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Sample records for single mode linbo3

  1. Phonon anomalies in optical spectra of LiNbO3 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREJA VALCIC

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available LiNbO3 single crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique in an air atmosphere. The critical crystal diameter Dc = 1.5 cm and the critical rate of rotation wc = 35 rpm were calculated by equations from the hydrodynamics of the melt. The domain inversion was carried out at 1430 K using a 3.75 V/cm electric field for 10 min. The obtained crystals were cut, polished and etched to determine the presence of dislocations and single domain structures. The optical properties were studied by infrared and Raman spectroscopy as a function of temperature. With decreasing temperature, an atypical behaviour of the phonon modes could be seen in the ferroelectrics LiNbO3. The obtained results are discussed and compared with published data.

  2. Properties study of LiNbO3 lateral field excited device working on thickness extension mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Tian, Zhang; Ting-Feng, Ma; Chao, Zhang; Wen-Yan, Wang; Yan, Liu; Guan-Ping, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of thickness extension mode excited by lateral electric field on LiNbO 3 by using the extended Christoffel–Bechmann method. It finds that the lateral field excitation coupling factor for a-mode (quasi-extensional mode) reaches its maximum value of 28% on X-cut LiNbO 3 . The characteristics of a lateral field excitation device made of X-cut LiNbO 3 have been investigated and the lateral field excitation device is used for the design of a high frequency ultrasonic transducer. The time and frequency domain pulse/echo response of the LiNbO 3 lateral field excitation ultrasonic transducer is analysed with the modified Krimholtz–Leedom–Matthae model and tested using traditional pulse/echo method. A LiNbO 3 lateral field excitation ultrasonic transducer with the centre frequency of 33.44 MHz and the −6 dB bandwidth of 33.8% is acquired, which is in good agreement with the results of the Krimholtz–Leedom–Matthae model. Further analysis suggests that the LiNbO 3 lateral field excitation device has great potential in the design of broadband high frequency ultrasonic transducers. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. The eight modes observation in LiNbO3 induced by 3.0 MeV He+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Keming; Shi Borong; Zhou Zhuang; Wang Wei; Ding Peijun; Wang Zhonglie.

    1994-01-01

    The y-cut LiNbO 3 was implanted by 3.0 MeV He + to a dose of 2 x10 16 ions/cm 2 at liquid nitrogen temperature. The eight black and bright modes from He implanted LiNbO 3 waveguide were observed before and after rapid annealing. The refractive index profile is obtained by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation. The comparison of refractive index profile with damage profile is given. The result shows that the peak position of the refractive index profile is found to be in good agreement with the peak position of damage profile induced by 3.0 MeV He + implanted in LiNbO 3 based on transport of ions in matter (TRIM'92).(author)

  4. THz Pyro-Optical Detector Based on LiNbO3 Whispering Gallery Mode Microdisc Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Alessandro; Cerminara, Matteo; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Soria, Silvia; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Pelli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the capabilities of a LiNbO3 whispering gallery mode microdisc resonator as a potential bolometer detector in the THz range. The resonator is theoretically characterized in the stationary regime by its thermo-optic and thermal coefficients. Considering a Q-factor of 107, a minimum detectable power of 20 μW was evaluated, three orders of magnitude above its noise equivalent power. This value opens up the feasibility of exploiting LiNbO3 disc resonators as sensitive room-temperature detectors in the THz range. PMID:28134857

  5. Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoo Seung; Lee, Sang-Shin; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Steier, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Free standing single crystal LiNbO 3 micro-platelets (mm long and 1 μm thick) have been obtained from a z-cut LiNbO 3 wafer by ion implantation and thermal treatment. X-ray diffraction measurement has proved that they have a single crystal structure. Their surface roughness and film quality have been investigated by atomic force microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope. These micro-platelets are transferable and bondable to other materials which require material properties of LiNbO 3 . They have been transferred, positioned and bonded to SiO 2 /LiNbO 3 , SiO 2 /Si, and Si-on-insulator (SOI: Si/SiO 2 /Si) by direct bonding method with optimum annealing conditions. For SiO 2 /Si and SOI substrates, there were large thermal mismatch between LiNbO 3 and Si. They were, however, bonded at high temperature since these ultra thin micro-platelets were flexible and stretchable. Finally, to realize multifunctional SOI applications, a hybrid structure of LiNbO 3 film and Si waveguide has been demonstrated.

  6. Combined ion beam and hyperfine interaction studies of LiNbO3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.G.; Kling, A.; Soares, J.C.; Rebouta, L.

    1999-01-01

    A review of recent studies of LiNbO 3 crystals doped with Hf and Mg,Hf combining high precision RBS/channelling, PIXE/channelling and hyperfine interaction techniques is presented. The lattice location of Hf was found to depend strongly on the dopant concentration, crystal stoichiometry and Mg co-doping level. At low concentrations Hf occupies Li sites in congruent crystals, while it occupies both Li and Nb sites for higher doping levels or in near-stoichiometric crystals. Co-doping with Mg also forces a split location of Hf in Li and Nb sites and when the MgO amount exceeds 4.5 mol% Hf occupies only Nb sites. Neutron irradiation of these crystals displaces Hf from its initial lattice site and leads to a strong decrease of the Nb site fraction. The results are discussed in the framework of the Li and Nb vacancy models currently proposed in the literature for the defect structure of LiNbO 3 . (author)

  7. Study of thermochemically reduced and electron-irradiated LiNbO3 single crystals by positron annihilation and optical absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja, R.; Gonzalez, R.; Pedrosa, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation of LiNbO 3 single crystals using Van de Graaff electrons with an energy of 1.5 MeV introduces an optical absorption band similar to that observed in thermochemically reduced samples. As-grown, reduced, or irradiated crystals show single-component positron lifetime spectra with an average decay time of 234 ps. (author)

  8. The effect of Nd and Mg doping on the micro-Raman spectra of LiNbO3 single-crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quispe-Siccha, R; Villagran-Muniz, M; MejIa-Uriarte, E V; Jaque, D; GarcIa Sole, J; Jaque, F; Sato-Berru, R Y; Camarillo, E; Hernandez A, J; Murrieta S, H

    2009-01-01

    The LiNbO 3 congruent crystals doped with small Nd concentrations, 1 (TO 1 ) and A 1 (TO 2 ) modes, the half-width composition and the area ratio of the A 1 (TO 4 ) and E(TO 8 ) bands, we reached several conclusions about the incorporation mechanism of the Nd and Mg ions into the LiNbO 3 lattice. Likewise the Raman shift and half-width of the E(TO 1 ) and E(TO 7 ) modes were investigated in the Z direction. Results indicate that Mg and Nd ions are located in the Li site for low doping concentrations and for larger concentrations there is a replacement in both Li and Nb ion sites.

  9. Ultra-wideband ladder filters using zero-th shear mode plate wave in ultrathin LiNbO3 plate with apodized interdigital transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Michio; Tanaka, Shuji

    2016-07-01

    There are two kinds of plate waves propagating in a thin plate, Lamb and shear horizontal (SH) waves. The former has a velocity higher than 15,000 m/s when the plate is very thin. On the contrary, 0th SH (SH0) mode plate wave in an ultrathin LiNbO3 plate has an electro-mechanical coupling factor larger than 50%. Authors fabricated an ultra-wideband T-type ladder filter with a relative bandwidth (BW) of 41% using the SH0 mode plate wave. Although the BW of the filter fully covers the digital TV band in Japan, it does not have sufficient margin at the lower and higher end of BW. Besides, periodic small ripples due to transverse mode in pass-band of the filter were observed. In this study π-type ladder filters were fabricated by changing the pitch ratio of interdigital transducer (IDT) of parallel and series arm resonators (PR(IDT)) to control the BW, and by apodizing IDTs to improve the periodic small ripples due to transverse mode. Ultra-wideband filters without periodic small transverse mode with ultrawide bandwidth from 41 to 49% were fabricated. The BWs fully cover ultrawide digital television bands in Japan and U.S.A. These filters with an ultrawide BW and a steep characteristic show the possibility to be applied to a reported cognitive radio system and other communication systems requiring an ultrawide BW.

  10. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO 3 films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm -1 was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO 3 film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO 3 films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO 3 single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO 3 film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  11. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Swati; Tomar, Monika; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-05-01

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO3 films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO3 films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm-1 was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO3 film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO3 films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO3 single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO3 film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  12. Growth of high phase-match temperature LiNbO3 single crystals. Annual report for period ending March 15, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kway, W.L.; Feigelson, R.S.

    1978-09-01

    LiNbO 3 crystal with T/sub pm/ greater than or equal to 180 0 C together with excellent phase matching characteristics and a high degree of optical homogeneity can be grown by the Czochralski technique with the following set of growth parameters: a melt composition of .54 Li 2 O/.46 Nb 2 O 5 doped with 1.0 mole % MgO; a growth rate of 2 mm/hr or less; positive axial and radial temperature gradients; and a crystal rotation rate of 50 rpm or higher to provide for a planar solid-liquid growth interface

  13. One-step in-diffusion as a result of multipulse laser irradiation of LiNbO3 single-crystalline substrates covered with thin Ti deposits on the effect of the radiation wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Schirone, L.; Maiello, G.

    1994-05-01

    We studied Ti in-diffusion as an effect of multiple laser irradiation, in either visible of ultraviolet (u.v.) spectral ranges, of LiNbO 3 single-crystalline structures with Ti coatings of two different thickness. It is shown that while u.v. (excimer, λ approx. 308 nm) laser irradiation causes a complete expulsion of the Ti deposit, the visible (ruby, λ approx. 694.3 nm) laser irradiation at intermediate incident laser fluence (up to approx. 0.7J cm -2 ) promotes efficient Ti in-diffusion from the thin (400 A width) Ti deposit down to a micrometre range implantation depth. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs

  14. Ferromagnetic resonance of Ni wires fabricated on ferroelectric LiNbO3 substrate for studying magnetic anisotropy induced by the heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akinobu; Nakao, Akiko; Ohkochi, Takuo; Yasui, Akira; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Utsumi, Yuichi; Saiki, Tsunemasa; Yamada, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    The electrical ferromagnetic resonance of micro-scale Ni wires with magnetic anisotropy induced by the heterojunction between the Ni layer and ferroelectric single crystalline LiNbO3 substrate was demonstrated by using rectifying effect. The two resonance modes were observed in the Ni wire aligned parallel to the applied magnetic field in plane. The lower resonance frequency mode is considered to correspond to the normal resonance mode with domain resonance, while the higher resonance mode is attributed to the mode which is contributed by the heterojunction between the Ni layer and LiNbO3 substrate. Our results manifest that the rectifying electrical detections are very useful for understating and evaluating the magnetic properties induced by the heterojunction.

  15. Spectroscopic investigations of nanostructured LiNbO3 doped with Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hreniak, D.; Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M.; Strek, W.

    2006-01-01

    Structural and optical properties of the sol-gel derived nanocrystalline lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) powders doped with Eu 3+ ions have been studied. In particular, the influence of the sizes of nanoparticles controlled by temperature on the structural and luminescence properties has been investigated. Emission bands corresponding to 5 D emission became more resolved with increasing nanocrystal size and changed to a typical Eu 3+ :LiNbO 3 single crystal spectrum for nanocrystals having an average size of more than 40 nm. Nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured LiNbO 3 have been confirmed by simple observation of second harmonic generation effect (SHG). The possibility of using nanostructured LiNbO 3 doped with rare-earth ions as self-doubling elements in integrated optoelectronic devices has been discussed

  16. Optical properties of the c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sharma, Anjali; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    C-axis oriented Lithium Niobate (LiNbO 3 ) thin films have been deposited onto epitaxially matched (001) sapphire substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. Structural and optical properties of the thin films have been studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–Visible spectroscopy respectively. Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the optical phonon modes and defects in the c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 thin films. XRD analysis indicates the presence of stress in the as-grown LiNbO 3 thin films and is attributed to the small lattice mismatch between LiNbO 3 and sapphire. Refractive index (n = 2.13 at 640 nm) of the (006) LiNbO 3 thin films was found to be slightly lower from the corresponding bulk value (n = 2.28). Various factors responsible for the deviation in the refractive index of (006) LiNbO 3 thin films from the corresponding bulk value are discussed and the deviation is mainly attributed to the lattice contraction due to the presence of stress in deposited film.

  17. Diluted melt proton exchange slab waveguides in LiNbO3: A new fabrication and characterization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veng, Torben; Skettrup, Torben

    1997-01-01

    A method of dilute-melt proton exchange employing a mixture of glycerol and KHSO4 with lithium benzoate added is used to fabricate planar waveguides in c-cut LiNbO3. With this exchange melt system the waveguide refractive index profiles can be fabricated with a high degree of reproducibility...... the waveguide refractive index profile from the measured mode indices is introduced. The main advantage of this characterization method compared with other methods is that it also applies to single-mode waveguides. Using the new characterization method we investigate in detail the relation between waveguide...

  18. Temperature fluctuations in a LiNbO 3 melt during crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tetsuro

    2004-10-01

    Variations in temperature induced by forced convection on the surface of a LiNbO3 melt during crystal growth have been studied. Temperature measurements on the melt surface of single crystals growing (∅ 50 mm) at rotation rates of 15-40 rpm on an RF-heated Czochralski puller has revealed that the melt surface continuously alternates between a steady and unsteady state of flow. This was attributed to the intermittently turbulent flow mode at intermediate rotation rates. The fluctuation period is thought to depend on the thickness of its boundary layer. The boundary layer varies in thickness due to the melt flow, which stops as the interface moves toward the crystal and resumes once the interface reverts to its former position. By contrast, at above 60 rpm, the melt surface temperature drops without fluctuation, indicating that turbulent flow is dominant at faster rotation rates.

  19. Domain structures of LiNbO3 crystals grown by a floating zone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Shoji; Ishii, Eiichi; Tsuzuki, Akihiro; Sekiya, Tadashi; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Takahashi, Akio.

    1986-01-01

    LiNbO 3 single crystals were grown from the congruently melting composition by a floating zone technique. It was confirmed by etching that the single domain crystals were produced without applying any external electric field. When annealed above the Curie temperature, antiparallel domain appeared in the form of annual rings. (author)

  20. Moessbauer study of proton-exchanged LiNbO3:Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, H.; Andler, G.; Dezsi, I.

    1990-01-01

    Topotactic proton exchange (Li against H) can be achieved by treating LiBnO 3 with appropriate acids. In order to investigate the effect of proton exchange on Fe-impurities we studied LiNbO 3 :Fe powder material treated in sulphuric acid and LiNbO 3 :Fe single crystals treated in benzoic acid by Moessbauer spectroscopy. During the topotactic ion exchange only the Li-ions are exchanged for protons, whereas the Fe-impurities are retained in the material. (orig.)

  1. Lead-free LiNbO3 nanowire-based nanocomposite for piezoelectric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In a flexible nanocomposite-based nanogenerator, in which piezoelectric nanostructures are mixed with polymers, important parameters to increase the output power include using long nanowires with high piezoelectricity and decreasing the dielectric constant of the nanocomposite. Here, we report on piezoelectric power generation from a lead-free LiNbO3 nanowire-based nanocomposite. Through ion exchange of ultra-long Na2Nb2O6-H2O nanowires, we synthesized long (approximately 50 μm in length) single-crystalline LiNbO3 nanowires having a high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 approximately 25 pmV-1). By blending LiNbO3 nanowires with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer (volume ratio 1:100), we fabricated a flexible nanocomposite nanogenerator having a low dielectric constant (approximately 2.7). The nanogenerator generated stable electric power, even under excessive strain conditions (approximately 105 cycles). The different piezoelectric coefficients of d33 and d31 for LiNbO3 may have resulted in generated voltage and current for the e33 geometry that were 20 and 100 times larger than those for the e31 geometry, respectively. This study suggests the importance of the blending ratio and strain geometry for higher output-power generation in a piezoelectric nanocomposite-based nanogenerator. PACS 77.65.-j; 77.84.-s; 73.21.Hb PMID:24386884

  2. High-frequency Lamb wave device composed of MEMS structure using LiNbO3 thin film and air gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Michio; Ogami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kansho; Tochishita, Hikari; Negoro, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-01

    High-frequency devices operating at 3 GHz or higher are required, for instance, for future 4th generation mobile phone systems in Japan. Using a substrate with a high acoustic velocity is one method to realize a high-frequency acoustic or elastic device. A Lamb wave has a high velocity when the substrate thickness is thin. To realize a high-frequency device operating at 3 GHz or higher using a Lamb wave, a very thin (less than 0.5 μm thick) single-crystal plate must be used. It is difficult to fabricate such a very thin single crystal plate. The authors have attempted to use a c-axis orientated epitaxial LiNbO(3) thin film deposited by a chemical vapor deposition system (CVD) instead of using a thin LiNbO(3) single crystal plate. Lamb wave resonators composed of a interdigital transducer (IDT)/the LiNbO(3) film/air gap/base substrate structure like micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) transducers were fabricated. These resonators have shown a high frequency of 4.5 and 6.3 GHz, which correspond to very high acoustic velocities of 14,000 and 12,500 m/s, respectively, have excellent characteristics such as a ratio of resonant and antiresonant impedance of 52 and 38 dB and a wide band of 7.2% and 3.7%, respectively, and do not have spurious responses caused by the 0th modes of shear horizontal (SH(0)) and symmetric (S(0)) modes.

  3. Optical Intensity Modulation in an LiNbO3 Slab-Coupled Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Lu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical intensity modulation has been demonstrated through switching the optical beam between the main core waveguide and a closely attached leaky slab waveguide by applying a low-voltage electrical field. Theory for simulating such an LiNbO3 slab-coupled waveguide structure was suggested, and the result indicates the possibility of making the spatial guiding mode large, circular and symmetric, which further allows the potential to significantly reduce the coupling losses with adjacent lasers and optical networks. Optical intensity modulation using electro-optic effect was experimentally demonstrated in a 5 cm long waveguide fabricated by using a procedure of soft proton exchange and then an overgrowth of thin LN film on top of a c-cut LiNbO3 wafer.

  4. Raman and NMR study in MgO-doped LiNbO3 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, L.J.; Chang, Y.H.; Chang, C.S.; Yang, S.J.; Hu, M.L.; Tse, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the MgO-doped LiNbO 3 crystal grown and studied by NMR and Raman techniques. The solubility of MgO in the LiNbO 3 crystal is as much as 30 mole %. It is shown in NMR spectra that the number of Nb 5+ cations at A-site (Li-site) decrease as Mg concentration increased when the Mg content is lower than 5 mole %. The vibration of (NbO 6 ) octahedron and translations involving Li + and Mg 2+ cations motion can be identified by replacing Nb 5+ and Li + cations with Ta 5+ and Mg 2+ cations through Raman spectra. The 115 cm -1 and 151 cm -1 peaks are due to the translational modes of Mg 2+ and Li + cations. The doping mechanisms of MgO are proposed

  5. Deposition of stress free c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film grown on (002) ZnO coated Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2012-01-01

    C-axis oriented lithium niobate thin films have been deposited on Si substrate using RF sputtering technique. A thin buffer layer of c-axis (002) oriented ZnO on Si substrate has been used as a nucleating layer to promote the growth of (006) oriented LiNbO 3 film. The processing gas composition and pressure are found to be very critical in obtaining stress free LiNbO 3 film having desired (006) orientation. The LiNbO 3 films deposited under unique combination of sputtering pressure (10 mTorr) and argon percentage (80%) in reactive gas (Ar + O 2 ) composition become almost stress free having lattice parameter (1.3867 A) close to the bulk value. The observed variation in the structural properties and optical phonon modes observed by Raman spectroscopic studies of the oriented LiNbO 3 thin film with stress has been correlated with growth kinetics.

  6. A system for the quality inspection of LiNbO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilanski, I.

    1977-12-01

    A prototype system for the characterization of LiNbO 3 crystals by parametric fluorescence was designed and constructed. A specially built metal vapor laser served as a pump and as a calibrator for the system. It was operated both in the He-Cd + mode and in the He-Se + mode. Fluorescence in the 500 nm range, intra-cavity modulation and a correlation detector gave a sensitivity limit of 10 -15 W, and therby enabled the tunning curve and the d 15 of the crystal to be measured. (author)

  7. Bottom-up synthesis of up-converting submicron-sized Er3+-doped LiNbO3 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardiel, T.; Caballero, A.C.; Marín-Dobrincic, M.; Cantelar, E.; Cussó, F.

    2012-01-01

    A new and simple wet chemical synthesis method is proposed to prepare submicron-sized Erbium-doped LiNbO 3 powders. The synthesis procedure comprises the co-precipitation of lithium and erbium ions from common precursors and their subsequent reaction with niobium ethoxide. A systematic characterization by means of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES), Atomic Absorption (AAS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), as well as by the examination of the luminescence properties, evidence that with this method a congruent Er 3+ -doped LiNbO 3 single phase material can be obtained without using complex and time-consuming processing steps. The synthesized powders exhibit efficient IR to VIS up-conversion emissions under 974 nm pumping. -- Highlights: ► A novel chemical route to the preparation of LiNbO 3 powders has been developed. ► This process avoids complex and time-consuming processing steps. ► A congruent Er 3+ -doped LiNbO 3 single phase material can be obtained by this way. ► The luminescence properties are the expected for this composition.

  8. LiNbO3 surfaces from a microscopic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Simone; Gero Schmidt, Wolf

    2017-10-01

    A large number of oxides has been investigated in the last twenty years as possible new materials for various applications ranging from opto-electronics to heterogeneous catalysis. In this context, ferroelectric oxides are particularly promising. The electric polarization plays a crucial role at many oxide surfaces, and it largely determines their physical and chemical properties. Ferroelectrics offer in addition the possibility to control/switch the electric polarization and hence the surface chemistry, allowing for the realization of domain-engineered nanoscale devices such as molecular detectors or highly efficient catalysts. Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is a ferroelectric with a high spontaneous polarization, whose surfaces have a huge and largely unexplored potential. Owing to recent advances in experimental techniques and sample preparation, peculiar and exclusive properties of LiNbO3 surfaces could be demonstrated. For example, water films freeze at different temperatures on differently polarized surfaces, and the chemical etching properties of surfaces with opposite polarization are strongly different. More important, the ferroelectric domain orientation affects temperature dependent surface stabilization mechanisms and molecular adsorption phenomena. Various ab initio theoretical investigations have been performed in order to understand the outcome of these experiments and the origin of the exotic behavior of the lithium niobate surfaces. Thanks to these studies, many aspects of their surface physics and chemistry could be clarified. Yet other puzzling features are still not understood. This review gives a résumé on the present knowledge of lithium niobate surfaces, with a particular view on their microscopic properties, explored in recent years by means of ab initio calculations. Relevant aspects and properties of the surfaces that need further investigation are briefly discussed. The review is concluded with an outlook of challenges and potential payoff for LiNbO3 based applications.

  9. Neutron and X-ray study of stoichiometric and doped LiNbO3:Zn0.08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulyanov, S.; Maximov, B.; Volk, T.; Boysen, H.; Schneider, J.; Rubinina, N.; Hansen, Th.

    2002-01-01

    LiNbO 3 (LN) crystals possess useful optical properties, which are strongly dependent on both the crystal stoichiometry and the content of dopants such as Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ , In 3+ , and Sc 3+ . Such elements drastically reduce photorefraction at a sufficiently high threshold concentration, which for Zn is in the range of 7-8 at. % and was supposed to be connected with the change of dopant-atom localisation in the lattice. We report the results of a single-crystal neutron study of stoichiometric, congruent, and doped (with 8.2 at. % Zn) LiNbO 3 at T=78 K and 298 K and also a multi-pattern powder neutron and X-ray Rietveld refinement of the doped material. Zn ions occupy both Li and Nb sites and there is no residual Nb on Li sites. LN single crystals are very perfect, and extinction problems are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Refractive index modulation in LiNbO3: MgO slab through Lamb wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Suraj; Sharma, Gaurav; Yadav, Gulab Chand; Singh, Vivek

    2018-05-01

    Present theoretical analysis deals with inducing refractive index contrast in Y-Z LiNbO3:MgO plate via GHz Lamb wave perturbation for photonic applications. Dispersion curves for Lamb wave in plate are plotted by employing displacement potential technique. Selecting wave parameters from dispersion curve, fundamental symmetric Lamb mode (S0) is excited in slab for 6GHz frequency. Produced displacement field by propagating S0 mode and thus developed strain is estimated to calculate refractive index modulation by applying photo-elastic relations. Modulated refractive index is of sinusoidal nature with period of modulation dependence on Lamb's wavelength. This plate having periodically modulated refractive index can be used as photonic crystal for different applications with acoustically tunable photonic band gap.

  11. Electric-field gradients at the $^{111}In$ and $^{111m}Cd$ sites in undoped and Mg-doped $LiNbO_{3}$

    CERN Document Server

    Hauer, B; Marques, J G; Barradas, N P; Correia, J G; Agulló-López, F; Diéguez, E

    1995-01-01

    The quadrupole interaction of 111Cd in undoped (congruent) and Mg-doped LiNbO3 single crystals has been studied using the perturbed angular correlation technique after implantation of 111In and 111mCd. A stepwise-annealing procedure shows the lattice to be fully reconstructed at 773 K. Our results show that both In and Cd are in the Li position. Mg doping at 6 mol % does not have any effect on the lattice location of these impurities in LiNbO3.

  12. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  13. Shear piezoelectric coefficients of PZT, LiNbO3 and PMN-PT at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, Syed; Islam, Md; Haziot, Ariel; Beamish, John

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric transducers are used to detect stress and to generate nanometer scale displacements but their piezoelectric coefficients decrease with temperature, limiting their performance in cryogenic applications. We have developed a capacitive technique and directly measured the temperature dependence of the shear coefficient d 15 for ceramic lead zirconium titanate (PZT), 41° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) and single crystal lead magnesium niobium-lead titanate (PMN-PT). In PZT, d 15 decreases nearly linearly with temperature, dropping by factor of about 4 by 1.3 K. LiNbO3 has the smallest room temperature d15, but its value decreased by only 6% at the lowest temperatures. PMN-PT had the largest value of d15 at room temperature (2.9 × 10 −9 m/V, about 45 times larger than for LiNbO 3 ) but it decreased rapidly below 75 K; at 1.3 K, d 15 was only about 8% of its room temperature value

  14. Heavy ion beam micromachining on LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesprias, F.; Venturino, M.; Debray, M.E.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Minsky, D.; Fischer, M.; Lamagna, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work 3D micromachining of x-cut lithium niobate crystals was performed using the high energy heavy ion microbeam (HIM) at the Tandar Laboratory, Buenos Aires. The samples were machined using 35 Cl beams at 70 MeV bombarding energy combined with wet etching with hydrofluoric acid solutions at room temperature. As the ion beam penetrates the sample, it induces lattice damage increasing dramatically the local etching rate of the material. This technique was applied to the fabrication of 3D waveguides with long control electrodes. The resulting structures indicate that well defined contours with nearly vertical sidewalls can be made. The results also show that with fluences of only 5 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 , this technique is suitable for the fabrication of different shapes of LiNbO 3 control-waveguides that can be used in different optical devices and matched with the existing optical fibers.

