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Sample records for single mud pit

  1. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Mud Pit Identification Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (September 2001, Rev. No. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2001-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection completed the Mud Pit Strategy, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (DOE/NV, 2001) to document a systematic process for identifying and categorizing potentially contaminated mud pits located on the NTS, and systematically evaluating them for inclusion in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The objectives of this report are to summarize the process used to define the six mud pit categories, identify mud pits, discuss the mud pits that do not meet FFACO entry criteria, identify mud pits for proposed FFACO entry, and describe the general mud pit distribution. Underground nuclear testing conducted since 1951 at the NTS has produced mud pits that were used for the transfer and collection of drilling mud, rock cuttings, and drilling fluids. This report documents the execution of the strategy document by examining the identification process and documenting these results. For clarification purposes, this document uses the term ''entry'' to indicate inclusion of mud pits into the FFACO and ''exclusion'' to indicate those mud pits which do not meet the ''entry'' criteria defined in this report. Based on this criteria, 257 mud pits identified that have been proposed for FFACO entry were found in 14 separate areas of the NTS. Each of the 257 mud pits proposed for FFACO entry will need to be located in the field, photographed, and documented during future Industrial Sites Project, Preliminary Assessment activities. If the field review determines that a mud pit was misidentified or improperly categorized, the appropriate FFACO modification request will be submitted for review and approval.

  3. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  4. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss and Catherine Birney

    2011-05-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 544 are located within Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site. Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following CASs: • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 544 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 544 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  6. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darr, Paul S. [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544, Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following 20 corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 544 using the SAFER process. Using the approach approved for previous mud pit investigations (CAUs 530–535), 14 mud pits have been identified that • are either a single mud pit or a system of mud pits, • are not located in a radiologically posted area, and • have no evident biasing factors based on visual inspections. These 14 mud pits are recommended for no further action (NFA), and further field investigations will not be conducted. For the sites that do not meet the previously approved closure criteria, additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible

  8. Single pit propagation on austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtault, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical characterization of metastable events such as pitting corrosion of stainless steel in chloride electrolyte remains complex because many individual processes may occur simultaneously on the alloy surface. To overcome these difficulties, an experimental setup, the flow micro-device, has been developed to achieve the initiation of a single pit and to propagate the single pit in three dimensions. In this work, we take advantage of such a device in order to revisit the pitting process on a 316L stainless steel in a chloride - sulphate bulk. In a first step, the time evolution of the pit geometry (depth, radius) and the chemical evolution of the pit solution investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy have shown that the pit depth propagation depends on the formation of a metal chloride and sulphate gel in the pit solution, and is controlled by the metallic cations diffusion from the pit bottom to the pit mouth. The pit radius growth is defined by the initial surface de-passivation, by the presence of a pit cover and by the gel development in the solution. all of these phenomena are function of applied potential and chemical composition of the solution. In a last step, it was demonstrated that a critical chloride concentration is needed in order to maintain the pit propagation. This critical concentration slightly increases with the pit depth. From statistical analysis performed on identical experiments, a zone diagram showing the pit stability as a function of the chloride concentration and the pit dimensions was built. (author) [fr

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura A. Pastor

    2005-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 357 is comprised of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the NTS (Figure 1-1). The NTS is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 357 consists of 11 CASs that are mud pits located in Areas 7, 8, and 10. The mud pits were associated with drilling activities conducted on the NTS in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing. The remaining three CASs are boxes and pipes associated with Building 1-31.2el, lead bricks, and a waste dump. These CAS are located in Areas 1, 4, and 25, respectively. The following CASs are shown on Figure 1-1: CAS 07-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-01, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-06, Mud Pit, Stains, Material; CAS 01-99-01, Boxes, Pipes; CAS 04-26-03, Lead Bricks; and CAS 25-15-01, Waste Dump. The purpose of the corrective action activities was to obtain analytical data that supports the closure of CAU 357. Environmental samples were collected during the investigation to determine whether contaminants exist and if detected, their extent. The investigation and sampling strategy was designed to target locations and media most likely to be contaminated (biased sampling). A general site conceptual model was developed for each CAS to support and guide the investigation as outlined in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2003b). This CR

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; 03-09-03, Mud Pit; 03-09-04, Mud Pit; 03-09-05, Mud Pit; 20-16-01, Landfill; and 20-22-21, Drums. This CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no further corrective action and closure in place is deemed necessary for CAU 356. This recommendation is based on the results of field investigation/closure activities conducted November 20, 2001, through January 3, 2002, and March 11 to 14, 2002. These activities were conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) for CAU 356. For CASs 03-09-01, 03-09-03, 20-16-01, and 22-20-21, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) and it was determined that no Contaminants of Concern (COCs) were present. Therefore, no further action is necessary for the soil at these CASs. For CASs 03-04-01, 03-09-04, and 03-09-05, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against PALs and identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and radionuclides (i.e., americium-241 and/or plutonium 239/240) as COCs. The nature, extent, and concentration of the TPH and radionuclide COCs were bounded by sampling and shown to be relatively immobile. Therefore, closure in place is recommended for these CASs in CAU 356. Further, use restrictions are not required at this CAU beyond the NTS use restrictions identified in

  12. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  13. Amchitka Mud Pit Sites 2006 Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Report, Amchitka Island, Alaska, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2006-09-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA/NSO) remediated six areas associated with Amchitka mud pit release sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. This included the construction of seven closure caps. To ensure the integrity and effectiveness of remedial action, the mud pit sites are to be inspected every five years as part of DOE's long-term monitoring and surveillance program. In August of 2006, the closure caps were inspected in accordance with the ''Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Plan for Amchitka Island Mud Pit Release Sites'' (Rev. 0, November 2005). This post-closure monitoring report provides the 2006 cap inspection results.

  14. Availability of MudPIT data for classification of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Dario Di; Zoppis, Italo; Brambilla, Francesca; Bellettato, Valeria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Mauri, Pierluigi

    2013-01-14

    Mass spectrometry is an important analytical tool for clinical proteomics. Primarily employed for biomarker discovery, it is increasingly used for developing methods which may help to provide unambiguous diagnosis of biological samples. In this context, we investigated the classification of phenotypes by applying support vector machine (SVM) on experimental data obtained by MudPIT approach. In particular, we compared the performance capabilities of SVM by using two independent collection of complex samples and different data-types, such as mass spectra (m/z), peptides and proteins. Globally, protein and peptide data allowed a better discriminant informative content than experimental mass spectra (overall accuracy higher than 87% in both collection 1 and 2). These results indicate that sequencing of peptides and proteins reduces the experimental noise affecting the raw mass spectra, and allows the extraction of more informative features available for the effective classification of samples. In addition, proteins and peptides features selected by SVM matched for 80% with the differentially expressed proteins identified by the MAProMa software. These findings confirm the availability of the most label-free quantitative methods based on processing of spectral count and SEQUEST-based SCORE values. On the other hand, it stresses the usefulness of MudPIT data for a correct grouping of sample phenotypes, by applying both supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms. This capacity permit the evaluation of actual samples and it is a good starting point to translate proteomic methodology to clinical application.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-01-01

    This closure report documents that the closure activities performed at Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, were in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 358.

  16. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Long; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-02

    Chinese strong-aroma type liquor (CSAL) is a popular distilled alcoholic beverage in China. It is produced by a complex fermentation process that is conducted in pits in the ground. Ethyl caproate is a key flavor compound in CSAL and is thought to originate from caproic acid produced by Clostridia inhabiting the fermentation pit mud. However, the particular species of Clostridium associated with this production are poorly understood and problematic to quantify by culturing. In this study, a total of 28 closest relatives including 15 Clostridia and 8 Bacilli species in pit muds from three CSAL distilleries, were detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Among them, Clostridium kluyveri was identified as the main producer of caproic acid. One representative strain C. kluyveri N6 could produce caproic, butyric and octanoic acids and their corresponding ethyl esters, contributing significantly to CSAL flavor. A real time quantitative PCR assay of C. kluyveri in pit muds developed showed that a concentration of 1.79×10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies/g pit mud in LZ-old pit was approximately six times higher than that in HLM and YH pits and sixty times higher than that in LZ-new pit respectively. This method can be used to improve the management of pit mud microbiology and its impact on CSAL quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Wickline

    2007-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 553 are located within Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the following CASs: 19-99-01, Mud Spill 19-99-11, Mud Spill 20-09-09, Mud Spill 20-99-03, Mud Spill. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 553 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were or will be performed: Review the current site conditions including the concentration and extent of contamination. Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. Document the Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 553 to be issued by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-02-01

    This Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This Closure Report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 177 are located within Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data that confirm the corrective actions implemented for CAU 177 CASs.

  19. Assessment of Mud-Capped Dredge Pit Evolution Offshore Louisiana: Implications to Sand Excavation and Coastal Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K.; Miner, M. D.; Bentley, S. J.; Li, C.; Obelcz, J.; O'Connor, M. C.

    2016-02-01

    The shelf offshore Louisiana is characterized by a dominantly muddy seafloor with a paucity of restoration-quality sand proximal to shore. Discrete sand deposits associated with ancient rivers that incised the shelf during lower sea-level positions occur close to shore. These shelf channel sands have been targeted for coastal restoration projects resulting in significant cost savings over more distal deposits. Several recent projects targeted shelf paleo-fluvial deposits comprising relatively deep (10 m) channel sands underlying a muddy overburden. Because of contrasting characteristics of cohesive mud vs. non-cohesive sand and potential modern fluvial mud supply from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, long term pit evolution is poorly understood relative to their more common sand-only counterparts. Alterations to seafloor topography from dredging shelf sediment resources can potentially affect oil and gas infrastructure or other resources of concern (i.e. historic shipwrecks) located proximal to dredge pits. Site-specific data required to make accurate predictions and empirical measurements to test and validate predictive models were only available for Peveto Channel offshore Holly Beach, Louisiana. Here we present new geophysical and geological data (bathymetry, sidescan, subbottom, and radionuclide of sediment cores) and physical oceanographic observations (hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics) collected at Raccoon Island (dredged in 2013) dredge pit in Louisiana. These field data collections along with pre-existing data provide a time-series to capture evolution at Raccoon Island post-excavation. Conceptual morphological models will be developed for dredge pit evolution and testing effectiveness of setback buffers protecting pipelines, habitats, and cultural resources. Our results will increase decision making ability regarding safety and protecting environmental and cultural resources, and better management of valuable sand resources.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177, Mud Pits and Cellars, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 177 consists of the 12 following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) 08-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (2) 09-09-41, Unknown No.3 Mud Pit/Disposal Area; (3) 09-09-45, U-9bz PS No.1A Mud Pit (1) and Cellar; (4) 09-23-05, Mud Pit and Cellar; (5) 09-23-08, Mud Pit and Cellar; (6) 09-23-09, U-9itsx20 PS No.1A Cellar; (7) 10-23-02, Mud Pit and Cellar; (8) 10-23-03, Mud Pit and Cellar; (9) 19-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (10) 19-23-02, Cellar and Waste Storage Area; (11) 19-23-03, Cellar with Casing; and (12) 20-23-07, Cellar. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 177 using the SAFER process. The data quality objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure options: (1) investigation and confirmation that no contamination exists above the preliminary action levels (PALs), leading to a no further action declaration, or (2) characterization of the nature and extent of contamination, leading to closure in place with use restrictions. The expected closure options were selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern, future land use, and assumed risks. A decision flow process was developed to outline the collection of data necessary to achieve closure. There are two decisions that need to be answered for closure. Decision I is to determine whether contaminants of potential concern are present in concentrations

  1. The functional potential and active populations of the pit mud microbiome for the production of Chinese strong-flavour liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Wang, Xiang; Li, Xiangzhen; Wei, Na; Jin, Hong; Xu, Zhancheng; Tang, Qinglan; Zhu, Xiaoyu

    2017-11-01

    The popular distilled Chinese strong-flavour liquor (CSFL) is produced by solid fermentation in the ground pit. Microbes inhabiting in the pit mud (PM) on the walls of the fermentation pit are responsible for the production of caproic acid (CA) that determines the quality of CSFL to a large degree. However, little is known about the active microbial populations and metabolic potential of the PM microbiome. Here, we investigated the overall metabolic features of the PM microbiome and its active microbial components by combining metagenomics and MiSeq-sequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from DNA and RNA (cDNA). Results showed that prokaryotes were predominant populations in the PM microbiome, accounting for 95.3% of total metagenomic reads, while eukaryotic abundance was only 1.8%. The dominant prokaryotic phyla were Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, accounting for 48.0%, 19.0%, 13.5%, 2.5% and 2.1% of total metagenomic reads respectively. Most genes encoding putative metabolic pathways responsible for the putative CA production via chain elongation pathway were detected. This indicated that the PM microbiome owned functional potential for synthesizing CA from ethanol or lactate. Some key genes encoding enzymes involved in hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis pathways were detected in the PM metagenome, suggesting the possible occurrence of interspecies hydrogen transfer between CA-producing bacteria and methanogens. The 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA profiles showed that the Clostridial cluster IV, Lactobacillus, Caloramator, Clostridium, Sedimentibacter, Bacteroides and Porphyromonas were active populations in situ, in which Clostridial cluster IV and Clostridium were likely involved in the CA production. This study improved our understandings on the active populations and metabolic pathways of the PM microbiome involved in the CA synthesis in the CSFL fermentation. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology

  2. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; CAS 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; CAS 03-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 20-16-01, Landfill; CAS 20-22-21, Drums. Sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations are the basis for the development of the phased approach chosen to address the data collection activities prior to implementing the preferred closure alternative for each CAS. The Phase I investigation will determine through collection of environmental samples from targeted populations (i.e., mud/soil cuttings above textural discontinuity) if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels (PALs) at each of the CASs. If COPCs are present above PALs, a Phase II investigation will be implemented to determine the extent of contamination to support the appropriate corrective action alternative to complete closure of the site. Groundwater impacts from potentially migrating contaminants are not expected due to the depths to groundwater and limiting hydrologic drivers of low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Future land-use scenarios limit future uses to industrial activities; therefore, future residential uses are not considered. Potential exposure routes to site workers from contaminants of concern in septage and soils include oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact (absorption) through in-advertent disturbance of contaminated structures and/or soils. Diesel within drilling muds is expected to be the primary COPC based on process

  3. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2001-08-21

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; CAS 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; CAS 03-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 20-16-01, Landfill; CAS 20-22-21, Drums. Sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations are the basis for the development of the phased approach chosen to address the data collection activities prior to implementing the preferred closure alternative for each CAS. The Phase I investigation will determine through collection of environmental samples from targeted populations (i.e., mud/soil cuttings above textural discontinuity) if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels (PALs) at each of the CASs. If COPCs are present above PALs, a Phase II investigation will be implemented to determine the extent of contamination to support the appropriate corrective action alternative to complete closure of the site. Groundwater impacts from potentially migrating contaminants are not expected due to the depths to groundwater and limiting hydrologic drivers of low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Future land-use scenarios limit future uses to industrial activities; therefore, future residential uses are not considered. Potential exposure routes to site workers from contaminants of concern in septage and soils include oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact (absorption) through in-advertent disturbance of contaminated structures and/or soils. Diesel within drilling muds is expected to be the primary COPC based on process

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Units 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535: NTS Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the recommendation of no further action for the following six Corrective Action Units (CAUs): (1) CAU 530 - LANL Preshot Mud Pits; (2) CAU 531 - LANL Postshot Mud Pits; (3) CAU 532 - LLNL Preshot Mud Pits; (4) CAU 533 - LLNL Postshot Mud Pits; (5) CAU 534 - Exploratory/Instrumentation Mud Pits; and (6) CAU 535 - Mud Pits/Disposal Areas. This CR complies with the requirements of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. CAUs 530-535 are located in Areas 1-10, 14, 17, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site and are comprised of 268 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed in Table 1-1. The purpose of this CR is to validate the risk-based closure strategy presented in the ''Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report'' (RBCSR) (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and the CAUs 530-535 SAFER Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2005b). This strategy uses 52 CASs as a statistical representation of CAUs 530-535 to confirm the proposed closure alternative, no further action, is sufficient to protect human health and the environment. This was accomplished with the following activities: A field investigation following a probabilistic sampling design to collect data that were used in a non-carcinogenic risk assessment for human receptors; Visual habitat surveys to confirm the lack of habitat for threatened and endangered species; Disposal of debris and waste generated during field activities; and Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAUs 530-535 issued by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The field investigation and site visits were conducted between August 31, 2005 and February 21, 2006. As stated in the RBCSR and Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan, total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics (TPH-DRO) was the only contaminant of potential

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Units 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, and 535, Nevada Test Site Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for the following six corrective action units (CAUs) identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996): (1) CAU 530 - LANL Preshot Mud Pits; (2) CAU 531 - LANL Postshot Mud Pits; (3) CAU 532 - LLNL Preshot Mud Pits; (4) CAU 533 - LLNL Postshot Mud Pits; (5) CAU 534 - Exploratory/Instrumentation Mud Pits; and (6) CAU 535 - Mud Pits/Disposal Areas. Corrective Action Units 530-535 consist of corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 1-10, 14, 17, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This plan provides the approach for activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing all the CASs within these CAUs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of all CASs within CAUs 530-535 using the SAFER process. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process utilized in this investigation follows the approved risk-based closure strategy outlined in the ''Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004b). The closure strategy was developed based on available information including historical documentation of process knowledge, analytical results from previous sampling activities for contaminants of potential concern at similar mud pits located at the NTS and at off-site locations, future land-use scenarios for each NTS area, and potential exposure scenarios along with the calculated risk for human and ecological receptors.

  6. Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins Coupled to Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT): Expanding Footprinting Strategies to Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinas, Aimee; Jones, Lisa M.

    2015-04-01

    Peptides containing the oxidation products of hydroxyl radical-mediated protein footprinting experiments are typically much less abundant than their unoxidized counterparts. This is inherent to the design of the experiment as excessive oxidation may lead to undesired conformational changes or unfolding of the protein, skewing the results. Thus, as the complexity of the systems studied using this method expands, the detection and identification of these oxidized species can be increasingly difficult with the limitations of data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and one-dimensional chromatography. Here we report the application of multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) in combination with hydroxyl radical footprinting as a method to increase the identification of quantifiable peptides in these experiments. Using this method led to a 37% increase in unique peptide identifications as well as a 70% increase in protein group identifications over one-dimensional data-dependent acquisition on the same samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate the combination of these methods as a means to investigate megadalton complexes.

  7. MudPIT analysis of alkaline tolerance by Listeria monocytogenes strains recovered as persistent food factory contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Rolf E; Latham, Roger; Mellefont, Lyndal; Ross, Tom; Bowman, John P

    2012-05-01

    Alkaline solutions are used to clean food production environments but the role of alkaline resistance in persistent food factory contamination by Listeria monocytogenes is unknown. We used shotgun proteomics to characterise alkaline adapted L. monocytogenes recovered as persistent and transient food factory contaminants. Three unrelated strains were studied including two persistent and a transient food factory contaminant determined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The strains were adapted to growth at pH 8.5 and harvested in exponential phase. Protein extracts were analysed using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) and protein abundance compared by spectra counting. The strains elicited core responses to alkaline growth including modulation of intracellular pH, stabilisation of cellular processes and reduced cell-division, independent to lineage, MLST or whether the strains were transient or persistent contaminants. Alkaline adaptation by all strains corresponded to that expected in stringent-response induced cells, with protein expression supporting metabolic shifts concordant with elevated alarmone production and indicating that the alkaline-stringent response results from energy rather than nutrient limitation. We believe this is the first report describing induction of a stringent response in different L. monocytogenes strains by alkaline pH under non-limiting growth conditions. The work emphasises the need for early intervention to avoid persistent food factory contamination by L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Difference of microbial community stressed in artificial pit muds for Luzhou-flavour liquor brewing revealed by multiphase culture-independent technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhou, R; Niu, M; Zheng, J; Wu, C

    2015-11-01

    Artificial pit muds (APMs) is produced by peats, aged pit muds, yellow and black clays etc. and is one of essential factors for Luzhou-flavour liquor production. The microbial community of APMs significantly influence the quality of Luzhou-flavour liquor. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in bacterial, archaeal and fungal community of APMs, starters and materials. Multiphase culture-independent technology were employed in this study, including nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (nested PCR-DGGE), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results suggested that the microbial diversity significantly changed under environmental stress and different culture patterns during APMs cultivation. The dominant bacteria in APMs mainly fell into Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales and Rhizobiales, Archaea affiliated with Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, and fungi belonged to Saccharomycetales and Eurotiales. Furthermore, the microbial community structures of APMs cultured by ground pile pattern were more similar with that of aged pit muds, meanwhile, the relative bands intensities of microbes, which are the main contributors for liquor brewing, increased with the culture times. Not only the niche selection and biogeochemical properties of APMs, but also the mutual collaboration and constraint between different microbes may result in enriching different liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. APM cultivation technology was necessary to promote enriching functional liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. These results may facilitate understanding the microbial succession during APMs manufacture. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Analysis of two Pit-1 gene polymorphisms: Single nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit-1 is a pituitary-specific transcription factor responsible for pituitary development and hormone expression in mammals. Pit-1 is a member of the POU domain containing proteins, a group of transcriptional regulators with a critical role in cell differentiation and proliferation. It was shown that this group of proteins control the ...

  10. MudPIT profiling reveals a link between anaerobic metabolism and the alkaline adaptive response of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf E Nilsson

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne human pathogen capable of causing life-threatening disease in susceptible populations. Previous proteomic analysis we performed demonstrated that different strains of L. monocytogenes initiate a stringent response when subjected to alkaline growth conditions. Here, using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT, we show that in L. monocytogenes EGD-e this response involves an energy shift to anaerobic pathways in response to the extracellular pH environment. Importantly we show that this supports a reduction in relative lag time following an abrupt transition to low oxygen tension culture conditions. This has important implications for the packaging of fresh and ready-to-eat foods under reduced oxygen conditions in environments where potential exists for alkaline adaptation.

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]); (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk; (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP), where the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) will reach consensus with the NDEP before beginning the next phase of work. Corrective Action Unit 553 is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS, approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: 19-99-01, Mud Spill; 19-99-11, Mud Spill; 20-09-09, Mud Spill; and 20-99-03, Mud Spill. There is sufficient information and process

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  13. Addendum 2 to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revison 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, January 2004 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 19-09-05, Mud Pit. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was reevaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for

  14. A single base difference between Pit-1 binding sites at the hGH promoter and locus control region specifies distinct Pit-1 conformations and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewchuk, Brian M; Ho, Yugong; Liebhaber, Stephen A; Cooke, Nancy E

    2006-09-01

    Activation of the human growth hormone (hGH-N) gene in pituitary somatotropes is mediated by a locus control region (LCR). This LCR is composed of DNase I-hypersensitive sites (HS) located -14.5 kb to -32 kb relative to the hGH-N promoter. HSI, at -14.5 kb, is the dominant determinant of hGH-N expression and is essential for establishment of a 32-kb domain of histone acetylation that encompasses the active hGH locus. This activity is conferred by three binding sites for the POU domain transcription factor Pit-1. These Pit-1 elements are sufficient to activate hGH-N expression in the mouse pituitary. In contrast, Pit-1 sites at the hGH-N promoter are consistently unable to mediate similar activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that the functional difference between the promoter-proximal and the HSI Pit-1 binding sites can be attributed in part to a single base difference. This base affects the conformation of the Pit-1/DNA complex, and reciprocal exchange of the divergent bases between the two sets of Pit-1 elements results in a partial reversal of their transgenic activities. These data support a model in which the Pit-1 binding sites in the hGH LCR allosterically program the bound Pit-1 complex for chromatin activating functions.

  15. Single Amino Acid Insertion in Loop 4 Confers Amphotropic Murine Leukemia Virus Receptor Function upon Murine Pit1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundorf, Mikkel D.; Pedersen, Finn Skou; O'Hara, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Pit1 is the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related human protein Pit2 is a receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV). The A-MuLV-related isolate 10A1 can utilize both Pit1 and Pit2 as receptors. A stretch...... of amino acids named region A was identified in Pit1 (residues 550 to 558 in loop 4) as critical for GALV and FeLV-B receptor function. We have here investigated the role of region A in A-MuLV and 10A1 entry. Insertion of a single amino acid in region A of mouse Pit1 resulted in a functional A...

  16. Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Kennedy, K. N.

    1983-01-01

    A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

  17. Red Mud Catalytic Pyrolysis of Pinyon Juniper and Single-Stage Hydrotreatment of Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Burton, Sarah D.; Swita, Marie; Beis, Sedat H.; Christian, Kyle; Sargent, Brandon

    2016-10-20

    Pinyon juniper biomass feedstocks, which cover a large acreage of rangeland in the western United States, are being eradicated and, therefore, considered as a convenient biomass feedstock for biofuel production. Pinyon juniper whole biomass (wood, bark, and leaves) were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized-bed reactor at 450 °C, and the noncondensable gases were recycled to fluidize the reactor. Red mud was used as the in situ catalyst for the pyrolysis of the pinyon juniper biomass. The pyrolysis products were condensed in three stages, and products were analyzed for physicochemical properties. The condenser oil formed two phases with the aqueous fraction, whereas the electrostatic precipitator oils formed a single phase. The oil pH was 3.3; the higher heating value (HHV) was 28 MJ/kg; and the viscosity was less than 100 cP. There was a direct correlation between the viscosity of the oils and the alcohol/ether content of the oils, and this was also related to the aging rate of the oils. The catalytic pyrolysis oils were hydrotreated in a continuous single-stage benchtop hydrotreater to produce hydrocarbon fuels with a density of 0.80$-$0.82 cm3/g. The hydrotreater ran continuously for over 300 h with no significant catalyst deactivation or coke formation. This is the first time that such a long single-stage hydrotreatment has been demonstrated on biomass catalytic pyrolysis oils.

  18. Enamel pits in hamster molars, formed by a single high fluoride dose, are associated with a perturbation of transitional stage ameloblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Vermeulen, L.; Stienen, N.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Denbesten, P.K.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive intake of fluoride (F) by young children results in the formation of enamel subsurface porosities and pits, called enamel fluorosis. In this study, we used a single high dose of F administered to hamster pups to determine the stage of ameloblasts most affected by F and whether pit

  19. Initiation and growth of a single pit on 316L stainless steel: Influence of SO42- and ClO4- anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouina, N.; Huet, F.; Joiret, S.; Perrot, H.; Vivier, V.; Balbaud-Celerier, F.; Rouillard, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an ion micro dispenser (IMD) was used to initiate a single pit by generating chloride anions above a 316L stainless steel electrode in either H 2 SO 4 or HClO 4 electrolyte. The current variations with respect to time provided an unambiguous characterization of the single pit evolution. Different pit shapes were observed depending on both the nature of the electrolyte and potential applied to the electrode. Substituting SO 4 2- for ClO 4 - gave smaller (in diameter) but deeper pits at the early stage of pitting. However, when using a different setup that allows the sustaining of the pit propagation with a continuous supply of Cl - , the deeper pits were observed in HClO 4 rather than H 2 SO 4 . The formation of an iron sulphate salt film at the bottom of the pit by precipitation of dissolution products in H 2 SO 4 slowed down the corrosion rate. At high potentials, the repassivation mechanism outweighed the metal dissolution in the ClO 4 - containing solution. (authors)

  20. Multi-Sensor Mud Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    Robust mud detection is a critical perception requirement for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous offroad navigation. A military UGV stuck in a mud body during a mission may have to be sacrificed or rescued, both of which are unattractive options. There are several characteristics of mud that may be detectable with appropriate UGV-mounted sensors. For example, mud only occurs on the ground surface, is cooler than surrounding dry soil during the daytime under nominal weather conditions, is generally darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and is highly polarized. However, none of these cues are definitive on their own. Dry soil also occurs on the ground surface, shadows, snow, ice, and water can also be cooler than surrounding dry soil, shadows are also darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and cars, water, and some vegetation are also highly polarized. Shadows, snow, ice, water, cars, and vegetation can all be disambiguated from mud by using a suite of sensors that span multiple bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Because there are military operations when it is imperative for UGV's to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, passive sensors are desirable. JPL has developed a daytime mud detection capability using multiple passive imaging sensors. Cues for mud from multiple passive imaging sensors are fused into a single mud detection image using a rule base, and the resultant mud detection is localized in a terrain map using range data generated from a stereo pair of color cameras.

  1. Pitting corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgaier, W.

    1985-01-01

    Pitting corrosion is a kind of electrolytic corrosion by which the surface of a material is locally affected owing to inhomogeneities on the part of the material or medium. The paper deals briefly with questions relating to the importance, to parameters medium or materialwise, influence on production and construction, as well as the general conditions for pitting corrosion. In particular oxygen corrosion in unalloyed and low-alloy steel, and pitting corrosion in ferritic chromium-steel and austenitic chromium-nickel (molybdenum) steel is described. (DG) [de

  2. Does addition of `mud-pack and hot pool treatment' to patient education make a difference in fibromyalgia patients? A randomized controlled single blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağdatlı, Ali Osman; Donmez, Arif; Eröksüz, Rıza; Bahadır, Güler; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled single-blind study is to explore whether addition of mud-pack and hot pool treatments to patient education make a significant difference in short and mild term outcomes of the patients with fibromyalgia. Seventy women with fibromyalgia syndrome were randomly assigned to either balneotherapy with mud-pack and hot pool treatments (35) or control (35) groups. After randomization, five patients from balneotherapy group and five patients from control group were dropped out from the study with different excuses. All patients had 6-h patient education programme about fibromyalgia syndrome and were given a home exercise programme. The patients in balneotherapy group had heated pool treatment at 38 °C for 20 min a day, and mud-pack treatment afterwards on back region at 45 °C. Balneotherapy was applied on weekdays for 2 weeks. All patients continued to take their medical treatment. An investigator who was blinded to the intervention assessed all the patients before and after the treatment, at the first and the third months of follow-up. Outcome measures were FIQ, BDI and both patient's and physician's global assessments. Balneotherapy group was significantly better than control group at after the treatment and at the end of the first month follow-up assessments in terms of patient's and physician's global assessment, total FIQ score, and pain intensity, fatigue, non-refreshed awaking, stiffness, anxiety and depression subscales of FIQ. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of BDI scores. It is concluded that patient education combined with 2 weeks balneotherapy application has more beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome as compared to patient education alone.

  3. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  4. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  5. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Martian mud volcanism: Terrestrial analogs and implications for formational scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J.A.; Mazzini, A.

    2009-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the stratigraphic characteristics of its uppermost crust (mega-regolith) suggest that some of the pervasively-occurring pitted cones, mounds, and flows may have formed through processes akin to terrestrial mud volcanism. A comparison of terrestrial mud volcanism suggests that equivalent Martian processes likely required discrete sedimentary depocenters, volatile-enriched strata, buried rheological instabilities, and a mechanism of destabilization to initiate subsurface flow. We outline five formational scenarios whereby Martian mud volcanism might have occurred: (A) rapid deposition of sediments, (B) volcano-induced destabilization, (C) tectonic shortening, (D) long-term, load-induced subsidence, and (E) seismic shaking. We describe locations within and around the Martian northern plains that broadly fit the geological context of these scenarios and which contain mud volcano-like landforms. We compare terrestrial and Martian satellite images and examine the geological settings of mud volcano provinces on Earth in order to describe potential target areas for piercement structures on Mars. Our comparisons help to evaluate not only the role of water as a functional component of geological processes on Mars but also how Martian mud volcanoes could provide samples of otherwise inaccessible strata, some of which could contain astrobiological evidence.

  7. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  8. Aseismic structure evaluation tests on storage pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Seiichi; Fuke, Hikaru; Shimosaka, Shigeru; Kitamura, Katsuhide; Zako, Masaru.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the aseismic structural property of a storage pit for vitrified radioactive waste canisters, a full-scale model of the storage pit and canisters filled with dummy vitrified waste were subjected to seismic tests on the shaking table owned by the National Research Center for Disaster Prevention. Three storage pits were tested, all measuring 558.8 mm in diameterx6765 mm in height, of Sch. 40 structural steel plate but with longitudinal internal ribs of different sizes to leave different clearances between the pit and the canister. The dummy canisters, each measuring 430 mm in diameterx1345 mm in height and weighting 480 kg, were piled five high in the pit. The table was shaken in horizontal direction, applying as exciting wave (a) wave pulse, (b) sinusoidal waves in frequency sweep, (c) continuous single-frequency wave and (d) reproduced actual seismic waves. (author)

  9. Mud Brick Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2012-01-01

    In the seemingly endless circle of demolition and illegal rebuilding hand-made mud bricks produced from the soil of contested territory become an act of resistance. In June 2011, the Palestinian village Fasayel encountered the Israeli military’s demolition of 21 of the village’s built structures....

  10. Etch pits on caprolactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, A. E. D. M.; Geertman, R. M.

    1992-09-01

    As an extension of the results on the morphology, we investigated the defect structure of solution-grown caprolactam crystals by means of slight etching in cyclohexane and subsequent microscopic observation of the resulting etch pits on the 200, 110, and faces. In case of the face (which is a cleavage plane), we confirmed that the etch pits are formed around dislocation lines by performing an "etch-and-match" experiment. Information is obtained on morphology and density of etch pits, the presence of grain boundaries, as well as qualitative information on the inclination of the dislocation lines.

  11. Nobody’s perfect: Can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka ePlavcová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that species-specific pit properties such as pit membrane thickness, pit membrane porosity, torus-to-aperture diameter ratio and pit chamber depth influence xylem vulnerability to cavitation. Despite the indisputable importance of using mean pit characteristics, considerable variability in pit structure within a single species or even within a single pit field should be acknowledged. According to the rare pit hypothesis, a single pit that is more air-permeable than many neighboring pits is sufficient to allow air-seeding. Therefore, any irregularities or morphological abnormalities in pit structure allowing air-seeding should be associated with increased vulnerability to cavitation. Considering the currently proposed models of air-seeding, pit features such as rare, large pores in the pit membrane, torus extensions, and plasmodesmatal pores in a torus can represent potential glitches. These aberrations in pit structure could either result from inherent developmental flaws, or from damage caused to the pit membrane by chemical and physical agents. This suggests the existence of interesting feedbacks between abiotic and biotic stresses in xylem physiology.

  12. Nobody's perfect: can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Lenka; Jansen, Steven; Klepsch, Matthias; Hacke, Uwe G

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that species-specific pit properties such as pit membrane thickness, pit membrane porosity, torus-to-aperture diameter ratio and pit chamber depth influence xylem vulnerability to cavitation. Despite the indisputable importance of using mean pit characteristics, considerable variability in pit structure within a single species or even within a single pit field should be acknowledged. According to the rare pit hypothesis, a single pit that is more air-permeable than many neighboring pits is sufficient to allow air-seeding. Therefore, any irregularities or morphological abnormalities in pit structure allowing air-seeding should be associated with increased vulnerability to cavitation. Considering the currently proposed models of air-seeding, pit features such as rare, large pores in the pit membrane, torus extensions, and plasmodesmatal pores in a torus can represent potential glitches. These aberrations in pit structure could either result from inherent developmental flaws, or from damage caused to the pit membrane by chemical and physical agents. This suggests the existence of interesting feedbacks between abiotic and biotic stresses in xylem physiology.

  13. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Sites § 230.42 Mud flats. (a) Mud flats are broad flat areas along the sea coast and in coastal rivers to the head of tidal influence and in inland lakes, ponds, and riverine systems. When mud flats...

  14. Structure of sump pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Kaneo; Takahashi, Yukichi; Suzuki, Kunihiko.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a sump pit of a structure wherein the leaks of liquid wastes or underwater out of a sump pit storing radioactive liquid wastes can be readily detected. Constitution: A concrete pit is provided with a gap, in which a protective vessel is housed and installed. Furthermore, the protective vessel is provided at its inner side with a gap, in which a liquid waste storage container is installed. In the gap between the liquid waste storage container and the protective vessel there is provided a liquid waste leak detecting electrode. In a case where storage fails due to earthquake, corrosion or the like and the liquid wastes leak, the leak detecting electrode comes into contact with the liquid wastes, and detects the leak thereof. Furthermore, a detecting tube is installed in the gap between the concrete pit and the protective vessel thereby detecting the ingress of underwater. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Oil based mud discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiesma, R.

    1996-01-01

    The intensive use of oil based muds by the offshore oil and gas industry during the 1980s has caused considerable contamination around drilling sites. A recent investigation on the Norwegian continental shelf indicates that the situation is much worse than previously thought. This material suggests that oil pollution of this kind could be damaging the North Sea's endangered fish stocks, including cod, haddock and plaice. The amount of oil discharged in the UK sector is many times higher than in the other sectors, suggesting that the problem there may be even more serious. The amount discharged in the Dutch and Norwegian sectors are comparable. (author)

  16. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  17. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  18. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  19. Geochemical recovery of the Torna-Marcal river system after the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Á D; Klebercz, O; Magyar, Á; Burke, I T; Jarvis, A P; Gruiz, K; Mayes, W M

    2014-12-01

    The failure of the Ajka red mud depository in October 2010 led to the largest single release of red mud into the surface water environment. This study provides a comparative assessment of stream sediment quality in the Torna-Marcal-Rába catchment between post-disaster surveys (2010) and follow up surveys at an identical suite of 21 locations in 2013. The signature of red mud apparent in initial surveys with high Al, As, Cr, Na, V was only apparent at a small number of sample stations in recent surveys. These constitute 20 km reach of affected sediments in the immediate aftermath of the spill. Concentrations of red mud-derived contaminants are predominately associated with fine fractions of the red mud (red mud-derived contaminants and, along with extensive remedial efforts, has substantially limited the within-channel inventory of potentially ecotoxic metals and metalloids.

  20. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  1. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  2. Mud Logging; Control geologico en perforaciones petroliferas (Mud Logging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumarega Lafuente, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Mud Logging is an important activity in the oil field and it is a key job in drilling operations, our duties are the acquisition, collection and interpretation of the geological and engineering data at the wellsite, also inform the client immediately of any significant changes in the well. (Author)

  3. Additive to clay drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytenko, V.S.; Nekrasova, V.B.; Nikitinskiy, E.L.; Ponomarev, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the lubricating and strengthening properties of clay drilling muds. This goal is achieved because the lubricating and strengthening additive used is waste from the pulp and paper industry at the stage of reprocessing crude sulfate soap into phytosterol.

  4. Pitting process visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes time-domain simulation of gear pitting damage using animation program. Key frames have been used to create illusion of motion. The animation uses experimental results of high-cycle fatigue of material. The fatigue damage occurs in the nominal creep area on the side of the gear tooth sample loaded with variable-positioned Hertz pressure. By applying the force, the pressure cumulates between two convex surfaces. This phenomenon results in material damage under of curved surfaces in contact. Moreover, further damage has been registered on the surface. This is due to exceeding the elastic-plastic state limit and development of „tabs“. The tabs serve as origin of surface micro cracks powered by shear stress and enclosed grease pressure as well. This deformation and extreme pressures of Pascal law contribute to elongation and growth of the surface micro crack. Non-homogenous parts of material volume support the initialization/development of the micro cracks as well. Resulting visualization of the tooth-side fatigue damage provides clear and easy-to-understand description of the damage development process right from the micro crack initialization to the final fragmentation due to pitting degradation.

  5. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride ... halides, the most aggressive and thus, the most frequently investigated is the chloride ions, particularly its effect on pit formation in 18/8 stainless steel [1 - 3]. ... in sea water), and moderately high temperatures.

  6. PIT Tagging Anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Brome

    2008-01-01

    The following video demonstrates a procedure to insert a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag under the skin of an anuran (frog or toad) for research and monitoring purposes. Typically, a 12.5 mm tag (0.5 in.) is used to uniquely identify individual anurans as smal as 40 mm (1.6 in.) in length from snout to vent. Smaller tags are also available and allow smaller anurans to be tagged. The procedure does not differ for other sizes of tages or other sizes of anurans. Anyone using this procedure should ensure that the tag is small enough to fit easily behind the sacral hump of the anuran, as shown in this video.

  7. Power to the pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurbin, T.

    2009-02-15

    This article discussed the need to provide transmission lines to new mines in British Columbia. Commodity pricing and energy use are topical issues in the mining industry, where the viability of a mine may depend on whether it can get electricity from the power grid. There is much incentive to switch from diesel to electricity where possible to reduce fuel consumption and avoid a carbon tax. Less than 0.03 per cent of the land base in British Columbia is used for mining, but 7 mines in BC consume 14 to 17 per cent of all power generated by BC Hydro. The large open pit mines need up to 930 GWh of electricity per year. This article listed some of the hard rock mines that are among the biggest energy users in the province. In general, one sixth of a mine's operating costs is in power consumption. The initial operation of the open pit process involves drilling, blasting, the use of large electric scoop shovels, and water pumping. While trucking is powered by diesel, some mines operate conveyors which increase the amount of electricity used to get ore to the mill. Large electric motors are used in the crushing process. The largest proportion of energy is used in the grinding circuit of the size reduction process. Electricity is also needed for the flotation process and pumping of tailings ponds. Mines dealing with BC Hydro require continuous reliable electricity delivered at a stable voltage . Even a short interruption of a millisecond outage can have a big impact on a mining operation. BC Hydro tries to align its maintenance and repair schedules with the needs of their customer's planned maintenance shut downs as much as possible. 5 figs.

  8. Fecal indicator and Ascaris removal from double pit latrine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Digbijoy; Ridwanul Haque, A T M; Kabir, Babar; Ubaid, Sharmin Farhat

    2016-12-01

    Since May 2006, the BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Programme in Bangladesh has enabled more than 30 million people to achieve hygienic sanitation, contributing to an increase in sanitation coverage from 33 to 83% in programme areas and rapid progress towards universal access. In rural areas, most families have single pit latrines that need to be emptied when full. Since 2007, BRAC has promoted the use of hygienic double-pit latrines. Use of double-pit latrines, where appropriate, is also recommended in the Bangladeshi Draft National Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy. More than 800,000 double-pit latrines are in use in BRAC WASH areas, delaying the need for emptying and allowing time for the fecal matter to decompose while the resting pit is sealed. This paper focuses on a study undertaken by BRAC WASH to treat and safely use fecal material from double pit latrines as an organic fertilizer for rice and other crops. The study investigated the removal of pathogens from pit waste through simple solar drying and conducted analysis on nutrient properties of fecal sludge. The study showed a significant positive impact on developing organic fertilizer from fecal sludge.

