WorldWideScience

Sample records for single mother family

  1. The Influence of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2007-01-01

    This article examines whether children living with single mothers benefit when they also live with a grandparent, using data from the 1979 to 2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file (N = 6,501). Results indicate that for White children, living with a single mother and a grandparent is associated with…

  2. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  3. Poverty Trends for Families Headed by Working Single Mothers, 1993-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathryn H.; Dupree, Allen

    This analysis examines poverty in families headed by working single mothers, addressing whether and to what degree their economic situations have improved. It investigates the effect of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, which moved single mothers from welfare to work. Poverty data from the annual Census…

  4. Mother-child discrepancy in perceived parental control and adolescent filial piety in poor single-mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Lin, Li

    2017-10-01

    Based on a sample of 432 poor Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years; 51.2% girls; mean age of mothers = 43.5 years) in Hong Kong, the interaction effect of mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control on filial piety of Chinese adolescents was examined. Results of polynomial multiple regression analyses showed that the interaction between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predicted perceived filial piety in adolescents. At high levels of mother-reported maternal control, high adolescent-perceived parental control was associated with higher filial piety. At low levels of mother-reported maternal control, filial piety increased initially and then decreased when adolescents reported higher levels of maternal control. Using multiple group analyses, these associations were found to be stable across gender and age. The present findings provide insights on how congruencies and discrepancies between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predict filial piety of Chinese adolescents growing up in poor single-mother families. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression for Adolescents in Single-Mother and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L.; McArthur, Brae Anne; Steinberg, Laurence; Abramson, Lyn. Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2017-01-01

    Although research consistently suggests that adolescents in single-mother families are at increased risk for depression, the mechanisms that explain this relationship are unclear. In a community sample of adolescents (N = 368; ages 12–16; 50% female; 50% White) and their mothers (42% single), adolescents completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and depressogenic inferential style at baseline and two yearly follow-ups. Mothers reported on stressful events that occurred in the child’s life from birth until baseline. Adolescents raised by single mothers, relative to partnered mothers, experienced more childhood stressors and higher rumination levels at one-year follow-up. Additionally, higher rumination mediated the relationship between single motherhood and greater youth depressive symptoms at the two-year follow-up. Clinical implications and developmental considerations are discussed. PMID:27858293

  6. Child health care utilisation in families with young or single mothers in a Swedish county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallby, Thomas; Modin, Bitte; Hjern, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Young age and lone parenthood are risk factors for impaired health among mothers and their children. Due to the higher risks of negative influences on physical and mental health, young and single mothers should be of special concern to the Child Health Services (CHS). In the present study, we investigated consumption patterns of child health care services among young and single mothers in Uppsala County, Sweden to study whether they are reached by the universal CHS program and if selective or indicative measures were administered in daily CHS practice. Register data on CHS contacts and socio-demographic indicators were collected for 10692 infants, born in 1998-2006. Results show small differences in contact pattern and immunization status, between children of young versus older, and single versus cohabiting mothers. However, both young (RR 0.64) and single (RR 0.80) mothers had significantly lower rates of participation in parental group. The CHS were consequently successful in implementing the universal preventive child health programme for all families, including families with young or single mothers. There was no indication, however, of an established selective preventive strategy aimed at these high risk families. Programs for strengthening the support provided to vulnerable families by the CHS are needed. © The Author(s) 2012.

  7. What is a family? Kinship, reproductive practices and single mothers by choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine

    The proliferation of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) has influenced and facilitated the rise of ‘new’ kinship practices and family formations. Furthermore, these technologies – in obscuring the relation between ‘biological facts of conception...... of single mothers by choice, the paper explores how the women conceive and enact the notions of family and kinship in terms of creating significant relations and networks. Furthermore, the paper shows and discusses how a complex interplay of biogenetic and social ties impacts on these family conceptions......, showing that the application of ARTs is also fashioned by more traditional notions of kinship (Levine 2008; Thompson 2005) and that the nuclear family ideal remains a strong notion within the realms of reproduction and parenting (Cutas & Chan 2012:5). By contributing to this continuing question of how...

  8. What is a family? Kinship, reproductive practices and single mothers by choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine

    The proliferation of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) has influenced and facilitated the rise of ‘new’ kinship practices and family formations. Furthermore, these technologies – in obscuring the relation between ‘biological facts of conception...... of single mothers by choice, the paper explores how the women conceive and enact the notions of family and kinship in terms of creating significant relations and networks. Furthermore, the paper shows and discusses how a complex interplay of biogenetic and social ties impacts on these family conceptions...... and the social categories of kinship’ – have challenged existing normative ideas about family constructions and kinship conceptualizations (Edwards & Salazar 2009:11; Levine 2008; Melhuus 2012). Meanwhile, others have questioned the degree to which our understandings of biogenetic relations have been revised...

  9. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  10. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  11. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  12. Women and Work-Life Balance: A Narrative Inquiry of Working Single Mothers Balancing Family and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Casheena A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore working single mothers' work-life balance in order to better understand how employers can assist them. Role theory, role conflict theory, and spillover theory were utilized to examine how working single mothers experience work-life balance and how they perceive it. In this study, the researcher sought to…

  13. Inequalities in the psychological well-being of employed, single and partnered mothers: the role of psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhajarine Nazeem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of international research reveals that single mothers experience poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with socioeconomic disadvantage identified as an important contributory factor in understanding this health disparity. Much less research, however, has focused specifically on the psychological well-being of single mothers who are employed, despite their growing presence in the labor force. Of the research which has considered employment, the focus has been on employment status per se rather than on other important work-related factors which may impact psychological health, such as psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict. The aim of this study was to: (1 compare employed single mothers and employed partnered mothers on measures of psychological distress, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict; and (2 explore the potential role of work-family conflict and psychosocial work quality as explanations for any observed differences in psychological distress based on partner status. Method Analysis of data obtained from a cross-sectional telephone survey of employed parents in a mid-sized Western Canadian city. Analyses were based on 674 employed mothers (438 partnered and 236 single, who were 25-50 years old, with at least one child in the household. Results Compared to employed single mothers, employed partnered mothers were older, had more education and reported fewer hours of paid work. Single mothers reported higher levels of psychological distress, financial hardship, work-family conflict and poor psychosocial work quality. Statistical adjustment for income adequacy, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict each independently resulted in single motherhood no longer being associated with psychological distress. Conclusions While single employed mothers did experience higher levels of psychological distress than their partnered counterparts, differences between these

  14. Revisiting an era in Germany from the perspective of adolescents in mother-headed single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepali; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2007-02-01

    Much of the documented work on families headed by single mothers is based on empirical evidence from North America and a few Anglo-Saxon countries. Many researchers consider single-mother families to be at a disadvantage because of nonsupportive family policies. This paper uses data from a social context that differed hugely in this respect-the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The GDR provided extensive state support to single-mother families and, thus, was vastly different from other countries. Based on a literature review and using Hill's family stress theory, this paper is based on the hypothesis that adolescents living in mother-headed single-parent families and those living with their biological parents would have near-similar social outcomes (display of psychosomatic symptoms, perception of stress, display of delinquent behaviour, life satisfaction, academic self-efficacy, and academic grades) and family-related outcomes (relationship with parents and perception of family environment). Further, it was hypothesized that adolescents from stepfather families would display more negative social and family-related outcomes when compared with respondents from the other two family types. The sample comprised 1302 adolescents (M  =  13.82 years, SD  =  1.88) who were recruited from the city of Leipzig in the year immediately following German unification, 1991. Respondents reported on measures of psychosomatic symptoms, stress, delinquency, life satisfaction, academic achievement, and family-related variables. ANCOVAs, with a control for income adjusted for household size, indicated adolescents from single-mother families to have very similar experiences to respondents living with their biological parents on all measures except for their assessment of family environment. Adolescents living in stepfather families reported the least favourable experiences. Results are indicative of a social context in Germany that, despite unification and the early hardships for

  15. Age-Related Parenting Education: Model Development and Application to an Emerging Family Constellation - Single-by-Choice Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Kimberly Ann

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to describe an adaptation of the Schaefer Circumplex Model to age-related parenting theory and techniques, and (2) to illustrate its application in relation to the emerging numbers of single-by-choice mothers. The method described superimposes both a child's and a parent's cognitive and psychosocial…

  16. Single Mothers by Choice and Inwedlock Mothers: Sex-Role Orientation, Locus of Control, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Kimberly Ann

    An emerging family constellation is the family headed by a "single mother by choice," a structure in which both single marital status and parental status are chosen. This study was conducted to determine whether single mothers by choice (N=12) differed significantly from inwedlock mothers (N=18) regarding their childbearing decisions.…

  17. EDUCATIONAL TACTICS OF MOTHERS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS IN TWO-PARENT AND SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Борисович Зуев

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of the psychological characteristics of boys and girls from complete and incomplete families. In addition to the type of family, the authors consider the educational tactics of mothers. The combined effects of the type of family and educational tactics on psychological characteristics of the adolescent were investigated. Adolescence was chosen as a period, when on the one hand, a relatively stable personality structure is developed, and on the other hand, the importance of the immediate social environment is extremely high. For our study we selected the psychological characteristics, to the utmost revealing the reaction of children to their parents' divorce: the level of subjective control (degree of responsibility for their own lives, and the sovereignty of the psychological space (clearnesse of psychological boundaries. It is shown that the largest influence on the psychological characteristics of adolescents, regardless of the type of family, is rendered by hostility in maternal education. The dependence of psychological characteristics of maternal directiveness occurs only at high values of such educational tactics that highlights the consistency of the obtained results with the classical studies of single-parent families.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-6

  18. Work life and mental wellbeing of single and non-single working mothers in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2009-08-01

    This study examined levels and predictors of mental wellbeing in Scandinavian working single and non-single mothers, with a special focus on financial stress, job characteristics and work-family conflict. The European Social Survey Round 2 (2005) provided questionnaire data from 73 single and 432 non-single working mothers in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Respondents answered questions about the outcome variables life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect, and predictor variables financial stress, job characteristics, work-family conflict, and social support. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the relationships between predictor variables and mental wellbeing outcomes. Single working mothers scored significantly lower on life satisfaction and happiness, but not on positive affect, than did non-single mothers. Financial stress was higher in the single mother group. There were no significant differences in levels of enriching or stressful job characteristics, or in levels of social support. While financial stress and work-family conflict were important predictors in both groups, the relationship between financial stress and wellbeing was far stronger in the single mother group. Confidant support was a significant predictor only in the single mother group, and social participation only in the non-single mothers group. This study suggests that the Scandinavian welfare democracies have not yet been successful in relieving the financial pressure experienced by single working mothers. Development of efficient financial support systems should be prioritized. Ways to reduce work-family conflict in both single and non-single mothers in Scandinavia should also be given increased attention.

  19. Undergraduate Single Mothers' Experiences in Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    Using Astin's (1993) College Impact Model, this chapter explores the current literature as it relates to single mothers in undergraduate postsecondary education. The chapter looks at the ways that undergraduates who are single mothers are counter to the "ideal-student" norms. Policy and best-practice recommendations conclude the chapter.

  20. MOTHER APP : a family memories theater

    OpenAIRE

    高, 磊; 奥出, 直人

    2011-01-01

    This thesis proposes MOTHER APP, an Application to Media Furniture Platform that creates a Family Memories Theater to document and exhibit shared household life experiences in the living room, automatically capturing spontaneous moments into photos by sensing if the family members are together through furniture. The thesis introduces the research, design process and implementation of MOTHER APP, describe the evalutation about how households use it to gain the new experience in the living room...

  1. [Children of single mothers: health risks and environmental stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharte, M; Bolte, G

    2012-03-01

    In Germany the risk for relative poverty has increased profoundly during the last 15 years, especially among single parent families. As poverty is often associated with bad health we examined the physical and mental health as well as health-related behaviour, housing and environmental conditions in children with lone mothers versus children in couple families. In 3 cross-sectional surveys conducted during 2004-2007 in 3 cities and 3 rural areas in Bavaria data on 19 039 pre-school children (47% female) were collected. Health, behaviour and exposure assessment was based on parental reports. The 18 327 cases with complete information on family status were analysed. 10% of the children grew up with single mothers. Single mothers evaluated the general state of health of their children more often as moderate to very poor than couple parents (OR [95% CI]: male: 1.37 [1.07-1.77], female 1.77 [1.33-2.35]). Sons with single mothers were more often obese (1.44 [1.09-1.90]). They scored significantly higher in the SDQ total difficulties score (1.94 [1.44-2.62]), on the emotional problem scale (1.91 [1.40-2.59]) as well as on the hyperactivity scale (1.82 [1.35-2.47]) compared to boys from couple families. No difference was found in prosocial behaviour. Girls with single mothers revealed more often conduct problems 1.36 [1.02-1.81] compared to those from couple families. They also showed a significantly higher prevalence of asthma (2.06 [1.29-3.30]). Children living with their single mothers were less often members of sports clubs and the boys were less physical active. No difference was found regarding the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Single mother family was associated with children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home (2.03 [1.79-2.29]). Single mothers perceived higher environmental exposures to noise and air pollution, suffered more often from a lack of accessible green spaces in the neighbourhood and reported a higher traffic load on the residential

  2. Resettlement and reintegration: single mothers' reflections after homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Tischler, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has identified that most families who become homeless are women with dependent children. Homeless families are reported to have a variety of complex needs however little is known about the experiences of families once they are re-housed. The aim of this study was to explore psychosocial issues related to the resettlement experiences of single mothers following a period of homelessness. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used to gather data from twenty one women livi...

  3. Maternal Psychological Functioning, Family Processes, and Child Adjustment in Rural, Single-Parent, African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.

    1997-01-01

    Tested a model linking family financial resources to adjustment among African American 6- to 9-year olds with single, rural, Southern mothers. Found that inadequate financial resources related to mothers' depression and low self-esteem. Self-esteem was linked with family routines and mother-child relationship quality. Child self-regulation…

  4. Mother's Social Network and Family Language Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of a social network analysis (SNA) performed on the mother's primary network of interaction in 15 Mexican American families in the city of El Paso, Texas, the neighbourhood of La Villita, in Chicago, and the city of Lincoln, Nebraska. The goal of this study was to examine potential opportunities for Spanish use by…

  5. After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

  6. EDUCATIONAL TACTICS OF MOTHERS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS IN TWO-PARENT AND SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuev Konstantin Borisovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of the psychological characteristics of boys and girls from complete and incomplete families. In addition to the type of family, the authors consider the educational tactics of mothers. The combined effects of the type of family and educational tactics on psychological characteristics of the adolescent were investigated. Adolescence was chosen as a period, when on the one hand, a relatively stable personality structure is developed, and on the other hand, the importance of the immediate social environment is extremely high. For our study we selected the psychological characteristics, to the utmost revealing the reaction of children to their parents' divorce: the level of subjective control (degree of responsibility for their own lives, and the sovereignty of the psychological space (clearnesse of psychological boundaries. It is shown that the largest influence on the psychological characteristics of adolescents, regardless of the type of family, is rendered by hostility in maternal education. The dependence of psychological characteristics of maternal directiveness occurs only at high values ​​of such educational tactics that highlights the consistency of the obtained results with the classical

  7. Mother-induced hypertension in familial dysautonomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the case of a patient with familial dysautonomia (a genetic form of afferent baroreflex failure), who had severe hypertension (230/149 mmHg) induced by the stress of his mother taking his blood pressure. His hypertension subsided when he learnt to measure his blood pressure without his mother’s involvement. The case highlights how the reaction to maternal stress becomes amplified when catecholamine release is no longer under baroreflex control. PMID:26589199

  8. Why Do Families Differ? Children's Care for an Unmarried Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henretta, John C.; Soldo, Beth J.; Van Voorhis, Matthew F.

    2011-01-01

    An adult child's provision of care to an unmarried elderly mother varies both within and between families. Within-family differences address the variation in different children's behavior within in a family. Between-family differences refer to the propensities that members of a family--the children of one mother--share and that differentiate them…

  9. South Korean Mothers' Parenting Experiences in Divorced Mother-Headed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee

    2017-01-01

    These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…

  10. 76 FR 60355 - Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... grief their families carry we can never fully know. Gold Star mothers and families know the immeasurable... inspired by their strength and determination. Through heartbreaking loss, our Gold Star families continue...

  11. Living Arrangements among Single Mothers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swain, Pushpanjali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishA large proportion of two parent households transition into single parenthouseholds upon marital disruption. Single parent households, especially femaleheaded households face an increase in the risk of poverty. This study focuses onwhether widow status in India influences the likelihood of household headshipin India. This study is based on the most recent National Family Health Survey1998-1999, in India. The population of interest includes all mothers aged 15 to49 years, without a spouse, living with one or more of their own children under18 years of age. We find that being a widow increases the likelihood of being ahousehold head compared to the likelihood of household headship among thedivorced and the separated in India. This study provides some evidence on thecontinuing social discrimination against widows in India. The implication of thefindings are discussed.FrenchUne grande proportion des ménages biparentaux se transforme en ménagesmonoparentaux après une séparation maritale. Les ménages monoparentaux,spécialement ceux qui sont dirigés par une femme, font face à un danger plusélevé de sombrer dans la pauvreté. Cette étude examine à quel point le faitd’être veuve influence la probabilité de se retrouver à la tête d’un ménage enInde. Cette étude est basée sur le recensement sur la santé des familles de 1998-1999, le plus récent en Inde. La population d’intérêt comprend toutes les mèresâgées de 15 à 49 ans, sans époux et qui vivent avec au moins un de leurs propresenfants de moins de 18 ans. Nous avons trouvé qu’en Inde, le fait d’être veuveaugmente la probabilité qu’une femme se retrouve à la tête de son ménage encomparaison aux femmes divorcées ou séparées. Cette étude avance despreuves de cette discrimination sociale continue en Inde envers les veuves. Lesimplications de ces constatations sont discutées.

  12. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-13] Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice... is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Lenders use the Single Family Premium...

  13. The Impact of Maternal Employment and Family Form on Children's Sex-Role Stereotypes and Mothers' Traditional Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Carol E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the effects of divorce and maternal employment status on mother's and children's sex-role attitudes in 60 families. Results showed working mothers, irrespective of marital status, were more liberal than nonworking mothers. Children of single-parent families appeared to be more liberal in their sex-role orientation. (JAC)

  14. Familial SUNCT in mother and son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Viana, Pedro; Lobo, Patricia Pita

    2016-09-01

    Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias comprise a heterogeneous group of lateralized headaches associated with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. They are usually localized within the territory of one or more rami of the trigeminal nerve, but may be localized outside its cutaneous territory. Although these headaches are considered primary disorders, the evidence supporting their genetic nature is lacking, particularly concerning their neuralgic forms, with the exception of a familial case described partly based on a historical account. We report on a mother and son with episodic, short-lasting, intense, paroxysmal headaches, with the same localization in the left retroauricular region, associated with prominent conjunctival injection and tearing, which are consistent with the diagnosis of SUNCT (short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing). These cases corroborate the existence of hereditary forms of this disorder, thus supporting its primary nature. © International Headache Society 2015.

  15. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Bautista Solis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  16. Single mothering as experienced by Burundian refugees in Australia: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Lily P; Barr, Jennieffer A; Welch, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Refugee mothers have fled from their homeland to escape persecutions with their children only to find other threats to their well-being in the new country. Building on previous research, it is known that being a new immigrant is challenging and requires adaptation. The adaptation process, known as acculturation, may not be successful leading to psychological distress. It is also known that a generation gap can occur when children acculturate faster than their parents. What was lacking was understanding about the experiences of single refugee mothers. Interpretative phenomenological study was undertaken to explore the lived experiences of eight Burundian refugee single mothers in Australia. Data were collected by in-depth interviews. Each interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed three themes. First theme 'Traditional mothering practices of Burundian culture' illustrated mothering strategies as practiced prior to their arrival in Australia including mothering with sufficient social support, strong position of parents, and regular use of physical disciplining. Second theme 'Challenges identified after arrival to new country' revealed that mothers felt their children acculturated faster than themselves which led to intergenerational gap. This has also led participants to live in a continuous dilemma, experiencing inner conflicts and struggles associated with their mothering practices, especially when mothers had arrived with a lack of knowledge relating to acceptable mothering practices in a new culture. Final theme, 'Reforming family life in Australia' highlighted the decisions made by single refugee mothers which is to embrace both new and original cultures, leading to successful acculturation. However, lack of appropriate knowledge of acceptable mothering practices led to involvement of legal authorities who threatening to remove children from the mother's care. This has led mothers feeling change of power from 'mother to

  17. Work life and mental well-being: single and coupled employed mothers in Southern Europe and Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Torill

    2009-09-01

    Many European mothers, single and coupled, combine work outside the home and family life. The effects of this on their mental well-being may vary depending on the level of support available from the State's welfare system, since welfare may buffer working mothers from some of the stress that can arise from trying to manage significant responsibilities on the job and at home. Welfare may be especially important for single working mothers, for whom the burden of multiple roles may be even heavier. The present study assessed levels and predictors of well-being of single and coupled employed mothers in Greece, Portugal and Spain, where welfare support is relatively limited. Results were compared to a parallel study with data from Denmark, Norway and Sweden, where welfare support is relatively comprehensive. Coupled mothers in Scandinavia had significantly lower financial hardship, longer education, higher life satisfaction, more enriching jobs, practical support, financial support and social participation than coupled mothers in the Southern European sample. On the other hand, the Scandinavian coupled mothers had higher levels of work family conflict than coupled mothers in Southern Europe. Single mothers in Scandinavia, compared to single mothers in Southern Europe, had significantly longer education, higher life satisfaction and positive affect, more enriching jobs, confidant support, practical support, financial support and social participation. Level of job stress was the same for all mother groups. All groups differed significantly from each other in level of financial hardship, with Scandinavian coupled mothers being best off, followed by Scandinavian single mothers, Southern European coupled mothers, and Southern European single mothers. The regional differences suggest that single motherhood per se need not be a risk factor for poorer well-being, and that welfare policies may have a protective effect for the mental well-being of single mothers.

  18. 78 FR 60179 - Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In... behind. Most of us can only imagine the pain of a mother who loses a daughter, the husband who loses his partner, or the son who loses a father. Prepared to serve others at any cost, their loved ones exemplified...

  19. Father Influences on Employed Mothers' Work-Family Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Press, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This study employed the ecological systems perspective and gender ideology theory to examine the influence of fathers' paid work-family crossover and family involvement on self-reports of work-family balance by employed mothers with children under the age of 13 (N = 179). Multiple regression analyses revealed that fathers' crossover factors had a…

  20. The Tilted Family: Its Effects on Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Catherine S.; Newlon, Betty J.

    Family constellation theory focuses on the idea that the composition of a family determines to a certain degree the behavior of the individual members. An important missing piece in family constellation theory, however, is the possible impact children have on their parents. With smaller families the current trend, there is a greater likelihood of…

  1. Mother-Infant Attachment in Adoptive Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Leslie M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    No differences were found in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Suggests that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships…

  2. Unsettled scripts: intimacy narratives of heterosexual single mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on contemporary theories of intimacy, this study explores the intimacy narratives and practices of single mothers at a time of, it is argued, social and cultural change in terms of intimacy. Narrative interviews of twenty-four single mothers draw out layers of personal, social and cultural complexity in terms of understanding, experiencing and making choices about intimacy in their everyday lives. The concept of ‘intimacy scripts’ (developed from Simon and Gagnon, 1973) is deployed to...

  3. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  4. We are mothers too: childbearing experiences of lesbian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Michelle T

    2007-01-01

    To describe lesbians' personal and health care experiences of becoming pregnant, giving birth, and being mothers and comothers within the context of potentially oppressive family, social, and political structures. Critical ethnography. Participants' homes, lesbian mother support group, and prenatal clinics and hospitals in the Pacific Northwest. English-speaking self-identified lesbian women, including 21 interview and six focus-group participants and approximately 43 observed in a support group. In-depth open-ended interviews, focus group, and participant observation. Content/categorical analysis followed by discussion of the mother's stories and a critical conversation about lesbian mothering. The seven organizing themes are as follows: preparing the way: becoming ready; conception: you can't just fall into it; you can hear a heartbeat: pregnancy; birthing our babies; the work of mothers and mothers who work; families who sustain and families who oppose; and sources of support in everyday life. The first four are described in this article. Health care providers, policy makers, and the public can be better informed about the specific needs of childbearing lesbians.

  5. Latino mothers' beliefs about child weight and family health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung E; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2017-04-01

    There is a need to address cultural beliefs and parenting practices regarding childhood obesity to design effective weight-control programmes for overweight/obese US Latino children. The purpose of the current study was to explore cultural beliefs about children's weight, understand parent perceptions on feeding their children, and explore barriers that interfere with a healthy lifestyle. Four focus groups were conducted in Spanish with forty-one Latino mothers of elementary school-age children from San Diego County, California between April and May 2011. Cultural viewpoints about overweight status among children and barriers to leading a healthy lifestyle were explored. Focus group discussions were analysed based on a priori and emergent themes. Three themes were identified: (i) mothers' cultural beliefs about health that are barriers to family health; (ii) mothers as primary caretakers of their family's health; and (iii) attitudes about targeting children's weight. Mothers acknowledged the idea that 'chubby is better' is a misperception, yet having a 'chubby' child was preferred and even accepted. Mothers described fatalistic beliefs that contradicted existing knowledge of chronic disease and daily demands of Western culture as barriers to practising healthy behaviours in the home as the family caretaker. These findings may be used to inform more culturally appropriate research to address US Latino health. Increasing awareness of cultural beliefs and daily circumstance could help to address obesity more directly and thereby overcome some of the potential underlying barriers that might exist when involving the Latino immigrant families in obesity treatment and prevention.

  6. Work-Family Facilitation and Conflict, Working Fathers and Mothers, Work-Family Stressors and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E. Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Work-family research frequently focuses on the conflict experienced by working mothers. Using data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 1,314), this study also examined work-family facilitation and working fathers. Ecological systems, family stress, family resilience, and sex role theories were used to organize the data and…

  7. Financial Well-Being of Single, Working-Age Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Dababnah, Sarah; Mayra, Ellen Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the financial well-being of single mothers who care for children with developmental disabilities is important to ensure that public policies can be effectively targeted to support these vulnerable families. The authors analyze data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to describe income poverty, asset poverty, income,…

  8. Comportamentos e práticas educativas maternas em famílias de mães solteiras e famílias nucleares Comportamientos y prácticas educativas maternas en familias de madres solteras y familias nucleares Maternal behavior and childrearing practices in single-mother families and two-parent families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Helena Marin

    2007-04-01

    -Whitney no reveló discrepancias significativas entre las familias para las categorías examinadas. Los resultados sugieren que las configuraciones familiares investigadas no afectan, necesariamente, los comportamientos y las prácticas educativas maternas, ni mucho menos los comportamientos infantiles.Eventual differences in maternal behavior, childrearing practices and children’s behaviors in single-mother and two-parent families are analyzed. Fourteen families, 7 constituted by single mothers (mother and child and 7 by married mothers (mother, father and child, selected in hospitals and health units of Porto Alegre RS Brazil, participated in the study. The families were matched according to age, education and socioeconomic level. Using a protocol with several categories an observation session of the family at lunchtime in the participants’ home, when the children were 30-36 months old, was used to examine the maternal behavior and childrearing practices, as well as the children’s behaviors. Mann-Whitney test indicated no significant differences between single and married mothers for the categories examined. Results suggest that the family structure investigated do not necessarily affect maternal behaviors, childrearing practices and children’s behaviors.

  9. Familial sarcoidosis: Report of a mother and her son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyıldız, Ekin; Kobak, Şenol

    2017-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic, multisystemic inflammatory disease, characterized with noncaseating granulomas. The pathogenesis of the disease is not yet clear, however, the main hypothesis is impaired and inadequate immune response developing against different environmental triggers in genetically predisposed people. The role of genetic factors in the development of sarcoidosis is well known. Over many years, familial sarcoidosis cases have been reported in various studies. In this report, we present familial sarcoidosis cases in a mother and her son.

  10. Family violence among mothers seen at the University of ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The attention given to family violence (FV) in primary medical care in Nigeria is still very insufficient in relation to its known adverse medical and psychosocial implications for women's health. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess the prevalence rate, correlates and effects of FV among mothers ...

  11. Family violence among mothers seen at the University of Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence against any member of a household or family by one of its members. Usually women and children ... correlates and effects of FV among mothers attending a primary care facility in Nigeria, with the aim ..... domestic violence in selected Igbo communities of Imo state, Nigeria. Afr J Reprod. Health 2002; 6(2): 101-14.

  12. 75 FR 60283 - Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... recognize the deep loss and great strength of those who share in that ultimate sacrifice: America's Gold... on in the people they loved. Their exceptional spirit of service dwells in the pride of Gold Star...

  13. Family functioning and the adolescent mother: a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, M; Baird, A; Jemail, J

    1986-01-01

    This study examines unwanted adolescent pregnancy and early childbearing within the context of the family system. Fifty pregnant adolescents and their families were interviewed prenatally and again during the postpartum period. Utilizing the concepts of structural family theory and therapy as described by Minuchin, certain characteristics of family style and structure of organization were rated. These family variables were then related to aspects of the adolescent mother's adaptation postpartum. Boundaries, in terms of degree of intrusiveness and differentiation, were related to such variables as whether the adolescent is maintained in the household and to her continuing relationship with the baby's father. Similarly, the family's style of dealing with conflict was related to the relationship between the adolescent parents, among other outcome variables. Implications of the findings both for working with these families and for further research are discussed, and issues are raised about hypothesized relationships between independent and dependent variables which were not borne out.

  14. Family Planning and Family Vision in Mothers after Diagnosis of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with…

  15. The birds, the bees, and the Bible: single African American mothers' perceptions of a faith-based sexuality educaton program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Judith Bacchus

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined single mothers' ideas on the development of a faith-based sexuality program. Twenty African American single mothers with adolescent children (11 to 13 years of age) who were of the same faith and members of one church, participated in two focus groups about how a faith-based sexuality program could be designed and implemented. The findings call attention to the need for research on the design of faith-based sexuality education programs for ethnic minority families headed by single mothers.

  16. Nutritional status and health profile among single mothers in Kota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... subjects have normal BMI, 6.0% of them fall in the category of underweight, 39.0% were overweight and 22.0% were obese. It is suggested that future intervention programs should focus on preventing obesity problems related to chronic diseases. Keywords: nutritional status; single mother; health profile; Kelantan; obesity ...

  17. A Supportive Service to Single Mothers and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Donna Tubach

    1977-01-01

    Describes a supportive program for single, young mothers in need of low-cost housing, job-training or schooling, social services and day care. Most enrollees gained a saleable skill and made progress in personal growth and the development of independent living skills. Techniques included a team approach and use of short-term contracts. (BF)

  18. Support for mothers, fathers and families after perinatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Laura; Wilson, Trish; Cacciatore, Joanne; Flenady, Vicki

    2013-06-19

    Provision of an empathetic, sensitive, caring environment and strategies to support mothers, fathers and their families experiencing perinatal death are now an accepted part of maternity services in many countries. Interventions such as psychological support or counselling, or both, have been suggested to improve outcomes for parents and families after perinatal death. To assess the effect of any form of intervention (i.e. medical, nursing, midwifery, social work, psychology, counselling or community-based) on parents and families who experience perinatal death. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 January 2013) and article bibliographies. Randomised trials of any form of support aimed at encouraging acceptance of loss, bereavement counselling, or specialised psychotherapy or counselling for mothers, fathers and families experiencing perinatal death. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility of trials. No trials were included. Primary healthcare interventions and a strong family and social support network are invaluable to parents and families around the time a baby dies. However, due to the lack of high-quality randomised trials conducted in this area, the true benefits of currently existing interventions aimed at providing support for mothers, fathers and families experiencing perinatal death is unclear. Further, the currently available evidence around the potential detrimental effects of some interventions (e.g. seeing and holding a deceased baby) remains inconclusive at this point in time. However, some well-designed descriptive studies have shown that, under the right circumstances and guided by compassionate, sensitive, experienced staff, parents' experiences of seeing and holding their deceased baby is often very positive. The sensitive nature of this topic and small sample sizes, make it difficult to develop rigorous clinical trials. Hence, other research designs may further inform practice in this area

  19. Types of work-related behavior and experiences and stress coping strategies among single mothers and mothers in relationships differentiating role of work satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napora, Elżbieta; Andruszkiewicz, Anna; Basińska, Małgorzata Anna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study has been to describe functioning of single and mothers in relationships (married or in informal relationships) at work and verify if the declared degree of work satisfaction differentiates types of behavior at work and stress coping strategies in both groups of mothers. The study was conducted on equal samples of single mothers (N = 186) and mothers from 2-parent families (N = 186) using Latack Coping Scale that measures work-related stress coping strategies, the AVEM (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster - Work-Related Behavior and Experience Pattern) questionnaire, and a survey. It showed similarity between the studied groups in terms of the measured variables. There were considerable differences between single and married mothers in terms of support seeking strategies. The interaction of work satisfaction and the type of motherhood significantly differentiates (p = 0.03) the avoidance strategy of resignation. That strategy of resignation was more frequently used by single mothers with lower work satisfaction, who were distinctly different from those whose work satisfaction was higher, and from the mothers in relationships (married or in informal relationships) (regardless of the level of their work satisfaction). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):55-69. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. [Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school.

  1. Infant sleep, parental sleep and parenting stress in families of mothers on maternity leave and in families of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Dana; Tikotzky, Liat

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the links between infants' sleep and their parents' sleep and to assess the links between infant/parent sleep and parenting stress. Furthermore, we explored whether the links between sleep and parenting stress are moderated by maternal leave status. Participants were 50 families with an infant between the ages of 4-5 months. Half of the mothers were on maternity leave while the others returned to work. Parents completed daily sleep logs about infants' and their own sleep for 4 consecutive nights. Each parent also completed the Parenting Stress Index. Infant sleep was associated with sleep of both mothers and fathers, but the correlations with maternal sleep were stronger. Parental perceptions of their infant's sleep as problematic were associated with higher parenting stress. Poorer infant and maternal sleep patterns were associated with parenting stress only in families with mothers on maternity leave, probably because these mothers need to provide intensive caregiving "around the clock" without sufficient opportunities to rest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Homelessness Pathways for Australian Single Mothers and Their Children: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Warburton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern about family homelessness. Homeless mothers and their children are one of society’s most disadvantaged and at-risk populations. However, very little Australian research exploring mothers’ views on their homelessness experiences exists. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 mothers and four agency staff, this study explored homeless Australian mothers’ pathways into and out of homelessness, their specific needs and the services and supports that were (or would have been most helpful. In this sample of single mothers and their children, early experiences of homelessness and domestic violence contributed most commonly to homelessness episodes. Almost immediate engagement with welfare agencies seemed to be protective against re-experiencing homelessness, however Australian restrictions on length of program involvement and limited housing options for mothers exiting homelessness programs, may place such mothers and their children at high risk of re-entering homelessness. Younger mothers had greater needs and benefited most from personalised one-on-one support that addressed key parenting and life skills. The implications of these findings are considered in relation to service delivery to this vulnerable group and avenues for future research are noted.

  3. Mothers Roles in Traditional and Modern Korean Families: The Consequences for Parental Practices and Adolescent Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-On; Hoppe-Graff, Siegfried

    2001-01-01

    Compares mothers' roles in socializing their children in traditional South Korean families with that of mothers' in modern families. While Confusion influence remains strong, significant changes in South Korean culture often create complex, ambiguous, and emotionally unstable relationships between mothers and their adolescent children. Discusses…

  4. Kinship Support, Family Relations, and Psychological Adjustment among Low-Income African American Mothers and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Eleanor; Dominguez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The association of kin social support with mothers' adjustment and family relations was assessed among 204 African American mothers and adolescents who were on average 14.45 years of age. Also examined was the association of mothers' adjustment with family relations and adolescents' adjustment. Findings revealed that kin social and emotional…

  5. Multiple birth families with children with special needs: a qualitative investigation of mothers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Christie E; Davis, Peter G; Umstad, Mark P; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-08-01

    Multiple birth remains prevalent, with prematurity and subsequent disability being common complications. However, little is known of the experiences of mothers living with the combined circumstances of multiple birth, prematurity, and special needs. This paper reports an exploratory study using the qualitative technique of thematic analysis, to describe and interpret the experiences of 10 mothers of prematurely born multiple birth children with diverse special needs. Mothers were shocked to learn they were carrying multiple fetuses, including those who underwent in vitro fertilization with dual embryo transfer. Most experienced protracted concern over one or more babies' survival during pregnancy, and prescribed bed rest was frequently associated with increased anxiety and other adverse psychological effects. Some experienced disenfranchised grief, such as those grieving the opportunity to bear a single child. The contrast with experiences of mothers of healthy, term singletons caused considerable distress. Feelings of detachment and unreality were common in the immediate postpartum period, possibly due to transient depersonalization. Having more than one newborn created practical and psychological problems during the neonatal period, particularly when infants were separated due to differences in medical status. The extent to which hospitals accommodated the multiple birth relationship varied and significantly affected mothers' postnatal experiences. Mothers often felt guilty, particularly regarding inequality of care and attention they were able to provide to each child. This was especially problematic for multiples discordant for special needs status. The presence of one normally developing child complicated adjustment to the other's difficulties, and several experienced chronic sorrow. Serious maternal mental health difficulties were common but not universal. Available formal supports were generally perceived as inadequate, addressing some, but not all, of the

  6. Children of surrogate mothers: psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Imrie, S

    2014-01-01

    What impact does surrogacy have on the surrogates' own children? The children of surrogate mothers do not experience any negative consequences as a result of their mother's decision to be a surrogate, irrespective of whether or not the surrogate uses her own egg. Participants were recruited as part of a study of the long-term effects of surrogacy for surrogates and their family members. Data were collected from 36 children of surrogates at a single time point. Participants whose mother had been a surrogate 5-15 years prior to interview and who were aged over 12 years were eligible to take part. Thirty-six participants (14 male and 22 female) aged 12-25 years were interviewed (response rate = 52%). Questionnaires assessing psychological health and family functioning were administered. Forty-four per cent (15) of participants' mothers had undergone gestational surrogacy, 39% (14) had used their own egg (genetic surrogacy) and 19% (7) had completed both types of surrogacy. Most surrogates' children (86%, 31) had a positive view of their mother's surrogacy. Forty-seven per cent (17) of children were in contact with the surrogacy child and all reported good relationships with him/her. Forty per cent (14) of children referred to the child as a sibling or half-sibling and this did not differ between genetic and gestational surrogacy. Most children (89%, 32), reported a positive view of family life, with all enjoying spending time with their mother. Mean scores on the questionnaire assessments of psychological health and self-esteem were within the normal range and did not differ by surrogacy type. The sample size for this study was relatively small and not all children chose to take part, therefore their views cannot be known. Nevertheless, this is the first study to assess the experiences of surrogacy from the perspective of the surrogates' own children. There may be some bias from the inclusion of siblings from the same family. Findings of this study show that family

  7. Mothers and meals. The effects of mothers' meal planning and shopping motivations on children's participation in family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, William Alex; Kubena, Karen S; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley R; Jan, Jie-sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2010-12-01

    Participation in family meals has been associated with benefits for health and social development of children. The objective of the study was to identify the impact of mothers' work of caring through planning regularly scheduled meals, shopping and cooking, on children's participation in family meals. Parents of children aged 9-11 or 13-15 years from 300 Houston families were surveyed about parents' work, meal planning for and scheduling of meals, motivations for food purchases, importance of family meals, and children's frequency of eating dinner with their families. The children were interviewed about the importance of eating family meals. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis to calculate indirect and total effects of variables on the outcome variable of frequency of children eating dinner with their family. Mothers' belief in the importance of family meals increased likelihood of children eating dinner with families by increasing likelihood that mothers planned dinner and that dinners were regularly scheduled. Mothers' perception of time pressures on meal preparation had a negative, indirect effect on the frequency of children's participation in family dinners by reducing mothers' meal planning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fertility, Mothers' Employment and Family Policy - what kind of relationship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    are women's employment pattern, the level of support for mothers in reconciling work and caring obligations provided by family policies and the cultural norms prevailing in the various European countries. In the paper we first give a short overview of a number of recent studies of the relationship fertility......The aim of this paper will be to explain the differences in birth rates among European countries by analysing how the level of fertility is related to a number of dimensions of importance for the work-life balance in the European households. The dimensions included in our analysis of fertility...

  9. Perceptions of Father Involvement Patterns in Teenage-Mother Families: Predictors and Links to Mothers' Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2005-01-01

    Based on adolescent mothers' reports, longitudinal patterns of involvement of young, unmarried biological fathers (n=77) in teenage-mother families using cluster analytic techniques were examined. Approximately one third of fathers maintained high levels of involvement over time, another third demonstrated low involvement at both time points, and…

  10. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Stoep, Ann Vander; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child’s diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling. PMID:26395237

  11. Mother-Daughter Conflict and Adjustment in Mexican-Origin Families: Exploring the Role of Family and Sociocultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Pflieger, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of mother-daughter conflict in both mothers' and daughters' adjustment. Drawing from ecologically oriented and person-environment fit models, the authors investigated how the family context, as defined by the transition to adolescent motherhood, and the sociocultural context, as measured by mother-daughter…

  12. Family quality of life in families affected by HIV: the perspective of HIV-positive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lapointe, Normand; Samson, Johanne; Otis, Joanne; Racicot, Caroline; Rodrigue, Carl; Lebouché, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    The HIV infection of a family member can impact family quality of life (FQoL). The objectives of this study are to (1) describe patterns of FQoL among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV) and (2) identify key factors associated with FQoL in families affected by HIV. Recruitment took place in HIV-specialized clinics and community organizations. A 100 MLHIV and 67 of their children participated in this study. Mothers were on average 40.8 years old and reported having an average of two dependent children at home (M = 2.1, SD = 1.0). Participating children were 16.2 years old, on average. Half of the children were boys (50.8%). More than half were aware of their mother's positive HIV status (68.2%) and 19.7% were diagnosed with HIV. All HIV-positive children were aware of their status. A latent profile analysis was performed on the five continuous indicators of FQoL, and three main profiles of self-reported FQoL among MLHIV were established: high FQoL (33%), moderate FQoL (58%), and low FQoL (9%). Among the mothers' characteristics, education, physical functioning, social support, and resilience increased FQoL, while anxiety and irritability decreased FQoL. Among the children's characteristics, resilience followed the FQoL profile. A trend was observed toward children's greater awareness of the mother's HIV status in high and low FQoL profiles. Additionally, irritability tended to be higher within the lower FQoL profile. FQoL profiles can be used to identify families needing special care, particularly for family interventions with both parents and children. Other relevant indicators must be studied (e.g., closeness and support between family members, availability and accessibility of care, family structure, father-child relationships, and medical condition of the mother) and longitudinal research conducted to estimate the direction of causality between FQoL profile and individual family member characteristics.

