of the main tumor mass and 10.72 ± 1.76 mmol/Kg wet weight in infiltrating tumor cells (p<0.05). The nucleus of individual tumor cells contained elevated levels of bound Mg. These observations demonstrate enhanced Mg-influx and increased binding of Mg in tumor cells and provide strong support for further investigation of GBMs for altered Mg homeostasis and activation of Mg-transporting channels as possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26703785

  8. Study of inclusive single-jet production in the framework of kt-factorization unintegrated parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh Nik, R.; Modarres, M.; Masouminia, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    The present work is intended to study the double-differential cross section of the inclusive single-jet production as the functions of the transverse momentum and the rapidity of the jet in the high-energy hadron-hadron collisions. The angular-ordering-constraint kt-factorization framework is used to calculate the above cross section that is available experimentally. The conditions are taken in accordance with the LHC experiments. The results are compared and analyzed using the existing CMS LHC data. The scheme-dependent unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF) of Kimber-Martin-Ryskin (KMR) and Martin-Ryskin-Watt (MRW) in the leading-order and the next-to-leading order (NLO) are used to predict the input partonic UPDF. The utilized phenomenological frameworks prove to be relatively successful in generating satisfactory results compared to the different experiment data, such as CMS (8 and 13 TeV). Extensive discussions and comparisons are made regarding the behavior of the contributing partonic subprocesses. Finally, it is shown that the application of the KMR UPDF to the single-jet differential cross sections have better agreement with the CMS data; on the other hand, they are very similar to those of NLO-MRW.

  9. Investigation of the particle size distribution of the ejected material generated during the single femtosecond laser pulse ablation of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Han; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, Xiaonong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Single 50 fs laser pulse ablation of an aluminium target in vacuum is investigated in our experiments. • Nanoparticles with large radii of several hundred nanometers are observed. • The nanoparticles are most likely from the mechanical tensile stress relaxation. - Abstract: Single femtosecond laser pulses are employed to ablate an aluminium target in vacuum, and the particle size distribution of the ablated material deposited on a mica substrate is examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The recorded AFM images show that these particles have a mean radius of several tens of nanometres. It is also determined that the mean radius of these deposited nanoparticles increases when the laser fluence at the aluminium target increases from 0.44 J/cm 2 to 0.63 J/cm 2 . The mechanism of the laser-induced nanoparticle generation is thought to be photomechanical tensile stress relaxation. Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm that the nanoparticles thus produced have the same structure as the bulk aluminium

  10. The general behavior of NLO unintegrated parton distributions based on the single-scale evolution and the angular ordering constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinkhani, H.; Modarres, M.

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the complexity of generalized two hard scale (k t ,μ) evolution equation, well known as the Ciafaloni, Catani, Fiorani and Marchesini (CCFM) evolution equations, and calculate the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF), Kimber, Martin and Ryskin (KMR) proposed a procedure based on (i) the inclusion of single-scale (μ) only at the last step of evolution and (ii) the angular ordering constraint (AOC) on the DGLAP terms (the DGLAP collinear approximation), to bring the second scale, k t into the UPDF evolution equations. In this work we intend to use the MSTW2008 (Martin et al.) parton distribution functions (PDF) and try to calculate UPDF for various values of x (the longitudinal fraction of parton momentum), μ (the probe scale) and k t (the parton transverse momentum) to see the general behavior of three-dimensional UPDF at the NLO level up to the LHC working energy scales (μ 2 ). It is shown that there exits some pronounced peaks for the three-dimensional UPDF(f a (x,k t )) with respect to the two variables x and k t at various energies (μ). These peaks get larger and move to larger values of k t , as the energy (μ) is increased. We hope these peaks could be detected in the LHC experiments at CERN and other laboratories in the less exclusive processes.

  11. The role of prosthetic abutment material on the stress distribution in a maxillary single implant-supported fixed prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Hugo Eduardo; Bordin, Dimorvan; Del Bel Cury, Altair A.; Silva, Wander José da; Faot, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the influence of abutment's material and geometry on stress distribution in a single implant-supported prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional models were made based on tomographic slices of the upper middle incisor area, in which a morse taper implant was positioned and a titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrN) universal abutments was installed. The commercially available geometry of titanium (T) and zirconia (Z) abutments were used to draw two models, TM1 and ZM1 respectively, which served as control groups. These models were compared with 2 experimental groups were the mechanical properties of Z were applied to the titanium abutment (TM2) and vice versa for the zirconia abutment (ZM2). Subsequently, loading was simulated in two steps, starting with a preload phase, calculated with the respective friction coefficients of each materials, followed by a combined preload and chewing force. The maximum von Mises stress was described. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA that considered material composition, geometry and loading (p 0.05). Conclusion: The screw was the piece most intensely affected, mainly through the preload force, independent of the abutment's material. - Highlights: • The abutment's screw was the most impaired piece of the dental implant system. • The highest stress was located at first thread of the abutment's screw. • The preload is the main factor in the abutment's screw stress. • Abutment configuration and material can have a positive contribution for the stress distribution