  9. Comparing the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack treatments for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsan, Ayşe; Akkaya, Nuray; Ozgen, Merih; Yildiz, Necmettin; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Ardic, Fusun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack therapies on patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study was designed as a prospective, randomized-controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial. Twenty-seven patients with clinical and radiologic evidence of knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into two groups and were treated with mature mud packs (n 15) or hot packs (n=12). Patients were evaluated for pain [based on the visual analog scale (VAS)], function (WOMAC, 6 min walking distance), quality of life [Short Form-36 (SF-36)], and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at baseline, post-treatment, and 3 and 6~months after treatment. The mud pack group shows a significant improvement in VAS, pain, stifness, and physical function domains of WOMAC. The difference between groups of pain and physical activity domains is significant at post-treatment in favor of mud pack. For a 6 min walking distance, mud pack shows significant improvement, and the difference is significant between groups in favor of mud pack at post-treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment. Mud pack shows significant improvement in the pain subscale of SF-36 at the third month continuing until the sixth month after the treatment. Significant improvements are found for the social function, vitality/energy, physical role disability, and general health subscales of SF-36 in favor of the mud pack compared with the hot pack group at post-treatment. A significant increase is detected for IGF-1 in the mud pack group 3 months after treatment compared with the baseline, and the difference is significant between groups 3 months after the treatment. Mud pack is a favorable option compared with hotpack for pain relief and for the improvement of functional conditions in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  10. Verification of Single-Peptide Protein Identifications by the Application of Complementary Database Search Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohrbough, James G; Breci, Linda; Merchant, Nirav; Miller, Susan; Haynes, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    .... One such technique, known as the Multi-Dimensional Protein Identification Technique, or MudPIT, involves the use of computer search algorithms that automate the process of identifying proteins...

  11. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    association between the mud volcanoes suggests different nature and depth of parent layers and fluids feeding the mud volcanoes in gulf of Cadiz. Key word: Mud volcano, clay mineralogy, geochemistry, mud breccias, North Moroccan Atlantic margin. INTRODUCTION. The study of marine mud volcanoes is of large interest ...

  12. New insight into the pit-to-crack transition from finite element analysis of the stress and strain distribution around a corrosion pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.; Wright, L.; Crocker, L.

    2010-01-01

    A finite element (FE) analysis has been undertaken to evaluate the stress and strain distribution associated with a single corrosion pit in a cylindrical steel specimen stressed remotely in tension. A key observation was the localisation of plastic strain to the pit walls (just below the surface of the specimen). Simulation of a growing pit in a static stress field indicated corresponding plastic strain rates that were commensurate with values associated with stress corrosion cracking. This observation introduces a wholly new concept in understanding of the evolution of stress corrosion cracks from pits and correlates with recent X-ray tomography measurements.

  13. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  14. Sidoarjo Mud: A Potential Cement Replacement Material

    OpenAIRE

    Biyanto T.R.; Masilamani M.B.; Bayuaji R.; Nuruddin M.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and analytical research conducted to study the properties of mortar when treated Sidoarjo mud was added into the mix replacing partially the cement content. The replacements were done at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%. Compression, tensile, porosity and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of Sidoarjo mud in mortar. Analyses on the mud were also conducted through X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and scanning e...

  15. Demonstration of In-Situ Stabilization of Buried Waste at Pit G-11 at the Brookhaven National laboratory Glass Pits Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Gilbert, J.; Heiser, J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989 BNL was added to the EPAs National Priorities List. The site is divided into seven operable units (OU). OU-I includes the former landfill area. The field task site is noted as the AOC 2C Glass Holes location. Beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, BNL disposed of laboratory waste (glassware, chemicals and animal carcasses) in numerous shallow pits. The drivers for remediating the pits are; historical records that indicate hazardous materials may have been disposed of in the pits; ground water contamination down gradient of the pits; a test excavation of one of the glass holes that unearthed laboratory glass bottles with unidentified liquids still contained; and the fact that BNL rests atop an EPA designated sole-source aquifer. The specific site chosen for this demonstration was pit G-11. The requirements that lead to choosing this pit were; a well characterized pit and a relatively isolated pit where our construction operations would not impact on adjacent pits. The glass holes area, including pit G-11, was comprehensively surveyed using a suite of geophysical techniques (e.g., EM-31, EM-61, GPR). Prior to stabilizing the waste form a subsurface barrier was constructed to contain the entire waste pit. The pit contents were then stabilized using a cement grout applied via jet grouting. The stabilization was performed to make removal of the waste from the pit easier and safer in terms of worker exposure. The grouting process would mix and masticate the waste and grout and form a single monolithic waste form. This large monolith would then be subdivided into smaller 4 foot by 4 foot by 10-12 foot block using a demolition grout. The smaller blocks would then be easily removed from the site and disposed of in a CERCLA waste site

  16. Alkaline Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Filter Mud Codigested to Improve Biomethane Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talha, Zahir; Ding, Weimin; Mehryar, Esmaeil; Hassan, Muhammad; Bi, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the codigestion of degradation and improve biomethane production potential, sugarcane bagasse and filter mud were pretreated by sodium hydroxide NaOH 1 N at 100°C for 15, 30, and 45 minutes, respectively. Biomethane generation from 1-liter batch reactor was studied at mesophilic temperature (37 ± 1)°C, solid concentrations of 6%, and five levels of mixing proportion with and without pretreatment. The results demonstrate that codigestion of filter mud with bagasse produces more biomethane than fermentation of filter mud as single substrate; even codigested substrate composition presented a better balance of nutrients (C/N ratio of 24.70) when codigestion ratio between filter mud and bagasse was 25 : 75 in comparison to filter mud as single substrate (C/N ratio 9.68). All the pretreatments tested led to solubilization of the organic matter, with a maximum lignin reduction of 86.27% and cumulative yield of biomethane (195.8 mL·gVS -1 , digestion of pretreated bagasse as single substrate) obtained after 45 minutes of cooking by NaOH 1 N at 100°C. Under this pretreatment condition, significant increase in cumulative methane yield was observed (126.2 mL·gVS -1 ) at codigestion ratio of 25 : 75 between filter mud and bagasse by increase of 81.20% from untreated composition.

  17. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with flame...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1614 - Mud program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud program. 250.1614 Section 250.1614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1614 Mud program. (a) The quantities...

  19. Language Learning and MUDs: and Overview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Macarro Asensio.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the potential of MUDs in Language Learning Acquisition. At the same time, it intends to serve as an introduction to these nonprofit virtual environments so that those who have never been in a MUD could be able to discover and explore these virtual text worlds in the future. It starts with a brief definition and history of these computer environments, together with some comments and ideas found in previous studies. The article continues to enumerate the several features that make MUDs ideal spaces for language learning, ending with an introductory guide to use a specific MUD, NannyMUD. It also includes extra information to access this and other similar worlds.

  20. Stochastic modeling of pitting corrosion: A new model for initiation and growth of multiple corrosion pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)]. E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Alfonso, L. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Rivas, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)

    2007-02-15

    In this work, a new stochastic model capable of simulating pitting corrosion is developed and validated. Pitting corrosion is modeled as the combination of two stochastic processes: pit initiation and pit growth. Pit generation is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, in which induction time for pit initiation is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. In this way, the exponential and Weibull distributions can be considered as the possible distributions for pit initiation time. Pit growth is simulated using a nonhomogeneous Markov process. Extreme value statistics is used to find the distribution of maximum pit depths resulting from the combination of the initiation and growth processes for multiple pits. The proposed model is validated using several published experiments on pitting corrosion. It is capable of reproducing the experimental observations with higher quality than the stochastic models available in the literature for pitting corrosion.

  1. Observation of etch pits in Fe-36wt%Ni Invar alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dong-zhu; Wu, Min-jie

    2014-07-01

    To indirectly investigate the dislocation behavior of Fe-36wt%Ni Invar alloy by the etch pit method, polished Invar specimens were etched by a solution containing 4 g copper sulfate, 20 mL hydrochloric acid, and 20 mL deionized water for 2 min. Etch pits in the etched surfaces were observed. All the etch pits in one specific grain exhibited similar shapes, which are closely related to the grain orientations. These etch pits were characterized as dislocation etch pits. It was observed that etch pits arranged along grain boundaries, gathered at grain tips and strip-like etch pit clusters passed through a number of grains in the pure Invar specimens. After the addition of a small amount of alloying elements, the identification of a single dislocation etch pit is challenging compared with the pure Invar alloy. Thus, the observation of etch pits facilitates the investigation on the dislocation behavior of the pure Invar alloy. In addition, alloying elements may affect the densities and sizes of etch pits.

  2. Genetic variation of Pit-1 gene in Chinese indigenous and Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Key words: Goose, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), pituitary-specific transcription factor gene (Pit-1). ... Six pairs of primers were designed according to the DNA sequence of duck Pit-1 gene .... Sample size, genotype and gene frequency in 6 goose populations for the polymorphic primer pairs.

  3. Sedimentation and transportation of mud rock material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Ochiai, S.

    2008-12-01

    This research focuses on the transportation and sedimentation of mud rock slope at Niupu, southern Taiwan. The main purpose of this research is trying to identify the mechanism of erosion and sedimentation rate of the mud rock from the slope into the lake. By using regular sonar surveying and rainfall data, it is possible to identify a high erosion rate on mud rock area. The cementation of Miocene mud rock is loose and slope at 40-45 degree which is highly sensitive to the rainfall. It is also vulnerable to the erosion processes. There are some interesting characters related to the observation and surveying. The erosion processes are highly related to amounts of rainfall. When there is typhoon, tropical storm, there is high erosion. The erosion could occur when there is rainfall more than 10 mm/event and the surface of the mud rock could be incised up to 3 cm after 30 mm rainfall. The sedimentation rate could also as high as 0.5 m when there are two typhoons which attacked to this area within three months. This research also demonstrates that the high erosion on mud rock area will generate high sedimentation and high denudation rate. However the comparison of the rate of erosion and deposition is identified in this presentation. For hazard mitigation purpose, it is necessary to reduce the bared mud rock slope area to prevent the further erosion.

  4. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2010-01-01

    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  5. Geoacoustic Characterization of the Mud Drape at the New England Mud Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    The New England Mud Patch is an extensive deposit of fine-grained sediments that extends from an area south of Cape Cod, MA to south of Montauk Point Long Island, NY out on the continental shelf in water depths of 60 to 90 meters. The mud patch has a remarkable accumulation of up to a 13 meter thick sequence of mud that overlays a transgressive surface of Pleistocene Age and then thins out on the periphery where surficial sediments convert from mud to sand and sand/gravel. The deposit likely accumulated in this region due to the coalescing of shelf currents that had oppositional flow. This work focuses on a section of the mud patch that is centered over the thickest portion of mud and extends east-west for 30 km and north south for 10 km. Gravity cores were collected throughout this region and the cores penetrated the upper 2-4 m of mud at 28 different sites with multiple cores collected in several locations. The mud thickness in these regions exceeded the core barrel length, therefore the cores did not penetrate into the basal sand sediment layer, a relict transgressional horizon, which displays prominently in the acoustic data for this selected region. These cores were evaluated for compressional sound speed (averaging 1480 m/s) and density (1580 kg/m3) and found to be largely homogeneous and similar throughout the study area. The largest source of inhomogeneity was due to dispersed shell hash and disarticulated bivalves, but these inclusions represent minor components in the total sediment volume. The overlying sediment that characterizes the New England Mud Patch can be readily classified as mud, silty mud, or sandy-silty mud. This fine-grained sediment deposit reflects upon the low-energy nature of the hydrodynamics within this region.

  6. Sidoarjo Mud: A Potential Cement Replacement Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyanto T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental and analytical research conducted to study the properties of mortar when treated Sidoarjo mud was added into the mix replacing partially the cement content. The replacements were done at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%. Compression, tensile, porosity and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of Sidoarjo mud in mortar. Analyses on the mud were also conducted through X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF, and scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX. The results showed that the mud could be used as a cementitious material with optimum ordinary Portland cement (OPC replacement at 10%.

  7. Bubble mobility in mud and magmatic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Aaron; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The rheology of particle-laden fluids with a yield stress, such as mud or crystal-rich magmas, controls the mobility of bubbles, both the size needed to overcome the yield stress and their rise speed. We experimentally measured the velocities of bubbles and rigid spheres in mud sampled from the Davis-Schrimpf mud volcanoes adjacent to the Salton Sea, Southern California. Combined with previous measurements in the polymer gel Carbopol, we obtained an empirical model for the drag coefficient and bounded the conditions under which bubbles overcome the yield stress. Yield stresses typical of mud and basaltic magmas with sub-mm particles can immobilize millimeter to centimeter sized bubbles. At Stromboli volcano, Italy, a vertical yield stress gradient in the shallow conduit may immobilize bubbles with diameter ≲ 1 cm and hinder slug coalescence.

  8. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Red-mud and Organic Fertilizer on Cadmium and Lead Absorption and Distribution in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG Ya-yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of red mud and organic fertilizer on distribution of cadmium(Cd and lead (Pb in soil-rice system were studied in field by orthogonal test. Results showed that after red mud and organic fertilizer added including single and combined, the soil pH value increased 0.36~1.90 units, contents of Cd and Pb in rice rhizosphere soil decreased 2.73%~26.25% and 7.15%~34.26% respectively and contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased 23.24%~55.90% and 11.76%~29.41% respectively. In all treatments, single red mud was best, followed by red mud and organic fertilizer combined, single organic fertilizer was worst. The content of Cd and Pb in different rice organs with addition of red mud and organic fertilizer decreased significantly, the contribution rate of Cd and Pb at different stages changed obviously, and influences of adding quantity and fertilizing method were also significant. Different treatments had different effects on contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice. Compared with CK, red mud (4 000 kg·hm-2 was the best for Cd, combination of red mud (4 000 kg·hm-2 and organic fertilizer (1 000 kg·hm-2was the best for Pb, the contents of which were 55.90% and 29.41% less than the control respectively. Although contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased significantly after red mud and organic fertilizer added, contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice were still higher than national food safety standards (GB 2762-2012 because of high polluted degree of Cd (65 times than standard and Pb(7 times than standard in soil. All results showed it was ineffective to control heavy metal pollution in brown rice only by red mud and organic fertilizer addition in high polluted degree soils.

  10. A reagent for processing drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, G.A.; Khon-Pak, A.T.; Khon, A.V.; Normatov, L.N.; Telegin, B.V.

    1983-01-01

    A reagent is proposed for processing drilling muds. It contains an acrylic polymer and potassium permanganate. The reagent is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the quality of the drilling muds by increasing their salt resistance, the reagent contains hydrolized nitron fiber as the acrylic polymer with the following component relationship (in percent by weight): potassium permanganate, 0.015 to 0.065 and hydrolyzed nitron fiber, the remainder.

  11. Mud volcanism of South-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : South-Caspian depression is presented by area of large warping with thick (more than 25 km) sedimentary series and with wide development of mud volcanism. This depression is unique according to its number of mud volcanoes and intensity of their eruptions. There are about 400 mud volcanoes in this area, which is more than than a half of all volcanoes of the planet. Among them - 220 are continental, more 170 are marine, defined by different methods in the South-Caspian aquatorium. As a result of mudvolcanic activity islands, banks, shoals and underwater ridges are formed in marine conditions. Depths of underwater volcanoes vary from few meters to 900 m as the height of cones are different too. Marine mud volcanoes in geological history of Caspian sea evolution and in its recent history had and important significance. Activity of mud volcanoes in sea conditions lead to the formation of positive elements of relief. Products of ejection take part in the formation of microrelief of surrounding areas of sea bottom influence upon its dynamics and composition of bottom sediments. The carried out comparative analysis of mud volcanism manifestation both onshore and offshore showed the basic differences and similarities in morphology of volcanoes and geology-geochemical peculiarities of eruption products. New data on tectonics of mud volcanism development has been obtained over recent years. Mud volcanoes of South-Caspian depression are studied for assessment and oil-gas content of deep-seated deposits. Geochemical method of search of oil and gas deposits in mudvolcanic areas had been worked out.

  12. Mud volcanos and mud domes of the central Mediterranean Ridge: near bottom and in situ observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Mascle, J.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.; Foucher, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    The first high-resolution mapping of mud volcanoes and mud domes of the Central Mediterranean Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean) presented here is based on successive in situ observations from the Nautile submersible [MEDINAUT (1998) and NAUTINIL (2003) surveys] and near-bottom side-scan sonar data

  13. Structures of Bordered Pits Potentially Contributing to Isolation of a Refilled Vessel from Negative Xylem Pressure in Stems of Morus australis Poir.: Testing of the Pit Membrane Osmosis and Pit Valve Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooeda, Hiroki; Terashima, Ichiro; Taneda, Haruhiko

    2017-02-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism preventing the refilling vessel water from being drained to the neighboring functional vessels under negative pressure. The pit membrane osmosis hypothesis proposes that the xylem parenchyma cells release polysaccharides that are impermeable to the intervessel pit membranes into the refilling vessel; this osmotically counteracts the negative pressure, thereby allowing the vessel to refill. The pit valve hypothesis proposes that gas trapped within intervessel bordered pits isolates the refilling vessel water from the surrounding functional vessels. Here, using the single-vessel method, we assessed these hypotheses in shoots of mulberry (Morus australis Poir.). First, we confirmed the occurrence of xylem refilling under negative pressure in the potted mulberry saplings. To examine the pit membrane osmosis hypothesis, we estimated the semi-permeability of pit membranes for molecules of various sizes and found that the pit membranes were not semi-permeable to polyethylene glycol of molecular mass osmosis mechanism in mulberry would be unrealistically large. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-01-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  15. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A. G.; White, W. A.; Guevara, E. H.; Smyth, R. C.; Raney, J. A.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins.

  16. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A.G.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Smyth, R.C.; Raney, J.A.; Gibeaut, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Extreme value statistics for pitting corrosion of old underground cast iron pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, Zohreh Soltani; Melchers, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Many major city water supply distribution networks consist of buried cast iron pipes. In many cases the pipes are internally cement-lined and the predominant corrosion is by external pitting. This may cause leakage and eventual structural failure. It is conventional to use the Gumbel extreme value distribution to represent the statistics of maximum pits depth and to use it to estimate the probability of pipe wall perforation. Herein data obtained for maximum pit depths for large-sized (1–2 m long) samples of 10 pipes exhumed from different, apparently randomly selected, locations after 34–129 years of service are examined for consistency with the Gumbel probability distribution. This was the case for the deepest pits, but the data for less deep pits show a consistent pattern of departure from the Gumbel distribution. Some extreme pit depth data, inconsistent with the rest are interpreted as possibly caused by material imperfections. - Highlights: • A single Gumbel distribution does not describe the complete probability distribution for pits on the old cast iron pipes. • A multi-component probability distribution is required to describe all data. • Some Gumbel plots also show a small number of much deeper pits inconsistent with the other data.

  18. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  19. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  20. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  1. Taxonomic confirmation of mud crab species (genus Scylla) in Bangladesh by nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarower, Mohammed Golam; Shahriar, Sheik Istiak Md; Nakamura, Hiromasa; Rouf, Muhammad Abdur; Okada, Shigeru

    2017-11-01

    Taxonomy of mud crabs genus Scylla has been misidentified for several years due to their high morphological plasticity. Several reports concerning mud crab have been published with misleading identification in Bangladesh. In this study, partial fragments of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of Scylla species obtained from four locations along the Bangladesh coast were used to resolve taxonomical ambiguity of mud crab species. A single PCR product from the nuclear first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) marker and phylogenetic trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all Scylla species obtained in this study were S. olivacea. Both molecular data and morphological characters revealed that S. olivacea is the only major species in Bangladesh coastal waters. Further, the 16S rDNA haplotypes significantly differed with known S. serrata by 33%. From this study it is clear that 'S. serrata' commonly reported from Bangladesh should be S. olivacea.

  2. Monitoring drilling mud composition using flowing liquid junction electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, R.; Fletcher, P.; Vercaemer, C.

    1990-06-27

    The concentration of a chosen ionic component of a drilling mud is determined from the potential difference between an ion selective electrode, selective to the component and a reference electrode, the reference electrode being connected to the mud by a liquid junction through which reference electrolyte flows from the electrode to the mud. The system avoids errors due to undesirable interactions between the mud and the reference electrode materials. (author).

  3. Environmental isotopes to test hypotheses for fluid mud (mud bank) generation mechanisms along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, N.; Ansari, M.A.; Revichandran, C.

    Occurrence of fluid mud (mud banks) in the southwest coast of India is an enigma for the scientific community. Over the years, several multi-disciplinary studies were conducted and various hypotheses were postulated on the occurrence and sustenance...

  4. Hyperspectral remote sensing and mud volcanism in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The fact that Azerbaijan mud volcanoes are closely associated with oil and gas makes their study and identification of the physical and chemical properties of insitu mud volcano surfaces important. Although the composition of in-situ mud volcano surfaces can be highly variable, it usually

  5. Clay mineralogy of the mud banks of Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The mineralogy of the sediments constituting the mud banks formed off Cochin, Kerala, India was studied. The clay mineral composition was used as a means of understanding the nature and source of origin of the muds. Fine fraction of the mud samples...

  6. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content...

  7. AML (Advanced Mud Logging: First Among Equals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Loermans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years an enormous development in mud logging technology has been made. Traditional mud logging was only qualitative in nature, and mudlogs could not be used for the petrophysical well evaluations which form the basis for all subsequent activities on wells and fields. AML however can provide quantitative information, logs with a reliability, trueness and precision like LWD and WLL. Hence for well evaluation programmes there are now three different logging methods available, each with its own pros and cons on specific aspects: AML, LWD and WLL. The largest improvements have been made in mud gas analysis and elemental analysis of cuttings. Mud gas analysis can yield hydrocarbon fluid composition for some components with a quality like PVT analysis, hence not only revolutionising the sampling programme so far done with only LWD/WLL, but also making it possible to geosteer on fluid properties. Elemental analysis of cuttings, e.g. with XRF, with an ability well beyond the capabilities of the spectroscopy measurements possible earlier with LWD/WLL tools, is opening up improved ways to evaluate formations, especially of course where the traditional methods are falling short of requirements, such as in unconventional reservoirs. An overview and specific examples of these AML logs is given, from which it may be concluded that AML now ought to be considered as “first among its equals”.

  8. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, M. R.; Arzilli, F.; Chiarugi, A.; Marliyani, G. I.; Anggara, F.; Harijoko, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back‐arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid‐dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO2 flux of 1.4 kg s−1 (117 t d−1) was determined, in line with the CO2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO2 flux of 3 kt d−1, comparable with the expected back‐arc efflux of magmatic CO2. After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO2, with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man‐portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom‐up quantification of CO2 fluxes. PMID:28944134

  9. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queißer, M.; Burton, M. R.; Arzilli, F.; Chiarugi, A.; Marliyani, G. I.; Anggara, F.; Harijoko, A.

    2017-06-01

    Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO2 flux of 1.4 kg s-1 (117 t d-1) was determined, in line with the CO2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO2 flux of 3 kt d-1, comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO2. After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO2, with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO2 fluxes.

  10. Mud banks of Kerala: Mystery yet to be unveiled!

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    . They protect both the incoming and outgoing ships during the heavy downpours and stormy winds of the southwest monsoon. When active, they are noted for their wave damping effects – a 1.8 m high wave outside the mud bank is reduced to 0.5 m in the mud... the processes that initiate and sustain the mud banks, a large knowledge gaps still exists. Hypotheses of Formation The most remarkable feature of the mud banks is the damping effect of the mud suspension on the incident waves. The line of breakers...

  11. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  12. Floating Lid Constructions for Pit Water Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due to the l...... to the large share in price the development of lid constructions is crucial for the development of pit water storage and seasonal storage.The current report gives a survey of the most important established and planned designs from Denmark, Sweden and Germany.......Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due...

  13. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  14. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Sheng Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  15. Utilization of red mud in cement production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na

    2011-10-01

    Red mud is a solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina production. Its disposal remains a worldwide issue in terms of environmental concerns. During the past decades, extensive work has been done by a lot of researchers to develop various economic ways for the utilization of red mud. One of the economic ways is using red mud in cement production, which is also an efficient method for large-scale recycling of red mud. This paper provides a review on the utilization of red mud in cement production, and it clearly points out three directions for the use of red mud in cement production, namely the preparation of cement clinkers, production of composite cements as well as alkali-activated cements. In the present paper, the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red mud are summarized, and the current progresses on these three directions are reviewed in detail.

  16. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  17. Pitting Corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti+2Cr Intermetallic Compound at Various Chloride Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr containing two regions of a Ni3(Si,Ti single-phase of L12 structure and a mixture phase of of (L12 +Niss was investigated as function of chloride concentrations by using a polarization method, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy in neutral sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with and without the addition of aluminium and type C276 alloy were also studied under the same experimental condition for the comparison.  The pitting potential obtained for the Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The specific pitting potentials and the pitting potentials were decreased in the order of C276 alloy > Ni3(Si,Ti > Ni3(Si,Ti + 2Cr > Ni3(Si,Ti + 4Al, which means that the pitting corrosion resistance of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr was higher than Ni3(Si,Ti with 4 at% Al, but lower than that of Ni3(Si,Ti.  A critical chloride concentration of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr was found to be higher than that of Ni3(Si,Ti with at% Al. In addition, the presence of high concentration for oxygen indicates the occurrence of pit formation.

  18. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  19. Assessing granular pit construction from larval Neuroptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas; Olafsen, Jeffrey S.; Loudon, Catherine; Steeples, Don W.

    2002-03-01

    Antlion larvae, Myrmeleon carolinus, build cone-shaped pits in dry sand for prey capture. The surface of these pits are prone to avalanches that can depend upon the physical properties of the sand in the local environment. The antlion larvae are observed to be capable of assessing both sand depth and particle size. In a polydisperse granular environment, the antlion demonstrates the ability to sort the sand by size in a dynamic manner. An imaging technique is developed to investigate the potential role of air viscosity on the pit construction process.

  20. The cuisine of the Pitted Ware Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Persson, Per

    The Pitted Ware Culture is a Middle Neolithic culture in southwestern Scandinavia. It appears about thousand years after the introduction of agriculture to this area. In some regions, it is characterized by an almost fully “Mesolithic” economy with a heavy reliance on seal hunting. In Djursland......, northeastern Denmark, however, the Pitted Ware Culture has always been regarded as having a mixed economy, utilizing both domesticated and wild resources. The research presented here was prepared in the framework of the multi-disciplinary project “CONTACT. The Pitted Ware Phenomenon in Djursland and Maritime...

  1. Advantages and limitations for users of double pit pour-flush latrines: a qualitative study in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruqe Hussain

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rural Bangladesh, India and elsewhere, pour-flush pit latrines are the most common sanitation system. When a single pit latrine becomes full, users must empty it themselves and risk exposure to fresh feces, pay an emptying service to remove pit contents or build a new latrine. Double pit pour-flush latrines may serve as a long-term sanitation option including high water table areas because the pits do not need to be emptied immediately and the excreta decomposes into reusable soil. Methods Double pit pour-flush latrines were implemented in rural Bangladesh for ‘hardcore poor’ households by a national NGO, BRAC. We conducted interviews, focus groups, and spot checks in two low-income, rural areas of Bangladesh to explore the advantages and limitations of using double pit latrines compared to single pit latrines. Results The rural households accepted the double pit pour-flush latrine model and considered it feasible to use and maintain. This latrine design increased accessibility of a sanitation facility for these low-income residents and provided privacy, convenience and comfort, compared to open defecation. Although a double pit latrine is more costly and requires more space than a single pit latrine the households perceived this sanitation system to save resources, because households did not need to hire service workers to empty pits or remove decomposed contents themselves. In addition, the excreta decomposition process produced a reusable soil product that some households used in homestead gardening. The durability of the latrine superstructures was a problem, as most of the bamboo-pole superstructure broke after 6–18 months of use. Conclusions Double pit pour-flush latrines are a long-term improved sanitation option that offers users several important advantages over single pit pour-flush latrines like in rural Bangladesh which can also be used in areas with high water table. Further research can provide an

  2. Advantages and limitations for users of double pit pour-flush latrines: a qualitative study in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Faruqe; Clasen, Thomas; Akter, Shahinoor; Bawel, Victoria; Luby, Stephen P; Leontsini, Elli; Unicomb, Leanne; Barua, Milan Kanti; Thomas, Brittany; Winch, Peter J

    2017-05-25

    In rural Bangladesh, India and elsewhere, pour-flush pit latrines are the most common sanitation system. When a single pit latrine becomes full, users must empty it themselves and risk exposure to fresh feces, pay an emptying service to remove pit contents or build a new latrine. Double pit pour-flush latrines may serve as a long-term sanitation option including high water table areas because the pits do not need to be emptied immediately and the excreta decomposes into reusable soil. Double pit pour-flush latrines were implemented in rural Bangladesh for 'hardcore poor' households by a national NGO, BRAC. We conducted interviews, focus groups, and spot checks in two low-income, rural areas of Bangladesh to explore the advantages and limitations of using double pit latrines compared to single pit latrines. The rural households accepted the double pit pour-flush latrine model and considered it feasible to use and maintain. This latrine design increased accessibility of a sanitation facility for these low-income residents and provided privacy, convenience and comfort, compared to open defecation. Although a double pit latrine is more costly and requires more space than a single pit latrine the households perceived this sanitation system to save resources, because households did not need to hire service workers to empty pits or remove decomposed contents themselves. In addition, the excreta decomposition process produced a reusable soil product that some households used in homestead gardening. The durability of the latrine superstructures was a problem, as most of the bamboo-pole superstructure broke after 6-18 months of use. Double pit pour-flush latrines are a long-term improved sanitation option that offers users several important advantages over single pit pour-flush latrines like in rural Bangladesh which can also be used in areas with high water table. Further research can provide an understanding of the comparative health impacts and effectiveness of the model

  3. Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranteda, Guglielmo; Carlesimo, Marta; Pranteda, Giulia; Abruzzese, Claudia; Grimaldi, Miriam; De Micco, Sabrina; Muscianese, Marta; Bottoni, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PK erythromycin and hyperhidrosis. All patients with PK seen in Sant'Andrea Hospital, between January 2009 and December 2011, were collected. PK was clinically and microscopically diagnosed. All patients underwent only topical treatment with erythromycin 3% gel twice daily. At the beginning of the study and after 5 and 10 days of treatment, a clinical evaluation and a gravimetric measurement of plantar sweating were assessed. A total of 97 patients were diagnosed as PK and were included in the study. Gravimetric measurements showed that in 94 of 97 examined patients (96.90%) at the time of the diagnosis, there was a bilateral excessive sweating occurring specifically in the areas affected by PK. After 10 days of antibiotic therapy, hyperhidrosis regressed together with the clinical manifestations. According to these data, we hypothesize that hyperhidrosis is due to an eccrine sweat gland hyperfunction, probably secondary to bacterial infection. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Members of the methanotrophic genus Methylomarinum inhabit inland mud pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle T. Fradet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Proteobacteria capable of converting the greenhouse gas methane to biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide represent a small but important sink in global methane inventories. Currently, 23 genera of methane oxidizing (methanotrophic proteobacteria have been described, although many are represented by only a single validly described species. Here we describe a new methanotrophic isolate that shares phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic relatedness with the marine methanotroph Methylomarinum vadi. However, the new isolate derives from a terrestrial saline mud pot at the northern terminus of the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR. This new cultivar expands our knowledge of the ecology of Methylomarinum, ultimately towards a fuller understanding of the role of this genus in global methane cycling.

  5. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  6. AHAR: Part 1 - PIT Estimates of Homelessness

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report outlines the key findings of the 2014 Point-In-Time (PIT) and Housing Inventory (HIC) counts conducted in January 2014. Specifically, this report...

  7. CLPX-Ground: ISA Snow Pit Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of snow pit data from nine study areas, within three larger-scale areas in northern Colorado (Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears Meso-cell...

  8. Pitting corrosion of 5052 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, F.; Lee, S.; Faunce, J.; Green, J. A. S.; Ptashnick, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The relative degree of pitting of 5052 aluminum alloy in a prepaint cleaning process is correlated with the proportion of MgO in the surface oxide of the alloy. Magnesium oxide, formed on the surface during process heat treatments of the alloy, is soluble in the acidic environment of the particular cleaning solutions, thus allowing easier access of corrosive ion to the aluminum metal. The pitting mechanism involves the: (1) formation of microscopic, localized galvanic cells between aluminum (anode) and iron-containing constituents (cathodic sites) normally found in the matrix of 5052 (and other 5xxx aluminum alloys), (2) aggravation of pit formation by chloride, and (3) enhancement of cathodic reactions and hence the overall corrosion process due to penetration of the oxide layer by cupric and ferric ions, and dissolved O 2 present in the cleaning solutions. Pitting was eliminated by adding 0.1% NaNO 3 to the cleaning bath.

  9. Feasibility of Using Dredged Mud for Prepared the Permeable Brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoqun; Cheng, Xiaosu; Zeng, Lingke; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Through experimental analysis found that the chemical composition of the dredged mud is similar to clay and the dredged mud does not leach heavy metals. Using the dredged mud in the preparation of permeable bricks reduced the quantity of incineration dredged mud buried in landfills, and the exploitation and consumption of natural sandstone. The dredged mud needs to be checked by the validation criteria when the second use, so we used the TCLP test to identify hazardous materials. Its leaching of heavy metals was in line with industry standard. And the basic formula of permeable brick were prepared, its performance was in line with national standards. The use of dredged mud preparing eco-friendly permeable bricks, not only solves the problem of environmental pollution, but also gets some economic and social profit.

  10. Calcification-carbonation method for red mud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruibing; Zhang, Tingan; Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun

    2016-10-05

    Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification-carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO2 carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with process red mud can be completely utilized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modifying alumina red mud to support a revegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenidis, A.; Harokopou, A. D.; Mylona, E.; Brofas, G.

    2005-02-01

    Alumina red mud, a fine-textured, iron-rich, alkaline residue, is the major waste product of bauxite digestion with caustic soda to remove alumina. The high alkalinity and salinity as well as the poor nutrient status are considered to be the major constraints of red mud revegetation. This research was conducted to evaluate the ameliorating effect of gypsum, sewage sludge, ferrous sulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and calcium phosphate on alumina red mud. The effectiveness of the mixtures was evaluated by applying extraction tests and performing experiments using six plant species. Gypsum amendment significantly reduced the pH, electrical conductivity, and sodium and aluminum content of red mud. Sewage sludge application had an extended effect in improving both the soil structure and the nutrient status of the gypsum-amended red mud. Together with the gypsum and sewage sludge, calcium phosphate application into red mud enhanced plant growth and gave the most promising results.

  12. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET. Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than that of the normal red mud. After UV irradiation for 50 min, the removal percentage of MO reached 94.2%. The study provided a novel way for the application of red mud to the photocatalytic degradation of organic wastes.

  13. AudioMUD: a multiuser virtual environment for blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; Hassler, Tiago

    2007-03-01

    A number of virtual environments have been developed during the last years. Among them there are some applications for blind people based on different type of audio, from simple sounds to 3-D audio. In this study, we pursued a different approach. We designed AudioMUD by using spoken text to describe the environment, navigation, and interaction. We have also introduced some collaborative features into the interaction between blind users. The core of a multiuser MUD game is a networked textual virtual environment. We developed AudioMUD by adding some collaborative features to the basic idea of a MUD and placed a simulated virtual environment inside the human body. This paper presents the design and usability evaluation of AudioMUD. Blind learners were motivated when interacted with AudioMUD and helped to improve the interaction through audio and interface design elements.

  14. Micro pit formation by mercury-sphere collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Syuichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2004-01-01

    The development of a MW-class spallation neutron source facility is being carried out under the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) Project promoted by JAERI and KEK. A mercury target working as the spallation neutron source will be subjected to pressure waves generated by rapid thermal expansion of mercury due to a pulsed proton beam injection. The pressure wave will impose dynamic stress on the vessel and deform the vessel, which would cause cavitation in mercury. To evaluate the effect of mercury micro jets, driven by cavitation bubble collapse, on the micro-pit formation, analyses on mercury sphere collision were carried out: single bubble dynamics and collision behavior on interface between liquid and solid, which take the nonlinearity due to shock wave in mercury and the strain rate dependency of yield stress in solid metal into account. Analytical results give a good explanation to understand relationship between the micro-pit formation and material properties: the pit size could decrease with increasing the yield strength of materials. (author)

  15. Pit 9 project: A private sector initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.W.; Hughes, F.P.; Burton, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the Pit 9 Comprehensive Demonstration which is intended to demonstrate a cost-effective approach to remediate an Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) waste disposal pit through a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interim Action. The remediation will include additional requirements, if needed, to provide high confidence that only minor additional work would be necessary to accomplish the final closure as part of the overall final closure strategy for the INEL's Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA)

  16. Bulk additive system reduces mud costs and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnie, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    Today, personnel safety and environmental acceptability are high priorities in oil and gas operations. Many advances have been made, but packaging and handling of drilling mud has not changed in 35 years. In most cases, bulk barite is available, however, drilling muds are typically built from chemicals contained in 50 to 100-lb sacks or 5-gal buckets. Materials must be physically opened by rig personnel and mixed into drilling mud. Chemical exposure liability, and lifting or housekeeping related injuries associated with large quantities of packaging pose serious occupational safety risk. Figures from OSHA (1986) indicate that of 1,492 serious injury cases in Louisiana oil and gas operations, 42% were to back and lower extremities, 3% were eye injuries and 1% were chemical burns. Although exact figures are not available, experience suggests that a significant number of injuries are related to mud product physical handling. Another problem with current mud packaging is generated waste. Mud material lost because of broken sacks, inefficient transfer and as residue is unacceptable. Most mud engineers agree that 5 to 15% of mud products are lost or damaged on typical offshore jobs, depending on weather. When material that is spilled or left in packages, probably 2 to 3%, is added, the total is significant. Reusable containers for drilling mud products and manifold system design effectively eliminate these problems

  17. Antimicrobial properties of Dead Sea black mineral mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Zeev; Henis, Yigal; Alon, Yaacov; Orlov, Elina; Sørensen, Ketil B; Oren, Aharon

    2006-05-01

    The unique, black, hypersaline mud mined from the Dead Sea shores is extensively used in mud packs, masks, and topical body and facial treatments in spas surrounding the lake, and in cosmetic preparations marketed worldwide, but little is known about its antimicrobiological properties. We performed detailed microbial and chemical analysis of Dead Sea mineral mud compounded in dermatological and cosmetic preparations. Using conventional bacteriological media (with or without salt augmentation), we found surprisingly low numbers of colony-forming microorganisms in the mud. The highest counts (up to 20,000 colonies per gram, mostly consisting of endospore-forming bacteria) were obtained on sheep blood agar. Test microorganisms (i.e. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans) rapidly lost their viability when added to the mud. Zones of growth inhibition were observed around discs of Dead Sea mud placed on agar plates inoculated with Candida or with Propionibacterium, but not with Staphylococcus or Escherichia. The effect was also found when the mud was sterilized by gamma irradiation. Using (35)S-labeled sulfate as a tracer, bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction could be demonstrated at a low rate (0.13 +/- 0.03 nmol/cm(3).d). The antibacterial properties of Dead Sea mud are probably owing to chemical and/or physical phenomena. Possible modes of antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties are discussed.

  18. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Wave-Created Mud Suspensions: A Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Kämpf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied wave-created high-density mud suspensions (fluid mud using a one-dimensional water column (1DV model that includes k-ε turbulence closure at a high vertical resolution with a vertical grid spacing of 1 mm. The k-ε turbulence model includes two sediment-related dissipation terms associated with vertical density stratification and viscous drag of flows around sediment particles. To this end, the calibrated model reproduces the key characteristics (maximum concentration and thickness of fluid mud layers created in laboratory experiments over a large range of wave velocities from 10 to 55 cm/s. The findings demonstrate that the equilibrium near-bed mud concentration, Cb, is solely determined from the balance between erosion and deposition fluxes, whereas the thickness of the fluid mud layer is mainly controlled by sediment-induced density stratification, which dissipates turbulence and hence eliminates turbulent sediment diffusivity at the top of the fluid mud layer, the lutocline. Our model stands in contrast to those that suggest that upward sediment diffusion is close to zero at the interface between the fluid mud layer and the overlying fluid. Instead, our model suggests that the upward diffusive flux of fluid mud flows peak at the lutocline and is compensated for enhanced settling fluxes just above it. Our model findings also support the existence of the gelling-ignition process, which is critical for the development of fluid mud beds in modern sedimentary environments.

  20. Retrospective Analysis of Mosh-Pit-Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsten, Andrew M; Tennyson, Joseph; Weisberg, Stacy

    2017-12-01

    Moshing is a violent form of dancing found world-wide at rock concerts, festivals, and electronic dance music events. It involves crowd surfing, shoving, and moving in a circular rotation. Moshing is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to report epidemiologic information on patient presentation rate (PPR), transport to hospital rate (TTHR), and injury patterns from patients who participated in mosh-pits. Materials and Methods Subjects were patrons from mosh-pits seeking medical care at a single venue. The events reviewed were two national concert tours which visited this venue during their tour. The eight distinct events studied occurred between 2011 and 2014. Data were collected retrospectively from prehospital patient care reports (PCRs). A single Emergency Medical Service (EMS) provided medical care at this venue. The following information was gathered from each PCR: type of injury, location of injury, treatment received, alcohol or drug use, Advanced Life Support/ALS interventions required, age and gender, disposition, minor or parent issues, as well as type of activity engaged in when injured. Attendance for the eight events ranged from 5,100 to 16,000. Total patient presentations ranged from 50 to 206 per event. Patient presentations per ten thousand (PPTT) ranged from 56 to 130. The TTHR per 10,000 ranged from seven to 20. The mean PPTT was 99 (95% CI, 77-122) and the median was 98. The mean TTHR was 16 (95% CI, 12-29) and the median TTHR was 17. Patients presenting from mosh-pits were more frequently male (57.6%; P<.004). The mean age was 20 (95% CI, 19-20). Treatment received was overwhelmingly at the Basic Life Support (BLS) level (96.8%; P<.000001). General moshing was the most common activity leading to injury. Crowd surfing was the next most significant, accounting for 20% of presentations. The most common body part injured was the head (64% of injuries). This retrospective review of mosh-pit-associated injury

  1. Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, W. C.; Holm, R. H.; Kamanula, J. F.; Mtonga, W. E.; de los Reyes, F. L.