  13. Increased health risks of children with single mothers: the impact of socio-economic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharte, Marion; Bolte, Gabriele

    2013-06-01

    Adverse effects of single parenthood on children's health have been reported before. Socio-economic difficulties are discussed as mediating factors. As child health also depends on environmental conditions, we investigated the impact of environmental exposures and socio-economic factors on differences in health outcomes of children with single mothers vs. couple families. Data on 17,218 pre-school children (47% female) from three cross-sectional surveys conducted during 2004-07 in Germany were analysed. Health and exposure assessment were primarily based on parental report. Effects of socio-economic indicators (maternal education, household income) and environmental factors (traffic load at the place of residence, perceived environmental quality) on associations of four health outcomes (parent-reported health status, asthma, overweight, psychological problems) with single parenthood were determined by logistic regression analyses. Children with single mothers showed an increased risk regarding parent-reported poor health status [boys: odds ratio (OR) 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.82), girls: 1.73 (1.28-2.33)], psychological problems [boys: 1.90 (1.38-2.61), girls: 1.58 (1.03-2.42)], overweight [only boys: OR 1.23 (1.01-1.50) and asthma [only girls: OR 1.90 (1.15-3.15)]. Adjusting for socio-economic factors attenuated the strength of the association of family type with child health. Although environmental factors were associated with most health outcomes investigated and children of single mothers were more often exposed, these environmental factors did not alter the differences between children with single mothers and couple families. The increased health risks of children from single-mother families vs. couple families are partly explained by socio-economic factors, but not by the environmental exposures studied.

  14. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2014-07-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture.

  15. Mothers’ Part-time Employment: Associations with Mother and Family Well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    The associations between mothers’ part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children’s preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child-rearing years. PMID:22004432

  16. Maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Monica; Valentino, Kristin; McDonnell, Christina G; Speidel, Ruth

    2018-05-01

    In the current investigation, we examined associations between maternal attachment and the way that mothers and children discuss past emotional experiences (i.e., reminiscing) among 146 maltreating and 73 nonmaltreating mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children. Recent studies demonstrate that maltreating mothers engage in less elaborative reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating mothers. To further explicate the nature of reminiscing among maltreating families, we examined maternal and child contributions to reminiscing, their interrelations, and associations with maternal attachment among dyads from maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Maternal attachment is theoretically and empirically associated with mother-child reminiscing, and an insecure maternal attachment style was hypothesized to exacerbate poor elaborative reminiscing among maltreating families. Mothers and children reminisced about four emotional experiences. Maternal attachment was measured with the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire. Mothers and children from maltreating families engaged in less elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating dyads. Maternal attachment anxiety was negatively associated with maternal elaborative reminiscing, but only among nonmaltreating mothers. Mother-child reminiscing among dyads with nonmaltreating and low attachment anxiety mothers was highly collaborative; whereas reminiscing among dyads with maltreating and high attachment anxiety mothers was less reciprocal. Our findings largely support communicative perspectives of attachment theory and also indicate that maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal employment in a family context: effects on infant-mother and infant-father attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P L; Owen, M T

    1987-12-01

    The relation between resumption of full-time employment by mothers of infants under 6 months of age, and subsequent infant-mother and infant-father attachments, was examined in this study. Attachment classifications and ratings of reunion behavior with mother and with father in Ainsworth's Strange Situation at 12 months were obtained for 57 nonemployed-mother families and 40 employed-mother families. No relation emerged between maternal work status and the quality of infants' attachments to their mothers, indicating that early resumption of employment may not impede the development of secure infant-mother attachment. A significantly higher proportion of insecure attachments to fathers in employed-mother families was found for sons but not for daughters. Joint examination of the infants' attachments to both parents revealed a trend suggesting that in employed-mother families, boys were more likely to be insecurely attached to both parents than were girls in employed-mother families or infants of either sex in nonemployed-mother families. These patterns are discussed in light of differences in maternal and paternal sex-typing behavior and of evidence suggesting boys' vulnerability to psychosocial stress.

  18. “Raising Him … to Pull His Own Weight”: Boys’ Household Work in Single- Mother Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Clara W.; Romich, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine boys’ household work in low- and moderate-income single-mother families. Through describing the work that boys do, why they do this work, and the meaning that they and their mothers give to this work, they add to the understanding of housework as an arena for gender role reproduction or interruption. Their data reveal that adolescent boys did a significant amount of work and took pride in their competence. Mothers grounded their expectations of boys’ household contributions in life experience. They both needed their sons’ day-to-day contributions and wanted their sons to grow into men who were competent around the house and good partners. In demanding household work from their sons, these single mothers themselves work to undermine the traditional gendered division of such labor. PMID:22773881

  19. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  20. Mothers' Implicit Appraisals of Their Adolescents as Unlovable: Explanatory Factor Linking Family Conflict and Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Meredith J.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Romero, Christine V.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the consequences of negative change in mothers' implicit appraisals of their adolescents after engaging in a family disagreement. Participants included 194 mothers and their early adolescents (M[subscript age] = 12.4 at Wave 1; 50% female) followed over 1 year. Mothers' implicit appraisals of her child as "unlovable"…

  1. The First Teenage Pregnancy in the Family: Does It Affect Mothers' Parenting, Attitudes, or Mother-Adolescent Communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on study conducted to understand the consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing on the family. Study reveals changes in attitudes of the mothers of pregnant teens could create prime context for younger siblings to engage in delinquent or sexual behavior. Suggests the whole family participate in an intervention treatment to…

  2. Singled Out for Success: A Narrative Inquiry of Single Mothers in the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Delia A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand single-mother community college students' perceptions of their ability to succeed. The theoretical framework that guided this research was Bandura's (1977) social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy, defined as a person's belief in his or her ability to succeed. Given…

  3. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eDe Falco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  4. Everyday life and occupational deprivation in single migrant mothers living in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard, Kamilla; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Socio-economically disadvantaged single migrant mothers in Denmark risk poor health and social marginalisation, which affects participation in relevant occupations. Literature focusing on occupational deprivation in vulnerable groups such as migrants is sparse. Aim/objectives......ABSTRACT Background: Socio-economically disadvantaged single migrant mothers in Denmark risk poor health and social marginalisation, which affects participation in relevant occupations. Literature focusing on occupational deprivation in vulnerable groups such as migrants is sparse. Aim....../objectives: To explore how single migrant mothers experience their living conditions and the significance of those conditions on their exclusion from everyday life occupations. Material and methods: In-depth interviews were used to find how occupational deprivation manifests in the everyday lives of three women. Based...... the women of participation in social and work-related occupations. The women handled these conditions by trying to create a well-functioning family life. Conclusions and significance: Experiences of occupational deprivation take place in interaction with cultural norms, social position and lack of social...

  5. Person-environment fit: everyday conflict and coparenting conflict in Mexican-origin teen mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether a match or mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation and the cultural context of the family (i.e., familial ethnic socialization) predicted mother-daughter everyday and coparenting conflict, and in turn, teen mothers' adjustment. Participants were 204 Mexican-origin teen mothers (M age = 16.81 years; SD = 1.00). Consistent with a person-environment fit perspective, findings indicated that a mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation (i.e., high mainstream cultural involvement) and the cultural context of the family (i.e., higher levels of familial ethnic socialization) predicted greater mother-daughter everyday conflict and coparenting conflict 1 year later. However, when there was a match (i.e., high levels of familial ethnic socialization for teen mothers with high Mexican orientation), familial ethnic socialization was not associated with mother-daughter conflict. In addition, mother-daughter conflict was positively associated with depressive symptoms and engagement in risky behaviors 1 year later among all teen mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Homeless mothers with severe mental illnesses and their children: predictors of family reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D; Rosenheck, R

    2001-01-01

    Although many homeless women lose physical custody of children, prior studies have not examined predictors of reunification. To explore factors associated with separation and potential resources for reunification, baseline data from 1,542 homeless women with mental illness were used to identify unique characteristics of separated mothers. Separated mothers demonstrated greater vulnerabilities than accompanied mothers did, but more resources than women who are not mothers did. Of 698 separated mothers, 118 (17%) were reunited with children at 12 months. Changes in housing, psychosis, substance use and therapeutic relationships predicted reunification. Results suggest that programs for homeless mothers with severe mental illness can affect changes that promote family reunification.

  7. Space and power: young mothers' management of smoking in extended families in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Aimei

    2013-05-01

    Multigenerational co-residence is a widespread phenomenon in China but there is little knowledge about the impact of power dynamics on smoking behaviors among extended family residents. Using a gender lens, this ethnographic study explored how young mothers in extended families in mainland China managed the smoking of their husbands and other family members. Analysis of data resulted in a model of 'two units-three domains' to reflect gendered relationships between young mothers and other family members, and young mothers' participation in family management. Exploration of the mothers' efforts to deal with household smoking using the model provided an explanation for why the young mothers had limited control over household space and could only impose partial restrictions on home smoking in the extended family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pregnancy in women suffering from familial hypercholesterolemia: a harmful period for both mother and newborn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avis, Hans J.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Twickler, Marcel Th B.; Kastelein, John J. P.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Stalenhoef, Anton F.; Vissers, Maud N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review aims to highlight the consequences for mother and child of profound hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy of women with familial hypercholesterolemia. Recent findings Familial hypercholesterolemia is increasingly diagnosed in younger patients due to the existence

  9. Pregnancy in women suffering from familial hypercholesterolemia: a harmful period for both mother and newborn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avis, H.J.; Hutten, B.A.; Twickler, T.B.; Kastelein, J.J.; Post, J.A. van der; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Vissers, M.N.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to highlight the consequences for mother and child of profound hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy of women with familial hypercholesterolemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Familial hypercholesterolemia is increasingly diagnosed in younger patients due to the

  10. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - National Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  11. Work-family conflict and work engagement among mothers: Conscientiousness and neuroticism as moderators

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy J. Opie; Carolina M. Henn

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: The study investigates factors that impact work-family conflict and work engagement among working mothers. Research purpose: The job demand-resources model is utilised to investigate the moderating role of conscientiousness and neuroticism on the relationship between work-family conflict and work engagement. Motivation for the study: Working mothers are challenged to establish a balance between work and family life. The resulting work-family conflict can negatively affect ...

  12. Mentor mother support for mothers experiencing intimate partner violence in family practice: A qualitative study of three different perspectives on the facilitators and barriers of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, Maartje J W; Daemen, Jasper; Wester, Fred P J F; Laurant, Miranda G H; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent and associated with physical and mental health problems. Mentor mother support is a low threshold intervention in family practice consisting of support by non-professionals trained to support mothers experiencing IPV. A mentor mother support study showed reduced exposure to IPV and decreased symptoms of depression. Identify factors determining implementation success of mentor mother support in family practice. Individual interviews were conducted with 12 family physicians, 16 abused mothers and three mentor mothers. Four mentor mothers participated in a focus group. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The identification and discussion of abuse is hindered by family physicians' attitudes because they considered mothers experiencing IPV as a difficult target group with a responsibility of their own to break out of their violent situation. Some family physicians doubted the partner's violence because he was known as a patient as well. Acceptance of mentor mother support is related to the readiness for change of mothers experiencing IPV. Mentor mothers facilitate acceptance and completion of their support by connecting as a friend who is equal and less threatening than professionals. To improve successful implementation of mentor mother support in primary care, we should focus on family physicians' attitudes towards IPV. To change these attitudes, we recommend continuous training of family physicians. By being paraprofessional friends, mentor mothers offer low threshold support that is complementary to professional support and should be embedded more widely in primary care. [Box: see text].

  13. The children of homosexual and heterosexual single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, G A

    1993-01-01

    Children reared in homes headed by homosexual and heterosexual mothers were compared with respect to the mothers' and children's attitudes towards marriage, procreation and homosexuality. The mothers did not prefer their children to be homosexual; they desired them to marry and procreate. This was expressed more unambiguously for their sons. The children mirrored these expectations, boys with greater frequency than the girls. Most of the children expressed reservations about having a homosexual mother.

  14. Perjuangan Tokoh Aoyagi Koharu sebagai Single Mother di Jepang dalam Drama Woman Karya Sutradara Nobuo Mizuta

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELINA, BUANA MARCHEL

    2014-01-01

    Angelina, Buana Marchel. 2014. “PERJUANGAN TOKOH AOYAGI KOHARU SEBAGAI SINGLE MOTHER DI JEPANG DALAM DRAMA WOMAN KARYA SUTRADARA NOBUO MIZUTA”, Program Studi Sastra Jepang, Jurusan Bahasa dan Sastra, Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Brawijaya.Pembimbing : (1) Eka Marthanty Indah Lestari, M.Si (2) Iizuka Tasuku, MAKata Kunci: Drama, Perjuangan, Single Mother, Masyarakat Jepang.Skripsi ini membahas tentang perjuangan single mother dalam drama Woman. Perjuangan merupakan sebuah USAha atau ...

  15. Minimum Wages and the Economic Well-Being of Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    Using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1992 to 2005 March Current Population Survey (CPS), this study examines the relationship between minimum wage increases and the economic well-being of single mothers. Estimation results show that minimum wage increases were ineffective at reducing poverty among single mothers. Most working single mothers…

  16. Values transferred and cherished by mothers in the rural families in the Polish Second Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA JÓZEFOWICZ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Polish Second Republic, so in the country rebom afiter one hundred twenty three years of captivity, the role of a woman as a woman-mother, was significantly emphasized. Press, literature, researchers have proved that safety and order in the whole country depend on safety and order in individual families. The key notion became: „from education of a mother to education of a child”. While analyzing sources such as newspapers, magazines, diaries, guidebooks, I noticed the following values for which mothers in rural families were held to be responsible: 1 ,value of work connected with obligation in farm and household, so role of mother asahousewife; 2.the value of the family as a community and the mother's role in it. Mother was the first protector, tutor, patron of a child. Mother took care of child and other members in the family, she helped them, she guaranteed the positive atmosphere at home, took care of safety in a wide context. It was significant that mother appealed in the process of socialization to common traditions and experiences; 3.value of education and social consciousness, so the role of the mother in shaping social consciousness; 4.patriotic value, so the role of the mother in shaping patriotic attitude

  17. Psychological peculiarities and family emotional communications of the mothers of drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. V. Bereza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to study of peculiarities of emotional communication in families of drug addicts as well as personal characteristics of their mothers, and possible violations in receiving of social assistance. 91 families have been surveyed: 30 families of healthy individuals and 61 families of patients with drug addiction. Survey included: level of co-dependence, the intensity of psychopathological symptoms, level of anxiety and depressive experience of the mothers of drug addicts, their styles of emotional communication and level of social assistance. Study revealed the negative styles of emotional communications in the parent families of drug addicts in comparison with the styles of emotional communications in the families of healthy persons. The mothers of drug addicts differed from the mothers of healthy persons with increased level of paranoid features, suspiciousness, high hostility, anxiety, increased number of phobic fears and obsessions; they are less socially integrated, and are reluctant to seek emotional and instrumental support from others. 

  18. Family meals and eating practices among mothers in Santos, Brazil: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Pereira, Patrícia Rocha; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates family meals among mothers and explores associations between eating with family and sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, and eating practices. A population-based cross-sectional study, using complex cluster-sampling, was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil with 439 mothers. Frequency of family meals was assessed by asking if mothers did or did not usually have a) breakfast, b) lunch, and c) dinner with family. Linear regression analyses were conducted for the number of meals eaten with family per day and each of the potential explanatory variables, adjusting for the mother's age. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze each factor associated with eating with family as classified categorically: a) sharing meals with family, b) not eating any meals with family. Only 16.4% (n = 72) of participants did not eat any meals with family. From the 83.6% (n = 367) of mothers that had at least one family meal per day, 69.70% (n = 306) ate dinner with their families. Mothers aged ≥40 years reported significantly fewer meals eaten with family compared to mothers aged 30-39 years (β: -0.26, p = 0.04). Having family meals was 54% more prevalent among mothers with ≥12 years of education (PR for no meals eaten with family: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30; 0.96, p = 0.03), when compared to mothers with less than nine years of education. Eating no meals with family was 85% more prevalent among mothers who reported that eating was one of the biggest pleasures in their lives (PR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.21; 2.82, p = 0.004). We suggest the need for further research investigating the effects of family meals on mothers' health through nutritional and phenomenological approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Child feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers of Indonesian middle class urban families: what are the problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers with children (aged 12-36 months) of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver in Indonesian urban middle class families. It was designed as a qualitative multiple case study. Mothers and caregivers from 26 families were interviewed in depth, and caregivers were categorized as family and domestic-paid caregivers. The result suggested that offering formula milk to young children was a common practice, and there was a high recognition and familiarity toward a range of formula milk brands. Mothers reported challenges in encouraging their children to eat, and in some cases they appeared to lack knowledge on overcoming their child's feeding problem. The findings suggested the need to address the child feeding problems experienced by mothers in order to overcome the double burden of child nutrition in Indonesia.

  20. Mothers', fathers' and children's perceptions of parents' expectations about children's family obligations in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Alampay, Liane Peña; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat

    2016-10-01

    Children's family obligations involve assistance and respect that children are expected to provide to immediate and extended family members and reflect beliefs related to family life that may differ across cultural groups. Mothers, fathers and children (N = 1432 families) in 13 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand and United States) reported on their expectations regarding children's family obligations and parenting attitudes and behaviours. Within families, mothers and fathers had more concordant expectations regarding children's family obligations than did parents and children. Parenting behaviours that were warmer, less neglectful and more controlling as well as parenting attitudes that were more authoritarian were related to higher expectations regarding children's family obligations between families within cultures as well as between cultures. These international findings advance understanding of children's family obligations by contextualising them both within families and across a number of diverse cultural groups in 9 countries. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. How to stimulate single mothers on welfare to find a job : Evidence from a policy experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoef, M.G.; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from a policy experiment in which single mothers on welfare were stimulated to enter the labor market and increase their work experience. The aim of the policy was not per se for single mothers to leave welfare completely but to encourage them to find a job if only a part-time

  2. Single Black Working Mothers' Perceptions: The Journey to Achieve Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglin, Sherrell

    2017-01-01

    Single Black working mothers faced significant challenges in achieving high-level or senior-level leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to collect, analyze and code the stories told by 10 participants to understand the perceptions and insights of the challenges and barriers single Black working mothers faced in…

  3. The Power of a Single Mother: The Influence of Black Women on Their Sons' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Quintin L.; Werblow, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the ways single Black mothers contribute to the educational success of their 11th-grade sons, despite the fact that their sons are enrolled in "failing schools." Data from five interviews and one focus group reveal common characteristics of how single-Black mothers help their sons beat the odds.

  4. Respite Care for Single Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Christensen, Ruthann; Harper, James M.; Mandleco, Barbara; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2016-01-01

    Single mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders are rarely studied, yet they may experience unique stressors. Researchers asked 122 single mothers to complete questionnaires concerning respite care, daily hassles/uplifts, depression, and caregiver burden. More than half (59.8%) accessed respite care, which was provided for 1h per day,…

  5. Experience of Parenthood, Couple Relationship, Social Support, and Child-Rearing Goals in Planned Lesbian Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Van Den Boom, Dymphna C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The phenomenon of planned lesbian families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) is relatively new and very little research has been conducted among those families. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether planned lesbian mother families differ from heterosexual families on…

  6. A genome wide linkage scan for dizygotic twinning in 525 families of mothers of dizygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jodie N; Willemsen, Gonneke; Nyholt, Dale; Hoekstra, Chantal; Duffy, David L; Henders, Anjali K; Wallace, Leanne; Healey, Sue; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Skolnick, Mark; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I; Montgomery, Grant W

    2010-06-01

    The tendency to conceive dizygotic (DZ) twins is a complex trait influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To search for new candidate loci for twinning, we conducted a genome-wide linkage scan in 525 families using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism marker panels. Non-parametric linkage analyses, including 523 families containing a total of 1115 mothers of DZ twins (MODZT) from Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) and The Netherlands (NL), produced four linkage peaks above the threshold for suggestive linkage, including a highly suggestive peak at the extreme telomeric end of chromosome 6 with an exponential logarithm of odds [(exp)LOD] score of 2.813 (P = 0.0002). Since the DZ twinning rate increases steeply with maternal age independent of genetic effects, we also investigated linkage including only families where at least one MODZT gave birth to her first set of twins before the age of 30. These analyses produced a maximum expLOD score of 2.718 (P = 0.0002), largely due to linkage signal from the ANZ cohort, however, ordered subset analyses indicated this result is most likely a chance finding in the combined dataset. Linkage analyses were also performed for two large DZ twinning families from the USA, one of which produced a peak on chromosome 2 in the region of two potential candidate genes. Sequencing of FSHR and FIGLA, along with INHBB in MODZTs from two large NL families with family specific linkage peaks directly over this gene, revealed a potentially functional variant in the 5' untranslated region of FSHR that segregated with the DZ twinning phenotype in the Utah family. Our data provide further evidence for complex inheritance of familial DZ twinning.

  7. Relationships between psychosocial factors and abusive parenting attitudes in low-income single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, Melanie

    2002-01-01

    Linkages among family violence, maternal mental health, and parenting attitudes are not clearly understood. To investigate the relationships of abuse (childhood and/or partner), everyday stressors, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anger with abusive parenting attitudes. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in interviews with 53 low-income, single mothers from wave two of a 3-wave study. A conceptual framework and bivariate correlations guided a series of multiple regressions to identify the best predictors for each variable. A high prevalence of abuse, depressive symptoms, and abusive parenting attitudes was found. Few women had ever received mental health treatment. Abuse (partner and childhood physical) predicted higher everyday stressors which in turn predicted lower self-esteem. Childhood abuse and lower self-esteem predicted more depressive symptoms. More depressive symptoms were related to higher levels of state anger. More everyday stressors and more depressive symptoms predicted higher levels of trait anger. Higher levels of anger expression were associated with higher everyday stressors and lower self-esteem. The presence of partner abuse best predicted higher levels of overall abusive parenting attitudes and more parent-child role reversal. Less parental empathy was associated with higher levels of state anger. This study partially explains the relationships of maternal abuse history and mental health status with parenting attitudes. Other predictors of parenting attitudes remain to be identified. The findings underscore the need for healthcare providers to consider the mental health status and abuse histories of low-income, single mothers. The potential disturbance in the parenting process of single mothers in abusive relationships warrants further investigation.

  8. Learning Processes Associated with Panic-Related Symptoms in Families with and without Panic Disordered Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Munsch, Simone; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared learning processes associated with panic-related symptoms in families with and without panic disordered mothers. Using a multi-informant approach, 86 mothers [of whom 58 had a primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD)], their partners and teenage children (mean age, 16.67 years) reported about parents' behavior (modeling…

  9. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment among Chinese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…

  10. Mothers' and Fathers' Couple and Family Contextual Influences, Parent Involvement, and School-Age Child Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly couples in two-parent families share the dual responsibilities of parenting and providing for their children financially. Parenting is embedded within and shaped by specific family contexts. This study examined 92 mothers' and fathers' responses on indices of couple and family contexts, parent involvement, and child-reported…

  11. Using social marketing to understand the family dinner with working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; DeBate, Rita D; Walvoord, Ashley G; Melton, Stephanie T; Himmelgreen, David; Allen, Tammy D; McDermott, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    The family dinner is a valued tradition that affords opportunities for social interaction and attachment, as well as sharing events of the day, role modeling, connectedness, and problem solving. Guided by the social-marketing framework, this study explored factors associated with the frequency of the family dinner among working mothers with children ages 8-11 years. A qualitative design was used, employing focus groups and Atlas-ti software for thematic analysis. Lack of time, cost, and exhaustion/lack of energy emerged as barriers. Working mothers indicated that a youth-based organization operating as a community partner could increase the frequency of the family dinner by helping with homework completion during after-school care, thereby providing mothers with the time necessary to prepare dinner. This research identified both community partners and working mothers as valued resources for prevention strategies. Interventions developed to increase family dinner frequency should emphasize the perceived value while decreasing the costs/barriers.

  12. 3 CFR 8422 - Proclamation 8422 of September 25, 2009. Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... They endured extreme hardship so that we might enjoy freedom. They made the ultimate sacrifice so that... ceremonies as a public expression of our Nation's sympathy and respect for our Gold Star Mothers and Families...

  13. Mother-child separations among homeless and housed families receiving public assistance in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowal, Kirsten; Shinn, Marybeth; Weitzman, Beth C; Stojanovic, Daniela; Labay, Larissa

    2002-10-01

    We examined the incidence, characteristics, and predictors of separations of children from mothers in 543 poor families receiving public assistance, 251 of whom had experienced homelessness during the previous 5 years. Forty-four percent of the homeless mothers and 8% of housed mothers were separated from one or more children. A total of 249 children were separated from 110 homeless families and 34 children from 23 housed families. Children were placed with relatives and in foster care but were rarely returned to their mothers. Maternal drug dependence, domestic violence, and institutionalization predicted separations, but homelessness was the most important predictor, equivalent in size to 1.9 other risk factors. We infer that policies regarding child welfare and substance abuse treatment should be changed to reduce unnecessary placements. Studies of homeless children who remain with families may be biased if separated children are excluded.

  14. Work, family, support, and depression: employed mothers in Israel, Korea, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Karen M; Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; Yoo, Sung-Kyung; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Han, Young-Joo

    2014-07-01

    Our research revealed differences in work-family constructs for employed mothers in 3 countries, Israel (N = 105), Korea (N = 298), and the United States (N = 305). Although levels of work-family conflict were comparable, the Korean women had the lowest levels of work-family enrichment compared with the Israeli and American mothers. Moreover, Korean women reported the most depression and the least support from both spouses and employers. Spousal support mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and depression for employed mothers in Israel, Korea, and the United States. As hypothesized by conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989, 1998, 2001), threat of resource loss (operationalized as work-family conflict) was related to depression more strongly than was resource gain (i.e., work-family enrichment). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Externalizing Problems in African American Single-Mother Homes: A Person-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T.; Jones, Deborah J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, variability in youth outcomes as well. The current study demonstrated that within African American single-mother families: (a) a person-, rather than variable-, oriented approach to measuring parenting style may further elucidate variability; (b) socioeconomic status may provide 1 context within which to understanding variability in parenting style; and (c) 1 marker of socioeconomic status, income, and parenting style may each explain variability in youth externalizing problems; however, the interaction between income and parenting style was not significant. Findings have potential implications for better understanding the specific contexts in which externalizing problems may be most likely to occur within this at-risk and underserved group. PMID:26053349

  16. Nonstandard Work Schedules, Family Dynamics, and Mother-Child Interactions During Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Kate C

    2018-03-01

    The rising number of parents who work nonstandard schedules has led to a growing body of research concerned with what this trend means for children. The negative outcomes for children of parents who work nonstandard schedules are thought to arise from the disruptions these schedules place on family life, and thus, the types of parenting that support their children's development, particularly when children are young. Using a nationally representative sample of two-parent families (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort, n = 3,650), this study examined whether mothers' and their partners' nonstandard work schedules were associated with mothers' parenting when children were 2 and 4 years old. Structural equation models revealed that mothers' and their partners' nonstandard work schedules were associated with mothers' lower scores on measures of positive and involved parenting. These associations were mediated by fathers' lower levels of participation in cognitively supportive parenting and greater imbalance in cognitively supportive tasks conducted by mothers versus fathers.

  17. Differences between Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Functioning with the Family Assessment Device: The Validity of Combined Parent Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Dawson; Marais, Ida; Cavanagh, Robert; Kendall, Garth; Priddis, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device were examined using the Rasch Model (N = 237 couples). Mothers' and fathers' ratings of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device are recommended, provided these are analyzed separately. More than a quarter of…

  18. Mothers in "incest families": a critique of blame and its destructive sequels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J

    1996-09-01

    This paper critically reviewed the blame-oriented explanations of mothers' roles in father-daughter incest, which was contrasted with feminist reassessments in a sociopolitical context. The concept of the dysfunctional family forms the matrix in which views of blaming the mother take life. The mother is characterized as the ¿cornerstone¿ of the family dynamics that create and maintain the incestuous behavior of the spouse. Several categories of maternal behavior were reported to set up conditions in the family for father-daughter incest, including the contention that the mother colludes in the abuse either by unconscious passivity or by active conscious involvement in arranging the act. In addition, the mother's alleged inadequacies in the areas of intimacy and sexuality are often viewed as central factors in the dynamics of father-daughter incest. Identified as additional victims in the complex matrix of family and community, mothers are revictimized by the clinical establishment that upholds the unconscious patriarchal ideology underlying violence against women. Clinicians need to validate and support mothers in their ¿disenfranchised grief¿ so they can help their daughters to heal, and to design and lobby for programs that will promote social changes that are necessary for a more egalitarian society.

  19. Everyday life and occupational deprivation in single migrant mothers living in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard, Kamilla; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne

    2018-01-01

    on Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation, data were analysed and the meaning structures, in the form of three themes, were identified. Results: The societal and individual conditions of women’s everyday lives interact in a complex interplay, where immigration, illness and divorce, in particular, deprive...... the women of participation in social and work-related occupations. The women handled these conditions by trying to create a well-functioning family life. Conclusions and significance: Experiences of occupational deprivation take place in interaction with cultural norms, social position and lack of social....../objectives: To explore how single migrant mothers experience their living conditions and the significance of those conditions on their exclusion from everyday life occupations. Material and methods: In-depth interviews were used to find how occupational deprivation manifests in the everyday lives of three women. Based...

  20. Family meals. Associations with weight and eating behaviors among mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-06-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n=3488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Guia de Recursos para la Madre Sola. (Resource Guide for the Single Mother).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Major, Marilyn; Vrana, Margaret; Whitehouse, John; Bianchi, Mary Ann; Spath, Barry; Williams, Marian; Bones, David; Morar, Betty; Newbert, David

    Funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act, the Assertiveness Training Program for Single Mothers was offered to mothers with children enrolled in the Omaha Head Start and Parent-Child Center Programs. The 16-week long program, providing a total of 40 hours of training, covered a wide range of topics in addition to the initial workshops on…

  2. Doulas' Perceptions on Single Mothers' Risk and Protective Factors, and Aspirations Relative to Child-Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…

  3. Mothers and fathers : parenting practices in families with two children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth Theodora

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the studies presented in this dissertation is to provide insight in the differences and similarities between mothers' and fathers' parenting practices. Further, this dissertation examines the effect of biological factors (i.e., parental sex hormones) and child factors (i.e.,

  4. Patterns and Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discrepancies across Family Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Wendy M; Smetana, Judith G

    2016-10-01

    Parent-child discrepancies pervade the family literature; they appear in reports of relationship dynamics (e.g., conflict; Laursen et al. 1998), parent and child behaviors (e.g., monitoring; De Los Reyes et al. 2010), and individual family members' beliefs (e.g., parental legitimate authority; Smetana 2011). Discrepancies are developmentally normative (Steinberg 2001) but also may be indicators of relationship and adjustment problems for teens (Ohannessian 2012). Because of this variation, it is important to consider the extent to which parent-child discrepancies are a function of both the dyad and the family construct considered. The present study contributed to our understanding of informant discrepancies in family relationships by considering the patterning, consistency, and correlates of mother-adolescent discrepancies across three family constructs that vary in their objectivity. Using person-centered analyses, discrepancies in adolescents' and mothers' ratings of parents' right to know about teens' activities, mothers' knowledge of them, and positive mother-adolescents relationships were examined in 167 middle class, primarily European American mother-adolescent dyads (M teen age = 15.68 years, SD = .64, 53 % female). Each construct was best described by three profiles, one where adolescents' standardized ratings were consistently higher than mothers', one showing the reverse, and one revealing little disagreement. Adolescent-reported problem behavior (but not depression), behavioral and psychological control, and mothers' wellbeing significantly predicted profile membership. Most dyads maintained consistent membership in a discrepancy profile across at least two family constructs. Results contribute to understanding the different sources of discrepancies in views of the family.

  5. Work-Family Relations among Mothers of Children with Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2008-01-01

    The study examined conflict and facilitation in work-family relations among working mothers of children with learning disorders (LD) or with typical development. The study also focused on three maternal personal resources (maternal anxious/avoidant attachment security, affect and sense of coherence) as antecedents of these work-family relations,…

  6. Perceived family stress, parenting efficacy, and child externalizing behaviors in second-generation immigrant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-04-01

    Examining family stress and parenting efficacy in relation to child externalizing problems in immigrant families. In this study, we compared the levels of family stress, parenting efficacy, and toddler externalizing behaviors in Dutch (n = 175) and second-generation Turkish immigrant families (n = 175) living in the Netherlands. In addition, the influence of Turkish mothers' acculturation on toddler externalizing behaviors and its association with perceived stress and efficacy were examined. Turkish mothers reported higher levels of daily stress and marital discord than Dutch mothers, but did not differ in perceptions of parenting efficacy and children's externalizing behaviors. The associations between child and family variables were similar in the Dutch and the Turkish groups, as more family stress was related to more externalizing behaviors in toddlers. Low parenting efficacy was the most important predictor of child externalizing behaviors in both groups. Acculturation of Turkish mothers was not associated with family and child variables, and did not moderate the association between family variables and child externalizing behaviors. However, emotional connectedness to the Turkish culture was related to less daily stress and fewer marital problems. The results support the no-group differences hypothesis and also imply that cultural maintenance may be adaptive for parental well-being.

  7. Fertility Related Attitudes of Minority Mothers with Large and Small Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Margaret W.; And Others

    The relationship between certain attitudes and the levels of fertility in five cultural groups was explored in this study. The group studied were blacks, Cubans, American Indians, migrant Chicanos, and white Protestants. Mothers, aged 35-45, with one or two children (small family) or five children (large family) were compared. Attitudes measured…

  8. Mothers' work-family conflict and enrichment: associations with parenting quality and couple relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Westrupp, E; Strazdins, L; Giallo, R; Martin, A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-03-01

    Employment participation of mothers of young children has steadily increased in developed nations. Combining work and family roles can create conflicts with family life, but can also bring enrichment. Work-family conflict and enrichment experienced by mothers may also impact children's home environments via parenting behaviour and the couple relationship, particularly in the early years of parenting when the care demands for young children is high. In order to examine these associations, while adjusting for a wide range of known covariates of parenting and relationship quality, regression models using survey data from 2151 working mothers of 4- to 5-year-old children are reported. Results provided partial support for the predicted independent relationships between work-family conflict, enrichment and indicators of the quality of parenting and the couple relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mothers' work–family conflict and enrichment: associations with parenting quality and couple relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Westrupp, E; Strazdins, L; Giallo, R; Martin, A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-01-01

    Background Employment participation of mothers of young children has steadily increased in developed nations. Combining work and family roles can create conflicts with family life, but can also bring enrichment. Work–family conflict and enrichment experienced by mothers may also impact children's home environments via parenting behaviour and the couple relationship, particularly in the early years of parenting when the care demands for young children is high. Methods In order to examine these associations, while adjusting for a wide range of known covariates of parenting and relationship quality, regression models using survey data from 2151 working mothers of 4- to 5-year-old children are reported. Results/Conclusion Results provided partial support for the predicted independent relationships between work–family conflict, enrichment and indicators of the quality of parenting and the couple relationship. PMID:24673505

  10. Child Care Choices and Children's Cognitive Achievement: The Case of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Bernal; Michael P. Keane

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of child care versus maternal time inputs on child cognitive development using single mothers from the NLSY79. To deal with nonrandom selection of children into child care, we exploit the exogenous variation in welfare policy rules facing single mothers. In particular, the 1996 welfare reform and earlier state-level policy changes generated substantial increases in their work/child care use. We construct a comprehensive set of welfare policy variables and use them as in...

  11. Vulnerability within families headed by teen and young adult mothers investigated by child welfare services in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdestad, W; Shields, M; Williams, G; Tonmyr, L

    2015-01-01

    Young mothers' families are at increased risk of child maltreatment and other poor health and social outcomes. Chi-square analyses of pooled child welfare services data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003; CIS-2008) were used to compare 284 teen mothers (18 years or younger) and 800 young mothers (19-21 years) and their families with 5752 families where the mother was 22 years or older. Twenty-six percent of young mothers were 18 years or younger. Most (68% of teen-mother families and 57% of families with a young adult mother) received social assistance as their main source of income compared with 36% of families with a mother aged 22 years or older. Teen and young adult mothers were more likely than those aged 22 or older to have childhood histories of out-of-home care (31% and 23% vs. 10%) and were more likely to have risk factors such as alcohol abuse (25% and 23% vs. 18%) and few social supports (46% and 41% vs. 37%). Secondary caregivers in families with young mothers also had more risk factors. Teen and young adult mother families were more likely to have their child placed out-of-home during the investigation (29% and 27% vs. 17%). All were equally likely to be victims of domestic violence and to have mental health issues. Within this sample of high-risk families, young mothers' families were more at risk than comparison families. Mothers' youth may be a useful criterion to identify families for targeted interventions.

  12. Familial occurrence of signs of temporomandibular disorders in headache children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Marjo-Riitta; Aromaa, Minna; Bell, Yrsa Le; Jämsä, Tapio; Helenius, Hans; Virtanen, Ruut; Anttila, Pirjo; Metsähonkala, Liisa; Rautava, Päivi; Alanen, Pentti; Sillanpää, Matti

    2007-06-01

    Earlier studies have provided evidence of genetic inheritance of headache, especially migraine, but no familial occurrence has been found regarding temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In adults, headache and TMD have been found to be associated with each other, but studies on children are few. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there is no association between signs of TMD in 13-year-old headache children and their mothers. The study population was a nested case-control study of the population-based Finnish Family Competence Study originally consisting of over 1000 families. A structured questionnaire was sent to the families of 6-year-old children. A clinical examination was performed in 96 children with headache and 96 pairwise controls. At the age of 13 years, 75 of these same 96 children with headache and 79 of 96 headache-free controls participated in pediatric and stomatognathic examinations. Moreover, the mothers (n=154) filled in a structured headache questionnaire and participated in the stomatognathic examination. No association between mother's and child's TMD signs was found. There was a significant association between signs of TMD and both migraine and tension-type headache in children. In mothers, the association was significant only between migraine and TMD signs. Familial occurrence of signs of TMD cannot be found in headache children and their mothers.

  13. Familial occurrence of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia in a mother and her son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgung, June; Kwak, Jae-Jin; Choe, Hyunmin; Kwon, Sung Uk; Doh, Joon Hyung; Lee, Sung Yun; Lee, Won Ro

    2012-10-01

    Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), caused by a reentry circuit involving fast and slow atrioventricular nodal pathways, is one of the most common types of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias. While familial Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome has been well recognized, familial AVNRT has been rarely reported. We report a familial occurrence of AVNRT in a mother and her son, who were symptomatic and successfully treated with radiofrequency catheter ablation of slow pathway.

  14. Accentuate the Positive to Mitigate the Negative: Mother Psychological Coping Resources and Family Adjustment in Childhood Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trute, Barry; Benzies, Karen M.; Worthington, Catherine; Reddon, John R.; Moore, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mothers' cognitive appraisal of the family impact of childhood disability and their positive affect as a psychological coping resource, both key elements of the process model of stress and coping, were tested as explanatory variables of family adjustment. Method: In a sample of Canadian families, 195 mothers of children with…

  15. Family Meals: Associations with Weight and Eating Behaviors Among Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers’ and fathers’ body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n = 3,488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. PMID:22425759

  16. Homelessness Pathways for Australian Single Mothers and Their Children: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Warburton; Elizabeth Whittaker; Marina Papic

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing concern about family homelessness. Homeless mothers and their children are one of society’s most disadvantaged and at-risk populations. However, very little Australian research exploring mothers’ views on their homelessness experiences exists. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 mothers and four agency staff, this study explored homeless Australian mothers’ pathways into and out of homelessness, their specific needs and the services and supports that were (or would ha...

  17. Mothers' perceptions of family centred care in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Kenneth; Dixon, Annie; Smith, Chris; Dykes, Fiona; Flacking, Renee

    2014-10-01

    To explore mothers' perceptions of family centred care (FCC) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in England. The qualitative experiences of 12 mothers from three NICUs in the UK were elicited using individual interviews. A thematic network analysis was conducted on the transcribed interviews A central global theme supported by a number of organizing themes were developed reflecting the views of the mothers and their experiences of FCC. A global theme of "Finding My Place" was identified, supported by six organizing themes: Mothering in Limbo; Deference to the Experts; Anxious Surveillance; Muted Relations, Power Struggles and Consistently Inconsistent. Mothers experienced a state of liminality and were acutely sensitive to power struggles, awkward relationships and inconsistencies in care. To try to maintain their equilibrium and protect their baby they formed deferential relationships with health professionals and remained in a state of anxious surveillance. This study illustrates that despite the rhetoric around the practice of FCC in NICUs, there was little in the mother's narratives to support this. It is of the utmost importance to minimize the consequences of the liminal experience, to improve staff-mother interactions and to facilitate mothers' opportunities to be primary caregivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Work and health among Latina mothers in farmworker families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ip, Edward H; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-03-01

    Work organization is important for the health of vulnerable workers, particularly women. This analysis describes work organization for Latinas in farmworker families and delineates the associations of work organization with health indicators. Up to 220 Latina women in farmworker families completed interviews from October 2012 to July 2013. Interviews addressed job structure, job demand, job control, and job support. Health measures included stress, depressive symptoms, physical activity, family conflict, and family economic security. Three fifths of the women were employed. Several work organization dimensions, including shift, psychological demand, work safety climate, and benefits, were associated with participant health as expected, on the basis of the work organization and job demands-control-support models. Research should address women's health and specific work responsibilities. Occupational safety policy must consider the importance of work organization in the health of vulnerable workers.