  15. Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, S.S.; Curley, M.J.; Williams, E.K.; Ila, D.; Svetchnikov, V.L.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Zykov, G.A.; Banks, C.; Wang, J.-C.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze microstructure, linear and nonlinear optical properties of planar waveguides produced by implantation of MeV Ag ions into LiNbO 3 . Linear optical properties are described by the parameters of waveguide propagation modes and optical absorption spectra. Nonlinear properties are described by the nonlinear refractive index. Operation of the implanted crystal as an optical waveguide is due to modification of the linear refractive index of the implanted region. The samples as implanted do not show any light-guiding. The implanted region has amorphous and porous microstructure with the refractive index lower than the substrate. Heat treatment of the implanted samples produces planar light-guiding layer near the implanted surface. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals re-crystallization of the host between the surface and the nuclear stopping region in the form of randomly oriented crystalline grains. They make up a light-guiding layer isolated from the bulk crystal by the nuclear stopping layer with low refractive index. Optical absorption of the sample as implanted has a peak at 430 nm. This peak is due to the surface plasmon resonance in nano-clusters of metallic silver. Heat treatment of the samples shifts the absorption peak to 545 nm. This is more likely due to the increase of the refractive index back to the value for the crystalline LiNbO 3 . The nonlinear refractive index of the samples at 532 nm (of the order of 10 -10 cm 2 W -1 ) was measured with the Z-scan technique using a picosecond laser source. Possible applications of the waveguides include ultra-fast photonic switches and modulators

  16. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation with Ag-loaded LiNbO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    rhodamine B decomposition under solar illumination was also reported (Stock ... photocatalytic hydrogen production. ... lytic hydrogen production from a methanol aqueous solu- .... estimated bandgap energy of Nb2O5 and LiNbO3 samples.

  17. Photorefractive response and optical damage of LiNbO3 optical waveguides produced by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, J.; Carrascosa, M.; García-Cabañes, A.; Caballero-Calero, O.; Crespillo, M.; Olivares, J.

    2009-06-01

    The photorefractive behaviour of a novel type of optical waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion irradiation is investigated. First, the electro-optic coefficient r 33 of these guides that is crucial in the photorefractive effect is measured. Second, two complementary aspects of the photorefractive response are studied: (i) recording and light-induced and dark erasure of holographic gratings; (ii) optical beam degradation in single-beam configuration. The main photorefractive parameters, recording and erasing time constants, maximum refractive-index change and optical damage thresholds are determined.

  18. Low-loss 3D-laser-written mid-infrared LiNbO3 depressed-index cladding waveguides for both TE and TM polarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Martín, Guillermo; Martínez, Javier; Aguiló, Magdalena; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc

    2017-02-20

    We report mid-infrared LiNbO3 depressed-index microstructured cladding waveguides fabricated by three-dimensional laser writing showing low propagation losses (~1.5 dB/cm) at 3.68 µm wavelength for both the transverse electric and magnetic polarized modes, a feature previously unachieved due to the strong anisotropic properties of this type of laser microstructured waveguides and which is of fundamental importance for many photonic applications. Using a heuristic modeling-testing iteration design approach which takes into account cladding induced stress-optic index changes, the fabricated cladding microstructure provides low-loss single mode operation for the mid-IR for both orthogonal polarizations. The dependence of the localized refractive index changes within the cladding microstructure with post-fabrication thermal annealing processes was also investigated, revealing its complex dependence of the laser induced refractive index changes on laser fabrication conditions and thermal post-processing steps. The waveguide modes properties and their dependence on thermal post-processing were numerically modeled and fitted to the experimental values by systematically varying three fundamental parameters of this type of waveguides: depressed refractive index values at sub-micron laser-written tracks, track size changes, and piezo-optic induced refractive index changes.

  19. Crystalline phase, profile characteristics and spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Tm3+-diffusion-codoped LiNbO3 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wen-Bao; Zhang, Zi-Bo; Sun, Hong-Xue; Wong, Wing-Han; Yu, Dao-Yin; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun

    2017-01-01

    Er 3+ /Tm 3+ -codoped LiNbO 3 crystal was prepared by co-diffusion of stacked Er and Tm metal films coated onto surface of off-congruent, Li-deficient LiNbO 3 substrate produced by Li-poor vapor transport equilibration technique. The crystalline phase on the diffused surface was analyzed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The Er 3+ and Tm 3+ profile characteristics were studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The emission spectra were measured under the 980 or 795 nm wavelength excitation, and the emission and absorption cross section spectra were calculated based upon McCumber theory. The lifetimes of some emissions were measured. The results show that the Er 3+ and Tm 3+ ions presence is in the form of LiNbO 3 phase. Both ions obey to Gaussian profile with a diffusion depth 21.5 μm. In the codoping case, both ions keep their respective spectroscopic features of only doping case and do not affect each other. The codoping enables to combine the wavelength emissions of both ions and the resultant emission band in the telecommunication window around 1.5 μm is as wide as 150 nm, providing the possibility of S+C+L broadband amplification by employing commercial 980 and 795 nm laser diodes as the pump sources. The Er 3+ /Tm 3+ -codoped LN is a promising host material for integrated optics. - Graphical abstract: Er 3+ /Tm 3+ -codoped LiNbO 3 crystal was prepared by co-diffusion of stacked Er and Tm metal films. The crystalline phase, diffusion profile and cross section spectra of Er 3+ and Tm 3+ ions in the diffusion layer have been investigated. The results show that the presence of Er 3+ and Tm 3+ ions is in the LiNbO 3 phase. Both ions follow Gaussian profile with a diffusion depth 21.5 μm. Both ions keep their respective spectroscopic features of only doping case. Excited state absorption is the dominant process for 795-nm-upconvered fluorescence of Tm 3+ . The codoping enables to combine the wavelength emissions of both ions and provide the possibility of S

  20. The development of a wireless Love wave biosensor on 41° YX LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hae-Kwan; Wang, Wen; Lee, Keekeun; Min, Churlki; Yang, Sangsik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel wireless Love-wave-based biosensor using a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) waveguide and protein A receptor layers on a 41° YX LiNbO 3 piezoelectric substrate for immunoglobulin G (IgG) detection. A 440 MHz reflective delay line composed of single-phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs) and three shorted grating reflectors was fabricated as the sensor element. A theoretical modeling was performed to describe the wave propagation of Love wave devices on a 41° YX LiNbO 3 piezoelectric substrate with large piezoelectricity. The fabricated devices were wirelessly characterized by using the network analyzer as the reader unit. The resultant reflection peaks showed large signal/noise ratio, sharp peaks, and few spurious signals. The binding of the IgG to the protein A receptor layer induced large phase shifts of the reflection peaks due to the mass loading effect. Good linearity, reproducibility, and high sensitivity were observed in the IgG concentration range 1–65 nM. Unique advantages such as high sensitivity and a simple wireless measurement method over other currently available biosensors are also presented

  1. High definition surface micromachining of LiNbO 3 by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, M.; Bentini, G. G.; Bianconi, M.; De Nicola, P.

    2010-10-01

    High Energy Ion Implantation (HEII) of both medium and light mass ions has been successfully applied for the surface micromachining of single crystal LiNbO 3 (LN) substrates. It has been demonstrated that the ion implantation process generates high differential etch rates in the LN implanted areas, when suitable implantation parameters, such as ion species, fluence and energy, are chosen. In particular, when traditional LN etching solutions are applied to suitably ion implanted regions, etch rates values up to three orders of magnitude higher than the typical etching rates of the virgin material, are registered. Further, the enhancement in the etching rate has been observed on x, y and z-cut single crystalline material, and, due to the physical nature of the implantation process, it is expected that it can be equivalently applied also to substrates with different crystallographic orientations. This technique, associated with standard photolithographic technologies, allows to generate in a fast and accurate way very high aspect ratio relief micrometric structures on LN single crystal surface. In this work a description of the developed technology is reported together with some examples of produced micromachined structures: in particular very precisely defined self sustaining suspended structures, such as beams and membranes, generated on LN substrates, are presented. The developed technology opens the way to actual three dimensional micromachining of LN single crystals substrates and, due to the peculiar properties characterising this material, (pyroelectric, electro-optic, acousto-optic, etc.), it allows the design and the production of complex integrated elements, characterised by micrometric features and suitable for the generation of advanced Micro Electro Optical Systems (MEOS).

  2. Linear Electrooptic Effect In Sputtered Polycrystalline LiNbO3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, G.; Ruschin, Shlomo; Croitoru, Nathan I.

    1989-02-01

    Light guiding and modulation was demonstrated in sputtered LiNbO3 films deposited on glass substrates. The films exhibit exceptionally low attenuation (< 2dB/cm) and the highest electrooptical coefficient reported so far for this kind of films (1.34 x 10-12 m/V).

  3. Linear electro-optic effect in sputtered polycrystalline LiNbO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, G.; Ruschin, S.; Croitoru, N.

    1989-04-01

    Light guiding and modulation was demonstrated in sputtered LiNbO3 films deposited on glass substrates. We report on films' exceptionally low attenuation (<2 dB/cm) and the highest electro-optical coefficient reported so far for this kind of film (1.34×10-12 m/V).

  4. Growth of Nd doped LiNbO3 crystals using Bridgman method and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    state for several hours so that a stable solid–liquid inter- face could ... growth would hold for about one week. ... Figure 4. The absorption spectrum of the Nd : LiNbO3 crystal. Figure 5. .... This work was supported by K C Wong Magna Fund in.

  5. Purely hopping conduction in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Swati; Tomar, Monika; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-05-01

    Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of highly c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition were studied in a metal-insulator-metal configuration over a wide temperature (200 to 450 K) and frequency (100 Hz to 1 MHz) range. The preferred oriented Al (1%) doped ZnO film with electrical conductivity 1.1×103 Ω-1 cm-1 was deposited for dual purpose: (1) to serve as nucleating center for LiNbO3 crystallites along preferred c-axis growth direction, and (2) to act as a suitable bottom electrode for electrical studies. The room temperature dc conductivity (σdc) of LiNbO3 film was about 5.34×10-10 Ω-1 cm-1 with activation energy ˜0.3 eV, indicating extrinsic conduction. The ac conductivity σac was found to be much higher in comparison to σdc in the low temperature region (300 K), σac shows a weak frequency dependence, whereas dielectric constant exhibits a strong frequency dispersion. The dielectric dispersion data has been discussed in the light of theoretical models based on Debye type mixed conduction and purely hopping conduction. The dominant conduction in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film is attributed to the purely hopping where both σdc and σac arise due to same mechanism.

  6. Ag+ implantation in Al2O3, LiNbO3 and quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, M.; Townsend, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    Silver implantation in insulators produces colloids whose growth is a function of ion dose, ion energy, implant temperature and crystal orientation. Data for three materials are compared. Colloid growth is favoured by higher energy implants at temperatures where the silver is mobile. Preferential diffusion along the Z axis of Al 2 O 3 , LiNbO 3 and quartz results in a higher fraction of the implanted silver ions appearing in the form of colloids for Y cut crystals than for those of Z cut. Annealing characteristics also show a strong dependence on crystal cut. For the LiNbO 3 the colloids in Z cut crystals anneal most rapidly whereas for Al 2 O 3 those in Y cut material are least stable, their loss being accompanied by a reduction in F centres. (author)

  7. Transmission electron microscope studies of crystalline LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja, R.; Gonzalez, R.; Chen, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Transmission electron microscope investigations in both as-grown and hydrogen-reduced LiNbO 3 reveal that niobium oxide precipitates can be produced by in situ irradiations in the electron microscope. The precipitation process is produced by a combined effect of ionizing electrons and the thermal heating of the specimens during irradiation. It is proposed that the composition of the precipitates is primarily Nb 2 O 5

  8. Investigation of Mn Implanted LiNbO3 applying electron paramagnetic resonance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, A.; Ila, D.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.

    1997-10-01

    The effect of ion implantation on the LiNbO 3 crystal is studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). EPR measurements on these crystals were performed as a function of ion species Mn and Fe and fluence at room temperature. Also the effect of the laser illumination on the EPR signal was determined by illuminating the crystal in situ and measuring the decay and growth of the EPR signal. LiNbO 3 :Mn 2+ at a depth of approximately 200 nm was formed by implantation of 2.5 x 10 14 Mncm 2 and 1 x 10 17 Mn/cm 2 at 2 MeV. The implanted samples were compared with bulk doped crystals. It was found that the decay and growth of Mn EPR for the implanted crystal is very small compared with the bulk doped LiNbO 3 :Mn crystal. This was found to be primarily due to the spin concentration on the crystals. On the other, hand the decay time of the high fluence is about 40% slower than the decay of the low fluence implanted crystal

  9. Structural and compositional characterization of X-cut LiNbO3 crystals implanted with high energy oxygen and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentini, G.G.; Bianconi, M.; Cerutti, A.; Chiarini, M.; Pennestri, G.; Sada, C.; Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Mazzoldi, P.; Guzzi, R.

    2005-01-01

    High energy implantation of medium-light elements such as oxygen and carbon was performed in X-cut LiNbO 3 single crystals in order to prepare high quality optical waveguides. The compositional and damage profiles, obtained by exploiting the secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford back-scattering techniques respectively, were correlated to the structural properties measured by the high resolution X-ray diffraction. This study evidences the development of tensile strain induced by the ion implantation that can contribute to the decrease of the ordinary refractive index variation through the photo-elastic effect

  10. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G

    1991-01-01

    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  11. The field fluctuational model of thermally stimulated processes in ferroelectric LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tale, I.; Tale, V.; Rosa, J.

    1983-01-01

    The thermally stimulated processes in the x-irradiated LiNbO 3 crystals were studied by the fractional glow technique. The trap ionization with unusually high values of the mean activation energy and the effective frequency factor as well as decreasing the activation energy of the traps when the temperature increased from 150-180 K were observed. It is suggested that all these effects are due to the ion-fluctuation process (the electric field generated by thermal reorientation of dipoles). (author)

  12. Polarization Control with Piezoelectric and LiNbO3 Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, E.; Miles, E.; Loginov, B.; Vu, N.

    Several Polarization control transducers have appeared on the market, and now automated, endless polarization control systems using these transducers are becoming available. Unfortunately it is not entirely clear what benchmark performance tests a polarization control system must pass, and the polarization disturbances a system must handle are open to some debate. We present quantitative measurements of realistic polarization disturbances and two benchmark tests we have successfully used to evaluate the performance of an automated, endless polarization control system. We use these tests to compare the performance of a system using piezoelectric transducers to that of a system using LiNbO3 transducers.

  13. Birefringence Polarimeter Using Dual LiNbO3 Electrooptic Crystal Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Takeshi; Nurdin Bin, Muhammad; Kowa, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Norihiro; Takizawa, Kuniharu; Kondoh, Eiichi; Jin, Lianhua

    2012-08-01

    A birefringence polarimeter that uses dual LiNbO3 electrooptic crystal modulators operating at a frequency ratio of 4:1 is described. The significance of this polarimeter is that the birefringent parameters of a sample are obtained only from the modulated polarization status. The measurement, therefore, avoids depolarization effects resulting from the sample itself and the rest of the optical system. The high speed and accuracy of this polarimeter are shown by measurements using a quarter-wave plate, a Babinet-Soleil compensator, and a phase modulator.

  14. X-ray and neutron diffuse scattering in LiNbO3 from 38 to 1200 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotov, N.; Mayer, H.M.; Guethoff, F.; Hohlwein, D.

    1995-01-01

    A semi-quantitative description of X-ray and neutron diffuse scattering from congruent lithium niobate, LiNbO 3 , is given. The diffuse scattering is concentrated in three sets of diffuse planes perpendicular to the pseudo-cubic symmetry-related [221], [241] and [ anti 4 anti 21] directions and can be attributed to one-dimensional displacive and chemical disorder along these directions. The variation of the X-ray and neutron diffuse intensities with the scattering vector, as well as the comparison between X-ray and neutron data, indicate that more than one type of atom is involved. Temperature variations are followed from 38 to 1200 K. Different disorder models are discussed. The increase of the integrated intensities of the diffuse lines along the [0 1k 2l] * and [0 anti 1k 4l] * directions (i.e. sections of the diffuse planes) up to 800 K followed by a slight decrease at higher temperatures may be interpreted either by static disorder related to temperature-dependent variation of disorder/defect clusters or by dynamic disorder. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments do not show any anomaly of the transversal acoustic (TA) modes. (orig.)

  15. Temperature stable LiNbO3 surface acoustic wave device with diode sputtered amorphous TeO2 over-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewan, Namrata; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous TeO 2 thin film, sputtered in the O 2 +Ar(25%+75%) gas environment using a metallic tellurium target, has been identified as an attractive negative temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) material that can yield a temperature stable device when combined with a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device based on positive TCD material such as LiNbO 3 . The influence of amorphous TeO 2 over-layer on the SAW propagation characteristics (velocity and temperature coefficient of delay) of the SAW filters (36 and 70 MHz) based on 128 deg. rotated Y-cut X-propagating lithium niobate (128 deg. Y-X LiNbO 3 ) single crystal has been studied. It is found that 0.042 λ thick TeO 2 over-layer on a prefabricated SAW device operating at 36 MHz centre frequency, reduces the TCD of the device from 76 ppm deg. C -1 to almost zero (∼1.4 ppm deg. C -1 ) without deteriorating its efficiency and could be considered as a suitable alternative for temperature stable devices in comparison to conventional SiO 2 over-layer

  16. Formation time of a small electron polaron in LiNbO3: measurements and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yong; Ucer, K.B.; Williams, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Infrared optical absorption attributed to the electron polaron on a non-defective site in LiNbO 3 and KNbO 3 has previously been observed using pulsed electron and laser techniques. With subpicosecond laser excitation and spectroscopy, it is possible to measure a rise time of the infrared absorption, which may be interpreted as the time for a band-state conduction electron to cool by phonon scattering, collapse its wavefunction around a site made attractive by thermal disorder, and relax vibrationally to a small polaron. This is a process which is of fundamental interest, involving dynamics of self-localization from band states and vibrational relaxation of a localized electron in an otherwise non-defective lattice. For example, Gavartin and Shluger have recently performed calculations on the role of thermal fluctuations in self-trapping of holes in MgO. We report initial measurements on the rise time of infrared absorption at 0.95 eV (Mg-perturbed polaron) in LiNbO 3 :Mg to be τ R ∼230 fs at T=20 K and τ R ∼110 fs at T=296 K. We discuss 2 stages that together may account for the delay and its temperature dependence: free-electron cooling and vibrational relaxation of a ''defect'' (small polaron) in a host. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. The effect of Mg doping on the Raman spectra of LiNbO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, K.; Kovacs, L.; Peter, A.; Polgar, K.; Corradi, G.; Bourson, P.

    2007-01-01

    LiNbO 3 :Mg crystals doped with 0-8 mol% Mg with stoichiometric, intermediate and congruent compositions were systematically investigated by Raman spectroscopy in backscattering y(zx)y and y(zz)y geometries. The halfwidths of E(TO 3 ) - E(TO 9 ) and A 1 (TO 1 ) - A 1 (TO 4 ) bands, which have a significant composition dependence for undoped LiNbO 3 crystals, show only weak Mg-concentration dependence below the photorefractive threshold. This is a consequence of the counteracting effect of the decreasing amount of Nb ions at Li-ion sites (Nb Li ) and increasing amount of Mg ions at Li-ion sites (Mg Li ). The halfwidths of these bands, however, increase linearly with growing Mg content for samples above the threshold, irrespective of the Li/Nb ratio. The same effect was observed in the Mg dependence of the position and halfwidth of the two-phonon band at about 689 - 705 cm -1 . The change in the Mg concentration dependence of these parameters at a given Li/Nb ratio determines the same threshold value as that concluded from IR and UV spectroscopic measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Generation of amorphous surface layers in LiNbO3 by ion-beam irradiation: thresholding and boundary propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, J.; Garcia, G.; Agullo-Lopez, F.; Agullo-Rueda, F.; Kling, A.; Soares, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The refractive-index profiles induced by high-energy (5 MeV, 7.5 MeV) silicon irradiation in LiNbO 3 have been systematically determined as a function of ion fluence in the range 10 13 -10 15 cm -2 . At variance with irradiations at lower energies, an optically isotropic ('amorphous') homogeneous surface layer is generated whose thickness increases with fluence. These results have been associated with an electronic excitation mechanism. They are discussed in relation to the well-documented phenomenon of latent (amorphous) track generation under ion irradiation, requiring a threshold value S e,th for the electronic stopping power S e . Our optical data have yielded a value of ∼5 keV/nm for such a threshold, within the range reported by independent single-track measurements. The propagation of the amorphous boundary into the crystal during irradiation indicates that the threshold value decreases on increasing the fluence. Complementary Rutherford backscattering-channeling and micro-Raman (on samples irradiated at 30 MeV) experiments have been performed to monitor the induced structural changes. (orig.)

  19. Preparação de LiNbO3 e LiNbO3:Eu3+ pelo método dos precursores poliméricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Luciana A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The ferroelectric compound LiNbO3 was prepared by the polymeric precursors method in the polycrystalline form containing different concentrations of Eu3+. The compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction, vibrational and electronic spectroscopy. Electronic spectroscopy was shown to be sensitive to small concentrations of contaminating phases allowing a good control of the compound purity. The presence of Eu3+ ions leads to the formation of the LiNb3O8 phase in the range of 500 to 800 degreesC. Above this temperature range LiNbO3 and tetragonal (T' EuNbO4 were obtained.

  20. LiN_bO_3への金属イオン打込み

    OpenAIRE

    大村, 三好; 伊藤, 聡; 山本, 雅之; 斉藤, 幸典; 菅ノ又, 伸治

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate the ion implantation parameters dependence of the coloration of LiNbO_3 we performed ion implantation with some transition metals. Metal ions were extracted from the ion source using an rf discharge combined with dc sputtering. Metal ions with the energy of 20 KeV were implanted into LiNbO_3 samples. Absorption stectra were measured in the visible region. The part implanted with Fe^+ or Cr^+ ions showed light yellowish brown. The color of the part implanted with Cu^+ i...

  1. Determination of composition of LiNbO3 specimens by Raman scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balanevskaya, A.Eh.; Pyatigorskaya, L.I.; Shapiro, Z.I.; Margolin, L.N.; Bovina, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    The source stock composition is a basic parameter for LiNbO 3 monocrystal growth. Chemical analyses do not allow to determine the composition with a sufficient accuracy, and a number of physico-chemical methods can be applied only to monocrystal specimens. For testing the Lisub(x)NbOsub(2.5+x/2) specimen composition a method has been used, based on a linear dependence of 153 and 238 cm- 1 band half-widths of the IR spectrum on the composition in the solid solution range, where x varies within the 1.0-0.9 limits. Experiments were carried out with mono- and polycrystal specimens. The accuracy of 0.01-0.005 is attained for determination of x of the composition. The analysis time is 15-20 min. Any Raman spectrometer and a laser of > 50 mW power can be used in analysis

  2. LiNbO3 :Pr3+ : A Multipiezo Material with Simultaneous Piezoelectricity and Sensitive Piezoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Dong; Xu, Chao-Nan; Yoshida, Akihito; Fujihala, Masayoshi; Hirotsu, Jou; Zheng, Xu-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Red-emitting piezoluminescence (elasticoluminescence) is achieved by doping rare earth Pr 3+ into the well-known piezoelectric matrix, LiNbO 3 . By precisely tuning the Li/Nb ratio in nonstoichiometric Li x NbO 3 :Pr 3+ , a material that exhibits an unusually high piezoluminescence intensity, which far exceeds that of any well-known piezoelectric material, is produced. Li x NbO 3 :Pr 3+ shows excellent strain sensitivity at the lowest strain level, with no threshold for stress sensing. These multipiezo properties of sensitive piezoluminescence in a piezoelectric matrix are ideal for microstress sensing, damage diagnosis, electro-mechano-optical energy conversion, and multifunctional control in optoelectronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Optical decoherence and persistent spectral hole burning in Er3+:LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, C.W.; Macfarlane, R.M.; Boettger, T.; Sun, Y.; Cone, R.L.; Babbitt, W.R.

    2010-01-01

    Developing new resonant optical materials for spatial-spectral holography and quantum information applications requires detailed knowledge of the decoherence and population relaxation dynamics for the quantum states involved in the optical transitions, motivating the need for fundamental material studies. We report recent progress in studying these properties in erbium-doped lithium niobate at liquid helium temperatures. The influence of temperature, applied magnetic fields, measurement timescale, and dopant concentration were probed using photon echo spectroscopy and time-resolved spectral hole burning on the 1532 nm transition of Er 3+ :LiNbO 3 . Effects of spectral diffusion due to interactions between Er 3+ ions and between the Er 3+ ion and 7 Li and 93 Nb nuclear spins in the host lattice were observed. In addition, long-lived persistent spectral storage of seconds to minutes was observed due to non-equilibrium population redistribution among superhyperfine states.