    2017-08-01

    A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum trucks currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a result, households in the unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu rely primarily on manual pit emptying (i.e., shoveling by hand) or digging a new pit latrine. These practices have associated health risks and are limited by space constraints. This research focused on filling the technological gap through the design, development, and testing of a pedal powered modified Gulper pump using locally available materials and fabrication. A modified pedal powered Gulper technology was developed and demonstrated to be capable of lifting fecal sludge from a depth of 1.5 m with a mean flow rate of 0.00058 m3/s. If the trash content was low, a typical pit latrine with a volume of 1-4 m3 could be emptied within 1-2 h. Based on the findings in our research Phase IV, the pedal powered Gulper modification is promising as a potential emptying technology for lined pit latrines in unplanned settlement areas. The success rate of the technology is about 17% (5 out 30 sampled lined pit latrines were successful) and reflects the difficulty in finding a single technology that can work well in all types of pit latrines with varying contents. We note that cost should not be the only design criteria and acknowledge the challenge of handling trash in pit latrines.

  2. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  3. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  4. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo) Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Hardjito, Djwantoro; Antoni,; Wibowo, Gunadi M.; Christianto, Danny

    2012-01-01

    LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The...

  5. Effects of Red-mud and Organic Fertilizer on Cadmium and Lead Absorption and Distribution in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    FANG Ya-yu; ZOU Hui-ling; YIN Xiao-hui; CHEN Nan; YANG Deng; WEI Xiang-dong

    2016-01-01

    Effects of red mud and organic fertilizer on distribution of cadmium(Cd) and lead (Pb) in soil-rice system were studied in field by orthogonal test. Results showed that after red mud and organic fertilizer added including single and combined, the soil pH value increased 0.36~1.90 units, contents of Cd and Pb in rice rhizosphere soil decreased 2.73%~26.25% and 7.15%~34.26% respectively and contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased 23.24%~55.90% and 11.76%~29.41% respectively. In all treatm...

  6. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Catherine M.; Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole; Wu, Benjamin; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. ► NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. ► NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. ► NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  7. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  8. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  9. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da

    2013-01-01

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  10. Aerobic Degradation of Drill Muds by Axenic and Mixed Bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    (2003) have earlier shown that drilling muds additives were biodegradable, when they investigated the ... investigation reports the potentials of some indigenous bacteria to biodegrade drilling muds used in exploration in Nigeria. ... Samples were transported to the laboratory aseptically for evaluation, in labeled plastic.

  11. Calcification–carbonation method for red mud processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruibing [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems, Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Zhang, Tingan, E-mail: zhangta@smm.neu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • A new approach named calcification–carbonation method for red mud processing is proposed. • The method can prevent emission of red mud from alumina production and is good for the environment. • Thermodynamics characteristics were investigated. • The method was verified experimentally using a jet-flow reactor. - Abstract: Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification–carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO{sub 2} carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with <0.3% alkali can be used in cement production. Using a combination of this method and cement production, the Bayer process red mud can be completely utilized.

  12. Research on mud pulse signal data processing in MWD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bing; Li, De Sheng; Lin, En Huai; Ji, Miao Miao

    2012-12-01

    Wireless measure while drilling (MWD) transmits data by using mud pulse signal ; the ground decoding system collects the mud pulse signal and then decodes and displays the parameters under the down-hole according to the designed encoding rules and the correct detection and recognition of the ground decoding system towards the received mud pulse signal is one kind of the key technology of MWD. This paper introduces digit of Manchester encoding that transmits data and the format of the wireless transmission of data under the down-hole and develops a set of ground decoding systems. The ground decoding algorithm uses FIR (Finite impulse response) digital filtering to make de-noising on the mud pulse signal, then adopts the related base value modulating algorithm to eliminate the pump pulse base value of the denoised mud pulse signal, finally analyzes the mud pulse signal waveform shape of the selected Manchester encoding in three bits cycles, and applies the pattern similarity recognition algorithm to the mud pulse signal recognition. The field experiment results show that the developed device can make correctly extraction and recognition for the mud pulse signal with simple and practical decoding process and meet the requirements of engineering application.

  13. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of. Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  14. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jeffkoy@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  15. Natural aversive learning in Tetramorium ants reveals ability to form a generalizable memory of predators' pit traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Karen L; McNew, Kelsey; Sosa, Talisa; Harrsch, Felicia A; Nowbahari, Elise

    2017-06-01

    Many species of ants fall prey to pit-digging larval antlions (Myrmeleon spp.), extremely sedentary predators that wait, nearly motionless at the bottom of their pit traps, for prey to stumble inside. Previous research, both in the field and laboratory, has demonstrated a remarkable ability of these ants to rescue trapped nestmates, thus sabotaging antlions' attempts to capture them. Here we show that pavement ants, Tetramorium sp. E, an invasive species and a major threat to biodiversity, possess yet another, more effective, antipredator strategy, namely the ability to learn to avoid antlion traps following a single successful escape from a pit. More importantly, we show that this learned antipredator behavior, an example of natural aversive learning in insects, is more complicated than a single cue-to-consequence form of associative learning. That is, pavement ants were able to generalize, after one experience, from the learned characteristics of the pit and its specific location, to other pits and other contexts that differed in many features. Such generalization, often described as a lack of precise stimulus control, nonetheless would be especially adaptive in nature, enabling ants to negotiate antlions' pit fields, which contain a hundred or more pits within a few centimetres of one another. Indeed, the ability to generalize in exactly this way almost certainly is responsible for the sudden, and heretofore inexplicable, behavioural modifications of ants in response to an invasion of antlions in the vicinity of an ant colony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  17. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs

  18. Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano provides unusual example of venting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, P. R.; Cherkashev, G.; Ginsburg, G.; Ivanov, G.; Milkov, A.; Crane, K.; Sundvor, A.; Pimenov, N.; Egorov, A.

    A seafloor mud volcano north of Norway is presenting researchers with an uncommon example of venting and is raising important questions. Seafloor aqueous vents, gas vents, mud volcanoes, and mud diapirs are found in a variety of geological settings. However, scientists did not expect to discover venting at the northern site, now known as the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV). It is considered especially unusual because of its Arctitc Location (72°N), its development largely within glacial marine sediments, and its lack of association either with salt tectonics or with plate subduction. Further, the volcano is posing questions for investigators about the relationship of methane generation and mud volcanism to thick, rapidly deposited sediments; sediment failure; and gas hydrates (GH).

  19. Use of red mud as addition for portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, D.V.; Morelli, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding red mud, an alkaline leaching waste that is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production, in the raw meal of Portland cement mortars. The red mud is classified as dangerous, according to NBR 10004/2004, and world while generation reached over 117 million tons/year. This huge production requires high consuming products to be used as incorporation matrix and we studied the influence of red mud addition on the characteristics of cement mortars and concrete. In this paper the properties of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of red mud was evaluated: pH variation, fresh (setting time, workability or normal consistency and water retention), and hardened state (mechanical strength, capillary water absorption, density and apparent porosity). Results seem promising for red mud additions up to 20 wt%. (author)

  20. The red mud accident in ajka (hungary): plant toxicity and trace metal bioavailability in red mud contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyters, Stefan; Mertens, Jelle; Vassilieva, Elvira; Dehandschutter, Boris; Poffijn, André; Smolders, Erik

    2011-02-15

    The red mud accident of October 4, 2010, in Ajka (Hungary) contaminated a vast area with caustic, saline red mud (pH 12) that contains several toxic trace metals above soil limits. Red mud was characterized and its toxicity for plants was measured to evaluate the soil contamination risks. Red mud radioactivity (e.g., (238)U) is about 10-fold above soil background and previous assessments revealed that radiation risk is limited to indoor radon. The plant toxicity and trace metal availability was tested with mixtures of this red mud and a local noncontaminated soil up to a 16% dry weight fraction. Increasing red mud applications increased soil pH to maximally 8.3 and soil solution EC to 12 dS m(-1). Shoot yield of barley seedlings was affected by 25% at 5% red mud in soil and above. Red mud increased shoot Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ni concentrations; however, none of these exceed toxic limits reported elsewhere. Moreover, NaOH amended reference treatments showed similar yield reductions and similar changes in shoot composition. Foliar diagnostics suggest that Na (>1% in affected plants) is the prime cause of growth effects in red mud and in corresponding NaOH amended soils. Shoot Cd and Pb concentrations decreased by increasing applications or were unaffected. Leaching amended soils (3 pore volumes) did not completely remove the Na injury, likely because soil structure was deteriorated. The foliar composition and the NaOH reference experiment allow concluding that the Na salinity, not the trace metal contamination, is the main concern for this red mud in soil.

  1. Modeling and management of pit lake water chemistry 1: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castendyk, D.N.; Eary, L.E.; Balistrieri, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of pit lake literature in the context of pit lake predictions. • Review of approaches used to predict pit wall-rock runoff and leachate. • Review of approaches used to generate a pit lake water balance. • Review of approaches used to generate a hydrodynamic prediction. • Review of approaches used to generate a geochemical prediction of a future pit lake. - Abstract: Pit lakes are permanent hydrologic/landscape features that can result from open pit mining for metals, coal, uranium, diamonds, oil sands, and aggregates. Risks associated with pit lakes include local and regional impacts to water quality and related impacts to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Stakeholders rely on predictive models of water chemistry to prepare for and manage these risks. This paper is the first of a two part series on the modeling and management of pit lakes. Herein, we review approaches that have been used to quantify wall-rock runoff geochemistry, wall-rock leachate geochemistry, pit lake water balance, pit lake limnology (i.e. extent of vertical mixing), and pit lake water quality, and conclude with guidance on the application of models within the mine life cycle. The purpose of this paper is to better prepare stakeholders, including future modelers, mine managers, consultants, permitting agencies, land management agencies, regulators, research scientists, academics, and other interested parties, for the challenges of predicting and managing future pit lakes in un-mined areas

  2. Markov Chain Models for the Stochastic Modeling of Pitting Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion of metallic structures has been widely recognized. It is assumed that this kind of deterioration retains no memory of the past, so only the current state of the damage influences its future development. This characteristic allows pitting corrosion to be categorized as a Markov process. In this paper, two different models of pitting corrosion, developed using Markov chains, are presented. Firstly, a continuous-time, nonhomogeneous linear growth (pure birth Markov process is used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. A closed-form solution of the system of Kolmogorov's forward equations is used to describe the transition probability function in a discrete pit depth space. The transition probability function is identified by correlating the stochastic pit depth mean with the empirical deterministic mean. In the second model, the distribution of maximum pit depths in a pitting experiment is successfully modeled after the combination of two stochastic processes: pit initiation and pit growth. Pit generation is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, in which induction time is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. Pit growth is simulated using a nonhomogeneous Markov process. An analytical solution of Kolmogorov's system of equations is also found for the transition probabilities from the first Markov state. Extreme value statistics is employed to find the distribution of maximum pit depths.

  3. Parturition pit: the bony imprint of vaginal birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, Tatum A.; Meyer, Isuzu; Jackson, Bradford; Pitt, Michael J.; Larrison, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate for pits along the dorsum of the pubic body in females and compare the presence/absence of these pits to vaginal birth data. We retrospectively reviewed females with vaginal birth data who underwent pelvic CT. The presence of pits along the dorsum of the pubic body, pit grade (0 = not present; 1 = faintly imperceptible; 2 = present; 3 = prominent), and the presence of osteitis condensans ilii, preauricular sulcus, and sacroiliac joint vacuum phenomenon were assessed on imaging. Musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the birth data evaluated the CTs. 48 males were also evaluated for the presence of pits. 482 female patients underwent CT pelvis and 171 were excluded due to lack of vaginal birth data. Of the 311 study patients, 262 had prior vaginal birth(s) and 194 had pits on CT. Only 7 of the 49 patients without prior vaginal birth had pits. There was a statistically significant association between vaginal birth and presence of pits (p < 0.0001). Patients with more prominent pits (grades 2/3) had a greater number of vaginal births. As vaginal deliveries increased, the odds of having parturition pits greatly increased, adjusting for age and race at CT (p < 0.0001). No males had pits. Our study indicates that parturition pits are associated with prior vaginal birth and should be considered a characteristic of the female pelvis. The lytic appearance of prominent pits on imaging can simulate disease and create a diagnostic dilemma for interpreting radiologists. (orig.)

  4. Geotechnical properties of the Cassino Beach mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cláudio R. R.; Alves, Antonio M. L.

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of the marine soils properties, together with hydrodynamic and climatic data, plays an important role for a better understanding of the dynamic behavior of sandy and muddy coasts. This paper deals with reporting and basic interpretation of two campaigns of exploration and characterization of the mud of Cassino Beach, southern Brazil, carried out during the years of 2004 and 2005. Samples were obtained by means of cores collected at some locations offshore, and were submitted to various laboratory geotechnical tests, including determination of the physical index, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, and shear resistance by both triaxial and shear vane tests. Results confirm the existence of a very soft soil deposit offshore Cassino Beach, highly plastic, compressible, and viscous, forming an important database for further studies.

  5. Concretes with red mud coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Ramam Carvalho de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Red mud (RM is a mineral waste, residue of the Bayer process used to obtain alumina from bauxite. While the exploration of rolled pebble damages the environment and is much more controlled by the government, the huge RM disposal areas do not stop increasing and polluting soil, rivers and groundwater sources in Amazon. In this work, the material mixtures used to produce coarse aggregates presented up to 80% of RM, 30% of metakaolin and 30% of active silica as recycled waste. Several tests were carried out to determine the aggregates physical properties and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the concretes with the new aggregates, including hydraulic abrasion strength, and the results were compared to the reference ones, i.e. rolled pebble concretes. Additionally, the sintering process neutralizes any toxic substance as occur in some RM products like tiles and bricks, and these results have encouraged an industrial or semi-industrial production of RM aggregates for concretes.

  6. Did mud contribute to freeway collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Friberg, Paul A.; Busby, Robert; Field, Edward F.; Jacob, Klaus H.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    At least 41 people were killed October 17 when the upper tier of the Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, Calif., collapsed during the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Seismologists studying aftershocks concluded that soil conditions and resulting ground motion amplification were important in the failure of the structure and should be considered in the reconstruction of the highway.Structural design weaknesses in the two-tiered freeway, known as the Cypress structure, had been identified before the tragedy. The seismologists, from Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., and the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., found that the collapsed section was built on fill over Bay mud. A southern section of the Cypress structure built on alluvium of Quaternary age did not collapse (see Figure 1).

  7. Treatment and use of muds of wastewaters in the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez A, Hernando

    1995-01-01

    The plant includes a preliminary treatment of the domestic residual waters; with two anaerobic reactors type UASB and a facultative lagoon as pos-treatment, system that reaches a removal of 85% of organic load, obtaining a tributary of 20 g/cm 3 of biodegradable oxygen. It is in the primary treatment where muds of interest are generated from the point of view of their application with agricultural and forest aims. These muds present a majors elements as P, Ca, K, Mg and minor, Fe, Cu, Zn being these nutrients and the organic matter the components that allow a good development of the material vegetable forest and agricultural type. In the agricultural area of CORPOICA and the CDMB jointly developed studies of laboratory greenhouse and of field with the purpose of knowing the potential of the muds like nutrition source. The greenhouse study, showed significant results of the muds on the development of the plants of corn and under field conditions the grain production increased from 1.051 kg/ha to 2;077 kg/ha with the treatments without muds and with three tons for hectare respectively. In another study on the pathogen population of muds handling, the behavior of the population of some pathogens organisms, of the blended muds was evaluated with agricultural lime, it diminished the population of fecal coliform bacteria, clastridium, mushrooms and yeasts significantly

  8. Study on Influence of Mud Pollution on Formation Fracture Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mud pollution may change the mechanical properties of rock during oil and gas drilling process, which affects the prediction of fracture pressure, leads to the failure of hydraulic fracturing treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to study influence of mud pollution on formation fracture pressure to improve the forecasting accuracy. The mud pollution has influences on the modulus of elasticity and the Poisson’s ratio of rock by the mud pollution experiment, the core microstructure is observed around the mud pollution. Based on the experiment and research, the effects of mud pollution on the fracturing pressure are studied by finite element software system ANSYS, the factors such as pollution depth, perforation length and Poisson’s ratio of polluted area are taken into account. The result of the experiment indicated that the modulus of elasticity of rock is reduced and the Poisson’s ratio of rock is increased by the mud pollution. Through computing and analyzing, it can be concluded that increases in pollution depth and Poisson’s ratio can lead to a vast increase in formation fracturing pressure. A calculation example is presented and the results show that the results of this research can provide valuable guidance to the designers of hydraulic fracturing treatment.

  9. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  10. PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF LAPINDO MUD DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundakir Mundakir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lapindo mud disaster that occurred since 29 May 2006 is considered as the longest disaster that occurred in Indonesia. This disaster has caused damage and lost of property which has been affecting the viability of the residents of the affected areas. Psychosocial well being is one af the impacts of disaster. Research was conducted using qualitative design with descriptive phenomenology method. The purpose required of this research was to identify the psychological impact, social impact, and hope for the settlement of problems and health services. Method: Number of participants were involved in this research based on the saturation of data was 7 people. This study used purposive sampling technique using the key informant. Procedure of data collection techniques using depth interviews with a semi-structured form of used questions. The Digital Voice Record was utilized to record the interviews, and verbatim transcripts made and analyzed using the methods of Colaizi (1978, in Daymon and Dolloway, 2008. Result: This study revealed 9 theme of core and 2 additional theme. Nine the core theme is emotional changes, cognitive changes, coping mechanism, changes in family function, changes in social relationships, social support, hope to the problem to the government and PT Lapindo, physical health service needs and psychological health. Discussion: While two additional theme that is risk and growth trouble, and distres spiritual. Conclusion of this research society of victim of mud of Lapindo experience of impact of psikosoial and hope to government and PT Lapindo settle the payment phase II (80% and also provide service of health of physical and also psikososial. This research recommend the importance of intervention of psikososial to society of victim and research of continuation after society of victim take possession of new residences.

  11. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... the transfer of water into and out of the pit, biological trans- formations, and pathogen die-off (Buckley et al., 2008). .... formations that consumed or generated it. However, the age distribution of the originally deposited unbiodegradable mate- rial depends only on the deposition history, as it undergoes no.

  12. Evaluation of PIT-tagging in cyprinids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Brönmark, C.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were used to investigate how different marking procedures, with 23 mm PIT (passive integrated transponders) - tags. affected mortality, body condition and tag expulsion in small roach Rutilus rutilus and rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (117 to 163 mm total length...

  13. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  14. Some questions on small uranium open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junyi

    1992-01-01

    The experiences of the existing uranium open pits are summarized and the questions in design, erection and production are analyzed. It is important helpful to develop and to design such economical and reasonable small uranium open pits

  15. Pitting corrosion protection of stainless steel by sputter deposited hafnia, alumina, and hafnia-alumina nanolaminate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almomani, M. A.; Aita, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    316L stainless steel coated with sputter deposited HfO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and HfO 2 -Al 2 O 3 nanolaminate films were subjected to direct current cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (DCP) in Hanks' balanced salt solution electrolyte. Postexposure morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with in situ energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). SEM/EDS data show that bare steel and steel coated with single-layer HfO 2 develop pits with perforated covers. These pits become autocatalytic, consistent with an observed positive DCP hysteresis. On the other hand, SEM/EDS data show that steel coated with Al 2 O 3 and HfO 2 -Al 2 O 3 nanolaminate films does not develop autocatalytic pits, consistent with an observed negative DCP hysteresis. However, Al 2 O 3 splinters upon polarization whereas the HfO 2 -Al 2 O 3 nanolaminate remains intact. The areas of worst damage in the nanolaminate correspond to pit cover rupture before autocatalysis, allowing pit and bulk electrolyte to mix and the newly exposed steel surface to repassivate. The films' diverse behavior is discussed in terms of a model for perforated pit growth that requires occlusion until an autocatalytic geometry is established. The authors conclude that the key property a film must have to arrest autocatalytic geometry development is the ability to rupture locally at an early stage of pit growth.

  16. Pit Study, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [pit_study_LOSCO_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The 'Pit Study' was meant to identify the remnants of former oil extraction sites which pose the threat of creating an oil spill. These remnants include many other...

  17. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end

  18. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit 36 was chosen having the highest the Net Present Value (NPV) @ 10% of $338.60 million. The optimal pit had 21.19 Mt of ore at an average grade of 1.557 g/t. The NPV was very sensitive to gold price changes but marginally sensitive to mining cost changes. From the optimal pit, a detailed pit designed with circular ...

  19. Comparative study of using Water-Based mud containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes versus Oil-Based mud in HPHT fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abduo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-Based mud (WBM and Oil-Based mud (OBM are the most common drilling fluids currently used and both have several characteristics that qualify them for High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT purposes. This paper compares the different characteristics of WBM containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs and OBM to help decide the most suitable mud type for HPHT drilling by considering mud properties through several laboratory tests to generate some engineering guidelines. The tests were formulated at temperatures from 120 °F up to 500 °F and pressures from 14.7 psi to 25,000 psi. The comparison will mainly consider the rheological properties of the two mud types and will also take into account the environmental feasibility of using them. The results showing that the Water-Based offers a more environmental friendly choice yet some of additives that are used to enhance its performance at (HPHT conditions, such as (MWCNTs, thus it is necessary to develop new formulas for (HPHT Water-Based muds that could act like Oil-Based mud but cause less harm to the environment.

  20. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  1. Laboratory protocols for testing the efficacy of commercial pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is considerable national interest in the use of commercial microbially derived products for controlling the rate of accumulation of the contents of pit latrines. Manufacturers claim that some of these products can reduce accumulation rates, prevent the pit from ever filling up, or even result in decreases in pit contents ...

  2. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... This paper studies the Surpac and Whittle software and their application in designing an optimised pit. Exploration data from. Mpeasem Gold Mining Project (MGMP) is used as the primary input for the work. The work entails: block modelling of. MGMP deposit; pit optimisation; analysis of the Pit NPV's ...

  3. Congenital pits of the optic nerve head and retinochoroidal colobomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C; Augsburger, J J

    1980-07-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with bilateral retinochoroidal colobomas associated with an inferonasal congenital pit of the optic nerve head in each eye. Different theories on the origin of such pits are discussed. This case supports the theory that some congenital optic pits occur as a result of failure of closure of the superior end of the embryonic fissure.

  4. Ascent velocity and dynamics of the Fiumicino mud eruption, Rome, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vona, A.; Giordano, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; D'Ambrosio, R.; Romano, C.; Manga, M.

    2015-08-01

    In August 2013 drilling triggered the eruption of mud near the international airport of Fiumicino (Rome, Italy). We monitored the evolution of the eruption and collected samples for laboratory characterization of physicochemical and rheological properties. Over time, muds show a progressive dilution with water; the rheology is typical of pseudoplastic fluids, with a small yield stress that decreases as mud density decreases. The eruption, while not naturally triggered, shares several similarities with natural mud volcanoes, including mud componentry, grain-size distribution, gas discharge, and mud rheology. We use the size of large ballistic fragments ejected from the vent along with mud rheology to compute a minimum ascent velocity of the mud. Computed values are consistent with in situ measurements of gas phase velocities, confirming that the stratigraphic record of mud eruptions can be quantitatively used to infer eruption history and ascent rates and hence to assess (or reassess) mud eruption hazards.

  5. A structured workflow for mapping human Sin3 histone deacetylase complex interactions using Halo-MudPIT AP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Charles A S; Thornton, Janet L; Eubanks, Cassandra G; Adams, Mark K; Miah, Sayem; Boanca, Gina; Liu, Xingyu; Katt, Maria; Parmely, Tari; Florens, Laurence A; Washburn, Michael P

    2018-03-29

    Although a variety of affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) strategies have been used to investigate complex interactions, many of these are susceptible to artifacts due to substantial overexpression of the exogenously expressed bait protein. Here we present a logical and systematic workflow that uses the multifunctional Halo tag to assess the correct localization and behavior of tagged subunits of the Sin3 histone deacetylase complex prior to further AP-MS analysis. Using this workflow, we modified our tagging/expression strategy with 21.7% of the tagged bait proteins that we constructed, allowing us to quickly develop validated reagents. Specifically, we apply the workflow to map interactions between stably expressed versions of the Sin3 subunits SUDS3, SAP30 or SAP30L and other cellular proteins.  Here we show that the SAP30 and SAP30L paralogues strongly associate with the core Sin3 complex, but SAP30L has unique associations with the proteasome and the myelin sheath.  Next, we demonstrate an advancement of the complex NSAF (cNSAF) approach, in which normalization to the scaffold protein SIN3A accounts for variations in the proportion of each bait capturing Sin3 complexes and allows a comparison between different baits capturing the same protein complex. This analysis reveals that although the Sin3 subunit SUDS3 appears to be used in both SIN3A and SIN3B based complexes, the SAP30 subunit is not used in SIN3B based complexes. Intriguingly, we do not detect the Sin3 subunits SAP18 and SAP25 among the 128 high-confidence interactions identified, suggesting that these subunits may not be common to all versions of the Sin3 complex in human cells. This workflow provides the framework for building validated reagents to assemble quantitative interaction networks for chromatin remodeling complexes and provides novel insights into focused protein interaction networks. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Recovering metals from red mud generated during alumina production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piga, Luigi; Pochetti, Fausto; Stoppa, Luisa

    1993-11-01

    There is growing interest in processing and utilizing the red mud by-product of the Bayer process for alumina extraction from bauxite. This interest stems largely from the environmental impacts associated with red mud and the storage costs involved. Furthermore, complete utilization of the raw materials, in this case bauxite, meets an ecological concept while ensuring raw material conservation. To prepare this article, the authors perused approximately 100 patents and articles in order to provide a concise description of the methods of storing red mud and its uses as a flocculant or construction material and in other minor applications. Special attention has been given to the methods developed for recovering metals contained in the red mud.

  7. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welding joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Xu, Lianyong, E-mail: xulianyong@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhang, Jianli [Welding laboratory, Offshore Oil Engineering (Qing Dao) Company, Qing Dao 266520 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • N{sub 2}-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the austenite. • Secondary austenite had higher Ni but lower Cr and Mo than primary austenite. • Pitting corrosion preferentially occurred at secondary austenite and Cr{sub 2}N. • Adding N{sub 2} in shielding gas improved pitting corrosion resistance of GTAW joint. • E2209T{sub 1} weld metal had very poor pitting corrosion resistance due to inclusions. - Abstract: The influences of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel joints welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with different shielding gas compositions were studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization methods The adding 2% N{sub 2} in shielding gas facilitated primary austenite formation in GTAW weld metal (WM) and suppressed Cr{sub 2}N precipitation in GTAW weld root. In the HAZ, the banded microstructure disappeared while the coarse ferrite grains maintained same orientation as the banded ferrite in the BM. In the WM, the ferrite had one single orientation throughout a grain, whereas several families of austenite appeared. The austenite both in BM and WM enriched in Ni and nitrogen, while Cr and Mo were concentrated in the ferrite and thus no element showed clear dendritic distribution in the WM (ER2209 and E2209T{sub 1}). In addition, the secondary austenite had higher Ni content but lower Cr and Mo content than the primary austenite. The N{sub 2}-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the primary and secondary austenite. Furthermore, the secondary austenite had relatively lower pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) than the ferrite and primary austenite, thereby resulting in its preferential

  9. Performance of Mud Mortar Walls Under Seismic Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Berneking, Christian L, VI; Pujol, Santiago; Shah, Prateek Pratap; Laughery, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    The inherently brittle nature of unreinforced masonry structures results in poor performance during earthquakes, presenting major hazards to communities. Many of these structures found in Nepal were severely damaged or destroyed during two earthquakes in 2015. The purpose of this project is to test the effect on seismic response of several modifications to stone and mud mortar structures. These structures are common in many areas of Nepal. Two T-shaped stone and mud mortar masonry walls are c...

  10. Scientific studies on decorated mud mortar of Ajanta

    OpenAIRE

    M. Singh; B.R. Arbad

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to reveal the decorated earthen plaster of Ajanta. The mud plaster of Ajanta caves has been analyzed with the help of physical and analytical tools. The results indicate that high silt (>70%) low clay soil may have been mixed purposefully with lime (calcite) for the reason to enhance the cementing characteristics. The presence of calcium oxalate was detected from FTIR spectra may have been the resultant product of proteic materials presented in mud plaster. Ferrugineo...

  11. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only

  12. Multibeam Bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas; Rathlau, Rike; Schenke, Hans Werner

    2005-03-01

    The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano is a natural laboratory to study geological, geochemical, and ecological processes related to deep-water mud volcanism. High resolution bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano was recorded during RV Polarstern expedition ARK XIX/3 utilizing the multibeam system Hydrosweep DS-2. Dense spacing of the survey lines and slow ship speed (5 knots) provided necessary point density to generate a regular 10 m grid. Generalization was applied to preserve and represent morphological structures appropriately. Contour lines were derived showing detailed topography at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano and generalized contours in the vicinity. We provide a brief introduction to the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano area and describe in detail data recording and processing methods, as well as the morphology of the area. Accuracy assessment was made to evaluate the reliability of a 10 m resolution terrain model. Multibeam sidescan data were recorded along with depth measurements and show reflectivity variations from light grey values at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano to dark grey values (less reflective) at the surrounding moat.

  13. Experimental Study of Goaf Filling Materials Based on Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mangen; Gao, Xiaozhen; Guo, Taoming; Hu, Xinping

    2018-01-01

    Red mud as soild waste is difficult to treatment. Goaf filling materials can make a large use of red mud. By the experimental study,we find that the red mud, fly ash, ground slag and desulfida-tion gypsum can be used to make goaf filling materials based on the principle of alkali excitation and metalion stability.Through the control variable method, we find that the optimal proportion of goaf filling materials based on red mud is red mud 55%, fly ash 30%, cement 7.5%, fly ash 2.5%, desulfurization gypsum 5%, admixture 1%, and water solid ratio=1:1.2.The 28days final material strength was 2.0 MPa,which achives the technical specification requirements.Through the test of SEM, XRD and IR, it is indicated that the strength formation of goaf filling material based on red mud is from the unformed linking hydration products of amorphous alkali excitation system. With curing time from 3 to 7 days, the unformed linking hydration products grown a lot of vitreous hydration products. When hydration reaction basicly finished after 28 days, the hydration products have developed into a large volume of massive vitreous with an extremely dense structure. The Ca2SiO3 mineral phase is significantly reduced, which is participate in hydration reactions. The decrease of Ca2SiO3 indicates that the Si-O bond in the system have been ruptured and reorganized.

  14. The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the phenomenon of pits with special deposits, i.e. ritual pits, seems to have, once again, attracted attention both in Europe and in the Balkans. In the central Balkans, scientific literature related to this topic is still deficient, hence one of the objectives of this paper is to change the current state and rekindle interest in the study of this form of manifestation of the spiritual culture of prehistoric man. It appears that one of the oldest reasons for sacrificial offerings is primal, instinctive fear. The fear of the transience of life or of death compelled our ancient ancestors to make some sort of “agreement” with the surrounding forces, bestowing particular sacrifices onto them. Sacrifice represents one of the rituals of prehistoric communities which could have been performed in a number of ways and in different circumstances. One of these are offerings placed in pits, in the form of specific objects, food, drink or living beings sacrificed to higher powers and accompanied by certain symbolic actions, for the purpose of gaining their favour or help. When interpreting pits, what should further be considered is that the fundamental difference between a discarded object and an object used for a ritual purpose lies in the fact that the object of ritual character is still meaningful to man, performing a symbolic function, unlike the former, whose role is lost after being disposed of. Aritual object, an item or a living being sacrificed in a pit, is no longer of common, worldly significance (food, drink, tools, etc., but rather possesses a symbolic, sacral meaning, intended for higher powers, to propitiate and appease them, that is to create some form of the oldest religious communication. Not only is it difficult to identify the pits used for ritual purposes in the course of fieldwork, but it is even more challenging to interpret them and practically impossible to accurately reconstruct the actions performed during the

  15. 5G in Open-Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    for the future wireless network design, simulation and performance evaluation. The results show that, in order to comply with ultra-reliable communications (URC) availability requirements, larger shadowing margins will have to be considered in the network planning in open-pit mines, when compared to traditional......5G will play a pivotal role in the digitization of the industrial sector and is expected to make the best use of every bit of spectrum available. In this light, this paper presents the results of an extensive measurement campaign in two iron-ore open-pit mining complexes, at the 700 MHz and 2.6 GHz...... bands, considering macro and small cell deployments. The study is further motivated by the rise of unmanned machinery in the mining industry. We present values of path loss exponents, shadow fading standard deviations, autocorrelation distances and inter-frequency cross-correlation, which are all useful...

  16. A Study on the Reservoir Capacity to Control Mud Flood Derived from Mud Volcano: A Phenomenon in Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholihin Sholihin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extended research of Coastal Zone Management of Sidoarjo mud phenomenon. The idea is to find special concept of management to control mud flood using reservoir system. This method, in the mud fluid, is intentionally used to make separation of the solid materials from water. The concept is to calculate sediment velocity in order to find the time of sedimentation then to estimate the volume of mud. Therefore, the reservoir will be determined from this calculation. The result of this research is the dimension of the reservoir: area of 3,704,144.36 m2, the depth of 5.94 m, and the volume 22.018.856.07 m3. The time of sedimentation is calculated of 28.33 hours for 42.2 % of material volume sedimentation. Consequently, the suspension material is 57.8 %. The correction of calculation is depending on the calculation of the velocity of sedimentation, about 2 %.

  17. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  18. Investigating pitting in X65 carbon steel using potentiostatic polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Sikiru; Hua, Yong; Barker, R.; Neville, A.

    2017-11-01

    Although pitting corrosion in passive materials is generally well understood, the growth of surface pits in actively-corroding materials has received much less attention to date and remains poorly understood. One of the key challenges which exists is repeatedly and reliably generating surface pits in a practical time-frame in the absence of deformation and/or residual stress so that studies on pit propagation and healing can be performed. Another pertinent issue is how to evaluate pitting while addressing general corrosion in low carbon steel. In this work, potentiostatic polarisation was employed to induce corrosion pits (free from deformation or residual stress) on actively corroding X65 carbon steel. The influence of applied potential (50 mV, 100 mV and 150 mV vs open circuit potential) was investigated over 24 h in a CO2-saturated, 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 30 °C and pH 3.8. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilised to examine pits, while surface profilometry was conducted to measure pit depth as a function of applied potential over the range considered. Analyses of light pitting (up to 120 μm) revealed that pit depth increased linearly with increase in applied potential. This paper relates total pit volume (measured using white light interferometry) to dissipated charge or total mass loss (using the current response for potentiostatic polarisation in conjunction with Faraday's law). By controlling the potential of the surface (anodic) the extent of pitting and general corrosion could be controlled. This allowed pits to be evaluated for their ability to continue to propagate after the potentiostatic technique was employed. Linear growth from a depth of 70 μm at pH 3.8, 80 °C was demonstrated. The technique offers promise for the study of inhibition of pitting.

  19. SVET, AFM and AES study of pitting corrosion initiated on MnS inclusions by microinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillemin, B.; Philippe, X.; Oltra, R.; Vignal, V.; Coudreuse, L.; Dufour, L.C.; Finot, E.

    2003-01-01

    As pitting is a random phenomenon, it is difficult to predict where a pit will appear on the surface and consequently the use of local probes is rendered difficult. In this work, a new method to study pitting corrosion on a MnS inclusion on 316L stainless steel is proposed. It consists in modifying locally the chemistry in its vicinity by injecting with a microcapillary an aggressive solution of NaCl, H 2 SO 4 or HCl. Once a pit appears, scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) is used to follow the current fluctuations over and around the pit when the metal is polarized at a passive potential. In another series of experiments the effect of local activation of MnS inclusion was studied ex-situ using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and atomic force microscopy. It is observed that a single pit can be initiated only when hydrochloric acid is injected, whereas sulphuric acid only partially dissolved the inclusion. On another hand, the surface morphology is not affected when a sodium chloride solution is injected. A significant enrichment in sulphur is detected around the inclusion by AES, and micropits are observed in the metal at the edge of the inclusion after HCl activation. Anodic zones are detected by SVET around the inclusion, whereas a cathodic current flows from the inclusion. The anodic current is clearly ascribed to the breakdown of passivity induced by adsorbed sulphur coming from the MnS dissolution, whereas various assumptions can be proposed for the origin of the cathodic current

  20. Upper Extremity Injuries in NASCAR Drivers and Pit Crew: An Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, Gary; Gaston, R Glenn; Heisel, William

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the position-specific musculoskeletal forces placed on the body of athletes facilitates treatment, prevention, and return-to-play decisions. While position-specific injuries are well documented in most major sports, little is known about the epidemiology of position-specific injuries in National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) drivers and pit crew. To investigate position-specific upper extremity injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Descriptive epidemiological study. A retrospective chart review was performed to assess position-specific injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members. Included in the study were patients seen by a single institution between July 2003 and October 2014 with upper extremity injuries from race-related NASCAR events or practices. Charts were reviewed to identify the diagnosis, mechanism of injury, and position of each patient. A total of 226 NASCAR team members were treated between July 2003 and October 2014. Of these, 118 injuries (52%) occurred during NASCAR racing events or practices. The majority of these injuries occurred in NASCAR changers (42%), followed by injuries in drivers (16%), carriers (14%), jack men (11%), fuel men (9%), and utility men (8%). The majority of the pit crew positions are at risk for epicondylitis, while drivers are most likely to experience neuropathies, such as hand-arm vibration syndrome. The changer sustains the most hand-related injuries (42%) on the pit crew team, while carriers commonly sustain injuries to their digits (29%). Orthopaedic injuries in NASCAR vary between positions. Injuries in NASCAR drivers and pit crew members are a consequence of the distinctive forces associated with each position throughout the course of the racing season. Understanding these forces and position-associated injuries is important for preventive measures and facilitates diagnosis and return-to-play decisions so that each team can function at its maximal efficiency.

  1. Influence of Pitting Corrosion on Fatigue and Corrosion Fatigue of Ship and Offshore Structures, Part II: Load - Pit - Crack Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Marek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper has been discussed influence of stresses on general corrosion rate and corrosion pit nucleation rate and growth , whose presence has been questioned by some authors but accepted by most of them. Influence of roughness of pit walls on fatigue life of a plate suffering pit corrosion and presence of the so called „ non-damaging” pits which never lead to initiation of fatigue crack, has been presented. Possibility of prediction of pit-to-crack transition moment by two different ways, i.e. considering a pit a stress concentrator or an equivalent crack, has been analyzed. Also, influence of statistical distribution of depth of corrosion pits as well as anticorrosion protection on fatigue and corrosion fatigue has been described.

  2. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

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    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  3. Evidence of mud volcanism rooted in gas hydrate-rich cryosphere linking surface and subsurface for the search for life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toffoli, Barbara; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Massironi, Matteo; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    We mapped around 6000 mounds in three different portions of the Martian surface on an average area of about 90.000 Km2 for each region. The study areas are located in Hellas basin, Utopia basin and a portion of the Northern Plains lying north of Arabia Terra, between Acidalia and Utopia Planitia. The aim of the study was to understand the nature of the observed features, particularly if they could be interpreted as mud volcanoes or not, and improve our knowledge about the Martian mound fields origin. The analysis of Context Camera (onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) images showed circular, elliptical and coalescent mounds with central and/or distal pits and flow features such as concentric annular lobes around the source pits and apron-like extensions. We produced DTMs and then high-to-diameter morphometric analysis on two groups of mounds located in Utopia and Hellas basins to enhance the geomorphological observations. We inferred, by means of cluster and fractal analyses, the thickness of the medium cracked by connected fractures and, consequently, the depths of reservoirs that fed the mounds. We found that the fields, which are seated at different latitudes, has been fed, at least partially, by reservoirs located at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone according to Clifford et al., 2010. This evidence produces a meaningful relationship between the clathrates distribution underneath the Martian surface and the occurrence of mound fields on the surface leading to the assumption that the involvement of water, ostensibly as a result of gas hydrate dissociation, plays a key role in the subsurface processes that potentially worked as triggers. These outcomes corroborate the hypothesis that the mapped mounds are actually mud volcanoes and make these structures outstanding targets for astrobiology and habitability studies. In fact, mud volcanoes, extruding material from depths that are still not affordable by our present-day instrumentations, could have sampled

  4. An experimental and numerical investigation on wave-mud interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, W. Y.; Hwung, H. H.; Hsu, T. J.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Yang, R. Y.

    2013-03-01

    Wave attenuation over a mud (kaolinite) layer is investigated via laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. The rheological behavior of kaolinite exhibits hybrid properties of a Bingham and pseudoplastic fluid. Moreover, the measured time-dependent velocity profiles in the mud layer reveal that the shear rate under wave loading is highly phase dependent. The measured shear rate and rheological data allow us to back-calculate the time-dependent viscosity of the mud layer under various wave loadings, which is also shown to fluctuate up to 1 order of magnitude during one wave period. However, the resulting time-dependent bottom stress is shown to only fluctuate within 25% of its mean. The back-calculated wave-averaged bottom stress is well correlated with the wave damping rate in the intermediate-wave energy condition. The commonly adopted constant viscosity assumption is then evaluated via linear and nonlinear wave-mud interaction models. When driving the models with measured wave-averaged mud viscosity (forward modeling), the wave damping rate is generally overpredicted under the low wave energy condition. On the other hand, when a constant viscosity is chosen to match the observed wave damping rate (inverse modeling), the predicted velocity profiles in the mud layer are not satisfactory and the corresponding viscosity is lower than the measured value. These discrepancies are less pronounced when waves become more energetic. Differences between the linear and nonlinear model results become significant under low-energy conditions, suggesting an amplification of wave nonlinearity due to non-Newtonian rheology. In general, the constant viscosity assumption for modeling wave-mud interaction is only appropriate for more energetic wave conditions.