  19. Work and Health among Latina Mothers in Farmworker Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ip, Edward H.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Work organization is important for the health of vulnerable workers, particularly women. This analysis describes work organization for Latinas in farmworker families and delineates the associations of work organization with health indicators. Methods 220 Latino women in farmworker families completed interviews from October 2012 - July 2013. Interviews addressed job structure, job demand, job control, and job support. Health measures included stress, depressive symptoms, physical activity, family conflict, and family economic security. Results Three-fifths of the women were employed. Several work organization dimensions, including shift, psychological demand, work safety climate, and benefits, were associated with participant health as expected, based on the work organization and job demands-control-support models. Conclusions Research should address women's health and specific work responsibilities. Occupational safety policy must consider the importance of work organization in the health of vulnerable workers. PMID:25742536

  20. 12 CFR 541.25 - Single-family dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single-family dwelling. 541.25 Section 541.25 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.25 Single-family dwelling. The term single-family dwelling...

  1. Perceptions of family relations when mothers and fathers are depicted with different parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-12-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian. Student gender and parent gender effects qualified these findings. Female students reported family relations to be less positive than did male students when parents were depicted as authoritarian or as uninvolved-neglecting, and they rated family relations more positively than did male students when parents were depicted as permissive. Participants viewed family relations as more positive when mothers rather than fathers were presented as permissive and when fathers rather than mothers were depicted as authoritarian. The authors discuss the findings of the study in relation to theories of beliefs about children and implications for future parenting styles of male and female college students.

  2. Work-family conflict and work engagement among mothers: Conscientiousness and neuroticism as moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy J. Opie

    2013-07-01

    Research purpose: The job demand-resources model is utilised to investigate the moderating role of conscientiousness and neuroticism on the relationship between work-family conflict and work engagement. Motivation for the study: Working mothers are challenged to establish a balance between work and family life. The resulting work-family conflict can negatively affect well-being. It is thus necessary to explore personal factors that relate to work-family conflict, particularly in the South African context. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample (N = 267 was comprised of working mothers from several organisations. Data was gathered using the work-to-family conflict questionnaire, the Basic Traits Inventory and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Main findings: The results indicated that work-family conflict negatively predicts work engagement. Conscientiousness positively predicts work engagement, and neuroticism negatively predicts work engagement. A significant interaction effect was found for conscientiousness but not for neuroticism. The findings showed that for participants with high levels of conscientiousness, work engagement decreases significantly more with an increase in work-family conflict than for participants with low levels of conscientiousness. Practical/Managerial implications: Organisations should consider those individuals who have high levels of conscientiousness and low levels of neuroticism in the selection and placement of employees. In addition, organisations have a responsibility to provide conscientious women, particularly mothers, with adequate support to ensure that work-family conflict does not adversely impact their levels of work engagement.

  3. Finding time over time: Longitudinal links between employed mothers' work-family conflict and time profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Hammer, Leslie B; Almeida, David M

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon the Work-Home Resources model (ten Brummelhuis & Bakker, 2012), this study examined the links between work-family conflict and employed mothers' profiles of time resources for work and parenting roles. Using a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified 3 profiles of time use and perceived time adequacy in a sample of mothers employed in the extended-care industry (N = 440): a Work-Oriented profile, characterized by spending relatively more time at work, perceiving lower time adequacy for work, spending less time with children, and perceiving lower time adequacy for children; a Parenting-Oriented profile, characterized by the opposite pattern; and a Role-Balanced profile, characterized by average levels across the 4 dimensions. Mothers in the Work-Oriented profile reported greater work-to-family conflict and family to-work conflict than those in the Role-Balanced and Parenting-Oriented profiles. Greater work-to-family conflict was linked to membership in the Work-Oriented profile, net of personal, family, and work characteristics. Longitudinal latent profile transition analysis showed that increases in work-to-family conflict across 12 months were linked to greater odds of moving toward the Work-Oriented profile (relative to staying in the same profile), whereas decreases in work-to-family conflict were linked to greater odds of moving toward the Parenting-Oriented profile. Results illuminate the heterogeneity in how employed mothers perceive and allocate time in work and parenting roles and suggest that decreasing work-to-family conflict may preserve time resources for parenting. Intervention efforts should address ways of increasing employees' family time resources and decreasing work-family conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Using metaphorical techniques in focus groups to uncover mothers' feelings about family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Leslie; Cotugna, Nancy; Snider, Sue; Peterson, P Michael

    2009-01-01

    Traditional nutrition education has not been shown to consistently produce behavior change. While it has been suggested that using emotion-based messages may be a better way to influence nutrition behavior change, this has not been well tested. Producing emotion-based messages is a multi-step process that begins with exploring subconscious barriers to behavior change rather than the more obvious and typically reported barriers. The purpose of this research was to uncover the emotional reasons, sometimes referred to as emotional pulse points, for mothers' choosing or not choosing to have more family meals. This would then serve as the first step to developing emotion-based messages promoting the benefits of family meals. Five focus group interviews were conducted with 51 low-income Black (n=28) and white (n=23) mothers. Metaphorical techniques were used to determine underlying feelings toward family and family meals. Discussions were video-taped, transcribed, and manually analyzed using a content-driven, immersion/crystallization approach to qualitative data analysis. Four themes emerged around the definition of family: acceptance, sharing, chaos, and protective/loyal. Some mothers felt mealtime was merely obligatory, and described it as stressful. Some reported a preference for attending to their own needs instead of sitting down with their children, while others felt that mealtime should be used to interact with and educate children and felt guilty when they were not able to provide family meals. Three themes emerged around feelings towards having or not having family meals: unimportant, important, and guilty. When explored further, mothers indicated that using the feeling of guilt to encourage family meals might be effective. Data obtained are being used to develop innovative, emotion-based messages that will be tested for effectiveness in promoting family meals.

  5. Physical Activity Experiences and Beliefs among Single Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single motherhood has been associated with negative health consequences such as depression and cardiovascular disease. Physical activity might reduce these consequences, but little is known about physical activity experiences and beliefs that might inform interventions and programs for single mothers. The present study used…

  6. Perceptions of injury prevention and familial adjustment among mothers of teen parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Duzinski, Sarah V; Brown, Juliette M; Lawson, Karla A

    2015-02-01

    Injury is a leading cause of death for infants and children. Teen mothering has been shown to put children at increased risk of injury. The mothers of teen parents often play a predominant role in the lives and caregiving of the children born to their children. This article presents the findings of three focus groups conducted with 21 mothers of teen parents. Grounded theory methodology was used to explore family dynamics and how they relate to injury prevention beliefs and practices regarding infants and children. Our findings revealed the difficulty mothers of teen parents and the teens themselves have in adjusting to the knowledge of the pregnancy. Unique barriers to injury prevention were also uncovered. Our findings provide evidence for the need of a multigenerational approach to programs aimed at improving the safety and well-being of children in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Shifting Geographical Configurations in Migrant Families: Narratives of Children Reunited with their Mothers in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bonizzoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the experiences of separation and reunification by children of migrant mothers in Italy by analysing 32 qualitative interviews conducted with adolescents who had rejoined their mothers at different points in their lives. We show that international migration causes children to face multiple shifts in the configuration of their family ties due to the geographical dislocations and re-locations to which these ties are subject. The way in which children interpret and adjust to these changes depends on factors such as the timing of the family migration process and the frequency of transnational family practices, which are affected by more or less abrupt discontinuities in family life after their mothers’ and their own departure.

  8. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and quality of life of mothers of school-aged children: The roles of child, mother, and family variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Chin-Hung Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in children and mothers, opposition problems in children, maternal depression, and perceived family support on the quality of life (QOL of mothers. Mothers of children in one elementary school were contacted. The relationship between sociodemographic variables, the levels of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in children and mothers, oppositional symptoms in children, maternal depression, perceived family support, and maternal QOL were examined. Three hundred and eighty-two participants were included in this study. Consistent factors related to the mother's QOL in the four domains were maternal depression, perceived family support, and housing status after controlling for several family, maternal, and child variables. Maternal QOL was more related to her own and family factors including maternal inattention, hyperactivity and depression symptoms, perceived family support, and housing status, instead of parent-rated inattention and hyperactivity symptoms of the child. Screening for maternal inattention, hyperactivity and depression symptoms, and mental health services for these mothers are warranted based on these findings.

  9. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and quality of life of mothers of school-aged children: the roles of child, mother, and family variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Yeh, Chin-Jung; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Jen-Yu; Shao, Wen-Chuan; Shih, Ding-Ho; Chen, Chun-Ing; Lee, Pei-Chin

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the impact of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in children and mothers, opposition problems in children, maternal depression, and perceived family support on the quality of life (QOL) of mothers. Mothers of children in one elementary school were contacted. The relationship between sociodemographic variables, the levels of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in children and mothers, oppositional symptoms in children, maternal depression, perceived family support, and maternal QOL were examined. Three hundred and eighty-two participants were included in this study. Consistent factors related to the mother's QOL in the four domains were maternal depression, perceived family support, and housing status after controlling for several family, maternal, and child variables. Maternal QOL was more related to her own and family factors including maternal inattention, hyperactivity and depression symptoms, perceived family support, and housing status, instead of parent-rated inattention and hyperactivity symptoms of the child. Screening for maternal inattention, hyperactivity and depression symptoms, and mental health services for these mothers are warranted based on these findings. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  10. Mothers' and Fathers' Sensitivity and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income, Rural Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Willoughby, Michael T; Zvara, Bharathi; Barnett, Melissa; Gustafsson, Hanna; Cox, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal sensitive parenting and child cognitive development across the first 3 years of life using longitudinal data from 630 families with co-residing biological mothers and fathers. Sensitive parenting was measured by observational coding of parent-child interactions and child cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence. There were multiple direct and indirect associations between parenting and cognitive development across mothers and fathers, suggesting primary effects, carry-forward effects, spillover effects across parents, and transactional effects across parents and children. Associations between parenting and cognitive development were statistically consistent across mothers and fathers, and the cumulative effects of early parenting on later cognitive development were comparable to the effects of later parenting on later cognitive development. As interpreted through a family systems framework, findings suggest additive and interdependent effects across parents and children.

  11. Does Single Motherhood Hurt Infant Health among Young Mothers?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Albert Young-Il; Lee, Jungmin

    2017-01-01

    Does single motherhood adversely affect infant health? This question is not easy to answer because of the endogeneity of coresidence during pregnancy. In this paper, we exploit quasi-natural variation in single motherhood from the moment of conception to that of birth arising from marriageable age restrictions and the reform of the laws in Korea. The Korean birth certificate dataset is unique in that it allows us to distinguish coresidence and legal marital status and further to identify the ...

  12. Single parent families: diversity, myths and realities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Shirley M. H

    1995-01-01

    ...: * * * . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Cults and the Family, edited by Florence Kaslow and Marvin B. Sussman Alternatives to Traditional Family Living, edited by Harriet Gross and Marvin B. Sussman...

  13. The Content and Process of Mother-Adolescent Communication about Sex in Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Jaccard, James; Goldberg, Vincent; Casillas, Eileen; Bouris, Alida

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that Latino parents discuss sexual topics with their children less often than do parents from other ethnic groups; however, communication about sex in Latino families is not well understood. The present study explored the content and process of mother-adolescent communication about sex to better understand how to facilitate…

  14. Father- and Mother-Adolescent Decision-Making in Mexican-Origin Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the prevalence and correlates of decisional autonomy within specific cultural contexts is necessary to fully comprehend how family processes are embedded within culture. The goals of this study were to describe mothers' and fathers' decision-making with adolescents (M = 12.51 years, SD = 0.58; 51% female), including…

  15. Mothers, fathers, sons and daughters: parental sensitivity in families with two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Mesman, Judi; Groeneveld, Marleen G; Endendijk, Joyce J; van Berkel, Sheila R; van der Pol, Lotte D; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on early childhood parenting include only mothers. Fathers are rarely observed in interaction with their young children, although they play an important role in the socialization of their children. In this study, we observed parenting of mothers and fathers toward their sons and daughters in families with two children, using a within-family approach in a sample with systematically varying family constellations. Participants included 389 families with two children (1 and 3 years of age). Parenting practices were coded during free play using the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). Findings revealed that mothers showed higher levels of sensitivity and lower levels of intrusiveness toward their children than fathers. Furthermore, mothers and fathers were more sensitive and less intrusive toward their oldest child than toward their youngest child. Fathers' higher intrusiveness toward the youngest child was only found in the case of a youngest boy. Child gender was not related to parenting in any of the other analyses. Our results suggest that parent gender is more salient than child gender in the prediction of parenting practices in early childhood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Mothers' Satisfaction with Medical Care: Perceptions of Racism, Family Stress, and Medical Outcomes in Children with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auslander, Wendy F.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Dreitzer, Daniele; Santiago, Julio V.

    1997-01-01

    Using an ecological framework, identifies sociodemographic, family, and community predictors of mothers' satisfaction with their children's medical care. Results indicate that demographics exert little influence on satisfaction, whereas family and community stressors do influence satisfaction. Mothers reporting greater perceptions of racism and…

  17. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Mother-Child Interactions in Families of Multiple and Singleton Preterm Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Kristin F.; Burnson, Cynthia; Hane, Amanda; Samuelson, Anne; Maleck, Sarah; Poehlmann, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated family support as a buffer of stress in 153 mothers and preterm toddlers. Data were collected regarding maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and family support; infant health; and videotaped mother-child interactions. Although more parenting stress related to less optimal child play, only information support…

  18. The quality of life of single mothers making the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay; Davis, Elise; Smyth, Paul; McKenzie, Hayley

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the quality of life of single mothers making the mandatory transition from welfare to work. The Australian government purported that the benefits of making this transition would include higher incomes, better social participation, and improved wellbeing. It is currently unknown, however, how single mothers currently engaged in welfare to work programs evaluate their quality of life. Quality of life scores for 334 single mothers engaged in welfare to work in Australia were compared with normative data. Participants reported significantly lower quality of life scores than the general population for all quality of life domains, highlighting the need to carefully examine welfare to work policies to ensure they promote participants' quality of life.

  19. Women's involvement in community development: the story of Korea's Family Planning Mothers' Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong Soo Kang

    1990-04-01

    Women's participation in Korea's economic and community development programs has increased since the early 1960s. The Family Planning (FP) Mothers' Club was organized by Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) in rural villages. Early in 1968, PPFK recruited 139 county field officers. They were put into county health centers, one in each county. They helped set up the Mothers' Clubs. Women wanted to have these clubs, but husbands and village elders did not want them to get together and talk about family planning. 12,650 Mothers' Clubs were established in the 1st year; about 2000 clubs were organized annually after that. In 1976, there were 27,292 village-level Mothers' Clubs with 750,000 members. Some 2000 clubs have been disbanded. The purposes of the clubs are to promote practice, to make FP part of everyday life, to foster a cooperative spirit among members, and to push active participation in community development so that productivity is increased and optimal surroundings created. The Mothers' Clubs were classified into: 1) the village and grass roots clubs; 2) their chairpersons, who constituted the Eup and Myon clubs; and 3) the county federation of Mothers' Clubs. Membership is open to all married village women, aged 20 to 45. Each village club has 1 elected chairperson, 1 vice chairperson, and 1 secretary. There was an average of 23 members per club in 1968, but this grew to 30 in 1972. Club programs include social activities, community development, cooperative work, income- generation projects, a Mothers' Bank, and FP. PPFK supports the clubs by financial aid, material aid, technical aid, training, and awards and acknowledgements. Mothers' clubs have promoted FP and served as distribution points for contraceptives. Environments were drastically changed in many villages through the community development work of the Mothers' Clubs. The traditional role of Korean women was early marriage and the production of at least 1 son. The Mothers' Clubs

  20. Psychosocial differences related to parenting infants among single and married mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Debra Beach; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the psychosocial factors, self-esteem, sense of mastery, life stress, and social support among first-time married and single mothers in early parenthood. A cross-sectional comparative design was used to study secondary data. A convenience sample of 80 first-time mothers completed self-report instruments on self-esteem, sense of mastery, social, and life stress at 6-8 weeks after birth. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and ANOVA. A statistically significant difference was found between married and single mothers on self esteem (F = 9.314, df = 1, p = .003) and sense of mastery (F = 4.919, df = 1, p = .030). There were no statistical differences found between married and single mothers on social support and life stress. Findings support Belsky's (1984) theoretical assertion that personal psychological resources are most indicative of successful parenting. Further, interventions directed toward enhancing single mothers' sense of mastery and self-esteem may be needed to facilitate maternal role transition.

  1. Treating the Changing Single Parent Family: A Return to Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the concept of boundaries--drawing of emotional lines between family subsystems, and between "family" and the outside world--in assessment and intervention with single parent families. Argues that clear, flexible boundaries are needed for healthy family functioning; that coalitions, rigid or unclear boundaries, and triangulation…

  2. Influence of mothers-in-law on young couples' family planning decisions in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Arundhati; Saavala, Minna; Kulmala, Teija

    2010-05-01

    It has been widely documented in patrilocal and strongly patrilineal settings in India that the presence and influence of mothers-in-law in the household may affect fertility decisions made by young couples. However, not much is known about how intra-family relationships per se influence choice of contraceptive method and timing of use. To understand patterns of family planning decision-making, we carried out short, open-ended interviews in rural Madhya Pradesh in 2005 with 60 mothers-in-law, 60 sons and 60 daughters-in-law from the same families. Mothers-in-law were found to have an important influence on family decisions pertaining to activities within the household. They were also likely to influence the number of sons their daughters-in-law had and the timing of their daughters-in-law being sterilised, but they did not seem to have the same authority or influence with regard to decisions on the use of reversible contraceptive methods, which were mainly being made by young couples themselves. The findings show the flexibility and transformability of intra-family interactions, even within a hierarchically-ordered kinship system that is often considered an obstacle to improving reproductive health and gender equity. Given the right information, and availability of and access to reversible methods, young couples in rural Madhya Pradesh are increasingly making contraceptive choices for themselves. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health insurance tax credits, the earned income tax credit, and health insurance coverage of single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebi, Merve; Woodbury, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 enacted a refundable tax credit for low-income working families who purchased health insurance coverage for their children. This health insurance tax credit (HITC) existed during tax years 1991, 1992, and 1993, and was then rescinded. A difference-in-differences estimator applied to Current Population Survey data suggests that adoption of the HITC, along with accompanying increases in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), was associated with a relative increase of about 4.7 percentage points in the private health insurance coverage of working single mothers with high school or less education. Also, a difference-in-difference-in-differences estimator, which attempts to net out the possible influence of the EITC increases but which requires strong assumptions, suggests that the HITC was responsible for about three-quarters (3.6 percentage points) of the total increase. The latter estimate implies a price elasticity of health insurance take-up of -0.42. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Seeking Emancipation from Gender Regulation: Reflections on Home space for a Black Woman Academic/ Single Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa William-­White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the work of Judith Butler on gender regulation, Black Feminist Thought (BFT, and autobiographic storytelling, this piece illustrates how essentialist notions of gender, and discourses related to gender create conflict in shaping identity construction for a Black woman academic and single mother (BWA/SM in the United States. This piece reveals complex gendered and racialized tropes related to notions of motherhood and womanhood, particularly within the author’s own family. Included here is how the author attempts to transcend these complexities in her quest for self­definition and self­actualization, unbridled by gender norms. Yet, race, gender and parental status are significant intersecting categories in identity construction, andinherent in the constructions are hegemonic discourses with which the author continues to grapple. Consequently, the struggle to transcend these forces is further complicated by the limited representation of Black women in the US academy, and by the types of academic work where they find themselves typically situated.

  5. The relations among child quality, family structure, and the value of the mother's time in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppel, K

    1982-10-01

    A model of the determinants of child quality and of the value of a woman's time is developed and tested using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey of 1976-1977. Child quality is measured by educational attainment; factors influencing the value of the mother's time include size and age composition of household, family income, education, and hours worked. The results indicate that size and age composition of household affect a woman's asking wage. However, more data are needed before the effects of family structure on schooling can be measured with confidence.

  6. Meaning in Life, Emotion-Oriented Coping, Generalized Self-Efficacy, and Family Cohesion as Predictors of Family Satisfaction among Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Sweeney, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors tested whether self-efficacy, coping styles, family cohesion, and meaning in life predicted family satisfaction among 64 mothers of children with disabilities. They also examined whether meaning in life mediated the relationship between cohesion and family satisfaction or served as a resource whose effects on family satisfaction were…

  7. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Cherish the family: A program model of strengths and attachment in reunifying substance-abusing mothers with their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie H; Camejo, Stephanie T; Hernandez, Maria; Sellas-Lamberty, Omayra

    2012-01-01

    The Cherish the Family (CTF) program targets mothers with children (age 0-3) engaged in the child welfare system, and provide services to strengthen a mother's ability to care for her child. A multimodal design was used with data collected at three points of time. Program results revealed positive changes in the areas of child well-being, parental capabilities, family interactions, family safety, caregiver/child ambivalence, and readiness for reunification among the treatment group.

  9. How to Stimulate Single Mothers on Welfare to Find a Job : Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoef, M.G.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results from a natural experiment in which single mothers on welfare were stimulated to find a job. Two policy instruments were introduced: an earnings disregard and job creation. The experiment was performed at the level of municipalities in The Netherlands, a country with relatively

  10. Low-Income, Single-Parent Francophone Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, Julie; Gaudet, Jeanne d'Arc; Godin, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological study focused on single-parent, low-income francophone mothers' relationships with the educational and cultural achievement of their children attending French-speaking schools in Anglo-dominant settings in New Brunswick (Canada). We conducted individual (N = 8) semi-structured interviews to solicit information about the…

  11. The Interplay of Autonomy and Relatedness in Hong Kong Chinese Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Winnie C. W.; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2002-01-01

    The mediating effects of autonomy and relatedness on the relationship between self-esteem and life satisfaction were investigated among 49 single mothers. Among all tested variables in the dimension of relatedness, only network orientation (propensity to utilize one's available social support) was a mediator of the positive relationship between…

  12. "No Cosby Show": Single Black Mother Homes and How Black Men Build Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Maia Niguel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lives of 11 Black men to better understand how Black men who were raised in single Black mother homes build romantic relationships with Black women. One focus group and a series of individual in-person interviews were conducted with the participants who ranged between 23 and 43 years of age. Participants were…

  13. An approach to emotion recognition in single-channel EEG signals: a mother child interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A.; Quintero, L.; López, N.; Castro, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we perform a first approach to emotion recognition from EEG single channel signals extracted in four (4) mother-child dyads experiment in developmental psychology. Single channel EEG signals are analyzed and processed using several window sizes by performing a statistical analysis over features in the time and frequency domains. Finally, a neural network obtained an average accuracy rate of 99% of classification in two emotional states such as happiness and sadness.

  14. Parenting While Incarcerated: Tailoring the Strengthening Families Program for Use with Jailed Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Weston, Lauren E.; Perryman, Jamie; Horwitz, Talia; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Most incarcerated women are mothers. Parenting programs may benefit women, children and families, yet effectively intervening in correctional settings is a challenge. An evidence-based parenting intervention (the Strengthening Families Program) was tailored and implemented with women in a jail setting. Goals were to assess mothers' needs and interests regarding parenting while they were incarcerated, adapt the program to address those needs, and establish intervention delivery and evaluation methods in collaboration with a community-based agency. Women reported wanting to know more about effective communication; how children manage stress; finances; drug and alcohol use; self-care; and stress reduction. They reported high program satisfaction and reported reduced endorsement of corporal punishment after the intervention. Barriers to implementation included unpredictable attendance from session to session due to changing release dates, transfer to other facilities, and jail policies (e.g., lock-down; commissary hours). Implications for sustainable implementation of parenting programs in jail settings are discussed. PMID:26612963

  15. The mother who cannot provide liberation: family atom analysis of women victims of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Guglielmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution presents the discussion about the analysis carried out on family atoms that were completed in the first psychodrama group meetings carried out in all the Empower Daphne III program partner countries. The issue of the relationship with the mother is central to the aim of the project, in that we hypothesise that the mothers of victims are incapable of educating their daughters about personal autonomy in relation to men, due to the traditional culture in which they grew up in. The article presents information about the use and processing of the survey tool “Family atom ” created by Jacob Moreno and the analysis of the data that emerged in parallel to the reports sent periodically by the psychodramatists to the monitoring and analysis team. From the results three types of maternal relationships emerge (positive, negative and incongruent that enable us to confirm the initial hypothesis of this action research.

  16. Supporting Pakistani and Chinese families with young children: perspectives of mothers and health visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, R; de Kok, B; Netto, G; Hanley, J; Haycock-Stuart, E

    2015-05-01

    In the UK, public health nurses (health visitors) provide support and advice to families with young children, including those from minority ethnic communities. While the need for cultural sensitivity is being increasingly recognized, the factors which contribute to this sensitivity are poorly understood. The Pakistani and Chinese communities constitute the two largest minority ethnic groups in Scotland. This study explored Pakistani and Chinese women's experience of motherhood and of the health visiting service and public health nurses' experiences of working with Chinese and Pakistani mothers. Semi-structured individual interviews were carried out with 16 Pakistani and 15 Chinese mothers. Eight health visitors took part in two focus groups. The study was undertaken in an urban area of Scotland. Data were analysed thematically. Chinese and Pakistani mothers negotiate complex processes in order to ensure that their children maintain their own ethnic identity while fitting in with their peers in their adopted country. Health visitors were seen as supportive, although sometimes advice and information given was culturally inappropriate, and their role was often poorly understood. Health visitors were anxious to be sensitive to families' religious and cultural beliefs. Cultural sensitivity is an important factor in providing appropriate advice and help to Pakistani and Chinese families, and involves health visitors in considering views and practices on parenting which may differ across cultures, including their own. Family characteristics need to be understood on an individual basis, rather than making assumptions about clients' cultural norms and lifestyles. This is best achieved by exploring with mothers if they understand the advice and information they are being offered and also if it is appropriate to their cultural and religious beliefs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The long-term mortality impact of combined job strain and family circumstances: A life course analysis of working American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Erika L; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Noelke, Clemens; Berkman, Lisa F

    2015-12-01

    Work stress and family composition have been separately linked with later-life mortality among working women, but it is not known how combinations of these exposures impact mortality, particularly when exposure is assessed cumulatively over the life course. We tested whether, among US women, lifelong work stress and lifelong family circumstances would jointly predict mortality risk. We studied formerly working mothers in the US Health and Retirement Study (HRS) born 1924-1957 (n = 7352). We used sequence analysis to determine five prototypical trajectories of marriage and parenthood in our sample. Using detailed information on occupation and industry of each woman's longest-held job, we assigned each respondent a score for job control and job demands. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates by combined job demands, job control, and family status, then modeled hazard ratios for death based on family constellation, job control tertiles, and their combination. Married women who had children later in life had the lowest mortality risks (93/1000). The highest-risk family clusters were characterized by spells of single motherhood (132/1000). Generally, we observed linear relationships between job control and mortality hazard within each family trajectory. But while mortality risk was high for all long-term single mothers, we did not observe a job control-mortality gradient in this group. The highest-mortality subgroup was previously married women who became single mothers later in life and had low job control (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.38,2.63). Studies of associations between psychosocial work characteristics and health might consider heterogeneity of effects by family circumstances. Worksite interventions simultaneously considering both work and family characteristics may be most effective in reducing health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  19. The First Teenage Pregnancy in the Family: Does It Affect Mothers’ Parenting, Attitudes, or Mother-Adolescent Communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing for the family, 189 mothers from three types offamilies were studied: families in which all teenage daughters had never been pregnant, families in which only one teenager was currently pregnant, and families in which only one teenager had delivered a baby within the previous 6 months. in the latter two family types, the current pregnancy or childbearing was the first to occur in the family. Mothers were assessed twice, 13 months apart. Results indicated that, compared with the mothers of never-pregnant teens, the mothers of parenting teens monitored their children less. expected less of their older daughters, and were more accepting of teenage childbearing. Across-time analyses showed that, in families in which the teenager was initially pregnant, mothers monitored and communicated less with their other children and were more accepting of teenage sex after the older daughter gave birth. In families in which the teenager was initially parenting, mothers perceived more difficulty for their teenage daughters and reported being less strict with their other children across time. PMID:23700352

  20. Attitudes towards family formation in cohabiting and single childless women in their mid- to late thirties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Lykke-Sylvest, Randi; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards family formation in single or cohabiting childless women of advanced age. The design comprised semi-structured qualitative interviews of 20 women aged 34–39 years attending the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen...... family formation was characterized by a fear of the consequences of choosing motherhood on one hand, and a ‘ticking biological clock’ and a wish to establish a nuclear family on the other. The women idealized the perception of perfect mothering in terms of uncompromising expectations of child rearing...... and showed an increasing awareness of solo motherhood as a possible solution to advanced age, the wish of a child and single status compared to earlier studies. Our study contributes to knowledge and understanding of personal considerations related to childbearing in nullipara women in their mid- to late 30s...

  1. Family leave after childbirth and the mental health of new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Pinka; Markowitz, Sara

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that short maternity leave, and, more generally, full-time maternal employment during the first year of life, detract from children's health, cognitive development, and behavioral outcomes. Much less is known, however, about how early parental employment affects the mental and physical health of the mothers themselves. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between short family leave length (less than 12 weeks of total leave after childbirth, less than 8 weeks of paid leave) and mental and physical health outcomes among new mothers. Data come from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative sample of 14,000 children born in 2001 and followed until kindergarten entry. We focus on a sample of ECLS-B mothers from the first wave of the survey who had worked during pregnancy and who had returned to work by the time of the first follow-up interview, which was conducted about 9 months after childbirth. When examining the effects of paternal leave, we further restrict this sample to mothers who were married at the time of the first follow-up interview. The maternal health outcomes of interest are measures of depression and overall health status. We use standard OLS and ordered probit models, as well as two-stage least squares and two-stage residual inclusion methods which address the potential endogeneity of family leave with respect to maternal health. Our findings from the OLS and ordered probit models indicate that, for mothers who worked prior to childbirth and who return to work in the first year, having less than 12 weeks of maternal leave and having less than 8 weeks of paid maternal leave are both associated with increases in depressive symptoms, and having less than 8 weeks of paid leave is associated with a reduction in overall health status. Findings from models that address the potential endogeneity of maternal leave generally support these results, and suggest that longer

  2. A Longitudinal Investigation of Work-Family Strains and Gains, Work Commitment, and Subsequent Employment Status among Partnered Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew K.; McNall, Laurel A.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the work-family interface on mothers' commitment to work and the implications of that work commitment for subsequent employment. The study included a sample of employed partnered mothers who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child…

  3. Mothers and Sons: A Look at the Relationship between Child Behavior Problems, Marital Satisfaction, Maternal Depression, and Family Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A. Davis; Sayger, Thomas V.; Horne, Arthur M.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses the interacting relationship between child behavior problems, marital satisfaction, maternal depression, and family cohesion in 43 mothers and school-aged boys. Results suggest that mothers with depressive symptoms report lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of child behavior problems. Findings also suggest that maternal…

  4. Self-stigma, insight, and family burden among Israeli mothers of people with serious mental illness: Ethno-national considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Roe, David

    2017-06-01

    The current cross-sectional study investigated and compared the associations between insight, self-stigma, and family burden among Jewish and Arab mothers of an adult son or daughter with serious mental illness (SMI) in Israel. A total of 162 Israeli mothers of a person with SMI participated in the study; 95 were Jewish (58.6%), and 67 were Arab (41.4%). Insight, self-stigma, and family burden scales were administered. Jewish mothers reported higher levels of insight into their son's or daughter's illness and reported greater family burden compared to Arab mothers. No significant differences in self-stigma scores were found between Jewish and Arab mothers. The pattern of associations between insight, self-stigma, and burden differed between Jewish and Arab mothers. Self-stigma was found to mediate the relationship between insight and burden among Jewish mothers but not among Arab mothers. Ethno-national affiliation should be taken into consideration regarding how family members conceptualize and experience mental illness, as this might affect care.

  5. The Role of Personal Resources in Work-Family Conflict: Implications for Young Mothers' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein-Bercovitz, Hedva; Frish-Burstein, Smadar; Benjamin, Benny A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role that personal resources (person-environment [PE] congruence and personality types associated with resilience) and work-family conflict (WFC) play in the sense of well-being (as reflected by burnout and life-satisfaction) of mothers of young children. A sample of 146 mothers holding demanding…

  6. Stress Faced by Pakistani Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Impact on Their Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Shahida

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the stress faced by mothers of children with intellectual disabilities in Pakistan and the impact of the stress on their family life. One hundred mothers of children with intellectual disabilities in Karachi city, which is in Sindh region of Pakistan, were invited and interviewed. The results indicate…

  7. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Ares, Gastón; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-10-29

    Family is a major determinant of children's and adolescents' eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother-father-adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members' diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile), including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL) scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL) scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: "families with an unhealthy diet" (39.3%), "families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers' diets require changes" (14.3%), and "families that require changes in their diet" (46.4%). These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life.

  8. Family planning: as important for the child as for the mother and for the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doordarshan

    1980-11-01

    The following were among the questions directed to India's Prime Minister Indira Ghandi: what priorities does the government accord to the family planning program; is there any alternative for economic viability for the country in the face of failure to curb the population growth rate to a manageable proportion; should family planning be part of the minimum national consensus, i.e., above party politics; what steps is the government taking to revitalize the family planning program; and is there a need to review the law in order to determine how it can be made more supportive of the family planning effort. Ghandi noted that India's government was the 1st in the entire world to adopt family planning as a official program, and this action shows how important family planning is to the country. She maintained that the real answer is development--development to provide what the people really need and development because it helps to curb families. Ghandi made the point that a subject like family planning should be above any controversy, but in actuality there has been considerable propaganda against family planning in India. To revitalize the program, Ghandi identified the need for involving the entire population rather than just the department in charge of family planning. She indicated that schools, the youth movement, women's organizations and other institutions which are concerned with any type of social welfare should be involved in family planning. Finally, Ghandi reported that the government is doing a great deal to raise the status of women in India, beginning by helping girls to continue their education.

  9. Family Systems and the Single Client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a counselor used a combination of systemic family counseling techniques with a divorced middle-aged male client. The counselor states that it proved to be an efficient and honoring combination that helped the client move differently, with more freedom and self-assurance, toward his goals. (MKA)

  10. Self-reported Use of Dental Floss over 13 Years: Relationship with Family Income, Mother's Age and Educational Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauer, Bruno; Schütz, Jasper; Colussi, Paulo R G; Oppermann, Rui V; Haas, Alex N; Rösing, Cassiano K

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether family income, age and educational level of the mother of the family are associated with self-reported use of dental floss over a 13-year period in a city in southern Brazil. A comparison of two household surveys was carried out where mothers of the family were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in order to obtain demographic, behavioural and socioeconomic information. In total, 852 and 984 households were included in 1996 and 2009, respectively. Self-reported use of dental floss was assessed dichotomously (yes/no). Poisson regression models were fitted to study the association between sociodemographic variables with the use of dental floss. Proportion ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were reported. The proportion of dental floss use increased from 48% to 59% over 13 years. The probability of dental floss use increased 1.23 times from 1996 to 2009 (PR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.13-1.34). Households with mothers ≥50 years old presented a 28% lower probability of using dental floss than households with mothers ≤35 years old. In households with higher family income and higher educational level of the mother, probabilities of flossing were 90% and 97% higher. Family income, age and educational level of the mother of the family are associated with self-reported use of dental floss over 13 years.

  11. Comparison of Parenting Style in Single Child and Multiple Children Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Alidosti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Family is the first and the most important structure in human civilization in which social lifestyles, mutual understanding, and compatibility is learned. Studies have shown that parenting style, is one the most important and fundamental factors in personality development. The purpose of this study was comparison of parenting style in single child and multiple children families. Materials and Methods: This study, in total, 152 mothers from Andimeshk city, Iran, were selected by random sampling. Data were collected from a health-care center was chosen randomly, mothers who had 5-7 years old children were enrolled in this study. The data collecting tool was the questionnaire which investigates permissive, authoritative, and authoritarian parenting styles in parents. After data entry in SPSS software, the collected data were analyzed by ANOVA, independent t-test, and Pearson correlation test. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32.71 ± 5.39 years old participated in this study. 69 mothers (45.4% had one child, 53 (34.9% had 2 children, and 30 mothers (19.7% had 3 and more children. The mean score of permissive parenting style was 19.97 ± 5.13 in single child families; the mean score of authoritative (19.56 ± 4.70 and authoritarian parenting style (34.50 ± 2.81 that difference was significantly (P < 0.050. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that having more children would make parents more logical and paves the way for upbringing children. Therefore, it is recommended to plan some educational programs about this issue for parents.

  12. Having another child without intellectual disabilities: Comparing mothers of a single child with disability and mothers of multiple children with and without disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    To investigate how having a child without a disability is related to maternal mental health and its predictors, we compared mothers of a single child with intellectual disabilities (single-child group, n = 117) and mothers of children with and without intellectual disabilities (multiple-children group, n = 457), in Japan. Compared to the multiple-children group, the single-child group had lower hope and social capital and poorer mental health; furthermore, 42.5% of them had decided not to have another child, despite desiring one. Hope was the strongest predictor of mental health in both groups but was more positively related to mental health in the multiple-children group. The fear of the possibility of the next child having a disability and receiving inadequate support were the obstacles for mothers who had decided not to have another child. Thus, greater support and more opportunities for obtaining adequate information about the implications of having another child may be needed.

  13. Research Paper: Determination of the Needs of Mothering Handling Training for Family Caregiving of Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy at Home Based on a Family- Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Dalvand

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion The results showed that the highest priority of needs of mothering handling training was self-care, feeding, toileting, and functional mobility. However, the needs of mothering handling training enhanced with increasing severity of fine motor function lesions and age. The simultaneous relationships between age and MACS levels in children with CP have no effect on the priorities of mothering handling training. Organized training of families and caregivers about needs of mothering handling training and proper care of their children are facilitating steps in promoting the education of mothers of children with CP. It seems that the understanding and education of mothering handling for therapists responsible for managing children with CP and the education of their parents can open the way to effective caring and treatment.

  14. It's who I am and what we eat. Mothers' food-related identities in family food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cassandra M; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Alex McIntosh, W; Kubena, Karen S

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to understand mothers' everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26-53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother's photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother's food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children's food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers' food choices were more disconnected from their children's. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - Neighborhood Stabilization Outcome Pool Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  16. Beating the Odds: How Single Black Mothers Influence the Educational Success of Their Sons Enrolled in Failing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Quintin L.; Werblow, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The academy has given little attention to academically successful Black males and the factors that may lead to their successes. This multiple case study design, however, examined the ways in which single-Black mothers influence the educational success of their sons by focusing on the mothers of academically successful 11th grade Black males. Data…

  17. Influences underlying family food choices in mothers from an economically disadvantaged community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Blake, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes that underlie food choices, and, the impact of a school-based healthy eating intervention in mothers from an economically-disadvantaged community. The aim of the intervention was to educate children to act as 'health messengers' to their families. Sixteen semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with mothers with four receiving a second interview. Interviews were conducted following their child's participation in a six-week after school healthy cooking intervention. Thematic content analysis revealed four main themes: Cost and budget influence on food choices, diversity in household rules controlling food, role of socialisation on diet, and improved cooking skills and confidence to make homemade meals. The interview findings demonstrated the positive influence of the after-school cooking intervention on children and their families in cooking skills, promoting healthier cooking methods and increasing confidence to prepare homemade meals. The findings demonstrated the wider economic and social influences on food choices and eating practices. Socialisation into, and strong cultural norms around, eating habits were significant influences on family diet and on parental decisions underpinning food choices and attitudes towards the control of food within the family. The intervention was perceived to be successful in terms of improving nutritional knowledge, cooking skills and increasing confidence to make healthy and tasty homemade meals. The study demonstrates the importance of parental involvement in school-based interventions if improvements in healthy eating are to be evidenced at the family level and maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Ares, Gastón; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-01-01

    Family is a major determinant of children’s and adolescents’ eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother–father–adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members’ diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile), including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL) scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL) scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: “families with an unhealthy diet” (39.3%), “families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers’ diets require changes” (14.3%), and “families that require changes in their diet” (46.4%). These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life. PMID:29109387

  19. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Family is a major determinant of children’s and adolescents’ eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother–father–adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members’ diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile, including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: “families with an unhealthy diet” (39.3%, “families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers’ diets require changes” (14.3%, and “families that require changes in their diet” (46.4%. These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life.

  20. 75 FR 9867 - Discontinuation of the Notice of Availability of Funding; Multi-Family Housing, Single Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Discontinuation of the Notice of Availability of Funding; Multi- Family Housing, Single Family Housing AGENCY... its existing and continuing Multi-Family and Single-Family Housing programs for which it receives... Analyst, Multi- Family Housing Programs, telephone 202-720-1753 and Myron Wooden, Loan Specialist, Single...