  4. Structural Aspects LiNbO3 Nanoparticles and Their Ferromagnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Moreno, Carlos A.; Farias-Mancilla, Rurik; Elizalde-Galindo, Jose T.; González-Hernández, Jesus; Hurtado-Macias, Abel; Bahena, Daniel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Ramos, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    We present a solid-state synthesis of ferromagnetic lithium niobate nanoparticles (LiNbO3) and their corresponding structural aspects. In order to investigate the effect of heat treatments, two batches of samples with a heat-treated (HT) and non-heat-treated (nHT) reduction at 650 °C in 5% of hydrogen/argon were considered to investigate the multiferroic properties and their corresponding structural aspects; using magnetometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Results indicate the existence of ferromagnetic domains with a magnetic moment per unit cell of 5.24 × 10−3 μB; caused mainly due to voids and defects on the nanoparticle surface, as confirmed by STEM measurements. PMID:28788242

  5. Quantitative investigation of Raman selection rules and validation of the secular equation for trigonal LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Hagihara, Hirofumi; Zhu Wenliang

    2013-01-01

    Some theoretical aspects of the vibrational behaviour of trigonal lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) are studied and discussed in detail based on spectroscopic experimental assessments. Polarized Raman spectroscopy is systematically applied to retrieve the fundamental parameters governing the dependence of Raman intensity on crystallographic orientation, through quantitating the complete set of individual elements for the second-rank Raman tensors of the LiNbO 3 cell (C 3v (3m) point group, R3c space group). Moreover, computational algorithms are also explicitly constructed to describe the spectral shifts of the selected Raman bands when subjected to unknown stress fields. Accordingly, we have experimentally confirmed the validity of the secular equation for the trigonal cell and quantitatively substantiated its application through the determination of the full set of phonon deformation potentials for seven independent bands among those available in the LiNbO 3 vibrational spectrum. Finally, a brief discussion is offered about the significance of the presented characterizations in the technological field of LiNbO 3 devices, including the newly shown possibility of quantitatively and concurrently unfolding from polarized Raman spectra both crystallographic and mechanical information in their vectorial and tensorial nature, respectively. (paper)

  6. LiNbO3 Coating on Concrete Surface: A New and Environmentally Friendly Route for Artificial Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit K. Nath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of a photocatalyst to ordinary building materials such as concrete creates environmentally friendly materials by which air pollution or pollution of the surface can be diminished. The use of LiNbO3 photocatalyst in concrete material would be more beneficial since it can produce artificial photosynthesis in concrete. In these research photoassisted solid-gas phases reduction of carbon dioxide (artificial photosynthesis was performed using a photocatalyst, LiNbO3, coated on concrete surface under illumination of UV-visible or sunlight and showed that LiNbO3 achieved high conversion of CO2 into products despite the low levels of band-gap light available. The high reaction efficiency of LiNbO3 is explained by its strong remnant polarization (70 µC/cm2, allowing a longer lifetime of photoinduced carriers as well as an alternative reaction pathway. Due to the ease of usage and good photocatalytic efficiency, the research work done showed its potential application in pollution prevention.

  7. Experimental demonstration of wavelength conversion between ps-pulses based on cascaded sum- and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) in LiNbO3 waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang; Lou, Chuanhong; Sun, Qizhen

    2005-09-01

    All-optical wavelength conversion between ps-pulses based on cascaded sum- and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) waveguides. The signal pulse with 40-GHz repetition rate and 1.57- ps pulse width is adopted. The converted idler wavelength can be tuned from 1527.4 to 1540.5nm as the signal wavelength is varied from 1561.9 to 1548.4nm. No obvious changes of the pulse shape and width, also no chirp are observed in the converted idler pulse. The results imply that single-to-multiple channel wavelength conversions can be achieved by appropriately tuning the two pump wavelengths.

  8. Experimental demonstration of novel cascaded SFG+DFG wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses in LiNbO 3 waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang; Luo, Chuanhong

    2006-06-01

    A novel cascaded χ (2) wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses based on sum frequency generation and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in LiNbO 3 waveguides. The signal pulse with 40-GHz repetition rate and 1.57-ps pulse width is adopted. First of all, high conversion efficiency about -18.93dB can be achieved with low power level required for both two pump lights, which is greatly enhanced approximately 8dB compared with the conventional cascaded second-order nonlinear interactions (SHG+DFG) with a single and much higher power pump. Secondly, the wavelength of the converted idler wave can be tuned from 1527.4 to 1540.5nm when the signal wavelength is changed from 1561.9 to 1548.4nm, and about 13.1nm converted idler bandwidth is achieved with the conversion efficiency higher than -31dB. Thirdly, two pump wavelengths can be separated as large as 17.3nm. Meanwhile, when one pump wavelength is fixed at 1549.1nm, the other can be tuned within a wide wavelength range about 7.6nm with the conversion efficiency higher than -34dB, which is much larger than that in the SHG+DFG situation. Finally, the temporal waveform of the converted idler pulse is observed with rather clear appearance achieved, and no obvious changes of the pulse shape and width are found compared with its corresponding original injected signal, showing that our proposed scheme exhibits a very good conversion performance.

  9. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 Nanoparticles Dispersed in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Mixtures: Electrooptic and Dielectric (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    strength for non- doped LF4 and LiNbO3/LF4 nanocolloids at temperature 30C. 146 R. K . SHUKLA ET AL. 6 Distribution A. Approved for public release (PA...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0210 FERROELECTRIC BaTiO3 AND LiNbO3 NANOPARTICLES DISPERSED IN FERROELECTRIC LIQUID CRYSTAL MIXTURES: ELECTROOPTIC...COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE Ferroelectric BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 nanoparticles dispersed in ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures: Electrooptic and

  10. Estudo do comportamento óptico-estrutural do LiNbO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro C. D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo teórico-experimental sobre as estruturas cristalina e amorfa de niobato de lítio, para verificar a influência dos defeitos sobre as propriedades ópticas desse semicondutor. Filmes finos cristalinos de LiNbO3 (c-LN e amorfo (a-LN foram preparados pelo método dos precursores poliméricos, sendo caracterizados por difração de raios X e microscopia de força atômica. As propriedades ópticas foram estudadas por UV-Visível e espectroscopia Raman. Em particular, o filme amorfo apresentou luminescência, cuja posição do pico varia de acordo com o comprimento de onda de excitação. A diferença de energia entre os níveis HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital e LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital revela que o gap de banda da fase cristalina é maior que aquele exibido pela fase amorfa, em acordo com os dados experimentais de UV-visível. Observou-se o surgimento de novos níveis eletrônicos na região do gap de banda na estrutura amorfa, este fato pode explicar as propriedades ópticas particulares observadas sobre o filme amorfo.

  11. Ionic and electronic dark decay of holograms in LiNbO3:Fe crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yunping; Nee, Ingo; Buse, Karsten; Psaltis, Demetri

    2001-01-01

    The lifetimes of nonfixed holograms in LiNbO 3 :Fe crystals with doping levels of 0.05, 0.138, and 0.25 wt% Fe 2 O 3 have been measured in the temperature range from 30 to 180 degree C. The time constants of the dark decay of holograms stored in crystals with doping levels of 0.05 and 0.25 wt% Fe 2 O 3 obey an Arrhenius-type dependence on absolute temperature T, but yield two activation energies: 1.0 and 0.28 eV, respectively. For these crystals, two different dark decay mechanisms are prevailing, one of which is identified as proton compensation and the other is due to electron tunneling between sites of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ . The dark decay of holograms stored in crystals with the doping level of 0.138 wt% Fe 2 O 3 is the result of a combination of both effects. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of damage and amorphization induced by swift-ion irradiation in LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Agullo-Lopez, F.; Olivares-Villegas, J.; Garcia-Navarro, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool which is applied to describe the ion beam induced damage generated by electronic excitation in LiNbO 3 . Based on a previously published thermal spike based analytical model, the MC technique allows for a more flexible and accurate treatment of the problem. A main advantage of this approach with respect to the analytical one is the possibility of studying the role of statistical fluctuations, relevant at low fluences. The paper recalls the main features of the physical model, describes the MC algorithm, and compares simulation results to experimental data (irradiations of LiNbO 3 using silicon ions at 5 and 7.5 MeV and oxygen ions at 5 MeV)

  13. Second-order optical nonlinearities in dilute melt proton exchange waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veng, Torben Erik; Skettrup, Torben; Pedersen, Kjeld

    1996-01-01

    Planar optical waveguides with different refractive indices are made in z-cut LiNbO3 with a dilute proton exchange method using a system of glycerol containing KHSO4 and lithium benzoate. The optical second-order susceptibilities of these waveguides are measured by detecting the 266 nm reflected...... second-harmonic signal generated by a 532 nm beam directed onto the waveguide surface. It is found for this kind of waveguides that in the waveguide region all the second-order susceptibilities take values of at least 90% of the original LiNbO; values for refractive index changes less than similar to 0...

  14. Comparative study of the singularity in the optical properties of congruent doped LiNbO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaque, F.; Han, T.P.J.; Lifante, G.

    2003-01-01

    A comparison of the optical properties such as optical absorption band edge, ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices, powder second harmonic generation and the non-linear coefficient, d 33 , of congruent LiNbO 3 crystals doped with di-, tri- and hexa-valent cations is reported. It has been found that the referred parameters show a clear concentration singularity depending on the valency of the cation. A charge compensation mechanism is proposed to explain the role of the cation. The experimental data of n o and n e are described by a generalised Sellmeier equation considering the different ions sites in the crystal

  15. Optical damage in reduced Z-cut LiNbO3 crystals caused by longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostritskii, S. M.; Aillerie, M.

    2012-01-01

    The marked optical damage was observed in thin Z-cut plates of the deeply reduced nominally pure LiNbO 3 crystals, when a 514.5-nm-laser beam with ordinary polarization was focused on the ±Z face. The longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects are shown to be responsible for most of the important peculiarities of the optical damage dynamics. The anisotropy in the behavior between the +Z and -Z faces has been explained by interference of the different kinds of pyroelectric and photovoltaic effects to the space-charge field with an altering relative sign.

  16. Hole geometry effect on stop-band characteristics of photonic crystal in Ti-diffused LiNbO_3 waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Quan-Zhou; Zhang, Zi-Bo; Xu, Jia-Qi; Wong, Wing-Han; Yu, Dao-Yin; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun

    2017-01-01

    Effects of finite hole depth and non-cylindrical hole shape on stop-band characteristics of photonic crystal formed by air-hole square lattice in Ti-diffused LiNbO_3 strip waveguide were studied theoretically. The study shows that hole depth determines the contrast of stop-band, and the hole radius and conical angle determine the bandgap and location. Cylindrical holes must be sufficiently deep so as to overlap most of waveguide mode and hence obtain a stop-band with high contrast, sharp edge and broad bandgap. Non-cylindrical holes seriously affect the stop-band features. Conical holes cause low contrast and narrow bandgap, and the stop-band shifts with the conical angle. For the cylindrical-conical hybrid holes, the cylindrical portion determines the desired features. Given the difficulty in fabricating high aspect-ratio cylindrical holes, we propose to fabricate the holes at the bottom of a shallow trench, which is introduced into waveguide surface prior to the hole milling. - Highlights: • Cylindrical hole must be deep enough and a shallow waveguide is required. • Increasing hole radius causes blueshift, broadening and edge sharpening of band. • Non-cylindrical hole seriously affects gap, location and contrast of stop-band. • For cylindrical-conical hybrid hole, cylindrical part determines desired features. • A scheme of milling holes at bottom of a trench on waveguide surface is proposed.

  17. Investigation of Structural Re-ordering of Hydrogen Bonds in LiNbO3:Mg Crystals Around the Threshold Concentration of Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, N. V.; Teplyakova, N. A.; Palatnikov, M. N.; Bobreva, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    Crystals of LiNbO3congr and LiNbO3:Mg (0.19-5.91 mole %) were studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the intensities of the bands corresponding to the stretching vibrations of the OH groups in the IR spectra of LiNbO3:Mg crystals change and components of the bands disappear with increase of the Mg content. This was explained by disappearance of the OH groups close to {Nb}_{Li}^{4+}-{V}_{Li}- defects as a result of displacement of NbLi defects by Mg cations. In the Raman spectra of the LiNbO3:Mg (5.1 mole %) compared with the congruent crystal the lines corresponding to the vibrations of oxygen atoms in the oxygen octahedra and the stretching bridge vibrations of the oxygen atoms along the polar axis become broader, and new low-intensity lines that may correspond to pseudoscalar vibrations of A2-type symmetry also appear. The broadening of the lines is due to deformation of the oxygen octahedra caused both by increase of the Mg content in the crystal structure and by change in the localization of the protons. Suppression of the photorefraction effect in the LiNbO3:Mg crystals with Mg contents above the threshold level can be explained by change in the localization of the protons in the structure and by screening of the space charge field.

  18. Epitaxial growth of Er, Ti doped LiNbO3 films prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Yoshiga, Tsuyoshi; Kajitani, Naofumi; Takeda, Yuki; Sato, Shoji; Wakita, Koichi; Ohnishi, Naoyuki; Hotta, Kazutoshi; Kurachi, Masato

    2006-01-01

    Erbium (Er 3+ ) doped lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) thick films were deposited on z-cut congruent LiNbO 3 (LN) substrate by the sol-gel method from the 0.20 mol/dm 3 precursor solution containing various Er 3+ concentration and 0.10 mol/dm 3 poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and their crystal characteristics were evaluated. The Er 3+ concentration in the LN film was controlled by the Er 3+ concentration in the starting solution. The orientation relationships between Er doped LN films and substrates were determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, and (006) oriented Er doped LN epitaxial layers with parallel epitaxial relationships could be grown on the z-cut LN wafer. Moreover, it was made clear from the electron beam diffraction measurements that the film came to be polycrystalline, when the Er concentration was over 3 mol%. The refractive index of Er-doped LN films decreased with increasing Er concentration. 1.5 mol% Ti: 1.0 mol% Er LN films, which acted as a waveguide, were prepared by our so-gel method. It showed the 1530 nm emission by 980 nm excitation, which was considered to be due to the Er 3+ corresponding to the 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 transition. (author)

  19. Comprehensive Study of Z-Cut Highly Integrated LiNbO3 Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palodiya, Vikram; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the domain inversion is used in a simple fashion to improve the performance of a Z-cut highly integrated LiNbO3 optical modulator (LNOM). The Z-cut modulator having ≤ 3 V switching voltage and bandwidth of 15 GHz for an external modulator in which traveling-wave electrode length L_{m} imposed the modulating voltage, the product of V_π and L_{m} is fixed for a given electro-optic material (EOM). An investigation to achieve a low V_π by both magnitude of the electro-optic coefficient (EOC) for a wide variety of EOMs has been reported. The Sellmeier equation (SE) for the extraordinary index of congruent LiNbO3 is derived. The predictions related to phase matching are accurate between room temperature and 250 °C and wavelength ranging from 0.4 to 5 μm. The SE predicts more accurate refractive indices (RI) at long wavelengths. The different overlaps between the waveguides for the Z-cut structure are shown to yield a chirp parameter that can able to adjust 0-0.7. Theoretical results are perfectly verified by simulated results.

  20. 10 GHz Standing-Wave Coplanar Stripline on LiNbO3 Crystal for Radio to Optical-Wave Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwis, F.; Wijayanto, Y. N.; Setiawan, A.; Mahmudin, D.; Rahman, A. N.; Daud, P.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, X-band radar systems are used widely for surveillance and navigation applications. Especially in archipelago or maritime country, the surveillance/navigation radar systems are required to monitoring critical areas and managing marine traffic. Accurate detection and fast analysis should be improved furthermore to provide security and safety condition. Therefore, several radar systems should be installed in many places to coverage the critical areas within radar networks. The radar network can be connected using optical fibers since it has extremely low propagation loss with optical-wave to carry-out the radar-wave. One important component in the scenario is a radio to optical-wave conversion component. In this paper, we report a 10 GHz radio to optical-wave conversion component using standing-wave coplanar stripline (CPS) on LiNbO3 optical crystal as the substrate. The standing-wave CPS electrodes with narrow slot are arranged in an array structure. An optical waveguide is located close to the narrow slot. The CPS electrodes were analysed using electromagnetic analysis software for 10 GHz operational frequency. Responses for slot width and electrode length variation are reported. As results, return loss of -14.580 dB and -19.517 dB are obtained for single and array CPS electrodes respectively. Optimization of the designed radio to optical-wave conversion devices was also done.

  1. Single-mode coherent synchrotron radiation instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heifets

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The microwave instability driven by the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR has been previously studied [S. Heifets and G. V. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 054402 (2002] neglecting effect of the shielding caused by the finite beam pipe aperture. In practice, the unstable mode can be close to the shielding threshold where the spectrum of the radiation in a toroidal beam pipe is discrete. In this paper, the CSR instability is studied in the case when it is driven by a single synchronous mode. A system of equations for the beam-wave interaction is derived and its similarity to the 1D free-electron laser theory is demonstrated. In the linear regime, the growth rate of the instability is obtained and a transition to the case of continuous spectrum is discussed. The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode instability, both with and without synchrotron damping and quantum diffusion, is also studied.

  2. HNbO3 and HTaO3: new cubic perovskites prepared from LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 via ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, C.E.; Jackel, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of HNbO 3 and HTaO 3 from LiNbO 3 via ion exchange in hot aqueous acid solutions is reported. This reaction is accompanied by a topotactic structural transformation from the rhombohedral LiNbO 3 structure to the cubic perovskite structure; cell constants are a = 3.822(1) angstrom for HNbO 3 and 3.810(2) angstrom for HTaO 3 . These new compounds have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR. They are electronic insulators and have low ionic conductivity. Evidence of partially proton-exchange phases Li/sub 1-x/H/sub x/MO 3 was also seen. The possible significance of this ion exchange reaction for devices using LiNbO 3 or LiTaO 3 is discussed

  3. Single-mode biological distributed feedback laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Lemmer, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Single-mode second order distributed feedback (DFB) lasers of riboflavin (vitamin B2) doped gelatine films on nanostructured low refractive index material are demonstrated. Manufacturing is based on a simple UV nanoimprint and spin-coating. Emission wavelengths of 543 nm and 562 nm for two...

  4. Duty cycle dependence of a periodically poled LiNbO3-based electro-optic Solc filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Eyal; Arie, Ady

    2006-01-20

    We demonstrate that the performance of a periodically poled LiNbO3- (PPLN-) based electro-optic Solc filter is dependent on the duty cycle of the crystal. This may limit the performance of the device for applications such as add-drop filtering and switching, owing to the deterioration of the extinction ratio. It is shown that by adding a retarder to the Solc filter it is possible to improve the extinction ratio; thus the dependence of the filter on the duty cycle can be reduced. Using Jones calculus, we analyzed the effect of a variable retarder that can also be rotated on the extinction ratio. We experimentally observed a 6 dB increase in the extinction ratio when we used a half-wavelength retarder.

  5. Influence of Mg doping on the behaviour of polaronic light-induced absorption in LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradi, D.; Merschjann, C.; Schoke, B.; Imlau, M.; Corradi, G.; Polgar, K.

    2008-01-01

    Transient light-induced absorption changes α li (t), caused by optically generated small polarons, are investigated in LiNbO 3 :Mg below and above the optical-damage-resistance threshold (ODRT). The lifetime of α li (t) is reduced by three orders of magnitude above the ODRT while a significantly enhanced amplitude α max li is observed in the infrared. Our observations are in full accordance with the predictions of microscopic models for the ODRT, namely the removal of Nb Li antisite defects upon incorporation of Mg ions, and an enhanced dark conductivity. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films on LiNbO3 substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.G.; Koren, G.; Gupta, A.; Segmuller, A.; Chi, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    In situ epitaxial growth of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin films on Y-cut LiNbO 3 substrates using a standard laser ablation technique is reported. Resistance of the films shows a normal metallic behavior and a very sharp ( c (R=0) of 92 K. High critical current density of J c (77 K)=2x10 5 A/cm 2 is observed, which is in accordance with epitaxial growth. Film orientation observed from x-ray diffraction spectra indicates that the c axis is normal to the substrate plane and the a axis is at 45 degree to the [11.0] direction of the hexagonal lattice of the substrate with two domains in mirror image to the (110) plane

  7. Titanium Dioxide-Based 64∘ YX LiNbO3 Surface Acoustic Wave Hydrogen Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Sadek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2 and gold (Au doped TiO2-based surface acoustic wave (SAW sensors have been investigated as hydrogen gas detectors. The nanocrystal-doped TiO2 films were synthesized through a sol-gel route, mixing a Ti-butoxide-based solution with diluted colloidal gold nanoparticles. The films were deposited via spin coating onto 64∘ YX LiNbO3 SAW transducers in a helium atmosphere. The SAW gas sensors were operated at various temperatures between 150 and 310∘C. It was found that gold doping on TiO2 increased the device sensitivity and reduced the optimum operating temperature.

  8. Structure and optical homogeneity of LiNbO3:Zn (0.03–4.5 mol.%) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, Nikolay; Tepljakova, Natalja; Gabain, Aleksei; Yanichev, Aleksander; Palatnikov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Structure and optical homogeneity of LiNbO 3 :Zn (0.03–4.5 mol.%) crystals were searched by photoinduced light scattering and by Raman spectroscopy. The photorefractive effect depends on Zn 2+ concentration nonmonotonically. Decrease of photorefractive effect is explained by decrease of structure defects with localized electrons. The Zn 2+ cations replace structure defects Nb Li and Li Nb , trapping levels appear near the bottom of the conduction band and photo electrons recombine with emission under laser radiation. By the Raman spectra the area of the high structure order is found. In this area the own alternation, the alternation of impurity cations and the vacancies along the polar axis is almost perfect

  9. Nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography with continuous-wave lights for both congruent and near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yan; Zhang Guoquan; Fu Bo; Xu Qingjun; Xu Jingjun

    2004-01-01

    We have studied theoretically the steady-state nonvolatile two-step, two-color holographic recording performance for both the congruent and the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe based on the two-center model (the deep-trap and the shallow-trap centers are Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ , respectively). The results show that the direct electron exchange between the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ centers and the Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ centers due to the tunneling effect dominates the charge-transfer process during the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography and determines the two-step, two-color holography performance in LiNbO 3 :Fe. We have further studied the effects of the crystal stoichiometry on the performance of the two-step, two-color holography. It is shown that, as far as the total space-charge field is considered, the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography performance in the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe is much better than that in the congruent LiNbO 3 :Fe within the intensity range reachable by the continuous-wave lights

  10. Room temperature direct bonding of LiNbO3 crystal layers and its application to high-voltage optical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulli, D; Janner, D; Pruneri, V

    2011-01-01

    LiNbO 3 is a crystal widely used in photonics and acoustics, for example in electro-optic modulation, nonlinear optical frequency conversion, electric field sensing and surface acoustic wave filtering. It often needs to be combined with other materials and used in thin layers to achieve the adequate device performance. In this paper, we investigate direct bonding of LiNbO 3 crystals with other dielectric materials, such as Si and fused silica (SiO 2 ), and we show that specific surface chemical cleaning, together with Ar or O 2 plasma activation, can be used to increase the surface free energy and achieve effective bonding at room temperature. The resulting hybrid material bonding is very strong, making the dicing and grinding of LiNbO 3 layers as thin as 15 µm possible. To demonstrate the application potentials of the proposed bonding technique, we have fabricated and characterized a high-voltage field sensor with high sensitivity in a domain inverted and bonded LiNbO 3 waveguide substrate

  11. Temperature stability of c-axis oriented LiNbO3/SiO2/Si thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Mansingh, Abhai; Sreenivas, K.

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed for the temperature stability of the c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 thin film layered structures on passivated silicon (SiO 2 /Si) substrate with and without a non-piezoelectric SiO 2 overlayer. The phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) have been calculated. The thicknesses of various layers have been determined for optimum SAW performance with zero TCD. The presence of a non-piezoelectric SiO 2 overlayer on LiNbO 3 film is found to significantly enhance the coupling coefficient. The optimized results reveal that a high coupling coefficient of K 2 =3.45% and a zero TCD can be obtained in the SiO 2 /LiNbO 3 /SiO 2 /Si structure with a 0.235λ thick LiNbO 3 layer sandwiched between 0.1λ thick SiO 2 layers. (author)

  12. Single-mode fiber laser based on core-cladding mode conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Schülzgen, Axel; Peyghambarian, N

    2008-02-15

    A single-mode fiber laser based on an intracavity core-cladding mode conversion is demonstrated. The fiber laser consists of an Er-doped active fiber and two fiber Bragg gratings. One Bragg grating is a core-cladding mode converter, and the other Bragg grating is a narrowband high reflector that selects the lasing wavelength. Coupling a single core mode and a single cladding mode by the grating mode converter, the laser operates as a hybrid single-mode laser. This approach for designing a laser cavity provides a much larger mode area than conventional large-mode-area step-index fibers.

  13. Alcohol sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefina Yulias, R.; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol sensor based on Single-mode -Multimode-Single-mode (SMS) fiber structure is being proposed to sense alcohol concentration in alcohol-water mixtures. This proposed sensor uses refractive index sensing as its sensing principle. Fabricated SMS fiber structure had 40 m of multimode length. With power input -6 dBm and wavelength 1550 nm, the proposed sensor showed good response with sensitivity 1,983 dB per % v/v with measurement range 05 % v/v and measurement span 0,5% v/v.

  14. Influence of Li/Nb ratios on defect structure and photorefractive properties of Zn: In: Fe: LiNbO 3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Su, Yan-Qing; Wu, Shi-Ping; Guo, Jing-Jie; Xu, Chao; Xu, Yu-Heng

    2011-04-01

    A series of Zn: In: Fe: LiNbO3 crystals are grown by the Czochralski technique with various ratios of Li/Nb = 0.94, 1.05, 1.20 and 1.38 in the melt. The Zn, In, Fe, Nb and Li concentrations in the crystals are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry. The results indicate that with increasing the [Li]/[Nb] ratio in melt, [Li]/[Nb] ratio increases and goes up continuously in the crystal, the segregation coefficients of both Zn and In ions decrease. The absorption spectra measurement and two-wave coupling experiment are employed to study the effect of [Li]/[Nb] ratio on photorefractive properties of Zn: In: Fe: LiNbO3 crystals. It is found that the [Li]/[Nb] ratio increases, the write time is shortened and the photorefractive sensitivity is improved.