  5. Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J., E-mail: kjkim@kigam.re.kr [Korea Geological Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Baskaran, M.; Jweda, J. [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Feyzullayev, A.A.; Aliyev, C. [Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS), Baku, AZ 1143 (Azerbaijan); Matsuzaki, H. [MALT, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Jull, A.J.T. [NSF Arizona AMS Lab, University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended and bottom sediment samples from the adjoining river near the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan for {sup 10}Be. These three MV are found among the 190 onshore and >150 offshore MV in this region which correspond to the western flank of the South Caspian depression. These MVs overlie the faulted and petroleum-bearing anticlines. The {sup 10}Be concentrations and {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios are comparable to the values reported for mud volcanoes in Trinidad Island. It appears that the stable Be concentrations in Azerbaijan rivers are not perturbed by anthropogenic effects and are comparable to the much older sediments (mud volcano samples). The {sup 10}Be and {sup 9}Be concentrations in our river sediments are compared to the global data set and show that the {sup 10}Be values found for Kura River are among the lowest of any river for which data exist. We attribute this low {sup 10}Be concentration to the nature of surface minerals which are affected by the residual hydrocarbon compounds that occur commonly in the study area in particular and Azerbaijan at large. The concentrations of {sup 40}K and U-Th-series radionuclides ({sup 234}Th, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra) indicate overall homogeneity of the mud volcano samples from the three different sites. Based on the {sup 10}Be concentrations of the mud volcano samples, the age of the mud sediments could be at least as old as 4 myr.

  6. Characterization of etch pits found on a large-grain bulk niobium superconducting radio-frequency resonant cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF resonant cavities made of bulk niobium is limited by nonlinear localized effects. Surface analysis of regions of higher power dissipation is thus of intense interest. Such areas (referred to as “hotspots” were identified in a large-grain single-cell cavity that had been buffered-chemical polished and dissected for examination by high resolution electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction microscopy (EBSD, and optical microscopy. Pits with clearly discernible crystal facets were observed in both “hotspot” and “coldspot” specimens. The pits were found in-grain, at bicrystal boundaries, and on tricrystal junctions. They are interpreted as etch pits induced by crystal defects (e.g. dislocations. All coldspots examined had a qualitatively lower density of etch pits or relatively smooth tricrystal boundary junctions. EBSD mapping revealed the crystal orientation surrounding the pits. Locations with high pit density are correlated with higher mean values of the local average misorientation angle distributions, indicating a higher geometrically necessary dislocation content. In addition, a survey of the samples by energy dispersive x-ray analysis did not show any significant contamination of the samples’ surface. The local magnetic field enhancement produced by the sharp-edge features observed on the samples is not sufficient to explain the observed degradation of the cavity quality factor, which starts at peak surface magnetic field as low as 20 mT.

  7. PCR-RFLP analyses for studying the diversity of GH and Pit-1 genes in Slovak Simmental cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trakovická

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of growth hormone (GH and specific pituitary transcription factor (Pit-1 genes diversity in population of 353 Slovak Simmental cows. The analyses were based on single nucleotide polymorphisms GH/AluI and Pit-1/HinfI detections. A polymorphic site of GH gene (AluI has been linked to differences in circulating metabolites, metabolic hormones and milk yield. Bovine Pit-1 is responsible for pituitary development and hormone secreting gene expression, including GH gene. The Pit-1/HinfI locus was associated with growth, milk production and reproduction performance in cattle. Samples of genomic DNA were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. Digestion of GH gene PCR products with restriction enzyme AluI revealed allele L and V with frequency 0.695 and 0.305, respectively. The digested Pit-1 gene PCR products with enzyme HinfI revealed alleles A (0.249 and B (0.751. Dominant genotypes were for GH gene heterozygous LV (0.47 and for Pit-1 gene homozygous BB (0.56 animals. The observed heterozygosity, effective allele numbers and polymorphism information content of GH/AluI and Pit-1/HinfI bovine loci population were 0.42/0.37, 1.73/1.59 and 0.33/0.30, respectively. The median polymorphic information content of loci was also transferred to the higher observed homozygosity in population (0.58/0.63. Keywords: cattle, growth hormone, leptin, PCR, Pit-1, polymorphism.

  8. Evidence of episodic long-lived eruptions in the Yuma, Ginsburg, Jesús Baraza and Tasyo mud volcanoes, Gulf of Cádiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyos, María H.; Medialdea, Teresa; León, Ricardo; Somoza, Luis; González, Francisco Javier; Meléndez, Nieves

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution single channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiles and multibeam bathymetric and backscatter data collected during several cruises over the period 1999 to 2007 have enabled characterising not only the seabed morphology but also the subsurface structural elements of the Yuma, Ginsburg, Jesús Baraza and Tasyo mud volcanoes (MVs) in the Gulf of Cádiz at 1,050-1,250 m water depth. These MVs vary strongly in morphology and size. The data reveal elongated cone-shaped edifices, rimmed depressions, and scarps interpreted as flank failures developed by collapse, faulting, compaction and gravitational processes. MV architecture is characterised by both extrusive and intrusive complexes, comprising stacked edifices (including seabed cones and up to four buried bicones) underlain by chaotic vertical zones and downward-tapering cones suggesting feeder systems. These intrusive structures represent the upper layer of the feeder system linking the fluid mud sources with the constructional edifices. The overall architecture is interpreted to be the result of successive events of mud extrusion and outbuilding alternating with periods of dormancy. Each mud extrusion phase is connected with the development of an edifice, represented by a seabed cone or a buried bicone. In all four MVs, the stacked edifices and the intrusive complexes penetrate Late Miocene-Quaternary units and are rooted in the Gulf of Cádiz wedge emplaced during the late Tortonian. Major phases of mud extrusion and outbuilding took place since the Late Pliocene, even though in the Yuma and Jesús Baraza MVs mud volcanism started in the Late Miocene shortly after the emplacement of the Gulf of Cádiz wedge. This study shows that fluid venting in the eastern sector of the Gulf of Cádiz promoted the outbuilding of large long-lived mud volcanoes active since the Late Miocene, and which have been reactivated repeatedly until recent times.

  9. Leaching of metals from fresh and sintered red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Indrani; Guha, Saumyen; Balasubramaniam, R; Kumar, A V Ramesh

    2011-01-30

    The disposal of red mud, a solid waste generated during the extraction of alumina from bauxite, is one of the major problems faced by the aluminum industry. Proper disposal followed by its utilization, for example as bricks, can provide a satisfactory solution to this problem. Pollution potential of red mud and its finished product, due to metals leaching out from them under certain environmental conditions, need to be studied. Sintering of red mud was performed in a resistance type vertical tube furnace to simulate the brick-making conditions in lab-scale. Leachability of metals in red mud and the sintered product was evaluated by performing sequential extraction experiments on both. The metals studied were the 'macro metals' iron and aluminum and the 'trace metals' copper and chromium. The total extractabilities of all the metals estimated by the microwave digestion of red mud samples decreased due to sintering. The leachability in sequential extraction of the macro metals iron and aluminum, on the other hand, increased due to sintering in all phases of sequential extraction. However, the effect of sintering on the leachability of the trace metals by sequential extraction was different for copper and chromium in different fractions of sequential extraction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bingham Pump Outage Pits: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkala, R.O.; Jewell, C.E.; Holmes, W.G.; Marine, I.W.

    1987-03-01

    Seven waste sites known as the Bingham Pump Outage Pits located in areas of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) received solid waste containing an estimated 4 Ci of low-level radioactivity in 1957-1958. These sites were subsequently backfilled and have been inactive since that time. Most of the radioactivity at the Bingham Pump Outage Pits has been eliminated by radioactive decay. A total of approximately 1 Ci of activity (primarily 137 Cs and 90 Sr) is estimated to remain at the seven sites. The closure options considered for the Bingham Pump Outage Pits are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated. Evaluation indicates that the relative human health risks for all closure options are small. The greatest public risk would occur after the waste site was released to unrestricted public use (assumed to occur in Year 2085) via the groundwater pathway to a well. The cost estimates show that the waste removal and closure option is the most expensive (89.6 million dollars). The cost of the no waste removal and the no action options is $800,000. 35 refs., 26 figs., 47 tabs

  11. The stochastic model of pitting corrosion of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y. H.; Wang, B. R.; Hu, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Considering that pitting corrosion is a stochastic process, the purpose of this paper is to use stochastic theory to investigate the growth process of pitting corrosion of metals. Based on the mechanism of pit growth and nonequilibrium statistical theory, the time evolution equations of pit depth and corrosion rate are obtained, and the probability density function can be derived by solving Fock-Plank Equation. Subsequently, the failure probability or reliability of metals is calculated based on the weakest link model of pitting corrosion. Finally, the stochastic model is used on the aircraft aluminum alloy LD2. Furthermore, this methodology can be applied to analyze the reliability and predict the pitting life of metals.

  12. Markov chain modelling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Valor, A.; Hallen, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-time, non-homogenous linear growth (pure birth) Markov process has been used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The closed form solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process is used to describe the transition probability function in a discrete pit depth space. The identification of the transition probability function can be achieved by correlating the stochastic pit depth mean with the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. Monte-Carlo simulations previously reported have been used to predict the time evolution of the mean value of the pit depth distribution for different soil textural classes. The simulated distributions have been used to create an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. The proposed model has also been applied to pitting corrosion data from pipeline repeated in-line inspections and laboratory immersion experiments.

  13. Thallium toxicosis in a Pit Bull Terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Petra A; Merola, Valentina; Osborne, Tanasa; Bailey, Keith L; Meerdink, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    Thallotoxicosis is described in an adult Pit Bull Terrier. The dog exhibited anorexia, emesis, weakness, conscious proprioceptive deficits, and a hemorrhagic diarrhea before death. A severe, acute necrotizing enterocolitis was evident upon histological examination, as was a multifocal to coalescing pulmonary edema. Liver and kidney thallium concentrations were 18 and 26 ppm, respectively. The source of the thallium was determined to be thallium sulfate obtained by a person with the intent to harm family members. Although thallium has not been produced in the United States for 20 years, this report demonstrates the need to consider thallium toxicosis as a differential diagnosis for animals presenting with vague and mixed gastrointestinal and neurological signs.

  14. The Pit and the Safety Pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, Robert Leon; Ramos, Amadeo Gabriel

    2000-11-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the safety analysis pendulum has swung considerably in the direction of increasingly complex and lengthy safety evaluations and intense reviews during the past 30 years. The test of this hypothesis will be a review of the safety analysis conducted for various activities associated with the retrieval of transuranic radioactive waste from burial pits at a National Laboratory site over a span of 30 years. The examination will focus on the safety aspects and the safety analysis that was conducted for the projects. At the conclusion of this examination, the paper will identify five reasons why the changes have taken place.

  15. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Christianto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI, the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  16. Markov Chain Models for the Stochastic Modeling of Pitting Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Valor, A.; Caleyo, F.; Alfonso, L.; Velázquez, J. C.; Hallen, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion of metallic structures has been widely recognized. It is assumed that this kind of deterioration retains no memory of the past, so only the current state of the damage influences its future development. This characteristic allows pitting corrosion to be categorized as a Markov process. In this paper, two different models of pitting corrosion, developed using Markov chains, are presented. Firstly, a continuous-time, nonhomogeneous linear growth (pure ...

  17. Fabrication of Nano-pit Array Using Electron Beam Lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryam Alsadat Rad; Kamarulazizi Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the fabrication of nano-pits array pattern using electron beam lithography (EBL). We investigated the effect of different electron beam dosage and acceleration voltage in fabrication nano-pits array pattern and effect of them on dimension of nano-pits. The SEM images have shown effect of the voltage and dosage variation on them and also the proximity effect. (author)

  18. Differentiating percussion pits and carnivore tooth pits using 3D reconstructions and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yravedra, José; Aramendi, Julia; Maté-González, Miguel Ángel; Austin Courtenay, Lloyd; González-Aguilera, Diego

    2018-01-01

    During the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century the discussion on early human behavioral patterns revolved around the hunting versus scavenging debate. The correct identification of bone modifications, including percussion, cut and tooth marks, is a key issue within this debate. While many authors have shown that carnivore and human modifications can be easily distinguished, it is true that sometimes percussion marks without associated microstriations and tooth pits overlap morphologically, causing confusion, especially when unmodified hammerstones are used. In order to solve this equifinality problem, many investigations have focused their efforts on other pieces of evidence such as the identification of notches, fragmentation patterns and frequencies, among others. These studies, however, cannot be considered as fully conclusive. Within this paper we address the problem of equifinality when identifying percussion marks produced with unmodified hammerstones and tooth pits created by carnivores using new methodologies based on the 3D reconstruction of marks and their statistical multivariate analysis. For the purpose of this study a total of 128 marks- 39 percussion marks produced with an unmodified quartzite hammerstone, and 89 pits generated by different carnivores-were virtually modelled with the aid of a DAVID structured-light scanner SLS-2 and later analyzed by means of geometric morphometrics. Our results show that percussion marks not associated with striae fields and the pits generated by the carnivores studied here can be successfully distinguished.

  19. The microvasculature of python pit organs: morphology and blood flow microkinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, Richard C; Atobe, Yoshitoshi; Nakano, Masato; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Funakoshi, Kengo; Kadota, Tetsuo

    2003-05-01

    Boid snakes have infrared sensing pits that resemble crotaline pits in electrophysiological function and ultrastructure, but differ in gross morphology, number, and location: boids have three or more simple pits in the labial scales vs a single facial pair with more complex morphology in the crotalines. We studied the morphology of the capillary bed and the microkinetics of blood flow in a boid snake, the ball python, Python regius, and compared them with the already known condition in crotalines. We used a Doppler blood flow recorder in conjunction with an electrocardiograph to measure blood flow and heartbeat, and resin casts, transmission electron microscopy, and laser confocal microscopy to study capillary morphology. Blood flow in response to infrared stimulus was virtually identical in the two taxa, but the morphology of the capillary bed differed drastically. In the ball python pits, the capillary bed consisted of a forest of vertically oriented loops with a characteristic dome at the top in contact with the receptor layer of the fundus. Immunohistochemical staining showed pericytes constricting the capillaries and domes with smooth muscle alpha-actin-labeled processes. Since latency of response was as short as 1 ms, the capillaries were apparently responding under local control to provide both nutrition and cooling to the heat-sensitive receptors. We concluded that mitochondria-filled receptors provided with a swiftly responding cooling system were nature's most efficient way of attaining infrared imaging.

  20. Pitting corrosion of Inconel 600 in chloride and thiosulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Geping; Ho, Juiting.

    1990-01-01

    Inconel 600 has been widely used as the steam generator tube material in nuclear pressurized water reactors. Pitting corrosion of the steam generator tube mainly occurs at the secondary water side. It was reported in several papers that pits formed in Inconel 600 in steam generators always contained sulfur, and the main source of that sulfur was thought to be the feedwater. The thiosulfate anion is known to reduce the pitting potential and increase the corrosion rate of AISI Type 304 stainless steel in chloride at low temperatures. It is recognized as a dangerous corrosion promoter and as a reducer of the pitting potential of Inconel 600 in chloride solutions at high temperatures. In other cases, the addition of low-level sulfate to dilute chloride media reduces the pitting potential of alloy 800 at 30 degree C, and increasing the sulfate concentration results in improved chloride pitting resistance. The purpose of the work reported in this paper is mainly to identify the effect of thiosulfate on the chloride pitting of Inconel 600 at low temperatures and the effects of deoxygenation, pH value, and temperature. This study is divided into three parts: (1) potentiodynamic anodic polarization scanning; (2) open-circuit immersion test; and (3) determination of pit density and average pit depth

  1. Research process of nondestructive testing pitting corrosion in metal material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo ZHANG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitting corrosion directly affects the usability and service life of metal material, so the effective nondestructive testing and evaluation on pitting corrosion is of great significance for fatigue life prediction because of data supporting. The features of pitting corrosion are elaborated, and the relation between the pitting corrosion parameters and fatigue performance is pointed out. Through introducing the fundamental principles of pitting corrosion including mainly magnetic flux leakage inspection, pulsed eddy current and guided waves, the research status of nondestructive testing technology for pitting corrosion is summarized, and the key steps of nondestructive testing technologies are compared and analyzed from the theoretical model, signal processing to industrial applications. Based on the analysis of the signal processing specificity of different nondestructive testing technologies in detecting pitting corrosion, the visualization combined with image processing and signal analysis are indicated as the critical problems of accurate extraction of pitting defect information and quantitative characterization for pitting corrosion. The study on non-contact nondestructive testing technologies is important for improving the detection precision and its application in industries.

  2. Changes of biogeochemical activities before and after significant mud displacement at the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, J.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Yoerger, D.; Camilli, R.; German, C.; Olu, K.; Feseker, T.; de Beer, D.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (72°N, 14° 43' E, 1250 m water depth) was studied for a period of a year by the Long-term Observatory On Mud-volcano Eruptions (LOOME) in 2009-2010, to investigate temporal variations of mud volcanism and consequences for biogeochemical processes. The HMMV is a highly active methane cold seep ecosystem characterized by high rates of methane efflux. It hosts different chemosynthetic communities such as thiotrophic bacterial mats and siboglinid tubeworm assemblages. This study focuses on changes in community composition and biogeochemical activity such as methane emission, total benthic oxygen uptake, microbial methane and sulfate consumption before and after a major mud displacement recorded by LOOME. The sensor-enabled long-term observations of the HMMV habitats were combined with short-term analyses before and after the displacement events by ROVs QUEST (MARUM) and GENESIS (University of Gent), the AUV Sentry (WHOI) equipped with a multibeam and subbottom profiler, CTD and photographic unit as well as with a mass spectrometer. We found shifts in the distribution patterns of chemosynthetic communities and also substantial changes in their activity, consistent with changes in temperature gradients. This study was sponsored by the EU-Projects HERMIONE "Hotspot Ecosystem Research and Man's Impact on European Seas", and ESONET "European Seas Observatory Network" (Demonstration Mission LOOME "Long term observations on mud volcano eruptions").

  3. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-03-01

    Mud peeling is a common phenomenon whereby horizontal cracks propagate parallel to the surface of a drying clay. Differential stresses then cause the layer of clay above the crack to curl up to form a mud peel. By treating the clay as a poroelastic solid, we analyze the peeling phenomenon and show that it is caused by the gradient in tensile stress at the surface of the clay, analogously to the spalling of thermoelastic materials. For a constant water evaporation rate at the clay surface we derive equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement with the available experimental data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Analysis of chloride diffusivity in concrete containing red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process and, due to its high pH, is classified as hazardous. Its incorporation in concrete mixtures, acting as filler due to the particles fineness, might be an interesting reuse alternative. The focus of this paper is to study the chloride diffusivity of concrete mixtures containing red-mud. The concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which was distilled water initially. In addition, the estimation of the chloride ions diffusion coefficients in steady and non-steady conditions, Ds and Dns, was obtained from the ''time-lag'' and ''equivalent time'' between diffusion and migration experiments. Due to superfine particle-size distribution and the "filler" effect, the red mud addition seems to assure lower chloride diffusivity.

  5. Utilization of red mud in the manufacture of ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, N.F.; Shater, M.O. [Housing and Building Research Center, Cairo (Egypt); Abadir, M.F.; Ibrahim, O.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Red mud, which is a pollutant residue from the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore, was utilized as an additive to a well blended mixture of three Egyptian clays, feldspar, quartz and grog. This was added in gradual proportions to study its effect on the vitrification properties of fired samples. Samples were moulded under a pressure of 20.7 MPa and fired at temperatures ranging from 950 C to 1100 C for soaking periods up to three hours. Compressive strength was determined as function of percent red mud added and firing temperature. A semi-exponential relation was established between strength and apparent porosity. 50 x 50 mm tiles containing 70% red mud addition and fired at 1100 C for one hour were tested. They were found to match the standards required for glazed wall tiles bodies. Tiles fired at 1100 C for 3 hours were compatible with the standards for glazed floor tiles. (orig.)

  6. Production of Green Steel from Red Mud: A Novel Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Bhagyadhar; Behera, Pravas Ranjan; Mishra, Chitta Ranjan

    Red mud of Indian origin contains around 55% plus of Fe2O3 and is considered as a hazardous waste for the alumina industry. For production of one tone of alumina employing the Bayer's Process, around two tones of red mud is generated from three tones of Bauxite. Conventional process of steel making is not devoid of environmental pollution. In the present investigation, efforts have been made to produce steel from red mud by adopting reduction roasting, magnetic separation and hydrogen plasma smelting route. Magnetic fraction, containing enriched iron oxide and minimal content of alumina, is produced following the first two stages which is then subjected to hydrogen plasma smelting process for production of steel. This novel concept follows a green path way for production of steel free from pollution and is termed as green steel. Further, the only by-product that is produced in the process, is water, which is eco-friendly and recyclable.

  7. Timing, Nest Site Selection and Multiple Breeding in House Martins: Age-Related Variation and the Preference for Self-Built Mud Nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Almost all accounts of the reproductive biology of House Martins Delichon urbicum are based on studies of birds breeding in artificial nests that are monitored every few days. Here, I provide a study on House Martins using self-built mud nests at a single colony in Gaast, The Netherlands (225 nest

  8. Timing, nest site selection and multiple breeding in House Martins : age-related variation and the preference for self-built mud nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Almost all accounts of the reproductive biology of House Martins Delichon urbicum are based on studies of birds breeding in artificial nests that are monitored every few days. Here, I provide a study on House Martins using self-built mud nests at a single colony in Gaast, The Netherlands (225 nest

  9. Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Oglesby

    2008-12-01

    An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

  10. Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-02

    A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

  11. Experimental study on rule of radioactive change of red mud concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Tan, Zhuoying; Yu, Zhongtao

    2017-12-01

    Red mud was used to partially replace cement to prepare red mud concrete, with replacement rate of red mud mass being 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively, and hydration age being 3d, 28d and 90d. The experiment of cube compressive strength and radioactivity were conducted for 90 cubical test pieces respectively. The results show that with rise of replacement rate of red mud, the cube compressive strength of red mud concrete at the same hydration age first increased and then decreased, leading to increase of content of 226Ra,232Th,40K in red mud concrete, and increase of material’s radioactivity accordingly; as hydration age was prolonged, with the replacement rate of red mud being the same, the compressive strength increased, and internal and external exposure indices and total specific activity all increased yet with small increase range. Generally the hydration age does not significantly influence the radioactivity of red mud concrete.

  12. A Bingham-plastic model for fluid mud transport under waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-rong; Wu, Bo; Huhe, Ao-de

    2014-04-01

    Simplified equations of fluid mud motion, which is described as Bingham-Plastic model under waves and currents, are presented by order analysis. The simplified equations are non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by hybrid numerical-analytical technique. As the computational cost is very low, the effects of wave current parameters and fluid mud properties on the transportation velocity of the fluid mud are studied systematically. It is found that the fluid mud can move toward one direction even if the shear stress acting on the fluid mud bed is much smaller than the fluid mud yield stress under the condition of wave and current coexistence. Experiments of the fluid mud motion under current with fluctuation water surface are carried out. The fluid mud transportation velocity predicted by the presented mathematical model can roughly match that measured in experiments.

  13. Gold Mining by Alkanethiol Radicals: Vacancies and Pits in the Self-Assembled Monolayers of 1-Propanethiol and 1-Butanethiol on Au(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Chi, Qijin; Hush, Noel S.

    2011-01-01

    unit cell. The observed pit coverages of 2.8–4.0% are much less than those typically found for methanethiol SAMs (ca. 12–20%), indicating that one of the two gold adatoms per cell in 1-propanethiol and 1-butanethiol SAMs is extracted to form a local surface vacancy rather than a coalesced surface pit......-propanethiol and 1-butanethiol. Use of single-crystal gold substrates allows for both high-resolution images of the surface cell internal structure and the evaluation of pit densities on large surface terraces, while room-temperature STM image simulations facilitate discrimination between possible atomic...

  14. HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE MUD SEDIMENT IN EKATERINBURG (RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Seleznev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. Now the most part of the world’s population lives in cities, thus, it is relevant the search for universal, low-cost and express methods for environmental geochemical investigations of an urban environment. The objective of the study is the assessment of content and properties of surface mud sediment at the urban territory (on the example of Ekaterinburg, Russia. Methods of the study. The 30 samples of surface mud sediment, soils and ground were collected in the residential area of the city. Particle size composition, measurements of heavy metals content, correlation analysis was conducted for the samples. Results. Surface mud sediment at the residential territories can be classified as surface facie of the recent anthropogenic sediment. Samples of the environmental compartments were collected at the territories of six blocks of houses of various years of construction, located in various parts of the city and at the various geological units. Five samples were collected in each block: 3 samples within the block and 2 samples – outside. The content of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, and Mn was measured in particle size fractions of the samples. Particle size composition of the surface mud sediment in Ekaterinburg is similar to the particle size composition of the grounds formed on the sediments of Holocene age in Urals region. The positive statistically significant correlation was found between the couples of metals: Zn and Pb, Zn and Cu, Co and Ni. The distribution of concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cu over particle size fractions of surface mud sediment is heterogeneous. Pollution of the ground and soil in urban areas is due to the transition of heavy metals with particles of dust and fine sand. Typical geochemical association of metals for particle size fraction of surface mud sediment 0.002–0.01 mm – Mn-Zn-Ni-Cu-Pb-Co, that is similar to the association for sediments of surface puddles in local zones of relief, soils and bottom

  15. Chitinolytic bactery activity isolated from the mud fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuniek Herdyastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chitinolytic microorganism had been isolated from mud fields in Ketintang Surabaya area by using a minimal media containing 0.4% colloidal chitin. Activity assay is based on released N-acetyl-glucosamine which reacted with 3,5 dinitrosalicyclic acid. Mud fields produce 63 bacterial isolates with chitinase activity (TNH1 – TNH63 isolates. The highest activity was shown by TNH11 isolate with specific activity 1.27 U/mg. TNH11 isolates was Gram negative, rod-cocoid cell, has a colony of yellow, round shape, convex elevation, flat margin and the colony diameter 3–5 mm.

  16. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manufacturers of various commercial pit latrine additives claim that by addition of this product to pit content, accumulation rate and pit content volume can be reduced, thereby preventing the pit from ever reaching capacity. This paper presents a comprehensive study conducted to determine the effects of additives on pit ...

  17. Changes in seabed morphology, mud temperature and free gas venting at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, offshore northern Norway, over the time period 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, Jean-Paul; Dupré, Stéphanie; Scalabrin, Carla; Feseker, Tomas; Harmegnies, François; Nouzé, Hervé

    2010-06-01

    The Håkon Mosby mud volcano is a 1.5-km-diameter geological structure located on the Southwest Barents Sea slope at a water depth of 1,270 m. High-definition seabed mapping of the mud volcano has been carried out in 2003 and 2006. A comparative analysis of the bathymetry and backscatter maps produced from the two surveys shows subtle morphological changes over the entire crater of the mud volcano, interpreted to be the consequence of mud eruption events. Mud temperature measurements point to a persistently warm mud at shallow depth in the crater. This is explained by upward fluid advection, rather than conductive cooling of mud flows. The small-scale spatial variability in the temperature distribution may be related to mud outflows or changes in the fluid flow regime. Furthermore, the locations of free gas venting observed in 2006 were found to differ from those of 2003. Our observations of overall similar topographic profiles across the mud volcano in 2003 and 2006 suggest that eruption events would have been modest. Nevertheless, the data bring evidence of significant change in activity even over short time intervals of only 3 years. This may be a characteristic shared by other submarine mud volcanoes, notably those considered to be in a quiescent stage.

  18. Characterization of red mud derived from a combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Lin, Chuxia; Wu, Yonggui

    2007-07-19

    Red mud can be derived from the processing of bauxite using different methods. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination red mud (BPBCRM) differs markedly from those of the pure Bayer Process red mud (PBPRM). In this study, red mud derived from a combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination method was characterized. The results show that pH of the red mud decreased with increasing duration of storage time. Na dominated among the soluble cations, but the concentration of soluble Na decreased with increasing duration of storage time as a result of leaching. Cation exchange capacity also decreased with increasing duration of storage time, probably due to a decrease in pH causing a reduction in negatively charged sites on the red mud particles. Ca was the predominant exchangeable cation in the fresh red mud but the concentration of exchangeable Ca markedly decreased in the old red mud, which was dominated by exchangeable Na. The degree of crystallization and thermal stability of the red mud increased with increasing duration of storage. The acid neutralizing capacity of red mud obtained from this study was about 10 mol kg(-1), which is much greater than the reported values for the pure Bayer Process red mud. Column filtering experiment indicates that the red mud also had a very strong capacity to remove Cu, Zn and Cd from the filtering solution. It is conservatively estimated that the simultaneous removal rates of Cd, Zn and Cu by red mud are over 22,250 mg kg(-1), 22,500 mg kg(-1) and 25,000 mg kg(-1), respectively. The affinity of these metals to the red mud was in the following decreasing order: Cu>Zn>Cd. In general, the fresh red mud retained more heavy metals than the old red mud did.

  19. Status of the mud crab fishery in Kenya: A review | Mirera | Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya, mud crabs are fished mainly by men and to a lesser extent by women and children due to the accessibility of the fishing areas by foot. This makes mud crabs a key fishery that is easily accessible for exploitation by most coastal artisanal fishers for subsistence and commercial purposes. Mud crabs have been a ...

  20. Does subterranean flow initiate mud banks off the southwest coast of India?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.

    due to the introduction of fresh water keeps the mud suspension in the water column for longer duration, leading to the formation of mud banks. The idea of subterranean flow through lime shell beds initiating formation of mud banks may apply globally...

  1. Kudo's pit pattern classification for colorectal neoplasms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Ali, Syed Mohsin; Umm-a-OmarahGilani, Syeda; Liu, Jing; Li, Yan-Qing; Zuo, Xiu-Li

    2014-09-21

    To analyze the current available evidence of Kudo's pit pattern classification for diagnosing colorectal neoplasms. A search was performed on Pubmed/Embase to identify studies reporting the outcomes of the pit pattern classification in colorectal polyps. Retrieved records were evaluated and selected by two independent investigators. The number of patients, polyps and diagnostic performance of Kudo's pit pattern classification were retrieved from suitable studies. Pooled sensitivities and specificities were calculated using fixed or random effect models according to their heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot, Egger's test, and Begg's test. Sensitivity analysis was performed by omitting one study at a time and selecting a subgroup consisting of 11 magnifying chromoendoscopy studies. 20 eligible studies were included in which a total of 5111 colorectal lesions in 3418 patients were identified for the differentiation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic polyps. Pit pattern classification in all the studies of mucosal patterns with magnification resulted in a pooled sensitivity of 89.0% (95%CI: 85.2-91.9) and pooled specificity of 85.7% (95%CI: 81.3-89.2) and the area under the SROC curve was 0.9354. There was significant publication bias (P = 0.038 and 0.006 for sensitivity and specificity using Egger's test, P = 0.035 and 0.139 for sensitivity and specificity using Begg's test, respectively). No single study significantly affected the pooled result, and the magnifying chromoendoscopy subgroup yielded a sensitivity of 92.7% (95%CI: 89.2-95.2) and specificity of 87.3% (95%CI: 81.6-91.4). Kudo's pit pattern classification is an accurate diagnostic method for the differentiation of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Publication bias is significant in the current available literature.

  2. Optical coherence tomography findings and retinal changes after vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sanghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the optical coherence tomography (OCT patterns in optic disc pit maculopathy and retinal changes after vitreous surgery. Materials and Methods : Retrospective review of consecutive cases with optic disc pit maculopathy seen at two tertiary eye institutes from January 2005 to June 2009. Results : Twenty-four eyes of 23 patients are included. The presenting visual acuity ranged from 20/400 to 20/20 (median:20/80. The median age at presentation was 24 years (range, 6-57 years. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated a combination of retinoschisis and outer layer detachment (OLD in 19 (79.17% eyes, OLD only in 3 (12.5% eyes and retinoschisis only in 2 (8.33% eyes. An obvious communication (outer layer hole between the schisis and OLD was seen in 14 (73.68% of the 19 eyes with both features. Of the 21 eyes with retinoschisis, schisis was present in multiple layers in 15 (71.43% and single layer in 6 (28.57% eyes. Eleven eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy including creation of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD, fluid-air exchange, low intensity laser photocoagulation at the temporal edge of the optic disc pit and non-expansile perfluoropropane gas (14% injection. Five (45.45% of 11 eyes undergoing vitrectomy had complete resolution and 4 (36.36% eyes had partial resolution of maculopathy. Visual acuity improved in 8 (72.72% of 11 eyes. Conclusion : Optical coherence tomography demonstrates multiple layer schisis and outer layer detachment as main features of optic disc pit maculopathy. Vitrectomy with PVD induction, laser photocoagulation and gas tamponade results in anatomical and visual improvement in most cases with optic disc pit maculopathy.

  3. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line

  4. Establishing Ground Vibration Threshold Level for Open Pit Mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of blasting activities on building structures in open pit mining districts in Ghana a study was carried out in Prestea, a township very close to the perimeter of the Plant North pit of the Bogoso Gold Ltd (now Golden Star Resources Bogoso/Prestea Mines), in the Western Region of Ghana. It was observed ...

  5. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water

  6. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines | Brouckaert | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excreta (faeces and urine) that are deposited into a pit latrine are subject to biodegradation, which substantially reduces the volume that remains. On the other hand, other matter that is not biodegradable usually finds itsway into pit latrines. The net filling rate is thus dependent on both the rate of addition of material and its ...

  7. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, Kayle D. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Gunter, Jason R. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Joslyn, Cameron C. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Vazquez, Brandon J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Garfield, John S. [AEM Consulting, Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  8. Pit membranes of Ephedra resemble gymnosperms more than angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Dute; Lauren Bowen; Sarah Schier; Alexa Vevon; Troy Best; Maria Auad; Thomas Elder; Pauline Bouche; Steven Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial...

  9. The phylogenetic significance of vestured pits in Boraginaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2010-01-01

    The bordered pit structure in tracheary elements of 105 Boraginaceae species is studied using scanning electron microscopy to examine the systematic distribution of vestured pits. Forty-three species out of 16 genera show a uniform presence of this feature throughout their secondary xylem. Most

  10. Corrosion Response of Low Carbon Steel in Tropical Road Mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion damages in Steel and Cast- Iron frequently occur in automobile and other vehicle undercarriage parts as a result of regular road mud and other dirt deposits on those components on those vehicles operating on the poorly maintained roads in the developing countries. These ultimately result in Deposit and Pilling ...

  11. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of the mud-flat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic structure and evolutionary demography of the mud-flat crabs (Helice tientsinensis and H. latimera) were investigated using sequence data of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Samples of 213 individuals were collected from nine localities over most of the species' range along the coast of China seas ...

  12. corrosion response of low carbon steel in tropical road mud

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A.N.Enetanya. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of. Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Corrosion damages in Steel and Cast- Iron frequently occur in automobile and other vehicle undercarriage parts as a result of regular road mud and other dirt deposits on those components on those vehicles ...

  13. Visuality and Representation in Traditional Igbo Uli Body and Mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there is a dearth of uli body and mud wall paintings or decorations as well as their processes of execution as women community art project literature on the corpus of uli art, hence it requires a continuous investigation and scrutiny. This essay therefore provides an insight into the nature and social contest of uli ...

  14. Mud Crab (Scylla serrata) Culture: Understanding the Technology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—A study was conducted in Mtwapa creek on the north coast Kenya, during 2005-2007 to evaluate the viability of pens and drive-in cages for mud crab (S. serrata) culture as a mangrove management strategy and alternative source of income for local communities. Other objectives were to assess the effectiveness ...

  15. Determination of chromate ion in drilling mud filtrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfill, D.

    1980-01-01

    A method of determining the amount of chromate ion in an aqueous drilling mud filtrate containing organic color bodies such as lignosulfate wherein the method comprises: (A) treating the aqueous filtrate with an effective amount of hydrogen peroxide to destroy said color bodies, and (B) measuring the amount of chromate ion in the filtrate by means of a spectrophotometer

  16. Clasts from mud volcanoes from the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Benkhelil, J.; Giresse, P.; Mascle, J.; Muller, C.L.C.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the eastern Mediterranean, numerous argilo-kinetic manifestations, commonly named 'mud volcanoes', have been identified and studied in some detail during the last twenty years using several techniques. The Medinaut survey (December 1998) has provided new insights into this phenomenon through

  17. Visuality and Representation in Traditional Igbo Uli Body and Mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nature and social contest of uli body and mud wall paintings or decorations as well as their processes of execution as women community art project. Introduction. Traditional art, according to Kaego Okeke (2002:1), is the chain linking the past with the present. It is indeed the basis of contemporary African artistic ideas.

  18. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... ... Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Issue 4. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: cDNA cloning and profiles under cold stress. CHENCUI HUANG KUN YU HUIYANG HUANG HAIHUI YE. RESEARCH ARTICLE Volume 95 Issue 4 December 2016 pp ...

  19. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHENCUI HUANG

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: cDNA cloning and profiles under cold stress. CHENCUI HUANG1, KUN YU1, HUIYANG HUANG1,2 and HAIHUI YE1,2∗. 1College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, People's Republic of China.

  20. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of acclimation to cold hardiness in S. paramamosain. [Huang C., Yu K., Huang H. and Ye H. 2016 Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: cDNA cloning and profiles under cold stress. J. Genet.

  1. Construction of the KUT test pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, K.E.; Bush, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    Models are required to calibrate spectral logging systems to differentiate between U, Th, and K (''KUT''), in order to determine the grade of low-grade U deposits. The models were constructed by excavating three pits, emplacing three form tanks (11 ft long, 4 ft dia culvert) with 4-in. dia central holes, and pouring the following zones: 3-ft concrete lower barren zone, a 5-ft ore zone, and a final 3-ft upper barren zone. The U ore zone comprised 0.33 percent U 3 O 8 Climax ore, sand, cement, and water; the Th ore zone comprised monazite sands, plaster sand, cement, and water; and the K ore zone comprised feldspar, cement, and water. Form pipes were used to form the central holes. Analyses were made of samples taken from the zones

  2. PITTING CORROSION OF STAINLESS STEEL AT THE VARIOUS SURFACE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Zatkalíková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The stainless steel surface treatment is very important with regard to its pitting corrosion susceptibility. An effect of various types surfacing on pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 304stainless steel is investigated in this work. The samples of the tested material are turned, blasted, peened, grinded and a half of them are pickled to achieve higher purity of surfaces and better quality of passive film. Eight types of different finished surfaces are tested by electrochemical and immersion tests to determine corrosion behaviour in conditions where pitting is evoked by controlled potential and second by solution with high redox potential. By this way the effect of mechanical and chemical surface treatment on the resistance to pitting corrosion, character, size and shape of pits are compared in the conditions of different mechanisms of corrosion process.

  3. Stochastic models for predicting pitting corrosion damage of HLRW containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Stochastic models for predicting aqueous pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. These models could be used to predict the time required for the first pit to penetrate a container and the increase in the number of breaches at later times, both of which would be useful in the repository system performance analysis. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic models are described, and predictions of induction time, survival probability and pit depth distributions are presented. These results suggest that the pit nucleation probability decreases with exposure time and that pit growth may be a stochastic process. The advantages and disadvantages of the stochastic approach, methods for modeling the effects of environment, and plans for future work are discussed

  4. Method for Identifying Lava Tubes Among Pit Craters Using Brightness Profile Across Pits on the Moon or Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongil Jung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caves can serve as major outposts for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In addition, caves can protect people and electronic equipment from external hazards such as cosmic ray radiation and meteorites impacts and serve as a shelter. Numerous pit craters have been discovered on the Moon and Mars and are potential entrances to caves; the principal topographic features of pit craters are their visible internal floors and pits with vertical walls. We have devised two topographical models for investigating the relationship between the topographical characteristics and the inner void of pit craters. One of our models is a concave floor void model and the other is a convex floor tube model. For each model, optical photographs have been obtained under conditions similar to those in which optical photographs have been acquired for craters on the Moon and Mars. Brightness profiles were analyzed for determining the profile patterns of the void pit craters. The profile patterns were compared to the brightness profiles of Martian pit craters, because no good-quality images of lunar pit craters were available. In future studies, the model profile patterns will be compared to those of lunar pit craters, and the proposed method will likely become useful for finding lunar caves and consequently for planning lunar bases for manned lunar expeditions.

  5. Thermogravimetric study of the dehydration and reduction of red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplov, O. A.; Korenovskii, N. L.; Lainer, Yu. A.

    2015-01-01

    The processes of drying and reduction of red mud in the pure state and with coal additions in vacuum or in gaseous media (helium, hydrogen) have been experimentally studied by thermogravimetry using a Setaram TAG24 thermogravimetric analyzer. The minimum total weight loss (˜20%) is observed for red mud samples without additives in forevacuum, and the maximum loss (˜38%) is detected in samples with coal. It is demonstrated that, for this type of red mud with iron oxide Fe2O3, water molecules are bonded in the form of iron hydroxide Fe2O3 · 3H2O rather than goethite FeOOH. The peak of magnetite formation is observed in differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curve in the range 270-400°C. The simulation of the magnetite dehydration and formation rates under experimental conditions in the relevant temperature ranges agrees with the experimental data. A peak of wustite formation in hydrogen above ˜600°C is recorded in a DTG curve, and the removal of one-third of sodium oxide, which is likely not to be fixed into strong sodium alumosilicate, is observed in the range 800-1000°C. The peak detected in the DTG curve of the mud with charcoal in helium in the range 350-450°C is similar to the peak of hematite reduction in magnetite in a hydrogen atmosphere. The most probable source of hydrogen-containing gases in this temperature range consists of the residual hydrocarbons of charcoal. The reduction reactions of disperse iron oxides with coal proceed only at temperatures above 600°C. These processes occur in the same temperature range (600-900°C) both in forevacuum and in a helium atmosphere. It is experimentally demonstrated that sintering process occurs in the mud in the temperature range 450-850°C.

  6. Sequential extraction applied to Peruibe black mud, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson Koyaishi

    2014-01-01

    The Peruibe Black mud is used in therapeutic treatments such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne and seborrhoea, as well as in the treatment of myalgia, arthritis, rheumatism and non-articular processes. Likewise other medicinal clays, it may not be free from possible adverse health effects due to possible hazardous minerals leading to respiratory system occurrences and other effects, caused by the presence of toxic elements. Once used for therapeutic purposes, any given material should be fully characterized and thus samples of Peruibe black mud were analyzed to determine physical and chemical properties: moisture content, organic matter and loss on ignition; pH, particle size, cation exchange capacity and swelling index. The elemental composition was determined by Neutron Activation Analysis, Atomic Absorption Graphite Furnace and X-ray fluorescence; the mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. Another tool widely used to evaluate the behavior of trace elements, in various environmental matrices, is the sequential extraction. Thus, a sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate the mud in specific geochemical forms and verify how and how much of the elements may be contained in it. Considering the several sequential extraction procedures, BCR-701 method (Community Bureau of Reference) was used since it is considered the most reproducible among them. A simple extraction with an artificial sweat was, also, applied in order to verify which components are potentially available for absorption by the patient skin during the topical treatment. The results indicated that the mud is basically composed by a silty-clay material, rich in organic matter and with good cation exchange capacity. There were no significant variations in mineralogy and elemental composition of both, in natura and mature mud forms. The analysis by sequential extraction and by simple extraction indicated that the elements possibly available in larger

  7. Application of red mud as a basic catalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Xin, Ruirui; Li, Chengcheng; Xu, Chunli; Yang, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Red mud was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a basic catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis. The effect of calcination temperature on the structure and activity of red mud catalysts was investigated. It was found that highly active catalyst was obtained by simply drying red mud at 200 degrees C. Utilization of red mud as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid red mud waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects, but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel.