  1. Parental attitude, depression, anxiety in mothers, family functioning and breath-holding spells: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacik, Kayi; Bolat, Nurullah; Kanik, Ali; Sargin, Enis; Selkie, Ellen; Korkmaz, Nurhan; Baydan, Figen; Akar, Ebru; Sarioglu, Berrak

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify differences in the antenatal stressful life events, parenting style, family functioning, depression and anxiety of mothers who have children with breath-holding spells (BHS) compared with controls. This case control study divided 66 children into a group of children with BHS and a control group, with the children's ages ranging between 6 months and 5 years of age. This study explored underlying anxiety and depression in mothers as well as functioning of their families. Socio-demographical data and stressful life events that the mother experienced during pregnancy were analysed. In order to evaluate the effects of family structure, depression and anxiety in mothers on BHS in children, the Family Assessment Device, and both the Parental Attitude Research Instrument and the Beck Depression Inventory as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess both groups. Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy (P maternal characteristics (P = 0.027) and most of the family functioning subscales were found to be significantly different between BHS and control groups. The association of anxiety, depression, prenatal stressful events and poor family functioning in mothers who have children with BHS is significantly higher than controls. An evaluation of these problems may be beneficial in the management of BHS. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Work-Family Conflict, Resources, and Role Set Density: Assessing Their Effects on Distress among Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat; Liberman, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationships between the experience of work-family conflict and levels of distress in the family and at work among a sample of 227 Israeli working mothers. We also examined how role set density (RSD, the number of roles they perform) and personal and environmental resources are related to the women's experience of distress.…

  3. Long-term effects of divorce on parent-child relationships: within-family comparisons of fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2013-01-01

    Using national representative survey data from the Netherlands, this article examines the effects of a parental divorce in childhood on relationships between adult children and their parents. Using a within-family design, we make comparisons between fathers and mothers within the same family. Our

  4. Family violence among mothers seen at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Ayinmode

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The attention given to family violence (FV in primary medical care in Nigeria is still very insufficient in relation to its known adverse medical and psychosocial implications for women’s health. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess the prevalence rate, correlates and effects of FV among mothers attending a primary care facility in Nigeria, with the aim of gaining an understanding of whether screening for FV in the primary care setting in Nigeria would be beneficial. Methodology . A cross-sectional study of FV among 250 mothers attending the General Outpatient Department of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital was undertaken over a 5-month period. Data on the mothers’ sociodemographic characteristics, and experience of FV and its psychosocial correlates and effects were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire and a 20-item Self- Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ as instruments. Data analysis . EPI Info version 6 was used to analyse the data. Results. Sixty-nine mothers (28% had experienced FV at the hands of their husbands. Of these women, 49 (71% indicated occurrences within the preceding 2 years; in 17 (25%, the violence was severe enough to warrant a hospital visit or treatment. Mothers who experienced FV were significantly more likely to have had previous experiences of violence by an in-law; to have reported child cruelty by a husband; to have children with difficult behaviour; and to have reported that they were neglected by their husbands and not enjoying their marriages. They were also significantly more likely to have a high score on the SRQ and be identified as probable cases with psychological problems (SRQ score ≥ 5. Conclusion. In view of these findings, screening for FV in the primary care setting would be beneficial. Primary care physicians should therefore increase their interest, improve their skill, and carry out more research in the identification and management of FV.

  5. Mothers and daughters from breast cancer families: a qualitative study of their perceptions of risks and benefits associated with minor's participation in genetic susceptibility research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, G; Tambor, E S; Bernhardt, B A; Wissow, L S; Fraser, G

    2000-01-01

    To determine: 1) the views of daughters at increased risk of developing breast cancer regarding the benefits and risks of participating in genetic susceptibility research; 2) mothers' views about enrolling their daughters in genetic susceptibility research; and 3) any important areas of agreement and disagreement between mothers and daughters in their assessment of risks and benefits. We conducted separate interviews of mothers and daughters from 12 breast cancer families recruited primarily through the Breast Center at Johns Hopkins University. Daughters were between the ages of 10 and 17. Interviews were transcribed and coded and analyzed qualitatively. We observed that mothers and daughters had a range of reactions to the prospect of enrolling children and adolescents in genetic susceptibility research, that perceptions of benefits and risks were fairly concordant between mothers and daughters, and that daughters initially identified no risks of participating, but their perceptions of the risks and benefits of genetic susceptibility research evolved over the course of conversation. These findings underscore the view that informed consent ought to be a "process" rather than a single event, and that children's first reactions to the prospect of participating in genetic testing research should not be taken as evidence that they have adequately considered the risks and benefits of participation.

  6. Mothers and fathers of young Dutch adolescents with Down syndrome: Health related quality of life and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Jan Pieter; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2016-12-01

    Like any child, children with Down syndrome (DS) affect the lives of their families. Most studies focus on the adaptation of parents and families of young children with DS, while relatively few studies include the perspective of fathers. To determine 1) whether mothers and fathers of 11 to 13-year-olds with DS differ from reference parents in health related quality of life (HRQoL) and family functioning, and 2) whether HRQoL in parents of children with DS changes over time, from when the child was 6-8 years old to when the child was 11-13 years old. 80 mothers and 44 fathers completed HRQoL and family functioning questionnaires. 58 parents (53 mothers) had completed the HRQoL-questionnaire in a previous study. Mothers differed from reference mothers in one HRQoL-domain (Sexuality), while fathers' HRQoL did not significantly differ from reference fathers. Both mothers and fathers scored in the (sub)clinical range more frequently than reference parents in Total family functioning, and in the domains Partner relation and Social network. Furthermore, fathers scored in the (sub)clinical range more frequently than reference parents in Responsiveness and Organization. HRQoL showed no significant change over time. Our findings indicate frequent family functioning problems but few HRQoL problems in parents and families of children with DS. In offering care, a family based approach with special attention for partner relation and social functioning is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Raising Adolescent Families Together Program: A Medical Home for Adolescent Mothers and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P.; Woods, Elizabeth R.; Famakinwa, Olatokunbo; Harris, Sion Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This study described a medical home model for adolescent mothers and their children, and their 1- and 2-year preventive care, repeat pregnancy, and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. In this prospective, single cohort demonstration project, adolescent mothers (14–18 years old) and their children received care in a medical home. Demographic, medical and social processes, and outcomes data were collected at enrollment through 24 months. Change over time and predictors of repeat pregnancy were analyzed. Results. A total of 181 adolescents enrolled, with 79.6% participating for 2 years. At 2 years, 90.2% of children were completely immunized. Children and adolescent mothers met standards for health care visits, and adolescent condom use improved. Rates of cumulative repeat pregnancy were 14.7% and 24.6%, school attendance 77.6% and 68.7%, and employment 21.2% and 32.3% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Conclusions. A medical home model with comprehensive and integrated medical care and social services can effectively address the complex needs of adolescent parents and their children. PMID:22897537

  8. The impact of drugs, infants, single mothers, and relatives on reunification: A Decision-Making Ecology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenstrom, Kim; Baumann, Donald J; Fluke, John; Graham, J Christopher; James, Joyce

    2015-11-01

    Using a Decision-Making Ecology (DME) approach and proportional hazards models, the study isolated four case factor profiles that interacted strongly with race and resulted in disparate reunification outcomes for African American children compared with Anglos. The four interrelated factors were drug involvement, a solo infant case, single mothers, and relative placements. A cohort of 21,763 children from the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services who were placed for the first time in care, who were under 13 and either Anglo or African American were followed for 20 months or more post entry into care. Starting with an initial model consisting of main effects only and consistent with other studies, African American children had a 12% lower hazard rate of reunification compared to Anglo children. However, when a set of case profiles involving combinations of single parents, single infants, drug involvements and kinship placements were crossed with race, the magnitude of the effect of race on hazard rates fanned out from no difference to as much as 68% that of Anglo children. The results show that racial disparities in outcomes resulting from complex, contextual decision making cannot be modeled well with simple main effects models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parenting African American Children With Autism: The Influence of Respect and Faith in Mother, Father, Single-, and Two-Parent Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

    2016-08-10

    Parents are the most significant contributor to care of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and as such research on African American parenting in ASD is conspicuously absent. Findings relevant to parenting are discussed from a study with urban African American families caring for children with ASD. An ethnonursing study was conducted with 24 African American family members of children with ASD and 28 professionals. Data were analyzed and reported as themes. Two universal themes of were found of respect and faith in God and family that influenced parental care. Two diverse themes of mother's watchful care and father's protective care, along with differences in feelings of isolation and dependence on supports were found among single- and two-parent families. When health care professionals increase their knowledge and understanding of cultural practices in the parental care of children with ASD, they provide health care that is culturally congruent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Mothers and Fathers: Family Level Interactions in Relation to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David; Johnston, Charlotte; Noyes, Amira; Stewart, Kurtis; Weiss, Margaret D

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies linking parent ADHD symptoms to parenting have typically focused on each parent individually. To provide a broader understanding of family context, in this study, levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in mothers and fathers were examined, both individually and in combination, in relation to negative parenting and child-rearing disagreements. Two-parent families of 5 to 13 year old boys (126 with ADHD and 53 typically developing) participated. Parents reported their own ADHD symptoms and their perceptions of child-rearing disagreements. Parenting was measured using self-, partner-, and child-reports as well as observations. Controlling for child ADHD symptoms, inattention symptoms in fathers predicted parenting difficulties. For mothers, inattention symptoms were linked to parenting problems only when fathers also had high levels of inattention. In contrast, parenting was most problematic for both mothers and fathers in families in which fathers had higher and mothers had lower levels hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. These results remained essentially unchanged when child externalizing behavior and mother depression and hostility were controlled, but father depression reduced the significance of some interactions. The results highlight the importance of the match between father and mother levels of symptoms, and point to differential relations of parenting to inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms in parents.

  11. Sleep quality and mood in mothers and fathers accommodated in the family-centred paediatric ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelhoff, Charlotte; Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2018-02-01

    To describe sleep quality and mood in parents accommodated with their sick child in a family-centred paediatric ward. Secondary aims were to compare mothers' and fathers' sleep quality and mood in the paediatric ward and to compare the parents' sleep quality and mood between the paediatric ward and in a daily-life home setting after discharge. Frequent interruptions, ward noise and anxiety affect parents' sleep quality and mood negatively when accommodated with their sick child in paediatric wards. Poor sleep quality and negative mood decrease the parents' ability to sustain attention and focus, and to care for their sick child. This was a prospective and descriptive study. Eighty-two parents (61 mothers and 21 fathers) with children (median age 6.25 years) admitted to six paediatric wards participated in the study. Uppsala Sleep Inventory, a sleep diary and the Mood Adjective Checklist were used to measure sleep quality and mood. The parents had a good sleep quality in the paediatric ward even though they had more nocturnal awakenings compared to home. Moreover, they were less alert, less interested and had reduced concentration, and were more tired, dull and passive in the hospital than at home after discharge. Vital sign checks, noises made by the staff and medical treatment were given reasons influencing sleep. Poor sleep quality correlated with negative mood. Parents' sleep quality in family-centred paediatric care is good. However, the habitual sleep efficacy before admittance to the hospital is lower than expected and needs to be further investigated. The healthcare professionals should acknowledge parents' sleep and mood when they are accommodated with their sick child. Further should care at night be scheduled and sleep promoted for the parents to maintain health and well-being in the family. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The model of children's social adjustment under the gender-roles absence in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Jun; Zhang, Hailun; Wei, Bingsi; Guo, Zeyao

    2018-01-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the gender-role types and child-rearing gender-role attitude of the single-parents, as well as their children's gender role traits and family socio-economic status, on social adjustment. We recruited 458 pairs of single parents and their children aged 8-18 by purposive sampling. The research tools included the Family Socio-economic Status Questionnaire, Sex Role Scales, Parental Child-rearing Gender-role Attitude Scale and Social Adjustment Scale. The results indicated: (a) single mothers' and their daughters' feminine traits were both higher than their masculine traits, and sons' masculine traits were higher than their feminine traits; the majority gender-role type of single parents and their children was androgyny; significant differences were found between children's gender-role types depending on different raiser, the proportion of girls' masculine traits raised by single fathers was significantly higher than those who were raised by single mothers; (b) family socio-economic status and single parents' gender-role types positively influenced parental child-rearing gender-role attitude, which in turn, influenced the children's gender traits, and further affected children's social adjustment. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Co-Occurring Trajectory of Mothers' Substance Use and Psychological Control and Children's Behavior Problems: The Effects of a Family Systems Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha; Feng, Xin

    2017-02-19

    This study examined the effects of a family systems therapy (Ecologically-Based Family Therapy [EBFT]) on the co-occurring trajectory of mothers' substance use and psychological control, and its association with children's problem behaviors. Participants included 183 mothers with a substance use disorder who had at least one biological child in their care. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention conditions: EBFT-home, n = 62; EBFT-office, n = 61; or Women's Health Education, n = 60. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-baseline. A dual-trajectory class growth analysis identified three groups of mothers in regard to their change trajectories. The majority of the mothers exhibited a synchronous decrease in substance use and psychological control (n = 107). In all, 46 mothers exhibited a synchronous increase in substance use and psychological control. For the remaining 30 mothers, substance use and psychological control remained stable. Mothers in the family therapy condition were more likely to show reduced substance use and psychological control compared to mothers in the control condition. Moreover, children with mothers who showed decreased substance use and psychological control exhibited lower levels of problem behaviors compared to children with mothers showing increased substance use and psychological control. The findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of family systems therapy, EBFT, in treating mothers' substance use, improving parenting behaviors, and subsequently improving child behavioral outcomes. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  14. Existing sustainable renovation concepts for single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    In the Nordic Innovation Centre Project, SuccessFamilies, the main objective is to change the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses – proposing new service concepts that will combine both the technical solutions, financing...... services as well as other promoting issues to overcome the behavioural, organizational, legal and social barriers that exist in sustainable renovation. A starting point for such a change has been to get an overview of the existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical...... with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is a great need for full-service packages. Existing technical renovation concepts, typically focusing...

  15. Mechanisms of change: Testing how preventative interventions impact psychological and physiological stress functioning in mothers in neglectful families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventive interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) or psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI) was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers. The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were 44 for CPP, 34 for PPI, 27 for community services, and 52 for nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers and their 13-month-old infants were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and postintervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at postintervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress, while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year postintervention. The results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multilevel assessments of intervention process and outcome.

  16. Air tightness measurements in older Danish single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2017-01-01

    presents the results of measurements in 16 single-family houses built between 1880 and 2007. The air tightness of the building envelope was measured according to EN ISO 9972 using the blower-door technique. The results are compared with measurement results of the average air-change rate in the same houses....... In addition, leaks are observed around older windows and doors and in connection with wooden ceilings and attic hatches. The findings should be taken into account when renovating older single-family houses....

  17. Change and stability in work-family conflict and mothers' and fathers' mental health: Longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Dinh, H; Strazdins, L; Westrupp, E; Leach, L S; Nicholson, J M

    2016-04-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) occurs when work or family demands are 'mutually incompatible', with detrimental effects on mental health. This study contributes to the sparse longitudinal research, addressing the following questions: Is WFC a stable or transient feature of family life for mothers and fathers? What happens to mental health if WFC increases, reduces or persists? What work and family characteristics predict WFC transitions and to what extent are they gendered? Secondary analyses of 5 waves of data (child ages 4-5 to 12-13 years) from employed mothers (n = 2693) and fathers (n = 3460) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were conducted. WFC transitions, across four two-year intervals (Waves 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5) were classified as never, conscript, exit or chronic. Significant proportions of parents experienced change in WFC, between 12 and 16% of mothers and fathers for each transition 'type'. Parents who remained in chronic WFC reported the poorest mental health (adjusted multiple regression analyses), followed by those who conscripted into WFC. When WFC was relieved (exit), both mothers' and fathers' mental health improved significantly. Predictors of conscript and chronic WFC were somewhat distinct for mothers and fathers (adjusted logit regressions). Poor job quality, a skilled occupation and having more children differentiated chronic fathers' from those who exited WFC. For mothers, work factors only (skilled occupation; work hours; job insecurity) predicted chronic WFC. Findings reflect the persistent, gendered nature of work and care shaped by workplaces, but also offer tailored opportunities to redress WFC for mothers and fathers. We contribute novel evidence that mental health is directly influenced by the WFC interface, both positively and negatively, highlighting WFC as a key social determinant of health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Efficacy of Family Anxiety Management Training with Mothers of Anxious Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Bassak-Nejad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of family management training in reducing anxiety difficulties in preschool children (4 to 6 years old in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: The present research is a pilot study with pre-test/post-test control group design. A total of 50 mothers whose children scored 1.0 standard deviation above the mean on Spence’s children anxiety scale (parent report form were randomly chosen and then divided into experimental and control groups. According to the treatment plan, the participants underwent ten 120-minute sessions of family anxiety management training. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance demonstrates that experimental intervention is efficient in reduction of children anxiety (p=0.03. Following up the experimental group for a course of one month show that intervention impact can last over the time. Conclusion: The results indicate that family anxiety management training has been effective in reduction of anxiety disorders in anxious children (4 to 6 years old, studying at kindergartens within Ahvaz. Therefore, it can be useful strategy as an educational and preventive program in pre-school and school children.

  19. Family burden, child disability, and the adjustment of mothers caring for children with epilepsy: Role of social support and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jeffrey M; Miller, Paul A

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to contribute to the existing research on the coping behaviors, social support, and mental health outcomes in parents of children with epilepsy in the United States. Participants included 152, predominantly Caucasian (89.5%), married (78.9%) women (95.4%). Via a web-based interface, mothers completed questionnaires assessing the impact of their child's disability on their family (i.e., severity of their child's disability, family burden, and personal stress), social resources (i.e., perceived social support), coping (i.e., emotion-focused and social support seeking), and adjustment (i.e., depression and anxiety). After controlling for demographic variables, mediational analysis revealed that mothers' perceptions of the severity of their child's disability were associated with decreased perceived social support, which was then related to higher reported levels of depression and anxiety. Similarly, low levels of perceived social support partially mediated the relation between family burden and depression, anxiety, and stress. Finally, mothers' perceptions of the severity of their children's disability and family burden were unrelated to their reports of emotion-focused or social support seeking coping. However, their use of emotion-focused and social support seeking behaviors was related to lower levels of depression. Low levels of perceived social support may help to explain the mechanisms underlying the relation between mothers' perceptions of the severity of their child's disability and family burden on their mental health adjustment, such as depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Greater involvement of HIV-infected peer-mothers in provision of reproductive health services as "family planning champions" increases referrals and uptake of family planning among HIV-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiope, Peter; Musingye, Ezra; Makumbi, Carolyne Onyango; Bagenda, Danstan; Homsy, Jaco; Nakitende, Mai; Mubiru, Mike; Mosha, Linda Barlow; Kagawa, Mike; Namukwaya, Zikulah; Fowler, Mary Glenn

    2017-06-27

    In 2012, Makerere University Johns - Hopkins University, and Mulago National Referral Hospital, with support from the National Institute of Health (under Grant number: NOT AI-01-023) undertook operational research at Mulago National Hospital PMTCT/PNC clinics. The study employed Peer Family Planning Champions to offer health education, counselling, and triage aimed at increasing the identification, referral and family planning (FP) uptake among HIV positive mothers attending the clinic. The Peer Champion Intervention to improve FP uptake was introduced into Mulago Hospital PMTCT/PNC clinic, Kampala Uganda. During the intervention period, peers provided additional FP counselling and education; assisted in identification and referral of HIV Positive mothers in need of FP services; and accompanied referred mothers to FP clinics. We compiled and compared the average proportions of mothers in need that were referred and took up FP in the pre-intervention (3 months), intervention (6 months), and post-intervention(3 months) periods using interrupted time series with segmented regression models with an autoregressive term of one. Overall, during the intervention, the proportion of referred mothers in need of FP increased by 30.4 percentage points (P family planning can be a valuable addition to clinic staff in limited-resource settings. The study provides additional evidence on the utilization of peer mothers in HIV care, improves health services uptake including family planning which is a common practice in many donor supported programs. It also provides evidence that may be used to advocate for policy revisions in low-income countries to include peers as support staff especially in busy clinic settings with poor services uptake.

  1. Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Peter, Richard; Geyer, Siegfried

    2012-01-06

    This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in unpaid household and family work. Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129) the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren)'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.

  2. Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperlich Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI in unpaid household and family work. Methods: Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129 the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. Results CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. Conclusions The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.

  3. A qualitative study of family healthy lifestyle behaviors of Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Navuluri, Neelima; Winkler, Paula; Vale, Shruthi; Finley, Erin

    2014-04-01

    This study qualitatively examines contrasting parental decision-making styles about family food choices and physical activities as well as willingness to change behaviors among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant mothers and fathers of school-aged children. Twelve sex-specific focus groups were held in English or Spanish in 2012. Qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory examined parenting styles (ie, authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive), barriers to healthy lifestyle, and parents' stage of change about healthy lifestyles. One third of the 33 participating couples were born in Mexico. The majority of mothers and fathers described being permissive and allowing unhealthy food choices, and a minority of mothers reported more authoritarian approaches to promoting a healthier diet for their children. Mothers were more permissive than fathers about family physical activities and less engaged in these activities. Most mothers and fathers described only contemplating a healthier diet and more physical activity, while wanting their children to have a healthier lifestyle. These data suggest that clinicians need to assess and address differential parental roles when promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Clinicians should also adopt culturally competent approaches to overcome barriers to parental engagement in diverse aspects of a healthy family lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 27949 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... efficiency in managing the SFHGLP. The proposed changes are in accordance with the recommendations of the... Housing Service proposes two changes to its Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP...-quarter of 1 percent. The first proposed rule change would eliminate the lender's published VA rate for...

  5. 77 FR 40785 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 1980 RIN 0575-AC90 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program... Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP) (also referred to as ``Agency'') by requiring an annual fee for... to exceed 0.5 percent of the outstanding principal balance of the loan for the life of the loan. The...

  6. Parenting stress, coping strategies and risk assessment in mothers from at-risk families assisted by Child and Family Protection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez Padilla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study parenting stress and coping strategies in a sample of 109 mothers from at-risk families were analyzed. Results obtained show over half of these women experienced clinical levels of parenting stress, and problem focused coping strategies were the most commonly used. Moreover, the main characteristics of these families and their trajectories in Child and Family Protection Services were correlated with parenting stress and coping strategies. The global valuation of family risk informed by professionals was significantly related to parenting stress.

  7. Image-Based Single Cell Profiling: High-Throughput Processing of Mother Machine Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Christian Carsten; Grünberger, Alexander; Helfrich, Stefan; Probst, Christopher; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Nöh, Katharina

    Microfluidic lab-on-chip technology combined with live-cell imaging has enabled the observation of single cells in their spatio-temporal context. The mother machine (MM) cultivation system is particularly attractive for the long-term investigation of rod-shaped bacteria since it facilitates continuous cultivation and observation of individual cells over many generations in a highly parallelized manner. To date, the lack of fully automated image analysis software limits the practical applicability of the MM as a phenotypic screening tool. We present an image analysis pipeline for the automated processing of MM time lapse image stacks. The pipeline supports all analysis steps, i.e., image registration, orientation correction, channel/cell detection, cell tracking, and result visualization. Tailored algorithms account for the specialized MM layout to enable a robust automated analysis. Image data generated in a two-day growth study (≈ 90 GB) is analyzed in ≈ 30 min with negligible differences in growth rate between automated and manual evaluation quality. The proposed methods are implemented in the software molyso (MOther machine AnaLYsis SOftware) that provides a new profiling tool to analyze unbiasedly hitherto inaccessible large-scale MM image stacks. Presented is the software molyso, a ready-to-use open source software (BSD-licensed) for the unsupervised analysis of MM time-lapse image stacks. molyso source code and user manual are available at https://github.com/modsim/molyso.

  8. Mother--Child and Father--Child Emotional Expressiveness in Mexican-American Families and Toddlers' Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Rivera, Mitzie

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation explored the association of mother--child and father--child emotional expressiveness during toddlerhood to children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers. Data were collected from 62 Mexican-American families with toddlers (29 females, 33 males) during a home visit. Children's peer interactions were also…

  9. Adolescent and Young Adult Mothers' Relationship Quality during the Transition to Parenthood: Associations with Father Involvement in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Christina B.; McNerney, Christopher M.; Reiter, Michael J.; Leaman, Suzanne C.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child-Well-being Study were used to examine predictors of involvement among fathers of young children (N = 2,215) born to adolescent and young adult mothers (ages 14-25; N = 2,850). Participants were interviewed immediately following their baby's birth and at 3-years postpartum regarding co-parental relationship…

  10. Psychological Well-Being of Mothers and Siblings in Families of Girls and Women with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianfaglione, Rina; Hastings, Richard P.; Felce, David; Clarke, Angus; Kerr, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Few published studies have reported on the psychological well-being of family members of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT). Eighty-seven mothers of girls and women with RTT completed a questionnaire survey about their daughters' behavioral phenotype, current health, and behavior problems, and their own and a sibling's well-being. Mothers…

  11. Mothers' use of blogs while engaged in family-based treatment for a child's eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMarre, Andrea; Robson, Jane; Dawczyk, Anna

    2015-12-01

    We explore parents' use of blogs while engaged in family-based treatment (FBT), a form of treatment in which parents engage as the primary givers of care for a child's eating disorder. We sought to bring together emergent literature on the value of blogging for social support with a body of literature on caregiving for a child with an eating disorder and to understand how parents use blogs while engaged in FBT. We conducted a thematic analysis of 138 blog entries written by 5 mothers. Two main themes emerged: the importance of support and shifts in parenting. Blogs detailed how parents actively seek to meet their needs during a difficult time using online interactions to bolster sources of support that exist offline. This intensive form of treatment also provoked shifts in parenting, which parents described on their blogs. Parents' blogs were rich with descriptions of their use of mutually reinforcing on- and offline support. The unique context of the blogs allowed for access to data that were not generated for the purpose of research. Results add to the growing body of literature about parents' caregiving experiences and use of blogs for social support, and they offer implications for using online spaces as adjunct support for families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. [The actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and mother-adolescent communication on depression in mothers and adolescents in Kirogi families according to adolescent' development stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Kyung; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to compare the level of depression, self-esteem and mother-adolescent (M-A) communication perceived by both mothers and adolescents between the early adolescent (E-A) group and the late adolescent (L-A) group; and to examine the actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and M-A communication on depression in mothers and adolescents. Participants were 107 Kirogi families who resided in the Midwest region of the U. S. Data were collected from September, 2008 to March, 2009 using the scales of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), Self-esteem and Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory. Mothers in E-A group reported higher scores on depression than mothers in L-A group. Adolescents in L-A group reported higher scores on depression and lower scores on self-esteem than adolescents in E-A group. In the E-A group, mothers' self-esteem had big actor effect on mothers' depression and partner effect on adolescents' depression. In the L-A group, self-esteem of mothers and adolescents had actor effect on their depression respectively without partner effect. M-A communication of mothers influences mothers' depression negatively and adolescents' depression positively. In both group, M-A communication influences their depression with mediating effect of self-esteem. To promote Kirogi families' mental health, programs for mothers and adolescents should be developed differently according to adolescents' development stage.

  13. Comparison of mutans streptococcal strains of father, mother, and child in indian families using chromosomal DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katre, Amar N; Damle, Sg

    2013-09-01

    It is now understood and accepted that there is a direct transmission of mutans streptococci (MS) from the mother to the child. There is also a direct correlation between the levels of MS in the mother and the caries status of the child. Advanced technologies in molecular biology like chromosomal DNA fngerprinting have established beyond doubt that the mother and the child bear similar strains of MS. A study was designed with the aim of comparing the MS strains between the father, mother and the child in Indian families. A group of 20 Indian families comprising of the father, mother and child were selected and divided into caries free and caries active groups. Mixed salivary samples were collected from the individuals and were cultured for the growth of Mutans streptococci. The colonies were counted on a colony counter and a comparison was made between the mutans streptococcal counts of the mother and the caries status of the child. Further, the genotypes of the father, mother and the child were isolated and compared using the technique of chromosomal DNA fngerprinting. Following electrophoresis, the band pattern obtained was compared for similarities or differences. The results of the same were tabulated and evaluated statistically. When the colony counts of the mother (in CFU/ml) were compared with the 'dft' status of the child, a positive correlation was seen in group II. Intergroup comparison using the unpaired T test was statistically signifcant. Electrophoretic analysis of the chromosomal DNA on the agarose gels revealed identical band patterns in 13 mother-child pairs, which was statistically signifcant. Three of the father-child pairs showed identical band patterns, which was statistically signifcant. Intergroup comparison using Chi-square test was not statistically signifcant. One may conclude that irrespective of the caries status of the child, majority of the mother child pairs share identical strains of MS and hence the mother is the primary source of

  14. Responses of mothers of children with CHD: quality of life, anxiety and depression, parental attitudes, family functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Fatos; Sertcelik, Tamay; Yalın Sapmaz, Sermin; Eser, Erhan; Coskun, Senol

    2017-11-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiety and depression status, family functions, parenting attitudes, and quality of life in the mothers of children with CHD. The study enrolled 120 mothers: 40 of children with cyanotic CHD, 40 of children with non-cyanotic CHD, and 40 of healthy controls. Short Form-36 for quality of life, Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale for anxiety and depression, Family Assessment Device for the detection of problems affecting family functions, and Parental Attitude Research Instrument for measuring child-rearing attitudes were used in the study. Statistically significant decreases were found in the general health standards of mothers of non-cyanotic children (p=0.035) and in the emotional and physical role difficulty of mothers of cyanotic children (p=0.006, p=0.010). When anxiety and depression levels of the parents were examined, the anxiety level of the cyanotic group was found to be significantly higher than that of the other groups (p=0.031). When family behaviours were assessed, there was a statistically significant decrease in role status in the families having a child with cyanotic CHD (p=0.035). In the Parental Attitude Research Instrument test, the husband and wife incompatibility sub-scale was found to be statistically significantly lower in the cyanotic CHD group (p=0.030). When there is a diseased person in the family, the focus should not be solely on the problems of the patient but also on preventive methods to be implemented in order to protect the mental health of all family members.

  15. Parenting Efficacy and Health-promoting Behaviors for Children of Mothers from Native and Multicultural Families in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sophia Jihey; Bang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the levels of parenting efficacy and health-promoting behaviors for children of mothers, and to explore the relationships between parenting efficacy and the behaviors of mothers from native and multicultural families in South Korea. Data was collected by a self-report questionnaire completed by 258 mothers who had 6-month to 36-month-old children attending kindergartens or multicultural family support centers located in Seoul and in Gyeounggi Province, South Korea. No significant difference in parenting efficacy was found, depending on the maternal country of origin. However, Chinese mothers performed health-promoting behaviors more frequently for their children than Korean and Vietnamese mothers did (F = 6.87, p parenting efficacy and maternal health-promoting behaviors for children were found, regardless of maternal country of origin (r = .57, p Chinese, and r= .40, p parenting efficacy can be an effective way for improvement of maternal health-promoting behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Associations between mother's and children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in the family context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinKyoung Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which mothers' and children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary time (ST are associated across different settings (i.e., at home versus outside of the home, on weekdays versus weekends is not well understood. The purposes of this study were to: (Strong et al., 2005 describe associations between mothers' and children's levels of MVPA and ST, and (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008 determine how setting and mothers' and children's characteristics moderate the associations. We used baseline data from the University of Michigan Healthy Families baseline data (2013–2015 from 55 mothers who have children in two age groups (3–5.99years [n=25] and 10–12.99years [n=30] for the analysis. MVPA and ST data were collected using accelerometry over a seven day period. Proportion of time spent in MVPA and ST between 08:00am and 08:59pm was calculated. Mixed-effects models were used to examine associations. After controlling for selected mother and child characteristics and setting variables, MVPA and ST levels were positively associated in mothers and their children (P<0.001. The mother-child associations for MVPA and ST were 1.7 times (β=0.365 versus β=0.216 and 2.2 times (β=0.255 versus β=0.117 stronger, respectively, when both were at home together. The association did not differ by day of the week. The variations by setting underline the importance of developing home-based, family-centered interventions to increase PA and decrease ST. Keywords: Physical activity, Sedentary time, Home environment

  17. When the mother-in-law is just as good—Differential mortality of reproductive females by family network composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johow, Johannes; Voland, Eckart

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the cooperative breeding hypothesis, we investigate the effect of having kin on the mortality of reproductive women based on family reconstitutions for the Krummhörn region (East Frisia, Germany, 1720–1874). We rely on a combination of Cox clustered hazard models and hazard models stratified at the family level. In order to study behavior-related effects, we run a series of models in which only kin who lived in the same parish are considered. To investigate structural, non-behavior-related effects, we run a different model series that include all living kin, regardless their spatial proximity. We find that women of reproductive age who had a living mother had a reduced mortality risk. It appears that having living sisters had an ambivalent impact on women’s mortality: i.e., depending on the socioeconomic status of the family, the effect of having living sisters ranged between representing a source of competition and representing a source of support. Models which are clustered at the family level suggest that the presence of a living mother-in-law was associated with reduced mortality among her daughters-in-law especially among larger-scale farm families. We interpret this finding as a consequence of augmented consanguineous marriages among individuals of higher social strata. For instance, in first cousin marriages, the mother-in-law could also be a biological aunt. Thus, it appears that among the wealthy elite, the genetic in-law conflict was neutralized to some extent by family solidarity. This result further suggests that the tipping point of the female trade-off between staying with the natal family and leaving the natal family to join an economically well-established in-law family might have been reached very quickly among women living under the socioeconomic conditions of the Krummhörn region. PMID:29494690

  18. When the mother-in-law is just as good-Differential mortality of reproductive females by family network composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willführ, Kai Pierre; Johow, Johannes; Voland, Eckart

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the cooperative breeding hypothesis, we investigate the effect of having kin on the mortality of reproductive women based on family reconstitutions for the Krummhörn region (East Frisia, Germany, 1720-1874). We rely on a combination of Cox clustered hazard models and hazard models stratified at the family level. In order to study behavior-related effects, we run a series of models in which only kin who lived in the same parish are considered. To investigate structural, non-behavior-related effects, we run a different model series that include all living kin, regardless their spatial proximity. We find that women of reproductive age who had a living mother had a reduced mortality risk. It appears that having living sisters had an ambivalent impact on women's mortality: i.e., depending on the socioeconomic status of the family, the effect of having living sisters ranged between representing a source of competition and representing a source of support. Models which are clustered at the family level suggest that the presence of a living mother-in-law was associated with reduced mortality among her daughters-in-law especially among larger-scale farm families. We interpret this finding as a consequence of augmented consanguineous marriages among individuals of higher social strata. For instance, in first cousin marriages, the mother-in-law could also be a biological aunt. Thus, it appears that among the wealthy elite, the genetic in-law conflict was neutralized to some extent by family solidarity. This result further suggests that the tipping point of the female trade-off between staying with the natal family and leaving the natal family to join an economically well-established in-law family might have been reached very quickly among women living under the socioeconomic conditions of the Krummhörn region.

  19. Mother-child relationships, family context, and child characteristics as predictors of anxiety symptoms in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Kathryn A; Siener, Shannon; Brumariu, Laura E

    2011-05-01

    The goal of the study was to examine several factors that may explain the development of anxiety symptoms in middle childhood. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (n = 1,364 families), we examined mother-child relationships, other aspects of family context, and child characteristics as predictors of anxiety in preadolescence. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that children who were more anxious at the beginning of middle childhood had been more behaviorally inhibited as preschoolers, and in middle childhood lived in families who experienced more negative life events and had mothers who were more anxious. Children who became more anxious across middle childhood were less behaviorally inhibited as preschoolers and in middle childhood perceived less security in their attachments to their mothers, experienced more negative life events, and had mothers who were more anxious. The findings illustrate the need to include a broad set of risk factors in etiological models of anxiety. In addition, the evidence for cumulative effects suggests several possible points of intervention with anxious children and their parents.

  20. Energy efficient demand controlled ventilation in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for a simple demand controlled ventilation system for single family houses where all sensors and controls are located in the air handling unit. The strategy is based on sensing CO2-concentration and moisture content in the outdoor air and exhaust air. The CO2...... in the Danish building regulations and the low flow rate is based on minimum requirements in indoor air quality standards. Measurements were performed on an existing single family house where the controls were installed on the existing mechanical ventilation system. The results showed that the ventilation can...... be reduced to the low rate 37% of the time without significant changes in the CO2-concentration and moisture level in the house. In theory this gives a 35% saving on electric energy for fans....

  1. Development of an air heating system for single family housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gunner, Amalie; Nikolaisen, Christian Grønborg

    2017-01-01

    The initial objective of the project was to break with common thinking about Space heating and to document that air heating can be used as the sole source of heating in a single Family house. The basic idea is that the ventilation must be installed in any case and it may equally well form the heat...... source of the house - Thus the waterborne heating system can be eliminated....

  2. Family-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Smoking Fathers and Nonsmoking Mothers with a Child: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Emmons, Karen; Leung, Angela Yee Man; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-03-01

    To examine whether a family-based intervention targeting both smoking fathers and nonsmoking mothers in well-child health clinics is effective in increasing fathers' abstinence from cigarette smoking. This parallel 2-arm randomized controlled trial recruited a total of 1158 families with a daily-smoking father, a nonsmoking mother, and a child aged 0-18 months from the 22 maternal and child health centers in Hong Kong. The intervention group received the family-based intervention, including 6 nurse-led individual face-to-face and telephone counseling sessions within 1 month after recruitment and a voluntary face-to-face family counseling session (FCS). The control group received a leaflet, a self-help booklet, and brief quitting advice only. Father-reported 7-day and 6-month abstinence, smoking reduction, quit attempts, mother-reported help and support, and child salivary cotinine level were assessed at 12 months. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare these outcomes between the 2 study groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group reported a greater prevalence of 7-day (13.7% vs 8.0%; OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.16-3.17; P fathers' self-reported abstinence (20.2% vs 12.3%; P = .02), mothers' help (66.1% vs 43.8%; P fathers (55.0% vs 45.4%; P child healthcare setting was effective in increasing the fathers' self-reported abstinence. Additional participation in the FCS increased mothers' help and support to the fathers. Controlled-trials.com: ISRCTN99111655; Hkuctr.com: HKUCTR-465. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Embodied drawings as expressions of distress among impoverished single Bedouin mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Ephrat; Cwikel, Julie

    2008-06-01

    This paper demonstrates how marginalized, Bedouin, single mothers define pain through different depictions of their bodies and their embodied experience. Using visual data generated through an empowerment group with single Bedouin women living in the Negev, illustrative pictures were selected. The potential of drawing as an indirect, but deeply communicative symbolic vehicle with which to express the women's pain and struggle as marginalized and impoverished women is demonstrated through themes that emerged from a content analysis of the women's art and their verbal comments about what they had drawn. A central theme identified pain due to painful life circumstances, rather than due to inherent sickness or weakness. Other themes identified included the body as a site for cultural transition, power negations with men, intellectual development, and the struggles of motherhood. This shows how the visual depiction of pain on the page offers a socially critical, yet potentially mental health promoting medium that locates women's distress, not as the result of personal and physical weakness, but as the result of social oppression. The implications for the use of art with socially marginalized women are discussed.

  4. Parental child-care practices of Slovenian preschoolers' mothers and fathers: The Family Environment Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ, and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Factor analysis of the 63 items reliably recovered a four-component solution in both, maternal and paternal self-reports indicating the following broad-band parenting practices: Authoritative Parenting, Ineffective Control, Power Assertion, and Stimulation. Variables loading high on more than one component and those that did not load on the same factor obtained from maternal and paternal data were excluded from further analyses. The 51 items that were retained and corresponded to the four factors demonstrate adequate internal consistency for both samples of respondents. In addition, parental stimulation was positively linked to authoritative parenting, while it was negatively related to ineffective control and power assertion. The mothers perceived themselves to be more authoritative and stimulative than did fathers, who described themselves as more power assertive and ineffective in control. The parent-pairs were also found to share, at least to some extent, similar parenting practices, whereas their self-perceived expression of these practices was not dependent on their child's gender.

  5. The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount.

  6. Significant factors in family difficulties for fathers and mothers who use support services for children with hikikomori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Akiko; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2015-04-01

    Hikikomori is a new psychosociological phenomenon among youth, of almost complete withdrawal from social interaction, and it has received considerable attention in community mental health in Japan. The aims of the present study were to identify the influential factors of family difficulties of parents who use support services for children with hikikomori, and compare them between fathers and mothers. Data were collected from 110 parents (55 couples) of children with hikikomori with regard to family difficulties, quality of life, and depression variables via self-report questionnaires. To assess the influential factors of Family Difficulties for parents with children with hikikomori, hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was carried out for gender. While 94.5% of mothers received some kind of family support, only 61.9% of fathers received it. For both genders, the number of services that the fathers received was significantly correlated with marital cooperation, and the number of services that the mothers received was significantly correlated with support resource utilization. It is necessary for fathers to receive more support, and it is important for professionals to encourage parents to address their difficulties together. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. Coping strategies and psychological distress among mothers of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate and the family impact of this disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Khoda, Maryam Omid; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Vatankhah, Mona

    2014-03-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the coping strategies and level of psychological distress in mothers of patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and the family impact of this disorder. Participants were mothers of 55 children or adolescents with nonsyndromic CLP recruited from families attending a CLP clinic and 2 university hospitals in Mashhad, northeast of Iran. Family impact, psychological distress, and coping strategies were assessed using validated psychological questionnaires including Family Impact Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and Coping Response Inventory. Findings revealed that mothers relied more on the use of approach-oriented rather than avoidance-oriented coping strategies. According to General Health Questionnaire scores, 38.2% of mothers showed some evidence of psychological distress, and 23.6% were suspected of having severe psychological problems. Regarding the family impact of CLP, mothers reported the greatest impact to be on the family's financial status and parental emotions. Those mothers who used avoidant coping strategies reported a greater family impact of CLP (P = 0.002). Emotional discharge and acceptance coping were significant predictors of family impact (P = 0.037 and P = 0.035, respectively). Mothers of 13- to 18-year-old patients with CLP reported greater use of problem-solving coping strategy when compared with mothers of younger patients (P = 0.006). Child's age and coping strategies were not significant predictors of the level of mother's psychological distress. Increased knowledge about how parents cope with their child's craniofacial condition may help caregivers develop a more family-oriented care approach, which is sensitive to the psychosocial needs of parents, children, and their families.

  8. Seeking Emancipation from Gender Regulation: Reflections on Home Space for a Black Woman Academic/Single Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    William-­White, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Using the work of Judith Butler on gender regulation, Black Feminist Thought (BFT), and autobiographic storytelling, this piece illustrates how essentialist notions of gender, and discourses related to gender create conflict in shaping identity construction for a Black woman academic and single mother (BWA/SM) in the United States. This piece…

  9. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  10. Missouri Mothers and Their Children: A Family Study of the Effects of Genetics and the Prenatal Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S; Heath, Andrew C; Marceau, Kristine; Palmer, Rohan H C; McGeary, John E; Todorov, Alexandre; Evans, Allison Schettini

    2015-10-01

    The Missouri Mothers and Their Children Study (MO-MATCH) was specifically designed to critically investigate prenatal environmental influences on child attention problems and associated learning and cognitive deficits. The project began as a pilot study in 2004 and was formally launched in 2008. Participants in the study were initially identified via the Department of Vital Statistics birth record (BR) database. Interview and lab-based data were obtained from: (1) mothers of Missouri-born children (born 1998-2005), who smoked during one pregnancy but not during another pregnancy; (2) biological fathers when available; and (3) the children (i.e., full sibling pairs discordant for exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP). This within-mother, between-pregnancy contrast provides the best possible methodological control for many stable maternal and familial confounding factors (e.g., heritable and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother that predict increased probability of SDP). It also controls for differences between mothers who do and do not smoke during pregnancy, and their partners, that might otherwise artifactually create, or alternatively mask, associations between SDP and child outcomes. Such a design will therefore provide opportunities to determine less biased effect sizes while also allowing us to investigate (on a preliminary basis) the possible contribution of paternal or other second-hand smoke exposure during the pre, peri, and postnatal periods to offspring outcome. This protocol has developed a cohort that can be followed longitudinally through periods typically associated with increased externalizing symptoms and substance used initiation.