  12. Gut metagenomes of type 2 diabetic patients have characteristic single-nucleotide polymorphism distribution in Bacteroides coprocola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaowen; Li, Zongcheng; Hu, Shuofeng; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Jiaqi; Shao, Ningsheng; Bo, Xiaochen; Ni, Ming; Ying, Xiaomin

    2017-02-01

    Gut microbes play a critical role in human health and disease, and researchers have begun to characterize their genomes, the so-called gut metagenome. Thus far, metagenomics studies have focused on genus- or species-level composition and microbial gene sets, while strain-level composition and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have been overlooked. The gut metagenomes of type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients have been found to be enriched with butyrate-producing bacteria and sulfate reduction functions. However, it is not known whether the gut metagenomes of T2D patients have characteristic strain patterns or SNP distributions. We downloaded public gut metagenome datasets from 170 T2D patients and 174 healthy controls and performed a systematic comparative analysis of their metagenome SNPs. We found that Bacteroides coprocola, whose relative abundance did not differ between the groups, had a characteristic distribution of SNPs in the T2D patient group. We identified 65 genes, all in B. coprocola, that had remarkably different enrichment of SNPs. The first and sixth ranked genes encode glycosyl hydrolases (GenBank accession EDU99824.1 and EDV02301.1). Interestingly, alpha-glucosidase, which is also a glycosyl hydrolase located in the intestine, is an important drug target of T2D. These results suggest that different strains of B. coprocola may have different roles in human gut and a specific set of B. coprocola strains are correlated with T2D.

  13. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by principal component analysis and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET in healthy subjects at rest: normal distribution and effect of age and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, M.; Salmaso, D.; Jonsson, C.; Hatherly, R.; Larsson, S.A.; Jacobsson, H.; Waegner, A.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing implementation of standardisation techniques in brain research and clinical diagnosis has highlighted the importance of reliable baseline data from normal control subjects for inter-subject analysis. In this context, knowledge of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal ageing is a factor of the utmost importance. In the present study, rCBF was investigated in 50 healthy volunteers (25 men, 25 women), aged 31-78 years, who were examined at rest by means of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). After normalising the CBF data, 27 left and 27 right volumes of interest (VOIs) were selected and automatically outlined by standardisation software (computerised brain atlas). The heavy load of flow data thus obtained was reduced in number and grouped in factors by means of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA extracted 12 components explaining 81% of the variance and including the vast majority of cortical and subcortical regions. Analysis of variance and regression analyses were performed for rCBF, age and gender before PCA was applied and subsequently for each single extracted factor. There was a significantly higher CBF on the right side than on the left side (P<0.001). In the overall analysis, a significant decrease was found in CBF (P=0.05) with increasing age, and this decrease was particularly evident in the left hemisphere (P=0.006). When gender was specifically analysed, CBF was found to decrease significantly with increasing age in females (P=0.037) but not in males. Furthermore, a significant decrease in rCBF with increasing age was found in the brain vertex (P=0.05), left frontotemporal cortex (P=0.012) and temporocingulate cortex (P=0.003). By contrast, relative rCBF in central structures increased with age (P=0.001). The ability of standardisation software and PCA to identify functionally connected brain regions might contribute to a better

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by principal component analysis and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in healthy subjects at rest: normal distribution and effect of age and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, M. [Inst. of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine, CNR, Rome (Italy); Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, D. [Inst. of Psychology, CNR, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, C.; Hatherly, R.; Larsson, S.A. [Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Waegner, A. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    The increasing implementation of standardisation techniques in brain research and clinical diagnosis has highlighted the importance of reliable baseline data from normal control subjects for inter-subject analysis. In this context, knowledge of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal ageing is a factor of the utmost importance. In the present study, rCBF was investigated in 50 healthy volunteers (25 men, 25 women), aged 31-78 years, who were examined at rest by means of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). After normalising the CBF data, 27 left and 27 right volumes of interest (VOIs) were selected and automatically outlined by standardisation software (computerised brain atlas). The heavy load of flow data thus obtained was reduced in number and grouped in factors by means of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA extracted 12 components explaining 81% of the variance and including the vast majority of cortical and subcortical regions. Analysis of variance and regression analyses were performed for rCBF, age and gender before PCA was applied and subsequently for each single extracted factor. There was a significantly higher CBF on the right side than on the left side (P<0.001). In the overall analysis, a significant decrease was found in CBF (P=0.05) with increasing age, and this decrease was particularly evident in the left hemisphere (P=0.006). When gender was specifically analysed, CBF was found to decrease significantly with increasing age in females (P=0.037) but not in males. Furthermore, a significant decrease in rCBF with increasing age was found in the brain vertex (P=0.05), left frontotemporal cortex (P=0.012) and temporocingulate cortex (P=0.003). By contrast, relative rCBF in central structures increased with age (P=0.001). The ability of standardisation software and PCA to identify functionally connected brain regions might contribute to a better

  16. Andreev levels in a single-channel conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titov, M.; Mortensen, Asger; Schomerus, H.