  8. Mud diaprism and it's effect on the hydrocarbon system in the south Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baganz, O.W.; Ballard, J.H.; Krenov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Mud diapirism plays a special role in the geology and petroleum system of the south Caspian basin. Hundreads of mud intrusions penetrate the thick Plio-Pleistocene section. This article talks in detail about aspects of the influence of mud diapirs and their related with mud volcanoes on the generation and trapping of hydrocarbons. Some of these aspects are : 1) The influence on the sedimentation; 2) Structural impact; 3) Stress and strain in the surrounded formations; 4) Thermal effect; 5) Pressure effect. All these aspects of the diapiric and mud-volcanic activity should be kept in mind during the volumetric calculations and play evaluation.

  9. Evidence for large reservoirs of water/mud in Utopia and Acidalia Planitiae on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Erkeling, G.; Reiss, D.

    2015-03-01

    Utopia and Acidalia Planitiae show a set of similar morphologic features indicative of the presence of large reservoirs of water/mud in these regional topographic lows. The most important of these features are: (1) impact crater ejecta morphology that progressively changes from ballistic/rampart at the basins periphery to strongly degraded pancake-like in the central portions of the basins, and (2) etched flows (interpreted as mudflows) that are concentrated in those regions of the central portions of both basins where the pancake-like ejecta prevail. The Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) in Utopia and Acidalia Planitiae represents the uppermost stratigraphic limit of possible reservoirs in both basins and has practically the same age in these regions; ∼3.57 (±0.02) Ga in Utopia Planitia and ∼3.61 (+0.05/-0.08) Ga in Acidalia Planitia. The southern contact of the VBF closely follows specific contour lines in Utopia Planitia (∼-3.6 km ± 54 m, over a distance of ∼1500 km) and Acidalia Planitia (∼-3.9 km ± 70 m, over the distance of ∼6000 km). The presence of the large water/mud reservoirs and the age and topographic configuration of the VBF in Utopia and Acidalia Planitiae are consistent with the existence of an extensive single body of water (an ocean) in the northern plains of Mars.

  10. Efficient DS-UWB MUD Algorithm Using Code Mapping and RVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid multiuser detection (MUD using code mapping and a wrong code recognition based on relevance vector machine (RVM for direct sequence ultra wide band (DS-UWB system is developed to cope with the multiple access interference (MAI and the computational efficiency. A new MAI suppression mechanism is studied in the following steps: firstly, code mapping, an optimal decision function, is constructed and the output candidate code of the matched filter is mapped to a feature space by the function. In the feature space, simulation results show that the error codes caused by MAI and the single user mapped codes can be classified by a threshold which is related to SNR of the receiver. Then, on the base of code mapping, use RVM to distinguish the wrong codes from the right ones and finally correct them. Compared with the traditional MUD approaches, the proposed method can considerably improve the bit error ratio (BER performance due to its special MAI suppression mechanism. Simulation results also show that the proposed method can approximately achieve the BER performance of optimal multiuser detection (OMD and the computational complexity approximately equals the matched filter. Moreover, the proposed method is less sensitive to the number of users.

  11. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  12. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is described and used to calculate the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles of 26 aqueous species from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution. Precipitation of oxides and salts of copper is considered. Studied conditions include water compositions from tap waters to seawater at the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. Carbonate and sulphate are aggressive towards copper because of complex formation with divalent copper. Carbonate is less aggressive in a corrosion pit than outside at the pH of the bulk. Carbonate carries acidity out from the pit, favours oxide formation and may prevent the initiation of acidic corrosion pits. The concentration profiles are used to estimate the maximum propagation rates for a corrosion pit. A high potential is found to be the most important factor for the rate of propagation. The levels of potential copper can sustain, as corrosion potentials are discussed in terms of the stability of cuprous oxide as a cathode material for oxygen reduction relative to non-conducting cupric phases.

  13. Evaluation of the hurricanes Gustav and Ike impact on healing mud from San Diego River using nuclear and geochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, Oscar; Gelen Rudnikas, Alina Katia; Rodriguez, D'Alessandro; Arado Lopez, Juana O.; Dominguez Rodriguez, Roberto; Gonzalez Hernandez, Patricia; Melian Rodriguez, Clara M.; Suarez Munnoz, Margaret; Fagundo Castillo, Juan R.; Blanco Padilla, Dagoberto

    2011-01-01

    Effects induced by the hurricanes Gustav and Ike on San Diego River mud characteristics have been studied. X-ray fluorescence analysis, gamma spectrometry and measurement of some physico-chemical characteristics in mud samples, collected before and after hurricane impacts, shows that hurricanes induced changes in mud major composition and in some other mud characteristics. The average sedimentation rate determined by gamma spectrometry in San Diego River outlet permitted to estimate that the original mud characteristics will be recovered never before than 5-7 years. Further studies of the influence of mud characteristics changes due the hurricanes impact in mud therapeutic properties are recommended.(author)

  14. Mobility of 232Th and 210Po in red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Jónás, Jácint; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2018-04-01

    The valorization of industrial by-products such as red mud became a tempting opportunity, but the understanding of the risks involved is required for the safe utilization of these products. One of the risks involved are the elevated levels of radionuclides (in the 100-1300 Bq/kg range for both the 238 U and 232  Th decay chains, but usually lower than 1000 Bq/kg, which is the recommended limit for excemption or clearance according to the EU BSS released in 2013) in red mud that can affect human health. There is no satisfactory answer for the utilization of red mud; the main current solution is still almost exclusively disposal into a landfill. For the safe utilization and deposition of red mud, it is important to be able to assess the leaching behaviour of radionuclides. Because there is no commonly accepted measurement protocol for testing the leaching of radionuclides in the EU a combined measurement protocol was made and tested based on heavy metal leaching methods. The leaching features of red mud were studied by methods compliant with the MSZ-21470-50 Hungarian standard, the CEN/TS 14429 standard and the Tessier sequential extraction method for 232 Th and 210 Po. The leached solutions were taken to radiochemical separation followed by spontaneous deposition for Po and electrodeposition for Th. The 332 ± 33 Bq/kg 232 Th content was minimally mobile, 1% became available for distilled water 1% and 6% for Lakanen-Erviö solution; the Tessier extraction showed minimal mobility in the first four steps, while more than 85% remained in the residue. The 210 Po measurements had a severe disturbing effect in many cases, probably due to large amounts of iron present in the red mud, from the 310 ± 12 Bq/kg by aqua regia digestion, distilled water mobilized 23%, while Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized ∼13%. The proposed protocol is suitable for the analysis of Th and Po leaching behaviour. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Petro-fabric and mechanical properties of mud-stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homand, F.; Giraud, A.; Auvray, Ch.; Jian-Fu, Shao; Dashnor, Hoxha

    2006-01-01

    The petro-fabric of mud-stones influences their thermal, hydraulic and mechanical properties. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, permeability and velocity of ultrasonic waves show that the anisotropy of these properties in this rock is rather low. The diminution of Biot coefficient with axial stress cannot be explained only by the diminution of porosity even by considering an incompressible matrix to 1% for an axial stress varying from 8 to 24 MPa corresponds. The origin of the diminution could be explained by the loss of connection of part of the porous system, hitherto connected, under the effect of an increasing axial stress. An isotropic elastoplastic model is a reasonable approach for the description of the mechanical behaviour of mud-stone. However, it is useful to take into account the damage by micro-fissuring, which could not be neglected and must be considered coupled with plasticity. (authors)

  16. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  17. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  18. Preliminary analysis of red mud spill based on aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Burai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest industrial spills in Europe occurred in the village of Kolontár (Hungary on October 4, 2010. The primary objective of the hyperspectral remote sensing mission was to monitor that is necessary in order to estimate the environmental damage, the precise size of the polluted area, the rating of substance concentration in the mud, and the overall condition of the flooded district as soon as possible. The secondary objective was to provide geodetic data necessary for the high-resolution visual information from the data of an additional Lidar survey, and for the coherent modeling of the event. For quick assessment and remediation purposes, it was deemed important to estimate the thickness of the red mud, particularly the areas where it was deposited in a thick layer. The results showed that some of the existing tools can be easily modified and implemented to get the most out of the available advanced remote sensing data.

  19. Red Mud Flocculants Used in the Bayer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, F.; Lewellyn, M. E.; Moffatt, S. A.

    Flocculation and separation of red mud is an integral part of the Bayer process. Over the latter half of the 20th century, flocculant technology dramatically changed from natural starches to use of "rationally designed" polymers. Many of these advancements were due to the introduction of liquid or emulsion based flocculants which enabled elaborate post-reaction chemistry to be done on the polymer backbone. This paper presents a historical overview of milestones of flocculant technology used in the Bayer process up to present day. Discussion of flocculants is based on inventions in the published literature that have gained widespread use throughout the industry and will included the benefits/advantages of different flocculant technology for settling red mud.

  20. Utilization of red mud and Pb/Zn smelter waste for the synthesis of a red mud-based cementitious material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Cheng; Min, Xiao-Bo; Ke, Yong; Chai, Li-Yuan; Shi, Mei-Qing; Tang, Chong-Jian; Wang, Qing-Wei; Liang, Yan-Jie; Lei, Jie; Liu, De-Gang

    2018-02-15

    A new method in which Pb/Zn smelter waste containing arsenic and heavy metals (arsenic sludge), red mud and lime are utilized to prepare red mud-based cementitious material (RCM) is proposed in this study. XRD, SEM, FTIR and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were employed to assess the physicochemical properties of RCM. In addition, ettringite and iron oxide-containing ettringite were used to study the hydration mechanism of RCM. The results show that the UCS of the RCM (red mud+arsenic sludge+lime) was higher than that of the binder (red mud+arsenic sludge). When the mass ratio of m (binder): m (lime) was 94:6 and then maintained 28days at ambient temperature, the UCS reached 12.05MPa. The red mud has potential cementitious characteristics, and the major source of those characteristics was the aluminium oxide. In the red mud-arsenic sludge-lime system, aluminium oxide was effectively activated by lime and gypsum to form complex hydration products. Some of the aluminium in ettringite was replaced by iron to form calcium sulfoferrite hydrate. The BCR and leaching toxicity results show that the leaching concentration was strongly dependent on the chemical speciation of arsenic and the hydration products. Therefore, the investigated red mud and arsenic sludge can be successfully utilized in cement composites to create a red mud-based cementitious material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of Lusi mud volcano and its impacts on the Porong River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Krisnayanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the first gas and mud volcano spewed from well at Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia (called Lusi or Lapindo mud in 2006, its keep flowing ever since. Despite the occurrence of Lusi mud volcano was debated. Either it was natural or unnatural disaster, but maintaining the impact of the mud on social and environment is important. In addition, monitoring water, land and air quality under permitable condition is urgently necessary, due to some scientist stated that the eruption of mud volcano might be impossible to stop. The Lusi’s mud was analyzed in 2009 and showed that the concentration of heavy metals were below environmental soil quality guidelines. There were no environmental effect of heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni, Hg, and As resulted of mud, unless when these metals are associated with other elements. In contrast, the physical and chemical of mud-water was above the environmental standard. Continues monitoring on mud and mud-water was required to protect the environment, thus human health

  2. New insights into the sorption mechanism of cadmium on red mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Lei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma Chenyan [State Key Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ma Yibing, E-mail: ybma@caas.ac.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Shuzhen; Lv Jitao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Cui Mingqi [State Key Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Effectiveness and mechanism of cadmium (Cd) sorption on original, acidified and ball milling nano-particle red muds were investigated using batch sorption experiments, sequential extraction analysis and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd was 0.16, 0.19, and 0.21 mol/kg for the original, acidified, and nano-particle red muds at pH 6.5, respectively. Both acidification and ball-milling treatments significantly enhanced Cd sorption and facilitated transformation of Cd into less extractable fractions. The Cd L{sub III}-edge XANES analysis indicated the formation of inner-sphere complexes of Cd similar to XCdOH (X represents surface groups on red mud) on the red mud surfaces although outer-sphere complexes of Cd were the primary species. This work shed light on the potential application of red mud to remediate Cd-contaminated soils and illustrated the promising tool of XANES spectroscopy for speciation of multicomponent systems of environmental relevance. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Red mud has a strong affinity for Cd contaminants. > Ball-milling treatments significantly enhance Cd sorption on red mud. > Cadmium partially formed inner-sphere complexes on the red mud surfaces. > Red mud can be used to remediate Cd contaminated soils effectively. - Cadmium can be strongly sorbed and partially forms inner-sphere complexes on red mud.

  3. Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chenfeng; Gieskes, Joris M.; Lee, Typhoon; Yui Tzenfu; Chen Hsinwen

    2004-01-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Asian Continental Plate and is one of the most active orogenic belts in the world. Fluids sampled from 9 sub-aerial mud volcanoes distributed along two major geological structures in southwestern Taiwan, the Chishan fault and the Gutingkeng anticline, were analyzed to evaluate possible sources of water and the degree of fluid-sediment interaction at depth in an accretionary prism. Overall, the Taiwanese mud volcano fluids are characterized by high Cl contents, up to 347 mM, suggesting a marine origin from actively de-watering sedimentary pore waters along major structures on land. The fluids obtained from the Gutingkeng anticline, as well as from the Coastal Plain area, show high Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg and NH 4 , but low SO 4 and B concentrations. In contrast, the Chishan fault fluids are much less saline (1/4 seawater value), but show much heavier O isotope compositions (δ 18 O=5.1-6.5 %o). A simplified scenario of mixing between sedimentary pore fluids and waters affected by clay dehydration released at depth can explain several crucial observations including heavy O isotopes, radiogenic Sr contents ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.71136-0.71283), and relatively low salinities in the Chishan fluids. Gases isolated from the mud volcanoes are predominantly CH 4 and CO 2 , where the CH 4 -C isotopic compositions show a thermogenic component of δ 13 C=-38 %o. These results demonstrate that active mud volcano de-watering in Taiwan is a direct product of intense sediment accretion and plate collision in the region

  4. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  5. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  6. Ultimate strength of stiffened plates with pitting corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting residual strength of corroded plates is of crucial importance for service life estimation of aged structures. A series of nonlinear finite element method is employed for ultimate strength analysis of stiffened plates with pitting corrosion. Influential parameters, including plate thickness, type and size of stiffeners, pit depth and degree of pitting are varied and more than 208 finite element models are analyzed. It is found that ultimate strength is reduced by increasing pit depth to thickness ratio. Thin and intermediate plates have minimum and maximum reduction of ultimate strength with stronger stiffeners, respectively. In weak stiffener, reduction of ultimate strength in thin and intermediate plates depends on DOP. Reduction of ultimate strength in thick plates depends on thickness ofplate and DOP. For intermediate plates, reduction for all stiffeners regardless of shape and size are the same.

  7. CLPX-Ground: ISA Snow Pit Measurements, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of snow pit data from nine study areas, within three larger-scale areas in northern Colorado (Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears Meso-cell...

  8. Studies in pitting corrosion on archaeological bronzes. Copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresle, Aa.; Saers, J.; Arrhenius, B.

    1983-01-01

    Copper has been proposed as a canister material for use in the long-term storage of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors. The storage period has been set to at least 100 000 years, during which time the copper cylinders must remain intact so that the contained waste has no possibility of leaking out. In this work, the pitting factor in archaelogical copper objects have been determined. The absolute values of the pitting factor obtained are generally very low. In the case of the most thoroughly studied material the pitting factor is only slightly more than three units. Nor does the native copper, with a presumed burial period of about 8000 years, exhibit particularly high values. In summary, it can therefore be concluded that the present study does not provide support for the assumption of extremely high pitting factors in copper-base material that has been buried for periods of several millenia. (G.B.)

  9. South Pole Snow Pit, 1988 and 1989, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Information from 6-meter snow pits dug close to the South Pole in austral summer 1988-1989 by the Glacier Research Group of the University of New Hampshire (location...

  10. Investigating Created Properties of Nanoparticles Based Drilling Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Nahid; Mirzaee, Mojtaba; Aghayari, Reza; Maddah, Heydar

    2017-11-01

    The success of drilling operations is heavily dependent on the drilling fluid. Drilling fluids cool down and lubricate the drill bit, remove cuttings, prevent formation damage, suspend cuttings and also cake off the permeable formation, thus retarding the passage of fluid into the formation. Typical micro or macro sized loss circulation materials (LCM) show limited success, especially in formations dominated by micropores, due to their relatively large sizes. Due to unique characteristics of nanoparticles such as their size and high surface area to volume ratio, they play an effective role in solving problems associated with the drilling fluid. In this study, we investigate the effect of adding Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles into the drilling mud. Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles were used in 20 and 60 nm of size and 0.05 wt% in concentration. Investigating the effects of temperature and pressure has shown that an increase in temperature can reduce the drilling mud rheological properties such as plastic viscosity, while an increase in pressure can enhance these properties. Also, the effects of pressure in high temperatures were less than those in low temperatures. Studying the effects of adding nanoparticles has shown that they can reduce the drilling mud rheological properties. Moreover, they can increase gel strength, reduce capillary suction time and decrease formation damage.

  11. Scientific studies on decorated mud mortar of Ajanta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to reveal the decorated earthen plaster of Ajanta. The mud plaster of Ajanta caves has been analyzed with the help of physical and analytical tools. The results indicate that high silt (>70% low clay soil may have been mixed purposefully with lime (calcite for the reason to enhance the cementing characteristics. The presence of calcium oxalate was detected from FTIR spectra may have been the resultant product of proteic materials presented in mud plaster. Ferrugineous silicate along with rarer gluconite–celendonite and white zeolites were also perceived from SEM and FTIR spectral analysis. The existence of quartz and sepiolite in mud mortar was also detected from XRD and SEM studies. The vegetal matter might have been added to tailor the construction behavior. The analytical results authenticate the similarity of earthen plaster of Ajanta and alluvion deposits of Waghura River just in front of caves, probably used as raw material in improvement of new material that suits for restoration for optimize performance and compatibility with the existing materials.

  12. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  13. Immobilization of copper flotation waste using red mud and clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra

    2008-10-01

    The flash smelting process has been used in the copper industry for a number of years and has replaced most of the reverberatory applications, known as conventional copper smelting processes. Copper smelters produce large amounts of copper slag or copper flotation waste and the dumping of these quantities of copper slag causes economic, environmental and space problems. The aim of this study was to perform a laboratory investigation to assess the feasibility of immobilizing the heavy metals contained in copper flotation waste. For this purpose, samples of copper flotation waste were immobilized with relatively small proportions of red mud and large proportions of clinoptilolite. The results of laboratory leaching demonstrate that addition of red mud and clinoptilolite to the copper flotation waste drastically reduced the heavy metal content in the effluent and the red mud performed better than clinoptilolite. This study also compared the leaching behaviour of metals in copper flotation waste by short-time extraction tests such as the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), deionized water (DI) and field leach test (FLT). The results of leach tests showed that the results of the FLT and DI methods were close and generally lower than those of the TCLP methods.

  14. The Microstructure and Pitting Resistance of Weld Joints of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingfang; Liu, Fei; Pu, Juan; Anderson, Neil E.; Li, Leijun; Liu, Dashuang

    2017-11-01

    2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) was welded by submerged arc welding. The effects of both heat input and groove type on the ferrite/austenite ratio and elemental diffusion of weld joints were investigated. The relationships among welding joint preparation, ferrite/austenite ratio, elemental diffusion, and pitting corrosion resistance of weld joints were analyzed. When the Ni content of the weld wire deposit was at minimum 2-4% higher than that of 2205 DSS base metal, the desired ratio of ferrite/austenite and elemental partitioning between the austenite and ferrite phases were obtained. While the pitting sensitivity of weld metal was higher than that of base metal, the self-healing capability of the passive film of weld metal was better than that of the base metal when a single V-type groove was used. Furthermore, the heat input should be carefully controlled since pitting corrosion occurred readily in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone near the fusion line of welded joints.

  15. Using RFID and PIT tags to Quantify Bedload Transport in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, J.; Lancaster, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Introducing the methods, issues, and data collection techniques and interpretation over one water year using RFID (radio frequency identification) and PIT (passive integrated transponder) tags in Oak Creek, near Corvallis Oregon. We constructed an RFID four-antenna array that runs off of a single radiofrequency reader via a multiplexer board. Using 4 grain sizes we tagged 990 individual rocks, roughly 250 in of each four size ranges (8-16mm, 16-32mm, 32-64mm, 64-128mm). Using 12 mm and 23 mm PIT tags during 1 water year the antennas logged 477 tracer passage events. To calculate bedload transport for each size range, at each antenna, interarrival times yield count rates when combined with grain size fractions of the bed and tracer concentrations, yield bedload transport for each size class. We calculated transport rates for five events of varying magnitude and found that PIT tag RFID method under predicts transport between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Material Strength Deterioration due to Pitting Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Kolios, Athanasios J.; Srikanth, Sumant; Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Pitting corrosion is an insidious form of localized corrosion affecting characteristics of various engineering metallic alloys. Currently very limited literature exists with regard to systematic characterization of pitted surfaces or the efficient use of numerical methods to assess its effect, i.e. fatigue life reduction caused by the state of a corroded specimen and particularly through the study of stress concentrations considering the geometrical anomalies introduced to a surface. Much of ...

  17. Ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangfa; Jiang Xue

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, there is a detail description of ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines, including method, process and results. We took ecological geology environmental assessment work on the base of the results of some open-pit mines such as extremely low content magnetite in Hebei Province, inducted and summarized the ecological geology environment quality. The results are reasonable. It provides basic data for the second mines programming in Hebei Province. (authors)

  18. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Guerra; Marta Mazur; Francesca Rinaldo; Denise Corridore; Daniele Salvi; Debora Pasqualotto; Gianna Maria Nardi; Livia Ottolenghi

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of denta...

  19. Force-displacement measurements of earlywood bordered pits using a mesomechanical tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Keith J. Bourne; John C. Hermanson; Samuel V. Glass; Adriana Costa; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2015-01-01

    The elastic properties of pit membranes are reported to have important implications in understanding air-seeding phenomena in gymnosperms, and pit aspiration plays a large role in wood technological applications such as wood drying and preservative treatment. Here we present force–displacement measurements for pit membranes of circular bordered pits, collected on a...

  20. Deterministic chaos in the pitting phenomena of passivable alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerle, Stephane

    1998-01-01

    It was shown that electrochemical noise recorded in stable pitting conditions exhibits deterministic (even chaotic) features. The occurrence of deterministic behaviors depend on the material/solution severity. Thus, electrolyte composition ([Cl - ]/[NO 3 - ] ratio, pH), passive film thickness or alloy composition can change the deterministic features. Only one pit is sufficient to observe deterministic behaviors. The electrochemical noise signals are non-stationary, which is a hint of a change with time in the pit behavior (propagation speed or mean). Modifications of electrolyte composition reveals transitions between random and deterministic behaviors. Spontaneous transitions between deterministic behaviors of different features (bifurcation) are also evidenced. Such bifurcations enlighten various routes to chaos. The routes to chaos and the features of chaotic signals allow to suggest the modeling (continuous and discontinuous models are proposed) of the electrochemical mechanisms inside a pit, that describe quite well the experimental behaviors and the effect of the various parameters. The analysis of the chaotic behaviors of a pit leads to a better understanding of propagation mechanisms and give tools for pit monitoring. (author) [fr

  1. Statistical characterization of pitting corrosion process and life prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.K.; Younas, M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to prevent corrosion failures of machines and structures, it is desirable to know in advance when the corrosion damage will take place, and appropriate measures are needed to mitigate the damage. The corrosion predictions are needed both at development as well as operational stage of machines and structures. There are several forms of corrosion process through which varying degrees of damage can occur. Under certain conditions these corrosion processes at alone and in other set of conditions, several of these processes may occur simultaneously. For a certain type of machine elements and structures, such as gears, bearing, tubes, pipelines, containers, storage tanks etc., are particularly prone to pitting corrosion which is an insidious form of corrosion. The corrosion predictions are usually based on experimental results obtained from test coupons and/or field experiences of similar machines or parts of a structure. Considerable scatter is observed in corrosion processes. The probabilities nature and kinetics of pitting process makes in necessary to use statistical method to forecast the residual life of machine of structures. The focus of this paper is to characterization pitting as a time-dependent random process, and using this characterization the prediction of life to reach a critical level of pitting damage can be made. Using several data sets from literature on pitting corrosion, the extreme value modeling of pitting corrosion process, the evolution of the extreme value distribution in time, and their relationship to the reliability of machines and structure are explained. (author)

  2. Investigation of Ammonium and Nitrite Removal by Zeolite Material Synthesized on Red Mud Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Thi Mai Huong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The zeolite with the unit formula of Na8(Al6Si6O24S.4H2O was synthesized directly on red mud base with addition of single silicon (signed as RH-ZeO-Si and both silicon and aluminum portions (signed as RM-ZeO-SiAl to original Tan Rai (Vietnam red mud. The structure of the zeolite was studied by X-Ray difration and FT-IR absorption spectra. The synthesized materials were studied on their adsorption ability of ammonium and nitrite ions. The results showed that, the adsorption of ammonium cation was mostly allowing ion-exchange mechanism and the zeolite crystaline forms played predominantly role besids minor one of single metal oxides. For nitrite anions, it is otherwise, the adsorption mechanism was mostly leant to electrostatic attraction between nitrite anions and electropositive effect of the hematite surface in light acidic condition. The adsorption isotherms of all ammonium and nitrite ions on both synthesized materials were nearly conformable with Freundlich model than Langmuir model. Those showed that, both materials have unhomogeneous adsorption surface. The maximum adsorption capacity of ammonium and nitrite on RM-ZeO-Si was 5.71 mg/g and 2.73 mg/g respectively, and on RM-ZeO-SiAl was 5.61 mg/g and 3.12 mg/g respectively. The initial test of competitive ions influencing on adsorption ability showed that, for all cases the competition of cations to ammonium ion was more significance than those of anions to nitrite ion in the same conditions.

  3. Microbial communities inhabiting deep-sourced fluids in recent mud breccia flows from the active Venere Mud Volcano offshore Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasek, S.; Torres, M. E.; Bohrmann, G.; Colwell, F. S.

    2016-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes (MVs) along continental margins emit muds and hydrocarbon-rich fluids and gases from the deep subsurface in climatologically significant amounts, and host distinct chemosynthetic communities of microbes and macrofauna. Venere MV lies at 1500 m water depth in the Ionian Sea offshore Italy and sits atop a 5 km thick accretionary prism at the forearc of the Calabrian subduction zone. Recently-exposed mud breccias flow from its west summit and distribute deep-sourced fluids into sediments as shallow as 20 cm below seafloor. These fluids contain thermogenic methane and are comparatively fresh (10 PSU), high in lithium and boron (up to 300 and 8000 µM respectively), and strongly depleted in potassium (removing 60-90% of methane from the marine subsurface before it escapes into the ocean, metagenomic content from three summit flow communities is being investigated for genes related to this biogeochemically significant process to examine how it is established in a natural setting. With increasing distance from the summit, decreasing sulfate penetration into porewaters suggests the establishment of AOM communities. It is hypothesized that metagenomes of communities further from the summit and/or richer in ANME will contain higher proportions of AOM genes. Metagenomes from potassium-depleted deep fluids may contain higher abundances of microbial potassium channels than seawater-influenced ones, and harbor uncharacterized nutrient-cycling genes and pathways.

  4. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-11-11

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO₂ from the seafloor.

  5. Production of pig iron from red mud waste fines using thermal plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasankar, K.; Ray, P. K.; Chaubey, A. K.; Padhi, A.; Satapathy, B. K.; Mukherjee, P. S.

    2012-08-01

    Red mud, an insoluble residue produced during alkali leaching of bauxite, is considered as a low-grade iron ore containing 30% to 50% iron. The present paper deals with the use of thermal plasma technology for producing pig iron from red mud waste fines. The smelting reduction of red mud was carried out in a 35 kW DC extended arc thermal plasma reactor. Red mud was properly mixed with fluxes and graphite (fixed carbon, 99%) as a reductant as per stoichiometric requirement. The effect of various process parameters like a reductant, fluxes and smelting time on iron recovery was studied and optimized. An optimum condition for the maximum recovery of iron was obtained. A new thermal plasma process applicable to direct iron making from red mud waste fines that would achieve significant utilization of red mud was proposed.

  6. Irradiation of residual muds and its use in the oat cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.J.; Colin, C.A.; Gomeztagle, M.M.; Frias, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The irradiation of residual muds samples from a wastewater treatment plant at gamma radiation dose of 15 kGy removes from muds on average: fats and oils (33%), detergent (92%), phenols (50%) and over 99% of microorganisms of total account. The evaluation of irradiated residual mud and without irradiation as soil conditioner in oat growing (avena safira), was realized by triplicate, using different rates (80, 60, 40 and 20%) of frank sandy soil and irradiated and non-irradiated residual mud. The growing with rates 60/40 % of soil and irradiated mud respectively, resulted being more adequate as soil conditioner. It is important to clarify that for putting residual mud it is necessary that metals concentration not exceed the maximum permissible levels for the soil type and the corresponding growing. (Author)

  7. Cement-Based solidification/stabilization of red mud: Leaching properties of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Tınmaz Köse, Esra; Akyıldız, Aylin

    2018-01-01

    Inthis study, convenience of solidification / stabilization process for disposaland recycling of the red mud produced from Konya Seydişehir Aluminum Plant wereexamined. For this purpose physical and chemical properties of the red mud wasprimarily demonstrated. In order to solidification, mortar was produced withdiffirent ratios of red mud by blending with cement. The stabilization ofsolidified material was examined via leaching test. According to the results ofleaching test, landfilling of th...

  8. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoyan, G A; Karamyan, G G; Vardan, G A

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given. (paper)

  9. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoyan, G. A.; Karamyan, G. G.; Vardan, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given.

  10. Recycling red mud from the production of aluminium as a red cement-based mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Jianfeng; Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Piqi; Chen, Qin

    2017-05-01

    Current management for red mud is insufficient and a new method is needed. A series of experiments have been carried out to develop a new approach for effective management of red mud. Mortars without or with 3%, 6% and 9% red mud were prepared and their fresh and hardened properties were measured to access the possibility of recycling the red mud in the production of red cement-based mortar. The mechanisms corresponding to their mechanical performance variations were explored by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the fresh mortars with red mud present an increase of viscosity as compared with the control. However, little difference is found when the content of red mud is altered. It also can be seen that red mud increases flow time and reduces the slump flow of the mortar. Meanwhile, it is found that mortar with red mud is provided with higher air content. Red mud is eligible to adjust the decorative mortar colour. Compressive strength of mortar is improved when less than 6% red mud is added. However, overall it has a slightly negative effect on tensile bond strength. It decreases the Ca(OH) 2 content and densifies the microstructure of hardened paste. The heavy metal concentrations in leachates of mortars with red mud are much lower than the values required in the standard, and it will not do harm to people's health and the environment. These results are important to recycle and effectively manage red mud via the production of red cement-based mortar.

  11. Development of alkali activated cements and concrete mixture design with high volumes of red mud

    OpenAIRE

    Krivenko, Pavel; Kovalchuk, Oleksandr; Pasko, Anton; Croymans, Tom; Hutt, Mikael; Lutter, Guillaume; Vandevenne, Niels; Schreurs, Sonja; Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated cement compositions were formulated to enable the incorporation of large volume fractions of red mud in alkali activated cements, taking into account the role of the aluminosilicate phase in the processes of hydration and hardening. High volume red mud alkali activated cements were synthesized using a proper combination of red mud, low basic aluminosilicate compounds with a glass phase (blast-furnace slag) and additives selected from high-basic Ca-containing cements with a crystalli...

  12. GEOCHEMICAL AND CLAY-MINERAL STUDY OF HEALING MUD FROM WUDALIANCHI, NE CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rasskazov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries, people have used healing mud (peloids to draw toxins out of the body, boost the immune system, cure psoriasis, acne, depression, and hair loss. The beauty industry has used mud-clay masks, body wraps, soaps, and baths. The useful properties of mud were established empirically. The most popular healing-mud spars are known in the Dead Sea in Israel, Baden-Baden in Germany, Calistoga in California, Budapest in Hungary, Akhtala and Kumisi in Georgia, Paratunka in Kamchatka, Wudalianchi in China.

  13. Application of iron ore mud in powder form in posartland cement presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Aristimunho

    Full Text Available Among the products generated in the processing of iron ore, the mud washing, in most cases, is stored in tailing dams without a commercial use. This study aimed to evaluate, at the technical point of view, the application of mud washing iron ore in Portland cement mortar. Specimens were molded with varied proportions of cement, sand and mud washing in powder and then submitted to physical and mechanic tests. The results showed that the replacement of sand by the mud washing (emphasis to 20% substitution improved the mechanical performance of mortars. It evidences the technical feasibility of the material under study.

  14. Application of iron ore mud in powder form in posartland cement presence

    OpenAIRE

    Aristimunho,P. B.; Bertocini,S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Among the products generated in the processing of iron ore, the mud washing, in most cases, is stored in tailing dams without a commercial use. This study aimed to evaluate, at the technical point of view, the application of mud washing iron ore in Portland cement mortar. Specimens were molded with varied proportions of cement, sand and mud washing in powder and then submitted to physical and mechanic tests. The results showed that the replacement of sand by the mud washing (emphasis to 20% s...

  15. Continuous multi-component geophysical experiment on LUSI mud edifice: What can we learn from it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Guillaume; Husein, Alwi; Karyono, Karyono; Hadi, Soffian; Mazzini, Adriano; Collignon, Marine; Faubert, Maïté; Miller, Stephen A.; Lupi, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi eruption is located in East Java, Indonesia, and is ongoing since May 29th, 2006. In the framework of joined international projects, several joint geophysical studies focussing on seismic monitoring, spatial investigation over the mud edifice and its surroundings are being conducted. Here we present freshly acquired data from a test site to investigate: (1) potential change in the natural electrical self-potential generation over time (2) potential change in gravity field associated to change in mass or volume, (3) if the geysering activity generates disruption on either the electrical or gravity field. We selected a location ˜200m to the NE of the active Lusi crater. The experiment site covers an area of 60m x 80m, crossing the boundaries between the soft and the solid walkable mud. The western edge of the study area was less than 100m away from the rim of the crater site. A self-potential array made of 6 Pb-PbCl2 electrodes was deployed over the site. The electrodes were positioned inside active seeps, on dry unaltered zones and close to the mud stream that flushes the water erupted from the crater site. All the electrodes were connected to a single Pb-PbCl2 electrode reference. A second array of 7 thermometers was installed positioning 5 of them next to SP electrodes, one to measure atmospheric temperature and another P/T probe to monitor the stream water. In addition a seismometer coupled with a HD video camera, a thermal camera and a gravimeter recorded on site for several days monitoring visual and seismic activity of the crater. The collected data allows us to 1) monitor and define the different geysering activities ongoing at the crater, 2) define the delay existing between the recorded seismicity and the visual observations, 3) verify if the crater activity triggers perturbations that are transmitted to e.g. the thousands of satellite seeps distributed in the 7 square kilometers zone inside the embankment; 4) how significant is the delay between

  16. Characterization of transport mechanisms and determinants critical for Na+-dependent Pi symport of the PiT family paralogs human PiT1 and PiT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Hede, Susanne E; Grunnet, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The general phosphate need in mammalian cells is accommodated by members of the P(i) transport (PiT) family (SLC20), which use either Na(+) or H(+) to mediate inorganic phosphate (P(i)) symport. The mammalian PiT paralogs PiT1 and PiT2 are Na(+)-dependent P(i) (NaP(i)) transporters...... and are exploited by a group of retroviruses for cell entry. Human PiT1 and PiT2 were characterized by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes with (32)P(i) as a traceable P(i) source. For PiT1, the Michaelis-Menten constant for P(i) was determined as 322.5 +/- 124.5 microM. PiT2 was analyzed for the first time...... and showed positive cooperativity in P(i) uptake with a half-maximal activity constant for P(i) of 163.5 +/- 39.8 microM. PiT1- and PiT2-mediated Na(+)-dependent P(i) uptake functions were not significantly affected by acidic and alkaline pH and displayed similar Na(+) dependency patterns. However, only PiT2...

  17. The Lusi mud eruption dynamics: constraints from field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Adriano; Sciarra, Alessandra; Lupi, Matteo; Mauri, Guillaume; Karyono, Karyono; Husein, Alwi; Aquino, Ida; Ricco, Ciro; Obermann, Anne; Hadi, Soffian

    2017-04-01

    The Indonesian Lusi eruption has been spewing boiling water, gas, and sediments since the 29th of May 2006. Initially, numerous aligned eruptions sites appeared along the Watukosek fault system that was reactivated after the Yogyakarta earthquake occurring the 27th of May in the Java Island. Since its birth Lusi erupted with a pulsating behavior showing intermittent periods of stronger activity resulting in higher fluids and solid emissions intervals. Since 2010 two active vents are constantly active. We conducted detailed monitoring of such clastic geysering activity and this allowed us to distinguish four distinct phases that follow each other and that reoccur every 30 minutes: (1) regular bubbling activity (constant emission of water, mud breccia, and gas); (2) clastic geysering phase with intense bubbling (consisting in reduced vapor emission and more powerful diffused mud bursting); (3) clastic geysering with mud bursts and intense vapour discharge (typically dense plume that propagates up to 100 m in height); (4) quiescent phase marking the end of the geysering activity (basically no gas emissions or bursts observed). In order to better understand this pulsating behavior and to constrain the mechanisms controlling its activity, we designed a multidisciplinary monitoring of the eruption site combining the deployment of numerous instruments around the crater site. Processing of the collected data reveals the dynamic activity of Lusi's craters. Satellite images show that the location of these vents migrated along a NE-SW direction. This is subparallel to the direction of the Watukosek fault system that is the zone of (left) lateral deformation upon which Lusi developed in 2006. Coupling HR camera images with broadband and short period seismic stations allowed us to describe the seismic signal generated by clastic geysering and to constrain the depth of the source generating the signal. We measure a delay between the seismic (harmonic) record and the associated

  18. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkee eLee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylem hydraulic resistance varies with ion concentration in sap solution. It is assumed that this variation in resistance results from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in bordered pit membranes separating adjacent vessels. Although kinetics of the resistance change suggests swelling/deswelling behavior of the pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we provide evidence of structural changes in bordered pit membranes responding to variation in ionic concentration of solute around it using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft and lacking any sharp edges surface when submerged in de-ionized water, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM or AFM performed on air dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties with and elevation features as bordered pit membrane became harder, with visible edges of fibers and collapsed, while no change in porosity was observed. Analysis suggests a need for a major shift in our understanding to the physical bases of variable xylem resistance from change in porosity to change in pathway length. Findings support the role of actuating properties of hybrid hydrogel-cellulose materials in water redistribution and embolism resistance.

  19. Mud volcano origin of the Mottled Zone, South Levant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Novikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mottled Zone (MZ or Hatrurim Formation, which occurs near the Levantine Transform in the South Levant, has been studied during the last 150 years but its origin remains debatable. Mottled Zone Complex/Complexes (MZC/MZCs consist of brecciated carbonate and low-temperature calcium-hydrosilicate rocks, which include unusual high- and ultra-high-temperature low-pressure (HT-LP metamorphic mineral assemblages. The MZ has been regarded as a product of combustion of bituminous chalks of the Ghareb Fm. of Cretaceous (Maastrichtian age. In this paper we present detailed geographic, geomorphologic, structural and geological data from the MZCs of the South Levant, which show that the MZCs cannot be stratigraphically correlated with the Ghareb Fm., because MZC late Oligocene–late Pleistocene deposits occur within or unconformably, i.e., with stratigraphic hiatus, overlap both the late Cretaceous and, in places, Neogene stratigraphic units. We propose an alternative model for the formation of MZCs by tectonically induced mud volcanism during late Oligocene–late Pleistocene time. This model explains (i the presence of dikes and tube-like bodies, which consist of brecciated exotic clastic material derived from stratigraphically and hypsometrically lower horizons; (ii mineral assemblages of sanidinite facies metamorphism; (iii multi-stage character of HT-LP pyrometamorphism; and (iv multi-stage low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. High temperatures (up to 1500 °C mineral assemblages resulted from combustion of hydrocarbon gases of mud volcanoes. Mud volcanism was spatially and structurally related to neotectonic folds and deformation zones formed in response to opening of the Red Sea rift and propagation of the Levantine Transform Fault. Our model may significantly change the prospects for oil-and-gas deposits in the region.

  20. Transcultured Architecture: Mudéjar’s Epic Journey Reinterpreted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Nicole Sheren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mudéjar phenomenon is unparalleled in the history of architecture. This style of architecture and ornamentation originated with Arab craftsmen living in reconquered medieval Spain. Embraced by Spanish Christians, Mudéjar traveled over the course of the next four centuries, becoming part of the architectural history of Latin America, especially present-day Mexico and Peru. The style’s transmission across different religions and cultures attests to its ability to unify disparate groups of people under a common visual language. How, then, did mudejar managto gain popularity across reconquered Spain, so much so that it spread to the New World colonies? In this article, I argue that art and architecture move more fluidly than ideologies across boundaries, physical and political. The theory of transculturation makes it possible to understand how an architectural style such as Mudéjar can be generated from a cultural clash and move to an entirely different context. Developed in 1947 by Cuban scholar and theorist Fernando Ortíz, transculturation posited means by which cultures mix to create something entirely new. This process is often violent, the result of intense conflict and persecution, and one culture is almost always defeated in the process. The contributions of both societies, however, coexist in the final product, whether technological, artistic, or even agricultural. I argue that mudejar in Latin America is a product of two separate transculturations: the adoption of Arab design and ornamentation by Spanish Christians, and the subsequent transference of these forms to the New World through the work of indigenous laborers.