  15. Estudio de las soluciones de los ferroeléctricos LiNbO3 y LiTaO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villafuerte Castrejón, M. E.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic compounds LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 have been widely studied in the last years due to their interesting optical and electrical properties (piezoelectricity, piroelectricity, ferroelectricity. For this reason these materials are regarded excellent candidates for technological applications. An important characteristic of these compounds is the facility to form solid solution series, a large number of cations can be accommodated in the lattice and thus different optical and electrical properties have been obtained. In this work a review of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 solid solutions is presented, the formation mechanisms, cation sites in the unitcell and some of the most representative properties are also included.Los compuestos cerámicos LiNbO3 y LiTaO3 han sido estudiados considerablemente en los últimos años, debido a las interesantes propiedades ópticas y eléctricas (piezoelectricidad, piroelectricidad, ferroelectricidad que presentan. Por estas razones estos materiales se consideran excelentes candidatos para un gran número de aplicaciones tecnológicas. Una característica importante de estos compuestos, es la facilidad con la que forman series de soluciones sólidas, incorporando diferentes cationes en sus redes. Se han obtenido series de soluciones sólidas con cationes de diferente tamaño y diferente carga con la consiguiente variación de las propiedades eléctricas y ópticas. En este trabajo se presenta un resumen de los estudios de las soluciones sólidas de LiNbO3 y LiTaO3, los mecanismos de formación y los sitios que ocupan los cationes en la celda unidad, así como algunas de sus propiedades físicas más representativas.

  16. The role of the Mg2+ ions in Cr3+ spectroscopy for near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T P J; Jaque, F; Bermudez, V; Dieguez, E

    2003-01-01

    The optical spectroscopy of Cr 3+ ions doped into near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 crystals, pure and co-doped with MgO, has been investigated. In the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Cr(0.2 mol%):Mg(2 mol%) crystal, the optical spectra resemble those previously observed for congruent LiNbO 3 :Cr:MgO samples when the total MgO content exceeds the 4.6 mol% threshold. The coexistence of two types of Cr 3+ centre ([Cr] Li and [Cr] Nb ) characterized the optical and luminescence spectra of this sample. The concentration equilibrium between the two types of centre is strongly displaced towards the [Cr 3+ ] Nb centre, permitting us to obtain with accuracy the parameters of the broad bands. The R-line associated with the [Cr] Nb centre is only observable in the low-temperature emission spectrum. The Fano anti-resonance lines present have been observed to be more pronounced for the near-stoichiometric samples than for congruent ones

  17. Acousto-optical and SAW propagation characteristics of temperature stable multilayered structures based on LiNbO3 and diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical studies on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) properties of c-axis oriented LiNbO3/IDT/diamond and diamond/IDT/128° rotated Y-X cut LiNbO3 multilayered structures have been considered. Both layered structures exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) characteristic, and a zero TCD device is obtained after integrating with an over-layer of either tellurium dioxide (TeO2) or silicon dioxide (SiO2). The presence of a TeO2 over-layer enhanced the electromechanical coupling coefficients of both multilayered structures, which acts as a better temperature compensation layer than SiO2. The temperature stable TeO2/LiNbO3/IDT/diamond layered structure exhibits good electromechanical coefficient and higher phase velocity for SAW device applications. On the other hand, a high acousto-optical (AO) figure of merit (30-37) × 10-15 s3 kg-1 has been obtained for the temperature stable SiO2/diamond/IDT/LiNbO3 layered structure indicating a promising device structure for AO applications.

  18. Acousto-optical and SAW propagation characteristics of temperature stable multilayered structures based on LiNbO3 and diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical studies on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) properties of c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 /IDT/diamond and diamond/IDT/128 0 rotated Y-X cut LiNbO 3 multilayered structures have been considered. Both layered structures exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) characteristic, and a zero TCD device is obtained after integrating with an over-layer of either tellurium dioxide (TeO 2 ) or silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ). The presence of a TeO 2 over-layer enhanced the electromechanical coupling coefficients of both multilayered structures, which acts as a better temperature compensation layer than SiO 2 . The temperature stable TeO 2 /LiNbO 3 /IDT/diamond layered structure exhibits good electromechanical coefficient and higher phase velocity for SAW device applications. On the other hand, a high acousto-optical (AO) figure of merit (30-37) x 10 -15 s 3 kg -1 has been obtained for the temperature stable SiO 2 /diamond/IDT/LiNbO 3 layered structure indicating a promising device structure for AO applications

  19. Optical properties of Mg2+, Yb3+, and Ho3+ tri-doped LiNbO3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Liu, Chun-Rui; Tan, Chao; Yan, Zhe-Hua; Xu, Yu-Heng

    2017-04-01

    A series of LiNbO3 crystals tri-doped with Mg{}2+, Yb{}3+, and Ho{}3+ are grown by the conventional Czochraski technique. The concentrations of Mg{}2+, Yb{}3+, and Ho{}3+ ions in Mg:Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystals are measured by using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The x-ray diffraction is proposed to determine the lattice constant and analyze the internal structure of the crystal. The light-induced scattering of Mg:Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystal is quantitatively described via the threshold effect of incident exposure energy flux. The exposure energy ({E}{{r}}) is calculated to discuss the optical damage resistance ability. The exposure energy of Mg(7 mol):Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystal is 709.17 J/cm2, approximately 425 times higher than that of the Mg(1 mol):Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystal in magnitude. The blue, red, and very intense green bands of Mg:Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystal are observed under the 980-nm laser excitation to evaluate the up-conversion emission properties. The dependence of the emission intensity on pumping power indicates that the up-conversion emission is a two-photon process. The up-conversion emission mechanism is discussed in detail. This study indicates that Mg:Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystal can be applied to the fabrication of new multifunctional photoluminescence devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51301055), the Youth Science Fund of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. QC2015061), the Special Funds of Harbin Innovation Talents in Science and Technology Research, China (Grant No. 2015RQQXJ045 ), and the Science Funds for the Young Innovative Talents of Harbin University of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 201501).

  20. Optimize Etching Based Single Mode Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Dr. Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a description of etching process for fabrication single mode optical fiber sensors. The process of fabrication demonstrates an optimized etching based method to fabricate single mode fiber (SMF) optic sensors in specified constant time and temperature. We propose a single mode optical fiber based temperature sensor, where the temperature sensing region is obtained by etching its cladding diameter over small length to a critical value. It is observed that th...

  1. Mode coupling in hybrid square-rectangular lasers for single mode operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Mode coupling between a square microcavity and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated for realizing single mode lasers. The modulations of the mode Q factor as simulation results are observed and single mode operation is obtained with a side mode suppression ratio of 46 dB and a single mode fiber coupling loss of 3.2 dB for an AlGaInAs/InP hybrid laser as a 300-μm-length and 1.5-μm-wide FP cavity connected to a vertex of a 10-μm-side square microcavity. Furthermore, tunable single mode operation is demonstrated with a continuous wavelength tuning range over 10 nm. The simple hybrid structure may shed light on practical applications of whispering-gallery mode microcavities in large-scale photonic integrated circuits and optical communication and interconnection.

  2. Crosstalk-Managed Heterogeneous Single-Mode 32-Core Fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Y.; Fukumoto, Ryohei; Takenaga, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    A heterogeneous single-mode 32-core fibre with a cladding diameter of 243 micrometer is designed and fabricated. The highest core count in single-mode multi-core fibres and low worst-case crosstalk of less than -24 dB/1000 km in C-band are achieved simultaneously....

  3. Physics and technology of tunable pulsed single longitudinal mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Design and technology demonstration of compact, narrow bandwidth, high repetition rate, tunable SLM dye lasers in two different configurations, namely Littrow and grazing incidence grating (GIG), were carried out in our lab at BARC, India. The single longitudinal mode (SLM) dye laser generates single-mode laser beams ...

  4. Estudio de PMN cerámico dopado con KNbO3 y LiNbO3 sintetizado por Pechini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilense, M.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available PMN belongs to a special class of materials named relaxor ferroelectrics. It has high volumetric efficiency due to its high dielectric constant, which makes it in a perfect material for application in multilayer capacitors. When prepared the columbite route its preparation has many advantages. In this work, the preparations of columbite and PMN were done by Pechini and Partial Oxalate methods, respectively. The effects of the KNbO3 and LiNbO3 dopants added in various concentrations. The idea is founded on the correlations that they have with BaTiO3 y PbTiO3, respectively. The whole process was supervised by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM and determination of the specific surface area of the powders. LiNbO3 carries out the pre-sinterization of the particles, observed by a reduction in the surface area. There are not particle grow, but occur its lengthening. However, for KNbO3 these particle growth, but the agglomerates are softer. The effect produced by the doping during the synthesis of the PMN powder is different from the one produced in the columbite precursor. Pure precursor shows an average particle size of 0,2μm, but the addition of 5,0mol% of dopants carries out the formation of agglomerates close to 4μm. LiNbO3 addition carries out spherical particles and pre-sinterization, while KNbO3 addition does not change the particles shape.El PMN pertenece a una clase especial de materiales conocido como ferroeléctricos relaxores. Posee gran eficacia volumétrica debido a su gran constante dieléctrica, siendo un perfecto candidato para la aplicación en capacitores multicapas. Su preparación es más ventajosa cuando se sintetiza por la ruta de la columbita. Las preparaciones de la columbita y del PMN se basaron en los métodos Pechini y Oxalato Parcial, respectivamente. Se ha estudiado los efectos de los dopantes KNbO3 y LiNbO3 añadidos a varias concentraciones. La idea esta basada en las correlaciones que estos tienen con BaTiO3 y PbTiO3, respectivamente. El proceso entero se caracterizó mediante ATD/TG, DRX, MEB y determinación de la superficie específica de los polvos. El dopante LiNbO3 promueve la pre-sinterización de las partículas de MN, reduciendo la superficie específica del polvo. No hay crecimiento de partícula, pero ocurre su alargamiento. En cambio, para el KNbO3 ocurre crecimiento de partícula, pero los aglomerados son más blandos. El efecto causado por los dopantes durante la síntesis de los polvos de PMN es diferente a los producidos en el precursor. El precursor puro presenta tamaño medio de partícula de 0,2μm, pero la adición de 5,0%molar de dopante produce la formación de aglomerados de ~4μm. La adición de LiNbO3 produce partículas arredondeadas y pre-sinterización, mientras la adición de KNbO3 no altera la forma de las partículas.

  5. Cross-correlated imaging of single-mode photonic crystal rod fiber with distributed mode filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Barankov, Roman; Jørgensen, Mette Marie

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal bandgap fibers employing distributed mode filtering design provide near diffraction-limited light outputs, a critical property of fiber-based high-power lasers. Microstructure of the fibers is tailored to achieve single-mode operation at specific wavelength by resonant mode...... identify regimes of resonant coupling between higher-order core modes and cladding band. We demonstrate a passive fiber design in which the higher-order modal content inside the single-mode guiding regime is suppressed by at least 20 dB even for significantly misaligned input-coupling configurations....

  6. Coexistence of weak ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in the high pressure LiNbO3-type phase of FeTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, T; Kumar, A; Vlahos, E; Denev, S; Park, M; Hong, S; Sanehira, T; Wang, Y; Fennie, C J; Streiffer, S K; Ke, X; Schiffer, P; Gopalan, V; Mitchell, J F

    2009-07-24

    We report the magnetic and electrical characteristics of polycrystalline FeTiO_{3} synthesized at high pressure that is isostructural with acentric LiNbO_{3} (LBO). Piezoresponse force microscopy, optical second harmonic generation, and magnetometry demonstrate ferroelectricity at and below room temperature and weak ferromagnetism below approximately 120 K. These results validate symmetry-based criteria and first-principles calculations of the coexistence of ferroelectricity and weak ferromagnetism in a series of transition metal titanates crystallizing in the LBO structure.

  7. Optical ridge waveguides preserving the thermo-optic features in LiNbO3 crystals fabricated by combination of proton implantation and selective wet etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yang; Chen, Feng

    2010-05-24

    We report on a new, simple method to fabricate optical ridge waveguides in a z-cut LiNbO3 wafer by using proton implantation and selective wet etching. The measured modal field is well confined in the ridge waveguide region, which is also confirmed by the numerical simulation. With thermal annealing treatment at 400 degrees C, the propagation loss of the ridge waveguides is determined to be as low as approximately 0.9 dB/cm. In addition, the measured thermo-optic coefficients of the waveguides are in good agreement with those of the bulk, suggesting potential applications in integrated photonics.

  8. High frequency time modulation of neutrons by LiNbO3 crystals with surface acoustic waves excited under the diffraction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Granzer, E.; Kikuta, Seishi; Tomimitsu, Hiroshi; Doi, Kenji.

    1985-01-01

    High frequency time modulation of neutrons was investigated by using Y-cut LiNbO 3 crystals with surface acoustic waves excited. A double crystal arrangement of (+, -) parallel setting was used for 030 symmetric Bragg-case reflections. Synchronized standing waves with a resonance frequency of 14.26 MHz were excited on the both crystals. Variation of the diffracted intensity with phase difference between two standing waves was studied. The result showed an intensity change of diffracted neutrons with twice the resonance frequency. (author)

  9. Evolution of defect signatures at ferroelectric domain walls in Mg-doped LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataf, Guillaume F.; Guennou, Mael; Haussmann, Alexander; Barrett, Nick; Kreisel, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The domain structure of uniaxial ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals is investigated using Raman spectroscopy mapping. The influence of doping with magnesium and poling at room temperature is studied by analysing frequency shifts at domain walls and their variations with dopant concentration and annealing conditions. It is shown that defects are stabilized at domain walls and that changes in the defect structures with Mg concentration can be probed by the shift of Raman modes. We show that the signatures of polar defects in the bulk and at the domain walls differ. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Correlation of infrared spectra and phase transitions in annealed proton-exchanged MgO doped LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Xu, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectra of OH − groups in annealed proton-exchanged (APE) 5 mol. % MgO-doped LiNbO 3 (MgO:LiNbO 3 ) crystals were studied using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. Samples were prepared by benzoic acid proton-exchange followed with thermal annealing in oxygen. Evolutions of absorption peaks in APE MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals were recorded and analyzed. Comparing with none-doped APE LiNbO 3 crystals, a different phase transition behavior was found during thermal annealing. A periodically poled MgO:LiNbO 3 slab waveguide was prepared using identical procedures, and the second harmonic generation (SHG) signals were measured. Comparing the obtained SHG results with the infrared spectra, relationships between the phase transitions and the recovery of second-order nonlinear coefficients during thermal annealing were investigated. Finally, a method for optimizing the performance of MgO:LiNbO 3 waveguides was proposed

  11. Surface modification of LiNbO3 and KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaojun; Shen, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Xiao; Liang, Guoying; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Xiaofu; Le, Xiaoyun

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we studied the surface modification of LiNbO3 and KTa1-xNbxO3 irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam, which was mainly composed of H+ (70%) and Cn+ (30%) at an acceleration voltage of about 450 kV. The surface morphologies, microstructural evolution and elemental analysis of the sample surfaces after IPIB irradiation have been analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometer techniques, respectively. The results show that the surface morphologies have significant difference impacted by the irradiation effect. Regular gully damages range from 200 to 400 nm in depth appeared in LiNbO3 under 2 J/cm2 energy density for 1 pulse, block cracking appeared in KTa1-xNbxO3 at the same condition. Surface of the crystals have melted and were darkened with the increasing number up to 5 pulses. Crystal lattice arrangement is believed to be the dominant reason for the different experimental results irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam.

  12. Shapes of isolated domains and field induced evolution of regular and random 2D domain structures in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernykh, A.; Shur, V.; Nikolaeva, E.; Shishkin, E.; Shur, A.; Terabe, K.; Kurimura, S.; Kitamura, K.; Gallo, K.

    2005-01-01

    The variety of the shapes of isolated domains, revealed in congruent and stoichiometric LiTaO 3 and LiNbO 3 by chemical etching and visualized by optical and scanning probe microscopy, was obtained by computer simulation. The kinetic nature of the domain shape was clearly demonstrated. The kinetics of domain structure with the dominance of the growth of the steps formed at the domain walls as a result of domain merging was investigated experimentally in slightly distorted artificial regular two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal domain structure and random natural one. The artificial structure has been realized in congruent LiNbO 3 by 2D electrode pattern produced by photolithography. The polarization reversal in congruent LiTaO 3 was investigated as an example of natural domain growth limited by merging. The switching process defined by domain merging was studied by computer simulation. The crucial dependence of the switching kinetics on the nuclei concentration has been revealed

  13. Physics and technology of tunable pulsed single longitudinal mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    precious materials. In particular, single-longitudinal mode dye lasers are useful ... to the longitudinal mode spacing of 10 GHz. Grating of 3300 .... the band of wavelength covering 3 pm and SLM operation was shown in the band of 0.5 pm.

  14. LOPUT Laser: A novel concept to realize single longitudinal mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... Abstract. We propose a novel type of cavity design to generate single longitudinal mode laser known as LOPUT cavity. LOPUT cavity stands for linear orthogonally polarized modes resulting in unidirectional travelling wave cavity. The technique can be applied to both isotropic as well as anisotropic gain ...

  15. Quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Amma, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A homogeneous 31-core fibre with a cladding diameter of 230 μm for quasi-single-mode transmission is designed and fabricated. LP01-crosstalk of -38.4 dB/11 km at 1550 nm is achieved by using few-mode trench-assisted cores....

  16. Radiation-induced transient absorption in single mode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the measurements conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of these NATO efforts wherein radiation-induced transient absorption was measured over time ranges from a few ns to several μs for two single mode fibers. Experimental conditions were varied to provide data for future development of standarized test conditions for single mode fibers. 8 refs., 11 figs

  17. Single photon detection in the SQS mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.A.; Fraga, M.M.; Lima, E.P. de; Marques, R.F.; Neves, F.; Policarpo, A.

    1997-01-01

    Results are presented concerning the detection of single UV photons in self quenching streamer detectors by photoionization of one of the gas mixture components, in this case TEA (tri ethyl-amine), whose molecules have low photoionization potential and large absorption cross section. As a UV light source, a gas scintillation counter filled with krypton was used, whose emission light spectrum, centered at approximately 150 nm, overlaps well the photoionization spectrum of TEA. The mixtures studied were argon/ethane/TEA, argon/isobutane/TEA, argon/ethane/methylal/TEA and argon/isobutane/methylal/ TEA. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs

  18. Damping of unbound single-particle modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, S.; Beaumel, D.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    The (α, 3 He-n) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy on 64 Ni, 90 Zr and 120 Sn target nuclei. Neutrons in coincidence with 3 He particles emitted at 0 deg were detected, in order to get information about the decay of single-particle states embedded in the (α, 3 He) continuum. Neutron angular correlations, multiplicity values and branching ratios to low-lying states of the final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the statistical decay model. Direct branching ratios in 91 Zr deduced from this analysis are compared with the predictions of two nuclear structure models. (author)

  19. Damping of unbound single-particle modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, S.; Beaumel, D.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.; Bordewijk, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.; Khendriche, A.

    1995-01-01

    The (α, 3 He-n) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy on 64 Ni, 90 Zr, and 120 Sn target nuclei. Neutrons in coincidence with 3 He particles emitted at 0 degree were detected using the multidetector array EDEN, in order to get information about the decay of single-particle states embedded in the (α, 3 He) continuum. Neutron angular correlations, multiplicity values, and branching ratios to low-lying states of the final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the statistical decay model. Evidence for a significant nonstatistical decay branch has been observed in the three nuclei below about 15 MeV excitation energy. Direct branching ratios in 91 Zr deduced from this analysis are compared with the predictions of two nuclear structure models. At higher excitation energy, the decay characteristics of the (α, 3 He) continuum are shown to be mainly statistical

  20. Linear optical quantum computing in a single spatial mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Peter C; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Spring, Justin B; Moore, Merritt; Jin, Xian-Min; Barbieri, Marco; Kolthammer, W Steven; Walmsley, Ian A

    2013-10-11

    We present a scheme for linear optical quantum computing using time-bin-encoded qubits in a single spatial mode. We show methods for single-qubit operations and heralded controlled-phase (cphase) gates, providing a sufficient set of operations for universal quantum computing with the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn [Nature (London) 409, 46 (2001)] scheme. Our protocol is suited to currently available photonic devices and ideally allows arbitrary numbers of qubits to be encoded in the same spatial mode, demonstrating the potential for time-frequency modes to dramatically increase the quantum information capacity of fixed spatial resources. As a test of our scheme, we demonstrate the first entirely single spatial mode implementation of a two-qubit quantum gate and show its operation with an average fidelity of 0.84±0.07.

  1. Damping of unbound single-particle modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, S.; Beaumel, D.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.; Bordewijk, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.; Khendriche, A. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)]|[Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)]|[Nuclear Research Institute, Debrecen P.O. Box 51, H-4001 (Hungary)]|[NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)]|[Dep. Fisica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP, CC Nio 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]|[Institut de Sciences Exactes,Universite de Tizi-Ouzou, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    1995-11-01

    The ({alpha},{sup 3}He-{ital n}) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy on {sup 64}Ni, {sup 90}Zr, and {sup 120}Sn target nuclei. Neutrons in coincidence with {sup 3}He particles emitted at 0{degree} were detected using the multidetector array EDEN, in order to get information about the decay of single-particle states embedded in the ({alpha},{sup 3}He) continuum. Neutron angular correlations, multiplicity values, and branching ratios to low-lying states of the final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the statistical decay model. Evidence for a significant nonstatistical decay branch has been observed in the three nuclei below about 15 MeV excitation energy. Direct branching ratios in {sup 91}Zr deduced from this analysis are compared with the predictions of two nuclear structure models. At higher excitation energy, the decay characteristics of the ({alpha},{sup 3}He) continuum are shown to be mainly statistical.

  2. Direct detection of the optical field beyond single polarization mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Di; Sun, Chuanbowen; Shieh, William

    2018-02-05

    Direct detection is traditionally regarded as a detection method that recovers only the optical intensity. Compared with coherent detection, it owns a natural advantage-the simplicity-but lacks a crucial capability of field recovery that enables not only the multi-dimensional modulation, but also the digital compensation of the fiber impairments linear with the optical field. Full-field detection is crucial to increase the capacity-distance product of optical transmission systems. A variety of methods have been investigated to directly detect the optical field of the single polarization mode, which normally sends a carrier traveling with the signal for self-coherent detection. The crux, however, is that any optical transmission medium supports at least two propagating modes (e.g. single mode fiber supports two polarization modes), and until now there is no direct detection that can recover the complete set of optical fields beyond one polarization, due to the well-known carrier fading issue after mode demultiplexing induced by the random mode coupling. To avoid the fading, direct detection receivers should recover the signal in an intensity space isomorphic to the optical field without loss of any degrees of freedom, and a bridge should be built between the field and its isomorphic space for the multi-mode field recovery. Based on this thinking, we propose, for the first time, the direct detection of dual polarization modes by a novel receiver concept, the Stokes-space field receiver (SSFR) and its extension, the generalized SSFR for multiple spatial modes. The idea is verified by a dual-polarization field recovery of a polarization-multiplexed complex signal over an 80-km single mode fiber transmission. SSFR can be applied to a much wider range of fields beyond optical communications such as coherent sensing and imaging, where simple field recovery without an extra local laser is desired for enhanced system performance.

  3. Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Martínez, Javier; Chen, Feng; Aguiló, Magdalena; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc

    2016-04-04

    Mid-infrared lithium niobate cladding waveguides have great potential in low-loss on-chip non-linear optical instruments such as mid-infrared spectrometers and frequency converters, but their three-dimensional femtosecond-laser fabrication is currently not well understood due to the complex interplay between achievable depressed index values and the stress-optic refractive index changes arising as a function of both laser fabrication parameters, and cladding arrangement. Moreover, both the stress-field anisotropy and the asymmetric shape of low-index tracks yield highly birefringent waveguides not useful for most applications where controlling and manipulating the polarization state of a light beam is crucial. To achieve true high performance devices a fundamental understanding on how these waveguides behave and how they can be ultimately optimized is required. In this work we employ a heuristic modelling approach based on the use of standard optical characterization data along with standard computational numerical methods to obtain a satisfactory approximate solution to the problem of designing realistic laser-written circuit building-blocks, such as straight waveguides, bends and evanescent splitters. We infer basic waveguide design parameters such as the complex index of refraction of laser-written tracks at 3.68 µm mid-infrared wavelengths, as well as the cross-sectional stress-optic index maps, obtaining an overall waveguide simulation that closely matches the measured mid-infrared waveguide properties in terms of anisotropy, mode field distributions and propagation losses. We then explore experimentally feasible waveguide designs in the search of a single-mode low-loss behaviour for both ordinary and extraordinary polarizations. We evaluate the overall losses of s-bend components unveiling the expected radiation bend losses of this type of waveguides, and finally showcase a prototype design of a low-loss evanescent splitter. Developing a realistic waveguide

  4. Tailoring of refractive index profiles in LiNbO3 optical waveguides by low-fluence swift-ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, T; Mendez, A; Carrascosa, M; Carnicero, J; GarcIa-Cabanes, A; Olivares, J; Agullo-Lopez, F; GarcIa-Navarro, A; GarcIa, G

    2007-01-01

    Proton-exchange LiNbO 3 planar optical waveguides have been irradiated with swift ions (Cl 30 MeV) at very low fluences in the range 5 x 10 10 -5 x 10 12 cm -2 . Large modifications in the refractive index profiles, and therefore in the optical performance, have been obtained due to the generation of amorphous nano-tracks by the individual ion impacts. Moreover, a fine tuning of the refractive index can be achieved by a suitable control of the fluence (δn/δφ ∼ 10 -14 cm 2 or δn ∼ 10 -5 for δφ = 10 9 cm -2 ). An effective medium approach has been used to account for those changes and determine the amorphous fraction of material. The results have been compared with information extracted from complementary RBS channelling experiments. From the calculated amorphous fractions a radius of ∼2 nm for the amorphous tracks have been estimated

  5. Dielectric, piezoelectric properties of MnO2-doped (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3–0.05LiNbO3 crystal grown by flux-Bridgman method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Guisheng; Liu, Jinfeng; Yang, Danfeng; Chen, Xiaxia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • KNN–0.05LN based single crystals were grown by flux-Bridgman method. • Dielectric, piezoelecrc and ferroelectric properties were studied. • The effect of MnO 2 doping on the crystals' properties. • Dielectric and other properties were improved due to MnO 2 doping. - Abstract: Lead-free potassium sodium niobate piezoelectric single crystals substituted with lithium and then doped with MnO 2 (K 0.5 Na 0.5 )NbO 3 –0.05LiNbO 3 –yMnO 2 (y = 0%, 1.0% and 1.5%) (abbreviated as KNN–0.05LN–yMnO 2 ) have been grown by flux-Bridgman method using KCl–K 2 CO 3 eutectic composition as the flux. Their actual composition as well as the dielectric and piezoelectric properties were studied. Their actual composition deviated from the ratio of the raw materials due to different segregation coefficients of K and Na. The orthorhombic–tetragonal (T o–t ) and tetragonal–cubic phase transition temperature (the Curie temperature T c ) of the single crystal appears at 186 °C and 441 °C, respectively, for KNN–0.05LN–1.0%MnO 2 , shift to higher temperatures compared with that of pure KNN–0.05LN crystals, according to the dielectric permittivity versus temperature loops. The KNN–0.05LN–1.0%MnO 2 (001) plate shows higher piezoelectric coefficient d 33 and dielectric permittivity ε r when compared with pure KNN–0.05LN crystal, being on the order of 226 pC/N and 799 (161 pC/N and 530 for KNN–0.05LN), respectively. These excellent properties show that MnO 2 dopant is effective in improving KNN–0.05LN based piezoelectric crystals

  6. High-power single-mode cw dye ring laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, H W; Stein, L; Froelich, D; Fugger, B; Welling, H [Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1977-12-01

    Due to spatial hole burning, standing-wave dye lasers require a large amount of selectivity inside the cavity for single-mode operation. The output power of these lasers is limited by losses caused by the frequency selecting elements. In a travelling-wave laser, on the other hand, spatial hole burning does not exist, thereby eliminating the need for high selectivity. A travelling-wave cw dye laser was realized by unidirectional operation of a ring laser, yielding single mode output powers of 1.2 W at 595 nm and of 55 mW in the UV-region with intracavity frequency doubling.