    2001-01-01

    We calculate the subgap density of states of a disordered single-channel normal metal connected to a superconductor at one end (normal-metal-superconductor junction) or at both ends [superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor (SNS) junction]. The probability distribution of the energy of a bound ...

  17. [Inheritable phenotypic normalization of rodent cells transformed by simian adenovirus SA7 E1 oncogenes by singled-stranded oligonucleotides complementary to a long region of integrated oncogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineva, N I; Borovkova, T V; Sats, N V; Kurabekova, R M; Rozhitskaia, O S; Solov'ev, G Ia; Pantin, V I

    1995-08-01

    G11 mouse cells and SH2 rat cells transformed with simian adenovirus SA7 DNA showed inheritable oncogen-specific phenotypic normalization when treated with sense and antisense oligonucleotides complementary to long RNA sequences, plus or minus strands of the integrated adenovirus oncogenes E1A and E1B. Transitory treatment of the cells with the oligonucleotides in the absence of serum was shown to cause the appearance of normalized cell lines with fibroblastlike morphology, slower cell proliferation, and lack of ability to form colonies in soft agar. Proliferative activity and adhesion of the normalized cells that established cell lines were found to depend on the concentration of growth factors in the cultural medium. In some of the cell lines, an inhibition of transcription of the E1 oncogenes was observed. The normalization also produced cells that divided 2 - 5 times and died and cells that reverted to a transformed phenotype in 2 - 10 days. The latter appeared predominantly upon the action of the antisense oligonucleotides.

  18. Space and phase resolved ion energy and angular distributions in single- and dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States); Moore, Nathaniel; Pribyl, Patrick; Gekelman, Walter [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The control of ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) is critically important for anisotropic etching or deposition in microelectronic fabrication processes. With single frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs), the narrowing in angle and spread in energy of ions as they cross the sheath are definable functions of frequency, sheath width, and mean free path. With increases in wafer size, single frequency CCPs are finding difficulty in meeting the requirement of simultaneously controlling plasma densities, ion fluxes, and ion energies. Dual-frequency CCPs are being investigated to provide this flexible control. The high frequency (HF) is intended to control the plasma density and ion fluxes, while the ion energies are intended to be controlled by the low frequency (LF). However, recent research has shown that the LF can also influence the magnitude of ion fluxes and that IEADs are determined by both frequencies. Hence, separate control of fluxes and IEADs is complex. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computational investigation of Ar/O{sub 2} plasma properties in an industrial reactor are discussed. The IEADs are tracked as a function of height above the substrate and phase within the rf cycles from the bulk plasma to the presheath and through the sheath with the goal of providing insights to this complexity. Comparison is made to laser-induced fluorescence experiments. The authors found that the ratios of HF/LF voltage and driving frequency are critical parameters in determining the shape of the IEADs, both during the transit of the ion through the sheath and when ions are incident onto the substrate. To the degree that contributions from the HF can modify plasma density, sheath potential, and sheath thickness, this may provide additional control for the IEADs.

  19. Do bacterial cell numbers follow a theoretical Poisson distribution? Comparison of experimentally obtained numbers of single cells with random number generation via computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu

    2016-12-01

    We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pressure drop and flow distribution characteristics of single and parallel serpentine flow fields for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Man; Kim, Charn Jung; Jeon, Dong Hyup; Nam, Jin Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This study numerically investigates pressure drop and flow distribution characteristics of serpentine flow fields (SFFs) that are designed for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, which consider the Poiseuille flow with secondary pressure drop in the gas channel (GC) and the Darcy flow in the porous gas diffusion layer (GDL). The numerical results for a conventional SFF agreed well with those obtained via computational fluid dynamics simulations, thus proving the validity of the present flow network model. This model is employed to characterize various single and parallel SFFs, including multi-pass serpentine flow fields (MPSFFs). Findings reveal that under rib convection (convective flow through GDL under an interconnector rib) is an important transport process for conventional SFFs, with its intensity being significantly enhanced as GDL permeability increases. The results also indicate that under rib convection can be significantly improved by employing MPSFFs as the reactant flow field, because of the closely interlaced structure of GC regions that have different path lengths from the inlet. However, reactant flow rate through GCs proportionally decreases as under rib convection intensity increases, suggesting that proper optimization is required between the flow velocity in GCs and the under rib convection intensity in GDLs