  11. Daily parenting engagement among new mothers and fathers: the role of romantic attachment in dual-earner families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kotila, Letitia E; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the association of prenatal assessments of mothers' and fathers' self-reported romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance with the time mothers and fathers reported in proximity-focused and exploration-focused engagement with their infants at 9 months postpartum. Our sample of 136 dual-earner couples came from a larger longitudinal study of the transition to parenthood. Time in proximity-focused (interactions that emphasize physical or emotional connection) and exploration-focused (activities that stimulate and build knowledge of the world) engagement on workdays and nonworkdays were measured using time diaries. Using actor-partner interdependence models, we found significant across-partners associations between romantic attachment and parental engagement. In particular, analyses revealed interesting interactions: fathers higher in avoidance spent more time in exploration-focused engagement on workdays when mothers were more anxious, whereas mothers higher in anxiety spent more time in proximity-focused engagement on nonworkdays when fathers were more avoidant. Moreover, fathers demonstrated a compensatory pattern of engagement in response to mother's greater attachment anxiety or avoidance. Findings support the utility of studying romantic attachment within a family system and extend the literature on correlates of early parental engagement.

  12. Suicidal risk in young adult offspring of mothers with bipolar or major depressive disorder: a longitudinal family risk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Lee, Chih-Yuan S; Ronsaville, Donna; Martinez, Pedro

    2008-04-01

    Recent evidence has highlighted suicidal risk associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Using a family risk approach, the goal of this study was to evaluate suicidal thoughts and behaviors longitudinally from childhood to young adulthood in children of mothers with BD, Major depressive disorder (MDD), and well mothers. Few group differences were found for cross-sectional assessments of suicidal thoughts and behavior in young adulthood; the offspring of MDD demonstrate an earlier onset and more persistent suicidality than other groups, but by young adulthood, BD offspring appear to be comparable to MDD offspring in their rates of suicidality. The longitudinal assessments reveal a pattern of higher suicidal risk in MDD offspring, more intermediate risk in BD offspring, and lower risk in well offspring. Precursors and correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors were also examined. These findings suggest diverse developmental trajectories based on family risk and have implications for planning preventive intervention.

  13. Family Conflict and Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy Among High-Risk Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassé, Julie F.H.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Oosterman, Mirjam; van der Geest, Victor R.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Mothers with a history of institutional care in adolescence are often involved in high-conflict partner relationships, which may undermine relationships with children and confidence in oneself as a parent. Not all mothers think of themselves as bad parents under these circumstances. We turned to

  14. Working with Families in Bilingual Mathematics: Supporting a Leadership Space for Latina Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LópezLeiva, Carlos A.; Torres, Zayoni

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the work developed with a group of Latina mothers in a mathematics afterschool program for a period of 3 ½ years. The analysis of the productive patterns of interaction of this group of mothers with a group of bilingual participants shows that the program's participation and activity structure closely determines the quality of…

  15. Relating Stress of Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities to Family-School Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Although mothers of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience high levels of stress and schools constitute an important resource, the relation remains unknown between maternal stress and educational services. Responding to a national, web-based survey, 965 mothers of students with disabilities completed a 163-item…

  16. Three-Generation Family Households: Differences by Family Structure at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), this study investigated how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of 3-generation households vary by mother's relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17% of cohabiting mothers, and 45% of single mothers lived in a 3-generation…

  17. Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale in African American single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Jennifer; Hall, Lynne A

    2009-02-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) Scale is a commonly used measure of global self-esteem, an important element of mental health. The purpose of this cross sectional secondary analysis was to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of 98 African American single mothers. The RSE Scale showed adequate internal consistency with an alpha coefficient of .83. Two factors that accounted for a total of 54.7% of the variance were extracted. Self-esteem showed a strong negative relationship with both depressive symptoms and negative thinking. This study provides support for the internal consistency of the RSE Scale and partial support for its construct validity in this population. The RSE appears to represent a bidimensional construct of self-esteem for African American women, with the cultural influences of racial esteem and the rejection of negative stereotypes forming a separate and distinct aspect of this concept. The RSE Scale should be used and interpreted with caution in this population given these findings.

  18. 'Trying to make it all come together': structuration and employed mothers' experience of family food provisioning in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Edginton, Barry; O'neil, John

    2012-09-01

    This research examined the aetiology of employed mothers' food choice and food provisioning decisions using a qualitative, grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews using the Food Choice Map were conducted with eleven middle-income employed mothers of elementary school-age children. Results demonstrated that the women exhibited conflicting identities with respect to food choice and provisioning. As 'good mothers' they were the primary food and nutrition caregivers for the family, desiring to provide healthy, homemade foods their families preferred at shared family meals. They also sought to be independent selves, working outside the home, within the context of a busy modern family. Increased food autonomy of children, and lack of time due to working outside the home and children's involvement in extracurricular activities, were significant influences on their food choice and provisioning. This resulted in frequently being unable to live up to their expectations of consistently providing healthy homemade foods and having shared family meals. To cope, the women frequently relied on processed convenience and fast foods despite their acknowledged inferior nutritional status. Using Giddens' structuration theory, the dynamic relationships between the women's food choice and provisioning actions, their identities and larger structures including socio-cultural norms, conditions of work and the industrial food system were explored. The ensuing dietary pattern of the women and their families increases the risk of poor health outcomes, including obesity. These results have implications for public health responses to improve population health by shifting the focus from individual-level maternal influences to structural influences on diet.

  19. A Single-Case Study of Resiliency After Extreme Incest in an Old Order Amish Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, William M; Stephenson, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research brief presents a single case study of the resiliency of "Mary B." She grew up in an Old Order Amish family where isolation, secrecy, and patriarchy masked repeated sexual assaults by her older brothers that began at age 7. By the age of 20, Mary alleged she had been raped on more than 200 separate occasions by members of her Amish family. After years of pleading with her mother and church officials to intervene, she sought therapy outside the Amish community. This led to three of her brothers being incarcerated. Her family disowned her and she was banned from the Amish community, leaving with an 8th grade education and little more than the clothes she was wearing. In less than 2 years, Mary had moved to a new town, completed her GED, obtained a car and driving license, maintained a small home, and worked as a certified nursing assistant. She consented to tape recorded interviews and completed several quantitative diagnostic measures. Scores on the diagnostic measures placed her within the normal range on self-esteem, competency, depression, stress, social support, and life skills. Analysis of interviews revealed Mary rebounded from her past by reframing her experiences. Themes identified within the interviews supported 6 of the 7 types of resiliencies (insight, independence, initiative, relationships, humor, and morality) outlined in the therapeutic Challenge Model.

  20. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work-Family Spillover in Working Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ju; Bae, So Young

    2017-07-11

    Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics.

  1. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work–Family Spillover in Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ju Chang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics.

  2. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work–Family Spillover in Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ju; Bae, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics. PMID:28696388

  3. Using family history and health risk behaviors to determine predictors of depressive symptoms in Central American immigrant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann H; Lyon, Debra E; Meyers, Melanie F

    2013-06-01

    In this study, depressive symptomatology in Central American immigrant mothers with adolescent daughters living in the USA was explored. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Short Scale, the Family History Scale, an Acculturation Scale, and the core section of the Youth Conduct Disorder scale from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 101 Central American mothers were analyzed to identify predictors of depressive symptoms. Over one-third of the participants had depressive symptoms. There were no significant findings for acculturation as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Predictors that related to depressive symptomatology were a positive family history of depression, marital status (divorced), and having a daughter engaged in health risk behaviors. Clinicians working with mothers from Central America should consider risk of depression, whether there is a family history of depression; and additional stresses, such as the health risk behaviors of adolescents. Unprecedented levels of immigration around the world underscore the importance of meeting the healthcare needs of culturally-diverse groups. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for forecasting the load for space heating in a single-family house. The forecasting model is built using data from sixteen houses located in Sønderborg, Denmark, combined with local climate measurements and weather forecasts. Every hour the hourly heat load for each...... house the following two days is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models and the climate inputs used are: ambient temperature, global radiation and wind speed. A computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme is used. The models are optimized to fit the individual...

  5. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, new tighter energy performance requirements were introduced in Denmark for both new buildings and renovation, including a new classification system for low energy buildings. These demands are based on the directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the EPBD (2002/91/EC). In general......, the purpose of the project was to demonstrate that energy efficient renovation of a typical single-family house would lead to large reductions in energy consumption in a cost efficient manner, and at the same time improve living conditions. The focus has also been on achieving a commonly acceptable design...

  6. Analysis of the Lifecycle Impacts and Potential for Avoided Impacts Associated with Single Family Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how recovering construction and demolition materials from single-family homes and reusing them in building and road construction and other applications helps offset the environmental impacts associated with single-family homes.

  7. Predictors of calcium intake at dinner meals of ethnically diverse mother-child dyads from families with limited incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Nicklas, Theresa A; Franklin, Frank; Liu, Yan

    2009-10-01

    Diets adequate in calcium and other key nutrients early in life are critical for optimal growth. This study's objective was to determine associations between beverage and dairy food intakes of mothers and their young children and food/beverage contributions to calcium at dinner meals from ethnically diverse families with limited incomes. This was a secondary analysis of dietary data on mother-child dyads from a cross-sectional study. The sample was 465 children (4.4+/-0.6 years) and their mothers, 41% African American, 34% Hispanic, and 21% white. Dietary and anthropometric data were collected in 52 Head Start centers in Alabama and Texas during 1 year starting fall 2004. Associations between mother-child intakes were examined by race/ethnicity using correlations. Calcium intake from dinners was predicted (stepwise regression) from four beverage categories-milk, sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juices, and non-energy-containing beverages plus water-and from cheese and dairy desserts. Overall, the mother's dinnertime intake of milk did not predict that of her child. Mother-child intakes of cheese, dairy desserts, and sweetened beverages correlated more strongly than did milk. All the beverages and dairy groups demonstrated moderate correlations for dyads with those for cheese (r=0.56), dairy desserts (r=0.39), fruit juice (r=0.36), and sweetened beverages (r=0.31) higher than that for milk overall (r=0.29, Preplacing sweet beverages at dinner with low-fat milk or calcium-fortified beverages to improve the nutrient density of meals.

  8. Adding School to Work-Family Balance: The Role of Support for Portuguese Working Mothers Attending a Master's Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Cláudia; Matias, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the work, family, and study experiences of Portuguese professional women in two different career stages: early career and mid-career. Using semi-structured interviews with a sample of 22 working mothers enrolled in a master's degree, this study explores their experiences of combining the roles of mother, worker and…

  9. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES) of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, singl...

  10. Single Nucleotide Variants Associated With Polygenic Hypercholesterolemia in Families Diagnosed Clinically With Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiquiz-Moneo, Itziar; Pérez-Ruiz, María Rosario; Jarauta, Estíbaliz; Tejedor, María Teresa; Bea, Ana M; Mateo-Gallego, Rocío; Pérez-Calahorra, Sofía; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Marco-Benedí, Victoria; de Castro-Orós, Isabel; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando

    2017-09-14

    Approximately 20% to 40% of clinically defined familial hypercholesterolemia cases do not show a causative mutation in candidate genes, and some of them may have a polygenic origin. A cholesterol gene risk score for the diagnosis of polygenic hypercholesterolemia has been demonstrated to be valuable to differentiate polygenic and monogenic hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of the single nucleotide variants associated with polygenic hypercholesterolemia in probands with genetic hypercholesterolemia without mutations in candidate genes (nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia genetic hypercholesterolemia) and the genetic score in cascade screening in their family members. We recruited 49 nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia genetic hypercholesterolemia families (294 participants) and calculated cholesterol gene scores, derived from single nucleotide variants in SORT1, APOB, ABCG8, APOE and LDLR and lipoprotein(a) plasma concentration. Risk alleles in SORT1, ABCG8, APOE, and LDLR showed a statistically significantly higher frequency in blood relatives than in the 1000 Genomes Project. However, there were no differences between affected and nonaffected members. The contribution of the cholesterol gene score to LDL-C was significantly higher in affected than in nonaffected participants (P = .048). The percentage of the LDL-C variation explained by the score was 3.1%, and this percentage increased to 6.9% in those families with the highest genetic score in the proband. Nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia genetic hypercholesterolemia families concentrate risk alleles for high LDL-C. Their contribution varies greatly among families, indicating the complexity and heterogeneity of these forms of hypercholesterolemias. The gene score explains a small percentage of LDL-C, which limits its use in diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All

  11. Family stress moderates relations between physiological and behavioral synchrony and child self-regulation in mother-preschooler dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Davis, Molly

    2016-01-01

    From a bio-behavioral framework, the relations between physiological synchrony, positive behavioral synchrony, and child self-regulation under varying levels of risk were examined among 93 mother- (M age = 30.44 years, SD = 5.98 years) preschooler (M age = 3.47 years, SD =.52 years, 58.70% male) dyads. Physiological synchrony was examined using interbeat interval (IBI) data and measures of positive behavioral synchrony and self-regulation were based on observations of a mother-child interaction task. Results supported the phenomenon of physiological synchrony among mother-preschooler dyads during an interaction, but not a baseline, task. Moderation analyses indicated that under conditions of high family risk, positive behavioral synchrony and child self-regulation were greater when physiological synchrony was low. Positive behavioral synchrony was positively associated with child self-regulation, regardless of risk status. The results document physiological synchrony among mothers and their preschool-aged children and the complex ways that physiological attunement relates to important developmental processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Central American mothers report family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of teenage health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of health risk behaviors among Central American teenagers. Demographic data were collected from a convenience sample of 101 Central American mothers with a teenage daughter ages 12-17 years who were living in Northern Virginia. The research questions assessed the family history of depression, alcohol abuse, and maternal depression. Scores were calculated to predict risk of teenage health risk behaviors. The Hispanic mothers in this study reported that their teenagers had significant health risk behaviors, including school dropout and expulsion, alcohol and substance use, pregnancy, and gang membership. Family history of depression and alcohol abuse in a first degree relative predicted teenage risk behavior 71% of the time. There is no consensus on a standard screening approach for depression in teenagers. Developing a standardized approach to gathering information from teenagers that includes genetic family traits may have significant effects on interventions for teenage health risk behavior and ways to provide the best services for vulnerable teenagers. The results of this study have implications for nurse practitioners caring for teenagers. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. The impact of caring for children with mental retardation on families as perceived by mothers in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhani, A.; Gavino, I.; Yousafzai, A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess how families perceive the positive and negative impacts of caring for a child with mental retardation. Methods: The quantitative descriptive study was conducted from January to August 2007 and comprised 54 families attending a private day-care centre for children with special needs in Karachi, Pakistan. The Kansas Inventory of Parental Perceptions was used to assess mothers' perceptions on the impact of caring for a child with mental retardation. Positive contributions, social comparisons with others, understanding of disability and perception of control were assessed. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mothers reported positive contribution to family life as a result of caring for a child with mental retardation (Mean: 2.95+-0.37). There was an acceptance of the situation and a trend towards upward favourable comparison with other families (Mean: 3.13+-0.07). Conclusions: Contrary to earlier studies exploring the impact of caring for a child with disabilities having largely focused on negative contributions, the study highlights some positive contributions. (author)

  14. The mismatch between high effort and low reward in household and family work predicts impaired health among mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Arnhold-Kerri, Sonja; Siegrist, Johannes; Geyer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    So far, Siegrist's model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) has been tested almost exclusively for paid employment. This article reports results on a newly developed questionnaire measuring ERI in unpaid household and family work. Using data of a population-based sample of 3129 German mothers, logistic regression analyses were performed to test the following three main assumptions: (i) high effort combined with low reward in household and family work increases the risk of poor health; (ii) a high level of overcommitment may enhance the risk of poor health; and (iii) mothers reporting an extrinsic high ERI and a high level of overcommitment have an even higher risk of poor health. ERI was significantly related to self-rated health, somatic complaints and mental health. A high level of overcommitment increased the risk of poor health, whereas ERI and overcommitment combined was associated with the highest risk of poor health. Statistically significant synergy effects of combined exposure of ERI and overcommitment were found for 'anxiety'. With some limitations, all three assumptions underlying the ERI model were confirmed. Thus, we conclude that ERI is applicable to domestic work and may provide an explanatory framework to assess stress experiences in mothers.

  15. Parenting stress in mothers of adults with an intellectual disability: parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C; Rose, J

    2009-12-01

    There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to mothers of adults with ID. Of particular interest were the parental cognitions of parenting self-esteem and parental locus of control. Face-to face interviews were administered with 44 mothers of adults with ID. They completed the Vineland Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour Scale, the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened version of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Correlations were observed between parenting stress and the other study variables. Regression analysis revealed that parental cognitive variables predicted 61% of the variance in parenting stress. Parenting satisfaction, a subscale of the measure of parenting sense of competence, mediated the relationships between adaptive behaviour and parenting stress and between family support and parenting stress. These results indicate the importance of cognitive variables in the stress of mothers of adults with ID. Potential avenues of future research might focus on the experience of fathers and the impact of positive perceptions as a cognitive factor.

  16. The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maiju Mikkonen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing up with one parent is associated with economic hardship and health disadvantages, but there is limited evidence of its lifetime consequences. We examined whether being born to an unmarried mother is associated with socioeconomic position and marital history over the lifespan. Methods We analysed data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including birth, child welfare clinic and school healthcare records from people born in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Using a unique personal identification number, we linked these data to information on adult socioeconomic position from census data at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000, obtained from Statistics Finland. Results Compared to children of married mothers, children of unmarried mothers were more likely to have lower educational attainment and occupational status (odds ratio for basic vs. tertiary education 3.40; 95 % confidence interval 2.17 to 5.20; for lowest vs. highest occupational category 2.75; 1.92 to 3.95. They were also less likely to reach the highest income third in adulthood and more likely to stay unmarried themselves. The associations were also present when adjusted for childhood socioeconomic position. Conclusion Being born to an unmarried mother, in a society where marriage is the norm, is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage throughout life, over and above the disadvantage associated with childhood family occupational status. This disadvantage may in part mediate the association between low childhood socioeconomic position and health in later life.

  17. Teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Jennifer L; Lewis, Lucy N; Bateson, Deborah; Hickey, Martha; Skinner, S Rachel

    2016-10-01

    Australia's teenage birth rate has fallen to historic lows, but teenage motherhood still occurs and can be challenging for mother and baby. The aim of this article is to review current evidence on the epidemiology and clinical care of teenage pregnancy and parenting, and provide recommendations around management of these young people in Australia. Teenage mothers may have experienced family, sexual, and partner violence, family disruption, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Outcomes on a range of peripartum measures are worse for teenage mothers and their babies. Longer term risks for the mother include depression and rapid repeat pregnancy; for the child, intergenerational teenage parenthood; and for both, socioeconomic disadvantage. Teenage motherhood occurs more often within communities where poverty, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status and rural/remote location intersect. General practitioners play a critical role in identification of at-risk teens, preventing unintended teenage pregnancy, clinical care of pregnant teens, and promoting the health and wellbeing of teenage mothers and their children.

  18. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Paterson, Janis

    2011-05-12

    The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult) and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult). Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014), after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010). Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0.010, -0.008), after adjusting for maternal age

  19. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schluter Philip J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult. Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014, after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010. Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0

  20. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank...... is a tank in tank heat storage with domestic hot water in the inner tank and space heating water in the outer tank. The total tank volume is 750 liters and the solar collector area is 9 m2. The auxiliary energy supply system is based on electrical heating element(s)/heat pump and is different for all three...... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys...

  1. Energy Renovation of Danish Single-Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The PhD project is based on requirements from the European Union to reduce the energy consumption and on current renovation needs of and a huge energy saving potential in the Danish single-family houses from the 1960’s and 1970’s. The project focuses on the barriers for energy renovations....... Not one is overpowering, but numerous barriers have to be broken down simultaneously to achieve the desired effect. A questionnaire survey with nearly 900 responding homeowners examines the homeowners’ interest and willingness in performing energy renovations and their potential motivation factors....... The results show that despite the barriers the owners can in fact be motivated to perform private energy renovations. A sound project economy is all-important for this to happen and it should if possible be supported by improvements in both comfort, indoor environment and architecture to increase...

  2. Mother-Adolescent Proficiency in a Common Language Facilitates Socialization Among Mexican-Origin Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W; Coltrane, Scott; Parke, Ross D

    2017-03-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test how mother and adolescent proficiency in a common language moderates the link from parenting to adolescent development. A sample of Mexican-origin fifth-grade adolescents (N = 674, 50% female) was measured longitudinally on self-control and aggression. Mothers were rated on observed positive discipline, warmth, and harsh discipline. Positive discipline and warm parenting predicted increases in self-control and decreases in aggression, but only among mother-adolescent dyads who were proficient in a common language. Harsh parenting predicted decreases in self-control and increases in aggression, but only among dyads who were not proficient in a common language. Similar results were found in a conceptual replication among a second sample of 167 Mexican-origin adolescents. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  3. Optimizing family emotional interaction in the dyad “mother and preschool child with intellectual disabilities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur A. Rean

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the psychological research on interaction of mothers with preschool children with intellectual disabilities. A questionnaire of Parent-Child Emotional Interaction by E.I. Zakharova and a Scale of Child Rejection Degree by A.I. Barkan are used in the empirical study. The basic idea of the scientific research is optimization of emotional interacting of mothers with preschool children who have intellectual disabilities by means of psychological training which is aimed at developing emotional-sensual, empathy-behavioural and cognitive-reflective components of parenthood. The data mentioned above describe the emotional side of mother’s interaction with the child as a disjunction, i.e. most of the mothers manifest low sensitivity to the condition and needs of the child, lack of understanding the causes of child behaviour, inability to empathize to the child when he/she is in a predicament. In order to improve mothers’ understanding of their own children, characteristics and regularities of child development, to enhance the ability to understand the experiences, states and interests of the child, to change attitudes of parents to the child and themselves a training program has been implemented. The results of the control phase of the experiment conducted show the positive effect of group work on peculiarities of parent-child emotional interaction. The number of mothers who are able to understand the reasons for the child’s moods, sympathize with child, set him/her calm attitude increased. Mothers’ impression that they are controlling the development of their child has appeared. Mothers were more likely to seek physical contact with a child. A larger number of mothers began to provide emotional support to their children and to take into account the mood and interests of the child in leisure activities planning.

  4. Marital conflict by proxy after father kills mother: the family therapist as an expert witness in court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, T

    1998-01-01

    The father killing the mother leaves the children effectively without parents. The extended family from both sides will often intervene to offer a home for the children, or at least to have a say in what arrangements are made for the children and how they are to be brought up. Intensely competitive and hostile feelings between the opposing sets of relatives are commonly aroused, and the children may be caught up in a battle reminiscent of the conflict between their parents, which culminated in the death of their mother. I and my colleagues have, as a team, seen more than 300 children who have lost one parent at the hands of the other, and we have been involved in subsequent custody battles as expert witnesses. Based on this experience and using this context as an example, the issues for the family therapist as expert witness in adversarial Court proceedings are presented. A case is described that illustrates the theoretical exposition--including the effectiveness of family therapy from the witness box.

  5. Factors influencing feeding practices of extreme poor infants and young children in families of working mothers in Dhaka slums: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ashraful; Maitrot, Mathilde Rose Louise

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional status differs between infants and young children living in slum and non-slum conditions-infants and young children living in City Corporation slums are likely to have worse nutritional status compared to those from non-slums. Furthermore, families in slums tend to engage female labor in cash-earning activities as a survival strategy; hence, a higher percentage of mothers stay at work. However, little is known about feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers in slums. This study aims to understand the factors that determine feeding practices for infants and young children living in families with working mothers in Dhaka slums. This study adopted a qualitative approach. Sixteen In-depth Interviews, five Key Informant Interviews, and Focused Group Discussions were conducted with family members, community leaders, and program staff. Method triangulation and thematic analyses were conducted. Feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers are broadly determined by mothers' occupation, basis civic facilities, and limited family buying capacity. Although mothers have good nutritional knowledge, they negotiate between work and feeding their infants and young children. Household composition, access to cooking facilities, and poverty level were also found to be significant determining factors. The results suggest a trade-off between mothers' work and childcare. The absence of alternative care support in homes and/or work places along with societal factors outweighs full benefits of project interventions. Improving alternative childcare support could reduce the burden of feeding practice experienced by working mothers and may improve nutritional outcomes.

  6. An Examination of Language Practices during Mother-Child Play Activities among Mexican Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda K.; Baird, Ashley Simpson; Parr, Alyssa; Bergey, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    We examined the language practices of five mother-child dyads during a structured play activity, particularly in relation to maternal question use. The study includes second-generation, 4-year-old children of Mexican immigrants who demonstrate either high vocabulary levels in English and Spanish or low levels of vocabulary in both languages.…

  7. Early Childhood Family Structure and Mother-Child Interactions: Variation by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2010-01-01

    With data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 6,449), a nationally representative sample of births in 2001, we used hierarchical linear modeling to analyze differences in observed interactions between married, cohabiting, never-married, and divorced mothers and their children. In contrast to previous studies, we…

  8. "So we would all help pitch in:" The family literacy practices of low-income African American mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2015-01-01

    The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Relationships between Family Functioning and Parenting Styles: The Perceptions of Mothers of Young Grade School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupinga, Emily Evellyne; Garrison, M. E. Betsy; Pierce, Sarah H.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 151 mothers of elementary students identified relationships between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive) and family functioning (adaptability, cohesion). Families with balanced and moderately balanced levels of adaptability and cohesion had higher levels of authoritative parenting. Midrange balance was associated…

  10. The Relation between Family Structure and Young Adolescents' Appraisals of Family Climate and Parenting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Fine, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Young adolescents who lived with both biological parents, single divorced mother, single divorced father, mother and stepfather, father and stepmother, or multiply divorced parent appraised dimensions of family climate and dimensions of parenting. Differences among family structures were found on warmth, conflict, permissive parenting, and…

  11. Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedecke Julia H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International studies suggest ethnic differences in obesity prevalence may be due, in part, to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction between groups. Further, there is evidence to suggest that there is a familial resemblance in body image between mothers and their younger (preadolescent daughters. This research was therefore conducted to specifically identify the extent to which family status (presented as mother-daughter resemblance and ethnicity impact on body image attitudes and perceptions of South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Methods Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status, their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score. Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Results Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308, regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI. The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685. The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960 regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342 between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p

  12. Self-concept in children and adolescents with epilepsy: The role of family functioning, mothers' emotional symptoms and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Ozalp; Isik, Uğur; Gunes, Serkan; Yildirim, Canan; Killi, Yunus; Guler, Gülen

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the associated factors of poor self-concept in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Fifty-three patients with uncomplicated epilepsy (aged 7-18years) and 28 healthy controls were included. Study measures included the Piers-Harris 2 Self-Concept Scale, Family Assessment Device (FAD), Turgay DSM-IV based ADHD rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R), Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Neurology clinic charts were reviewed for the epilepsy-related variables. While the Piers-Harris 2 total score was not significantly different between the groups, patients with epilepsy had lower (poorer) scores on freedom from anxiety and popularity subscales. Linear regression analysis revealed that the problem solving, affective responsiveness, general functioning and communication scores of FAD; total and inattentiveness scores of T-DSM-IV-S and mothers' Beck scores were associated with the total score of Piers-Harris 2. Epilepsy-related factors were not found to be associated with self-concept scores. Poor self-concept in children with epilepsy is associated with negative family functioning, mothers' emotional symptoms and ADHD, especially the symptoms of inattentiveness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Tobin's q for Danish single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Christian Deichmann

    from 2003 to 2006. The activity in the construction sector has been increasing too, but with some time lag caused by what seems to be an inelastic supply. In the long run, house prices will be determined by the replacement cost of houses, e.g. the cost of constructing a similar house including the cost...... of land. This can be used as a guide as to how much prices are to fall, in order to bring them back to the fundamental value. It can also be seen as a warning or indication of a price bubble. This paper presents a calculation of the value of Tobin's q for single-family houses in Denmark from 1968 to 2008....... It shows that the value of Tobin's q has risen by around 40 percent from 2003 to 2006, caused by increasing house prices. This was not a sustainable development, and prices and the value of Tobin's q are now falling. In order for the value of Tobin's q to reach its fundamental value of 1, prices have...

  14. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  15. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Porębowicz-Dörsmann, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls) completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  16. The Relationship Between Knowledge of Mother and Family Support with Immunization Status Td in Sub PIN Difteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmatul Fajriyah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The number cases of diphtheria in East Java have increased more years. Surabaya is one of cities that implemented the Sub Pekan Imunisasi Nasional (PIN Diphtheria. Sub PIN Diphtheria is a program that aims to break the chain of diphtheria transmission. Children aged > 7–15 years are one of the program’s targets Sub PIN Diphtheria. Sub PIN coverage for groups of children aged > 7–15 years in Kalijudan Public Health Center (PHC only 79.15%, while the predetermined minimum target is 95%. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between knowledge and support from family with immunization status Td in Sub PIN diphtheriae. The research used case kontrol design by using a quantitative approach. The population case is all children aged > 7–15 years in Kalijudan PHC the immunization status Td in Sub PIN program is incomplete. Number of respondents by 60 people. The selection of the sample with simple random sampling. The variabels studied were the characteristics, knowledge, and family support. The results showed that there is a relationship between the level of knowledge of mothers (p = 0.038. There is a relationship between support from family with immunization status Td in sub PIN diphtheria (p = 0.030. It is expected that cross-sector cooperation in the implementation of sub PIN diphtheria and increase knowledge related maternal sub PIN diphtheria and diphtheria by counseling. Keywords: family support, immunization, knowledge, Sub PIN diphtheria

  17. Reasoning and Negotiation about Child Responsibility in Urban Chinese Families: Reports from Mothers, Fathers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Jennifer M.; San, Li Qing; Chen, May-Jane; Yuan, Li

    2004-01-01

    The study investigates everyday parental practices involved in the transmission of cultural values and extends current literature on parenting in Chinese families. Children aged 6, 8, and 10 years from 240 Beijing families, and both their parents, were asked about ways in which expectations of child responsibility are transmitted through routine…

  18. Searching for Wages and Mothering from Afar: The Case of Honduran Transnational Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzbauer, Leah

    2004-01-01

    This article draws on data from a 2-year two-country study that included 157 people to explore the survival strategies of poor Honduran transnational families. I argue that transnational families, defined as those divided between two nation-states who have maintained close ties, depend on a cross-border division of labor in which productive labor…

  19. Family Characteristics, Custody Arrangements, and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being after Lesbian Mothers Break up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Nanette; Bos, Henny; Peyser, Heidi; Deck, Amalia; Rodas, Carla

    2011-01-01

    As part of the largest, longest running prospective American study of same-sex parent families, the present investigation examined relationship dissolution in planned lesbian families. Data were collected from 40 separated couples and their 17-year-old adolescent offspring--19 girls and 21 boys. Nearly all breakups occurred before the former…

  20. Family characteristics, custody arrangements, and adolescent psychological well-being after lesbian mothers break up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gartrell, N.; Bos, H.; Peyser, H.; Deck, A.; Rodas, C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the largest, longest running prospective American study of same-sex parent families, the present investigation examined relationship dissolution in planned lesbian families. Data were collected from 40 separated couples and their 17-year-old adolescent offspring—19 girls and 21 boys.

  1. Perceptions of Family Relations when Mothers and Fathers Are Depicted with Different Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V.; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian.…

  2. My mother painted my father in white: affections and race denial in interracial families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Vainer Schucman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, a piece of a bigger research about interracial families, aims to describe the ways in which black, black history and black ancestry have been denied in the discourse of interracial families. For this understanding we present the case study of two families with the intention of thinking about the place of the race in these dynamics. The results obtained in the bigger research pointed out that family is a privilegedinstitution for the development of strategiesagainst racial violence expriencied in society on a larger scale, but also the place where it is possible to legitimate racist experiences and race violence. And, within these experiences, it was possible to realize that the psychosocial mechanism of denial is one of several ways of negotiating the conflicts and racial tensions that are enunciated within these families.

  3. "Doing our best to keep a routine:" How low-income mothers manage child feeding with unpredictable work and family schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tara; Farrell, Tracy Jean; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol M

    2018-01-01

    Significant changes in work and family conditions over the last three decades have important implications for understanding how young children are fed. The new conditions of work and family have placed pressures on families. The aim of this study was to explore the work and family pressures shaping the ways parents feed their young children on a day-to-day basis. Twenty-two purposively recruited low-income employed mothers of 3-4 year old children from a rural county Head Start program in Upstate New York reported details about the context of their children's eating episodes in a 24-h qualitative dietary recall. Participating mothers were employed and/or in school at least 20 h a week and varied in partner and household characteristics. Interview transcripts were open coded using the constant comparative method for usual ways of feeding children. A typology of three emergent child feeding routines was identified based on mothers' accounts of the recurring ways they fed their child. Mothers' feeding routines were distinguished by a combination of four recurring key strategies - planning ahead, delegating, making trade-offs, and coordinating. Work schedule predictability and other adults helped mothers maintain feeding routines. Unexpected daily events, such as working overtime or waking up late, disrupted child feeding routines and required modifications. These findings suggest that understanding how young children are fed requires recognizing the socio-ecological environments that involve working mothers' daily schedules and household conditions and the multiple ways that mothers manage food and feeding to fit environmental constraints. There is a need to look at more than just family meals to understand parents' daily strategies for feeding young children and their implications for child nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The Meaning That Families Place on the Suicide of Pregnant Mothers in Antioquia, 2010-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes Correa, María Victoria; Ramírez Zapata, Alexandra María; Arango Arbeláez, Beatriz Elena; Anderson Gómez, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To identify the meaning that the families of two pregnant women from Antioquia placed on their suicide in 2010-2011. A qualitative research using the phenomenological and hermeneutical approach, specifically a case study analysis. The category named "family task: weaving a history that helps them to understand" emerged in both families. Two trends were found in the family of Bella: "tragedy, tensions and scenarios" and "fluctuations: between fear-guilt and relief." The family of Consentida showed three trends: "trapped with no escape", "suicide and orphanhood: the understanding of Juanita" and "death is death." For both families, the fact that the women were pregnant had an important effect on the event of voluntary death. The construction of meaning that took place in both families followed two paths: differentiation and death itself; both can be resilient ways of coping with such a tragedy. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  6. Mother-Son Interactions in Families of Boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder with and without Oppositional Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipp, Carla M.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Parenting responsiveness and over-reactivity were assessed among 25 mothers of 7-9-year-old sons with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior (Oppositional Defiant, OD), 24 mothers of sons with ADHD only, and 38 mothers of nonproblem sons. Responsiveness was observed during mother-son play and clean-up…

  7. Alternative Families and Children: Implications for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jannette; Eiduson, Bernice T.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1973, the UCLA Family Styles Project has studied a sample of nontraditional Caucasian families (single mothers, social contract families, communal families) plus a comparison group of conventional nuclear families. Findings are reported on parents' personal/social values and changes in childrearing practices. Implications for education are…

  8. BEHAVIOR RELATIONSHIP MOTHER AND OWNERSHIP OF TOILET FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eti kurniawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis incidence in children under five in the region work of Puskesmas Olak Kemang still a health problem that needs to be addressed, with a percentage of 51.0% is higher than in other wilayh. The disease is not lethal but can undermine the health of the human body so that the resulting decline in nutritional status, decreased intelligence and brain power or immune health in children.               This research is a quantitative study using descriptive analytic method with cross sectional study design that aims to determine the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The population in this research that all children under five in the area of Puskesmas Olak Kemang, samples in this study were 75 children under five. Data were analyzed using analysis Univariate and Bivariate analysis with Chi-Square Test.               The results showed that 78.0% of mothers of children under five who are not air personal hygiene, 60.4% of mothers of children under five unusual CTPS, 82.1% of respondents who did not state house meliliki latrine / WC. The results of the bivariate analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between personal hygiene (p-value = 0.000, customs CTPS (p-value = 0.001, latrine ownership (p-value = 0.000 with the incidence of intestinal worms in Puskesmas Olak Kemang Jambi.               In connection with the results obtained, that the danger of de- worming is dependent on the cleanliness of his mother in serving as personal hygiene, CTPS and Owners toilets in every home. Thus the researchers suggested that the health center may be able to provide information to the public education about the dangers of de- worming to create a healthy society. Keyword                     :  Behavior, Children Events

  9. "Is the doctor God to punish me?!" An intersectional examination of disrespectful and abusive care during childbirth against single mothers in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amroussia, Nada; Hernandez, Alison; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Goicolea, Isabel

    2017-03-04

    Disrespectful and abusive treatment during childbirth is a violation of women's right to dignified, respectful healthcare throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Although reports point out that marginalized groups in society such as single mothers are particularly vulnerable to abusive and disrespectful care, there is a lack of in-depth research exploring single mothers' encounters at the maternal healthcare facilities, especially in Tunisia. In Tunisia, single mothers are particularly vulnerable due to their social stigmatization and socio-economic marginalization. This study examines the self-perceptions and childbirth experiences of single mothers at the public healthcare facilities in Tunisia. This study follows a qualitative design. Eleven single mothers were interviewed in regard to their experiences with maternal healthcare services and their perceptions of the attitudes of the health workers towards them. The interviews also addressed the barriers faced by the participants in accessing adequate maternal healthcare services, and their self-perceptions as single mothers. The data were analyzed using an inductive thematic approach guided by the feminist intersectional approach. Emergent codes were grouped into three final themes. Three themes emerged during the data analysis: 1) Experiencing disrespect and abuse, 2) Perceptions of regret and shame attributed to being a single mother, and 3) The triad of vulnerability: stigma, social challenges, and health system challenges. The study highlights that the childbirth experiences of single mothers are shaped by intersectional factors that go beyond the health system. Gender plays a major role in constructing these experiences while intersecting with other social structures. The participants had experienced disrespectful and discriminatory practices and even violence when they sought maternal healthcare services at the public healthcare facilities in Tunisia. Those experiences reflect not only the poor quality of

  10. Beyond Family-Friendly: The Construct and Measurement of Singles-Friendly Work Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Wendy J.; Weltman, David; Kwesiga, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Although research has examined work-family issues and organizational support for employees' family responsibilities, few studies have explored the work-life issues of single employees without children. The current study examines single employees' perceptions of how their organizations support their work-life balance in comparison to employees with…

  11. 76 FR 58291 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Local Appeals to Single-Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... regulations, the number of appeals received and accepted by FHA has dropped to zero. For the 2010 loan limits...; Local Appeals to Single-Family Mortgage Limits AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing... following information: Title of Proposal: Local Appeals to Single-Family Mortgage Limits. OMB Control Number...