  7. Single-particle states vs. collective modes: friends or enemies ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, T.; Tsunoda, Y.; Togashi, T.; Shimizu, N.; Abe, T.

    2018-05-01

    The quantum self-organization is introduced as one of the major underlying mechanisms of the quantum many-body systems. In the case of atomic nuclei as an example, two types of the motion of nucleons, single-particle states and collective modes, dominate the structure of the nucleus. The collective mode arises as the balance between the effect of the mode-driving force (e.g., quadrupole force for the ellipsoidal deformation) and the resistance power against it. The single-particle energies are one of the sources to produce such resistance power: a coherent collective motion is more hindered by larger spacings between relevant single particle states. Thus, the single-particle state and the collective mode are "enemies" against each other. However, the nuclear forces are rich enough so as to enhance relevant collective mode by reducing the resistance power by changing single-particle energies for each eigenstate through monopole interactions. This will be verified with the concrete example taken from Zr isotopes. Thus, the quantum self-organization occurs: single-particle energies can be self-organized by (i) two quantum liquids, e.g., protons and neutrons, (ii) monopole interaction (to control resistance). In other words, atomic nuclei are not necessarily like simple rigid vases containing almost free nucleons, in contrast to the naïve Fermi liquid picture. Type II shell evolution is considered to be a simple visible case involving excitations across a (sub)magic gap. The quantum self-organization becomes more important in heavier nuclei where the number of active orbits and the number of active nucleons are larger.

  8. An optical channel modeling of a single mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Neda; Liu, Peng; Hall, Trevor James

    2018-05-01

    The evaluation of the optical channel model that accurately describes the single mode fibre as a coherent transmission medium is reviewed through analytical, numerical and experimental analysis. We used the numerical modelling of the optical transmission medium and experimental measurements to determine the polarization drift as a function of time for a fixed length of fibre. The probability distribution of the birefringence vector was derived, which is associated to the 'Poole' equation. The theory and experimental evidence that has been disclosed in the literature in the context of polarization mode dispersion - Stokes & Jones formulations and solutions for key statistics by integration of stochastic differential equations has been investigated. Besides in-depth definition of the single-mode fibre-optic channel, the modelling which concerns an ensemble of fibres each with a different instance of environmental perturbation has been analysed.

  9. Semiconductor and ceramic microstructure made by single mode fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak, R; Tomczyk, M; Walczak, M; Domagalski, P

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the results of micromachining of 3D microstructures of microsystems made from silicon and alumina ceramic using a single mode fiber laser (1064 nm) are presented. The quality of obtained structures and its smallest dimensions with acceptable maintained quality were examined. The influence of variable parameters of laser processing with changing of mapping scale on geometrical features of structures was identified.

  10. Spatially single-mode source of bright squeezed vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, A. M.; Iskhakov, T. Sh.; Sharapova, P.; Lemieux, S.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Chekhova, M. V.; Leuchs, G.

    2014-01-01

    Bright squeezed vacuum, a macroscopic nonclassical state of light, can be obtained at the output of a strongly pumped non-seeded traveling-wave optical parametric amplifier (OPA). By constructing the OPA of two consecutive crystals separated by a large distance we make the squeezed vacuum spatially single-mode without a significant decrease in the brightness or squeezing.

  11. Measurement of flow fluctuations in single longitudinal mode pulsed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... Page 1 ... Keywords. Dye lasers; single longitudinal mode; flow fluctuations. PACS Nos 42.55.Mv; 42.60.Mi; 42.60.By. 1. Introduction. Narrow-band dye lasers offer ... stabilized tunable laser source plays an important role for many applications as mentioned above [1]. For tight wavelength control, the ...

  12. Single-mode multicore fiber for dense space division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Yusuke; Amma, Yoshimichi; Takenaga, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Single-mode multicore fiber (SM-MCF) is attractive for high-capacity transmission. Our fabricated SM-MCFs achieve high core count and low crosstalk with a cladding diameter of 230 µm. Characteristics of fan-in/fan-out for the SM-MCFs are also investigated....

  13. Saturation of single toroidal number Alfvén modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X; Briguglio, S

    2016-01-01

    The results of numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the saturation mechanism of a single toroidal number Alfvén mode, driven unstable, in a tokamak plasma, by the resonant interaction with energetic ions. The effects of equilibrium geometry non-uniformities and finite mode radial width on the wave-particle nonlinear dynamics are discussed. Saturation occurs as the fast-ion density flattening produced by the radial flux associated to the resonant particles captured in the potential well of the Alfvén wave extends over the whole region where mode-particle power exchange can take place. The occurrence of two different saturation regimes is shown. In the first regime, dubbed resonance detuning, that region is limited by the resonance radial width (that is, the width of the region where the fast-ion resonance frequency matches the mode frequency). In the second regime, called radial decoupling, the power exchange region is limited by the mode radial width. In the former regime, the mode saturation amplitude scales quadratically with the growth rate; in the latter, it scales linearly. The occurrence of one or the other regime can be predicted on the basis of linear dynamics: in particular, the radial profile of the fast-ion resonance frequency and the mode structure. Here, we discuss how such properties can depend on the considered toroidal number and compare simulation results with the predictions obtained from a simplified nonlinear pendulum model. (paper)

  14. Feedback stabilization system for pulsed single longitudinal mode tunable lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, Peter; Raymond, Thomas D.

    1991-10-01

    A feedback stabilization system for pulse single longitudinal mode tunable lasers having an excited laser medium contained within an adjustable length cavity and producing a laser beam through the use of an internal dispersive element, including detection of angular deviation in the output laser beam resulting from detuning between the cavity mode frequency and the passband of the internal dispersive element, and generating an error signal based thereon. The error signal can be integrated and amplified and then applied as a correcting signal to a piezoelectric transducer mounted on a mirror of the laser cavity for controlling the cavity length.

  15. Single-mode Laser by Parity-time Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-21

    solenoid -like Pds5B that reside in direct proximity to Wapl and the Smc3-Scc1 in- teraction interface (fig. S13), implying that Wapl and Pds5 control the...accepted 26 September 2014 10.1126/science.1256904 REPORTS ◥ OPTICS Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking Liang Feng,1* Zi Jing Wong,1...Ren-Min Ma,1* Yuan Wang,1,2 Xiang Zhang1,2† Effective manipulation of cavity resonant modes is crucial for emission control in laser physics and

  16. A novel high-efficiency single-mode quantum dot single photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel single-mode single photon source exploiting the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) located inside a photonic wire. Besides an excellent coupling (>95%) of QD spontaneous emission to the fundamental guided mode [1], we show that a single photon collection efficiency...... above 80% within a 0.5 numerical aperture can be achieved using a bottom Bragg mirror and a tapering of the nanowire tip. Because this photon collection strategy does not exploit the Purcell effect, it could also be efficiently applied to broadband single photon emitters such as F-centers in diamond....

  17. Adapting the mode profile of planar waveguides to single-mode fibers : a novel method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.; Vreede, De A.H.

    1991-01-01

    A novel method for coupling single-mode fibers to planar optical circuits with small waveguide dimensions is proposed. The method eliminates the need to apply microoptics or to adapt the waveguide dimensions within the planar circuit to the fiber dimensions. Alignment tolerances are comparable to

  18. Research status of large mode area single polarization active fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chun; Zhang, Ge; Yang, Bin-hua; Cheng, Wei-feng; Gu, Shao-yi

    2018-03-01

    As high power fiber laser used more and more widely, to increase the output power of fiber laser and beam quality improvement have become an important goal for the development of high power fiber lasers. The use of large mode fiber is the most direct and effective way to solve the nonlinear effect and fiber damage in the fiber laser power lifting process. In order to reduce the effect of polarization of the fiber laser system, the study found that when introduces a birefringence in the single-mode fiber, the polarization state changes caused by the birefringence is far greater than the random polarization state changes, then the external disturbance is completely submerged, finally the polarization can be controlled and stabilized. Through the fine design of the fiber structure, if the birefringence is high enough to achieve the separation of the two polarization states, the fiber will have a different cut-off mechanism to eliminate polarization which is not need, which will realize single mode single polarization transmission in a band. In this paper, different types of single polarization fiber design are presented and the application of these fibers are also discussed.

  19. Vibration modes of a single plate with general boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phamová L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with free flexural vibration modes and natural frequencies of a thin plate with general boundary conditions — a simply supported plate connected to its surroundings with torsional springs. Vibration modes were derived on the basis of the Rajalingham, Bhat and Xistris approach. This approach was originally used for a clamped thin plate, so its adaptation was needed. The plate vibration function was usually expressed as a single partial differential equation. This partial differential equation was transformed into two ordinary differential equations that can be solved in the simpler way. Theoretical background of the computations is briefly described. Vibration modes of the supported plate with torsional springs are presented graphically and numerically for three different values of stiffness of torsional springs.

  20. Low-order longitudinal modes of single-component plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkle, M.D.; Greaves, R.G.; Surko, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The low-order modes of spheroidal, pure electron plasmas have been studied experimentally, both in a cylindrical electrode structure and in a quadrupole trap. Comparison is made between measurements of mode frequencies, recent analytical theories, and numerical simulations. Effects considered include trap anharmonicity, image charges, and temperature. Quantitative agreement is obtained between the predictions and these measurements for spheroidal plasmas in the quadrupole trap. In many experiments on single-component plasmas, including antimatter plasmas, the standard diagnostic techniques used to measure the density and temperature are not appropriate. A new method is presented for determining the size, shape, average density, and temperature of a plasma confined in a Penning trap from measurements of the mode frequencies. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. Theoretical study of annealed proton-exchanged Nd $LiNbO_{3}$ channel waveguide lasers with variational method

    CERN Document Server

    De Long Zhang; Yuan Guo Xie; Guilan, Ding; Yuming, Cui; Cai He Chen

    2001-01-01

    The controllable fabrication parameters, including anneal time, initial exchange time, channel width, dependences of TM/sub 00/ mode size, corresponding effective refractive index, effective pump area, and coupling efficiency between pump and laser modes in z-cut annealed proton-exchanged (APE) Nd:LiNbO/sub 3/ channel waveguide lasers were studied by using variational method. The effect of channel width on the surface index increment and the waveguide depth was taken into account. The features of mode size and effective refractive index were summarized, discussed, and compared with previously published experimental results. The effective pump area, which is directly proportional to threshold pump power, increases strongly, slightly, and very slightly with the increase of anneal time, channel width, and initial exchange time, respectively. However, the coupling efficiency, which is directly proportional to slope efficiency, remains constant (around 0.82) no matter what changes made to these parameters. The var...

  2. Exact decoherence dynamics of a single-mode optical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, J.-H.; Yeo Ye; Oh, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    We apply the influence-functional method of Feynman and Vernon to the study of a single-mode optical field that interacts with an environment at zero temperature. Using the coherent-state formalism of the path integral, we derive a generalized master equation for the single-mode optical field. Our analysis explicitly shows how non-Markovian effects manifest in the exact decoherence dynamics for different environmental correlation time scales. Remarkably, when these are equal to or greater than the time scale for significant change in the system, the interplay between the backaction-induced coherent oscillation and the dissipative effect of the environment causes the non-Markovian effect to have a significant impact not only on the short-time behavior but also on the long-time steady-state behavior of the system.

  3. Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami Keshmarzi, Elham; Tait, R Niall; Berini, Pierre

    2018-03-29

    Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are realized in the near infrared using a two-dimensional non-uniform long-range surface plasmon polariton structure. The surface plasmon mode is excited onto a 20 nm-thick, 1 μm-wide metal stripe (Ag or Au) on a silica substrate, where the stripe is stepped in width periodically, forming a 1st order Bragg grating. Optical gain is provided by optically pumping a 450 nm-thick IR-140 doped PMMA layer as the top cladding, which covers the entire length of the Bragg grating, thus creating a DFB laser. Single-mode lasing peaks of very narrow linewidth were observed for Ag and Au DFBs near 882 nm at room temperature. The narrow linewidths are explained by the low spontaneous emission rate into the surface plasmon lasing mode as well as the high quality factor of the DFB structure. The lasing emission is exclusively TM polarized. Kinks in light-light curves accompanied by spectrum narrowing were observed, from which threshold pump power densities can be clearly identified (0.78 MW cm-2 and 1.04 MW cm-2 for Ag and Au DFB lasers, respectively). The Schawlow-Townes linewidth for our Ag and Au DFB lasers is estimated and very narrow linewidths are predicted for the lasers. The lasers are suitable as inexpensive, recyclable and highly coherent sources of surface plasmons, or for integration with other surface plasmon elements of similar structure.

  4. Single mode operation of a TEA CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Kazuhiro; Tunawaki, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Masanobu.

    1993-01-01

    Single mode operation of a TEA CO 2 laser was performed by using an optical system of Fox-Smith type. Laser beam was taken out from the cavity by using a beam splitter, and was reflected by a mirror back to the cavity. By inserting a Fabry-Perot etalon between the splitter and the mirror, beat of laser pulses can be removed completly. (author)

  5. Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, Mads B; Buß, Thomas; Smith, Cameron L C; Petersen, Sidsel R; Jørgensen, Mette M; Kristensen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Dye-doped polymer photonic crystal (PhC) lasers fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography are studied for their reproducibility and stability characteristics. We introduce a phase shift in the PhC lattice that substantially improves the yield of single wavelength emission. Single mode emission and reproducibility of laser characteristics are important if the lasers are to be mass produced in, e.g., optofluidic sensor chips. The fabrication yield is above 85% with highly reproducible wavelengths (within 0.5%), and the temperature dependence on the wavelength is found to be −0.045 or −0.066 nm K -1 , depending on the material

  6. Holograms for laser diode: Single mode optical fiber coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The low coupling efficiency of semiconductor laser emissions into a single mode optical fibers place a severe restriction on their use. Associated with these conventional optical coupling techniques are stringent alignment sensitivities. Using holographic elements, the coupling efficiency may be increased and the alignment sensitivity greatly reduced. Both conventional and computer methods used in the generation of the holographic couplers are described and diagrammed. The reconstruction geometries used are shown to be somewhat restrictive but substantially less rigid than their conventional optical counterparts. Single and double hologram techniques are examined concerning their respective ease of fabrication and relative merits.

  7. Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Buss, Thomas; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Dye-doped polymer photonic crystal (PhC) lasers fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography are studied for their reproducibility and stability characteristics. We introduce a phase shift in the PhC lattice that substantially improves the yield of single wavelength emission. Single mode...... emission and reproducibility of laser characteristics are important if the lasers are to be mass produced in, e. g., optofluidic sensor chips. The fabrication yield is above 85% with highly reproducible wavelengths (within 0.5%), and the temperature dependence on the wavelength is found to be -0.045 or -0...

  8. GHz-bandwidth upconversion detector using a unidirectional ring cavity to reduce multilongitudinal mode pump effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lichun; Høgstedt, Lasse; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate efficient upconversion of modulated infrared (IR) signals over a wide bandwidth (up to frequencies in excess of 1 GHz) via cavity-enhanced sum-frequency generation (SFG) in a periodically poled LiNbO3. Intensity modulated IR signal is produced by combining beams from two 1547 nm...... narrow-linewidth lasers in a fiber coupler while tuning their wavelength difference down to 10 pm or less. The SFG crystal is placed inside an Nd:YVO4 ring cavity that provides 1064 nm circulating pump powers of up to 150 W in unidirectional operation. Measured Fabry-Perot spectrum at 1064 nm confirms...... the enhanced spectral stability from multiple to single longitudinal mode pumping condition. We describe analytically and demonstrate experimentally the deleterious effects of using a multimode pump to the high-bandwidth RF spectrum of the 630 nm SFG output. Offering enhanced sensitivity without the need...

  9. Low-loss single mode light waveguides in polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Heinrich; Boehm, Hans-Jürgen; Hollenbach, Uwe; Mohr, Jürgen; Ostrzinski, Ute; Pfeiffer, Karl; Szczurowski, Marcin; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2012-06-01

    We report on the development of a UV-lithography manufacturing process for low loss single mode light waveguides in a novel polymer and the characterization of the fabricated components in a broad wavelength range from 808 nm to 1550 nm. The main focus of this work lies in providing a quick and cost efficient production technique for single mode waveguides and low loss integrated optical circuits. To achieve this goal we chose a novel photo-structurable polymer host-guest-system consisting of SU8 and a low refractive dopant monomer. Near and far-field measurements at different wavelengths show that the mode propagating within a well designed integrated waveguide structure and the mode of a standard fiber can exhibit a mode overlap value of approximately 1 and suffer only very low coupling losses. We demonstrate excess loss of 0.14 dB/cm for 808 nm, 0.33 dB/cm for 1310 nm and 2.86 dB/cm for 1550 nm. Typical insertion loss values of straight waveguides with a length of 36 mm are 0.9 dB for 808 nm, 1.5 dB for 1310 nm and 10.4 dB for 1550 nm. Polarization dependent loss was found to be less than 0.2 dB on sets of test structures of 36 mm length. We measured material attenuation in the novel polymer material before cross-linking of approximately 0.04 dB/cm for 808 nm and around 0.20 dB/cm for 1310 nm respectively. The presented production technique is suitable to provide low loss and low cost integrated optical circuits for sensor and communication applications in a broad wavelength range.

  10. Zero-mode waveguide nanophotonic structures for single molecule characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Garrison M.; Han, Donghoon; Bohn, Paul W.

    2018-05-01

    Single-molecule characterization has become a crucial research tool in the chemical and life sciences, but limitations, such as limited concentration range, inability to control molecular distributions in space, and intrinsic phenomena, such as photobleaching, present significant challenges. Recent developments in non-classical optics and nanophotonics offer promising routes to mitigating these restrictions, such that even low affinity (K D ~ mM) biomolecular interactions can be studied. Here we introduce and review specific nanophotonic devices used to support single molecule studies. Optical nanostructures, such as zero-mode waveguides (ZMWs), are usually fabricated in thin gold or aluminum films and serve to confine the observation volume of optical microspectroscopy to attoliter to zeptoliter volumes. These simple nanostructures allow individual molecules to be isolated for optical and electrochemical analysis, even when the molecules of interest are present at high concentration (µM–mM) in bulk solution. Arrays of ZMWs may be combined with optical probes such as single molecule fluorescence, single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for distributed analysis of large numbers of single-molecule reactions or binding events in parallel. Furthermore, ZMWs may be used as multifunctional devices, for example by combining optical and electrochemical functions in a single discrete architecture to achieve electrochemical ZMWs. In this review, we will describe the optical properties, fabrication, and applications of ZMWs for single-molecule studies, as well as the integration of ZMWs into systems for chemical and biochemical analysis.

  11. Standing surface acoustic waves in LiNbO3 studied by time resolved X-ray diffraction at Petra III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reusch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out time resolved stroboscopic diffraction experiments on standing surface acoustic waves (SAWs of Rayleigh type on a LiNbO3 substrate. A novel timing system has been developed and commissioned at the storage ring Petra III of Desy, allowing for phase locked stroboscopic diffraction experiments applicable to a broad range of timescales and experimental conditions. The combination of atomic structural resolution with temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale allows for the observation of the atomistic displacements for each time (or phase point within the SAW period. A seamless transition between dynamical and kinematic scattering regimes as a function of the instantaneous surface amplitude induced by the standing SAW is observed. The interpretation and control of the experiment, in particular disentangling the diffraction effects (kinematic to dynamical diffraction regime from possible non-linear surface effects is unambiguously enabled by the precise control of phase between the standing SAW and the synchrotron bunches. The example illustrates the great flexibility and universality of the presented timing system, opening up new opportunities for a broad range of time resolved experiments.

  12. Energy scaling and extended tunability of terahertz wave parametric oscillator with MgO-doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuye; Tang, Longhuang; Xu, Degang; Yan, Chao; He, Yixin; Shi, Jia; Yan, Dexian; Liu, Hongxiang; Nie, Meitong; Feng, Jiachen; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-04-17

    A widely tunable, high-energy terahertz wave parametric oscillator based on 1 mol. % MgO-doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal has been demonstrated with 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed laser pumping. The tunable range of 1.16 to 4.64 THz was achieved. The maximum THz wave output energy of 17.49 μJ was obtained at 1.88 THz under the pump energy of 165 mJ/pulse, corresponding to the THz wave conversion efficiency of 1.06 × 10-4 and the photon conversion efficiency of 1.59%, respectively. Moreover, under the same experimental conditions, the THz output energy of TPO with MgO:SLN crystal was about 2.75 times larger than that obtained from the MgO:CLN TPO at 1.60 THz. Based on the theoretical analysis, the THz energy enhancement mechanism in the MgO:SLN TPO was clarified to originate from its larger Raman scattering cross section and smaller absorption coefficient.

  13. Piezoelectric transducer parameter selection for exciting a single mode from multiple modes of Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hai-Yan; Yu Jian-Bo

    2011-01-01

    Excitation and propagation of Lamb waves by using rectangular and circular piezoelectric transducers surface-bonded to an isotropic plate are investigated in this work. Analytical stain wave solutions are derived for the two transducer shapes, giving the responses of these transducers in Lamb wave fields. The analytical study is supported by a numerical simulation using the finite element method. Symmetric and antisymmetric components in the wave propagation responses are inspected in detail with respect to test parameters such as the transducer geometry, the length and the excitation frequency. By placing only one piezoelectric transducer on the top or the bottom surface of the plate and weakening the strength of one mode while enhancing the strength of the other modes to find the centre frequency, with which the peak wave amplitude ratio between the S0 and A0 modes is maximum, a single mode excitation from the multiple modes of the Lamb waves can be achieved approximately. Experimental data are presented to show the validity of the analyses. The results are used to optimize the Lamb wave detection system. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  14. Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Goldberg, Lew

    2000-01-01

    We report a new approach to obtaining single-transverse-mode operation of a multimode fiber amplifier in which the gain fiber is coiled to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode. We demonstrated this method by constructing a coiled amplifier using Yb-doped, double-clad fiber with a core diameter of 25 μm and a numerical aperture of ∼0.1 (V≅7.4) . When the amplifier was operated as an amplified-spontaneous-emission source, the output beam had an M 2 value of 1.09±0.09 ; when seeded at 1064 nm, the slope efficiency was similar to that of an uncoiled amplifier. This technique will permit scaling of pulsed fiber lasers and amplifiers to significantly higher pulse energies and peak powers and cw fiber sources to higher average powers while maintaining excellent beam quality. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  15. Nonlinear polarization effects in a birefringent single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiekwene, G.C.; Mensah, S.Y.; Brown, C.S.

    2001-04-01

    The nonlinear polarization effects in a birefringent single mode optical fiber is studied using Jacobi elliptic functions. We find that the polarization state of the propagating beam depends on the initial polarization as well as the intensity of the input light in a complicated way. The Stokes polarization parameters are either periodic or aperiodic depending on the value of the Jacobian modulus. Our calculations suggest that the effective beat length of the fiber can become infinite at a higher critical value of the input power when polarization dependent losses are considered. (author)

  16. Mid-Infrared Continuously Tunable Single Mode VECSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Felder, F.; Fill, M.; Zogg, H.

    2011-12-01

    Tunable mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers were developed for the wavelength range around 3.8-3.9 μm and 3.2-3.3 μm, respectively. The devices are based on lead salt materials epitaxially grown by MBE on a Si substrate. The active part consists of PbSe QW in a PbSrSe host layer. Both devices are operated around -20 °C and have output power of several 10 mW. By changing the cavity length, a single mode hop free tuning range up to 80 cm-1 is achieved.

  17. Formation of elements of integrated acousto-optic cell based on LiNbO3 films by methods of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, O A; Zamburg, E G; Kolomiytsev, A S; Suchkov, D O; Shipulin, I A; Shumov, A V

    2015-01-01

    In the experiments we defined modes, and developed the technology of formation of elements of input-output laser emission and microlens of integrated acousto-optic cell by Pulsed Laser Deposition and Focused Ion Beams by using nanotechnology cluster complex, allowing controlled creation of elements in a single process cycle. (paper)

  18. Coupled-Mode Theory derivation of the formal equivalence between a three-mode waveguide and a set of three mutually coupled single-mode waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucher Yann G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The formal identification between a two-mode waveguide and a system of two mutually coupled single-mode waveguides stems from the symmetries of the evolution operator. When the gap tends to zero, the super-modes of the coupled system merge continuously into the modes of the multimode waveguide. For modelling purposes, it is very tempting to extend the analogy to three-mode waveguides (and beyond. But not without some precautions…

  19. Pulse Propagation in Presence of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Chromatic Dispersion in Single Mode Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abid Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of (first and second orders polarization mode dispersion (PMD, chromatic dispersion, and initial chirp makes effects on the propagated pulses in single mode fiber. Nowadays, there is not an accurate mathematical formula that describes the pulse shape in the presence of these effects. In this work, a theoretical study is introduced to derive a generalized formula. This formula is exactly approached to mathematical relations used in their special cases. The presence of second-order PMD (SOPMD will not affect the orthogonality property between the principal states of polarization. The simulation results explain that the interaction of the SOPMD components with the conventional effects (chromatic dispersion and chirp will cause a broadening/narrowing and shape distortion. This changes depend on the specified values of SOPMD components as well as the present conventional parameters.