  1. Mud-filtrate correction of sonic logs by fluid substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne

    seismograms generated from velocity versus depth trends recorded as a sonic log in a borehole. Such a comparison is referred to as a well-tie. A high-quality well-tie requires a highquality sonic log, but shallow depth of penetration makes sonic logs sensitive to invasion of mud-filtrate from the borehole...... of wetting phase saturation, and the clay content. When the water saturation is at the irreducible water saturation or higher only the effect of clay on the elastic velocities have a differential effect on the elastic velocities. Mixed saturations are fluid substituted using effective fluid moduli formulated...

  2. Identification Method of Mud Shale Fractures Base on Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weixu; Lai, Fuqiang; Luo, Han

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, inspired by seismic analysis technology, a new method for analysing mud shale fractures oil and gas reservoirs by logging properties has emerged. By extracting the high frequency attribute of the wavelet transform in the logging attribute, the formation information hidden in the logging signal is extracted, identified the fractures that are not recognized by conventional logging and in the identified fracture segment to show the “cycle jump”, “high value”, “spike” and other response effect is more obvious. Finally formed a complete wavelet denoising method and wavelet high frequency identification fracture method.

  3. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  4. Fukushima nuclear accident recorded in Tibetan Plateau snow pits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninglian Wang

    Full Text Available The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month.

  5. Congenital upper lip pit: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the rarest developmental malformations of the lip is congenital lip pits. They are usually seen as bilateral depressions in the vermilion zone of the lip and occur on the paramedian portion of the vermilion border of the lip. They are extremely rare in the upper lip. Lip pits are due to the failure of complete union of embryonic lateral sulci of the lip/notching of lip at an early stage of development with fixation of tissues of the base of the notch. Lip pits have also been associated with a variety of other congenital disorders and other malformations. The clinical and pathologic picture and the therapeutic aspects of this condition are discussed in this paper.

  6. Pit Distribution Design for Computer-Generated Waveguide Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shogo; Imai, Tadayuki; Ueno, Masahiro; Ohtani, Yoshimitsu; Endo, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Fukuda, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    Multilayered waveguide holography (MWH) is one of a number of page-oriented data multiplexing holographies that will be applied to optical data storage and three-dimensional (3D) moving images. While conventional volumetric holography using photopolymer or photorefractive materials requires page-by-page light exposure for recording, MWH media can be made by employing stamping and laminating technologies that are suitable for mass production. This makes devising an economical mastering technique for replicating holograms a key issue. In this paper, we discuss an approach to pit distribution design that enables us to replace expensive electron beam mastering with economical laser beam mastering. We propose an algorithm that avoids the overlapping of even comparatively large adjacent pits when we employ laser beam mastering. We also compensate for the angular dependence of the diffraction power, which strongly depends on pit shape, by introducing an enhancement profile so that a diffracted image has uniform intensity.

  7. 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Facility is owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. Dangerous waste and mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components) are managed and produced on the Hanford Facility. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office and serves as cooperator of the 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site, the unit addressed in this closure plan. The 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Part A Permit Application (Revision 3) and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application revision is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and three appendices. This 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of October 15, 1992

  8. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  9. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  10. Detection of Pitting in Gears Using a Deep Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Qu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; a new method for gear pitting fault detection is presented. The presented method is developed based on a deep sparse autoencoder. The method integrates dictionary learning in sparse coding into a stacked autoencoder network. Sparse coding with dictionary learning is viewed as an adaptive feature extraction method for machinery fault diagnosis. An autoencoder is an unsupervised machine learning technique. A stacked autoencoder network with multiple hidden layers is considered to be a deep learning network. The presented method uses a stacked autoencoder network to perform the dictionary learning in sparse coding and extract features from raw vibration data automatically. These features are then used to perform gear pitting fault detection. The presented method is validated with vibration data collected from gear tests with pitting faults in a gearbox test rig and compared with an existing deep learning-based approach.

  11. Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Melissa A; McAllister, John T; Cooper, Robert F; Dubis, Adam M; Patitucci, Teresa N; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Anderson, Jennifer L; Stepien, Kimberly E; Costakos, Deborah M; Connor, Thomas B; Wirostko, William J; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Dubra, Alfredo; Curcio, Christine A; Brilliant, Murray H; Summers, C Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2014-05-20

    Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. Relationship Between Foveal Cone Specialization and Pit Morphology in Albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Melissa A.; McAllister, John T.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Patitucci, Teresa N.; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Costakos, Deborah M.; Connor, Thomas B.; Wirostko, William J.; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Dubra, Alfredo; Curcio, Christine A.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Summers, C. Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. Methods. We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. Results. We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. Conclusions. Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue. PMID:24845642

  13. The Influence of Radiation on Pit Solution Chemistry as it Pertains to the Transition from Metastable to Stable Pitting in Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galuszka-Muga, Barbara; Muga, Luis M.

    2006-01-01

    Previous work relevant to current efforts is summarized. A description of an improved version of a new electrochemical probe, the ArtPit, is given. The distinct feature of the probe for investigating metastable pitting of carbon steels is specified and compared to other approaches. The electrochemical response of the ArtPit under the gamma irradiation and elevated temperature conditions that occur at high level waste (HLW) storage tanks is presented. In particular, the Tafel slope determinations and chemical analyses of the ArtPit confined volume electrolyte are described. Based on results a possible approach for reducing the corrosion rate of HLW tank walls is suggested. Additional statistical analysis of the occurrence of short duration (passivated pits) and long term (stable pitting) electrochemical pulses (current surges) during exposure confirm that radiation enhances the occurrence of both more and smaller sized pits due to increased likelihood of repassivation

  14. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqun Ma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, the seawater-neutralized red mud had a lower pH and was dominated by boehmite, which was likely to play a significant role in Cu adsorption. Overall, it appears that Cu was more tightly retained by the CaCO3-dominated red mud than the boehmite-dominated red mud. It is concluded that the heterogeneity of red mud has marked influences on its capacity to immobilize water-borne Cu and maintain the long-term stability of the immobilized Cu species. The research findings obtained from this study have implications for the development of Cu immobilization technology by using appropriate waste materials generated from the aluminium industry.

  15. Extraction of Al and Na from red mud by magnesium oxide sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium and aluminum extractions were 99 and 98.7% respectively. The experimental method devised was then used to treat red mud and the target phases were produced. An extraction of sodium and aluminum respectively was achieved. Silicon extractions were below 2%. Key word: Red mud, sinter, leaching, extraction.

  16. Safety evaluation of traces of nickel and chrome in cosmetics: The case of Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Ze'evi; Halicz, Ludwik; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Russo, Matteo Zanotti; Robino, Federica; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2015-12-01

    Metal impurities such as nickel and chrome are present in natural ingredients-containing cosmetic products. These traces are unavoidable due to the ubiquitous nature of these elements. Dead Sea mud is a popular natural ingredient of cosmetic products in which nickel and chrome residues are likely to occur. To analyze the potential systemic and local toxicity of Dead Sea mud taking into consideration Dead Sea muds' natural content of nickel and chrome. The following endpoints were evaluated: (Regulation No. 1223/20, 21/12/2009) systemic and (SCCS's Notes of Guidance) local toxicity of topical application of Dead Sea mud; health reports during the last five years of commercial marketing of Dead Sea mud. Following exposure to Dead Sea mud, MoS (margin of safety) calculations for nickel and chrome indicate no toxicological concern for systemic toxicity. Skin sensitization is also not to be expected by exposure of normal healthy skin to Dead Sea mud. Topical application, however, is not recommended for already nickel-or chrome-sensitized persons. As risk assessment of impurities present in cosmetics may be a difficult exercise, the case of Dead Sea mud is taken here as an example of a natural material that may contain traces of unavoidable metals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conditioning of red mud for subsequent titanium and scandium recovery. A conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, G.; Xakalashe, B.; Kaussen, F.; Friedrich, Bernd [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). IME Inst. of Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling; Yagmurlu, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). IME Inst. of Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling; MEAB Chemie Technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Leaching experiments were undertaken on red mud materials (red mud and red mud slag). The red mud slag was produced via the carbothermic reduction of red mud at high temperatures (T > 1500 C) via SAF treatment. Furthermore, iron was recovered in the smelting step to the metal phase. Ti and Sc were successfully recovered from the red mud materials by hydrometallurgical treatment. For both critical metals, it was found that sulfuric acid was the best mineral acid among others. Since direct red mud leaching had some shortcomings, a route designed to overcome them is proposed. For optimal Ti and Sc recovery from red mud a promising process flowsheet combining pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical treatment is proposed as follows: pyrometallurgical processing (fluxed smelting to produce calcium oxide based slag phases and controlled cooling for crystalline and glassy slags), leaching for maximized Ti- and Sc extraction and followed by a multistage precipitation (for metal recovery and solution purification). Initial trial results showed that the proposed process is promising.

  18. Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlou, J.-L.; Donval, J.-P.; Zitter, T.; Roy, N.; Jean Baptiste, P.; Foucher, J.P.; Woodside, J.M.; Medinaut, Party

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the Dutch-French MEDINAUT diving expedition in 1998, cold seeps and mud volcanoes were studied and sampled in two distinctive tectonic settings in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The first setting was the Olimpi Mud Volcano field (OMV area), including Napoli, Milano, Maidstone and Moscow

  19. Red mud as secondary source for critical raw materials - extraction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujaczki, Éva; Zimmermann, Yannick S.; Gasser, Christoph A.; Molnár, Mónika; Feigl, Viktória; Lenz, Markus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Red mud is a by-product of alumina extraction from bauxite by the Bayer process produced in the billion tons scale worldwide. Red muds, or more generally bauxite residues, are regarded as waste, but may potentially be valuable sources of critical raw materials (CRM). In the present study

  20. Lime muds and their genesis off-Northwestern India during the late ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and then exported. The change in lime mud-dominated to siliciclastic-dominated sediments in the cores may be due to climate change and rapid rise in sea level during the early Holocene. 1. Introduction. Lime muds are produced by several mecha- nisms: mechanical disintegration of biogenic skele- tal components ...

  1. Novel applications of red mud as coagulant, adsorbent and catalyst for environmentally benign processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Ang, H M; Tadé, M O

    2008-08-01

    Red mud (RM) is a by-product of bauxite processing via the Bayer process. Its disposal remains an issue of great importance with significant environmental concerns. In the past decades, a lot of research has been done to utilize red mud for environmental-benign applications such as a building material additive and for metal recovery. In recent years, red mud has also been explored for gas cleaning and wastewater treatment. In this paper, we review varying novel applications of red mud as a coagulant and adsorbent for water and gas treatment as well as catalyst for some industrial processes. The environmental compatibility of red mud is discussed. Some directions of future research are also proposed. Red mud presents a promising application in water treatment for removal of toxic heavy metal and metalloid ions, inorganic anions such as nitrate, fluoride, and phosphate, as well as organics including dyes, phenolic compounds and bacteria. In addition, red mud can also be employed as catalysts for hydrogenation, hydrodechlorination and hydrocarbon oxidation. Moreover, leaching and eco-toxicological tests indicate that red mud does not present high toxicity to the environment before or after reuse.

  2. Radiological characterization of clay mixed red mud in particular as regards its leaching features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Sas, Zoltán; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Szántó, Tamás; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2016-10-01

    The reuse of industrial by-products such as red mud is of great importance. In the case of the building material industry the reuse of red mud requires a cautious attitude, since the enhanced radionuclide content of red mud can have an effect on human health. The natural radionuclide content of red mud from the Ajka red mud reservoir and the clay sample from a Hungarian brick factory were determined by gamma spectrometry. It was found that maximum 27.8% red mud content can be added to fulfil the conditions of the EU-BSS. The effect of heat treatment was investigated on a red mud-clay mixture and it was found that in the case of radon and thoron exhalation the applied heat reduced remarkably the exhalation capacities. The leaching features of red mud and different mixtures were studied according to the MSZ-21470-50 Hungarian standard, the British CEN/TS 14429 standard and the Tessier sequential extraction method. The Tessier method and the MSZ-21470-50 standard are suitable for the characterization of materials; however, they do not provide enough information for waste deposition purposes. To this end, we propose using the CEN/TS 14429 method, because it is easy to use, and gives detailed information about the material's behaviour under different pH conditions, however, further measurements are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of iron mineral transformation to reduce red mud tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L Y

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the effects of iron mineral transformation in an aluminum extraction process on the settling behavior, and the physical and chemical properties of the resulting red mud slurry that must be disposed of. By producing a red mud with a higher solid content, the total volume of mud slurry will also be reduced for a given alumina production rate and more caustic soda will be recovered. The settling behavior and the mineralogical, physical, and physico-chemical properties of one bauxite and three red muds processed under varying conditions were analyzed based on examination of the iron mineral transformations. The properties of red muds derived from the same bauxite can differ markedly due to variations in operating conditions of the Bayer process, such as temperature and the addition of a reducing agent. The settling of red mud can be improved by converting goethite into hematite and/or magnetite to produce a mud of larger particle size, smaller specific surface area, and larger specific gravity, characteristics which reduce the total volume of mud slurry to be disposed of and which allow for less potential contamination from caustic soda. This study also found that the by-product--Bayer sodalite--has the high exchange capacity for Na+ that might contribute to the long-term environmental problems.

  4. A Comparative SEM-EDS Elemental Composition of Mud in Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to understand the comparative abundance and source of elemental constituents in mud of four coastal shrimp farming areas, Vunh Tau (VT), Nha Trang (NT), Da Nang (DN) and Hue (HU) in Viet Nam using SEM-EDS analysis. Mud samples were collected from shrimp farming coastal zones ...

  5. Suspended matter and fluid mud off Alleppey, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Samiksha, S.V.; Vethamony, P.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Babu, M.T.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    Time series measurements on suspended particulate matter (SPM) were made at one non-mud bank (M1) and two mud bank stations (M2 and M3) off Alleppey, south west coast of India. The mean SPM was low in surface (6.2 mg/l) and mid-depth (3.7 mg...

  6. Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

  7. Pitting and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saithala, Janardhan R.

    An investigation has been performed to determine the pitting resistance of stainless steels and stress corrosion cracking of super duplex stainless steels in water containing chloride ions from 25 - 170°C. The steels studied are 12% Cr, FV520B, FV566, 304L, Uranus65, 2205, Ferallium Alloy 255, and Zeron 100. All these commercial materials used in very significant industrial applications and suffer from pitting and stress corrosion failures. The design of a new experimental setup using an autoclave enabled potentiodynamic polarisation experiments and slow strain rate tests in dilute environments to be conducted at elevated temperatures. The corrosion potentials were controlled using a three electrode cell with computer controlled potentiostat.The experimental programme to determine pitting potentials was designed to simulate the service conditions experienced in most industrial plants and develop mathematical model equations to help a design engineer in material selection decision. Stress corrosion resistance of recently developed Zeron100 was evaluated in dilute environments to propose a mechanism in chloride solutions at high' temperatures useful for the nuclear and power generation industry. Results have shown the significance of the composition of alloying elements across a wide range of stainless steels and its influence on pitting. Nitrogen and molybdenum added to modern duplex stainless steels was found to be unstable at higher temperatures. The fractographic results obtained using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has given insight in the initiation of pitting in modem duplex and super duplex stainless steels. A mathematical model has been proposed to predict pitting in stainless steels based on the effect of environmental factors (temperature, chloride concentration, and chemical composition). An attempt has been made to identify the mechanism of SCC in Zeron100 super duplex stainless steel.The proposed empirical models have shown good correlation

  8. On the hindered settling of sand-mud suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Jeremy; Manning, Andrew J.

    2017-04-01

    Hindered settling, the process by which the settling of sediment particles becomes impeded due to the proximity of other sediment particles, can be an important process for the coastal modeller, especially in highly muddy environments. It is also a significant process in other disciplines such as chemical engineering, the modelling of debris flow, the study of turbidites, piping of slurries and the understanding of processes occurring within a dredger hopper. This study first examines the hindered settling behaviour of monodisperse suspensions in order to create a framework for polydisperse hindered settling that works for both non-cohesive and cohesive suspensions. The Richardson-Zaki equation is adapted to make it compatible with the changes with viscosity that occur near the point at which suspensions become solid. The modified monodisperse settling equation is then compared to data for hindered settling of cohesive suspensions and shown to be consistent with the transition between hindered settling and the initial permeability phase of consolidation. Based on the monodisperse framework developed initially, this paper proposes a hindered settling model for sand/mud mixtures which is based on a modification of the Masliyah (1979) and Lockett and Bassoon (1979) hindered settling equation. The model is shown to reproduce the hindered settling of a variety of different sediment mixtures whilst reducing the extent of empiricism often associated with the modelling of polydisperse hindered settling of mud/sand mixtures.

  9. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-04-22

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture.

  10. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  11. Increasing arsenic sorption on red mud by phosphogypsum addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G; Costa, E T S; Curi, N; Penha, H G V

    2013-11-15

    Mining by-products have been tested as adsorbents for arsenic in order to reduce As bioavailability. This study evaluated a red mud (RM) treated with or without phosphogypsum (G) in order to improve its As retention. Red mud and G samples and their mixtures were chemically and mineralogically characterized to gather information concerning their composition, which is key for a better understanding of the adsorbent properties. Phosphogypsum was added to RM in the following proportions: 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 25% by weight. These mixtures were subjected to As adsorption and desorption and tested for their maximum adsorption capacity of As (AsMAC). Arsenic adsorption increased upon increasing the proportion of G added to RM. The AsMAC at pure RM reached 909 mg kg(-1), whereas the 75%-RM+25%-G mixture sorbed up to 3333 mg kg(-1) of As, i.e., a 3.5-fold increase in AsMAC. Using G in mixtures with RM increases the efficiency of As adsorption due to the presence of Ca(2+), which alters the charge balance of the adsorbent, leading to the formation of ternary complexes. Addition of G to RM is thus a promising technique to improve As retention, while providing additional value to both by-products, G and RM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of The Architecture of Mud and Qudad DVDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Enrico Fodde

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This superb documentary by Caterina Borelli is a study of the craftsmanship involved in the construction of the mud brick architecture of the Hadramaut and Do'an valleys of the Yemen, and the cultural aspects of a traditional architecture which incorporates an understanding of buildings which dates back centuries. Expanding the existing knowledge of these earthen heritage properties, examining their behaviour in the local climate and the preservation of traditional craftsmanship as part of a sustainable conservation future are the other prominent concerns of this work. The traditional heritage of the Hadramaut and Do'an regions in the south east of the Yemen are entirely constructed from loam. Throughout the centuries, the population has developed very sophisticated building techniques, and created a unique architectural environment. Spectacular structures such as ten-story mud brick tower houses rise up from green valleys that are surrounded by arid mountains. As in other parts of the world, with the advent of modern materials such as cement, indigenous construction and conservation practices carried out by craftsmen are rendered intellectually invisible by a process similar to the drawing of a veil. The elimination of these practices equals the erosion of centuries of building and conservation culture. As this heritage is rapidly disappearing, as shown by these obsolete construction techniques, this documentary is an excellent archive for future generations.

  13. A two dimensional model of undertow current over mud bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Hammadul Azam; Abdul Aziz Ibrahim; Noraieni Hj, Mokhtar

    1996-01-01

    Coastal wave-current dynamics often causes severe erosion and this activity is more prominent within the surf zone. Turbulence generated by breaking wave is a complex phenomena and the degree of complexity increases to a higher degree when it happens over mud bed. A better understanding on wave and current is necessary to enrich the engineering hand to facilitate any coastal development work. Since physical model has certain deficiencies, such as high cost and scaling problem, the need for developing numerical models in such cases is significant. A time averaged two dimensional model has been developed to simulate the undertow over mud bed. A turbulent energy model also included which considers only the vertical variation of mixing length. Production of turbulent kinetic energy in the surf zone has been calculated from an hydraulic jump analogy. The result obtained shows an insignificant vertical variation of current. Further research is needed involving laboratory and field works to get sufficient data for comparing the model results

  14. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  15. Gypsum addition to soils contaminated by red mud: implications for aluminium, arsenic, molybdenum and vanadium solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Lockwood, Cindy L; Mayes, William M; Stewart, Douglas I; Mortimer, Robert J G; Gruiz, Katalin; Burke, Ian T

    2013-10-01

    Red mud is highly alkaline (pH 13), saline and can contain elevated concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V). Release of up to 1 million m(3) of bauxite residue (red mud) suspension from the Ajka repository, western Hungary, caused large-scale contamination of downstream rivers and floodplains. There is now concern about the potential leaching of toxic metal(loid)s from the red mud as some have enhanced solubility at high pH. This study investigated the impact of red mud addition to three different Hungarian soils with respect to trace element solubility and soil geochemistry. The effectiveness of gypsum amendment for the rehabilitation of red mud-contaminated soils was also examined. Red mud addition to soils caused a pH increase, proportional to red mud addition, of up to 4 pH units (e.g. pH 7 → 11). Increasing red mud addition also led to significant increases in salinity, dissolved organic carbon and aqueous trace element concentrations. However, the response was highly soil specific and one of the soils tested buffered pH to around pH 8.5 even with the highest red mud loading tested (33 % w/w); experiments using this soil also had much lower aqueous Al, As and V concentrations. Gypsum addition to soil/red mud mixtures, even at relatively low concentrations (1 % w/w), was sufficient to buffer experimental pH to 7.5-8.5. This effect was attributed to the reaction of Ca(2+) supplied by the gypsum with OH(-) and carbonate from the red mud to precipitate calcite. The lowered pH enhanced trace element sorption and largely inhibited the release of Al, As and V. Mo concentrations, however, were largely unaffected by gypsum induced pH buffering due to the greater solubility of Mo (as molybdate) at circumneutral pH. Gypsum addition also leads to significantly higher porewater salinities, and column experiments demonstrated that this increase in total dissolved solids persisted even after 25 pore volume replacements. Gypsum

  16. Subsurface fluid distribution and possible seismic precursory signal at the Salse di Nirano mud volcanic field, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lupi, Matteo; Suski Ricci, Barbara; Kenkel, Johannes; Ricci, Tullio; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Stephen A.; Kemna, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological systems often characterized by elevated fluid pressures at depth deviating from hydrostatic conditions. This near-critical state makes mud volcanoes particularly sensitive to external forcing induced by natural or man-made perturbations. We used the Nirano mud volcanic field as a natural laboratory to test pre- and post-seismic effects generated by distant earthquakes. We first characterized the subsurface structure of the Nirano mud volcanic field with a geoelect...

  17. Fine-Scale Volume Heterogeneity in a Mixed Sand/Mud Sediment Off Fort Walton Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    lenses within the mud drape. Lens- shaped mud inclusions within the sand sediment, or (lasers, were cre- ated when the mud that settled into the troughs...tected from resuspension by bottom currents. Over the course of the experiment, subsequent storm events broke up the surface mud layer into small clasts ...grained fractions (silt and clay sizes) were rele- gated to discrete layers, lenses, or clasts , occurring in 45% of all collected cores but occupying only

  18. Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduction of iron oxides during the pyrometallurgical processing of red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopov, N. A.; Korneev, V. P.; Averin, V. V.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Zinoveev, D. V.; Dyubanov, V. G.

    2013-01-01

    The results of experiments on the use of red mud in traditional pyrometallurgical processes and plants are presented. The red muds of the Ural Aluminum Plant (UAZ, Kamensk-Ural'skii) and the Alyum Plant (Tul'chiya) are shown to have similar phase and chemical compositions. The morphology of the iron oxides in red mud samples taken from mud storage is studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is found that the metallic (cast iron) and slag phases that form during the pyrometallurgical processing of red mud by melting with a carbon reducer in the temperature range 1200-1500°C are clearly separated. Cast iron can be used in steelmaking, and the slag can be used for hydrometallurgical processing and extraction of nonferrous metals and for the building industry after correcting its composition.

  20. Removal of Pb ion from water samples using red mud (bauxite ore processing waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presented the use of red mud (bauxite ore processing waste in removal of lead ions in water samples. For this 0.1 g of red mud has been used as adsorbent which suspended in 10 ml of lead solution with the concentration of 50 mg l-1 for about 1 h. After that the lead concentration in the samples taken from the red mud treated lead solution measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The effect of some parameter which is important in adsorption of lead on red mud such as suitable adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time of solution and adsorbent was investigated. The result shows that red mud as solid waste and low-cost adsorbent can be successfully used for the removal of lead ion from aqueous solution.

  1. Mud depocenters on continental shelves—appearance, initiation times, and growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Lantzsch, Hendrik; Nizou, Jean

    2015-12-01

    Mud accumulates on continental shelves under a variety of environmental conditions and results in a diverse formation of mud depocenters (MDCs). Their three-dimensional architectures have been in the focus of several recent studies. Due to some terminological confusion concerning MDCs, the present study sets out to define eight individual MDC types in terms of surface sediment distribution and internal geometry. Under conditions of substantial sediment supply, prodeltas (distal zones off river deltas; triangular sheets), subaqueous deltas (disconnected from deltas by strong normal-to-shore currents; wedge-like clinoforms), and mud patches (scattered distribution) and mud blankets (widespread covers) are formed. Forced by hydrodynamic conditions, mud belts in the strict sense (detached from source; elongated bodies), and shallow-water contourite drifts (detached from source; growing normal to prevailing current direction; triangular clinoforms) develop. Controlled by local morphology, mud entrapments (in depressions, behind morphological steps) and mud wedges (triangular clinoforms growing in flow direction) are deposited. Shelf mud deposition took place (1) during early outer-shelf drowning (~14 ka), (2) after inner-shelf inundation to maximum flooding (9.5-6.5 ka), and (3) in sub-recent times (near the fluvial source, (2) uni-directional, extending along advective current transport paths, and (3) progradational, forming clinoforms that grow either parallel or normal to the bottom current direction. Classical mud belts may be initiated around defined nuclei, the remote sites of which are determined by seafloor morphology rather than the location of the source. From a stratigraphic perspective, mud depocenters coincide with sea-level highstand-related, shelf-wide condensed sections. They often show a conformable succession from transgressive to highstand systems tract stages.

  2. Comparison with Offshore and Onshore Mud Volcanoes in the Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. H.; Su, C. C.; Chen, T. T.; Liu, C. S.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Hsu, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    The offshore area southwest (SW) of Taiwan is on the convergent boundary between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. The plate convergence manifests in this unique geological setting as a fold-and-thrust-belt. Multi-channel seismic profiles, and bathymetry and gravity anomaly data collected from Taiwan offshore to the SW show the presence of a large amount of mud volcanoes and diapirs with NE-SW orientations. In the absence of comprehensive sampling and detailed geochemistry data from submarine mud volcanoes, the relation between onshore and offshore mud volcanoes remains ambiguous. During two MBARI and IONTU joint cruises conducted in 2017 we collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data (1-m-resolution) and chirp sub-bottom profiles with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) from submarine Mud Volcano III (MV3), and obtained precisely located samples and video observations with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). MV3 is an active submarine mud volcano at 465 m water depth offshore SW Taiwan. This cone-shape mud volcano is almost 780 m wide, 150 m high, with 8° slopes, and a 30 m wide mound on the top. Several linear features are observed in the southwest of the mound, and these features are interpreted as a series of marks caused by rolling rocks that erupted from the top of MV3. We collected three rocks and push cores from MV3 and its top with the ROV, in order to compare their chemical and mineralogical composition to that of samples collected from mud volcanoes along the Chishan fault. The surface and X-radiography imaging, 210Pb chronology, grain size and X-ray diffractometer analyses were conducted to compare geochemical and sedimentary properties of offshore and onshore mud volcanoes. The results indicate that the offshore and onshore mud volcanoes have similar characteristics. We suggest that offshore and onshore mud volcanoes of SW Taiwan are no different in the source of their materials and their mechanism of creation and evolution.

  3. Fluid flow and mud volcanism in the Eastern Mediterranean incipient collision zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitter, T. A. C.; Woodside, J. M.; Mascle, J.

    2003-04-01

    Fluid venting activity, either coupled with mud volcanism or along deep active faults or both, has been investigated in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, mainly in two areas associated with the incipient collision process between Africa and Eurasia. Mud volcanoes are abundant on the crestal part of the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary prism, in association with thrusts, back-thrusts and transcurrent features. They are also found in the Anaximander Mountains/Florence Rise area, to the west of Cyprus, where a wrench system accommodates the pre-collisional deformation. Combined swath multibeam bathymetry and imagery, seismic profiling (ANAXIPROBE survey, 1995 and PRISMED II survey, 1998) and O.R.E.Tech sidescan sonar data (MEDINETH survey, 1999) indicate the genetic relationship between mud volcanoes and tectonics, particularly potential influence of strike-slip faulting. The in situ observations of mud volcanoes (MEDINAUT survey, 1998) have revealed common characteristics at cold seeps, such as carbonate crust constructions and specific chemosynthetic-based fauna. Ground-truth of the sonar data shows that the geophysical signature of mud volcanoes may be related to spatial and temporal evolution of mud volcanism activity, because the seafloor characteristics (surface of the mud flows, distribution and nature of the crusts) and the degree of colonization by benthic fauna vary with the intensity and age of the fluid seepage. Moreover, clay mineralogy studies on the mud matrix samples give insights into the depositional environment, age, and depth of the lithological unit from which the mud breccia is extruded. The shallow signature of the mud reservoir tends to indicate that the overpressured fluids originate from deeper strata than the solid phase of the expelled material.

  4. A comparative study of modern carbonate mud in reefs and carbonate platforms: Mostly biogenic, some precipitated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Dietrich, Sarah; Harris, Daniel; Webster, Jody M.; Ginsburg, Robert N.

    2013-06-01

    Carbonate mud from reefs and carbonate platforms in six locations of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans (Belize, Bahamas, Florida, the Maldives, French Polynesia, Great Barrier Reef) was systematically and quantitatively analyzed with regard to texture, composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry. Mud composition shows considerable variability, however, the data supports the contention that these muds are largely derived from the breakdown of skeletal grains and codiacean algae. Only mud from the Bahamas and northern Belize, areas which are characterized by common whitings, is interpreted to be mainly inorganically precipitated. Three grain-size fractions (63-20 μm, 20-4 μm, aragonite needles, nanograins, and coccoliths. Coccoliths are common in deeper lagoonal settings of the open ocean settings (Maldives, French Polynesia). The geochemistry of the aragonite contents and strontium concentrations, suggesting physico-chemical precipitation. The northern Belize and Great Barrier Reef samples show the highest magnesium calcite values and, accordingly, produced the lowest aragonite and strontium measurements. The high-magnesium calcite portion of the northern Belize mud is either precipitated or due to abundant micritized skeletal grains (e.g., foraminifera): more studies are needed to verify the origin. In the case of the Great Barrier Reef sample, coralline algae appear to be the source of abundant high-magnesium calcite. This study emphasizes that from a global perspective, modern muds in reefs and carbonate platforms exhibit different compositions but are in many cases biologically derived. Even though the composition of modern carbonate muds varies among the six locations investigated, they may serve as analogs for the formation of muds in Cenozoic and Mesozoic reefs and carbonate platforms. Limitations of the interpretation of carbonate-mud origin include the difficulty of identifying, quantifying, and analyzing small grains, the ease with which small

  5. Implementation of viscoelastic mud-induced energy attenuation in the third-generation wave model, SWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyramzade, Mostafa; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of waves with fluid mud can dissipate the wave energy significantly over few wavelengths. In this study, the third-generation wave model, SWAN, was advanced to include attenuation of wave energy due to interaction with a viscoelastic fluid mud layer. The performances of implemented viscoelastic models were verified against an analytical solution and viscous formulations for simple one-dimensional propagation cases. Stationary and non-stationary test cases in the Surinam coast and the Atchafalaya Shelf showed that the inclusion of the mud-wave interaction term in the third-generation wave model enhances the model performance in real applications. A high value of mud viscosity (of the order of 0.1 m2/s) was required in both field cases to remedy model overestimation at high frequency ranges of the wave spectrum. The use of frequency-dependent mud viscosity value improved the performance of model, especially in the frequency range of 0.2-0.35 Hz in the wave spectrum. In addition, the mud-wave interaction might affect the high frequency part of the spectrum, and this part of the wave spectrum is also affected by energy transfer from wind to waves, even for the fetch lengths of the order of 10 km. It is shown that exclusion of the wind input term in such cases might result in different values for parameters of mud layer when inverse modeling procedure was employed. Unlike viscous models for wave-mud interaction, the inverse modeling results to a set of mud parameters with the same performance when the viscoelastic model is used. It provides an opportunity to select realistic mud parameters which are in more agreement with in situ measurements.

  6. Microstructural evolution and pitting resistance of annealed lean duplex stainless steel UNS S32304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ziying; Han Dong; Jiang Yiming; Shi Chong; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The relationship between pitting corrosion resistance and annealing temperature for UNS S32304 was systemically studied. ► The specimens annealed at 1080 °C for 1 h, quenched in water exhibit the best pitting corrosion resistance. ► The relationship between microstructural evolution and pitting resistance of annealed UNS S32304 was discussed in detail. ► The pitting corrosion resistance is consistent with pitting resistance equivalent number of weaker phase for UNS S32304 alloy. - Abstract: The effect of annealing temperature in the range from 1000 to 1200 °C on the pitting corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel UNS S32304 was investigated by the potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature techniques. The microstructural evolution and pit morphologies were studied using a scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the nucleation of metastable pits transformed from austenite phase to ferrite phase with the increasing annealing temperature. As the annealing temperature increased, the pitting corrosion resistance firstly increased and then decreased. The highest pitting corrosion resistance was obtained at 1080 °C with the highest critical pitting temperature value and pitting nucleation resistance. The results could be well explained by the microstructural evolution of ferrite and austenite phases induced by annealing treatment.

  7. Pitting Corrosion Topography Characteristics and Evolution Laws of LC4 Aluminum Alloy in Service Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhiguo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft aluminum alloy is easy to initiate pitting corrosion in the service environment, the pitting corrosion topography characteristics could directly affect the fatigue mechanical property of structure material. In order to obtain the pitting corrosion topography characteristics of LC4 aluminum alloy in the service environment, the accelerated corrosion test was carried out along the accelerated corrosion test environment spectrum which imitated the service environment spectrum, and the corrosion topography characteristic parameters of corrosion pit depth H,corrosion pit surface length L and corrosion pit surface width W were defined respectively. During the corrosion test process,the three parameters of typical corrosion pit were successively measured in different equivalent corrosion years for obtaining the corrosion pit damage size data, then the data were analysed through the statistics method and fractal theory. Further more in order to gain the pit topography characteristics in the same equivalent corrosion year and the topography evolution laws during different equivalent corrosion years were gained. The analysis results indicate that LC4 aluminum alloy corrosion pit topography characteristics in the service environment include the following:firstly, the pit topography characteristic parameters conform to the lognormal distributions in the same equivalent corrosion years; secondly,the pit topography characteristic parameters gradually reflect the fractal feature in accordance with the equivalent corrosion year increment, and the pits tend to be shallow, long and moderate wide topography character.

  8. Cold seep communities in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea: composition, symbiosis and spatial distribution on mud volcanoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olu-Le Roy, K; Sibuet, M.; Fiala-Medioni, A.; Gofas, S; Salas, C.; Mariotti, A.; Foucher, J.-P.; Woodside, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Two mud volcano fields were explored during the French-Dutch MEDINAUT cruise (1998) with the submersible NAUTILE, one south of Crete along the Mediteranean Ridge at about 2000 m depth (Olimpi mud field) and the other south of Turkey between 1700 and 2000 m depth (Anaximander mud field) where high

  9. A fundamental understanding of the electrochemical noise related to pitting corrosion of carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufeng

    The pitting behavior of carbon steel in chloride-containing solutions was studied by the electrochemical noise technique. The semiconducting nature of the passive film formed on carbon steel was revealed as well. The initiation of metastable pits is generally indicated by a typical current and potential transient with the shape of a quick current rise and potential drop followed by a slow recovery. The potential fluctuations mainly come from the response of the electrode capacitance to pit growth charge. Only the current transients directly reflect the metastable pitting process. The potential dependence of the pit initiation rate is well illustrated by the point defect model, which assumes that pitting initiation is due to the anion-catalyzed cation vacancy condensation at the film/metal interface. Pit growth kinetics are controlled by the ohmic potential drop across the cover over the pits. The repassivation time of metastable pits is affected by the potential drop across the pit cover. A pit stabilization criterion of the ratio of peak pit current to pit radius indicates that the critical condition to maintain the stable pit growth must exceed 2 x 10-2 A cm-1 to avoid repassivation. The main role of chloride ions in pitting is to increase the chance of the breakdown of a passive film, rather than to inhibit surface repassivation. The initiation of a metastable pit will have a certain influence on subsequent pitting events in the case of high pitting activity. When the pitting activity decreases, the metastable pitting events will follow the Poisson distribution. Spectral analysis of noise data indicates that any transient having a sudden birth or a sudden death generates f-2 noise, while that without sudden change shows f -4 behavior. The roll-off frequency reflects the repassivation or growth rate of metastable pits. The noise resistance coincides with the polarization resistance only in passivity or general corrosion. For pitting, the noise resistance cannot

  10. The Drainage Consolidation Modeling of Sand Drain in Red Mud Tailing and Analysis on the Change Law of the Pore Water Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-sheng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the occurring of dam failure and leakage, sand-well drainages systems were designed and constructed in red mud tailing. It is critical to focus on the change law of the pore water pressure. The calculation model of single well drainage pore water pressure was established. The pore water pressure differential equation was deduced and the analytical solution of differential equation using Bessel function and Laplace transform was given out. The impact of parameters such as diameter d, separation distance l, loading rate q, and coefficient of consolidation Cv in the function on the pore water pressure is analyzed by control variable method. This research is significant and has great reference for preventing red mud tailings leakage and the follow-up studies on the tailings stability.

  11. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yvonne

    emptying methods include use of vacuum tankers, manual emptying and the newer use of gulpers and nibblers. ... extra vacuum pipe to be added, the price goes up by 3 to. 10 US dollars (Murungi and Van Dijk, 2014). ..... of the ideal portable pit-emptying machine. Waterlines 32:187-199. Still DA, Salisbury RH, Foxon KM, ...

  12. A critical analysis of physiochemical properties influencing pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Inadequate information on physiochemical properties of faecal sludge leads to inappropriate design of pit emptying devices and poor faecal sludge disposal contributing to environmental pollution. ... A sample of 300 g was sucked from each depth using a manual sampling tool and emptied into a plastic container.

  13. Pitting corrosion protection of low nickel stainless steel by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pitting corrosion protection of low nickel stainless steel by electropolymerized conducting polymer coating in 0·5 M NaCl solution. T DHANABAL, G AMIRTHAGANESAN. ∗ and J RAVICHANDRAN. Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science,.

  14. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and per...

  15. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum areas of Kampala City, Uganda. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... methods such as open defecation and emptying into storm drainages are employed which consequently contribute to environmental and health-related challenges.

  16. Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available that the pitting occurred during an idle period (a drought) due to oxygen ingress and failure to maintain a sufficient excess of the oxygen scavenger, sodium sulphite. The transverse orientation of the cracks and other factors suggest that the fatigue cracking...

  17. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jemrić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg, cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  18. Laboratory protocols for testing the efficacy of commercial pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    additive products. Protocols were developed and tested on a range of different commercial products sold for their ability to control the rate of accumulation of pit latrine contents. The effect of commercial additives on mass loss from VIP sludge in. 300 g honey jars was compared to mass loss from similar units subjected to no ...

  19. Pitting corrosion of low-Cr austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Albany Research Center has investigated the pitting corrosion resistance of experimental low-Cr stainless steels and several commercial stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous and atmospheric environments. Previous research had shown the experimental alloys to be as corrosion resistant as commercial stainless steels in chloride-free acid environments. The alloys studied were Fe-8Cr-16Ni-5.5Si-1Cu-(0-1)Mo, 304 SS, and 316 SS. These alloys were examined by immersion and electrochemical tests in 3.5 wt. pct. NaCl and 6 wt.pct.FeCl 3 . Results of these tests showed that the addition of one weight percent Mo improved the pitting resistance of the low-Cr alloy and that the Mo-containing experimental alloy was as resistant to pitting as the commercial alloys. Electrochemical tests did, however, show the experimental alloys to be slightly less resistant to pitting than the commercial alloys. Because of these results, the low-Cr alloy with one weight percent Mo and 304 SS were exposed for one year to a marine atmospheric environment on the coast of Oregon. The marine atmospheric corrosion resistance of the low-Cr alloy was found to be comparable to that for type 304 stainless steel

  20. Metallography of pitted aluminum-clad, depleted uranium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.Z.; Howell, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The storage of aluminum-clad fuel and target materials in the L-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site for more than 5 years has resulted in extensive pitting corrosion of these materials. In many cases the pitting corrosion of the aluminum clad has penetrated in the uranium metal core, resulting in the release of plutonium, uranium, cesium-137, and other fission product activity to the basin water. In an effort to characterize the extent of corrosion of the Mark 31A target slugs, two unirradiated slug assemblies were removed from basin storage and sent to the Savannah River Technology Center for evaluation. This paper presents the results of the metallography and photographic documentation of this evaluation. The metallography confirmed that pitting depths varied, with the deepest pit found to be about 0.12 inches (3.05 nun). Less than 2% of the aluminum cladding was found to be breached resulting in less than 5% of the uranium surface area being affected by corrosion. The overall integrity of the target slug remained intact

  1. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  2. Dental Pit and Fissure Sealants: Implications for School Health Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack-Brown, K. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    To promote good personal hygiene practices in students, school health personnel must be informed about dental pit and fissure sealants and related programs. Adoption and maintenance of such programs may depend on the success of school health personnel in educating administrators and policymakers. (SM)

  3. Effect of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit viper) venom on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro study was conducted by mixing small amounts of green pit viper venom with blood and observing changes. At a concentration of 10 mg crude venom, red blood cells (RBC) osmotic fragility slightly increased. RBC morphology changed to spherical shape which was compatible with what was observed in scanning ...

  4. A critical analysis of physiochemical properties influencing pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    also done after each day of field sampling. During sampling maximum care was done to avoid spillage and contact of faecal sludge with skin. Furthermore, all waste samples onsite were disposed of according to the standards for faeces sample disposal and where possible pits were dug for purposes of burying the wastes.

  5. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  6. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  7. Atomic force microscopy of torus-bearing pit membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland R. Dute; Thomas Elder

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the...