  12. Familial Mediterranean fever in childhood: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Kenan; Sahin, Sezgin; Adrovic, Amra; Sinoplu, Ada Bulut; Yucel, Gozde; Pamuk, Gizem; Aydın, Aslı Kirectepe; Dasdemir, Selcuk; Turanlı, Eda Tahir; Buyru, Nur; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present demographic and clinical features, MEFV mutation variations, and treatment response of a large number of pediatric familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients from a single tertiary centre. Moreover, we aimed to investigate the current outcome of FMF, namely frequency of amyloidosis in children with FMF. We evaluated 708 FMF patients who were followed up in our clinic and who were under colchicine treatment for at least 6 months. The data were recorded from patient records and also verified by negotiations with patients and parents. The male/female proportion of the cohort was 1.05/1 (n = 362/346). Abdominal pain (89.5%, n = 634) was the most common manifestation of FMF episodes, followed by fever (88.8%, n = 629) and arthritis (40.7%, n = 288). However, arthritis in 23 (8%) of the 288 cases was not self-limited; and they subsequently diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis in addition to FMF. Homozygote or heterozygote M694V mutation was more frequent in patients with arthritis (63.2%) and chronic arthritis (69.6%) than the whole cohort (53.8%). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and CRP level were in high levels even during attack-free period in 13.9% (n = 97/697) and 11% (n = 78/670) of the patients, respectively. Proteinuria was found in ten patients (1.4%). Amyloidosis was confirmed by renal biopsy in only two of these cases who were homozygous for M694V and compound heterozygous for M694V/M680I. 47 (6.6%) subjects were considered as colchicine resistant. Homozygote M694V mutation was the most frequent mutation in those resistant cases (63.8%, n = 30), followed by compound heterozygote mutation of M694V/M680I (6.3%, n = 3). Homozygous M694V mutation are still the most frequent mutation and associated with the most severe clinical picture and the worst outcome in Turkish children. M694V genotype seems to be more frequently associated with arthritis as well as with chronic arthritis than other genotypes

  13. The Impact of Childhood Hearing Loss on the Family: Mothers' and Fathers' Stress and Coping Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Most, Tova; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Haddad-eid, Eliana; Brand, Devora

    2016-01-01

    Parenting children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) presents unique long-term challenges that can place the parents at a greater risk for elevated levels of parenting stress. Adaptation of families to the various challenges presented by childhood hearing loss is influenced by their personal and social coping resources available for managing…

  14. Family Worlds: Couple Satisfaction, Parenting Style, and Mothers' and Fathers' Speech to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Michael W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relations between certain family context variables and the conversational behavior of 36 parents who were playing with their 3 year olds. Transcripts were coded for types of conversational functions and structure of parent speech. Marital satisfaction was associated with aspects of parent speech. (LB)

  15. Mother-Adolescent Communication about Tobacco Use in Urban Puerto Rican and Dominican Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida M.; Dittus, Patricia; Jaccard, James

    2008-01-01

    Research on parent-adolescent communication about cigarette smoking in Latino families remains relatively scarce. This dearth of information is worrisome given the high rates of tobacco use among Latino adolescents and the large burden borne by adult Latinos in smoking-related morbidity and mortality. This study presents qualitative data on…

  16. Tiny Dramas: Vocal Communication Between Mother and Infant in Japanese and American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, William

    Why do American infants have a greater amount of vocalization, and particularly of happy vocalization, than do Japanese infants? To answer this question, 30 Japanese and 30 American first-born, 3- to 4-month old infants equally divided by sex, and living in intact middle class urban families were observed in their homes on two consecutive days…

  17. EDUCATIONAL-ATTAINMENT OF CHILDREN IN MOTHER-HEADED FAMILIES - THE IMPACT OF SOCIALIZATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOSMAN, R

    1994-01-01

    The main question in this article is: Do differences in socialization conditions offer an explanation for the negative effect of one-parent families on children's educational attainment? The research design was an ex post facto experiment based on matched pairs, in which the experimental group

  18. Association of criminal convictions between family members : effects of siblings, fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakt, M. van de; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Apel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Crime runs in families. Previous research has shown the existence of intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which variation in criminal convictions may be explained by the criminality of siblings and by the

  19. Mother-daughter communication and college women's confidence to communicate with family members and doctors about the human papillomavirus and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Laura F; Cruz, Maria Elena; Neilands, Torsten B

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we examined whether mother-daughter sexuality communication in midadolescence contributes to young women's self-efficacy to consult with family members about sexual health problems, and to talk with physicians about the human papillomavirus (HPV). Young European American, Latina, and Asian Pacific Islander college women reported on how confident they felt talking to their family members and doctors about HPV and sexual health issues. We gathered retrospective data regarding the nature of mother-daughter communication, including sexuality communication, in midadolescence. Other variables included physician trust, knowledge about HPV, and reports of current sexual activity. More openness in past general communication with their mothers, more perceived comfort in past sexuality communication, and a greater number of reproductive health topics discussed was linked to greater confidence in communicating with family members about sexual health problems. In addition, higher levels of sexual activity, more knowledge about HPV, and the number of reproductive health topics discussed with mothers in midadolescence, were associated with increased confidence talking to doctors about HPV and sexual health. Positive communication experiences with mothers in the early years may reduce the shame, embarrassment, and anxiety associated with talking to physicians about sensitive sexuality issues. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal mental quality of life mediates the associations between intimate partner abuse against mothers and their children's behaviours and quality of life in low-income Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Vivian Yawei; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Ip, Patrick; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Wilfred Hing Sang; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-12-01

    To explore the association between maternal intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and behavioural problem, and to establish a mediation model and investigate the mediating role of mothers' HRQOL on this association. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 197 mothers of 227 children (112 boys and 115 girls) from low-income Chinese families. The mothers were asked to complete the 5-item abuse assessment screen questionnaire for the presence of IPA, the Chinese (Hong Kong) version of 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) for their HRQOL and a structured socio-demographics questionnaire. One of the parents completed the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form-50 (CHQ-PF50) and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to report on their children's HRQOL and behavioural problems, respectively. The mediating effect of the maternal HRQOL on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and HRQOL was tested using Baron and Kenney's multistage regression approach and bootstrapping method. Thirty-five of the 197 mothers reported IPA (17.8%). Children whose mothers had experienced IPA had lower scores in the CHQ-PF50 mental health, parental impact-emotional, family activities and family cohesion subscales, and the psychosocial summary score compared to children of mothers who reported no IPA; they also had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity/inattention problems and higher total difficulties scores measured by the SDQ. Maternal mental HRQOL was a mediator on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and psychosocial HRQOL. IPA experienced by mothers had significant negative impacts on their children's HRQOL and behaviours, which was mediated by maternal mental HRQOL.

  1. Mother-child communication and maternal depressive symptoms in families of children with cancer: integrating macro and micro levels of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Dunn, Madeleine J; Zuckerman, Teddi; Hughart, Leighann; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Saylor, Megan; Schuele, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-08-01

    This study examines associations between maternal depressive symptoms and macro- and micro-level aspects of mothers' communication about their children's cancer. Mothers reported depressive symptoms after diagnosis or relapse (child mean age = 10.4 years; 53% male). Mother-child dyads (N = 94) were subsequently observed discussing the child's cancer and maternal communication was coded. Macro-level indicators (positive and negative communication) were associated with certain micro-level indicators of communication (topic maintenance, reflections, reframes, and imperatives). Higher depressive symptoms predicted lower positive communication and higher negative communication. Maternal reflections and imperatives predicted positive communication, and topic maintenance and reframes predicted negative communication, beyond child age, family income, and depressive symptoms. Findings suggest concrete targets for improving communication in families after diagnosis or relapse.

  2. Perspectives about family meals from single-headed and dual-headed households: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Hoppmann, Caroline; Hanson, Carrie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that family meals are protective for adolescent healthful eating behaviors. However, little is known about what parents think of these findings and whether parents from single- vs dual-headed households have differing perspectives about the findings. In addition, parents' perspectives regarding barriers to applying the findings on family meals in their own homes and suggestions for more widespread adoption of the findings are unknown. The current study aimed to identify single- and dual-headed household parents' perspectives regarding the research findings on family meals, barriers to applying the findings in their own homes, and suggestions for helping families have more family meals. The current qualitative study included 59 parents who participated in substudy of two linked multilevel studies-EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (F-EAT). Parents (91.5% female) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results from the current study suggest that parents from both single- and dual-headed households have similar perspectives regarding why family meals are protective for healthful eating habits for adolescents (eg, provides structure/routine, opportunities for communication, connection), but provide similar and different reasons for barriers to family meals (eg, single-headed=cost vs dual-headed=lack of creativity) and ideas and suggestions for how to increase the frequency of family meals (eg, single-headed=give fewer options vs dual-headed=include children in the meal preparation). Findings can help inform public health intervention researchers and providers who work with adolescents and their families to understand how to approach discussions regarding reasons for having family meals, barriers to carrying out family meals, and ways to increase family meals depending on family structure. Copyright

  3. Maternal Employment and Perceived Stress: Their Impact on Children's Adjustment and Mother-Child Interaction in Young Divorced and Married Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of maternal employment, marital status, and perceived maternal stress on children's adjustment and mother-preschool child interaction in 104 married and 99 divorced families. Results indicated that maternal employment had little impact on these variables. Maternal stress, in form of divorce and daily maternal hassles, demonstrated…

  4. Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Effective Discipline as Mediators of the 6-Year Effects of the New Beginnings Program for Children from Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Dawson-McClure, Spring R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether program effects on mother-child relationship quality and effective discipline mediated the 6-year longitudinal effects of the New Beginnings Program (NBP) to improve mental health and competence outcomes in 218 adolescents from divorced families in a randomized experimental trial. The NBP is a theory-based and…

  5. Fathers' and Mothers' Home Literacy Involvement and Children's Cognitive and Social Emotional Development: Implications for Family Literacy Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The relations between fathers' and mothers' home literacy involvement at 24 months and children's cognitive and social emotional development in preschool were examined using a large sample of African American and Caucasian families ("N" = 5190) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Hierarchical…

  6. Full-service concept for energy efficient renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    existing single-family houses in the Nordic countries are to have competitive power compared to new buildings on the future housing market. Good technical solutions exist but need to be combined based on the full range of (standard) solutions in order to reach the low primary energy level of new...... the solutions. Such one-stop-shops in the form of full-service providers of energy efficient renovation of single-family house are missing in the Nordic countries, although this service is vital to open up the market. As part of the Nordic research project `SuccesFamilies´ with the purpose to change...... the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses –a sustainable renovation concept suitable for different categories of single-family houses with regard to type and age has been proposed in this article. The sustainable renovation concept...

  7. Frequency of Finding Family Donors: A Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Mutlu; Yeral, Mahmut; Solmaz, Soner; Büyükkurt, Nurhilal; Asma, Suheyl; Gereklioğlu, Çiğdem; Boğa, Can; Özdoğu, Hakan; Baştürk, Bilkay

    2018-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is a curative treatment option for many hematologic diseases. The existence of a fully compatible donor for recipients is the first condition for minimized transplant-related mortality and morbidity. The best donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplant is an HLA-matched sibling donor. The possibility of finding an HLA-matched sibling is less than 30% worldwide. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is needed for an increasing number of patients every year, but the ability to find a fully compatible donor has limited its use. From August 2012 to May 2017, we screened 412 adult patients who required AHSCT and their families for HLA tissue groups who were seen at our center (Baskent University Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Research and Medical Center Hematology Unit). To screen tissue groups at our center, we perform lowresolution typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB. If an HLA genotype cannot be identified, verification typing is done using highresolution testing. We found matched family donors in 227 (55%) of 412 patients screened at our center. The ratio of HLAmatched related donors was 83% for 279 patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplant. The likelihood of finding eligible unrelated donors has been gradually increasing, in part due to the development of the National Bone Marrow Bank. However, a careful screening for related donors is still important. Our findings indicate the importance of careful examination of family genealogy and of careful family screening in our region.

  8. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

  9. Family planning, part of maternal health care, spurring record low infant, mother death rates in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    Cuba has the lowest infant morality rate, 1 of the lowest maternal mortality rates, and 1 of the lowest birthrates of any Latin American or Caribbean country, largely because of its comprehensive maternal health care. Family planning is an integral part. All conventional contraceptives and sterilization are provided in the same manner as other ambulatory medical services through clinics, rural hospitals, or medical posts. Cuba has begun manufacturing its own nylon version of the Zipper ring and had imported a variety of other IUDs with the assistance of the Population Council and International Planned Parenthood Federation. IUDs are the leading method, condoms and the diaphragm are of 2nd order use, and oral contraceptives are less widely used although low-does combination pills are gaining acceptance. First trimester abortion is common and virtually all are done by suction evacuation in hospitals. Only a samll number of second trimester procedures are done, only on strictly medical grounds. Sterilization is done in hospitals, usually as a postpartum procedure. Prenatal care is universally available, leave with pay is given for childbirth, and the planned revision of the family law contemplates elimination of illegitimacy as a civil status.

  10. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  11. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  12. Efficiency of single-family houses and harmonisation of their life cycle participants’ interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerija Kvederyte

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient single-family house is the main purpose of the life cycle. It determines the necessity to evaluate various decisions of the life cycle of single-family houses and possibilities to satisfy objectives and requirements of the participants of that process. To design and achieve an effective process of the life cycle of a single-family house, it is necessary to take care of its efficiency starting from the determination of needs and objectives and ending with the usage of a building.

  13. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. [Comparison of the factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to compare factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families. The participants were 692 children aged 11 to 13 yr (388 in two parent families and 304 in single parent families) recruited from 20 community agencies and 5 elementary schools in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul City, South Korea. Data were collected from May to July, 2007 using a survey questionnaire containing items on self-esteem, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, family hardiness, parent-child communication and social support. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 program and factors affecting children's self-esteem were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression. Scores for the study variables were significantly different between the two groups. The factors influencing children's self-esteem were also different according to family type. For two parent families, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.505, pself-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.444, pself-esteem.

  15. The human PDI family: Versatility packed into a single fold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian; Ellgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    in promoting oxidative protein folding in the ER has been extended in recent years to include roles in other processes such as ER-associated degradation (ERAD), trafficking, calcium homeostasis, antigen presentation and virus entry. Some of these functions are performed by non-catalytic members of the family...... that lack the active-site cysteines. Regardless of their function, all human PDIs contain at least one domain of approximately 100 amino acid residues with structural homology to thioredoxin. As we learn more about the individual proteins of the family, a complex picture is emerging that emphasizes as much...... their differences as their similarities, and underlines the versatility of the thioredoxin fold. Here, we primarily explore the diversity of cellular functions described for the human PDIs. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-3...

  16. Impact of family-friendly prison policies on health, justice and child protection outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children: a cohort study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Leonie; Lopez, Derrick; Li, Ian W; Preen, David B

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Female imprisonment has numerous health and social sequelae for both women prisoners and their children. Examples of comprehensive family-friendly prison policies that seek to improve the health and social functioning of women prisoners and their children exist but have not been evaluated. This study will determine the impact of exposure to a family-friendly prison environment on health, child protection and justice outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children. Methods and analysis A longitudinal retrospective cohort design will be used to compare outcomes for mothers incarcerated at Boronia Pre-release Centre, a women’s prison with a dedicated family-friendly environment, and their dependent children, with outcomes for mothers incarcerated at other prisons in Western Australia (that do not offer this environment) and their dependent children. Routinely collected administrative data from 1985 to 2013 will be used to determine child and mother outcomes such as hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, custodial sentences, community service orders and placement in out-of home care. The sample consists of all children born in Western Australia between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2011 who had a mother in a West Australian prison between 1990 and 2012 and their mothers. Children are included if they were alive and aged less than 18 years at the time of their mother’s incarceration. The sample comprises an exposed group of 665 women incarcerated at Boronia and their 1714 dependent children and a non-exposed comparison sample of 2976 women incarcerated at other West Australian prisons and their 7186 dependent children, creating a total study sample of 3641 women and 8900 children. Ethics and dissemination This project received ethics approval from the Western Australian Department of Health Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and the University of Western Australia

  17. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Danielle M; Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children's subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent's child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers' psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents' potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents' punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers' punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers' potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers' psychological control on children's externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers' potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers' psychological control on adolescent mothers' punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children's behavior.

  18. THE NATURE OF CONNECTION BETWEEN CHILD’S ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER AND THE EXPERIENCE OF FAMILY WELL-BEING IN ADULTHOOD

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. Samoshkina; G. S. Alexeeva

    2015-01-01

    Background. Attachment to mother is viewed as the primary sample of bonding with a close person, thus its quality has an impact on the relationships with a partner. Objectives. A research of the nature of connection between child’s attachment to mother and the experience of the family well-being in adulthood is presented. Method. The empirical research was carried out by internet survey with the help of the following methods: “Satisfaction with marriage” by Stolin V., Butenko G., Roma...

  19. Analysis of advanced conceptual designs for single-family-size absorption chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macriss, R.A.; Zawacki, T.S.; Kouo, M.T.; Sneed, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this research study is the development of radically new fluid systems, specifically tailored to the needs and requirements of solar-absorption cooling for single-family-size residences. Progress is reported.

  20. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  1. Market for Hawaii hardwood lumber in new single-family houses on Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Zinnikas; R. Sidney Boone

    1967-01-01

    The total potential market for flooring, siding, and cabinet and millwork in new single-family houses on Oahu was between 10½ and 11 million board feet of lumber in 1963. The total possible market for lumber in new single-family house construction from 1965 to 1970 is estimated at 18 to 23 million square feet of floor-ing, 28 to 36 million square feet of...

  2. Daily hassles, mother-child relationship, and behavior problems in Muslim Arab American adolescents in immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J; Templin, Thomas N; Hough, Edythe S

    2016-10-01

    This longitudinal study examines reciprocal and dynamic relations among daily hassles, the mother-child relationship, and adolescent behavior problems and whether the relations differed by sociodemographic variables. Three waves of data about adolescent daily hassles, quality of the mother-child relationship, and adolescent behavior problems were collected from 454 Arab Muslim adolescents and their immigrant mothers over a 3-year period. Cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine reciprocal relations among the study variables. Relations between the mother-child relationship and adolescent behavior problems were reciprocal, with a poor mother-child relationship contributing to greater behavior problems and behavior problems contributing to a decline in the quality of the mother-child relationship. Relations involving daily hassles were unidirectional: A better mother-child relationship contributed to fewer daily hassles and behavior problems contributed to more daily hassles but daily hassles did not contribute to more behavior problems. Father's education was the only sociodemographic variable that was significant: Adolescents with more highly educated fathers had a better mother-child relationship and fewer behavioral problems. Findings suggest that Arab American Muslim adolescents with behavior problems are differentially exposed to daily hassles but daily hassles are not the best point of intervention. Bidirectional relations between the mother-child relationship and adolescent behavior problems suggest intervening to improve the mother-child relationship and manage symptoms of adolescent behavior problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. [Coming-out, support from family of origin and relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born in a previous heterosexual relationship: an exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyncke, Johanna D; Julien, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Lesbian couples differ from heterosexual couples in that they must develop their relationship within an environment that is generally unsympathetic to homosexuality, a fact that could accentuate the importance of family support. Furthermore, the disclosure of their sexual orientation by lesbian couples could also affect the support given by family members. The present study examines the effect of coming-out and family support on the relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born within a heterosexual context. It was expected that family support would mediate the relationship between coming-out and relationship adjustment. Fifty-five lesbian mothers currently in a relationship answered questions about their perception of family support, on their coming-out behaviour and their relationship adjustment. Results revealed a positive relationship between coming-out and family support, and between family support and relationship adjustment, however no association was found between coming-out and relationship adjustment. The mediation model was therefore not confirmed. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of these results.

  4. Improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction following the move to single-family room NICU design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jo; DeLand, Marion; Gibbins, Sharyn; MacMillan York, Elizabeth; Robson, Kate

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in staff quality of work life and parent satisfaction when a neonatal intensive care unit moved from an open-bay design to a single-room model of care. This descriptive study measured staff quality of work life and family satisfaction before and at 2 time periods after the relocation of a perinatal centre and the introduction of single-family room care. Differences in work life quality and satisfaction were determined using 2-sample t-tests. There were improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction at both time periods following the move. Lessons learned may be of value to other units considering such a move. A neonatal intensive care unit designed to contribute to parental and staff well-being is a model to be considered for future neonatal designs.

  5. Adolescents’ Self-Esteem in Single and Two-Parent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents’ self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (...

  6. Dentists' perception of primary health care services in family health and mother and child health clinics in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tantawi, Maha; El-Din Hamza, Maha A; Sabry, Marwa M

    2017-03-30

    This study compared dentists' perceptions of provided services in Family Health (FH) and Mother and Child Health (MCH) clinics. A questionnaire was distributed to 120 dentists in 7 FH and 4 MCH clinics in Alexandria, Egypt in 2012. The questionnaire assessed personal and professional background, perceptions of primary health care (PHC) role, types of services provided, patient recall and referral systems and perception of service quality. The response rate was 100%. More FH dentists perceived their role to include providing care for children and pregnant women. Restorations and scaling were provided by 90% of all dentists. More FH dentists reported providing simple extractions, paediatric extractions and multi-rooted endodontic treatment (P = 0.03, 0.001 and 0.001). In FH clinics, where the performance-based incentive system was implemented, a greater number of patients was served and there was a shift in the type of services provided although dentists had a less positive perception of quality aspects. Thus, there is a need for the establishment of a mission and clear guidelines for the FH clinics to guide service provision.

  7. 76 FR 66950 - Privacy Act; Notice of Revision of System of Records, the Single Family Housing Enterprise Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Revision of System of Records, the Single Family Housing Enterprise Data Warehouse AGENCY: Office of the... systems, the Single Family Housing Enterprise Data Warehouse (SFHEDW). The revision to the record system...: Single Family Housing Enterprise Data Warehouse (SFHEDW). System location: The HUD Data Center, Hewlett...

  8. Single Mothers and the Effects of Intensive Aid on the Quality of their Lives : the Examples of the Netherlands and Cyprus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne van den Berg; Maria Michailidis

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illuminate the effects of intensive aid on the self-reliance and independence of single mothers, and to show what is and what can be done to improve the empowerment of this group. Firstly the paper focuses on the effects of intensive social aid on the self-reliance

  9. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive review of…

  10. The impact of maternal, child, and family characteristics on the daily well-being and parenting experiences of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Megan M; Willis, Kelcie; Timmons, Lisa; Ekas, Naomi V

    2016-11-01

    This study utilized a daily diaries method to explore the global factors that impact daily general affect and daily parenting interactions of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Eighty-three mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 3 and 13 years completed global assessments of maternal depressive symptoms, child autism spectrum disorder symptom severity, and family functioning. Mothers then reported on their daily negative and positive affect as well as their daily positive and frustrating parenting interactions for 14 consecutive days. The results indicated that higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms were related to decreased daily positive affect, whereas greater child social motivation impairments were related to increased daily positive affect. Only maternal depressive symptoms were associated with increased daily negative affect. Furthermore, higher levels of family cohesion were related to increased daily positive parenting interactions. Finally, higher maternal depressive symptoms as well as family rigidity were related to increased daily frustrating parenting interactions. Implications for interventions focused on the family system are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Relatos de mães sobre transformações familiares em três gerações Mothers' reports about family transformation across three generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciomara Ribeiro Silva Benincá

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Examinou-se um conjunto de descrições e entendimentos de mudanças em idéias e comportamentos familiares através de três gerações. As informantes foram doze mães provenientes de quatro diferentes famílias, seguindo a linearidade geracional de avó, mãe e neta. Todas elas residiam na região de Passo Fundo - RS. Utilizando-se uma análise qualitativa baseada na teoria fenomenológica, interpretou-se as continuidades e descontinuidades de comportamentos e idéias em duas perspectivas: 1 redimensionamento no poder do pai e da mãe e na coesão familiar; e 2 transformação da identidade coletiva em identidade individual, com a ampliação do espaço para a realização pessoal. Continuidades mostraram-se associadas a princípios ideais como a ética familiar. Em contraste, descontinuidades aconteceram de acordo com pressões contextuais nos aspectos práticos da vida familiar.Examined a set of mothers' descriptions and understandings of family values and behaviors across three generations. The informants were twelve mothers, from four different families, following a generational linearity of grandmother, mother and granddaughter. All of them were residents in the area of Passo Fundo/RS. By using a qualitative analysis based on a phenomenological theory, the continuities and discontinuities of behavior and ideas were interpreted in two perspectives: 1 new arrangement in the power of father and mother and in the family cohesion and 2 changing from collective to personal identity with an increasing in the space for self realization. Continuities were related to general principles as family ethics. In contrast, discontinuities happened according to contextual pressures in the practical aspects of family life.

  12. Insecure attachment style as a vulnerability factor for depression: recent findings in a community-based study of Malay single and married mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2013-12-30

    The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding.

  14. Familial transmission of a body-related attentional bias - An eye-tracking study in a nonclinical sample of female adolescents and their mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Bauer

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that body image disturbance is transmitted from mother to daughter via modeling of maternal body-related behaviors and attitudes (indirect transmission and via maternal body-related feedback (direct transmission. So far, the transmission of body-related attentional biases, which according to cognitive-behavioral theories play a prominent role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders, has not been analyzed. The current eye-tracking study applied the concepts of direct and indirect transmission to body-related attentional biases by examining body-related viewing patterns on self- and other-pictures within mother-daughter dyads.Eye movements of N = 82 participants (n = 41 healthy female adolescents, mean age 15.82 years, SD = 1.80, and their mothers, mean age 47.78 years, SD = 4.52 were recorded while looking at whole-body pictures of themselves and a control peer. Based on fixations on self-defined attractive and unattractive body areas, visual attention bias scores were calculated for mothers and daughters, representing the pattern of body-related attention allocation. Based on mothers' fixations on their own daughter's and the adolescent peer's body, a second visual attention bias score was calculated, reflecting the mothers' viewing pattern on their own daughter.Analysis of variance revealed an attentional bias for self-defined unattractive body areas in adolescents. The girls' visual attention bias score correlated significantly with their mothers' bias score, indicating indirect transmission, and with their mothers' second bias score, indicating direct transmission. Moreover, the girls' bias score correlated significantly with negative body-related feedback from their mothers.Female adolescents show a deficit-oriented attentional bias for one's own and a peer's body. The correlated body-related attention patterns imply that attentional biases might be transmitted directly and indirectly from mothers

  15. Family Health Climate and Adolescents' Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Kremers, Stef P J; Renner, Britta; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC) is associated with adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association. Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child) using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA) and nutrition (FHC-NU). The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects. The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents' intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors. These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents' health behavior.

  16. Family Health Climate and Adolescents’ Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y. N.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Renner, Britta; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The importance of the family environment for children’s and adolescents’ health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC) is associated with adolescents’ physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child) using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA) and nutrition (FHC-NU). The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects. Results The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents’ intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors. Discussion These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents’ physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents’ health behavior. PMID:26606157

  17. Family Health Climate and Adolescents' Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Y N Niermann

    Full Text Available The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC is associated with adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association.Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA and nutrition (FHC-NU. The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects.The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents' intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors.These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents' health behavior.

  18. Policy Changes, Employment, and Single Parenthood in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Forssén

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The labor supply of mothers is in? uenced by womens preferences and labor market conditions, as well as by family policy packages which enable families to reconcile work and family life. This article deepens the understanding about why Finnish single mothers are facing higher unemployment risks than mothers in two-parent families. The main question is how the changes in the Finnish family policy system have affected the economic and labor market status of single mothers in the last part of the 1990s. Have the changes in family policy affected their entry / re-entry into the labor market? Or can these changes in employment rate be explained by mothers personal decisions. Single parents were more vulnerable compared to partnered mothers in parental leave reforms and in the Family reform package in 1994. Changes in the labor market have had an impact on the situation of mothers with small children. One group of mothers can enjoy the full provision of leaves, bene? ts and job security, but an increased share of mothers have become dependent on only basic bene? ts. In this respect, the inequality among mothers has increased.

  19. Community-Level Characteristics Associated With Variation in Rates of Homelessness Among Families and Single Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargo, Jamison D.; Munley, Ellen A.; Byrne, Thomas H.; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. Methods. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Results. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Conclusions. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations. PMID:24148057

  20. Community-level characteristics associated with variation in rates of homelessness among families and single adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargo, Jamison D; Munley, Ellen A; Byrne, Thomas H; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P

    2013-12-01

    We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations.

  1. Syrian Mothers Producing Counterstories in Co-Constructed School Spaces: Rethinking the Role of Schools in Engaging Refugee Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli-Calamak, Elif

    2018-01-01

    This ethnographically informed field study, drawing on a blend of feminist theories and cultural learning pathways framework, reveals that Syrian mothers show strong presence and readiness to take active roles when opportunities present themselves in alternative spaces in the public schools of Turkey. As mothers produce counterstories in relation…

  2. Mothers' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs about Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…

  3. Power, Resistance, and Emotional Economies in Women's Relationships with Mothers-in-Law in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kristy Y.; Pyke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This interview study interrogates how cultural values of filial piety inform Chinese American daughters-in-law's understanding of their relationship and power dynamics with immigrant Chinese American mothers-in-law. Ideals of filial respect accord limited authority to mothers-in-law, who engage other mechanisms of power, such as their domestic…

  4. Mother, father and child traumatic stress reactions after paediatric burn: Within-family co-occurrence and parent-child discrepancies in appraisals of child stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, Marthe R; van de Schoot, Rens; Geenen, Rinie; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2018-04-12

    The current study examined occurrence and within-family associations of traumatic stress reactions after child burn injury, while in the same model addressing the role of parents' own symptoms in their reports of child symptoms. One-hundred children (8-18 years old), and their mothers (n=90) and fathers (n=74) were assessed within the first month (T1) and three months (T2) after burn. Parents and children rated child traumatic stress reactions on the Children's Responses to Trauma Inventory (CRTI) and parents rated their own reactions on the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Cross-sectional associations at the two occasions were examined using a structural equation model. Occurrence of traumatic stress symptoms in the clinical range was higher in parents (T1: 24-50%; T2: 14-31%) than children (T1: 0-11%; T2: 3-5%, depending on whether children, mothers or fathers reported on symptoms). Traumatic stress symptoms of mothers at T1 and of both parents at T2 were significantly related to child self-reported symptoms. Moreover, mothers who experienced higher stress symptoms themselves gave higher ratings of their child's symptoms at both time points, while for fathers, this was only found at T2. The current study demonstrates the impact of pediatric burn injury on the family level, and shows simultaneous existence of within-family interrelatedness of traumatic stress and an influence of parents' own symptoms on their perception of child symptoms. Findings highlight the need for trauma symptom screening in all family members and for considering informants' symptoms to understand the child's functioning in particular. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Single Motherhood, Living Arrangements, and Time With Children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Park, Hyunjoon; Iwasawa, Miho; Zhou, Yanfei

    2014-08-01

    The authors examined relationships between single parenthood and mothers' time with children in Japan. Using data from the 2011 National Survey of Households with Children (N = 1,926), they first demonstrate that time spent with children and the frequency of shared dinners are significantly lower for single mothers than for their married counterparts. For single mothers living alone, less time with children reflects long work hours and work-related stress. Single mothers coresiding with parents spend less time with children and eat dinner together less frequently than either married mothers or their unmarried counterparts not living with parents, net of (grand)parental support, work hours, income, and stress. The findings suggest that rising divorce rates and associated growth in single-mother families may have a detrimental impact on parents' time with children in Japan and that the relatively high prevalence of intergenerational coresidence among single mothers may do little to temper this impact.

  6. Self-Esteem in Hispanic Adolescent Females and Its Relation to Dual Parent Households and Single Mother Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Linda Marie Pettis

    2002-01-01

    The development of a sense of self in adolescence has been shown to be influenced by the perceived level of warmth of the mother. Additionally, the nature of the home environment has been found to relate to an adolescent's level of self-esteem (Buri, 1990; Field, Lang, Yando, and Bendell, 1993). Hispanic adolescent females and their mothers in…

  7. Mother to son amplification of a small subtelomeric deletion: a new mechanism of familial recurrence in microdeletion syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faravelli, Francesca; Murdolo, Marina; Marangi, Giuseppe; Bricarelli, Franca Dagna; Di Rocco, Maja; Zollino, Marcella

    2007-06-01

    A 2.8-Mb 4p16.3 terminal deletion, with proximal breakpoint at locus D4S182, was diagnosed by FISH in a 16-year-old boy who presented with a typical Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) phenotype. The deletion, which was maternally derived, was isolated, and a balanced translocation was ruled out in both parents by FISH with probe 33c6 (locus D4S43) falling within the patient's deletion interval, at a distance of about 2.3 Mb from the telomere. His older brother, who died from pneumonia at the age of 18 years, also presented with clinical signs consistent with WHS, including typical facial appearance and major malformations, but the genetic test was not performed. A smaller 4p deletion, spanning the 1.5 Mb region from locus D4S96 to the telomere was detected in the healthy mother. When critically analyzed, after the FISH results, she was noted to present with partial WHS facial "gestalt," borderline mental delay, a few episodes of seizures as a child, normal weight and head circumference, and height at the lower limit of normal range. This report highlights a previously undescribed mechanism of familial recurrence of a microdeletion syndrome. Potential meiotic amplification is to be considered for different subtelomeric deletions that are currently interpreted as population polymorphisms. At the same time, the present report adds new insights to mapping some peculiar WHS clinical signs, such as seizures and severe growth delay. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Influence of group cohesion on maternal well-being among participants in a support/education group program for single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L; Waymouth, Marjorie; Gammon, Tara; Carter, Patricia; Secord, Margaret; Leung, Olivia; Mills, Brenda; Hicks, Frances

    2007-10-01

    Single mothers are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and physical and mental health difficulties. The authors present (1) the results of group cohesion assessments completed by mothers participating in a trial of community-based support/education groups, and (2) assessments of the association between group cohesion ratings and intervention outcomes of maternal self-evaluations of well-being (mood, self-esteem, and social support) and parenting. Mothers participating in groups completed the Group Atmosphere Scale, a measure of group cohesion, post-group. Overall, most participants provided strong ratings of group cohesion. Significant associations were found between group cohesion and specific positive outcomes. This suggests a positive association between group cohesion and mood, self-esteem, social support, and parenting, in this trial.

  9. Contemporary impingements on mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2009-03-01

    Mothering in contemporary Western society needs to be understood in the context of a rapidly changing social context. Increased geographic mobility, improved access to child-related information through the media, and scientific and technological progress have contributed to significant shifts in cultural views on mothering. Several contextual impingements on mothering, including changing family structure, economic pressures, decreased social support, cultural ideals of the perfect mother, and increased awareness of interpersonal and global trauma impact mothers' internal worlds. These societal changes often reinforce mothers' fear of losing their children and an idealization of intensive mothering, and evoke challenges in reorganizing their sense of personal identity. Implications for psychoanalytic theory and practice, and specifically the need to integrate individual and contextual forces related to experiences of mothers will be explored.

  10. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  11. Mother-infant sleep patterns and parental functioning of room-sharing and solitary sleeping families: a longitudinal study from 3 to 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovich, Ella; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Meiri, Gal; Tikotzky, Liat

    2017-12-16

    To examine longitudinally differences in (a) objective and subjective sleep patterns and (b) parenting functioning (i.e., maternal emotional distress, maternal separation anxiety and parental involvement in infant care( between room-sharing and solitary sleeping mother-infant dyads. Maternal and infant sleep, sleeping arrangements and parental functioning were assessed at three (N=146), six (N=141), twelve (N=135), and eighteen (N=130) months postpartum. Maternal and infant sleep were assessed with actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Questionnaires were used to assess sleeping arrangements, nighttime breastfeeding, and parental functioning. Persistent room-sharing mothers (i.e., sharing a room with the infant on at least three assessment points) had significantly lower actigraphy-based sleep percent, lower longest sleep periods and more night-wakings than persistent solitary sleeping mothers. For infants, differences in actigraphic sleep were found only in longest sleep period, although mothers of persistent room-sharing infants reported more infant night-wakings than mothers of persistent solitary sleeping infants. The trajectories of maternal and infant sleep in both room-sharing and solitary sleeping groups demonstrated that sleep became more consolidated with time. Group differences indicated higher maternal separation anxiety and lower paternal overall and nighttime involvement in infant caregiving in room-sharing families compared to solitary-sleeping families. The findings are discussed in light of the latest American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to room-share until 12 months postpartum. Although no causal effects can be inferred from this study, maternal sleep quality and certain parenting characteristics seem to be important factors to consider when parents consult about sleeping arrangements. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions

  12. Cytogenetic effects in children and mothers exposed to air pollution assessed by the frequency of micronuclei and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a family pilot study in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Vinzents, Peter; Petersen, Joergen Holm

    2006-01-01

    blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was analysed to assess the cytogenetic effects in children and mothers living in two different areas. From each area two groups of children from a total of 24 families (mean age: 6.0+/-0.6 and 9.0+/-1.2 years) in a total of 47 children and 19 mothers (mean age: 33.6+/-3.9 years...

  13. Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alberto Ramírez Villaseñor

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an analysis of twelve family structure variables in a sample of 250 under-age offenders' families. All families had been remitted to the Parents Group at the Behavioral Control Clinic between February and September, 1988, charged with theft and/or drug abuse. There are certain factors in those families ( such as immigration, the attributed value of the identified patient, his adolescent stage, the presence of extensive family members and a dead brother that seem to decide the symptomatology even more than other frequently mentioned variables (i.e., parents civil status, separations, divorces, new marriages, mother's occupation. The detected family structure seems to show a very close link between mother and identified patient that displaces the father to the system's periphery. We consider that this form of family structure leads to situations such as single mothers or promiscuous daughters who show similar symptoms to those shown in the identified patient.

  14. 'It is hard for mums to put themselves first': how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer manage the sociological boundaries between paid work, family and caring for the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine Ruth

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to increase understanding of how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer while in the paid workforce experience and manage their multiple demands of taking care of themselves, their children and their paid work. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 women who were mothers of dependent children and in the paid workforce at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis. The sample includes women living in urban and rural Australia. The study found that after a breast cancer diagnosis, participants tended to prioritise their health and wellbeing over paid work. Yet dominance of gendered identity meant that they tended to place the needs of family, especially children, above their own health and wellbeing. The key factors that influenced mothers' decisions to continue in, return to, or leave paid work after a breast cancer diagnosis included: a change in perspective regarding what was important in their lives; level of support from the workplace and home; the extent to which participating in paid work was a financial necessity; the extent to which their identity was connected to paid work, and; ongoing level of pain or fatigue. The paper concludes that using the sociological concepts of the fateful moment, boundary maintenance and a feminist ethic of care produces a more nuanced understanding of women's participation in paid work after breast cancer than examining paid workforce participation, or unpaid responsibilities and mothering, separately. The nature of the permeability or malleability of boundaries between work, family and taking care of the self affects women's participation in paid work during and/or after breast cancer treatment. Increased boundary permeability or malleability brought about more by cooperation than conflict facilitated positive experiences of re-negotiating boundaries, whereas increased permeability or malleability brought about more by conflict than cooperation created difficulties for women in finding an

  15. Measurement results and experiences from an energy renovation of a typical Danish single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2008-01-01

    . To demonstrate how it could be done in small residential buildings a thorough retrofitting of a single-family house from 1972 was carried out. The house was brought up to the energy performance level of a new house. The energy renovation has reduced the net room heating consumption from 27.8 to 12.7 MWh....../year corresponding to a 54 % reduction. The energy renovation project has proven that it is possible to renovate a typical Danish single-family house from the 1960/70’s in a cost efficient manner to roughly the energy performance standard of a new Danish single-family house. As a positive side effect the living...... conditions have been greatly improved. In the paper the author also describes the lessons learned during the process of renovating the house....

  16. Land cover in single-family housing areas and how it correlates with urban form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Boye; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    Land cover composition is a valuable indicator of the ecological performance of a city. Single-family housing areas constitute a substantial part of most cities and may as such play an important role for sustainable urban development. From aerial photos we performed detailed GIS-based mapping...... that the urban form of neighbourhoods to some degree predicts the long term land cover composition. We conclude that strategies for maximizing the ecological performance of single-family housing areas can be informed by knowledge on urban form, and that digital mapping of land cover based on aerial photography...... of land cover in three detached single-family housing areas in Denmark of different urban form but comparable housing densities (ranging from 10.0 to 11.3 houses per hectare). The findings were subjected to statistical analysis and landscape metrics. Land cover varied with urban form: A traditional...

  17. Motivational readiness of children to school in nuclear and single parent families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Ostrovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is a comparison of psychological readiness of the child to go to school in nuclear and single parent families. To obtain the objectives of the paper the following methods were used: 1 methods “Two schools” by L.A Venger to identify the level of formation of internal position of the student; 2 the method “Motivational research studies in older preschoolers” by M.R. Ginsburg; 3 method “Pattern” by L.I. Tsehanskaya to determine the degree of development of skills training activities; 4 method “Graphic dictation” by D. El’konin to study the ability to follow adult instructions. The investigated group consisted of 40 students from first grade secondary school - 20 students from nuclear families (12 girls and 8 boys and 20 students from single parent families (9 girls and 11 boys. As a result of qualitative, comparative and correlation analysis it was shown that readiness of children to go to school susbstantially depends on completness of their families. The children from families have a higher level of skill training and internal position than children from single parent families. This occurs because both parents pay more attention to the children in the forming of a willingness to learn in school. The studies have shown that in the group of children from nuclear families dominate the highest level of development of skills training activities, increased formation of internal positions and childrens social motivation. These indicators are the hallmarks of readiness to learn at school. Also, some recommendations to teachers are provided as for increase of motivation to learn in children from single parent families.

  18. Drawing on resilience: piloting the utility of the Kinetic Family Drawing to measure resilience in children of HIV-positive mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ebersöhn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe how using a visual, child-friendly measure of resilience in a randomised control trial (RCT, the Kgolo Mmogo (KM project, resulted in representative insights on resilience in a mother-child relationship where the mother is HIV-positive. We used the existing psychological method Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD to measure resilience of young children in the qualitative phase of the concurrent mixed method RCT as the children represent cultural groups for whom standardized measures have not been developed. We use the case example of baseline KM assessment data of 6 year olds (n = 11; 3 female, 8 male. The results of the study demonstrate that the visual and qualitative data from children (KFD added to quantitative information obtained from mothers (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, VABS. Additional information from the KFD had interpretation value for VABS scores and provided a child's perspective regarding resilience. Contrasting information from the KFD problematized mothers' perspectives as indicated in the VABS. The absence of significant information in KFD results regarding VABS sub-domains indicates differences in the cultural/contextual conceptualization of resilience. This exploratory study indicates initial support for the cross-cultural utility of the KFD to measure resilience in young children faced with adversity.

  19. Social Aspects Regarding the Single-Parent Families Vulnerability - The Case Of Arad County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marţian Iovan

    2016-07-01

    single-parent families must rely on the complete knowledge of this social phenomenon, with the need to establish databases and map the dispersion of single-parent families within administrative-territorial units. The decrease in the number of families with a high social risk over time is the result of correlated and harmonized public policies, aimed at fighting poverty, discrimination, unemployment, lack of access to education, while ensuring the general background for economic development and prosperity. The study is determined by the fact that many times the parents and the children of single parent families find themselves in the situation of not being able to make ends meet, the lack of finances, education and proper housing making it impossible for them to live a decent life. By identifying, through specific scientific methods such as document analysis, interviews, case studies, the particular types of problems facing single parent families, we consider we will succeed in offering a strong basis to motivate decision makers to establish additional social protection measures that will contribute to the reduction of the causes that maintain this social category among vulnerable groups.

  20. Hubungan Work-Family Conflict Dengan Continuance Commitment Pada Wanita Yang Berperan Sebagai Single Parent

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Selvia Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Being single parent for women will provide a variety of issues. The main problemis related tothe economic problems. To overcome the problems occurred woman who acts as a single parent, they must work and survive in the organization where she worked. Commitment to remain in the work referred to as continuance commitment. The decision to work and take care of the family can cause conflicts are referred to work-family conflict. This study was conducted to see the relationship between work-fa...

  1. Single mothers and their sense of purpose and meaning in life [Poczucie sensu życia matek samotnie wychowujących dzieci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna KLIMEK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a research on single mothers and their sense of purpose and meaning in life. Questions about the meaning of one’s own existence recur, with varying intensity, in the consciousness of every human being. Moreover, people always fulfil their own, personal meaning, related to their specific situation. The questions ‘who am I?’, ‘why do I live?’, ‘what is the meaning of my life?’ seem particularly relevant when a person is in a difficult situation. Single parenthood can be perceived as such a situation. The literature of the subject suggests multiple negative consequences of the fact of raising a child by a single parent; these consequences are faced not only by children, but also by adults. It is not possible to state unequivocally that the lack of favourable conditions will deprive a person of their sense of life purpose and meaning entirely. Similarly, even when objectively favourable conditions exist, they are not a guarantee that a person will perceive her or his life as meaningful. In a woman’s life, a difficult situation such as being a single mother, combined with homelessness and a necessity to move to a residential home for single mothers, can become the stimulus to search for and experience the meaning of life or, on the contrary, it can be a source of an existential insecurity. The purpose of this research was to learn how single mothers perceive the meaning of their lives and to assess their life purposes and aspirations. The theoretical context of these reflections is based on K. Popielski’s concept of the noetic dimension of personality and existence. The research was conducted among women living in residential homes for single mothers. Their sense of purpose and meaning in life was assessed with the use of J.C. Crumbaugh and L.T. Maholick’s Purpose in Life Scale (PIL. The collected material was evaluated using quantitative analysis.