  20. Single-mode regime in large-mode-area rare-earth-doped rod-type PCFs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poli, F.; Cucinotta, A.; Passaro, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, large-mode-area, double-cladding, rare-earth-doped photonic crystal fibers are investigated in order to understand how the refractive index distribution and the mode competition given by the amplification can assure single-mode propagation. Fibers with different core diameters, i...

  1. Mid-infrared performance of single mode chalcogenide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Justin; Sincore, Alex; Tan, Felix; El Halawany, Ahmed; Riggins, Anthony; Shah, Lawrence; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Richardson, Martin C.; Schepler, Kenneth L.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the intrinsic absorption edge in silica near 2.4 μm, more exotic materials are required to transmit laser power in the IR such as fluoride or chalcogenide glasses (ChGs). In particular, ChG fibers offer broad IR transmission with low losses fibers at four different infrared wavelengths: 2053 nm, 2520 nm and 4550 nm. Polymer clad ChG fibers were drawn with 12.3 μm and 25 μm core diameters. Testing at 2053 nm was accomplished using a > 15 W, CW Tm:fiber laser. Power handling up to 10.2 W with single mode beam quality has been demonstrated, limited only by the available Tm:fiber output power. Anti-reflective coatings were successfully deposited on the ChG fiber facets, allowing up to 90.6% transmission with 12.2 MW/cm2 intensity on the facet. Single mode guidance at 4550 nm was also demonstrated using a quantum cascade laser (QCL). A custom optical system was constructed to efficiently couple the 0.8 NA QCL radiation into the 0.2 NA ChG fiber, allowing for a maximum of 78% overlap between the QCL radiation and fundamental mode of the fiber. With an AR-coated, 25 μm core diameter fiber, >50 mW transmission was demonstrated with > 87% transmission. Finally, we present results on fiber coupling from a free space Cr:ZnSe resonator at 2520 nm.

  2. Estudio de la adición de K+ y LiNbO3 en las propiedades finales del Relaxor PMN procesado por mezcla de polvos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, J. F.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available PMN ceramic relaxor has been investigated by several researchers and many aspects of this material, like powder morphology, phase decomposition, weight loss during sintering process, densification, between others, still are investigated. PMN powder preparation has been shown more efficient when synthesized by columbite route, however lead addition stage for the PMN powder synthesis remains problematical. Therefore, this work proposes a new association of methodologies, using columbite route and the hydroxide precipitation method. Through use of the powder mixture technique, which permitted to obtain good green and sintered densities, was possible to observe K+ y Li+ dopants reduce weight loss in sintering process and change significantly the dielectric properties. Addition of LiNbO3 seeds in conformation stage, which react in a distinct way as a function of the particle size, promotes the formation of differenced grains in the ceramic bulk. Consequently, very different dielectrics properties from conventional PMN ceramic were obtained.El relaxor cerámico PMN ha sido investigado por un gran número de investigadores en el transcurso del tiempo y muchos aspectos de este material, como la morfología de los polvos, descomposición de fases, pérdida de peso en el proceso de sinterización, densificación, entre otras, siguen siendo objetos de investigación. La preparación de polvos de PMN se ha mostrado más efectiva cuando son sintetizados por la ruta de la columbita, pero la etapa de adición de plomo para la síntesis de polvos de PMN todavía sigue problemática. Por lo tanto, este trabajo propone una nueva asociación de metodologías, utilizando la ruta de la columbita y el método de precipitación por hidróxidos. Mediante la utilización de una técnica de mezcla de polvos, la cual permitió lograr buenas densidades en verde y sinterizadas, fue posible observar que los dopantes K+ y Li+ reducen las pérdidas de peso en el proceso de sinterización y cambian significativamente las propiedades dieléctricas. La adición de semillas de LiNbO3 en la etapa de conformación, las cuales reaccionan de modo distinto dependiendo del tamaño de las partículas, promueve la formación de granos de diferente tamaño en el cuerpo cerámico. Como consecuencia de esto, propiedades dieléctricas muy diferentes que en la cerámica PMN convencional son obtenidas.

  3. LiNbO3: A photovoltaic substrate for massive parallel manipulation and patterning of nano-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, M.; García-Cabañes, A.; Jubera, M.; Ramiro, J. B.; Agulló-López, F.

    2015-01-01

    The application of evanescent photovoltaic (PV) fields, generated by visible illumination of Fe:LiNbO 3 substrates, for parallel massive trapping and manipulation of micro- and nano-objects is critically reviewed. The technique has been often referred to as photovoltaic or photorefractive tweezers. The main advantage of the new method is that the involved electrophoretic and/or dielectrophoretic forces do not require any electrodes and large scale manipulation of nano-objects can be easily achieved using the patterning capabilities of light. The paper describes the experimental techniques for particle trapping and the main reported experimental results obtained with a variety of micro- and nano-particles (dielectric and conductive) and different illumination configurations (single beam, holographic geometry, and spatial light modulator projection). The report also pays attention to the physical basis of the method, namely, the coupling of the evanescent photorefractive fields to the dielectric response of the nano-particles. The role of a number of physical parameters such as the contrast and spatial periodicities of the illumination pattern or the particle deposition method is discussed. Moreover, the main properties of the obtained particle patterns in relation to potential applications are summarized, and first demonstrations reviewed. Finally, the PV method is discussed in comparison to other patterning strategies, such as those based on the pyroelectric response and the electric fields associated to domain poling of ferroelectric materials

  4. Quench Propagation Ignition using Single-Mode Diode Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Trillaud, F; Devred, Arnaud; Fratini, M; Leboeuf, D; Tixador, P

    2005-01-01

    The stability of NbTi-based multifilamentary composite wires subjected to local heat disturbances of short durations is studied in pool boiling helium conditions. A new type of heater is being developed to characterize the superconducting to normal state transition. It relies on a single-mode Diode Laser with an optical fiber illuminating the wire surface. This first paper focuses mainly on the feasibility of this new heater technology and eventually discusses the difficulties related to it. A small overview of Diode Lasers and optical fibers revolving around our application is given. Then, we describe the experimental setup, and present some recorded voltage traces of transition and recovery processes. In addition, we present also some energy and Normal Zone Propagation Velocity data and we outline ameliorations that will be done to the system.

  5. Picosecond chirped pulse compression in single-mode fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenhua Cao; Youwei Zhang

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear propagation of picosecond chirped pulses in single mode fibers has been investigated both analytically and numerically. Results show that downchirped pulses can be compressed owing to normal group-velocity dispersion. The compression ratio depends both on the initial peak power and on the initial frequency chirp of the input pulse. While the compression ratio depends both on the initial peak power and on the initial frequency chirp of the input pulse. While the compression ratio increases with the negative frequency chirp, it decreases with the initial peak power of the input pulse. This means that the self-phase modulation induced nonlinear frequency chirp which is linear and positive (up-chirp) over a large central region of the pulse and tends to cancel the initial negative chirp of the pulse. It is also shown that, as the negative chirped pulse compresses temporally, it synchronously experiences a spectral narrowing

  6. Current measurements by Faraday rotation in single mode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.I.; Jahoda, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Development of techniques for measuring magnetic fields and currents by Faraday rotation in single-mode optical fibers has continued. We summarize the results of attempts to measure the toroidal plasma current in the ZT-40 Reversed-Field-Pinch using multi-turn fiber coils. The fiber response is reproducible and in accord with theory, but the amount and distribution of the stress-induced birefringence in this case are such that prediction of the sensor response at low currents is difficult if not impossible. The low-current difficulty can be overcome by twisting the fiber to induce a circular birefringence bias. We report the results of auxiliary experiments with a fiber that has been twisted with 15 turns per meter and then re-coated to lock the twist in place

  7. Single ion implantation for single donor devices using Geiger mode detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielejec, E; Seamons, J A; Carroll, M S

    2010-01-01

    Electronic devices that are designed to use the properties of single atoms such as donors or defects have become a reality with recent demonstrations of donor spectroscopy, single photon emission sources, and magnetic imaging using defect centers in diamond. Ion implantation, an industry standard for atom placement in materials, requires augmentation for single ion capability including a method for detecting a single ion arrival. Integrating single ion detection techniques with the single donor device construction region allows single ion arrival to be assured. Improving detector sensitivity is linked to improving control over the straggle of the ion as well as providing more flexibility in lay-out integration with the active region of the single donor device construction zone by allowing ion sensing at potentially greater distances. Using a remotely located passively gated single ion Geiger mode avalanche diode (SIGMA) detector we have demonstrated 100% detection efficiency at a distance of >75 μm from the center of the collecting junction. This detection efficiency is achieved with sensitivity to ∼600 or fewer electron-hole pairs produced by the implanted ion. Ion detectors with this sensitivity and integrated with a thin dielectric, for example a 5 nm gate oxide, using low energy Sb implantation would have an end of range straggle of -1 and 10 -4 for operation temperatures of ∼300 K and ∼77 K, respectively. Low temperature operation and reduced false, 'dark', counts are critical to achieving high confidence in single ion arrival. For the device performance in this work, the confidence is calculated as a probability of >98% for counting one and only one ion for a false count probability of 10 -4 at an average ion number per gated window of 0.015.

  8. The effect of the ferroelectric domain walls in the scanning near field optical microscopy response of periodically poled Ba2NaNb5O15 and LiNbO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T P J; Jaque, F; Lamela, J; Jaque, D; Lifante, G; Cusso, F; Kamiskii, A A

    2009-01-01

    A study of Ba 2 NaNb 5 O 15 and LiNbO 3 crystals with periodic ferroelectric domain structures using the scanning near field optical microscopy technique is reported. Optical contrast is observed in the regions of ferroelectric domain boundaries and it is analysed using beam propagation method modelling. This reveals that the optical contrast, a consequence of changes in the refractive index, is not due to variation of the waveguide-coupling efficiency, and supports the hypothesis that it is associated with the domain array, which is related to the size of the domain. (fast track communication)

  9. Influencia del tratamiento térmico en la cristalización y rugosidad de películas delgadas de LiNbO3 depositadas por el método “Spin Coating”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaghete, M. A.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Lithium niobate (LiNbO3 thin films with 1/1 stoichiometry were prepared by a spin-coating from polymeric precursor method. The films deposited on silicon (100 substrates, were thermally treated from 400° to 600°C for 3 hours in order to study the influence of thermal treatment on the crystallinity, microstructure, grain size and roughness. X-ray diffraction (XRD results showed that LiNbO3 phase crystallizes at low temperature (400°C. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM that it is possible to obtain dense thin films at temperatures around 500°C. The atomic force microscopy (AFM results showed that the grain size and roughness are strongly influenced by the annealing temperature.Películas delgadas de niobato de litio (LiNbO3 con estequiometria 1/1 han sido preparadas por el proceso “spin-coating” utilizándose precursores poliméricos. Las capas depositadas en sustratos de silicio (100 han sido tratadas térmicamente entre 400°C y 600°C durante 3 horas. El objetivo ha sido estudiar como el tratamiento térmico influye en la cristalinidad, microestructura, tamaño de granos y rugosidad de as películas. La cristalización de la fase LiNbO3 ocurre a bajas temperaturas (400ϒC, como demuestran los resultados de análisis por difracción de rayos-X (DRX obtenidos para las películas. Los resultados por MEB posibilitaron la conclusión de que a temperaturas alrededor de 500°C se obtienen películas delgadas densas. Por su turno, el tamaño de granos y rugosidad son muy afectados por la temperatura de calentamiento, siendo esta conclusión posible por los análisis por MFA.

  10. Radiation resistance characteristics of optical communication system for single mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Masamoto; Chigusa, Yoshiki; Kyodo, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Gohtaro; Watanabe, Hajime; Okamoto, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Takao.

    1988-01-01

    Optical communication has been utilized also for nuclear power stations and fuel reporocessing plants. As the sufficient safety countermeasures are required there, the amount of information becomes enormous, therefore, optical communication, by which the required space is expected to be reduced, becomes more important. Also in the application to submarine cables, attention must be paid to the radiation resistance as there are the effects of potassium contained in large amount in seawater and uranium deposits in sea bottom. Therefore, the reliability of the components of optical communication systems against radiation becomes a problem. In this study, single mode optical fibers and transmission and receipt modules were selected, and high dose rate irradiation supposing the case of using in a cell and low dose rate, long time irradiation supposing the case of submarine cables were carried out to evaluate the radiation resistance characteristics. The fibers tested were SiO 2 core/F-SiO 2 clad type and GeO 2 -SiO 2 core/SiO 2 clad type. The characteristics of increasing loss in irradiation and restoration after irradiation of the former type were superior to those of the latter type. The output of a receipt module was normal during irradiation, and the output power of a transmission module decreases, but other problems did not arise. (K.I.)

  11. Modeling bidirectionally coupled single-mode semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulet, Josep; Masoller, Cristina; Mirasso, Claudio R.

    2002-01-01

    We develop a dynamical model suitable for the description of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers in a face-to-face configuration. Our study considers the propagation of the electric field along the compound system as well as the evolution of the carrier densities within each semiconductor laser. Mutual injection, passive optical feedback, and multiple reflections are accounted for in this framework, although under weak to moderate coupling conditions. We systematically describe the effect of the coupling strength on the spectrum of monochromatic solutions and on the respective dynamical behavior. By assuming single-longitudinal-mode operation, weak mutual coupling and slowly varying approximation, the dynamical model can be reduced to rate equations describing the mutual injection from one laser to its counterpart and vice versa. A good agreement between the complete and simplified models is found for small coupling. For larger coupling, higher-order terms lead to a smaller threshold reduction, reflected itself in the spectrum of the monochromatic solutions and in the dynamics of the optical power

  12. Investigation of single-mode and multi-mode hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in planar geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, N.F.; Cochrane, K.; Douglas, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Previous investigations carried out to study various methods of seeding the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations showed features similar to those seen in hydrodynamic calculations. For periodic single-mode initiations the results showed the appearance of harmonics as the single modes became nonlinear. For periodic multi-mode initiations new modes developed that indicated the presence of mode coupling. The MHD simulations used parameters of the high velocity large radius z-pinch experiments performed in the Z-accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. The cylindrical convergent geometry and variable acceleration of these configurations made comparison with analytic, developed for planar geometry with constant acceleration, difficult. A set of calculations in planar geometry using constant current to produce acceleration and parameters characteristic of the cylindrical implosions has been performed to allow a better comparison. Results of these calculations, comparison with analytic theory, and comparison with the cylindrical configuration calculations will be discussed

  13. Tripartite entanglement of bosonic systems in a noninertial frame beyond the single- mode approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we generalize the entanglement of three-qbit Bosonic systems beyond the single-mode approximation when one of the observers is accelerated. For this purpose, we review the effects of acceleration on field modes and quantum states. The single-mode approximation and beyond the single-mode approximation methods are introduced. After this brief introduction, the main problem of this paper, tripartite entanglement of bosonic systems in a noninertial frame beyond the single- mode approximation is investigated. The tripartite entangled states have different classes with GHZ and W states being most important. Here, we choose &pi-tangle as a measure of tripartite entanglement. If the three parties share GHZ state, the corresponding &pi-tangle will increase by increasing acceleration for some Unruh modes. This phenomenon, increasing entanglement, has never been observed in the single-mode approximation for bosonic case. Moreover, the &pi-tangle dose not exhibit a monotonic behavior with increasing acceleration. In the infinite acceleration limit, the &pi-tangle goes to different nonzero values for distinct Unruh modes. Unlike GHZ state, the entanglement of the W state shows only monotonically increasing and decreasing behaviors with increasing acceleration. Also, the entanglement for all possible choices of Unruh modes approaches only 0.176 in the high acceleration limit. Therefore, according to the quantum entanglement, there is no distinction between the single-mode approximation and beyond the single-mode approximation methods in this limit.

  14. Detecting mode hopping in single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring lasers based on an unbalanced fiber Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingxiang; Hu, Zhengliang; Xu, Pan; Wang, Wei; Hu, Yongming

    2012-10-20

    A method of detecting mode hopping for single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) fiber ring lasers has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The method that is based on an unbalanced Michelson interferometer (MI) utilizing phase generated carrier modulation instantly transforms mode-hopping dynamics into steep phase changes of the interferometer. Multiform mode hops in an SLM erbium-doped fiber ring laser with an 18.6 MHz mode spacing have been detected exactly in real-time domain and discussed in detail. Numerical results show that the MI-based method has a high testing sensitivity for identifying mode hopping, which will play a significant role in evaluating the output stability of SLM fiber lasers.

  15. Low-bending loss and single-mode operation in few-mode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Wang, Hua; Chen, Ming-Yang; Wei, Jin; Cai, Zhi-Min; Li, Lu-Ming; Yang, Ji-Hai; Zhu, Yuan-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The technique of eliminating the higher-order modes in a few-mode optical fiber is proposed. The fiber is designed with a group of defect modes in the cladding. The higher-order modes in the fiber can be eliminated by bending the fiber to induce strong coupling between the defect modes and the higher-order modes. Numerical simulation shows the bending losses of the LP01 mode are lower than 1.5×10-4 dB/turn for the wavelength shorter than 1.625 μm. The proposed fiber can be bent multiple turns at small bending radius which are preferable for FTTH related applications.

  16. Design of all solid state tunable single-mode Ti: sapphire laser for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Nam, S.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Lee, J.M.; Horn, Roland E.; Wendt, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    We designed a Ti:Sapphire laser pumped by a diode laser pumped solid state laser (DPSSL). The DPSSL was intra-cavity frequency doubled and it had 20 W output power. The Ti:Sapphire laser was designed for single longitudinal mode lasing. For single mode lasing, the laser used several solid etalons. We simulated temporal evolution of the laser pulse and single pass amplification rate of the photons in each modes from rate equations. From the result, we found that single mode lasing is viable in this cavity

  17. Single-mode ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    bandgap structure. The structure allows resonant coupling of higher-order modes from the core and acts as a spatially Distributed Mode Filter (DMF). With this approach, we demonstrate passive SM performance in an only ~50cm long and straight ytterbium-doped rod fiber. The amplifier has a mode field...... diameter of ∼59Lim at 1064nm and exhibits a pump absorption of 27dB/m at 976nm. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  18. Startup methods for single-mode gyrotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, D.R.; Tran, M.Q.; Alberti, S.; Tran, T.M.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Dubrovin, A.; Tran, C.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results of startup studies on a 118 GHz TE 22,6 gyrotron are presented and compared with theory. The startup paths through the energy-velocity-pitch-angle plane are determined by the time evolution of the beam parameters during the startup phase. These startup paths are modified by changing the anode and cathode voltage rise from zero to their nominal values and are seen to determine the cavity oscillating mode. Experimental results show specifically that competition between the TE 22,6 and TE -19,7 mode can be completely eliminated by use of the proper startup method in a case where a typical triode startup results in oscillation in the competing TE -19,7 mode. These new results are shown to be in excellent agreement with the theory whose approach is general and therefore applicable to gyrotrons operating in any arbitrary cavity mode. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs

  19. High frequency single mode traveling wave structure for particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanyan, M.I.; Danielyan, V.A.; Grigoryan, B.A.; Grigoryan, A.H. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Tsakanian, A.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut TEMF, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Vardanyan, A.S.; Zakaryan, S.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2016-09-01

    The development of the new high frequency slow traveling wave structures is one of the promising directions in accomplishment of charged particles high acceleration gradient. The disc and dielectric loaded structures are the most known structures with slowly propagating modes. In this paper a large aperture high frequency metallic two-layer accelerating structure is studied. The electrodynamical properties of the slowly propagating TM{sub 01} mode in a metallic tube with internally coated low conductive thin layer are examined.

  20. Startup methods for single-mode gyrotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, D.R.; Tran, M.Q.; Alberti, S.; Tran, T.M.; Antonsen, T.M.; Tran, C.

    1995-03-01

    Experimental results of startup studies on a 118 GHz TE 22,6 gyrotron are presented and compared with theory. The theoretical excitation regimes of competing modes are computed in the energy-velocity-pitch-angle plane near the operation point. The startup paths through the plane are determined by the time evolution of the beam parameters during the startup phase. These startup paths are modified by changing the anode and cathode voltage rise from zero to their nominal values and are seen to determine the cavity oscillating mode. Experimental results show specifically that competition between the TE 22,6 and TE -19,7 mode can be completely eliminated by using the proper startup method in a case where a typical triode startup results in oscillation in the competing TE -19,7 mode. These new results are shown to be in excellent agreement with theory whose approach is general and therefore applicable to gyrotrons operating in any arbitrary cavity mode. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs

  1. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  2. Interaction of solitary pulses in single mode optical fibres | Usman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two solitary waves launched, by way of incidence, into an optical fibre from a single pulse if the pulses are in-phase as understood from results of inverse scattering transform method applied to the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equations, (CNLSE\\'s). The single CNLSE is then understood to describe evolution of coupled ...

  3. Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhaobing; Yam, Scott S-H; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2008-05-15

    A simple refractive index sensor based on a Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber is constructed and demonstrated. The sensor consists of a single symmetrically abrupt taper region in a short piece of single-mode fiber that is terminated by approximately 500 nm thick gold coating. The sensitivity of the new sensor is similar to that of a long-period-grating-type sensor, and its ease of fabrication offers a low-cost alternative to current sensing applications.

  4. Fibre Optic Sensors Using Adiabatically Tapered Single Mode Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    molecules were then coupled hack into the fundamental guided mode of the taper. The level of these emissions was characterised by using a monochromati’r...y y y Pae Ps4 Pase4 Pasc4_ Pase4jPase4 _Pasc4 I pase Plate 3: Can be the bof~tom of Plate 1 after it has been read. P7 28 29 3 31 1 32 PB I PG PG G2 P

  5. Electronically Tunable Current-Mode Quadrature Oscillator Using Single MCDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified current differencing transconductance amlpifier (MCDTA and the MCDTA based quadrature oscillator. The oscillator is current-mode and provides current output from high output impedance terminals. The circuit uses only one MCDTA and two grounded capacitors, and is easy to be integrated. Its oscillation frequency can be tuned electronically by tuning bias currents of MCDTA. Finally, frequency error is analyzed. The results of circuit simulations are in agreement with theory.

  6. Time-optimal thermalization of single-mode Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Alberto; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2014-11-01

    We consider the problem of time-optimal control of a continuous bosonic quantum system subject to the action of a Markovian dissipation. In particular, we consider the case of a one-mode Gaussian quantum system prepared in an arbitrary initial state and which relaxes to the steady state due to the action of the dissipative channel. We assume that the unitary part of the dynamics is represented by Gaussian operations which preserve the Gaussian nature of the quantum state, i.e., arbitrary phase rotations, bounded squeezing, and unlimited displacements. In the ideal ansatz of unconstrained quantum control (i.e., when the unitary phase rotations, squeezing, and displacement of the mode can be performed instantaneously), we study how control can be optimized for speeding up the relaxation towards the fixed point of the dynamics and we analytically derive the optimal relaxation time. Our model has potential and interesting applications to the control of modes of electromagnetic radiation and of trapped levitated nanospheres.

  7. Sinterização de filmes finos de LiNbO3 em forno microondas: estudo da influência da direção do fluxo de calor Sintering of LiNbO3 thin films in microwave furnace: study of the influence of the heat flow direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. L. S. Vasconcelos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Filmes finos de LiNbO3 foram preparados pelo método dos precursores poliméricos e depositados por "spin coating" sobre substratos de safira (0001. Os filmes foram tratados em forno microondas doméstico a 400 ºC por 15 e 20 min. Um material com alta perda dielétrica (susceptor de SiC foi usado para absorver energia das microondas e transformá-la em calor. Este calor foi transferido para o filme a fim de promover a sua cristalização. O susceptor foi posicionado acima do filme ou embaixo do substrato. Desta forma, a influência da direção do fluxo de calor na cristalização das amostras foi verificada. Os filmes foram caracterizados por difração de raios X, microscopia de força atômica e espectrofotometria (transmitância na região UV-visível e o índice de refração foi determinado por elipsometria. O crescimento epitaxial foi observado para o filme com susceptor posicionado embaixo do substrato. Verificou-se que os grãos apresentaram crescimento aleatório quando o susceptor foi posicionado acima do filme. Os filmes apresentaram-se relativamente densos, homogêneos e lisos, com boas propriedades ópticas.LiNbO3 thin films were prepared using a polymeric precursor solution deposited by spin coating on (0001 sapphire substrate. Heat treatment of the films was carried out in a microwave oven at 400 ºC for 15 and 20 min. A SiC susceptor (material with high dielectric loss was used to absorb microwave energy and transfer the heat to the film in order to promote crystallization. The susceptor was placed above the film or below the substrate. Thus, the influence of the heat flux direction on the sample crystallization was verified. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and spectrophotometry (transmittance in the UV-Visible region and the refractive index was determined with an ellipsometer. The epitaxial growth was observed for the film with the susceptor placed below the substrate. Random growth was verified when the susceptor was placed above the film. The films were relatively dense, homogeneous and smooth with good optical properties.