  8. Optimal grade control sampling practice in open-pit mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2017-01-01

    Misclassification of ore grades results in lost revenues, and the need for representative sampling procedures in open pit mining is increasingly important in all mining industries. This study evaluated possible improvements in sampling representativity with the use of Reverse Circulation (RC) drill...

  9. Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (uPIT_SF), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (µPIT_SF) is a high-precision impulse bit electromagnetic plasma micro-thruster. The µPIT prototype is a...

  10. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wu, Bolin, E-mail: wubolin3211@gmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) are obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The self-glazing phenomenon in red mud system was first discovered in our research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation levels of red mud can be reduced efficiently by self-glazing layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red mud based ceramic materials will not cause harm to environment and humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research possesses important economic significances to aluminum companies. - Abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation

  11. Natural radionuclides in bauxitic tailings (Red-Mud) in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.; Maratou, A.; Ferentinos, G.; Papaefthymiou, H.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed environmental survey was carried out in the central Gulf of Corinth in order to determine radionuclides in the bauxite ed-mud tailings which have been discharged on the sea floor by a Bauxite Processing Plant (Aluminio Ellados A.E). The discharge of bauxitic tailings via two pipelines at a water depth of 100 m, in Antikyra Bay (Northern Gulf of Corinth), has resulted in the formation of two red-mud mound-like deposits. The red-mud deposits at the mouth of the out falls, are not stable and very often red-mud masses are detached from the two main deposits and are transported to the Corinth central basin, by turbidity currents, at a water depth of 850 m and about 17 km away from the main deposits. Thus, at the Antikyra bay, the red-mud has formed a surficial veneer (0.5-2.0 cm) on the sea floor. On the Corinth central basin floor the red mud has formed successive red-mud layers which are interrupted by layers of natural mud. Fifteen gravity cores have been selected from the studied area and a number of bauxite samples have been collected from mines that supply the bauxite processing plant. Red-mud, natural mud and bauxite samples were analyzed for 238 U 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs by direct gamma spectrometry. The study of radionuclides concentrations has shown that: (a) the enrichment factor of radionuclides in the red-mud in the main deposit at the mouth of the out falls, in relation to bauxite samples, is about 2.0, (b) the enrichment factor of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the red-mud in the main deposit and the central basin, in relation to natural sediments below, is visibly higher than 1.0 (2.0-19.0) whilst 40 K exhibits the opposite trend, and (c) the enrichment/dilution factor of radionuclides in the red-mud surficial veneer at the Antikyra Bay, in relation to the natural sediments below, is ranging between 0.4 and 3.5. (author)

  12. Resurfacing of pitted facial scars with a pulsed Er:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Y C

    1997-10-01

    Laser resurfacing has beneficial effects for the treatment of several skin conditions. Recently, the pulsed Er:YAG laser has been shown to be a highly effective treatment for several kinds of pitted facial scars. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of pulsed Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing for pitted facial scars. Four patients with small pox scars, five patients with chicken pox scars, and 21 patients with acne scars were included in this study. All patients were skin type III and IV. All patients were instructed to use tretinoin cream 0.05% nightly for 2-4 weeks prior to the laser treatment. The pulsed Er:YAG laser with 2-mm handpiece at the setting of 500 mJ/pulse, 3.5-4.5 W was used. Two weeks after laser treatment, topical application of hydroquinone 4%, tretinoin 0.05%, and hydrocortisone 1% cream was recommended for 2-4 weeks. Facial photographs were obtained at baseline and 2-week intervals postoperatively with a 35-mm single lense reflex camera equipped with a lense mounted ring flash. The results of treatment were evaluated for the changes of skin texture and color at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months. Three patients with acne scars agreed to skin biopsy. Three months after laser treatment, all patients with small pox and chicken pox scars were improved about 55%, and patients with acne scars were improved about 40% on average. Pulsed Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing is an effective and safe treatment for pitted facial scars.

  13. Evaluation of water chemistry on the pitting susceptibility of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.T.; Sindelar, R.L.; Lam, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels are being stored in water in the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the reactor disassembly (cooling) basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Experience shows that fuels stored in water are subject to rapid pitting corrosion if the water quality is poor. Upgrade projects and actions, including those to improve water quality, were recently undertaken to upgrade the disassembly basins for extended storage. A technical strategy was developed for continued basin storage of aluminum-clad fuel assemblies. The strategy includes development and implementation of basin technical standards for water quality to minimize attack due to pitting corrosion over a desired storage period. In the absence of localized corrosion, only slow, general corrosion of the cladding would be expected. A laboratory corrosion program is being performed to provide the bases for technical standards by identifying the region of aggressive water qualities where existing oxide films would tend to break down and pits would initiate and remain active. Initial results from corrosion potential and cyclic polarization testing of aluminum alloys in various water chemistries have shown that low conductivity water (< 50 μS/cm) should not be aggressive to cause self-pitting corrosion. Initial results from tests of 8001 and 5052 aluminum and aluminium-10% uranium alloy indicate that a strong galvanic couple should not exist between the aluminum cladding materials and the aluminum-uranium fuel. Additional laboratory testing will include immersion testing to allow characterization of the growth rate of active pits to benchmark a kinetic model. This model will form the basis for a water quality technical standard and enable prediction of the life of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels in basin storage

  14. Standardized emissions inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jose I; Camacho, Dumar A; Huertas, Maria E

    2011-08-01

    There is still interest in a unified methodology to quantify the mass of particulate material emitted into the atmosphere by activities inherent to open-pit mining. For the case of total suspended particles (TSP), the current practice is to estimate such emissions by developing inventories based on the emission factors recommended by the USEPA for this purpose. However, there are disputes over the specific emission factors that must be used for each activity and the applicability of such factors to cases quite different to the ones under which they were obtained. There is also a need for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) emission inventories and for metrics to evaluate the emission control programs implemented by open-pit mines. To address these needs, work was carried out to establish a standardized TSP and PM(10) emission inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas. The proposed methodology was applied to seven of the eight mining companies operating in the northern part of Colombia, home to the one of the world's largest open-pit coal mining operations (∼70 Mt/year). The results obtained show that transport on unpaved roads is the mining activity that generates most of the emissions and that the total emissions may be reduced up to 72% by spraying water on the unpaved roads. Performance metrics were defined for the emission control programs implemented by mining companies. It was found that coal open-pit mines are emitting 0.726 and 0.180 kg of TSP and PM(10), respectively, per ton of coal produced. It was also found that these mines are using on average 1.148 m(2) of land per ton of coal produced per year.

  15. Evaluation of water chemistry on the pitting susceptibility of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.T.; Sindelar, R.L.; Lam, P.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels are being stored in water in the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the reactor disassembly (cooling) basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Experience shows that fuels stored in water are subject to rapid pitting corrosion if the water quality is poor. Upgrade projects and actions, including those to improve water quality, were recently undertaken to upgrade the disassembly basins for extended storage. A technical strategy was developed for continued basin storage of aluminum-clad fuel assemblies. The strategy includes development and implementation of basin technical standards for water quality to minimize attack due to pitting corrosion over a desired storage period. In the absence of localized corrosion, only slow, general corrosion of the cladding would be expected. A laboratory corrosion program is being performed to provide the bases for technical standards by identifying the region of aggressive water qualities where existing oxide films would tend to break down and pits would initiate and remain active. Initial results from corrosion potential and cyclic polarization testing of aluminum alloys in various water chemistries have shown that low conductivity water (< 50 {micro}S/cm) should not be aggressive to cause self-pitting corrosion. Initial results from tests of 8001 and 5052 aluminum and aluminium-10% uranium alloy indicate that a strong galvanic couple should not exist between the aluminum cladding materials and the aluminum-uranium fuel. Additional laboratory testing will include immersion testing to allow characterization of the growth rate of active pits to benchmark a kinetic model. This model will form the basis for a water quality technical standard and enable prediction of the life of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels in basin storage.

  16. Analysis of Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.

    2011-01-01

    To synchronize clocks between spacecraft in proximity, the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol has been proposed. PITS is based on the NTP Interleaved On-Wire Protocol and is capable of being adapted and integrated into CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol with minimal modifications. In this work, we will discuss the correctness and liveness of PITS. Further, we analyze and evaluate the performance of time synchronization latency with various channel error rates in different PITS operational modes.

  17. Evaluation of the hurricanes Gustav and Ike impact on mud from San Diego River using nuclear and geochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Gelen Rudnikas, A.; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, K.; Arado Lopez, J. O.; Dominguez Rodriguez, R.; Gonzalez Hernandez, P.; Melian Rodriguez, C.M.; Suarez Munnoz, M.; Fagundo Castillo, J. R.; Blanco Padilla, D.

    2011-01-01

    Effects induced by the hurricanes Gustav and Ike on San Diego River mud characteristics have been studied. X-ray fluorescence analysis, gamma spectrometry and measurement of some physic-chemical characteristics in mud samples, collected before and after hurricane impacts, shows that hurricanes induced changes in mud major composition and in some other mud characteristics, affecting its properties for therapeutic uses. The average sedimentation rate determined by gamma spectrometry in San Diego River outlet permit to estimate that the original mud characteristics will be recovered never before than 5-7 years. (Author)

  18. Bleeding Mud: The Testimonial Poetry of Hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Finzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Rubén Darío, Nicaragua has long prided itself in being a country of poets. During the Sandinista Revolution, popular poetry workshops dispatched by Minister of Culture Ernesto Cardenal taught peasants and soldiers to write poetry about everyday life and to use poetry as a way to work through trauma from the civil war. When Hurricane Mitch--one of the first superstorms that heralded climate change--brought extreme flooding to Nicaragua in 1998, poetry again served as a way for victims to process the devastation. Examining testimonial poetry from Hurricane Mitch, this article shows how the mud and despair of this environmental disaster function as palimpsests of conquest and imperial oppression.

  19. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    . However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties......The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario...... of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological obser-vations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observa-tional data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced...

  20. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    ’ dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent......The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely...... uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble...

  1. Optimization of drilling mud conditioning for chemically enhanced centrifuging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtanowicz, A. K. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Ye, Y. [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Beijing, (China)

    1998-05-01

    A simple method (the nine point (9-P) experiment) for finding optimum chemical conditioning that would maximize mud volume reduction, (i.e. enhance water removal or dewatering) and minimize the cost of the chemicals required, was described. The 9-P experiment is based on the statistical theory of factorial analysis and derives its name from the fact that it requires only nine tests to find the optimum treatment. The experimental design and the method of analysis are described. When compared to conventional trial-and-error approaches, the 9-P method showed a 1.78 to 2.35-fold increase in volume reduction efficiency, and up to 3.7-fold reduction in chemical usage.

  2. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data showing a good agreement. Effects of the angular frequency, static velocity, mud viscosity, and mud density behavior on speed and attenuation coefficients were included in this paper. Simulated results indicate that the effects of angular frequency, static velocity, and mud viscosity are important, and lower frequency, viscosity, and static velocity benefit the transmission of mud pulse. Influenced by density behavior, the speed and attenuation coefficients in drill string are seen to have different values with respect to well depth. For different circulation times, the profiles of speed and attenuation coefficients behave distinctly different especially in lower section. In general, the effects of variables above on speed are seen to be small in comparison.

  3. Rhythms of Methane Emission: Long-term Observations on Mud-volcano Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, D.; Boetius, A.; German, C. R.; Olu, K.; Feseker, T.

    2016-02-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. It has been estimated that the submarine volcanos emit 27 Million tons of methane, which is about 5% of the global emission. However, these numbers are uncertain as the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a meter in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m day-1, and significant emissions of methane and CO2 from the seafloor. We calculated that to drive these eruptions at least 10 times more gas is emitted that previously assumed. The contribution of submarine mud volcanoes to the global methane budget may thus strongly underestimated.

  4. Determination of rare earth elements in red mud by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Suvarna, S.; Kiran Kumar, G.

    2017-01-01

    Red mud or red sludge is a highly alkaline waste product composed mainly of iron oxide that is generated in the industrial production of aluminum from bauxite. With about 77 million tons of this hazardous material being produced annually, red mud poses a serious disposal problem in the mining industry. Discharge of red mud is hazardous environmentally because of its alkalinity. Many studies have been conducted to develop uses of red mud. An estimated 2 to 3 million tones are used annually in the production of cement, road construction and as a source for iron. Potential applications include the production of low cost concrete, application to sandy soils to improve phosphorus cycling, amelioration of soil acidity, landfill capping and carbon sequestration. Red mud contains a large amount of iron along with appreciable concentrations of many strategic elements such as rare earth elements and therefore can be a source of valuable secondary raw material. This necessitates the elemental characterization of red mud. This paper presents an effective dissolution procedure using a mixture of phosphoric acid and nitric acid for red mud followed by determination of rare earth elements by ICP-MS. The method was validated by spike recovery experiments. The recoveries were found within 98 to 102 %. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was found to be within 5 %

  5. Removal of Phosphate Using Red Mud: An Environmentally Hazardous Waste By-Product of Alumina Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivkumar S. Prajapati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial waste, bauxite residue generated in the Bayer chemical process of alumina production, commonly known as red mud (RM has been used as the adsorbent for selective removal of phosphate in aqueous solutions. RM collected from the storage area of alumina industry was characterized by chemical analysis and physical methods such as BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD methods. Among the various red mud samples (0.2–200 μ studied, the samples treated with 1 M HCl for 2 h were found better for the selective adsorption of phosphate in comparison with untreated and heat treated RM samples. The presence of phosphate in the aqueous samples collected after adsorption studies with red mud was determined by standard spectrophotometric procedure using ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid in nitrate medium at λmax 880 nm. The studies reported significant adsorption of phosphate on acid treated red mud in comparison with adsorption of phosphate on untreated and heat treated red mud, respectively. The adsorption of phosphate on raw red mud and activated red mud was further investigated with respect to stirring time, pH of the solution, dose of adsorbent, and varying phosphate concentration. Acid treated RM is observed as an efficient and cost-effective adsorbent for selective removal of phosphate in aqueous solutions.

  6. Carbonised red mud--a new water treatment product made from a waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, I D; Hargreaves, J S J; Ďurišová, J; Kramulova, B; Girard, C; Balakrishnan, M; Batra, V S; Rico, J L

    2012-06-15

    Proposals to use red mud, the waste produced by the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore in the Bayer process, as a material for treatment of heavy metal-contaminated water are limited by its inherent alkalinity and variability. Attempts to lower its pH have been largely unreliable. However, an alternative strategy is carbonisation of red mud by catalytic hydrocarbon cracking, which results in a magnetic material of greater surface area. The efficacy of this material has been compared with that of the untreated parent red mud and acidified red mud for the sorption of CrO(4)(2-), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+). Carbonised red mud does not remove CrO(4)(2-) from solution, but shows enhancement of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) removal. There is an approximate ten-fold increase in removal of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) by carbonised red mud compared with acidified red mud. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on soil and water characteristics of Burrow pits for possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on soil and water characteristics of Burrow pits for possible conversion into fish ponds in Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... Soil and water parameters were investigated in 34 burrow pits in Egiland, Rivers State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The pits surface areas and depths ranged from 30,000 to 40,000 m2 and 1.00 to ...

  8. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... trials nor field trials provided any evidence that the use of pit additives has any beneficial effect on pit contents. .... diagram showing how measurements were taken using the infrared laser meter (Bakare, 2014). Laser Tape Measure. Pedestal Top. Wall Support to the pit. Cylindrical rings / concrete walls. P1.

  9. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.... Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. OMB...

  10. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY... Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. Type of Review...

  11. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  12. The convection stack - a device for ridding pit toilets of bad odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Alan Wagar

    1962-01-01

    One of the common problems on outdoor recreation areas is that pit toilets smell bad. Flush plumbing is one answer to the problem. But pit toilets are needed in many places where modern sewage systems are economically or physically impractical. To reduce the smell of the pit toilet, one simple, safe, and inexpensive device that can be used is the convection stack....

  13. Effect of PIT tags on the survival and recruitment of Great Tits Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Bouwman, Karen M.; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the use of subcutaneous passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in nestling and adult Great Tits Parus major. We investigated whether subcutaneous PIT tags affected fledging success, winter condition, survival and/or recruitment. We found no negative effects of PIT tags on any of these

  14. Dynamics of a fluid flow on Mars: Lava or mud?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lionel; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    A distinctive flow deposit southwest of Cerberus Fossae on Mars is analyzed. The flow source is a ∼20 m deep, ∼12 × 1.5 km wide depression within a yardang associated with the Medusae Fossae Formation. The flow traveled for ∼40 km following topographic lows to leave a deposit on average 3-4 km wide. The surface morphology of the deposit suggests that it was produced by the emplacement of a fluid flowing in a laminar fashion and possessing a finite yield strength. We use topographic data from a digital elevation model (DEM) to model the dynamics of the motion and infer that the fluid had a Bingham rheology with a plastic viscosity of ∼1 Pa s and a yield strength of ∼185 Pa. Although the low viscosity is consistent with the properties of komatiite-like lava, the combination of values of viscosity and yield strength, as well as the surface morphology of the flow, suggests that this was a mud flow. Comparison with published experimental data implies a solids content close to 60% by volume and a grain size dominated by silt-size particles. Comparison of the ∼1.5 km3 deposit volume with the ∼0.03 km3 volume of the source depression implies that ∼98% of the flow material was derived from depth in the crust. There are similarities between the deposit studied here, which we infer to be mud, and other flow deposits on Mars currently widely held to be lavas. This suggests that a re-appraisal of many of these deposits is now in order.

  15. Survey of Legionella spp. in Mud Spring Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-04-01

    Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.

  16. Effects of mud supply on large-scale estuary morphology and development over centuries to millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Braat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial river estuaries consist largely of sand but are typically flanked by mudflats and salt marshes. The analogy with meandering rivers that are kept narrower than braided rivers by cohesive floodplain formation raises the question of how large-scale estuarine morphology and the late Holocene development of estuaries are affected by cohesive sediment. In this study we combine sand and mud transport processes and study their interaction effects on morphologically modelled estuaries on centennial to millennial timescales. The numerical modelling package Delft3D was applied in 2-DH starting from an idealised convergent estuary. The mixed sediment was modelled with an active layer and storage module with fluxes predicted by the Partheniades–Krone relations for mud and Engelund–Hansen for sand. The model was subjected to a range of idealised boundary conditions of tidal range, river discharge, waves and mud input. The model results show that mud is predominantly stored in mudflats on the side of the estuary. Marine mud supply only influences the mouth of the estuary, whereas fluvial mud is distributed along the whole estuary. Coastal waves stir up mud and remove the tendency to form muddy coastlines and the formation of mudflats in the downstream part of the estuary. Widening continues in estuaries with only sand, while mud supply leads to a narrower constant width and reduced channel and bar dynamics. This self-confinement eventually leads to a dynamic equilibrium in which lateral channel migration and mudflat expansion are balanced on average. However, for higher mud concentrations, higher discharge and low tidal amplitude, the estuary narrows and fills to become a tidal delta.

  17. Seafloor monitoring for synthetic-based mud discharged in the Western Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candler, J.E.; Hoskin, S.; Churan, M.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic-based muds have been used to simultaneously improve drilling and environmental performance. The fate and effects of synthetic-based mud discharges in the marine environment have been issues of concern with the drilling industry and governmental agencies. Most of the environmental data on synthetic-based muds have been generated under laboratory conditions. This study uses field-collected data to investigate, the fate and effects of a polyalphaolefin synthetic-based drilling fluid. The first well drilled in the Gulf of Mexico using synthetic-based mud was completed in June 1992. Approximately 441 bbl of cuttings and 354 bbl of synthetic-based mud were discharged over a 9-day period. Three sampling trips have been made to the discharge location to collect sediment samples for chemical and biological analysis over a 2-year period. The sediment samples were analyzed for content of organic compounds and barium. On the third trip, infaunal samples were also taken. Information collected from the chemical and biological analysis is documented and compared to similar field studies performed on oil-based and water-based muds. Sampling techniques and analytical protocols are described to facilitate future studies. Two years after discharges of synthetic-based cuttings were completed, an area within 50 m of the discharge point continued to exhibit alterations in the benthic community not normally associated with water-based mud discharges. However, the study indicates that polyalphaolefin synthetic-based mud exhibits significant improvements over oil-based mud in terms of removal of organic contamination and minimization of adverse effects on the benthic community

  18. Hindcasting morphodynamic evolution with sand–mud interactions in the Yangtze Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work on morphodynamic evolution in the Yangtze Estuary (YE is based on measured historical bathymetries. To evaluate the sensitivity of sand–mud interaction in the estuarine morpho-dynamics, a process-based morphodynamic model, Delft3D, is used to examine the morphodynamic behaviour from 1958 to 1997. Different scenarios concerning sand and mud and their combination are designed systematically. The scenarios considering multiple fractions, and especially with four fractions, improve the hindcasting evolution, suggesting the importance of including both sand and mud fractions and a sediment gradient setting of medium grain.

  19. Lime-mud layers in high-energy tidal channels: A record of hurricane deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, E.A.; Steinen, R.P.; Dill, R.F.; Major, R.

    1993-01-01

    During or immediately following the transit of Hurricane Andrew (August 23-24, 1992) across the northern part of the Great Bahama Bank, thin laminated beds of carbonate mud were deposited in high-energy subtidal channels (4 m depth) through the ooid shoals of south Cat Cay and Joulters Cays. Thicker, more cohesive (and therefore older) mud beds and angular mud fragments associated with ooids from Joulters Cays have similar characteristics but lack fresh plant fragments. We infer that these older beds were similarly deposited and thus record the passage of previous hurricanes or tropical storms. -from Authors

  20. Effects of drilling muds on lobster behavior. Progress report, 1 January-1 October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Ashkenas, L; Beale, E

    1979-01-01

    Drilling muds, used and discarded in great quantities during the drilling phase of exploration and production of oil wells, represent an unknown threat to the marine environment. The compositions of the muds vary greatly with drilling requirements. The toxicity of their components are largely unknown, but can range from apparently harmless to immediately lethal, as found recently in toxicity tests on a number of marine animals. This report contains eight sections, each describing an aspect of studies of lobster behavior, ecology, physiology and the effects of exposure to various levels of different drilling muds.

  1. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal

  2. Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Chromatography Employing a Salt-Free pH Gradient for Improved Sensitivity and Compatibility in MudPIT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommen, G.P.M.; Meiring, H.D.; Heck, A.J.R.; de Jong, A.P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In proteomics, comprehensive analysis of peptides mixtures necessitates multiple dimensions of separation prior to mass spectrometry analysis to reduce sample complexity and increase the dynamic range of analysis. The main goal of this work was to improve the performance of (online) multidimensional

  3. Formation of primary pit connection during conchocelis phase of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shual, Li; Jiang, Ming; Duan, Delin

    2006-09-01

    The formation of pit connection during conchocelis phase of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda was observed and examined with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and epifluorence microscope. It is indicated that the pit connection was formed in late stage of conchocelis phase and the early stages of conchosporangial cell development, and disappeared in bispore stage. The pit connection contained a thin membrane layer at outer pit plug. Stained with 4', 6'-diamidino-2-phenylidole dihydrochloride hydrate (DAPI), transferring of DNA or RNA between adjacent cells were observed in late stage of conchocelis development, it was deduced that pit connection might serve as a channel for signal transduction and genetic substance transportation in conchocelis phase.

  4. Water and chemical budgets of gravel pit lakes : Case studies of fluvial gravel pit lakes along the Meuse River (The Netherlands) and coastal gravel pit lakes along the Adriatic Sea (Ravenna, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel pit lakes form when gravel is excavated from below the water table of a phreatic or shallow confined aquifer. Typically many of these lakes are concentrated along naturally occurring sedimentary gravel deposits in areas where gravel is needed for construction. Most gravel pit lakes are

  5. The influence of tungsten on the pitting of aluminum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.A.; Fritz, T.L.; Davis, G.D.; Moshier, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the alloying additions responsible for the corrosion resistance of stainless steels can also be used to enhance the passivity of aluminum, provided that these elements remain in solid solution in the alloy. Passivity enhancing elements such as Cr, Mo, Ta, Zr, and W typically exhibit very low solubility limits in aluminum, below 1 atomic percent, and at these concentrations exert little influence on corrosion behavior. However, these solubility limits can be increased with a concomitant enhancement in corrosion performance if the alloys are produced using a rapid solidification process. One such process is co-sputter deposition of two metals, such as Al and W, simultaneously to form a binary alloy of W in solid solution with Al. Co-sputter deposition is routinely used to produce compound semiconductor films. The authors report on shifts in pitting potentials and on the effect of a transition element (W) on pitting resistance of Al

  6. Integrating Safeguards into the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    In September 2000, the United States and the Russian Federation entered into an agreement which stipulates each country will irreversibly transform 34 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium into material which could not be used for weapon purposes. Supporting the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to dispose of excess nuclear materials, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) is being designed and constructed to disassemble the weapon ''pits'' and convert the nuclear material to an oxide form for fabrication into reactor fuel at the separate Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility. The PDCF design incorporates automation to the maximum extent possible to facilitate material safeguards, reduce worker dose, and improve processing efficiency. This includes provisions for automated guided vehicle movements for shipping containers, material transport via automated conveyor between processes, remote process control monitoring, and automated Nondestructive Assay product systems

  7. Geologic report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    A preliminary geologic site characterization study was conducted at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site, which is part of the Weldon Spring Site, in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Raffinate Pits Site is under the custody of the Department of Energy (DOE). Surrounding properties, including the Weldon Spring chemical plant, are under the control of the Department of the Army. The study determined the following parameters: site stratigraphy, lithology and general conditions of each stratigraphic unit, and groundwater characteristics and their relation to the geology. These parameters were used to evaluate the potential of the site to adequately store low-level radioactive wastes. The site investigation included trenching, geophysical surveying, borehole drilling and sampling, and installing observation wells and piezometers to monitor groundwater and pore pressures

  8. Surface aspects of pitting and stress corrosion cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhan, J. S., Jr.; Hehemann, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The pitting and stress corrosion cracking of a stable austenitic stainless steel in aqueous chloride environments were investigated using a secondary ion mass spectrometer as the primary experimental technique. The surface concentration of hydrogen, oxygen, the hydroxide, and chloride ion, magnesium or sodium, chromium and nickel were measured as a function of potential in both aqueous sodium chloride and magnesium chloride environments at room temperature and boiling temperatures. It was found that, under anodic conditions, a sharp increase in the chloride concentration was observed to occur for all environmental conditions. The increase may be associated with the formation of an iron chloride complex. Higher localized chloride concentrations at pits and cracks were also detected with an electron microprobe.

  9. Development of pits and cones on ion bombarded copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanovic, L.A.; Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Whitton, I.L.; Williams, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of pits and cones on Ar ion bombarded copper has been studied. Carefully polished surfaces of large grained 99.999% pure copper crystals have been bombarded at normal incidence with 40 keV argon ions. The cone formation has been investigated for annealed and non-annealed crystals at room temperature and at 30 K and in the case of monocrystal and polycrystal samples. Although in the most other studies the presence of impurities is as a necessary condition for generation of cones and pits the obtained experimental results show that under certain conditions these features are formed on clean surfaces. It is shown that the dominant parameter in the production of cones on copper is the crystal orientation [ru

  10. A Bayesian approach to modeling and predicting pitting flaws in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.-X.; Mao, D.; Pandey, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generators in nuclear power plants have experienced varying degrees of under-deposit pitting corrosion. A probabilistic model to accurately predict pitting damage is necessary for effective life-cycle management of steam generators. This paper presents an advanced probabilistic model of pitting corrosion characterizing the inherent randomness of the pitting process and measurement uncertainties of the in-service inspection (ISI) data obtained from eddy current (EC) inspections. A Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation-based Bayesian method, enhanced by a data augmentation technique, is developed for estimating the model parameters. The proposed model is able to predict the actual pit number, the actual pit depth as well as the maximum pit depth, which is the main interest of the pitting corrosion model. The study also reveals the significance of inspection uncertainties in the modeling of pitting flaws using the ISI data: Without considering the probability-of-detection issues and measurement errors, the leakage risk resulted from the pitting corrosion would be under-estimated, despite the fact that the actual pit depth would usually be over-estimated.

  11. Heterogeneous distribution of pectin epitopes and calcium in different pit types of four angiosperm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Lenka; Hacke, Uwe G

    2011-12-01

    Intervessel pits act as safety valves that prevent the spread of xylem embolism. Pectin-calcium crosslinks within the pit membrane have been proposed to affect xylem vulnerability to cavitation. However, as the chemical composition of pit membranes is poorly understood, this hypothesis has not been verified. Using electron microscopy, immunolabeling, an antimonate precipitation technique, and ruthenium red staining, we studied the distribution of selected polysaccharides and calcium in the pit membranes of four angiosperm tree species. We tested whether shifts in xylem vulnerability resulting from perfusion of stems with a calcium chelating agent corresponded with the distribution of pectic homogalacturonans (HG) and/or calcium within interconduit pit membranes. No HG were detected in the main part of intervessel pit membranes, but were consistently found in the marginal membrane region known as the annulus. Calcium colocalized with HG in the annulus. In contrast to intervessel pits, the membrane of vessel-ray pits showed a high pectin content. The presence of two distinct chemical domains, the annulus and the actual pit membrane, can have substantial implications for pit membrane functioning. We propose that the annulus could affect the observed shift in xylem vulnerability after calcium removal by allowing increased pit membrane deflection. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Quantitative Correlation of 7B04 Aluminum Alloys Pitting Corrosion Morphology Characteristics with Stress Concentration Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Yan, Guangyao; Mu, Zhitao; Li, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    The accelerated pitting corrosion test of 7B04 aluminum alloy specimen was carried out according to the spectrum which simulated airport environment, and the corresponding pitting corrosion damage was obtained and was defined through three parameters A and B and C which respectively denoted the corrosion pit surface length and width and corrosion pit depth. The ratio between three parameters could determine the morphology characteristics of corrosion pits. On this basis the stress concentration factor of typical corrosion pit morphology under certain load conditions was quantitatively analyzed. The research shows that the corrosion pits gradually incline to be ellipse in surface and moderate in depth, and most value of B/A and C/A lies in 1 between 4 and few maximum exceeds 4; The stress concentration factor Kf of corrosion pits is obviously affected by the its morphology, the value of Kf increases with corrosion pits depth increasement under certain corrosion pits surface geometry. Also, the value of Kf decreases with surface width increasement under certain corrosion pits depth. The research conclusion can set theory basis for corrosion fatigue life analysis of aircraft aluminum alloy structure.

  13. The Effects of Hot Corrosion Pits on the Fatigue Resistance of a Disk Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Hazel, Brian; Mourer, David P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot corrosion pits on low cycle fatigue life and failure modes of the disk superalloy ME3 were investigated. Low cycle fatigue specimens were subjected to hot corrosion exposures producing pits, then tested at low and high temperatures. Fatigue lives and failure initiation points were compared to those of specimens without corrosion pits. Several tests were interrupted to estimate the fraction of fatigue life that fatigue cracks initiated at pits. Corrosion pits significantly reduced fatigue life by 60 to 98 percent. Fatigue cracks initiated at a very small fraction of life for high temperature tests, but initiated at higher fractions in tests at low temperature. Critical pit sizes required to promote fatigue cracking were estimated, based on measurements of pits initiating cracks on fracture surfaces.

  14. Dependence of Crystallographic Orientation on Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr Alloy 028

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, LiNa; Szpunar, Jerzy A.; Dong, JianXin; Ojo, Olanrewaju A.; Wang, Xu

    2018-03-01

    The influence of crystallographic orientation on the pitting corrosion behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr alloy 028 was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), potentiodynamic polarization technique, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that there is anisotropy of pitting corrosion that strongly depends on crystallographic orientation of the surface plane. The distribution of pit density in a standard stereographic triangle indicates that the crystallographic planes close to {100} are more prone to pitting corrosion compared to planes {110} and {111}. The surface energy calculation of (001) and (111) shows that the plane with a high atomic packing density has a low surface energy with concomitant strong resistance to pitting corrosion. A correlation function between crystallographic orientation and pitting corrosion susceptibility suggests a method that not only predicts the pitting resistance of known textured materials, but also could help to improve corrosion resistance by controlling material texture.

  15. Markov chain model helps predict pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Hallen, J. M. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Esquivel-Amezcua, A. [PEMEX PEP Region Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Valor, A. [Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    Recent reports place pipeline corrosion costs in North America at seven billion dollars per year. Pitting corrosion causes the higher percentage of failures among other corrosion mechanisms. This has motivated multiple modelling studies to be focused on corrosion pitting of underground pipelines. In this study, a continuous-time, non-homogenous pure birth Markov chain serves to model external pitting corrosion in buried pipelines. The analytical solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process gives the transition probability function in a discrete space of pit depths. The transition probability function can be completely identified by making a correlation between the stochastic pit depth mean and the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. The model proposed in this study can be applied to pitting corrosion data from repeated in-line pipeline inspections. Case studies presented in this work show how pipeline inspection and maintenance planning can be improved by using the proposed Markovian model for pitting corrosion.

  16. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Giacobbe Braccio; Vincenzo Lorefice; Cesare Freda; Enzo Benanti; Vinod Kumar Sharma

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity anal...

  17. Analysis of traversable pits model to make intelligent wheeled vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abbasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the issue of passing wheeled vehicles from pits is discussed. The issue is modeled by defining the limits of passing wheeled vehicles. The proposed model has been studied based on changes in the effective parameters. Finally, in order to describe the problem, the proposed model has been solved for wheeled vehicles based on the effective parameters by using one of the numerical methods.

  18. Image features of herniation pit of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe; Li Guangming; Wang Cunli; Wang Guimin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate imaging appearances of herniation pit of the femoral neck. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray, CT and MRI findings of 9 patients with herniation pit of the femoral neck. All nine patients were male with the age ranging from 21 to 73 years. They had pain in the hip from two months to two years duration. Results: The bilateral hips were affected in six patients, the right hips in the other 3 patients. Of the nine patients, X-ray plain films (2 cases), CT scanning(6 cases), and MR scanning (5 cases ) were performed. The size of the lesions ranged from 0.5 cm x 0.6 cm to 1.0 cm x 1.5 cm, located in the anterosuperior portion of the femoral neck (n=7) or anteroinferior portion (n=2). X-ray plain films showed an osteolytic lesion surrounded by a sclerotic rim. CT scanning showed the lesion just below the cortex of the femoral neck surrounded by a rim of sclerosis or associated with a small cortical break in two patients. MR scanning showed low signal intensity in five patients on T 1 WI and high signal intensity surrounded by a rim of low signal intensity (n=3) or low signal intensity (n=2) on T 2 WI, and high signal intensity on fat suppression MR image. A small joint effusion was observed in two cases on T 2 WI. Conclusion: The CT and MRI findings of herniation pit of the femoral neck are characteristic, it is useful in defining the diagnosis of the herniation pit of the femoral neck. (authors)

  19. A mathematical model of crevice and pitting corrosion. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharland, S.M.

    1985-09-01

    The time-independent equations of mass transport governing the concentration of species and electrode potential within a corroding crevice or pit are solved using a number of mathematical approximations based on physical observations. A variety of analytic and numerical techniques is described and several methods which reduce computing time are developed. A simple method of time stepping is described for a calculation of the effect of precipitation of solid hydroxide in the crevice. (author)

  20. Pitting Corrosion Susceptibility of AISI 301 Stainless Steel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions - 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.5M and 0.7M and 1.0M. Tensile tests and microscopic examinations were performed on samples prepared from the steel after exposure in the various environments.

  1. Evaluation of some vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants as additives for water based mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. El-Sukkary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-based drilling fluids are increasingly being used for oil and gas exploration and are generally considered to be more environmentally acceptable than oil-based or synthetic-based fluids. In this study, new types of vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants were evaluated as additives in water-based mud. Their rheological properties in water-based mud were investigated which included the apparent viscosity, the plastic viscosity, the yield point, the gel strength, the thixotropy as well as the filtration properties. Also, the effect of high temperature on the rheology of the formulated water based mud was studied. The tested ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants showed good results when utilized in the formulation of water-based mud.

  2. Bioconversion of phytosterols to androstanes by mycobacteria growing on sugar cane mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, C; Falero, A; Hung, B R; Tirado, S; Balcinde, Y

    2005-03-01

    Direct sterol conversion of sugar cane mud (residue) by Mycobacterium sp. was demonstrated to be possible technologically, thus avoiding sugar cane oil extraction and further processes of extraction and purification of phytosterols from this oil. Indeed, mycobacterial cells were able to convert phytosterols from sugar cane mud into 4-androstene-dione (AD) and 1,4 androsta-diene-3,17-dione (ADD). For the various concentrations assayed, concomitant higher yields for both androstanes were achieved at 20% (w/w) sugar cane mud in media. Furthermore, conversions were similar to those from other substrates, such as a mixture of phytosterols. The results suggest that the mycobacterial cell is able to easily access and bioconvert sugar cane mud phytosterols.

  3. INTEGRATED DRILLING SYSTEM USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS PRIMARY ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton

    2005-12-01

    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  4. Titanium leaching from red mud by diluted sulfuric acid at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatzini-Leonardou, S; Oustadakis, P; Tsakiridis, P E; Markopoulos, Ch

    2008-09-15

    Laboratory-scale research has focused on the recovery of titanium from red mud, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production. The leaching process is based on the extraction of this element with diluted sulfuric acid from red mud under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The titanium recovery efficiency on the basis of red mud weight reached 64.5%. The characterization of the initial red mud, as well as this of the leached residues was carried out by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA and scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Titanium leaching from red mud by diluted sulfuric acid at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agatzini-Leonardou, S.; Oustadakis, P. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Laboratory of Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, 157 80 Zografou, Athens (Greece); Tsakiridis, P.E. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Laboratory of Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, 157 80 Zografou, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: ptsakiri@central.ntua.gr; Markopoulos, Ch. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Laboratory of Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, 157 80 Zografou, Athens (Greece)

    2008-09-15

    Laboratory-scale research has focused on the recovery of titanium from red mud, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production. The leaching process is based on the extraction of this element with diluted sulfuric acid from red mud under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The titanium recovery efficiency on the basis of red mud weight reached 64.5%. The characterization of the initial red mud, as well as this of the leached residues was carried out by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA and scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Meiofaunal stratification in relation to microbial food in a tropical mangrove mud flat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A; Sreepada, R.A; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Parulekar, A

    The vertical gradients of meiofauna mainly in relation to biochemical changes and microbial abundance in the upper 20 cm of deposit of a mangrove mud flat were studied. Strong vertical gradients in the redox potential (Eh), interstitial water...

  7. Discriminating the biophysical impacts of coastal upwelling and mud banks along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Pratihary, A.K.; Balachandran, K.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Coastal upwelling and mud banks are two oceanographic processes concurrently operating along certain stretches of the southwest (Kerala) coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon period (June-September), facilitating significant enhancement...

  8. Red mud application in construction industry: review of benefits and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M. S. S.; Thives, L. P.; Haritonovs, V.; Bajars, K.

    2017-10-01

    Red mud is a waste originated in the processing of bauxite into aluminium, which properties of high alkalinity make it cumulatively stored, occupying increasing deforested areas. Annually, it is estimated that approximately 117 million tons of red mud are generated in the world, with no prospect of use, what represents an imminent risk of pollution prone to contamination. Nevertheless, environmental liabilities caused by red mud affect not only the environment, but also the companies responsible for the waste, which will be subject to highest fee payments. Although there are studies that prove the feasibility of using this solid waste in the constitution of ceramic materials, there are no large-scale applications. This study seeks to evaluate the possibilities of red mud application in construction industry, focusing into two main areas: cement production/ceramic material and road construction. Backgrounds from other researchers were taken into consideration and analysed according environmental, economic and technical feasibilities.

  9. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system

  10. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  11. Investigation of the pitting corrosion of low carbon steel containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken because the prediction of the degradation rate of low carbon steel contains over long time frames is one of the crucial elements in the development of a source term model for low-level shallow land burial. The principal data base considered is that of the NBS corrosion measurements of ferrous materials buried in the ground for periods of up to 18 years. In this investigation, the maximum penetration in mils, hm, due to pitting corrosion was found to conform closely to the relation h m = kt n where it is the exposure time of the sample in years, κ is the pitting parameter in mil/(years) n , and n > O is a parameter related to the aeration property of the soil. The central objective of the present investigation is the determination of the dependence of the pitting parameters κ and n on the soil properties. The result of a detailed linear correlation analysis of κ on one hand, the pH value and the resistivity of the soil on the other hand revealed that κ is principally influenced by the pH value of the soil. The resistivity of the soil is found to play a minor role

  12. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

    2006-05-15

    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  13. Investigation on Floating Lid Construction, pit Water Storage, Ottrupgaard, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    At Ottrupgaard a pit water storage of 1,500 m3 and a lid area of about 700 m2 is built for seasonal storage of a solar collector field of 560 m2. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 57%, more precisely 1,163 Dkr./m2. Due to the large share in price...... the development of lid constructions is crucial for the development of pit water storage and seasonal storage, as it seems that the development of solar collectors will not have a breakthrough in the near future.The Ottrupgaard lid design is basically a sandwich element construction of PUR-foam between two...... conditions floating on hot water. The test lids were examined for tightness by a number of means. The results showed critical construction errors of the first lid design. A redesigned lid showed acceptable results, but also some water penetration into the lid insulation. The entered water gathers...

  14. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloza, Julia; Molina, Jorge; Mejia, Humberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  15. Composição mineral e severidade de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Catarina' Mineral composition and bitter pit severity in 'Catarina' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Maçãs 'Catarina', colhidas na maturação comercial em pomar no município de São Joaquim-SC, foram separadas em quatro lotes de 14 frutos, de acordo com a severidade de incidência de "bitter pit": nula (nenhuma lesão/fruto, baixa (1-2 lesões/fruto, moderada (3-5 lesões/fruto e alta (6-18 lesões/fruto. Foram determinadas as concentrações de Ca, Mg, K e N na casca e na polpa de cada fruto. Foram verificadas relação linear (P 'Catarina' apples were harvested at the commercial maturity in an orchard in São Joaquim-SC and segregated in four lots of 14 fruits with different levels of bitter pit severity: null (none pit/fruit, low (1-2 pits/fruit, moderate (3-5 pits/fruit, and high (6-18 pits/fruit. Nutritional analysis (Ca, Mg, K, and N in the skin and flesh tissues were performed on individual fruits of each severity level. The average number of pits/fruit (calculated for each lot of bitter pit severity showed a negative linear relationship (P < 0.05 with the skin Ca content, and a negative linear relationship (P < 0.05 with the ratios of Mg/Ca, (K+Mg/Ca, and (K+Mg+N/Ca in the skin. For the flesh, the increasing of bitter pit severity was accompanied by significant reduction of Ca and Mg contents. The multivariate analysis (canonical discriminant analysis showed that the Mg/Ca ratio in the skin provided the best discrimination between the lots of fruit with different levels of bitter pit severity. Therefore, for 'Catarina' apples, increasing values of the Mg/Ca ratio in the skin are indicative of fruits with increasing bitter pit susceptibility.