  2. Determining the Needs of Mothering Handling Training for Family Caregivers and Children with Cerebral Palsy at Home based on Gross Motor Function Levels in the City of Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dehghan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Understanding the real needs of children with cerebral palsy and their families helps the therapists to provide adequate health care service for them. This study aimed to determine the needs of mothering handling training for family caregiving of children and youth with CP at home based on the level of gross motor function. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive, analytical and cross sectional study that was performed on 186 children 4-12 year olds with CP from the rehabilitation clinics in the city of Arak. They were selected by simple and purposeful sampling. Clinical tests were Gross Motor Measure Function Classification System Expanded & Revised (GMFCS E&R to assess the severity of gross motor function lesions and canadian Occupational performance measure (COPM to determine the needs. Data were analyzed by descriptive tests such as: statistical test and two-way ANOVA. Results: The most important need of mothering handling training was self care training specially toileting, feeding, eating and functional mobility related to children with CP in the level of V of GMFCS E&R (transported in a manual wheelchair. There were no significant differences in needs of mothering handling training in areas of sex and severity of gross motor function lesions (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that therapists should combine maternal handling trainings with other interventions in therapy programs, especially in the area of self- care.

  3. Gendered Expectations? Reconsidering Single Fathers' Child-Care Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Jennifer L.; Chalasani, Satvika

    2008-01-01

    We take a fresh look at an important question in the sociology of gender and family: Do single fathers "mother"? We add to the theoretical debate by proposing that single fathers face competing interactional pressures, to simultaneously act like mothers and men. Using nationally representative data from the American Time Use Survey 2003-2006 (N =…

  4. This is My Family

    OpenAIRE

    Yeğen, Hale Nur; Çetin, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Me and my family, Families poem, Mother-Father, Brother-Sister, Grandparents, Uncle-Aunt, Cousin, Family, Family handgame, My family tree, Activities (Three In a Family), Digital Games, A family poem, Quiz

  5. Moisture supply in Danish single-family houses – the influence of building style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    According to ISO 13788 internal moisture supply in dwellings can be described by humidity classes defined by outdoor temperature, occupancy and ventilation. Hygrothermal measurements in 500 Danish single-family houses were made to investigate if building style and geographical location...

  6. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  7. Single-machine scheduling with release dates, due dates, and family setup times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Schutten (Marco); S.L. van de Velde (Steef); W.H.M. Zijm

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe address the NP-hard problem of scheduling n independent jobs with release dates, due dates, and family setup times on a single machine to minimize the maximum lateness. This problem arises from the constant tug-of-war going on in manufacturing between efficient production and delivery

  8. 77 FR 2024 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Single-Family Mortgage Insurance: Elimination of Requests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... utilizing the appeals process has gone from 105 for the 2008 loan limits to zero for the 2011 loan limits...) Single-Family Mortgage Insurance: Elimination of Requests for Alternative Mortgage Limits AGENCY: Office... amounts. HUD currently sets the area- based loan limits on a yearly basis and permits appeals of these...

  9. An Investigation of Energy Storage Possibilities in Single Family Houses for Smart Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark it will be a challenge in near future to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. Smart grid solutions which exploit all storage capacities are essential to meet this challenge. In this work single family houses w...

  10. Indoor climate perceived as improved after energy retrofitting of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    2014-01-01

    . It was found that energy consumption and indoor climate are ever more in focus when buying a house and important drivers for house owners’ motivation for retrofitting their existing house. Energy retrofitting is complicated and it is also experienced as such by many house owners. There is uncertainty......The need for energy retrofitting of the Danish single-family houses is massive, especially for the high proportion of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s. But even though the potential benefits are many, only few families embark on a major energy retrofit. There may be many reasons...... for this. An obvious one may be limited knowledge of non-energy benefits, e.g. in relation to the indoor climate. The objective of this study was to explain this limited effort to save energy by identifying barriers and incentives among house owners in relation to energy retrofitting of one’s own house...

  11. Effectiveness of ACT-Based Parenting Training to Mothers on the Depression of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد صالح فقیهی

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Parenting Training based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT to mothers on the depression of children with cleft lip and palate. The research method was based on a single case and individual intervention study. The sample was constituted of 65 Isfahanian children with cleft lip and palate. Parenting skills based on ACT were taught to five mothers of children with cleft lip and palate who achieved the minimum score in screening. After three baseline sessions for each child, ACT parenting skills were taught to their mothers in 8 individual sessions companied with testing the child’s depression in every session. Three follow-up sessions after 15 days, 1 month and 3 months were set to evaluate children’s depression. The Kovacs Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI was used to test the children’s depression. The results were analyzed with visual analysis and descriptive statistics. This particular intervention was effective on depression. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that ACT parenting training to mothers of children with cleft lips and palates was effective on reducing depression and that an on-time intervention can improve these children's depression.

  12. Parenting stress in mothers of children with an intellectual disability: the effects of parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, R; Rose, J; McDonald, J

    2005-06-01

    Recent theories of stress and coping in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) emphasize the importance of cognitive appraisals in influencing parents' levels of stress and their adaptations to difficulties presented by the children. This study investigated the relationships between parental cognitions, child characteristics, family support and parenting stress. The aspects of cognitions studied were: parenting self-esteem (including efficacy and satisfaction) and parental locus of control. The group studied consisted of 46 mothers of children with ID. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Maladaptive Behavior Domain were administered by interview. Mothers also completed four questionnaires: the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened form of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index (Short Form). Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, partial correlations and a regression analysis. The results indicated that most of the variance in parenting stress was explained by parental locus of control, parenting satisfaction and child behaviour difficulties. Whilst there was also a strong correlation between family support and parenting stress, this was mediated by parental locus of control. The results demonstrate the potential importance of parental cognitions in influencing parental stress levels. It is argued that these results have implications for clinical interventions for promoting parents' coping strategies in managing children with ID and behavioural difficulties.

  13. Poverty, Public Assistance and Single Mothers : A Comparative Look at Norway, Russia and the U.S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some of the perceptions and experiences of mothers on public assistance and their social workers in three countries—Norway, Russia and the US. Based on in-depth interviews in each country with social workers and the women, five themes emerged that will be presented here. The mothers spoke of the inadequacy of economic support to meet their needs, a life of poverty that sometimes involved discrimination of them as mothers, and a loss of hope that their lives could be different. Two themes that stood out in the interviews with social workers was the lack of resources needed to help their clients and the dilemma faced as an agent of social welfare institutions balanced with being an advocate for the mothers’ needs.

  14. Family Structure, Residential Mobility, and Environmental Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Crowder, Kyle; Kemp, Robert J

    2017-04-01

    This study combines micro-level data on families with children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with neighborhood-level industrial hazard data from the Environmental Protection Agency and neighborhood-level U.S. census data to examine both the association between family structure and residential proximity to neighborhood pollution and the micro-level, residential mobility processes that contribute to differential pollution proximity across family types. Results indicate the existence of significant family structure differences in household proximity to industrial pollution in U.S. metropolitan areas between 1990 and 1999, with single-mother and single-father families experiencing neighborhood pollution levels that are on average 46% and 26% greater, respectively, than those experienced by two-parent families. Moreover, the pollution gap between single-mother and two-parent families persists with controls for household and neighborhood socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and race/ethnic characteristics. Examination of underlying migration patterns reveals that single-mother, single-father, and two-parent families are equally likely to move in response to pollution. However, mobile single-parent families move into neighborhoods with significantly higher pollution levels than do mobile two-parent families. Thus, family structure differences in pollution proximity are maintained more by these destination neighborhood differences than by family structure variations in the likelihood of moving out of polluted neighborhoods.

  15. Balancing Expectations for Employability and Family Responsibilities while on Social Assistance: Low-Income Mothers' Experiences in Three Canadian Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazso, Amber

    2007-01-01

    Drawing upon a discourse analysis of public-use policy documents and qualitative interview data, this paper explores how mothers on social assistance in three Canadian provinces balance actual or expected policy expectations of their employability (e.g., participation in welfare-to-work programming) with their caregiving responsibilities. The…

  16. Executive Functions and Child Problem Behaviors Are Sensitive to Family Disruption: A Study of Children of Mothers Working Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewage, Chandana; Bohlin, Gunilla; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Mothers in Sri Lanka are increasingly seeking overseas employment, resulting in disruption of the childcare environment. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal migration on executive function (EF) and behavior, thereby also contributing to the scientific understanding of environmental effects--or more specifically…

  17. Parenting Efficacy and Health-promoting Behaviors for Children of Mothers from Native and Multicultural Families in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Jihey Chung, MSN, RN

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Since maternal health-promoting behaviors were different depending on the native country of the mothers, maternal country of origin should be considered in designing programs for improving maternal health-promoting behaviors for their children. In addition, increasing the level of parenting efficacy can be an effective way for improvement of maternal health-promoting behaviors.

  18. New Literacy Practices of a Kiregi Mother from a(n) (Im)Migrant South Korean Family in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Deschambault, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore one South Korean mother's literacy practices after she had migrated to Canada for the purpose of overseeing her children's education. Using a case study method, we focused on language, media, domains, and purposes of literacy practices in Korea and Canada. Data were obtained through two semi-structured…

  19. Family Structure, Mother-Child Communication, Father-Child Communication, and Adolescent Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A.; Currie, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between mother-child and father-child communication and children's life satisfaction, and the moderating effect of communication with stepparents. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland…

  20. Detail, Facture, and Colour in the Architecture of Polish Single-Family Houses after 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztafrowski, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The article presents single-family houses architecture transformations since 1989, with particularly close attention paid to the significance of detail, facture, and colour. The article presents the architecture as an art of designing and building facilities with both use and aesthetic value, an art of shaping space and building forms. Architectural work should correspond to the intended function, technique, economic and aesthetic requirements, thus shaping all elements of human immediate environment, both inside and outside of the building. Architecture of the building is perceived as form, structure, and function, as well as detail, facture, and colour. Facture and colour are created through materials used for external finishes. The solid of the building is noticed first while looking at the building, then the finishes detail such as colour, facture, and detail. Materials for external finishes are commonly selected for their aesthetic value equally with their technical characteristics. The detail was always a characteristic element of style. However, currently the fashion for details can be observed, the fashion for usage of materials for external finishes and inter-connected with that colour and facture. The architecture of Polish single-family houses underwent considerable metamorphosis after system change of 1989 - from destitute in form, devoid in detail and colour socmodernism, to architecture extremely varied in terms of form, utilised structures, materials, and detail. Hence, appearance of the phenomenon called fashion can be observed in the architecture, understood as constant changeability, seeking novelty, and creation based on opinion-forming centres. The architectural fashion consists of form, function, structure, building materials, detail, facture, and colour trends, e.g. after rejecting socmodernism, steep roofs characteristic for single-family houses trend started. After 1989, initially individual single-family house projects were created; however

  1. Adolescents' self-esteem in single and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme

    2014-04-01

    Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents' self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (2001) perceived parenting styles questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 18. To assess the relationship between participants' self-esteem and parenting styles and dimensions, Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test was used to adjust the effect of potential confounder variables. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. From a total of 370 questionnaires, 356 questionnaires were completed. The mean±SD of the participants' self-esteem score was 38.49±6.55. Mean±SD of self-esteem score among the two-parent and single-parent students was 39.06±6.36 and 37.42±7.28, respectively (P=0.034). Dominant parenting style in both families was authoritative style. There were significant associations between the respondents' self-esteem and their perceived parenting styles, after matching sex, family income, level of education, and parents job (Pself-esteem. Therefore, considering the relationship between child-rearing style and adolescent self-esteem, assessing other relating factors with adolescent self-esteem especially in single-parent family, such as father absence stigma, is suggested.

  2. Adolescents’ Self-Esteem in Single and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents’ self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (2001) perceived parenting styles questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 18. To assess the relationship between participants’ self-esteem and parenting styles and dimensions, Mantel–Haenszel Chi-square test was used to adjust the effect of potential confounder variables. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: From a total of 370 questionnaires, 356 questionnaires were completed. The mean±SD of the participants’ self-esteem score was 38.49±6.55. Mean±SD of self-esteem score among the two-parent and single-parent students was 39.06±6.36 and 37.42±7.28, respectively (P=0.034). Dominant parenting style in both families was authoritative style. There were significant associations between the respondents’ self-esteem and their perceived parenting styles, after matching sex, family income, level of education, and parents job (Pself-esteem. Therefore, considering the relationship between child-rearing style and adolescent self-esteem, assessing other relating factors with adolescent self-esteem especially in single-parent family, such as father absence stigma, is suggested. PMID:25349847

  3. Familial transmission of a body-related attentional bias – An eye-tracking study in a nonclinical sample of female adolescents and their mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anika; Schneider, Silvia; Waldorf, Manuel; Adolph, Dirk; Vocks, Silja

    2017-01-01

    transmitted directly and indirectly from mothers to daughters. Results underline the potential relevance of maternal influences for the development of body image disturbance in girls and suggest specific family-based approaches for the prevention and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:29176821

  4. 77 FR 61761 - Announcement of the Award of a Single-Source Grant to the Native American Fatherhood and Families...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ....612] Announcement of the Award of a Single-Source Grant to the Native American Fatherhood and Families... the award of a single-source grant to Native American Fatherhood and Families Association (NAFFA) in Mesa, AZ, to support activities promoting Responsible Fatherhood in Native American communities...

  5. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sianchuk, Robert A.; McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes...

  6. Government Should Subsidize, Not Tax, Marriage: Social Policies Have Influenced the Rate of Growth in Single-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Based upon reflections from the Moynihan report of 1965, this author notes that the root causes of the growth in single-parent families have yet to be well identified, making it difficult to figure out where to go next. However, from 1965 onward, social policies have influenced the rate of growth in single-parent families. What is needed is a…

  7. The earth-coupled heat pump: Utilizing innovative technology in single family rehabilitation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    The study examines the feasibility of incorporating the use of earth-coupled heat pump technology in single-family housing rehabilitation projects, based on energy conservation attributes and financial considerations. Following evaluation of a theoretical model which indicated that installations of the heat pumps were feasible, the heat pumps were tested under actual conditions in five single family housing units which were part of the Urban Homesteading Program, and were matched with comparable units which did not receive special treatment. Energy consumption information was collected for all units for twelve months. Variables were identified, and the data was analyzed for individual housing units and compared with the results predicted by the theoretical model to determine the practicality of incorporating such technology in large scale rehabilitation projects. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for the New Castle Redevelopment Authority's single-family dwelling located at New Castle, Pennsylvania is described. Documentation submitted by the contractor for Government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status for approval to commit the system to fabrication is presented. Also included are system integration drawings, major subsystems drawings, and architect's specifications and plans.

  9. Modelling the contribution of family history and variation in single nucleotide polymorphisms to risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Wiuf, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that having any family member with schizophrenia increases the risk of schizophrenia in the probands. However, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accounted for little of this variation. The aim of this study was to use a population-based sample to explore...... the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the excess schizophrenia risk in offspring of parents with a psychotic, bipolar affective or other psychiatric disorder....

  10. Financial efficiency of rainwater utilization system in single-family house

    OpenAIRE

    Stec Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Designing of sustainable water systems should be aimed at reducing the consumption of tap water and the use of alternative water sources, such as rainwater and graywater. Therefore, the aim of the researches conducted was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the economic exploitation of rainwater utilization system in single-family house. As a tool for the analysis, the methodology Life Cycle Cost was used. It provides a comparison of different investment options and the opportunity to choo...

  11. Solar project description for Zien Mechanical Contractors-I single family residence, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, D.

    1980-02-01

    The Zien Mechanical site is a single family residence located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The home has two separate solar energy systems: an air system for space heating and cooling; a liquid system to preheat the potable hot water. The space heating and cooling system design and operation modes are described. The space heating system is designed to apply approximately 44 percent of the space heating requirements for the 1388 square foot residence. Engineering drawings are provided and the performance evaluation instrumentation is described.

  12. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Moyer, Neil [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  13. Growing up in a lesbian family: the life experiences of the adult daughters and sons of lesbian mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leddy, A.; Gartrell, N.; Bos, H.M.W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to explore the experience of being raised in a lesbian home from the perspective of the daughters and sons of lesbian families. Adult offspring of lesbian families participated in an online questionnaire that examined five themes: (1) positive aspects of being raised in a

  14. Health and Turnover of Working Mothers after Childbirth via the Work-Family Interface: An Analysis across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the…

  15. [Relationships of the stages of behavior change in dietary habits of the mothers of school-age children with the breakfast intake of the children and the health-associated behavior of the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Kayoko; Senoue, Aya; Wada, Miyuki; Sakoda, Makiko; Seto, Kozue; Haraguchi, Miho; Matsukida, Emi; Maruyama, Chizuko

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to clarify the relationships of the different stages of behavior change in dietary habits followed by the mothers of school-age children with the actual breakfast intake of these children and the health-associated behavior of the family. We carried out a questionnaire-based survey of 1949 children at 18 elementary schools and of 881 families with children attending seven elementary schools in Kagoshima prefecture. We were supplied with information about children's breakfast intake and content on the day they took the survey and information about mothers' breakfast intake and the stage of behavior change in dietary habits to which they belonged, for which five stages were defined using the stage-of-change model. The collection rates were 83.3% and 83.1% among children and mothers respectively. Of the children, 83.1% ate breakfast every day, while 15.1% were not in the habit of having breakfast. Furthermore, 98.6% children had eaten breakfast on the day of the survey, but 15.1% had eaten only staple foods such as rice or bread; only 34.0% children combined staple foods, a main dish, and vegetables/fruits in their breakfast. Regarding dietary stage, 28.1% of the mothers belonged to the "maintenance" stage; 24.0%, the "action" stage; 6.9%, the "preparation" stage; 9.8%, the "contemplation" stage; and 5.7%, the "precontemplation" stage. Mothers belonging to the first two stages constituted the "action group," because they were already taking care of their dietary habits, and mothers belonging to the latter three stages constituted the "no-action group", because they were not taking care of their dietary habits. The mothers who could provide no answers to the question constituted the "no-answer group" (25.5%). A comparison of the three groups revealed that mothers belonging to the no-answer group had more children who went without breakfast than the action group (P = 0.000). The children of mothers belonging to the no-action group (P = 0.003) and the no

  16. THE NATURE OF CONNECTION BETWEEN CHILD’S ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER AND THE EXPERIENCE OF FAMILY WELL-BEING IN ADULTHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Samoshkina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attachment to mother is viewed as the primary sample of bonding with a close person, thus its quality has an impact on the relationships with a partner. Objectives. A research of the nature of connection between child’s attachment to mother and the experience of the family well-being in adulthood is presented. Method. The empirical research was carried out by internet survey with the help of the following methods: “Satisfaction with marriage” by Stolin V., Butenko G., Romanova T.; “Experience of close relationship” by Brennan K. and Freiley P. adapted by Kazantseva T.; “Role expectations and claims in marriage” by Volkova A.; “Communication in the family” by Alyoshina Yu., Gozman L., Dubovski M.; and the author’s survey revealing the type of child’s attachment to mother in adulthood. Fisher criterion F was used for the comparison of different samples; Pearson’s correlation coef?cient was used for the determination of correlation between the type of attachment to mother and components of psychological well-being. Sample. In the course of the research 39 couples living in registered marriage were surveyed, which constitutes 78 respondents aged 23-42. Results. The type of attachment to mother in person’s childhood determines the possibility of displaying avoidance of closeness to the partner, anxiety caused by the loss of closeness as well as peculiarities of communication, role expectations and claims in a couple. Conclusions. People with an indifferent type of attachment often avoid intimacy with a partner, perform well in the sphere of emotional and psychological support of a partner and even exhibit a higher degree of mutual understanding with the partner. People with neurotic type of attachment may experience anxiety about the loss of intimacy with a partner, but this anxiety can make them constantly work on themselves, both in physical terms – with an external attachment or on a psychological level

  17. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  18. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: a large single family cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnik, Kate; Tsai, Willis H; Dornan, Kimberly; Perrier, Renée; Burrowes, Paul W; Davidson, Warren J

    2016-02-29

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by dermatologic lesions, pulmonary manifestations, and renal tumors. The syndrome arises from germline mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene. We present findings from the single largest family BHD cohort described to date. Primary objectives were to characterize cystic lung changes on computed tomography (CT) chest scanning and identify features that stratify patients at higher risk of pneumothorax. Secondary objectives entailed description of the following: type and natural history of BHD-associated pneumothorax, pulmonary function characteristics, and relationship between cystic lung changes and pulmonary function. The study was a retrospective chart review for a case series of a single family. Over 70 family members of a proband with documented BHD were identified, 68 of which consented to genetic testing. All those with confirmed BHD were offered a clinical assessment by the Medical Genetics and Pulmonary services which included a history, physical exam, complete pulmonary function tests, and computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest and abdomen. Thirty-six individuals had a heterozygous mutation in the FLCN gene (c.59delT). Of these, 100 % (28/28) had pulmonary cysts, 41 % (13/32) had spontaneous pneumothoraces, 26 % (8/31) had kidney cysts, 3 % (1/31) had renal tumors, and 53 % (18/34) had dermatologic manifestations. Recurrent pneumothoraces were common (40 %). Cyst size (OR 3.23, 95 % CI 1.35-7.73) and extent of lower lung zone disease (OR 6.43, 95 % CI 1.41-29.2) were the only findings associated with pneumothorax. The size or extent of cystic disease did not correlate with lung function results. This is the largest single family cohort of patients with BHD syndrome documented to date. We found that all individuals had pulmonary cysts, pneumothoraces were common, and cyst size and lower lobe predominant disease were associated with pneumothorax. Lung function was generally

  19. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

  20. The influence of family-work role experience and mastery on psychological health of Chinese employed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2009-11-01

    Four-hundred-and-thirty-five Chinese married nurses with children were surveyed on their family-work role experience, sense of mastery, and psychological distress. Hierarchical regression analyses showed spillover effects of role experience on psychological health as well as asymmetrical permeability of family and work boundaries. The hypothesis that mastery acted as a moderator between role experience and psychological health was supported. In general, a higher level of mastery augmented positive but mitigated negative influence of role experience on psychological functioning. Findings provide useful information to practitioners and policy makers on issues related to family-work stress and women's health in contemporary Chinese society.

  1. Protecting the mother's and child's health. Indonesia. Moslems and Islamic organizations participate in the family planning movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapie, K H

    1996-01-01

    The lack of united legal opinion has become a characteristic of Islam. The Islamic community's views on family planning are therefore diverse, ranging from those who strongly resist it to those who enthusiastically support and promote it. However, in order to smoothly introduce family planning into Indonesia, religious legal support was and remains crucial. Religion, especially Islam, is very important in the lives of Indonesian people. The need for religious support was stated explicitly in the guidelines of the First Five-Year Development Plan, as one of the considerations in carrying out the National Family Planning Program. That program, the first of its kind, was provided by the Legal Affairs Committee of Muhammadiyah in 1968. The major characteristics of the four formal religious decisions on family planning are described, followed by discussion of the current views of some ulama.

  2. Mothers and work-life balance: Exploring the contradictions and complexities involved in work-family negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wattis, Louise; Standing, Joseph; Yerkes, Mara

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article presents data from a project exploring women's experiences of work and care. It focuses primarily on work-life balance as a problematic concept. Social and economic transformations across advanced post-industrial economies have resulted in concerns about how individuals manage their lives across the two spheres of work and family and achieve a work-life balance. Governments across the European Union have introduced various measures to address how families effectively ...

  3. Health and turnover of working mothers after childbirth via the work-family interface: an analysis across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn S; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2011-09-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the associations of 2 job demands (psychological requirements and nonstandard work schedules) with work-to-family conflict. Further, we considered subsequent impact of work-to-family conflict and enrichment on women's health (physical and mental health) 8 months after women returned to work and the impact of health on voluntary turnover 12 months after women returned to work. Having a nonstandard work schedule was directly and positively related to conflict, whereas schedule control buffered the effect of psychological requirements on conflict. Skill discretion and job security, both job resources, directly and positively related to enrichment. Work-to-family conflict was negatively related to both physical and mental health, but work-to-family enrichment positively predicted only physical health. Physical health and mental health both negatively influenced turnover. We discuss implications and opportunities for future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Health and Turnover of Working Mothers After Childbirth Via the Work–Family Interface: An Analysis Across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work–family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the associations of 2 job demands (psychological requirements and nonstandard work schedules) with work-to-family conflict. Further, we considered subsequent impact of work-to-family conflict and enrichment on women’s health (physical and mental health) 8 months after women returned to work and the impact of health on voluntary turnover 12 months after women returned to work. Having a nonstandard work schedule was directly and positively related to conflict, whereas schedule control buffered the effect of psychological requirements on conflict. Skill discretion and job security, both job resources, directly and positively related to enrichment. Work-to-family conflict was negatively related to both physical and mental health, but work-to-family enrichment positively predicted only physical health. Physical health and mental health both negatively influenced turnover. We discuss implications and opportunities for future research. PMID:21604833

  5. Biological aspects of the development and self-concept in adolescents living in single-parent families.

    OpenAIRE

    Veček, Andrea; Vidović, Vesna; Miličić, Jasna; Špoljar-Vržina, Sanja; Veček, Nenad; Arch-Veček, Branka

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate whether there are differences between adolescents who grow up in single-parent families and those who grow up in nucleus families. We have decided that there are no differences in the physical development between the adolescents who are growing up in single parent families and those growing up in nucleus families. There is no difference in the self-concept between these two groups, except in the ethical and moral self-image of adolescents living with one parent. A...

  6. Method for planning extensive energy renovation of detached single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde

    It has long been a political aim to reduce the emissions caused by energy consumption, and in Denmark politicians aim to make Denmark a society independent of fossil fuels by 2050. To achieve this, it is necessary to increase sustainable energy production and reduce energy consumption. This will ......It has long been a political aim to reduce the emissions caused by energy consumption, and in Denmark politicians aim to make Denmark a society independent of fossil fuels by 2050. To achieve this, it is necessary to increase sustainable energy production and reduce energy consumption....... This will take time, so both areas must be considered already now, but it will be beneficial to work on reducing the consumption before the sustainable energy supply is fully developed, so that we can avoid expensive over-production. Some 30% of the total energy consumption in Denmark takes place in households......, and 22% occurs in single-family houses, making this the largest single contributor to the total consumption after road transport (DEA, 2015a). There is a large potential for achieving energy savings in this sector, especially among the large number of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s...

  7. The Socioeconomic Consequences of "In-Work" Benefit Reform for British Lone Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Marco; van der Klaauw, Wilbert

    2007-01-01

    In October 1999, the British government enacted the Working Families' Tax Credit, which aimed at encouraging work among low-income families with children. This paper uses panel data collected between 1991 and 2001 to evaluate the effect of this reform on single mothers. We find that the reform led to a substantial increase in their employment rate…

  8. Marginal Effects of a Gross Income Increase for a Single Parent Family in Six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Marie

    High marginal tax rates constitute an issue in several countries because they are supposed to create barriers for increased labour supply. It is, however, often the case that relatively low income families with children face substantially higher combined marginal rates than even the highest...... the contributions to the combined marginal rate, the marginal effective tax rate, METR, using the OECD term, from taxation, payment for childcare, tapering of housing benefits and sometimes child benefits, when the income varies from a low level to a high level for a single parent family. Six countries are included...... marginal tax rates. High combined marginal rates are generated by increasing payment for care for children in childcare institutions and tapering of housing benefits in addition to taxation, when income rises. These effects are often simultaneous and add to the marginal tax rate. This paper explores...

  9. Effects of single-family rooms on nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction in neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Mirka; Lehtonen, Liisa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Axelin, Anna

    Single-family rooms in neonatal intensive care unit can provide longer interaction between family and staff. On the other hand, separation in private rooms has been shown detrimental to child development if parents are not present. To examine the effects of single-family rooms on nurse-family, nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction time in neonatal intensive care unit. A quantitative, comparative, observational study was conducted before and after a move to a neonatal intensive care unit with single-family rooms. A total of 194 observation hours were conducted before the move and 194h after the move. The differences were analyzed using a hierarchical linear mixed model. Nurses working in one neonatal intensive care unit were recruited to study. The duration and number of nurse-parent and nurse-infant interaction episodes were recorded. The nurse-family and the nurse-parent interaction were longer in the unit with single-family rooms compared with the unit before the move (mean 261 vs. 138min per shift, pintensive care unit with single-family rooms supported an increase in nurse-parent interaction time. Importantly, nurse-infant interaction time did not decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Family structure and its relationship to travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Cornell McCreedy; Joseph T. O' Leary; Daniel Fesenmaier

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between family structure and travel to further understand what differences exist between family groups. Results indicate that the absence of a husband delays travel for single mothers and that they are not as well-off as their married counterparts. We examine other travel and leisure studies to make comparisons with these data,...

  11. Online short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for forecasting the load for heating in a single-family house. Both space and hot tap water heating are forecasted. The forecasting model is built using data from sixteen houses in Sønderborg, Denmark, combined with local climate measurements and weather forecasts....... Every hour the hourly heat load for each house the following two days is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models and the climate inputs used are: ambient temperature, global radiation, and wind speed. A computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme is used...

  12. Evaluation of the renovation of a Danish single-family house based on measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde; Svendsen, Svend; Heller, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Building renovation is too often carried out with only one objective: necessary maintenance, updating design and functions, or reducing energy consumption. But, if a necessary maintenance is exploited as an opportunity for renovation, energy improvements can be implemented, house functions can...... be updated, and indoor climate improved with minimal nuisance and expense. This paper illustrates this approach by documenting the renovation of a single-family house in Denmark, and monitoring its energy consumption and indoor climate before and after the renovation. Building elements were replaced where...

  13. The effect of building regulations on energy consumption in single family houses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... papers investigating household energy consumption this paper uses a unique panel data set constructed by merging several administrative data bases. The data set describes house and household characteristics, outdoor temperature and actual metered natural gas consumption over 6 years (1998-2003). Applying...

  14. Renovation of a Detached Single-Family House into an Energy Efficient Low Energy House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Maagaard, Steffen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain the political goals for national and international energy savings of reducing CO2 emissions and avoid climate changes, renovation projects for dwellings are becoming increasingly more important. This paper describes the results attained from an extensive renovation of a detached...... single-family house built in the early nineteen seventies. The old house was renovated in accordance to the best Danish low energy class (class 1). The project was followed by detailed measurements of the indoor environment (temperature, relative humidity and CO2 levels) and energy consumption for room...

  15. Experimental investigations on solar heating/heat pump systems for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Perers, Bengt

    In the period 2013-2017 the project “Experimental investigations on solar heat pump systems for single family houses” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of the heat and mass transfer...... in the combined solar heating/heat pump system type when the heat pump makes use of a horizontal ground source heat exchanger. The knowledge is gained by experimental investigations on a solar heating/heat pump system and forms the basis for improved marketed combined solar heating/heat pump systems....

  16. On the thermal inertia and time constant of single-family houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedbrant, J.

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1970s, electricity has become a common heating source in Swedish single-family houses. About one million small houses can use electricity for heating, about 600.000 have electricity as the only heating source, A liberalised European electricity market would most likely raise the Swedish electricity prices during daytime on weekdays and lower it at other times. In the long run, electrical heating of houses would be replaced by fuels, but in the shorter perspective, other strategies may be considered. This report evaluates the use of electricity for heating a dwelling, or part of it, at night when both the demand and the price are low. The stored heat is utilised in the daytime some hours later, when the electricity price is high. Essential for heat storage is the thermal time constant. The report gives a simple theoretical framework for the calculation of the time constant for a single-family house with furniture. Furthermore the comfort time constant, that is, the time for a house to cool down from a maximum to a minimum acceptable temperature, is derived. Two theoretical model houses are calculated, and the results are compared to data from empirical studies in three inhabited test houses. The results show that it was possible to store about 8 kWh/K in a house from the seventies and about 5 kWh/K in a house from the eighties. The time constants were 34 h and 53 h, respectively. During winter conditions with 0 deg C outdoor, the 'comfort' time constants with maximum and minimum indoor temperatures of 23 and 20 deg C were 6 h and 10 h. The results indicate that the maximum load-shifting potential of an average single family house is about 1 kw during 16 daytime hours shifted into 2 kw during 8 night hours. Upscaled to the one million Swedish single-family houses that can use electricity as a heating source, the maximum potential is 1000 MW daytime time-shifted into 2000 MW at night.

  17. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sianchuk, Robert A.; McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes......, modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by building cycles....... Production of construction waste peaked in 2005, when 3.31 million tonnes of SWPs were produced by 1.72 million single family housing starts. It diminished to 0.874 million tonnes of SWPs as the housing starts fell to 445,000 in 2009. In contrast, the mass of demolition wastes produced was affected...

  18. Sexual Understanding and Development of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: Mothers' Perspectives of Within-Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownall, Jaycee D.; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard; Kerr, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The sexual development of young people with intellectual disabilities is a marker of their transition to adulthood and affects their sense of well being and identity. Cognitive impairments and a socially marginalized position increase dependence on their families to assist with sexual matters. In this study, the authors adopted a novel…

  19. Mother-Child Positivity and Negativity: Family-Wide and Child-Specific Main Effects and Interactions Predict Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Pike, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Links between positive and negative aspects of the parent-child relationship and child adjustment are undisputed. Scholars recognize the importance of parental differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, yet, less is known about PDT in the context of the shared (family-wide) parent-child relationship climate, or about the extent to which positivity…

  20. Benefits of Mother Goose: Influence of a Community-Based Program on Parent-Child Attachment Relationships in Typical Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfe, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 50 to 60% of children from typical families develop secure attachment relationships with their parents (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978; Van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg, 1988); however, intervention research has focused primarily on interventions for high-risk clinical samples (Berlin, Zeanah, & Lieberman, 2008). In this project,…

  1. The Effects of Mother Education Programs on the Functionality, Anger Management and Conflict Solution Levels of Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Zekavet

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Studies carried out in recent years both in Turkey and abroad indicate that child and teenage violence has increased and become widespread. Annually, 91.1% of deaths due to violence in the world occur in low and middle-income countries. Family life is an important element in understanding violent behavior as it relates to family…

  2. Mother and Child Reports of Hurricane Related Stressors: Data from a Sample of Families Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Betty S.; Beaulieu, Brooke; Ogokeh, Constance E.; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families exposed to disasters such as Hurricane Katrina are at risk for numerous adverse outcomes. While previous literature suggests that the degree of disaster exposure corresponds with experiencing negative outcomes, it is unclear if parents and children report similar levels of disaster exposure. Objective: The purpose of this…

  3. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Latino Siblings: Changes in Family Dynamics and Feelings toward the Teen Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.; Slonim, Ashley; Horn, Emily J.; Reyes, Barbara T.

    2011-01-01

    Latinos have had the highest teenage birthrate of any racial or ethnic group in the United States for the past 15 years, yet little is known about how Latino families are affected by a teenage daughter's childbearing. In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 Mexican American younger siblings of parenting teens to discern how their sister's…

  4. Context matters! The relationship between mother-reported family nutrition climate, general parenting, food parenting practices and children’s BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne M. P. L. Gerards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to explain children’s nutrition behavior or weight often involve investigating the parent-child relationship, typically studying the associations between food parenting practices (FPPs and child outcomes. However, these behaviors are embedded in a broader system: general parenting (GP, the general emotional climate at home, and the family health climate (an aspect of the broader family system in the context of health. In the current study, we combined the parent-child measures of parenting (FPPs and GP and the nutritional dimension of the family health climate (family nutrition climate, FNC to get a broader view of how these concepts are interrelated. The current study had two aims: predicting FPPs using GP and FNC as predictor variables, and investigating the relationship between FPPs and children’s weight in different groups of parents, based on low and high GP and FNC scores. Methods We collected cross-sectional data via an online survey panel. Mothers of 267 children aged 5–12 years filled out a questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., children’s weight and height, GP, FPPs, and FNC. Bivariate correlation coefficients were calculated between all constructs. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the hypothesized relationships between GP, FNC and FPPs. Hereafter, different groups of parents were identified, using median split, based on a low or high score on GP or a low or high score on FNC. Bivariate correlation coefficients were calculated between FPPs and children’s BMI z-score for these different groups. Results GP and FNC were consistently positively correlated (all r’s ≥.177, and both concepts were positively associated with healthy FPPs (all r’s ≥.214. In families with a positive context (i.e. scoring high on GP and on FNC, healthy FPPs were associated with lower BMI z-scores of the children (r -.229. This association was not found for children with a more negative family

  5. 76 FR 67192 - Administration on Children, Youth and Families Announces the Award of Five Single-Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... training and supports for Tribal middle managers in child welfare. There are five traineeship universities... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Administration on Children, Youth and Families Announces the Award of Five Single-Source Expansion Supplement Grants To...

  6. Energy Efficiency Potential in the U.S. Single-Family Housing Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Craig B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Scott G. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Typical approaches for assessing energy efficiency potential in buildings use a limited number of prototypes, and therefore suffer from inadequate resolution when pass-fail cost-effectiveness tests are applied, which can significantly underestimate or overestimate the economic potential of energy efficiency technologies. This analysis applies a new approach to large-scale residential energy analysis, combining the use of large public and private data sources, statistical sampling, detailed building simulations, and high-performance computing to achieve unprecedented granularity - and therefore accuracy - in modeling the diversity of the single-family housing stock. The result is a comprehensive set of maps, tables, and figures showing the technical and economic potential of 50 plus residential energy efficiency upgrades and packages for each state. Policymakers, program designers, and manufacturers can use these results to identify upgrades with the highest potential for cost-effective savings in a particular state or region, as well as help identify customer segments for targeted marketing and deployment. The primary finding of this analysis is that there is significant technical and economic potential to save electricity and on-site fuel use in the single-family housing stock. However, the economic potential is very sensitive to the cost-effectiveness criteria used for analysis. Additionally, the savings of particular energy efficiency upgrades is situation-specific within the housing stock (depending on climate, building vintage, heating fuel type, building physical characteristics, etc.).

  7. Reuse of single-dose nevirapine in subsequent pregnancies for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkala Moses

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-dose nevirapine (SDNVP for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT results in the selection of resistance mutants among HIV-infected mothers. The effects of these mutations on the efficacy of SDNVP use in a subsequent pregnancy are not well understood. Methods We compared risks of perinatal HIV transmission between multiparous women who had previously received a dose of SDNVP (exposed and those that had not (unexposed and who were given SDNVP for the index pregnancy within a PMTCT clinical study. We also compared transmission risks among exposed and unexposed women who had two consecutive pregnancies within the trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to adjust for possible confounders. Results Transmission risks did not differ between 59 SDNVP-exposed and 782 unexposed women in unadjusted analysis or after adjustment for viral load and disease stage (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 2.0. Among 43 women who had two consecutive pregnancies during the study, transmission risks were 7% (95% CI 1% to 19% at both the first (unexposed and second (exposed delivery. The results were unchanged, if infant death was included as an outcome. Conclusion These data suggest that the efficacy of SDNVP may not be diminished when reused in subsequent pregnancies.

  8. Reuse of single-dose nevirapine in subsequent pregnancies for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jan; Kuhn, Louise; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2008-12-30

    Single-dose nevirapine (SDNVP) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) results in the selection of resistance mutants among HIV-infected mothers. The effects of these mutations on the efficacy of SDNVP use in a subsequent pregnancy are not well understood. We compared risks of perinatal HIV transmission between multiparous women who had previously received a dose of SDNVP (exposed) and those that had not (unexposed) and who were given SDNVP for the index pregnancy within a PMTCT clinical study. We also compared transmission risks among exposed and unexposed women who had two consecutive pregnancies within the trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to adjust for possible confounders. Transmission risks did not differ between 59 SDNVP-exposed and 782 unexposed women in unadjusted analysis or after adjustment for viral load and disease stage (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 2.0). Among 43 women who had two consecutive pregnancies during the study, transmission risks were 7% (95% CI 1% to 19%) at both the first (unexposed) and second (exposed) delivery. The results were unchanged, if infant death was included as an outcome. These data suggest that the efficacy of SDNVP may not be diminished when reused in subsequent pregnancies.