  8. Manipulating single second mode transparency in a corrugated waveguide via the thickness of sputtered gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dan [Key Lab of In-fiber Integrated Optics, Ministry of Education of China, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Photonics Research Center, College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Fan, Ya-Xian, E-mail: yxfan@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Lab of In-fiber Integrated Optics, Ministry of Education of China, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Photonics Research Center, College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Sang, Tang-Qing; Xu, Lan-Lan; Bibi, Aysha [Key Lab of In-fiber Integrated Optics, Ministry of Education of China, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Photonics Research Center, College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Tao, Zhi-Yong, E-mail: zytao@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Lab of In-fiber Integrated Optics, Ministry of Education of China, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Photonics Research Center, College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-11

    We propose a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in a cylindrical waveguide with undulated metallic walls. The transparency, induced by multi-mode interactions in waveguides, not only has a narrow line-width, but also consists of a single second-order transverse mode, which corresponds to the Bessel function distributions investigated extensively due to their unique characteristics. By increasing the thickness of sputtered gold layers of the waveguide, we demonstrate a frequency-agile single mode transparency phenomenon in a terahertz radiation. It is found that the center frequency of the transparency is linearly related to the gold thickness, indicating the achievement of a controllable single mode terahertz device. The field distributions at the cross-sections of outlets verify the single second mode transparency and indicate the mechanism of its frequency manipulation, which will significantly benefit the mode-control engineering in terahertz applications. - Highlights: • An analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz tubes is proposed. • A single second transverse mode of Bessel distributions is observed in the pass band. • The operating frequency can be linearly controlled by the sputtered gold thickness. • We can effectively manipulate the slow down factor of light by the gold thickness. • The transparency characteristics rely on the transition of multi-mode interactions.

  9. Manipulating single second mode transparency in a corrugated waveguide via the thickness of sputtered gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dan; Fan, Ya-Xian; Sang, Tang-Qing; Xu, Lan-Lan; Bibi, Aysha; Tao, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in a cylindrical waveguide with undulated metallic walls. The transparency, induced by multi-mode interactions in waveguides, not only has a narrow line-width, but also consists of a single second-order transverse mode, which corresponds to the Bessel function distributions investigated extensively due to their unique characteristics. By increasing the thickness of sputtered gold layers of the waveguide, we demonstrate a frequency-agile single mode transparency phenomenon in a terahertz radiation. It is found that the center frequency of the transparency is linearly related to the gold thickness, indicating the achievement of a controllable single mode terahertz device. The field distributions at the cross-sections of outlets verify the single second mode transparency and indicate the mechanism of its frequency manipulation, which will significantly benefit the mode-control engineering in terahertz applications. - Highlights: • An analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz tubes is proposed. • A single second transverse mode of Bessel distributions is observed in the pass band. • The operating frequency can be linearly controlled by the sputtered gold thickness. • We can effectively manipulate the slow down factor of light by the gold thickness. • The transparency characteristics rely on the transition of multi-mode interactions.

  10. Quantum dash based single section mode locked lasers for photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Siddharth; Calò, Cosimo; Chimot, Nicolas; Radziunas, Mindaugas; Arkhipov, Rostislav; Barbet, Sophie; Accard, Alain; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Lelarge, Francois

    2014-05-05

    We present the first demonstration of an InAs/InP Quantum Dash based single-section frequency comb generator designed for use in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The laser cavity is closed using a specifically designed Bragg reflector without compromising the mode-locking performance of the self pulsating laser. This enables the integration of single-section mode-locked laser in photonic integrated circuits as on-chip frequency comb generators. We also investigate the relations between cavity modes in such a device and demonstrate how the dispersion of the complex mode frequencies induced by the Bragg grating implies a violation of the equi-distance between the adjacent mode frequencies and, therefore, forbids the locking of the modes in a classical Bragg Device. Finally we integrate such a Bragg Mirror based laser with Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) to demonstrate the monolithic integration of QDash based low phase noise sources in PICs.

  11. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumel, D; Fortier, S; Gales, S; Guillot, J; LangevinJoliot, H; Laurent, H; Maison, JM; Vernotte, J; Bordewijck, J; Brandenburg, S; Krasznahorkay, A; Crawley, GM; Massolo, CP; Renteria, M; Khendriche, A

    1996-01-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in Ni-64, Zr-90, Sn-120 and (208)pb excited by means of the (alpha,He-3) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular

  12. Attenuation Coefficient of Single-Mode Periodic Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A.; Mazoyer, S.; Smigaj, W.; Lalanne, P.

    2011-10-01

    It is widely accepted that, on ensemble average, the transmission T of guided modes decays exponentially with the waveguide length L due to small imperfections, leading to the important figure of merit defined as the attenuation-rate coefficient α=-⟨ln⁡(T)⟩/L. In this Letter, we evidence that the exponential-damping law is not valid in general for periodic monomode waveguides, especially as the group velocity decreases. This result, that contradicts common beliefs and experimental practices aiming at measuring α, is supported by a theoretical study of light transport in the limit of very small imperfections, and by numerical results obtained for two waveguide geometries that offer contrasted damping behaviors.

  13. Low-loss single-mode hollow-core fiber with anisotropic anti-resonant elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Bang, Ole; Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    A hollow-core fiber using anisotropic anti-resonant tubes in thecladding is proposed for low loss and effectively single-mode guidance. We show that the loss performance and higher-order mode suppression is significantly improved by using symmetrically distributed anisotropic antiresonant tubes i...

  14. Amplitude Noise Suppression and Orthogonal Multiplexing Using Injection-Locked Single-Mode VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; von Lerber, Tuomo; Lassas, Matti

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel.......We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel....

  15. Celiac disease biodetection using lossy-mode resonances generated in tapered single-mode optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, A. B.; Corres, J. M.; Del Villar, I.; Matias, I. R.; Arregui, F. J.

    2014-05-01

    This work presents the development and test of an anti-gliadin antibodies biosensor based on lossy mode resonances (LMRs) to detect celiac disease. Several polyelectrolites were used to perform layer-by-layer assembly processes in order to generate the LMR and to fabricate a gliadin-embedded thin-film. The LMR shifted 20 nm when immersed in a 5 ppm anti-gliadin antibodies-PBS solution, what makes this bioprobe suitable for detecting celiac disease. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that LMRs are used to detect celiac disease and these results suppose promising prospects on the use of such phenomena as biological detectors.

  16. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Galès, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J. M.; Vernotte, J.; Bordewijck, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G. M.; Massolo, C. P.; Renteria, M.; Khendriche, A.

    1996-02-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in 64Ni, 90Zr, 120Sn and 208Pb excited by means of the (α, 3He) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular correlation analysis. The structure located between 11 and 15 MeV in 91Zr, and between 8 and 12 MeV excitation energy in 209Pb display large departures from a pure statistical decay. The corresponding non-statistical branching ratios are compared with the results of two theoretical calculations.

  17. Single mode operation of a hybrid optically pumped D2O far infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, D.C.; Siegrist, M.R.

    1990-04-01

    We have achieved single mode operation in a hybrid optically pumped D 2 O far infrared laser. The active volume of the resonator was divided into two sections separated by a thin plastic foil. The larger section served as the main gain medium and the shorter section as mode selective element. The vapor pressure in the smaller volume was either very low or alternatively about 3 times higher than the pressure in the main part. In both cases single mode operation was achieved without any reduction of the total output energy. (author) 13 refs., 7 figs

  18. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumel, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Fortier, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Gales, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Guillot, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Langevin-Joliot, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Laurent, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 -Orsay (France); Maison, J.M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Vernotte, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Bordewijck, J. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, S. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Krasznahorkay, A. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Crawley, G.M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Massolo, C.P. [Universitad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Renteria, M. [Universitad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Khendriche, A. [University of Tizi-Ouzou, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    1996-03-18

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in {sup 64}Ni, {sup 90}Zr, {sup 120}Sn and {sup 208}Pb excited by means of the ({alpha},{sup 3}He) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular correlation analysis. The structure located between 11 and 15 MeV in {sup 91}Zr, and between 8 and 12 MeV excitation energy in {sup 209}Pb display large departures from a pure statistical decay. The corresponding non-statistical branching ratios are compared with the results of two theoretical calculations. (orig.).

  19. Multi-level single mode 2D polymer waveguide optical interconnects using nano-imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.U.; Justice, J.; Petäjä, J.; Korhonen, T.; Boersma, A.; Wiegersma, S.; Karppinen, M.; Corbett, B.

    2015-01-01

    Single and multi-layer passive optical interconnects using single mode polymer waveguides are demonstrated using UV nano-imprint lithography. The fabrication tolerances associated with imprint lithography are investigated and we show a way to experimentally quantify a small variation in index

  20. A New Three-Dimensional High-Accuracy Automatic Alignment System For Single-Mode Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun-jiang, Rao; Shang-lian, Huang; Ping, Li; Yu-mei, Wen; Jun, Tang

    1990-02-01

    In order to achieve the low-loss splices of single-mode fibers, a new three-dimension high-accuracy automatic alignment system for single -mode fibers has been developed, which includes a new-type three-dimension high-resolution microdisplacement servo stage driven by piezoelectric elements, a new high-accuracy measurement system for the misalignment error of the fiber core-axis, and a special single chip microcomputer processing system. The experimental results show that alignment accuracy of ±0.1 pin with a movable stroke of -±20μm has been obtained. This new system has more advantages than that reported.

  1. Single-mode annular chirally-coupled core fibers for fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Hao, He; He, Linlu; Gong, Mali

    2018-03-01

    Chirally-coupled core (CCC) fiber can transmit single fundamental mode and effectively suppresses higher-order mode (HOM) propagation, thus improve the beam quality. However, the manufacture of CCC fiber is complicated due to its small side core. To decrease the manufacture difficulty in China, a novel fiber structure is presented, defined as annular chirally-coupled core (ACCC) fiber, replacing the small side core by a larger side annulus. In this paper, we designed the fiber parameters of this new structure, and demonstrated that the new structure has a similar property of single mode with traditional CCC fiber. Helical coordinate system was introduced into the finite element method (FEM) to analyze the mode field in the fiber, and the beam propagation method (BPM) was employed to analyze the influence of the fiber parameters on the mode loss. Based on the result above, the fiber structure was optimized for efficient single-mode transmission, in which the core diameter is 35 μm with beam quality M2 value of 1.04 and an optical to optical conversion efficiency of 84%. In this fiber, fundamental mode propagates in an acceptable loss, while the HOMs decay rapidly.

  2. Processing of complex shapes with single-mode resonant frequency microwave applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, L.A.; Delgado, R.; Hawley, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Microwave processing is an alternative to conventional composite processing techniques. Single-mode microwave applicators efficiently couple microwave energy into the composite. The application of the microwave energy is greatly affected by the geometry of the composite. In the single mode microwave applicator, two types of modes are available. These modes are best suited to processing flat planar samples or cylindrical samples with geometries that align with the electric fields. Mode-switching is alternating between different electromagnetic modes with the intelligent selection of the modes to alleviate undesirable temperature profiles. This method has improved the microwave heating profiles of materials with complex shapes that do not align with either type of electric field. Parts with two different complex geometries were fabricated from a vinyl toluene/vinyl ester resin with a continuous glass fiber reinforcement by autoclaving and by microwave techniques. The flexural properties of the microwave processed samples were compared to the flexural properties of autoclaved samples. The trends of the mechanical properties for the complex shapes were consistent with the results of experiments with flat panels. This demonstrated that mode-switching techniques are as applicable for the complex shapes as they are for the simpler flat panel geometry

  3. Single-molecule electronics: Cooling individual vibrational modes by the tunneling current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkebo, Jacob; Romano, Giuseppe; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C

    2016-03-21

    Electronic devices composed of single molecules constitute the ultimate limit in the continued downscaling of electronic components. A key challenge for single-molecule electronics is to control the temperature of these junctions. Controlling heating and cooling effects in individual vibrational modes can, in principle, be utilized to increase stability of single-molecule junctions under bias, to pump energy into particular vibrational modes to perform current-induced reactions, or to increase the resolution in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy by controlling the life-times of phonons in a molecule by suppressing absorption and external dissipation processes. Under bias the current and the molecule exchange energy, which typically results in heating of the molecule. However, the opposite process is also possible, where energy is extracted from the molecule by the tunneling current. Designing a molecular "heat sink" where a particular vibrational mode funnels heat out of the molecule and into the leads would be very desirable. It is even possible to imagine how the vibrational energy of the other vibrational modes could be funneled into the "cooling mode," given the right molecular design. Previous efforts to understand heating and cooling mechanisms in single molecule junctions have primarily been concerned with small models, where it is unclear which molecular systems they correspond to. In this paper, our focus is on suppressing heating and obtaining current-induced cooling in certain vibrational modes. Strategies for cooling vibrational modes in single-molecule junctions are presented, together with atomistic calculations based on those strategies. Cooling and reduced heating are observed for two different cooling schemes in calculations of atomistic single-molecule junctions.

  4. A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xiao; Dong, Xinzheng; Tian, Jinrong; Song, Yanrong; Wang, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a highly stable mode locked fiber laser based on single wall carbon nanotubes. The mode locking is achieved by the evanescent field interaction of the propagating light with a single wall carbon nanotube saturable absorber in a microfiber. The pulse width is 66 fs, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the shortest pulse achieved in a carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser. The maximum average output power is 26 mW, which is about 20 times larger than that of a typical carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser. The center of the wavelength is 1555 nm, with 54 nm spectral width. The repetition rate is 146 MHz. To investigate the laser’s stability, the output pulses are monitored for 120 h and there is no significant degradation of the laser spectral width or shape. (paper)

  5. Self-Similar Nanocavity Design with Ultrasmall Mode Volume for Single-Photon Nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Hyeongrak; Heuck, Mikkel; Englund, Dirk R.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a photonic crystal nanocavity design with self-similar electromagnetic boundary conditions, achieving ultrasmall mode volume (V-eff). The electric energy density of a cavity mode can be maximized in the air or dielectric region, depending on the choice of boundary conditions. We illust...... at the single-photon level. These features open new directions in cavity quantum electrodynamics, spectroscopy, and quantum nonlinear optics....

  6. High performance mode locking characteristics of single section quantum dash lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Ricardo; Murdoch, S G; Watts, R T; Merghem, K; Martinez, Anthony; Lelarge, Francois; Accard, Alain; Barry, L P; Ramdane, Abderrahim

    2012-04-09

    Mode locking features of single section quantum dash based lasers are investigated. Particular interest is given to the static spectral phase profile determining the shape of the mode locked pulses. The phase profile dependence on cavity length and injection current is experimentally evaluated, demonstrating the possibility of efficiently using the wide spectral bandwidth exhibited by these quantum dash structures for the generation of high peak power sub-picosecond pulses with low radio frequency linewidths.

  7. Wavelength-selectable and steady single-mode erbium-doped fiber multiple ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a stable and selectable C-band erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with single-longitudinal-mode output, a multiple ring architecture is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In this work, we design a passively quadruple-ring structure in the cavity of an EDF laser to produce a Vernier effect with a mode filter for suppressing the multimode spikes significantly. In addition, the output performance and stability of the proposed EDF ring laser are discussed.

  8. Investigation of single lateral mode for 852nm diode lasers with ridge waveguide design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chu; Guan, Baolu; Mi, Guoxin; Liao, Yiru; Liu, Zhenyang; Li, Jianjun; Xu, Chen

    2016-11-01

    852nm Narrow linewidth lasers can be widely used in the field of ultra-fine spectrum measurement, Cs atomic clock control, satellite and optical fiber communication and so on. Furthermore, the stability of the single lateral mode is a very important condition to guarantee the narrow linewidth lasers. Here we investigate experimentally the influence of the narrow ridge structure and asymmetrical waveguide design on the stability single lateral mode of an 852nm diode laser. According to the waveguide theoretical analysis, ridge mesa etch depth (Δη , related to the refractive index difference of parallel to the junction) and ridge mesa width (the narrower the more control force to low order mode) are the main elements for lateral modes. In this paper, we designed different structures to investigate and verify major factors for lateral mode by experiment, and to confirm our thought. Finally, the 5μm mesa ridge laser, 800nm etch depth, with groove structure obtains excellent steady single lateral mode output by 150mA operating current and 30°C temperature. The optical spectrum FWHM is 0.5nm and side mode suppression ratio is 27dBm with uncoated. The laser with 1mm cavity length showed the threshold current of 50mA, a lasing wavelength of λ = 852.6nm, slope efficiency of above 0.7mW/mA. We accomplished single lateral mode of ridge waveguide edge-emitting lasers which can also be used as a laser source in the ultra-narrow linewidth external cavity laser system.

  9. Development of a 10-decade single-mode reactor flux monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, K.H.; Shepard, R.L.; Falter, K.G.; Reese, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional wide-range neutron channels employ three optional modes to monitor the required flux range from source levels to full power (typically 10 or more decades). Difficult calibrations are necessary to provide a continuous output signal when such a system switches from counting mode in the source range to mean-square voltage mode in the midrange to dc current mode in the power range. In an ORNL proof-of-principle test, a method of extended range counting was implemented with a fission counter and conventional wide-band pulse processing electronics to provide a single-mode, monotonically increasing signal that spanned /approximately 10/ decades of neutron flux. Ongoing work includes design, fabrication, and testing of a comlpete neutron flux monitoring system suitable for advanced liquid metal reactor designs. 6 refs., 4 figs

  10. Facile synthesis of graphene on single mode fiber via chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.; Man, B.Y.; Jiang, S.Z.; Yang, C.; Liu, M.; Chen, C.S.; Xu, S.C.; Feng, D.J.; Bi, D.; Liu, F.Y.; Qiu, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Direct deposition of graphene film on the standard single mode fiber is offered using a Cu-vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition system. The gas flow of H 2 and Ar before the growth process plays a crucial role for the direct deposition of the graphene film and the layers of the graphene can be controlled by the growth time. With a large gas flow, Cu atoms are carried off with the gas flow and hard to deposit on the surface of the single mode fiber before the growth process. Consequently, uniform graphene film is obtained in this case. On the contrary, with a lower one, Cu atoms is facile to deposit on the surface of the single mode fiber and form nanodots acting as active catalytic sites for the growth of carbon nanotubes. This method presents us a promising transfer-free technique for fabrication of the photonic applications.

  11. Utilizing wheel-ring architecture for stable and selectable single-longitudinal-mode erbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2018-03-01

    To achieve a steady single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser, the wheel-ring architecture is proposed in the laser cavity. According to Vernier effect, the proposed wheel-ring can produce three different free spectrum ranges (FSRs) to serve as the mode-filter for suppressing the densely multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM). Here, to complete wavelength-tunable EDF laser, an optical tunable bandpass filter (OTBF) is utilized inside the cavity for tuning arbitrarily. In addition, the entire output performances of the proposed EDF wheel-ring laser are also discussed and analyzed experimentally.

  12. Single-mode hole-assisted fiber as a bending-loss insensitive fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Tomoya; Matsui, Takashi; Fukai, Chisato; Kurashima, Toshio

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the design and characteristics of a single-mode and low bending loss HAF both numerically and experimentally. An air filling fraction S is introduced to enable us to design a HAF with desired characteristics more easily. We show that we can expect to realize a single-mode and low bending loss HAF by considering the S dependence of the bending loss α b and cutoff wavelength λ c as well as their relative index difference Δ dependence. We also show that the mode-field diameter (MFD) and chromatic dispersion characteristics of the single-mode and low bending loss HAF can be tailored by optimizing the distance between the core and the air holes. We also investigate the usefulness of the fabricated HAFs taking the directly modulated transmission and multipath interference (MPI) characteristics into consideration. We show that the designed HAF has sufficient applicability to both analog and digital transmission systems. Our results reveal that the single-mode and low bending loss HAF is beneficial in terms of developing a future fiber to the home (FTTH) network as well as for realizing flexible optical wiring.

  13. Large-core single-mode rib SU8 waveguide using solvent-assisted microcontact molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a novel fabrication technique for constructing a polymer-based large-core single-mode rib waveguide. A negative tone SU8 photoresist with a high optical transmission over a large wavelength range and stable mechanical properties was used as a waveguide material. A waveguide was constructed by using a polydimethylsiloxane stamp combined with a solvent-assisted microcontact molding technique. The effects on the final pattern's geometry of four different process conditions were investigated. Optical simulations were performed using beam propagation method software. Single-mode beam propagation was observed at the output of the simulated waveguide as well as the actual waveguide through the microscope image.

  14. Second-order interference of two independent and tunable single-mode continuous-wave lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianbin; Chen Hui; Zheng Huaibin; Xu Zhuo; Wei Dong; Zhou Yu; Gao Hong; Li Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    The second-order temporal interference of two independent single-mode continuous-wave lasers is discussed by employing two-photon interference in Feynman’s path integral theory. It is concluded that whether the second-order temporal interference pattern can or cannot be retrieved via two-photon coincidence counting rate is dependent on the resolution time of the detection system and the frequency difference between these two lasers. Two identical and tunable single-mode continuous-wave diode lasers are employed to verify the predictions. These studies are helpful to understand the physics of two-photon interference with photons of different spectra. (paper)

  15. The second-order interference of two independent single-mode He-Ne lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbin; Le, Mingnan; Bai, Bin; Wang, Wentao; Chen, Hui; Zhou, Yu; Li, Fu-li; Xu, Zhuo

    2015-09-01

    The second-order spatial and temporal interference patterns with two independent single-mode continuous-wave He-Ne lasers are observed when these two lasers are incident to two adjacent input ports of a 1:1 non-polarizing beam splitter, respectively. Two-photon interference based on the superposition principle in Feynman's path integral theory is employed to interpret the experimental results. The conditions to observe the second-order interference pattern with two independent single-mode continuous-wave lasers are discussed. It is concluded that frequency stability is important to observe the second-order interference pattern with two independent light beams.

  16. Single Mode Fiber Optic Transceiver Using Short Wavelength Active Devices In Long Wavelength Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Frederick J.; Campbell, Daniel R.; Corke, Michael; Stowe, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Presently, single mode optical fiber technology is being utilized in systems to supply telephone service to the subscriber. However, in an attempt to be competitive with copper based systems, there are many development programs underway to determine the most cost effective solution while still providing a service that will either satisfy or be upgradeable to satisfy the demands of the consumer for the next 10 to 20 years. One such approach is to combine low cost laser transmitters and silicon receivers, which have been developed for the "compact disc" industry, with fiber that operates in the single mode regime at 1300 nm. In this paper, an optical transceiver will be presented, consisting of a compact disc laser, a silicon detector and a single mode coupler at 1300 nm. A possible system layout is presented which operates at 780 nm bi-directionally for POTS and upgradeable to 1300 nm for video services. There are several important design criteria that have to be considered in the development of such a system which will be addressed. These include: 1. Optimization of coupled power from laser to fiber while maintaining stable launched conditions over a wide range of environmental conditions. 2. Consideration of the multimode operation of the 1300 nm single mode fiber while operating in the 780 nm wavelength region. 3. Development of a low cost pseudo-wavelength division multiplexer for 1300 nm single mode/780 nm multimode operation and a low cost dual mode 50/50, 780 nm splitter using 1300 nm fiber. Details will be given of the design criteria and solution in terms of optimized design. Results of the performance of several prototype devices will be given with indications of the merits of this approach and where further development effort should be applied.

  17. Real-Time N2O Gas Detection System for Agricultural Production Using a 4.6-µm-Band Laser Source Based on a Periodically Poled LiNbO3 Ridge Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Yoshihara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a gas monitoring system for detecting nitrous oxide (N2O gas using a compact mid-infrared laser source based on difference-frequency generation in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide. We obtained a stable output power of 0.62 mW from a 4.6-μm-band continuous-wave laser source operating at room temperature. This laser source enabled us to detect atmospheric N2O gas at a concentration as low as 35 parts per billion. Using this laser source, we constructed a new real-time in-situ monitoring system for detecting N2O gas emitted from potted plants. A few weeks of monitoring with the developed detection system revealed a strong relationship between nitrogen fertilization and N2O emission. This system is promising for the in-situ long-term monitoring of N2O in agricultural production, and it is also applicable to the detection of other greenhouse gases.

  18. Real-time N2O gas detection system for agricultural production using a 4.6-µm-band laser source based on a periodically poled LiNbO3 ridge waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokura, Akio; Asobe, Masaki; Enbutsu, Koji; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Takenouchi, Hirokazu

    2013-08-05

    This article describes a gas monitoring system for detecting nitrous oxide (N2O) gas using a compact mid-infrared laser source based on difference-frequency generation in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide. We obtained a stable output power of 0.62 mW from a 4.6-μm-band continuous-wave laser source operating at room temperature. This laser source enabled us to detect atmospheric N2O gas at a concentration as low as 35 parts per billion. Using this laser source, we constructed a new real-time in-situ monitoring system for detecting N2O gas emitted from potted plants. A few weeks of monitoring with the developed detection system revealed a strong relationship between nitrogen fertilization and N2O emission. This system is promising for the in-situ long-term monitoring of N2O in agricultural production, and it is also applicable to the detection of other greenhouse gases.

  19. Dual-mode optical microscope based on single-pixel imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Jiménez, Angel David; Clemente Pesudo, Pedro Javier; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis Sáez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an inverted microscope that can image specimens in both reflection and transmission modes simultaneously with a single light source. The microscope utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) for patterned illumination altogether with two single-pixel photosensors for efficient light detection. The system, a scan-less device with no moving parts, works by sequential projection of a set of binary intensity patterns onto the sample that are codified onto a modified commercial DMD...

  20. Computational investigation of single mode vs multimode Rayleigh endash Taylor seeding in Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, M.R.; Deeney, C.; Roderick, N.F.

    1998-01-01

    A series of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic calculations have been carried out to investigate single and multimode growth and mode coupling for magnetically-driven Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities in Z pinches. Wavelengths ranging from 5.0 mm down to 1.25 mm were considered. Such wavelengths are comparable to those observed at stagnation using a random density open-quotes seedingclose quotes method. The calculations show that wavelengths resolved by less than 10 cells exhibit an artificial decrease in initial Fourier spectrum amplitudes and a reduction in the corresponding amplitude growth. Single mode evolution exhibits linear exponential growth and the development of higher harmonics as the mode transitions into the nonlinear phase. The mode growth continues to exponentiate but at a slower rate than determined by linear hydrodynamic theory. In the two and three mode case, there is clear evidence of mode coupling and inverse cascade. In addition, distinct modal patterns are observed late in the implosion, resulting from finite shell thickness and magnetic field effects. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics. thinsp

  1. 107.5 Gb/s 850 nm multi- and single-mode VCSEL transmission over 10 and 100 m of multi-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Agustin, M.; Chorchos, L.

    2016-01-01

    First time successful 107.5 Gb/s MultiCAP 850 nm OM4 MMF transmissions over 10 m with multi-mode VCSEL and up to 100 m with single-mode VCSEL are demonstrated, with BER below 7% overhead FEC limit measured for each case.......First time successful 107.5 Gb/s MultiCAP 850 nm OM4 MMF transmissions over 10 m with multi-mode VCSEL and up to 100 m with single-mode VCSEL are demonstrated, with BER below 7% overhead FEC limit measured for each case....