  16. Isoform-specific functions of Mud/NuMA mediate binucleation of Drosophila male accessory gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Kokuryo, Akihiko; Imano, Takao; Minami, Ryunosuke; Nakagoshi, Hideki; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-12-20

    In standard cell division, the cells undergo karyokinesis and then cytokinesis. Some cells, however, such as cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, can produce binucleate cells by going through mitosis without cytokinesis. This cytokinesis skipping is thought to be due to the inhibition of cytokinesis machinery such as the central spindle or the contractile ring, but the mechanisms regulating it are unclear. We investigated them by characterizing the binucleation event during development of the Drosophila male accessory gland, in which all cells are binucleate. The accessory gland cells arrested the cell cycle at 50 hours after puparium formation (APF) and in the middle of the pupal stage stopped proliferating for 5 hours. They then restarted the cell cycle and at 55 hours APF entered the M-phase synchronously. At this stage, accessory gland cells binucleated by mitosis without cytokinesis. Binucleating cells displayed the standard karyokinesis progression but also showed unusual features such as a non-round shape, spindle orientation along the apico-basal axis, and poor assembly of the central spindle. Mud, a Drosophila homolog of NuMA, regulated the processes responsible for these three features, the classical isoform Mud(PBD) and the two newly characterized isoforms Mud(L) and Mud(S) regulated them differently: Mud(L) repressed cell rounding, Mud(PBD) and Mud(S) oriented the spindle along the apico-basal axis, and Mud(S) and Mud(L) repressed central spindle assembly. Importantly, overexpression of Mud(S) induced binucleation even in standard proliferating cells such as those in imaginal discs. We characterized the binucleation in the Drosophila male accessory gland and examined mechanisms that regulated unusual morphologies of binucleating cells. We demonstrated that Mud, a microtubule binding protein regulating spindle orientation, was involved in this binucleation. We suggest that atypical functions exerted by three structurally different isoforms of Mud regulate

  17. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  18. Origin of Fluids and Salts at Mercator Mud Vulcano, Gulf of Cadiz

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Heeschen; M. Haeckel; C. Berndt; D. Teagle; M. Palmer; D. Green; M. Cooper; H. Vaneste; V. Liebetrau

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is located at the plate boundary between the Eurasian and African plates and is characterized by widespread mud volcanism all along the continental margins. It is commonly believed that this results from sediment dewatering enhanced by the compressional forces within the accretionary prism. Recently, 3D seismic data and geochemical sediment cores indicated that in addition to compressional tectonics, halokinesis controls the location and dynamics of the Mercator mud volca...

  19. Awaso bauxite red mud-cement based composites: Characterisation for pavement applications

    OpenAIRE

    David Dodoo-Arhin; Rania A. Nuamah; Benjamin Agyei-Tuffour; David O. Obada; Abu Yaya

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of Bauxite residue (red mud) based cement composite mortar blocks for applications in pavement construction. The experimental techniques considered include the structural, thermal, morphological and microscopy analysis of the raw bauxite and red mud samples calcined at 800 °C. Composite mortar blocks of different batch formulations were produced and their physicochemical properties were investigated. The results show that the compressive strength of the as-...

  20. Environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud studied by fractionation and speciation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milačič, Radmila; Zuliani, Tea; Ščančar, Janez

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) is mostly produced from bauxite ore, which contains up to 70% of Al(2)O(3) (alumina). Before alumina is refined to aluminum metal, it is purified by hot alkaline extraction. As a waste by-product red mud is formed. Due to its high alkalinity and large quantities, it represents a severe disposal problem. In Kidričevo (Slovenia), red mud was washed with water before disposal, and after drying, covered with soil. In Ajka (Hungary), the red mud slurry was collected directly in a containment structure, which burst caused a major accident in October 2010. In the present work the environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud from Kidričevo and Ajka were evaluated by applying a sequential extraction procedure and speciation analysis. The predominant red mud fraction was the insoluble residue; nevertheless, environmental concern was focused on the highly mobile water-soluble fraction of Al and Cr. Al in the water-soluble Ajka mud fraction was present exclusively in form of toxic [Al(OH)(4)](-), while Cr existed in its toxic hexavalent form. Comparative assessment to red mud from Kidričevo (Slovenia) with a lower alkalinity (pH 9) with that from Ajka demonstrated significantly lower Al solubility and the presence of only trace amounts of Cr(VI), confirming that disposal of neutralized mud is environmentally much more acceptable and carries a smaller risk of ecological accidents. Since during the Ajka accident huge amounts of biologically available Al and moderate Cr(VI) concentrations were released into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, monitoring of Al and Cr(VI) set free during remedial actions at the contaminated site is essential. Particular care should be taken to minimize the risk of release of soluble Al species and Cr(VI) into water supplies and surface waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recycling of red muds with the extraction of metals and special additions to cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoveev, D. V.; Diubanov, V. G.; Shutova, A. V.; Ziniaeva, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The liquid-phase reduction of iron oxides from red mud is experimentally studied. It is shown that, in addition to a metal, a slag suitable for utilization in the construction industry can be produced as a result of pyrometallurgical processing of red mud. Portland cement is shown to be produced from this slag with mineral additions and a high-aluminate expansion addition to cement.

  2. Viral infections stimulate the metabolism and shape prokaryotic assemblages in submarine mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological structures in the oceans that have key roles in the functioning of the global ecosystem. Information on the dynamics of benthic viruses and their interactions with prokaryotes in mud volcano ecosystems is still completely lacking. We investigated the impact of viral infection on the mortality and assemblage structure of benthic prokaryotes of five mud volcanoes in the Mediterranean Sea. Mud volcano sediments promote high rates of viral production (1.65–7.89 × 109 viruses g−1 d−1), viral-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM) (33% cells killed per day) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (3.0–8.3 μgC g−1 d−1) when compared with sediments outside the mud volcano area. The viral shunt (that is, the microbial biomass converted into dissolved organic matter as a result of viral infection, and thus diverted away from higher trophic levels) provides 49 mgC m−2 d−1, thus fuelling the metabolism of uninfected prokaryotes and contributing to the total C budget. Bacteria are the dominant components of prokaryotic assemblages in surface sediments of mud volcanoes, whereas archaea dominate the subsurface sediment layers. Multivariate multiple regression analyses show that prokaryotic assemblage composition is not only dependant on the geochemical features and processes of mud volcano ecosystems but also on synergistic interactions between bottom-up (that is, trophic resources) and top-down (that is, VIPM) controlling factors. Overall, these findings highlight the significant role of the viral shunt in sustaining the metabolism of prokaryotes and shaping their assemblage structure in mud volcano sediments, and they provide new clues for our understanding of the functioning of cold-seep ecosystems. PMID:22170423

  3. Start up study of UASB reactor treating press mud for biohydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radjaram, B.; Saravanane, R.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of press mud mixed with water for biohydrogen production was performed in continuous fed UASB bioreactor for 120 days. Experiment was conducted by maintaining constant HRT of 30 h and the volume of biohydrogen evolved daily was monitored. Various parameters like COD, VFA, Alkalinity, EC, Volatile solids, pH with respect to biohydrogen production were monitored at regular interval of time. SBPR was 10.98 ml g -1 COD reduced d -1 and 12.77 ml g -1 VS reduced d -1 on peak yield of biohydrogen. COD reduction was above 70 ± 7%. Maximum gas yield was on the 78th day to 2240 ml d -1 . The aim of the experiment is to study the startup process of UASB reactor for biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of press mud. The inoculum for the process is cow dung and water digested in anaerobic condition for 30 days with municipal sewage sludge. The study explores the viability of biohydrogen production from press mud which is a renewable form of energy to supplement the global energy crisis. -- Highlights: → Feasibility of biohydrogen production from press mud was explored in this study. The gas yield was maximum on the 78th day to 2240 ml d -1 with H 2 % of 52-59%. Biohydrogen yield was about 890 ml kg -1 press mud added d -1 . Press mud is identified as an excellent potential waste to tap energy.

  4. Resources Management Strategy For Mud Crabs (Scylla spp.) In Pemalang Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnama Fitri, Aristi Dian; Boesono, Herry; Sabdono, Agus; Adlina, Nadia

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research is to develop resources management strategies of mud crab (Scylla spp.) in Pemalang Regency. The method used is descriptive survey in a case study. This research used primary data and secondary data. Primary data were collected through field observations and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. Secondary data were collected from related publications and documents issued by the competent institutions. SWOT Analysis was used to inventory the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. TOWS matrix was used to develop an alternative of resources management strategies. SWOT analysis was obtained by 6 alternative strategies that can be applied for optimization of fisheries development in Pemalang Regency. The strategies is the control of mud crab fishing gear, restricted size allowable in mud crab, control of mud crab fishing season, catch monitoring of mud crab, needs a management institutions which ensure the implementation of the regulation, and implementation for mud crab aquaculture. Each alternative strategy can be synergized to optimize the resources development in Pemalang Regency.

  5. Characterization of red mud-epoxy intumescent char using surface imaging and micro analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arogundade, A. I., E-mail: ajiunolorioba@gmail.com; Megat-Yusoff, P. S. M., E-mail: puteris@petronas.com.my; Faiz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Bhat, A. H. [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, red mud (RM), an oxide waste was proposed as reinforcing, synergistic filler for the traditional epoxy intumescent coating (IC). 5.5 wt% of acid-modified and unmodified red mud were introduced into the basic intumescent formulation of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). In order to predict effect of modification on its suitability, Field emission electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infra red were used to obtain detailed characteristics such as the cell size, pore distribution, homogeneity and chemical composition of the red mud-epoxy carbonaceous char. Both acid-modified and unmodified RM-filled ICs produced chars with smaller and more closely packed cells compared to chars from the unfilled coating. Both coating types had hard carbonaceous metal phosphate coverings that could act as heat barriers. The unmodified red mud was found to be antagonistic to the intumescent action with an expansion of only 2 times the initial thickness. The leached, low iron-red mud produced an expansion of 15 times the initial thickness, but possessed a hollow interior. From these findings, it may be deduced that while acid leaching of red mud may improve intumescent expansion, it would be necessary to optimize the percent filler loading to improve residual mass.

  6. The NuMA-related Mud protein binds Pins and regulates spindle orientation in Drosophila neuroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Karsten H; Cabernard, Clemens; Doe, Chris Q

    2006-06-01

    Asymmetric cell division generates cell diversity during development and regulates stem-cell self-renewal in Drosophila and mammals. In Drosophila, neuroblasts align their spindle with a cortical Partner of Inscuteable (Pins)-G alpha i crescent to divide asymmetrically, but the link between cortical polarity and the mitotic spindle is poorly understood. Here, we show that Pins directly binds, and coimmunoprecipitates with, the NuMA-related Mushroom body defect (Mud) protein. Pins recruits Mud to the neuroblast apical cortex, and Mud is also strongly localized to centrosome/spindle poles, in a similar way to NuMA. In mud mutants, cortical polarity is normal, but the metaphase spindle frequently fails to align with the cortical polarity axis. When spindle orientation is orthogonal to cell polarity, symmetric division occurs. We propose that Mud is a functional orthologue of mammalian NuMA and Caenorhabditis elegans Lin-5, and that Mud coordinates spindle orientation with cortical polarity to promote asymmetric cell division.

  7. Environmental control of drilling mud discharge through dewatering in cold weather climates: effect of ambient temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtanowicz, A. K. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Ye, Y. [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Beijing, (China)

    1998-05-01

    Results of an experimental study of the effects of drilling mud temperature upon dewatering performance at various temperatures were presented. Three temperature ranges (from flowline temperature to room temperature, from room temperature to freezing point, and freeze/thaw, i.e. from -20 degrees C to 12 degrees C) were considered. Both unweighted and weighted fresh water muds and weighted salt water mud were tested using a sealed laboratory batch reactor, to prevent rapid vaporization of separated water at temperatures above 60 degrees C. Deep freezing was achieved by using ice or ice-salt baths. Net water removal was measured with a bench-top plate press under constant expression pressure of 270 kPa. Results showed that the freeze/thaw treatment process proved to be very effective, enhancing water removal by 34 to 39 per cent, and reducing waste mud volume by 64 to 72 per cent. No advantage to dewatering hot drilling mud from active systems was observed at temperatures above 21 degrees C. It was suggested that at temperatures under 21 degrees C, the waste drilling mud diverted from an active system should be dewatered when its temperature is still over 40 degrees C. to reduce the amount of chemicals needed for separation enhancement. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Novel microbial communities of the Haakon Mosby mud volcano and their role as a methane sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Helge; Lösekann, Tina; de Beer, Dirk; Elvert, Marcus; Nadalig, Thierry; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Sauter, Eberhard J; Schlüter, Michael; Klages, Michael; Foucher, Jean Paul; Boetius, Antje

    2006-10-19

    Mud volcanism is an important natural source of the greenhouse gas methane to the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Recent investigations show that the number of active submarine mud volcanoes might be much higher than anticipated (for example, see refs 3-5), and that gas emitted from deep-sea seeps might reach the upper mixed ocean. Unfortunately, global methane emission from active submarine mud volcanoes cannot be quantified because their number and gas release are unknown. It is also unclear how efficiently methane-oxidizing microorganisms remove methane. Here we investigate the methane-emitting Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV, Barents Sea, 72 degrees N, 14 degrees 44' E; 1,250 m water depth) to provide quantitative estimates of the in situ composition, distribution and activity of methanotrophs in relation to gas emission. The HMMV hosts three key communities: aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (Methylococcales), anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2) thriving below siboglinid tubeworms, and a previously undescribed clade of archaea (ANME-3) associated with bacterial mats. We found that the upward flow of sulphate- and oxygen-free mud volcano fluids restricts the availability of these electron acceptors for methane oxidation, and hence the habitat range of methanotrophs. This mechanism limits the capacity of the microbial methane filter at active marine mud volcanoes to <40% of the total flux.

  9. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1 Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2 Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sulfur fixation performance of Bayer red mud and up to a maximum sulfur fixation rate of 47 wt% at adding 1 wt% magnesium oxide. (3 Dolomite enhanced the sulfur fixation performances with the sulfur fixation rate of 68 wt% in optimized condition. (4 Vermiculite dust reduced sulfur dioxide during the fixed-sulfur process of modified Bayer red mud, and the desulphurization ration could reach up to a maximum 76 wt% at 950°C. (5 An advanced three-component sulfur fixation agent was investigated, in which the optimized mass ratio of modified Bayer red mud, dolomite, and vermiculite dust was 70 : 28 : 2 in order, and its sulfur fixation efficiency has reached to a maximum 87 wt% under its 20 wt% dosage in the coal.

  10. Potential use of natural red mud as pozzolan for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Red mud, the main waste generated in aluminum and alumina production by the Bayer process, is considered hazardous due to its high pH, according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004/2004, and worldwide generation of this waste exceeds 117 million tons/year. In this work, non-calcined red mud was used, thus requiring less energy and time and reducing costs, which is the ideal condition for reusing wastes. Mortars containing 30 wt. (% of cement substituted by red mud showed higher strength of hardened products. The pozzolanic activity index was evaluated based on physical and mechanical parameters (Brazilian NBR 5751 and NBR 5752 standards and on a chemical analysis (European EN 196-5 standard. A comparison of the reference mixture (without red mud and the results obtained with red mud confirm the potential of non-calcined red mud for use a as pozzolanic additive in cementitious materials. The setting time (according to the MERCOSUL NM 65 standard tends to increase but workability remains almost unchanged.

  11. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Characterization of red mud-epoxy intumescent char using surface imaging and micro analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogundade, A. I.; Megat-Yusoff, P. S. M.; Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, red mud (RM), an oxide waste was proposed as reinforcing, synergistic filler for the traditional epoxy intumescent coating (IC). 5.5 wt% of acid-modified and unmodified red mud were introduced into the basic intumescent formulation of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). In order to predict effect of modification on its suitability, Field emission electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infra red were used to obtain detailed characteristics such as the cell size, pore distribution, homogeneity and chemical composition of the red mud-epoxy carbonaceous char. Both acid-modified and unmodified RM-filled ICs produced chars with smaller and more closely packed cells compared to chars from the unfilled coating. Both coating types had hard carbonaceous metal phosphate coverings that could act as heat barriers. The unmodified red mud was found to be antagonistic to the intumescent action with an expansion of only 2 times the initial thickness. The leached, low iron-red mud produced an expansion of 15 times the initial thickness, but possessed a hollow interior. From these findings, it may be deduced that while acid leaching of red mud may improve intumescent expansion, it would be necessary to optimize the percent filler loading to improve residual mass.

  13. Molecular Simulation Study on Modification Mechanism of Red Mud Modified Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, FU; Hui-ming, BAO; xing-xing, Duan

    2017-12-01

    This article used red mud, the aluminum industrial wastes, as modified asphalt material, through the study of the routine test of modified asphalt properties, and the micro test of electron microscope scanning, infrared spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry analysis etc. to discuss its performance and modification mechanism . The test results show that after mixing red mud, asphalt’s penetration index and 15 °C ductility reduced, softening point enhanced, thus the temperature sensitivity and high temperature stability of asphalt improved; Red mud after mixing the matrix asphalt, can form a uniform, stable and matrix asphalt blending system, and improve the asphalt’s thermal stability. Using molecular simulation technology to analyze the asphalt with the temperature change of energy and find in the process of asphalt melting, the largest is the key to influence on bituminous, and van der waals energy is small. It concludes that red mud -modified asphalt material is mainly controlled by bond energy, in order to obtain its favorable property of modification mechanism, red mud of senior activation and molecular bond energy of asphalt is needed to be enhanced.The results of molecular simulation show that the main component of hematite in red mud is the most adsorbed in the asphalt, the asphaltene is the second, the colloid is the worst, but the adsorption capacity of the colloid is the highest.

  14. The Dead Sea Mud and Salt: A Review of Its Characterization, Contaminants, and Beneficial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Abu Irmaileh, Basha'er; Daqour, Ismail; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.

    2018-02-01

    The Dead Sea has been known for its therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The unique climatic conditions in the Dead Sea area make it a renowned site worldwide for the field of climatotherapy, which is a natural approach for the provision of medications for many human diseases including unusual exclusive salt composition of the water, a special natural mud, thermal mineral springs, solar irradiation, oxygen-rich and bromine-rich haze. This review focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the Dead Sea mud and salts, in addition to their contaminants, allowing this review to serve as a guide to interested researchers to their risks and the importance of treatment. Beneficial effects of Dead Sea mud and salts are discussed in terms of therapy and cosmetics. Additional benefits of both Dead Sea mud and salts are also discussed, such as antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties, and the potency of mud and salts to be a good medium for the growth of a halophilic unicellular algae, used for the commercial production of β-carotene Dunaliella.

  15. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  16. Fokker-Planck modeling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Eliana Nogueira [Risco Ambiental Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Paulo F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Saldanha, Pedro Luiz C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e Ciclo do Combustivel; Silva, Edson de Pinho da [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Physics

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion has been recognized since the 1930s. It has been learned that this damage retains no memory of its past. Instead, the future state is determined only by the knowledge of its present state. This Markovian property that underlies the stochastic process governing pitting corrosion has been explored as a discrete Markovian process by many authors since the beginning of the 1990s for underground pipelines of the oil and gas industries and nuclear power plants. Corrosion is a genuine continuous time and space state Markovian process, so to model it as a discrete time and/or state space is an approximation to the problem. Markovian chains approaches, with an increasing number of states, could involve a large number of parameters, the transition rates between states, to be experimentally determined. Besides, such an increase in the number of states produces matrices with huge dimensions leading to time-consuming computational solutions. Recent approaches involving Markovian discrete process have overcome those difficulties but, on the other hand, a large number of soil and pipe stochastic variables have to be known. In this work we propose a continuous time and space state approach to the evolution of pit corrosion depths in underground pipelines. In order to illustrate the application of the model for defect depth growth a combination of real life data and Monte Carlo simulation was used. The process is described by a Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is completely determined by the knowledge of two functions known as the drift and diffusion coefficients. In this work we also show that those functions can be estimated from corrosion depth data from in-line inspections. Some particular forms of drift and diffusion coefficients lead to particular Fokker-Planck equations for which analytical solutions are known, as is the case for the Wiener process, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the Brownian motion

  17. Canister Storage Building Receiving Pit Modification Informal Design Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIEG, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The design for modifications to the CSB Cask Receiving pit guides was verified by the informal design verification (meeting) method on August 9, 2000. The invited list of attendees and the meeting attendance sheet are included in attachment 1. The design modifications that were reviewed are documented in ECN 654484 (attachment 2). The requirement that the design is to be verified against is to ''center the transportation cask sufficiently to allow installation of the guide funnel on the cask (± 0.25 inches or less)''. The alternatives considered are detailed in attachment 3. Alternative number 4, ''Modify The Pit Guides'', was determined to be the preferred alternative primarily due to considerations of simplicity, reliability, and low cost. Alternative 1, ''Rotate the impact Absorber 180 o '', was successfully performed but was considered a temporary fix that was not acceptable for a long term operational mode. The requirement to position the receiving crane accurately enough to lower the transportation cask into the pit with the redesigned guides was discussed and considered to be achievable without undue effort from the operator. The tolerance on the OD of the transfer cask was discussed (± 1/8 inch) relative to the clearance with the guides. As-built dimensions for the cask OD will be looked at to verify sufficient clearance exists with the maximum cask OD. The final design thickness of the shims under the guides will be based on the as-built cask OD dimensions and field measurements between the pit guides. The need for a ''plastic'' cover for the guides was discussed and deemed unnecessary. Thermal growth of the cask OD was calculated at 3-5 mils and considered insignificant. The possibility of reducing the OD of the guide funnel was reviewed but this was considered impractical due to the requirement for the MCO to miss the edge of the funnel in case of a MCO drop. One of the transportation casks have the lift trunions installed 3/8 inch off center. This is

  18. Rabies Internalizes into Primary Peripheral Neurons via Clathrin Coated Pits and Requires Fusion at the Cell Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinotti, Silvia; Whelan, Sean P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The single glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RABV) dictates all viral entry steps from receptor engagement to membrane fusion. To study the uptake of RABV into primary neuronal cells in culture, we generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus in which the G protein was replaced with that of the neurotropic RABV CVS-11 strain (rVSV CVS G). Using microfluidic compartmentalized culture, we examined the uptake of single virions into the termini of primary neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and ventral spinal cord. By pharmacologically disrupting endocytosis at the distal neurites, we demonstrate that rVSV CVS G uptake and infection are dependent on dynamin. Imaging of single virion uptake with fluorescent endocytic markers further identifies endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits as the predominant internalization mechanism. Transmission electron micrographs also reveal the presence of viral particles in vesicular structures consistent with incompletely coated clathrin pits. This work extends our previous findings of clathrin-mediated uptake of RABV into epithelial cells to two neuronal subtypes involved in rabies infection in vivo. Chemical perturbation of endosomal acidification in the neurite or somal compartment further shows that establishment of infection requires pH-dependent fusion of virions at the cell body. These findings correlate infectivity to existing single particle evidence of long-range endosomal transport of RABV and clathrin dependent uptake at the plasma membrane. PMID:27463226

  19. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H.

    2013-08-01

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  20. Vitellogenin2: spermatozoon specificity and immunoprotection in mud crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya'nan; Zheng, Biqi; Bao, Chenchang; Huang, Huiyang; Ye, Haihui

    2016-09-01

    As the precursor of vitellin (Vn), vitellogenin (Vg) has initially been considered as a female-specific protein involved in vitellogenesis, while it was also present in males induced by hormones or organs manipulation. Distinct from vtg1 we previously found in female mud crab Scylla paramamosain, vtg2 was intriguingly detected in male testis under normal physiological conditions in this study. Sequence analysis showed that vtg2 and vtg1 were actually two isoforms of Vg caused by different types of alternative splicing. PCR and in situ hybridization analysis revealed that vtg2 was localized only in the testicular spermatozoa, while Vn was detected in both the spermatozoa of the testis and seminal vesicle. Therefore, we speculated that Vn was initially translated in testicular spermatozoa, then migrated with spermatozoa, and finally stored in the seminal vesicle, where spermatozoa gradually accomplished maturation. We presumed that vtg2/Vn might act as an immune-relevant molecule in the male reproduction system. In the subsequent experiment, the expression of vtg2/Vn in testis was significantly induced in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) injection at both transcriptional and translational levels. In the light of the results presented above, we deemed that vtg2/Vn is a novel candidate of immune-relevant molecules involved in immunoprotection during the spermatozoon maturation, and this research helps to open a new avenue for further exploring the role of Vg. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Red Mud and Li-Ion Batteries: A Magnetic Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Anil; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-08-23

    Exceptional Li-ion battery performance is presented with the oxide component of the anode was extracted from red mud by simple magnetic separation and applied directly without any further processing. The extracted material has γ-Fe2 O3 as the major phase with inter-dispersed phases of Ti, Al, and Si oxides. In a half-cell assembly, the phase displayed a reversible capacity (∼697 mA h g(-1) ) with excellent stability upon cycling. Interestingly, the stability is rendered by the multiphase constitution of the material with the presence of other electrochemically inactive metal oxides, such as Al2 O3 , SiO2 , and Fe2 TiO4 , which could accommodate the strain and facilitate release during the charge-discharge processes in the electrochemically active maghemite component. We fabricated the full-cell assembly with eco-friendly cathode LiMn2 O4 by adjusting the mass loading. Prior to full-cell assembly, an electrochemical pre-lithiation was enforced to overcome the irreversible capacity loss obtained from the anode. The full-cell delivered a capacity of ∼100 mA h g(-1) (based on cathode loading) with capacity retention of ∼61 % after 2000 cycles under ambient conditions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The Influence of Radiation on Pit Solution Chemistry as it Pertains to the Transition from Metastable to Stable Pitting in Steels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galuszka-Muga, Barbara

    2005-05-19

    An investigation was undertaken of the effect of gamma radiation on metastable pitting of mild carbon steels immersed in a solution similar to those existing at high level waste (HLW) deposits in the US. The object was to observe the extent to which a dosage rate of 1 Mrad/hour (10 Kgrey/hour) affected measurable electrochemical parameters such as pitting potential, open circuit potential, rate of metastable pitting and repassivation potential. Methods for reliably measuring electrochemical potentials in a high radiation field were developed. Exploratory analyses were made of the ion product release and electrolyte composition change in a confined volume simulating the conditions of a corrosion initiated pit during gamma irradiation. As expected the results indicated that the metastable pitting rate (as well as the general rate of corrosion) was significantly enhanced by a radiation field.

  3. Draft Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on Stockpile Stewardship and Management for a Modern Pit Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is responsible for the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, including production readiness required to maintain that stockpile. Since 1989, DOE has been without the capability to produce stockpile certified plutonium pits, which are an essential component of nuclear weapons. NNSA, the Department of Defense (DOD), and Congress have highlighted the lack of long-term pit production capability as a national security issue requiring timely resolution. While a small interim capacity is currently being established at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), classified analyses indicate projected capacity requirements (number of pits to be produced over a period of time), and agility (ability to rapidly change from production of one pit type to another, ability to simultaneously produce multiple pit types, or the flexibility to produce pits of a new design in a timely manner) necessary for long-term support of the stockpile will require a long-term pit production capability. In particular, identification of a systemic problem associated with an existing pit type, class of pits, or aging phenomenon cannot be adequately responded to today, nor could it be with the small capability being established at LANL (see Section S.2 for a more detailed discussion regarding the purpose and need for a Modern Pit Facility [MPF])

  4. Numerical simulation of the double pits stress concentration in a curved casing inner surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour or sweet oil fields development is common in recent years. Casing and tubing are usually subjected to pitting corrosion because of exposure to the strong corrosion species, such as CO2, H2S, and saline water. When the corrosion pits formed in the casing inner surface, localized stress concentration will occur and the casing strength will be degraded. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the degree of stress concentration factor accurately. This article performed a numerical simulation on double pits stress concentration factor in a curved inner surface using the finite element software ABAQUS. The results show that the stress concentration factor of double pits mainly depends on the ratio of two pits distance to the pit radius (L/R. It should not be only assessed by the absolute distance between the two pits. When the two pits are close and tangent, the maximum stress concentration factor will appear on the inner tangential edges. Stress concentration increased by double pits in a curved casing inner surface is more serious than that in a flat surface. A correction factor of 1.9 was recommended in the curved inner surface double pits stress concentration factor predict model.

  5. Experimental Evidence that Abrasion of Carbonate Sand is a Significant Source of Carbonate Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trower, L.; Kivrak, L.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate mud is a major sedimentary component of modern and ancient tropical carbonate environments, yet its enigmatic origin remains debated. Early views on the origin of carbonate mud considered the abrasion of carbonate sand during sediment transport as a possible mechanism. In recent decades, however, prevailing thought has generally settled on a binary explanation: 1) precipitation of aragonite needles within the water column, and 2) post-mortem dispersal of biological aragonite, in particular from algae, and perhaps aided by fish. To test these different hypotheses, we designed a model and a set of laboratory experiments to quantify the rates of mud production associated with sediment transport. We adapted a recent model of ooid abrasion rate to predict the rate of mud production by abrasion of carbonate sand as a function of grain size and sediment transport mode. This model predicts large mud production rates, ranging from 103 to 104 g CaCO3/m2/yr for typical grain sizes and transport conditions. These rate estimates are at least one order of magnitude more rapid than the 102 g CaCO3/m2/yr estimates for other mechanisms like algal biomineralization, indicating that abrasion could produce much larger mud fluxes per area as other mechanisms. We tested these estimates using wet abrasion mill experiments; these experiments generated mud through mechanical abrasion of both ooid and skeletal carbonate sand for grain sizes ranging from 250 µm to >1000 µm over a range of sediment transport modes. Experiments were run in artificial seawater, including a series of controls demonstrating that no mud was produced via homogenous nucleation and precipitation in the absence of sand. Our experimental rates match the model predictions well, although we observed small systematic differences in rates between abrasion ooid sand and skeletal carbonate sand that likely stems from innate differences in grain angularity. Electron microscopy of the experimental products revealed

  6. Construction of a long-distance, sharply curved underground sewerage system by the pit/drift continuous shielding method. Construction of the Arakawa trunk line by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government; Juo renzoku shield koho ni yoru chokyori kyukyokusen seko. Tokyoto gesuidokyoku Arakawa kansen koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, Y.; Okai, F.; Akasaka, J.

    1998-06-25

    The problems encountered in construction of sewarage systems in urban areas are reduced pitting sites, and construction of deeper, longer-distance and more sharply curved systems, resulting from overpopulation both on and under the ground. The Arakawa trunk line, constructed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, is to connect the existing Mikawashima sewage plant to Higashioku Sewage Purification Center now under construction, 2400m in total length, 40m as pit depth and 15m in the minimum curvature R, and needs shielding works for segment external forms of 4700mm. The construction method employed is the pit/drift continuous shielding method, which allows continuous works from a pit to drift by a single shielding machine. The machine is equipped with a spherical body holding a drift shielding machine built in a pit shielding machine, to excavate a pit to a given depth, and then a drift after turning the spherical body by 90deg. Each pit is equipped with a lift and each drift with an adequate system to move the segments. Bag-equipped segments are used for sharp curves. The pit/drift shielding method has been already applied to 5 cases, including the Arakawa trunk line construction, centered by those for sewarage systems. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  7. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the thousands !)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Oehler, D.

    2010-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 km2. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  8. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the Thousands!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 square km. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  9. Thessaloniki Mud Volcano, the Shallowest Gas Hydrate-Bearing Mud Volcano in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Perissoratis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed multibeam survey and the subsequent gravity coring carried out in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean, detected a new active gas hydrate-bearing mud volcano (MV that was named Thessaloniki. It is outlined by the 1315 m bathymetric contour, is 1.67 km2 in area, and has a summit depth of 1260 m. The sea bottom water temperature is 13.7∘C. The gas hydrate crystals generally have the form of flakes or rice, some larger aggregates of them are up to 2 cm across. A pressure core taken at the site contained 3.1 lt. of hydrocarbon gases composed of methane, nearly devoid of propane and butane. The sediment had a gas hydrate occupancy of 0.7% of the core volume. These characteristics place the gas hydrate field at Thessaloniki MV at the upper boundary of the gas hydrate stability zone, prone to dissociation with the slightest increase in sea water temperature, decrease in hydrostatic pressure, or change in the temperature of the advecting fluids.

  10. Actinomycetes from solitary wasp mud nest and swallow bird mud nest: isolation and screening for their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and screen actinomycetes from solitary wasp and swallow bird mud nests for antimicrobial activity. The actinomycetes were isolated from soil of nests of solitary wasp and swallow bird, and identified on the basis of morphological characteristics and molecular biological methods. A total of 109 actinomycetal isolates were obtained from 12 soil samples (6 from each habitat) using two media. The highest number of actinomycetes were recovered on Humic acid vitamin agar media (65.13%, n = 71) as compared to actinomycetes isolation agar media (34.86%, n = 38). The antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolates was determined using the agar plug method. Among 109 isolates, 51 isolates (46.78%) showed antibacterial activity by agar plug assay. The morphological and molecular characteristics confirmed that the most of active isolates in both sample belonged to the genus Streptomyces, the other potential genera like Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora, Thermoactinomycetes and Nocardia were also recovered, but in a low frequency. The isolates designated as 8(1), BN-6, MN 2(6), MN 2(7) and MN 9(V) showed most promising activity against various drug resistant bacterial pathogens. It seems that the promising isolates from these unusual/unexplored habitats may prove to be an important step in development of drug for treating multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens.

  11. First measurements of gas output from bubbling pools in a mud volcano at the periphery of Mt Etna (Italy): methodologies and implications for monitoring purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Cinzia; Giudice, Gaetano; Liuzzo, Marco; Pedone, Maria; Cosenza, Paolo; Riccobono, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Gases and brines emitted in the southern sector of Mt Etna from mofettes, mud pools and mud volcanoes come from an hydrothermal reservoir hosted within the clayey formations of the sedimentary basement (Chiodini et al., 1996). The gas emitted consists mainly of CO2, with CH4, N2 and He as minor species. CO2 and He stable isotopes indicate a clear magmatic origin for these gases, and their compositional changes during either eruptive or rest periods closely parallel that of crater fumaroles (Paonita et al., 2012). Altough these manifestations are the most significant CO2 emitters outside the crater area, their mass output has never been measured. We present the first measurements of gas flux from several bubbling mud pools in a mud volcano located in the village of Paternò (Lon 14.89° Lat 37.57°), in the southern flank of the volcano. We performed gas measurements using a home-made apparatus, able to capture all the bubbles over an area of 0.4 m2. Over an area of about 7000 m2, we measured the flow rate of every single bubbling pool, providing that it had a minimum flux rate of 0.5 l/min. The maximum measured flow rate for a single pool was 15 l/min. A preliminary estimate of the total CO2 output over the whole mud volcano is in the order of few t/d. At the same time, we measured the chemical composition of emitted gases in various pools, characterised by different gas flow rates, to calculate the output of CO2 and verify the effect of eventual chemical fractionation processes upon gas chemistry. During the same campaign of direct measurements, we also used a commercial infrared laser unit (GasFinder 2.0 from Boreal Laser Ltd) for measurement of volcanic CO2 path-integrated concentrations along cross-sections of the atmospheric plumes in the area. The GasFinder was set as to measure CO2 concentrations at 1 Hz rate. During the field campaigns, the position of the GasFinder unit was sequentially moved so as to scan the plumes from different viewing directions and

  12. Observation and modeling of the storm-induced fluid mud dynamics in a muddy-estuarine navigational channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuanyang; Roelvink, Dano; Li, Weihua; Qi, Dingman; Gu, Fengfeng

    2014-07-01

    Observations of storm-induced fluid mud dynamics have been conducted at the North Passage deepwater navigational channel (DNC) of the Yangtze Estuary in October to December 2010, during the occurrence of a cold-air front. The measurement data reveal that just after the critical wind wave event, a large amount of fine sediment was trapped in a state of fluid mud along the channel. The observed thickness of the fluid mud was up to about 1-5 m, which caused some significant economic and safety problems for shipping traffic in the Yangtze Delta area. The mechanisms and transport processes of the storm-induced fluid mud are analyzed and presented from the angles of both process-oriented and engineering-oriented methods. With the help of hydrodynamics and wave modeling, it could be inferred that the behavior of the storm-induced fluid mud event mainly depends on the overall hydrodynamic regimes and the exchanges of sediment, which is released by storm-wave agitation from adjacent tidal flats. These sediments are accumulated as fluid mud, and subsequently oscillate and persist at those locations with weaker longitudinal residuals in the river- and tide-dominated estuary. In addition, the downslope transport of fluid mud is also thought to have stimulated and worsened the fluid mud event observed in this study. Our modeling results and observations demonstrate that: (1) the transport of fluid mud is an advective phenomenon determining the central position of fluid mud layer along the channel, and it's also a tidal energy influenced phenomenon controlling the erosion and accumulation of fluid mud; and (2) both suspended particulate matter availability and local residual flow regime are of critical importance in determining the trapping probability of sediment and the occurrence of fluid mud.

  13. Evidence for an explosive origin of central pit craters on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathan R.; Bell, James F.; Christensen, Philip R.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2015-05-01

    Kilometer-scale pits are nested in the centers of many impact craters on Mars as well as on icy satellites. They have been inferred to form in the presence of a water-ice rich substrate; however, the process(es) responsible for their formation is still debated. Previous models invoke origins by either explosive excavation of potentially water-bearing crustal material, or by subsurface drainage of meltwater and/or collapse. If explosive excavation forms central pits, pit-derived ejecta should be draped around the pits, whereas internal collapse should not deposit significant material outside pit rims. Using visible wavelength images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) instruments and thermal infrared images from the Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument, we conducted a survey to characterize, in detail, the global population of central pits in impact craters ⩾10 km in diameter. We specifically examined the morphology and thermophysical characteristics of the pits for evidence of pit ejecta. Our analysis of thermal images suggests that coarse-grained materials are distributed proximally around many central pits on the floors of their host craters. The decrease in average grain size with distance from pit rims is consistent with pit-derived ejecta. These observations and interpretations better support an explosive origin for central pits on Mars than they do an origin of subsurface meltwater drainage and collapse of the overlying substrate. A major weakness to previous explosive central pit formation models is the inability for them to form pits late enough in the impact process to be preserved. To address this, we present an alternative "melt contact model" where a central uplift brings ice-bearing substrate into contact with impact melt to generate steam explosions and excavate central pits during the impact modification stage. Theoretical calculations show

  14. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Venoms of South Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Genus: Hypnale cause muscarinic effects in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although clinical, in-vivo and in-vitro studies suggest the necrotic, haemorrhagic, pro-coagulant and nephrotoxic effects of South Asian Hump nosed pit vipers, reports on neurotoxic properties are limited to a single in-vitro study. Using BALB/c mice, for the first time, here we demonstrate the signs of envenoming suggestive of possible muscarinic effects of the venoms of all three Hypnale species. Further, we demonstrate that the muscarinic effects are occurred at lower venom doses by H. hypnale venom, compared to H. nepa and H. zara.

  16. Detection of simulated pitting corrosion and noises in crude oil storage tank by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Latif, N.A.; Azhar Mohd Sinin; Mohamad Daud; Abd Nasir Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    The damage mechanisms associated with crude oil storage tanks can be complex and varied and include pitting corrosion due to presence of species such as sulphate reducing bacteria. Acoustic Emission (AE) could be used to characterise the pitting corrosion signal in crude oil storage tanks but it is extremely difficult to simulate the pitting corrosion in the laboratory using crude oil as electrolyte because crude oil is considered as non corrosive medium. In this study, induced current have been introduced onto a surface ASTM 516 steel as an electrical source to simulate the electrical noise produced during pitting corrosion process and AE sensor have been used to detect this current. It is found that AE system could detect AE signal release during current induction this current and is expected that if the exact simulation of the current magnitude produced during pitting corrosion process is made available, AE characterisation of pitting corrosion in such tank could be made possible. (Author)

  17. The role of inclusions in the pitting behaviour of maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.; Hussain, S.W.; Ashraf, H.

    1999-01-01

    The pitting characteristics of maraging steel in artificial seawater have been investigated electrochemically using the cyclic polarization technique. Pits were found to be associated with the inclusions present in steel. The hysteresis loop observed indicates that maraging steel has poor resistance to pitting in air saturated seawater. On examination of corroded surfaces under SEM, it is noted that the pits are always associated with inclusions, which are generally the carbonitrides of TiMo presents in maraging steel in varying quantities depending on the melting practice. In order to confirm that the pitting behavior is associated with inclusions, samples from clean maraging steel, having very low inclusion level, were tested. Such samples showed much less tendency for pitting. (author)

  18. Probability distribution of pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Velazquez, J.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado, 10400, La Habana (Cuba); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The probability distributions of external-corrosion pit depth and pit growth rate were investigated in underground pipelines using Monte Carlo simulations. The study combines a predictive pit growth model developed by the authors with the observed distributions of the model variables in a range of soils. Depending on the pipeline age, any of the three maximal extreme value distributions, i.e. Weibull, Frechet or Gumbel, can arise as the best fit to the pitting depth and rate data. The Frechet distribution best fits the corrosion data for long exposure periods. This can be explained by considering the long-term stabilization of the diffusion-controlled pit growth. The findings of the study provide reliability analysts with accurate information regarding the stochastic characteristics of the pitting damage in underground pipelines.

  19. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  20. Storage and Management of Open-pit Transportation Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiusheng Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aiming at the actual demand of open-pit mine daily production scheduling and positioning monitoring. After extracting data from existing topographic maps and other information, it discusses the feasibility of using this data to establish thematic database. By considering the extensive application of GPS data, utilizing new spatial data types of SQL Server 2008 for data storage and management. Extracting data algorithms such as the node spatial data, the regional boundary and the path are implemented, then spatial data storage and management is also realized. It provides the basis for the production of decision-making and production cost savings.