  9. Perceptions of early body image socialization in families: Exploring knowledge, beliefs, and strategies among mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Janet M; Clarke, Samantha; Birky, Julie P; Harrison, Kristen

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to explore parental perceptions of body image in preschoolers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 primary caregivers of preschoolers to examine knowledge, beliefs, and strategies regarding early body image socialization in families. Thematic Analysis yielded three themes highlighting knowledge gaps, belief discrepancies, and limited awareness of strategies. Findings regarding knowledge: Most participants defined body image as objective attractiveness rather than subjective self-assessment (53%) and focused on negative body image. Beliefs: Although 97% of participants believed weight and shape impact children's self-esteem, 63% believed preschoolers too young to have a body image. Strategies: Most participants (53%) said family was a primary influence on body image, but identified few effective strategies and 63% said they did not do anything to influence children's body image. Findings suggested family body image socialization in preschoolers is occurring outside the awareness of parents and the concept of positive body image is underdeveloped. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Lauren N.; Koenig, Harold F.; Brown, Nicole A.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100%) with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement. PMID:27649233

  11. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Tobey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2 and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082 were conducted in intervention counties (IC and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100% with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators. Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12% and interpretation of intended messages (60% vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively. Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  12. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign-Research Steps, Development and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Lauren N; Koenig, Harold F; Brown, Nicole A; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-09-13

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%-100%) with 1-2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August-October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  13. Risk factors for vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: a single center experience with 710 HCV-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Tejedor, Amparo; Maiques-Montesinos, Vicente; Diago-Almela, Vicente José; Pereda-Perez, Antonio; Alberola-Cuñat, Vicente; López-Hontangas, José Luís; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Perales, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors on the perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV). A retrospective cohort study with 711 infants born to 710 HCV-infected mothers was conducted at the Hospital La Fe, in Valencia, Spain, from 1986 to 2011. As potential risk factors for transmission we analyzed: maternal age, mode of acquisition of HCV infection, HIV co-infection, antiretroviral treatment against HIV, CD4 cell count, HIV and HCV viral load, liver enzyme levels during pregnancy, smoking habit, gestational age, intrapartum invasive procedures, length of rupture of membranes, length of labor, mode of delivery, episiotomy, birth weight, newborn gender and type of feeding. Overall perinatal HCV transmission rate was 2.4%. The significant risk factors related with HCV transmission were maternal virus load >615copies/mL (OR 9.3 [95% CI 1.11-78.72]), intrapartum invasive procedures (OR 10.1 [95% CI 2.6-39.02]) and episiotomy (OR 4.2 [95% CI 1.2-14.16]). HIV co-infection and newborn female were near significance (p=0.081 and 0.075, respectively). Invasive procedures as fetal scalp blood sampling or internal electrode and episiotomy increase vertical transmission of HCV, especially in patients with positive HCV RNA virus load at delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the Factors Concerning the Unexpected Pregnancy of Women who Applied to the Mother and Child Care and Family Planning Center of Van Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the experiences of unexpected pregnancy and the related factors of the women who have applied to our center. Material and Method: The study was planned as a descriptive study which enrolled women in the age range of 15-49 on the basis of volunteerism who have applied to the Mother and Child Care and Family Planning Center of Van Province. The participants were administered a survey in which certain situations were questioned, such as age, educational background, age at first labor, income status, number of living children, miscarriage status, unexpected pregnancy status, the presence of trying to undergo an abortion with alternative methods, and the state of receiving consultancy service on pre- and post-pregnancy family planning. Results: The more increased the educational level of 399 women enrolled in the study, the more significant reduction in unexpected pregnancies was detected (P=0.001. When the educational background and the use of alternative methods to have an abortion were compared, the illiterate women were found to use alternative methods (37.6% at a significantly high ratio (p=0.0001. The average of children number of women with at least one unexpected pregnancy was significantly high (p=0.0001. While the ratio of receiving consultancy on post-pregnancy family planning from health care personnel of the women with unexpected pregnancy was 79.5%, a ratio of 97.9% was detected for the women with planned pregnancy which was significantly different (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The health care personnel may reduce the unexpected pregnancies by training women on family planning in a simple, understandable way and by trying to increase health literacy by taking the dominant social rules in our region into consideration. We consider that the primary healthcare will be more effective and result oriented through newly applied Family Practice in our region. Key Words: Unexpected pregnancy

  15. The relationship between raising a child with a disability and the mental health of mothers compared to raising a child without disability in japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yui Yamaoka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previous studies conducted in Japan targeted only mothers who cared for children with disabilities, and lacked reference subjects, such as mothers of children without disabilities. The aim of this study was to examine the association between raising one or two children with a disability and maternal psychological distress compared to mothers of children without a disability, and to assess differences among partnered mothers living with grandparent(s, partnered mothers without grandparent(s, and single mothers. Methods: This study utilized data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (CSLC in 2010. We merged the data of the children (aged six and over, mothers, and fathers. This study obtained 33,739 study subjects as a triad of a child (33,110 children without disabilities and 629 children with disabilities, mother, and father. The Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6 was used to assess the psychological distress of mothers. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the independent association of a child with a disability on maternal psychological distress after controlling for the basic characteristics of the children, mothers, and households. Results: This study reported that raising one or two children with disabilities was significantly related to maternal psychological distress (odds ratio: 1.72 for one child, 2.85 for two children compared to mothers of children without disability. After stratifying the analyses by family structure, significant associations remained among mothers in two-parent families but not for mothers in three-generation families and single mothers due to a small number of children with disabilities in these families. Conclusions: This study reported the significant association between raising a child with a disability and maternal psychological distress in comparison to mothers of children without disabilities. Attention should be paid to not only single mothers, but also partnered

  16. Identification of Nevirapine-Resistant HIV-1 in the Latent Reservoir after Single-Dose Nevirapine to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind-Rotolo, Megan; Durand, Christine; Cranmer, Lisa; Reid, Alison; Martinson, Neil; Doherty, Meg; Jilek, Benjamin L.; Kagaayi, Joseph; Kizza, Allan; Pillay, Visva; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Reynolds, Steven J.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Lau, Bryan; Ray, Stuart C.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Intrapartum single-dose nevirapine decreases mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but promotes nevirapine resistance. Although resistant viruses fade to undetectable levels in plasma, they may persist as stably integrated proviruses within the latent reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells, potentially complicating future treatment. Methods Blood samples were collected from 60 women from South Africa and Uganda >6 months after they had received single-dose nevirapine. To selectively analyze the stable latent form of HIV-1, resting CD4+ T cells were isolated and activated in the presence of reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and integrase inhibitors, which allows for the specific isolation of viruses produced by cells with stably integrated proviral DNA. These viruses were then analyzed for nevirapine resistance. Results Although only a small number of latently infected cells were present in each blood sample (mean, 162 cells), nevirapine resistance mutations (K103N and G190A) were detected in the latent reservoir of 4 (8%) of 50 evaluable women. Conclusions A single dose of nevirapine can establish antiretroviral resistance within the latent reservoir. This results in a potentially lifelong risk of reemergence of nevirapine-resistant virus and highlights the need for strategies to prevent transmission that do not compromise successful future treatment. PMID:19338474

  17. A seven-year investigation of marital expectations and marriage among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Agostini, Wendy R Miller; Houston, Avril Melissa; Black, Maureen M

    2010-02-01

    Welfare reform has targeted marriage promotion among low-income women. This study explores patterns of marital expectations and marriage among 181 urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and their mothers. Using PROC TRAJ to analyze developmental trajectories of adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality over 24 months, we categorized relationships as either high or low support. We examined the effects of intergenerational marriage models and adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality on marital expectations and marriage over the first 7 years postpartum. At 24 months, half (52%) of adolescent mothers expected to marry, but marital expectations did not predict marriage. Marital expectations were associated with concurrent involvement in a romantic relationship, not intergenerational marriage models or a supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationship. After 7 years, 14% of adolescent mothers were married. Married mothers lived in families characterized by the joint effects of intergenerational marriage models and supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships. They were older and had more children than did single mothers, suggesting that they were in a family formation phase of life. Policies that promote the education and employment opportunities necessary to support a family are needed.

  18. [Family form of isolated left ventricular noncompaction; case of a mother and her son observed in Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipinda, J B; Ibaba, J; Nkoghe, D D; Kombila, P A

    2013-02-01

    We describe a case report of a young Gabonese lady who presented an acute pulmonary oedema and we suspected a paripartum cardiomyopathy. Subsequent investigations showed isolated left ventricular noncompaction. A few months later, the same disease was disclosed at her 9 year-old son who presented a cardiac insufficiency. Therefore, we suspect a family form of left ventricular noncompaction. And it is the first description in subsaharan Africa. The hereditary character of this new form of cardiomyopathy linked to a genetic mutation on the X chromosome is well known. This disease is associated with heart failure, high incidence of systemic thromboembolism complications or ventricular arrhythmia. The echocardiography and the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has been reported to be tools for diagnosis. In Africa, access to these techniques remains a privilege. So the discovery of illness is often late and the family screening are special. In our area, the therapeutic management is the medical treatment of heart failure. Implatable cardioverter defibrillator or heart transplantation are not available. So long-term prognosis of our patients with congestive heart failure stays poor. With best equipment in our hospitals and good training of African cardiologists, we should improve the management of our patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Experiences and Motives of Australian Single Mothers by Choice Who Make Early Contact with their Child's Donor Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Fiona J; Dempsey, Deborah J

    2017-01-30

    An increasing number of Australian parents of donor-conceived children are making contact with their child's donor relatives prior to their child reaching the age of majority. This process, often referred to as 'donor linking', can be achieved in Australia through either formal or informal mechanisms. Formal mechanisms exist in three states, each of which has legislation enabling donor linking in certain circumstances. Donor linking may also be achieved through informal mechanisms, such as online donor registries, social media searches, direct-to-consumer genetic testing, and fertility clinics which act as intermediaries between donors and recipients. Drawing on qualitative interview data, this article explores the donor linking practices of twenty-five single women who conceived using donated gametes. The findings suggest that early contact with donors is extremely popular among single women and that, even when formal legislative mechanisms are available, informal linking remains common. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Experiences and Motives of Australian Single Mothers by Choice who make Early Contact with their Child’s Donor Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An increasing number of Australian parents of donor-conceived children are making contact with their child’s donor relatives prior to their child reaching the age of majority. This process, often referred to as ‘donor linking’, can be achieved in Australia through either formal or informal mechanisms. Formal mechanisms exist in three states, each of which has legislation enabling donor linking in certain circumstances. Donor linking may also be achieved through informal mechanisms, such as online donor registries, social media searches, direct-to-consumer genetic testing, and fertility clinics which act as intermediaries between donors and recipients. Drawing on qualitative interview data, this article explores the donor linking practices of twenty-five single women who conceived using donated gametes. The findings suggest that early contact with donors is extremely popular among single women and that, even when formal legislative mechanisms are available, informal linking remains common. PMID:28137771

  1. Installation guidelines for Solar Heating System, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  2. A single gene target of an ETS-family transcription factor determines neuronal CO2-chemosensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia P Brandt

    Full Text Available Many animals possess neurons specialized for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO(2, which acts as a cue to elicit behavioral responses and is also an internally generated product of respiration that regulates animal physiology. In many organisms how such neurons detect CO(2 is poorly understood. We report here a mechanism that endows C. elegans neurons with the ability to detect CO(2. The ETS-5 transcription factor is necessary for the specification of CO(2-sensing BAG neurons. Expression of a single ETS-5 target gene, gcy-9, which encodes a receptor-type guanylate cyclase, is sufficient to bypass a requirement for ets-5 in CO(2-detection and transforms neurons into CO(2-sensing neurons. Because ETS-5 and GCY-9 are members of gene families that are conserved between nematodes and vertebrates, a similar mechanism might act in the specification of CO(2-sensing neurons in other phyla.

  3. Seasonal variations of radon concentrations in single-family houses with different sub-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations have been studied in 70 single-family houses selected according to the type of sub-structure and the type of soil underneath the house. Five categories of sub-structure were included - slab-on-grade, crawl space, basement, and combinations...... of basement with slab-on-grade or crawl space. Half of the houses are located on clayey till and the other half on glaciofluvial gravel. In each house radon was measured in a living room and a bedroom, in the basement if present, and in the crawl space if present and accessible. The measurements were made...... with track detectors on a quarterly basis throughout a year. For living rooms and bedrooms the seasonal variations range from being highly significant for the slab-on-grade houses to being insignificant for the crawl space houses. For basements and crawl spaces the geometric mean radon concentrations do...

  4. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating system installer guidelines are presented for each subsystem. This single family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: (1) liquid cooled flat plate collectors; (2) water storage tank; (3) passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; (4) electric hot water heater; (5) heat pump with electric backup; (6) solar hot water coil unit; (7) tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; (8) control system; and (9) air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance in the form of written descriptions, schematics, detail drawings, pictures, and manufacturer's component data.

  5. Energy and economic evaluation of the single-family residential building energy performance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, D.L.; Jones, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    The Energy Production and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1976 mandated the setting of building energy performance standards (BEPS) for all newly constructed buildings. One of the classes of buildings included in EPCA is single-family residences. These standards cover the energy used for space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. This report describes the evaluation of direct energy and economic impacts of three proposed levels of single-family BEPS: lenient, mid, and strict. The lenient level is the least stringent in requiring improvements in eneryperformance of residence while the strict is the most stringent. Each of the levels and the method of developing them are also described. The ORNL residential energy model is used to calculate energy savings and economic impacts of BEPS to the nation. The model is also used to estimate the sensitivity of the results to several exogenous variables: projected fuel prices, baseline energy codes, capital csts, short-run price elasticities, and discount rates. The Net Present Value (NPV) and cumulative energy savings from 1980 to 2020 are the two measures used to compare the standards. Both the lenient and mid level standards provide a positive economic benefit to the country of 1.24 and 2.58 billion dollars, respectively. Even though the strict standard has the largest energy savings, it has a negative economic cost of 1.5 billion dollars to the nation. The cumulative energy savings of the lenient, mid, and strict level standards are 4.2, 10.2, and 20.1 EJ, respectively.

  6. High concentration of basidiolichens in a single family of agaricoid mushrooms (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrey, James D; Lücking, Robert; Sipman, Harrie J M; Chaves, José L; Redhead, Scott A; Bungartz, Frank; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2009-10-01

    The Agaricales is the largest and most diverse order of mushroom-forming Basidiomycota, with over 100 natural groups recognized in recent Fungal Tree of Life studies. Most agarics are either saprotrophic or ectomycorrhizal fungi, but the family Hygrophoraceae is in part characterized by a unique and remarkable diversity of lichenized forms. The most familiar of these is the chlorolichen genus Lichenomphalia, whose phylogenetic position in the Agaricales has been established. Recent limited evidence suggested that Hygrophoraceae also contains cyanolichens in the genus Dictyonema, which indicates a remarkable concentration and diversity of lichen-formers in a single family of agarics. To demonstrate the relationships of lichen-formers to other fungi in the family, we assembled ribosomal sequences from 52 species representing recognized groups within the Hygrophoraceae, among them new sequences representing Acantholichen and most species and forms of Dictyonema. The molecular data were evaluated using parsimony, likelihood, Bayesian, and distance analyses, including coding of ambiguous regions by means of INAASE and ARC, all of which indicate that Dictyonema and Acantholichen form a monophyletic clade derived from the primarily bryophilous genus Arrhenia and sister to the enigmatic Athelia pyriformis, a species unrelated to the Atheliales for which we are proposing a new genus name Eonema. The chlorolichen genus Lichenomphalia may be polyphyletic. Fungi in the Dictyonema-Acantholichen clade are typically tropical, entirely lichenized, and associate with cyanobacterial photobionts. Our data indicate a transition from agaricoid-omphalinoid basidiomes observed in Arrhenia to stereoid-corticioid forms in Dictyonema, and also support a previous suggestion of a connection between loss of clamp connections and lichenization. The diverse basidiome and thallus morphologies and nutritional ecologies of these fungi indicate a remarkable evolutionary flexibility that appears to

  7. Segmental hair mercury evaluation of a single family along the Upper Madeira Basin, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Peixoto Boischio

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury pollution (MeHg up the aquatic food chains in the Amazonian ecosystems has been a major concern in environmental health. Riverside people (ribeirinhos along the Upper Madeira river are heavy fish eaters. Hair is the best biomarker for MeHg exposure. By assuming a constant hair growth rate, it is possible to evaluate a temporal profile of Hg exposure over the recent defined past. In this paper we present the segmental total hair Hg concentrations from a single family from which some of the 10 persons investigated had high hair Hg concentrations (peak of 339 ppm. We also presented the hair MeHg content from 4 out of the 10 family members investigated. There was a wide variation in total hair Hg concentrations (8 to 339 ppm among these individuals, who were mostly sharing their meals; there was also a wide variation in total Hg concentrations in the same individual over time (136 to 274 ppm. Hg speciation showed a mean and standard deviation in the MeHg content of 62% and 6%, respectively. The wide variation in total hair Hg concentration strongly indicated that it is possible to mitigate critical Hg exposure levels by conducting a fish advisory.

  8. The concept of family from a woman-mother victim of incest / A concepção de família de uma mulher-mãe de vítimas de incesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Giudice Narvaz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the patriarchal discourses that are still presently registered in the concepts of family. The participant was a woman-mother, victim of violence during her childhood and adult life, whose daughters were victims of incest. The case study was based on semi-structured interviews. Discursive Analysis showed that patriarchal values correspond to the participant's concept of family. Her concept of family revealed to be an idealized nuclear, monogamy, patriarchal and bourgeois model of family, even though this model has not effectively been experienced by her. Since the data was obtained from only one case, new investigations are recommended. We intend to question the hegemonic patriarchal model of family that still endures in our society, whose imperatives have been associated to the dynamics of violent and incestuous families.

  9. An Evaluation of a Family Counseling Intervention ("Tuko Pamoja") in Kenya: a Single Case Series Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Mental Health; Family Relations; Family Conflict; Child Mental Disorder; Adolescent - Emotional Problem; Adolescent Problem Behavior; Child Behavior; Child Abuse; Marital Conflict; Domestic Violence; Parent-Child Relations; Parenting

  10. Clinical Features and Correlates of Outcomes for High-Risk, Marginalized Mothers and Newborn Infants Engaged with a Specialist Perinatal and Family Drug Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a paucity of research in Australia on the characteristics of women in treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and the health outcomes of their neonates. Aims. To determine the clinical features and outcomes of high-risk, marginalized women seeking treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and their neonates. Methods. 139 women with a history of substance abuse/dependence engaged with a perinatal drug health service in Sydney, Australia. Maternal (demographic, drug use, psychological, physical, obstetric, and antenatal care and neonatal characteristics (delivery, early health outcomes were examined. Results. Compared to national figures, pregnant women attending a specialist perinatal and family drug health service were more likely to report being Australian born, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, younger, unemployed, and multiparous. Opiates were the primary drug of concern (81.3%. Pregnancy complications were common (61.9%. Neonates were more likely to be preterm, have low birth weight, and be admitted to special care nursery. NAS was the most prevalent birth complication (69.8% and almost half required pharmacotherapy. Conclusion. Mother-infant dyads affected by substance use in pregnancy are at significant risk. There is a need to review clinical models of care and examine the longer-term impacts on infant development.

  11. Pilot study comparing multi-family therapy to single family therapy for adults with anorexia nervosa in an intensive eating disorder program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Gina; Farquhar, Jamie C; Freeman, Victoria Emily; Colton, Patricia Anne; Olmsted, Marion Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Multi-family therapy (MFT) has yet to be evaluated in families of adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). The study aims were: (i) assess the feasibility of MFT for AN; and, (ii) assess whether MFT is associated with improved outcomes for families compared with single-family therapy (SFT). Adult patients with AN consecutively referred to an eating disorder treatment program were assigned (non-randomly) to receive eight sessions of SFT or MFT. Assessment occurred pre-therapy, immediately post-therapy, and at 3-month follow-up. A total of 37 female patients (13 SFT, 24 MFT) and 45 family members (16 SFT, 29 MFT) completed treatment. There were significant time effects for patients' BMI, eating disorder-related psychopathology and multiple family outcome measures. There were no differences between MFT and SFT on family outcome measures at end of treatment and 3 months post treatment. MFT is a feasible intervention that can be used in adult intensive treatment for those with AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. 78 FR 27240 - Announcing the Award of a New Single-Source Award to the National Council on Family Violence in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ....095] Announcing the Award of a New Single-Source Award to the National Council on Family Violence in... single-source cooperative agreement to the National Council on Family Violence to support the National Domestic Violence Hotline (Hotline). SUMMARY: The Administration for Children and Families (ACF...

  13. Mothers' perceptions of factors influencing violence in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandakai, T L; Price, J H; Telljohann, S K; Wilson, C A

    1999-05-01

    This study investigated mothers' perceptions of factors contributing to school violence. Of 345 mothers, 225 (65%) from urban public schools and 120 (35%) from suburban public schools, significant differences in perceptions of school violence were found on the enabling factors subscale for school location. Urban school mothers were significantly more likely than suburban mothers to attribute violence problems at their child's school to the lack of dress codes, violent messages in rap music, and poor parent/teacher communication. Significant differences in perceptions of school violence were found on the reinforcing factor subscale for school location, income, family structure, and race. Mothers of low- and middle-income, single parents, and African Americans were much more optimistic about the possibility that violence prevention programs for students, parents, and teachers would work well to stop or reduce school violence than were higher-income, married, and White mothers. These mothers also were more likely to believe it was acceptable for their child to fight at school than were their counterparts.

  14. Children's emotional and behavioral problems and their mothers' labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Patrick; Gaskin, Darrell J; Alexandre, Pierre K; Burke, Laura S; Younis, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    It has been documented that about 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder in the United States. The high prevalence of children's emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) might have a negative effect on their mothers' labor market outcomes because children with EBP require additional time for treatment. However, these children may require additional financial resources, which might promote mothers' labor supply. Previous studies have only considered chronic conditions in analyzing the impact of children's health on parental work activities. Moreover, most of these studies have not accounted for endogeneity in children's health. This article estimates the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' labor supply by family structure while accounting for endogeneity in children's health. We used the 1997 and 2002 Child Development Supplements (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We used probit and bivariate probit models to estimate mothers' probability of employment, and tobit and instrumental variable tobit models to estimate the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' work hours. Findings show negative effects of children's EBP on their married mothers' employment and on their single mothers' work hours. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Homeless Outreach Projects for Single Parent Families: What Happens to the Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Kasting, Colleen; Artz, Sibylle

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the changing nature of family homelessness in the US and Canada, the current literature on homeless families and their children, and reports on a Canadian example of community-based research on family homelessness. This research shows that poverty, family violence, a history of abuse and problems with mental health and substance misuse are the dominant factors that contribute to family homelessness. The research also shows that the children of homeless fam...

  16. The relationship between raising a child with a disability and the mental health of mothers compared to raising a child without disability in japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Yui; Tamiya, Nanako; Izumida, Nobuyuki; Kawamura, Akira; Takahashi, Hideto; Noguchi, Haruko

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies conducted in Japan targeted only mothers who cared for children with disabilities, and lacked reference subjects, such as mothers of children without disabilities. The aim of this study was to examine the association between raising one or two children with a disability and maternal psychological distress compared to mothers of children without a disability, and to assess differences among partnered mothers living with grandparent(s), partnered mothers without grandparent(s), and single mothers. This study utilized data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (CSLC) in 2010. We merged the data of the children (aged six and over), mothers, and fathers. This study obtained 33,739 study subjects as a triad of a child (33,110 children without disabilities and 629 children with disabilities), mother, and father. The Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6) was used to assess the psychological distress of mothers. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the independent association of a child with a disability on maternal psychological distress after controlling for the basic characteristics of the children, mothers, and households. This study reported that raising one or two children with disabilities was significantly related to maternal psychological distress (odds ratio: 1.72 for one child, 2.85 for two children) compared to mothers of children without disability. After stratifying the analyses by family structure, significant associations remained among mothers in two-parent families but not for mothers in three-generation families and single mothers due to a small number of children with disabilities in these families. This study reported the significant association between raising a child with a disability and maternal psychological distress in comparison to mothers of children without disabilities. Attention should be paid to not only single mothers, but also partnered mothers in two-parent families who have a child with a

  17. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  18. Variable myopathic presentation in a single family with novel skeletal RYR1 mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Attali

    Full Text Available We describe an autosomal recessive heterogeneous congenital myopathy in a large consanguineous family. The disease is characterized by variable severity, progressive course in 3 of 4 patients, myopathic face without ophthalmoplegia and proximal muscle weakness. Absence of cores was noted in all patients. Genome wide linkage analysis revealed a single locus on chromosome 19q13 with Zmax = 3.86 at θ = 0.0 and homozygosity of the polymorphic markers at this locus in patients. Direct sequencing of the main candidate gene within the candidate region, RYR1, was performed. A novel homozygous A to G nucleotide substitution (p.Y3016C within exon 60 of the RYR1 gene was found in patients. ARMS PCR was used to screen for the mutation in all available family members and in an additional 150 healthy individuals. This procedure confirmed sequence analysis and did not reveal the A to G mutation (p.Y3016C in 300 chromosomes from healthy individuals. Functional analysis on EBV immortalized cell lines showed no effect of the mutation on RyR1 pharmacological activation or the content of intracellular Ca(2+ stores. Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of the RyR1 protein in the patient's muscle concomitant with a reduction of the DHPRα1.1 protein. This novel mutation resulting in RyR1 protein decrease causes heterogeneous clinical presentation, including slow progression course and absence of centrally localized cores on muscle biopsy. We suggest that RYR1 related myopathy should be considered in a wide variety of clinical and pathological presentation in childhood myopathies.

  19. Depressive symptoms among immigrant and Canadian born mothers of preterm infants at neonatal intensive care discharge: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballantyne Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers of preterm infants are considered at higher risk for depressive symptoms, higher than for mothers of healthy term infants. Predictors of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants are not yet well established. Immigrant mothers of term infants have higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than Canadian born mothers but the relative prevalence for immigrant mothers of preterm infants is unknown. This study had two aims: (i to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in immigrant as compared to Canadian born mothers of preterm infants, and (ii to determine what factors are associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants. Methods This is a multi-site, cross sectional study of mothers whose preterm infants required hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Consecutive eligible mothers (N = 291 were recruited during the week prior to their infant’s NICU discharge. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire booklet of validated psychosocial/cultural measures including the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Parental Stressor Scale:NICU, General Functioning Subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, Social Support Index, and Vancouver Index of Acculturation; and demographic characteristics questions. Infant characteristics included gestational age, birth weight, sex, singleton/multiple birth, and Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II. Results Immigrant mothers (N = 107, when compared to Canadian born mothers (N = 184, reported more depressive symptoms, poorer family functioning, less social support, and less mainstream acculturation. Hierarchical regression for a subsample of 271 mothers indicated that single parent status, high stress, poorer family functioning, and less social support were associated with increased depressive symptoms and accounted for 39% of the variance on the CES-D. Immigrant status did not contribute

  20. Marriage, Money, and African American Mothers' Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…

  1. Determinants of single family residential water use across scales in four western US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Bonnette, Matthew Ryan; Stoker, Philip; Crow-Miller, Britt; Wentz, Elizabeth

    2017-10-15

    A growing body of literature examines urban water sustainability with increasing evidence that locally-based physical and social spatial interactions contribute to water use. These studies however are based on single-city analysis and often fail to consider whether these interactions occur more generally. We examine a multi-city comparison using a common set of spatially-explicit water, socioeconomic, and biophysical data. We investigate the relative importance of variables for explaining the variations of single family residential (SFR) water uses at Census Block Group (CBG) and Census Tract (CT) scales in four representative western US cities - Austin, Phoenix, Portland, and Salt Lake City, - which cover a wide range of climate and development density. We used both ordinary least squares regression and spatial error regression models to identify the influence of spatial dependence on water use patterns. Our results show that older downtown areas show lower water use than newer suburban areas in all four cities. Tax assessed value and building age are the main determinants of SFR water use across the four cities regardless of the scale. Impervious surface area becomes an important variable for summer water use in all cities, and it is important in all seasons for arid environments such as Phoenix. CT level analysis shows better model predictability than CBG analysis. In all cities, seasons, and spatial scales, spatial error regression models better explain the variations of SFR water use. Such a spatially-varying relationship of urban water consumption provides additional evidence for the need to integrate urban land use planning and municipal water planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Medida de energia total do leite materno de mães de trigêmeos, gêmeos e filhos únicos Total energy supplied by the human milk from mothers of triplet, twin and single neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Nadólskis Severine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a energia total do leite materno de mães de trigêmeos, gêmeos e filhos únicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal e controlado feito com mães usuárias do banco de leite do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. Foram analisadas seis amostras de leite materno de mães de trigêmeos, 13 de gêmeos e 17 de filhos únicos, coletadas sob paramentação, conforme normas técnicas da Rede Brasileira de Bancos de Leite Humano. A análise foi realizada por meio do teste de crematócrito e os resultados submetidos à análise de variância de Kuskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: A energia total do leite materno de mães de trigêmeos apresentou mediana de calorias maior (651kcal/L, quando comparada à do leite de mães de filhos únicos (560kcal/L (pOBJECTIVE: To compare the total energy of the human milk of mothers of triplets, twins and single-children. METHODS: A cross-sectional and controlled study with mothers from the Human Milk Bank of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein was performed. Six samples of triplet, 13 of twin and 17 of only-child mother's milk were analyzed. The milk samples were collected according to the Brazilian Human Milk Banks Network techniques and procedures and were analyzed by creamatocrit method. The results were compared by Kruskal-Wallis variance test. RESULTS: The total milk energy from triplets mothers was statistically higher (median - 651kcal/L than single-child mothers (560kcal/L (p<0.05. The milk of twin mothers and of single child mothers, regarding energy content, were similar. The triplet neonates presented lower birth weight (median-1344g when compared to single neonates (1975g (p<0.01. There was no significant difference among the studied groups regarding maternal age and gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The present study, the first addressing this subject in literature, indicates a higher value of total energy in milk from triplets' mothers. However, further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of

  3. Quantifying riverine and storm-surge flood risk by single-family residence: application to Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Kunreuther, Howard; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann

    2013-12-01

    The development of catastrophe models in recent years allows for assessment of the flood hazard much more effectively than when the federally run National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was created in 1968. We propose and then demonstrate a methodological approach to determine pure premiums based on the entire distribution of possible flood events. We apply hazard, exposure, and vulnerability analyses to a sample of 300,000 single-family residences in two counties in Texas (Travis and Galveston) using state-of-the-art flood catastrophe models. Even in zones of similar flood risk classification by FEMA there is substantial variation in exposure between coastal and inland flood risk. For instance, homes in the designated moderate-risk X500/B zones in Galveston are exposed to a flood risk on average 2.5 times greater than residences in X500/B zones in Travis. The results also show very similar average annual loss (corrected for exposure) for a number of residences despite their being in different FEMA flood zones. We also find significant storm-surge exposure outside of the FEMA designated storm-surge risk zones. Taken together these findings highlight the importance of a microanalysis of flood exposure. The process of aggregating risk at a flood zone level-as currently undertaken by FEMA-provides a false sense of uniformity. As our analysis indicates, the technology to delineate the flood risks exists today. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Financial efficiency of rainwater utilization system in single-family house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stec Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing of sustainable water systems should be aimed at reducing the consumption of tap water and the use of alternative water sources, such as rainwater and graywater. Therefore, the aim of the researches conducted was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the economic exploitation of rainwater utilization system in single-family house. As a tool for the analysis, the methodology Life Cycle Cost was used. It provides a comparison of different investment options and the opportunity to choose the one that is characterized by the lowest costs over the entire period of exploitation of the object. The research was conducted for four installation variants: the traditional solution and a solution in which rainwater was used for flushing toilets, washing and watering the garden. Variable parameters for calculations applied in the model were, among other things, different number of occupants and different length of exploitation of the installations. Additionally, the study included co-financing for the initial investment, which could be an incentive for residents to undertake this type of installation. The analysis conducted has shown that the systems with the use of rainwater enable significant reductions in the consumption of drinking water, while the variant with the traditional system was a most cost-effective solution only in few cases.

  5. Research report 24 single-family dwellings from the fifties; Onderzoekrapport 24 eengezinswoningen jaren '50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    This analysis is part of a coordinated series of studies for different residential building complexes of different corporations. This research report concerns the quick scan to decide on investments for the improvement of three single-family houses complexes, which were built in 1959. Based on four financial scenarios a framework is set up by means of which an integrated investment assessment can be made. In the study, scores are given for improving energy efficiency, reducing emission, quality of the construction, technical quality, urban and architectural quality, indoor environment, social aspects, etc. [Dutch] Deze analyse is onderdeel van een gecoordineerde serie onderzoeken voor verschillende complexen van verschillende corporaties. Dit onderzoeksrapport betreft de quickscan voor de investeringsafweging voor de verbetering van een drietal complexen van het type eengezinswoningen eind jaren vijftig. Op basis van vier financieel onderbouwde scenario's wordt het kader geschetst waarmee een integrale investeringsafweging kan worden gemaakt. In het onderzoek worden waarderingen gegeven voor de verbetering van de aspecten energiezuinigheid, uitstoot), bouwtechnisch kwaliteit, markttechnische kwaliteit, stedenbouwkundige en architectonische kwaliteit, binnenklimaat, sociale aspecten, etc.

  6. Financial methods applicable to energy-conserving retrofits for single-family residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The National Savings and Loan League (NSLL) has been researching techniques that may be used to finance energy-conservation measures in the residential sector. Twelve techniques developed and tested by NSLL are: future-advances clause under open-end mortgages; borrowing against existing savings accounts; home-improvement loans; variable-rate mortgages; second trusts or second mortgages; variable-payment mortgages; balloon-payment mortgages; deferred monthly payments for periods of excessive energy use; renegotiation of terms at set intervals; lower interest rates offered on mortgages in return for lender sharing in equity appreciation of the property; graduated payments; and deferred-interest loans. The testing took place in Pittsburgh, PA. The program consisted of 8 specific tasks, including several directed at different financial innovations for the financing of retrofits. Details are presented on findings; legal research; relationship of utilities to installation of retrofits; financing techniques applicable to retrofits; and national energy program for single-family residences. Some extensive attachments include information on: legal aspects, energy loan advertisements, and potential savings to be realized from various residential retrofit energy-conservation measures.

  7. The building process of single-family houses and the embeddedness (or disembeddedness) of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    People building their own houses have, at least theoretically, substantial autonomy when choosing, for example, a heating system and windows. In this article, focus is on the process of building new single-family houses and how energy efficiency and energy-efficient technology are incorporated into the building process. The conclusions emphasize energy as only one factor in housing purchase decisions. It is a big challenge to make low-energy building important to consumers. Consumer preferences for new products are unlikely to fully develop unless individuals have the opportunity to interact with them. It is difficult for consumers to know what to ask for if they lack experience of energy-efficient technologies. In the studied cases, the building codes and established standards became extremely decisive for how energy issues were included in the process. There is a need to change the design of incentives so as to make the least energy-efficient choice the most expensive. The most energy-efficient solution should be standard, and if the buyer wants to depart from that standard and build using less energy-efficient construction, then that should cost more. -- Highlights: •Actors do not see energy efficiency as a critical problem. •Factors other than costs and price were important in the decision making. •Energy issues just one factor in housing purchase decisions. •The consumers don′t know what to ask for. •Building norms should require the most energy efficient solution

  8. Indirect Solar Water Heating in Single-Family, Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Solar water heating systems are not new, but they have not become prevalent in most of the U.S. Most of the country is cold enough that indirect solar thermal systems are required for freeze protection, and average installed cost of these systems is $9,000 to $10,000 for typical systems on single-family homes. These costs can vary significantly in different markets and with different contractors, and federal and regional incentives can reduce these up-front costs by 50% or more. In western Massachusetts, an affordable housing developer built a community of 20 homes with a goal of approaching zero net energy consumption. In addition to excellent thermal envelopes and PV systems, the developer installed a solar domestic water heating system (SDHW) on each home. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a research consortium funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program, commissioned some of the systems, and CARB was able to monitor detailed performance of one system for 28 months.

  9. The financial viability of an SOFC cogeneration system in single-family dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanne, Kari; Saari, Arto [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Construction Economics and Management, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 2100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Ugursal, V. Ismet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Good, Joel [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2006-07-14

    In the near future, fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems will compete with traditional methods of energy supply. A micro-CHP system may be considered viable if its incremental capital cost compared to its competitors equals to cumulated savings during a given period of time. A simplified model is developed in this study to estimate the operation of a residential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A comparative assessment of the SOFC system vis-a-vis heating systems based on gas, oil and electricity is conducted using the simplified model for a single-family house located in Ottawa and Vancouver. The energy consumption of the house is estimated using the HOT2000 building simulation program. A financial analysis is carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the maximum allowable capital cost with respect to system sizing, acceptable payback period, energy price and the electricity buyback strategy of an energy utility. Based on the financial analysis, small (1-2kW{sub e}) SOFC systems seem to be feasible in the considered case. The present study shows also that an SOFC system is especially an alternative to heating systems based on oil and electrical furnaces. (author)

  10. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in a single family: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevaidis Stylianos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is an extremely heterogeneous disease. An under recognized and very often missed subgroup within this broad spectrum concerns patients with left ventricular (LV apical aneurysms in the absence of coronary artery disease. Case presentation We describe a case of HCM with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in 3 patients coming from a single family. This HCM pattern was detected by 2D-echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A cardioverter defibrillator was implanted in one of the patients because of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia detected in 24-h Holter monitoring and an abrupt drop in systolic blood pressure during maximal exercise test. The defibrillator activated 8 months after implantation by suppression of a ventricular tachycardia providing anti-tachycardia pacing. The patient died due to refractory heart failure 2 years after initial evaluation. The rest of the patients are stable after a 2.5-y follow-up period. Conclusion The detection of apical aneurysm by echocardiography in HCM patients may be complicated. Ventricular tachycardia arising from the scarred aneurysm wall may often occur predisposing to sudden death.

  11. Working with Families Experiencing Homelessness: Understanding Trauma and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Kathleen; Bassuk, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of traumatic stress in the lives of families who are homeless is extraordinarily high. Often these families are headed by single mothers who have experienced ongoing trauma in the form of childhood abuse and neglect, domestic violence, and community violence, as well as the trauma associated with poverty and the loss of home,…

  12. Goals, Satisfaction, and Social Support in Single- and Two-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesman, Sharon; Jaccard, James

    Reported are findings from a study of the relation of family configuration to family functioning and to young children's cognitive and social development. Each of the 500 participating families had at least one child in elementary school and was interviewed and observed for an average of 15 hours. Findings reported in this paper concern families…

  13. Patterns of Work and Family Involvement among Single and Dual Earner Couples: Two Competing Analytical Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Sara; Brett, Jeanne

    This paper offers a conceptual framework for the intersection of work and family roles based on the constructs of work involvement and family involvement. The theoretical and empirical literature on the intersection of work and family roles is reviewed from two analytical approaches. From the individual level of analysis, the literature reviewed…

  14. Prefabricated EPS Elements used as Strip Foundation of a Single-family House with a Double Brick Wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2008-01-01

    A new prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was demonstrated on site as the base of a single-family house with a double brick wall. The element was placed on a stable surface underneath the top soil layer, just 0.25 m underneath the finished ground surface...

  15. Male Heads of Family in Single-Parent Households: Men Adaptations to the Needs of Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Cano Rodas

    2016-01-01

    The experience of the head of a single-parent home has led interviewed parents to modify the exercise of their masculinity regarding communication, relationships, the manner to express affection and the everyday performance with their children, accepting the new family role by associating it with the responsibility of raising and caring for the children

  16. Energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark utilising long-term financing based on equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    in long-term property mortgage loans and utilising it for extensive energy renovation improves both the economy and the extent of included measures. Approximately 30% of energy consumption in Denmark is used for space heating. The existing 1 million single-family houses account for approximately half...

  17. The impact of child and family stressors on the self-rated health of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder: Associations with depressed mood over a 12-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Paul R

    2017-06-01

    Employing a cohort sequential design and multilevel modeling, the effects of child and family stressors and maternal depressed mood on the self-rated health of 110 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder were assessed over a 12-year period when children in the study were 7-19 years old. Findings indicate a significant decline in self-rated health over time. In addition, child and family stressors, as well as maternal depressed mood, exerted significant between-persons effects on self-rated health such that mothers who reported more stressors and depressed mood across the study period were less likely to rate themselves in better health across that period. In addition, a significant within-person relationship between maternal depressed mood and self-rated health was found, indicating that at times when mothers reported higher levels of depressed mood than usual (their personal average across the study), they were significantly less likely to report better self-rated health. Finally, maternal depressed mood partially mediated the between-persons effects of child and family stressors on self-rated health such that increased stressors led to increased maternal depressed mood which, in turn, led to poorer maternal self-rated health. Findings suggest that chronic stressors erode maternal health over time and that depression may be an important mechanism linking stressors to decreased maternal health.

  18. Embryo genome profiling by single-cell sequencing for preimplantation genetic diagnosis in a β-thalassemia family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yanwen; Chen, Shengpei; Yin, Xuyang

    2015-01-01

    leukocyte antigen matching tests. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study in a β-thalassemia family demonstrates a method for embryo genome recovery through single-cell sequencing, which permits detection of genetic variations in preimplantation genetic diagnosis. It shows the potential of single....... RESULTS: The final accuracy for homozygous and heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms reached 99.62% and 98.39%, respectively. The aneuploidies of embryos were detected as well. Based on the comprehensive embryonic genome, we effectively performed whole-genome mendelian disorder diagnosis and human...

  19. In poor families, mothers' milk is richer for daughters than sons: a test of Trivers-Willard hypothesis in agropastoral settlements in Northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masako; Roth, Eric; Lo, Yun-Jia; Hurst, Carolyn; Vollner, Jennifer; Kendell, Ashley

    2012-09-01

    The Trivers-Willard hypothesis predicts the unequal parental investment between daughters and sons, depending on maternal condition and offspring reproductive potential. Specifically, in polygynous populations where males have higher reproductive variance than females, it predicts that mothers in good condition will invest more in sons, whereas mothers in poor condition will invest more in daughters. Previous studies testing this hypothesis focused on behavioral investment, whereas few examined biological investment. This study investigates the Trivers-Willard hypothesis on both behavioral and biological parental investment by examining breastfeeding frequencies and breast milk fat concentrations. Data from exclusively breastfeeding mothers in Northern Kenya were used to test hypotheses: Economically sufficient mothers will breastfeed sons more frequently than daughters, whereas poor mothers will breastfeed daughters more frequently than sons, and economically sufficient mothers will produce breast milk with higher fat concentration for sons than daughters, whereas poor mothers will produce breast milk with higher fat concentration for daughters than sons. Linear regression models were applied, using breastfeeding frequency or log-transformed milk fat as the dependent variable, and offspring's sex (son = 1/daughter = 0), socioeconomic status (higher = 1/lower = 0), and the sex-wealth interaction as the predictors, controlling for covariates. Our results only supported the milk fat hypothesis: infant's sex and socioeconomic status interacted (P = 0.014, n = 72) in their relation with milk fat concentration. The model estimated that economically sufficient mothers produced richer milk for sons than daughters (2.8 vs. 1.74 gm/dl) [corrected] while poor mothers produced richer milk for daughters than sons (2.6 vs. 2.3 gm/dl). Further research on milk constituents in relation to offspring's sex is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Denmark: Harmonizing Family and Work and Protecting the Vulnerable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda

    1995-01-01

    Family, situation, housewives, women, mothers, pension rights, spouses, children, regulations, elderly, research......Family, situation, housewives, women, mothers, pension rights, spouses, children, regulations, elderly, research...