  2. Probing quantum entanglement in the Schwarzschild space-time beyond the single-mode approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Juan; Ding, Zhi-Yong; Ye, Liu

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we deduce the vacuum structure for Dirac fields in the background of Schwarzschild space-time beyond the single-mode approximation and discuss the performance of quantum entanglement between particle and antiparticle modes of a Dirac field with Hawking effect. It is shown that Hawking radiation does not always destroy the physically accessible entanglement, and entanglement amplification may happen in some cases. This striking result is different from that of the single-mode approximation, which holds that the Hawking radiation can only destroy entanglement. Lastly, we analyze the physically accessible entanglement relation outside the event horizon and demonstrate that the monogamy inequality is constantly established regardless of the choice of given parameters.

  3. Quantum teleportation via noisy bipartite and tripartite accelerating quantum states: beyond the single mode approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounia, M.; Shamirzaie, M.; Ashouri, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper quantum teleportation of an unknown quantum state via noisy maximally bipartite (Bell) and maximally tripartite (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)) entangled states are investigated. We suppose that one of the observers who would receive the sent state accelerates uniformly with respect to the sender. The interactions of the quantum system with its environment during the teleportation process impose noises. These (unital and nonunital) noises are: phase damping, phase flip, amplitude damping and bit flip. In expressing the modes of the Dirac field used as qubits, in the accelerating frame, the so-called single mode approximation is not imposed. We calculate the fidelities of teleportation, and discuss their behaviors using suitable plots. The effects of noise, acceleration and going beyond the single mode approximation are discussed. Although the Bell states bring higher fidelities than GHZ states, the global behaviors of the two quantum systems with respect to some noise types, and therefore their fidelities, are different.

  4. Practical Considerations Concerning the Interleaved Transition Mode Single-stage Ballast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a novel single-stage interleaved ballast focusing on practical design aspects like: key current expression, overall losses, harmonic analysis of the differential-mode EMI current and preheating ballast function. A new preheating method is also presented. A PSPICE...

  5. Analytical Expression for the Electric Field of the Single Mode Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The simplest model of the laser is that of a single mode system homogenously broadened. The dynamical behavior of this laser is described by three differential equations, called Haken-Lorenz equations[1], similar to the Lorenz model [1] already known to predict deterministic chaos. In previous recent work [5-7] we have ...

  6. Optical Field-Strength Polarization of Two-Mode Single-Photon States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.; Barral, D.; Moreno, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of…

  7. Current Mode Full-Wave Rectifier Based on a Single MZC-CDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a current mode full-wave rectifier based on single modified Z copy current difference transconductance amplifier (MZC-CDTA and two switches. The circuit is simple and is suitable for IC implementation. The functionality of the circuit is verified with SPICE simulation using 0.35 μm TSMC CMOS technology parameters.

  8. Flexible long-range surface plasmon polariton single-mode waveguide for optical interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernoux, Christian; Chen, Yiting; Markey, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide arrays with materials, mainly silicones, carefully selected with the aim to be used as mechanically flexible single-mode optical interconnections, the socalled "plasmonic arc" working at 1.55μm...

  9. Single-mode very wide tunability in laterally coupled semiconductor lasers with electrically controlled reflectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, Giora; Chen, Howard Z.; Grave, Ilan; Yariv, Amnon

    1991-04-01

    The operation of a novel multisection structure comprised of laterally coupled gain-guided semiconductor lasers is demonstrated. It is shown that tunable single longitudinal mode operation can be achieved with a high degree of frequency selectivity. The device has a tuning range of 14.5 nm, the widest observed to date in a monolithic device.

  10. Development of IR single mode optical fibers for DARWIN-nulling interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.; Cheng, L.K.; Bosch, B. van den; Dijkhuizen, N.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Lucas, J.; Boussard-Plédel, C.; Conseil, C.; Bureau, B.; Carmo, J.P. do

    2014-01-01

    The DARWIN mission aims to detect weak infra-red emission lines from distant orbiting earth-like planets using nulling interferometry. This requires filtering of wavefront errors using single mode waveguides operating at a wavelength range of 6.5-20 μm. This article describes the optical design of

  11. Extremely low-loss single-mode photonic crystal fiber in the terahertz regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Hasanuzzaman, G. K M; Sadath, Md Anwar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an updated design and numerical characterization of a rotated porous-core hexagonal photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for single-mode terahertz (THz) wave guidance. The simulation results are found using an efficient finite element method (FEM) which show a better and ultra-low eff...

  12. Efficient coupling of a single diamond color center to propagating plasmonic gap modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2013-01-01

    We report on coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a nanodiamond to the propagating gap mode of two parallel placed chemically grown silver nanowires. The coupled NV-center nanowire system is made by manipulating nanodiamonds and nanowires with the tip of an atomic force microscope...

  13. Single-mode 37-core fiber with a cladding diameter of 248 μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Y.; Takenaga, K.; Aikawa, K.

    2017-01-01

    A heterogeneous single-mode 37-core fiber with a cladding diameter of 248 μm is designed and fabricated. The fiber provides the highest core count and low total-crosstalk less than −20 dB/1000 km in C+L band....

  14. Mode division multiplexing technology for single-fiber optical trapping axial-position adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihai; Wang, Lei; Liang, Peibo; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2013-07-15

    We demonstrate trapped yeast cell axial-position adjustment without moving the optical fiber in a single-fiber optical trapping system. The dynamic axial-position adjustment is realized by controlling the power ratio of the fundamental mode beam (LP01) and the low-order mode beam (LP11) generated in a normal single-core fiber. In order to separate the trapping positions produced by the two mode beams, we fabricate a special fiber tapered tip with a selective two-step method. A yeast cell of 6 μm diameter is moved along the optical axis direction for a distance of ~3 μm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the trapping position adjustment without moving the fiber for single-fiber optical tweezers. The excitation and utilization of multimode beams in a single fiber constitutes a new development for single-fiber optical trapping and makes possible more practical applications in biomedical research fields.

  15. Benchmarking of Grid Fault Modes in Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Pushed by the booming installations of singlephase photovoltaic (PV) systems, the grid demands regarding the integration of PV systems are expected to be modified. Hence, the future PV systems should become more active with functionalities of Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) and grid support...... phase systems under grid faults. The intent of this paper is to present a benchmarking of grid fault modes that might come in future single-phase PV systems. In order to map future challenges, the relevant synchronization and control strategies are discussed. Some faulty modes are studied experimentally...... and provided at the end of this paper. It is concluded that there are extensive control possibilities in single-phase PV systems under grid faults. The Second Order General Integral based PLL technique might be the most promising candidate for future single-phase PV systems because of its fast adaptive...

  16. Efficient wavelength converters with flattop responses based on counterpropagating cascaded SFG and DFG in low-loss QPM LiNbO3 waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranchi, Amirhossein; Kashyap, Raman

    2009-10-12

    A wavelength converter based on counterpropagating quasi-phase matched cascaded sum and difference frequency generation in lossy lithium niobate waveguide is numerically evaluated and compared to a single-pass scheme assuming a large pump wavelength difference of 75 nm. A double-pass device is proposed to improve the conversion efficiency while the response flattening is accomplished by increasing the wavelength tuning of one pump. The criteria for the design of the low-loss waveguide length, and the assignment of power in the pumps to achieve the desired efficiency, ripple and bandwidth are presented.

  17. Peristaltic modes of a single vortex in the Abelian Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Toru; Suganuma, Hideo; Tsumura, Kyosuke

    2007-01-01

    Using the Abelian Higgs model, we study the radial excitations of single vortex and their propagation modes along the vortex line. We call such beyond-stringy modes peristaltic modes of single vortex. With the profile of the static vortex, we derive the vortex-induced potential, i.e., single-particle potential for the Higgs and the photon field fluctuations around the static vortex, and investigate the coherently propagating fluctuations which correspond to the vibration of the vortex. We derive, analyze, and numerically solve the field equations of the Higgs and the photon field fluctuations around the static vortex with various Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ and topological charge n. Around the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield value or critical coupling κ 2 =1/2, there appears a significant correlation between the Higgs and the photon field fluctuations mediated by the static vortex. As a result, for κ 2 =1/2, we find the characteristic new-type discrete pole of the peristaltic mode corresponding to the quasibound state of coherently fluctuating fields and the static vortex. We investigate its excitation energy, correlation energy of coherent fluctuations, spatial distributions, and the resulting magnetic flux behavior in detail. Our investigation covers not only usual type-II vortices with n=1 but also type-I and type-II vortices with n set-membership sign Z for the application to various general systems where the vortexlike objects behave as the essential degrees of freedom

  18. Single-Phase Microgrid with Seamless Transition Capabilities between Modes of Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    with the secondary control loops that are used to synchronize the microgrid as a single unit to the grid. Simulation results are given that show the seamless transitions between the two modes without any disconnection times for the CC-VSIs and VC-VSIs connected to the microgrid.......Microgrids are an effective way to increase the penetration of DG into the grid. They are capable of operating either in grid-connected or in islanded mode thereby increasing the supply reliability for the end user. This paper focuses on achieving seamless transitions from islanded to grid-connected...

  19. Bend compensated large-mode-area fibers: achieving robust single-modedness with transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, John M; Nicholson, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-12

    Fibers with symmetric bend compensated claddings are proposed, and demonstrate performance much better than conventional designs. These fibers can simultaneously achieve complete HOM suppression, negligible bend loss, and mode area >1000 square microns. The robust single-modedness of these fibers offers a path to overcoming mode instability limits on high-power amplifiers and lasers. The proposed designs achieve many of the advantages of our previous (asymmetric) bend compensation strategy in the regime of moderately large area, and are much easier to fabricate and utilize.

  20. Effects of underwater turbulence on laser beam propagation and coupling into single-mode optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Frank; Lasher, Mark

    2010-06-01

    We characterize and compare the effects of turbulence on underwater laser propagation with theory. Measurements of the coupling efficiency of the focused beam into a single-mode fiber are reported. A simple tip-tilt control system, based on the position of the image centroid in the focal plane, was shown to maintain good coupling efficiency for a beam radius equal to the transverse coherence length, r(0). These results are relevant to high bandwidth communication technology that requires good spatial mode quality.

  1. Topological dynamics of optical singularities in speckle-fields induced by photorefractive scattering in a LiNbO3 : Fe crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Vasilii I; Soskin, M S

    2013-01-01

    A natural singular dynamics of elliptically polarised speckle-fields induced by the 'optical damage' effect in a photorefractive crystal of lithium niobate by a passing beam of a helium — neon laser is studied by the developed methods of singular optics. For the polarisation singularities (C points), a new class of chain reactions, namely, singular chain reactions are discovered and studied. It is shown that they obey the topological charge and sum Poincare index conservation laws. In addition, they exist for all the time of crystal irradiation. They consist of a series of interlocking chains, where singularity pairs arising in a chain annihilate with singularities from neighbouring independently created chains. Less often singular 'loop' reactions are observed where arising pairs of singularities annihilate after reversible transformations in within the boundaries of a single speckle. The type of a singular reaction is determined by a topology and dynamics of the speckles, in which the reactions are developing. (laser optics 2012)

  2. Design optimization of the distributed modal filtering rod fiber for increasing single mode bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Laurila, Marko

    2012-01-01

    . Large preform tolerances are compensated during the fiber draw resulting in ultra low NA fibers with very large cores. In this paper, design optimization of the SM bandwidth of the DMF rod fiber is presented. Analysis of band gap properties results in a fourfold increase of the SM bandwidth compared...... LMA fiber amplifiers having high pump absorption through a pump cladding that is decoupled from the outer fiber. However, achieving ultra low NA for single-mode (SM) guidance is challenging, and thus different design strategies must be applied to filter out higher order modes (HOMs). The novel...... distributed modal filtering (DMF) design presented here enables SM guidance, and previous results have shown a SM mode field diameter of 60 μm operating in a 20 nm SM bandwidth. The DMF rod fiber has high index ring-shaped inclusions acting as resonators enabling SM guidance through modal filtering of HOMs...

  3. Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, R.; Aluie, H.; Betti, R.; Sanz, J.; Liu, B.; Frank, A.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume

  4. Stable Single-Mode Operation of Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser by Optimized Reflectivity Facet Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Cheng, Feng-Min; Zhao, Yue; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Shu-Man; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2018-02-01

    In this work, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on strain compensation combined with two-phonon resonance design are presented. Distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at 4.76 μm was fabricated through a standard buried first-order grating and buried heterostructure (BH) processing. Stable single-mode emission is achieved under all injection currents and temperature conditions without any mode hop by the optimized antireflection (AR) coating on the front facet. The AR coating consists of a double layer dielectric of Al2O3 and Ge. For a 2-mm laser cavity, the maximum output power of the AR-coated DFB-QCL was more than 170 mW at 20 °C with a high wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of 4.7% in a continuous-wave (CW) mode.

  5. Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser pumped by a single laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, D. A.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Mavritskiy, A. O.; Perminov, B. E.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Murzina, T. V.; Maydykovskiy, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    The performance of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a single 461 nm laser diode is presented for both the continuous-wave and the mode-locked regimes of operation. We introduce a simple astigmatism correction scheme for the laser diode beam consisting of two cylindrical lenses affecting the pump beam along the fast axis of the laser diode, which provides the mode-matching between the nearly square-shaped pump beam and the cavity mode. The resulting efficiency of the suggested Ti:Sapphire oscillator pumped by such a laser diode is analyzed for the Ti:sapphire crystals of 3 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm in length. We demonstrate that such a system provides the generation of ultrashort pulses up to 15 fs in duration with the repetition rate of 87 MHz, the average power being 170 mW.

  6. Ceramic synthesis of 0.08BiGaO3-0.90BaTiO3-0.02LiNbO3 under high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Jin; Yong, Li; Mou-Sheng, Song; Lin, Chen; Xiao-Peng, Jia; Hong-An, Ma

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the preparation of 0.08BiGaO3-0.90BaTiO3-0.02LiNbO3 is investigated at pressure 3.8 GPa and temperature 1100-1200 °C. Experimental results indicate that not only is the sintered rate more effective, but also the sintered temperature is lower under high pressure and high temperature than those of under normal pressure. It is thought that the adscititious pressure plays the key role in this process, which is discussed in detail. The composition and the structure of the as-prepared samples are recorded by XRD patterns. The result shows that the phases of BaTiO3, BaBiO2.77, and Ba2Bi4Ti5O18 with piezoelectric ceramic performance generate in the sintered samples. Furthermore, the surface morphology characteristics of the typical samples are also investigated using a scanning electron microscope. It indicates that the grain size and surface structure of the samples are closely related to the sintering temperature and sintering time. It is hoped that this study can provide a new train of thought for the preparation of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with excellent performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51172089), the Natural Science Foundation of Education Department of Guizhou Province, China (Grant Nos. KY [2013]183 and LH [2015]7232), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Tongren University, China (Grant No. DS1302).

  7. Improvements of uniformity and stoichiometry for zone-leveling Czochralski growth of MgO-doped LiNbO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.B.; Hsu, W.T.; Shih, M.D.; Tai, C.Y.; Hsieh, C.K.; Hsu, W.C.; Hsu, R.T.; Lan, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The zone-leveling Czochralski (ZLCz) technique is a continuous feeding process and can be used for the growth of near-stoichiometric lithium niobate (SLN) single crystals. However, the finite crucible length can cause the variation of the zone length and thus the composition and stoichiometry, especially in the growth of a large diameter crystal. To solve the problems, several approaches were proposed for the growth of 4 cm-diameter 1 mol% MgO-doped SLN. The modification of the hot zone to minimize the zone variation was found useful for the uniformity, but the stoichiometry was inadequate even with the zone composition up to 60 mol% Li 2 O. A Li-excess feed was further used and a good Li/Nb ratio was obtained. Adding K 2 O (16 mol%) into the solution zone was useful as well, but it was inferior to using the Li-excess feed. In addition, a much lower growth rate was needed for getting an inclusion-free crystal

  8. 11-GHz waveguide Nd:YAG laser CW mode-locked with single-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhrimchuk, Andrey G; Obraztsov, Petr A

    2015-06-08

    We report stable, passive, continuous-wave (CW) mode-locking of a compact diode-pumped waveguide Nd:YAG laser with a single-layer graphene saturable absorber. The depressed cladding waveguide in the Nd:YAG crystal is fabricated with an ultrafast laser inscription method. The saturable absorber is formed by direct deposition of CVD single-layer graphene on the output coupler. The few millimeter-long cavity provides generation of 16-ps pulses with repetition rates in the GHz range (up to 11.3 GHz) and 12 mW average power. Stable CW mode-locking operation is achieved by controlling the group delay dispersion in the laser cavity with a Gires-Tournois interferometer.

  9. Quantum discord dynamics of two qubits in single-mode cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Chen Qing-Hu

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of quantum discord for two identical qubits in two independent single-mode cavities and a common single-mode cavity are discussed. For the initial Bell state with correlated spins, while the entanglement sudden death can occur, the quantum discord vanishes only at discrete moments in the independent cavities and never vanishes in the common cavity. Interestingly, quantum discord and entanglement show opposite behavior in the common cavity, unlike in the independent cavities. For the initial Bell state with anti-correlated spins, quantum discord and entanglement behave in the same way for both independent cavities and a common cavity. It is found that the detunings always stabilize the quantum discord. (general)

  10. High Energy, Single-Mode, All-Solid-State and Tunable UV Laser Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Hovis, FLoyd

    2007-01-01

    A high energy, single mode, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser primarily for pumping an UV converter is developed. Greater than 1 J/pulse at 50 HZ PRF and pulse widths around 22 ns have been demonstrated. Higher energy, greater efficiency may be possible. Refinements are known and practical to implement. Technology Demonstration of a highly efficient, high-pulse-energy, single mode UV wavelength generation using flash lamp pumped laser has been achieved. Greater than 90% pump depletion is observed. 190 mJ extra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency > 21% (> 27% for 1 mJ seed). 160 mJ intra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency up to 24% Fluence laser is being refined to match or exceed the above UV converter results. Currently the Nd:YAG pump laser development is a technology demonstration. System can be engineered for compact packaging.

  11. Optical field-strength polarization of two-mode single-photon states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, J; Nistal, M C; Barral, D; Moreno, V, E-mail: suso.linares.beiras@usc.e [Optics Area, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics and School of Optics and Optometry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario Sur s/n, 15782-Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of the two-mode optical field-strength plane. We will show that the mentioned probability distributions along with the values of quantum Stokes parameters allow us to characterize the polarization of a two-mode single-photon state, in an analogous way to the classical case, and to distinguish conceptually between mixture and partially polarized quantum states; in this way, we propose a simple definition of the quantum polarization degree based on the recent concept of distance measure to an unpolarized distribution, which gives rise to a depolarization degree equivalent to an overlapping between the probability distribution of the quantum state and a non-polarized two-mode Gaussian distribution. The work is particularly intended to university physics teachers and graduate students as well as to physicists and specialists concerned with the issue of optical polarization.

  12. Optical field-strength polarization of two-mode single-photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, J; Nistal, M C; Barral, D; Moreno, V

    2010-01-01

    We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of the two-mode optical field-strength plane. We will show that the mentioned probability distributions along with the values of quantum Stokes parameters allow us to characterize the polarization of a two-mode single-photon state, in an analogous way to the classical case, and to distinguish conceptually between mixture and partially polarized quantum states; in this way, we propose a simple definition of the quantum polarization degree based on the recent concept of distance measure to an unpolarized distribution, which gives rise to a depolarization degree equivalent to an overlapping between the probability distribution of the quantum state and a non-polarized two-mode Gaussian distribution. The work is particularly intended to university physics teachers and graduate students as well as to physicists and specialists concerned with the issue of optical polarization.

  13. Bend-insensitive single-mode photonic crystal fiber with ultralarge effective area for dual applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Asiful; Alam, M. Shah

    2013-05-01

    A novel photonic crystal fiber (PCF) having circular arrangement of cladding air holes has been designed and numerically optimized to obtain a bend insensitive single mode fiber with large mode area for both wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) communication and fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) application. The bending loss of the proposed bent PCF lies in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 dB/turn or lower over 1300 to 1700 nm, and 2 × 10-4 dB/turn at the wavelength of 1550 nm for a 30-mm bend radius with a higher order mode (HOM) cut-off frequency below 1200 nm for WDM application. When the whole structure of the PCF is scaled down, a bending loss of 6.78×10-4 dB/turn at 1550 nm for a 4-mm bend radius is obtained, and the loss remains in the order of 10-4 dB/turn over the same range of wavelength with an HOM cut-off frequency below 700 nm, and makes the fiber useful for FTTH applications. Furthermore, this structure is also optimized to show a splice loss near zero for fusion-splicing to a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF).

  14. BEND-INDUCED LOSSES IN A SINGLE-MODE MICROSTRUCTURED FIBER WITH A LARGE CORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Gatchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of bend-induced losses in a silica-based single-mode microstructured fiber with a core diameter ranging from 20 to 35 microns and increased relative air content in the holey cladding has been conducted. With the use of the equivalent step-index profile method in approximation of waveguide parameters of microstructured fiber (normalized frequency and normalized transverse attenuation constant the effect of bending on the spectral position of the fundamentalmode short-wavelength leakage boundary has been analyzed. Upon measurement of spectral characteristics of attenuation in the considered fibers good accordance of numerical and experimental data has been found out. It is shown that increase of the air content in the holey cladding leads to expansion of the mentioned boundary to lower wavelengths for the value from 150 to 800 nm depending on the core size and bending conditions. A single-transverse-mode propagation is achieved on fiber length of 5-10 meters due to a substantial difference in losses of fundamental and higher-order guided modes attained by bending. Optical losses in all studied samples are less than 10 dB/km at the wavelength λ = 1550 nm. The results of the study can be applied in the design of high-power laser systems having such basic requirements as a relatively large mode spot and high beam quality.

  15. Single longitudinal mode operation of a solid-state dye laser oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, G; Kim, H S; Cha, B H; Lee, J M

    2000-01-01

    We have operated a single longitudinal mode of a solid-state dye laser oscillator in a Littman configuration. The host material of the solid-state gain medium was rhodamine dye-doped poly (methyl methacrylate). The pumping source was the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measured linewidth of the laser output was about 1.5 GHz.

  16. GaSb-based single-mode distributed feedback lasers for sensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, James A.; Bezinger, Andrew; Lapointe, Jean; Poitras, Daniel; Aers, Geof C.

    2017-02-01

    GaSb-based tunable single-mode diode lasers can enable rapid, highly-selective and highly-sensitive absorption spectroscopy systems for gas sensing. In this work, single-mode distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes were developed for the detection of various trace gases in the 2-3.3um range, including CO2, CO, HF, H2S, H2O and CH4. The lasers were fabricated using an index-coupled grating process without epitaxial regrowth, making the process significantly less expensive than conventional DFB fabrication. The devices are based on InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb separate confinement heterostructures grown on GaSb by molecular beam epitaxy. DFB lasers were produced using a two step etch process. Narrow ridge waveguides were first defined by optical lithography and etched into the semiconductor. Lateral gratings were then defined on both sides of the ridge using electron-beam lithography and etched to produce the index-grating. Effective index modeling was used to optimize the ridge width, etch depths and the grating pitch to ensure single-lateral-mode operation and adequate coupling strength. The effective index method was further used to simulate the DFB laser emission spectrum, based on a transfer matrix model for light transmission through the periodic structure. The fabricated lasers exhibit single-mode operation which is tunable through the absorption features of the various target gases by adjustment of the drive current. In addition to the established open-path sensing applications, these devices have great potential for optoelectronic integrated gas sensors, making use of integrated photodetectors and possibly on-chip Si photonics waveguide structures.

  17. Instant recording of the duration of a single mode-locked Nd:YAG laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lompre, L.A.; Mainfray, G.; Thebault, J.

    1975-01-01

    An electro-optic streak camera incorporating a storage memory video system has been developed and used to instantly visualize and record the shape of a 1.06-μ-wavelength pulse generated by a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The duration of a single laser pulse (approximately 30 psec) has been directly measured with and without laser amplification. (U.S.)

  18. Combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability bubble growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Rahul; Mandal, Labakanta; Roy, S.; Khan, M.; Gupta, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    The combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on the growth rate of the bubble associated with single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated. It is shown that the effect of viscosity on the motion of the lighter fluid associated with vorticity accumulated inside the bubble due to mass ablation may be such as to reduce the net viscous drag on the bubble exerted by the upper heavier fluid as the former rises through it.

  19. Cavity Formation Modeling of Fiber Fuse in Single-Mode Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshito Shuto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of a fiber-fuse phenomenon in a single-mode optical fiber was studied theoretically. To clarify both the silica-glass densification and cavity formation, which have been observed in fiber fuse propagation, we investigated a nonlinear oscillation model using the Van Der Pol equation. This model was able to phenomenologically explain both the densification of the core material and the formation of periodic cavities in the core layer as a result of a relaxation oscillation.

  20. Single Mode Optical Fiber based Refractive Index Sensor using Etched Cladding

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ajay; Gupta, Geeta; Mallik, Arun; Bhatnagar, Anuj

    2011-01-01

    The use of optical fiber for sensor applications is a topic of current interest. We report the fabrication of etched single mode optical fiber based refractive index sensor. Experiments are performed to determine the etch rate of fiber in buffered hydrofluoric acid, which can be high or low depending upon the temperature at which etching is carried out. Controlled wet etching of fiber cladding is performed using these measurements and etched fiber region is tested for refractive index sensing...

  1. Single-mode waveguides with SU-8 polymer core and cladding for MOEMS applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Boisen, Anja; Hübner, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication and optical characterization of singlemode polymeric embedded waveguides are performed. A specific material combination (SU-8 2005 as core and the modified SU-8 mr-L 6050XP as cladding) is chosen in order to obtain a small refractive index difference for single-mode propagation combined with the conventional fabrication method UV lithography to facilitate the integration of different types of optical detection methods on lab-on-a-chip systems. We analyze the behavior of the refrac...

  2. PF-KO system for single bunch mode operation of a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgaki, H.; Sugiyama, S.; Mikado, T.; Chiwaki, M.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, R.; Sei, N.; Noguchi, T.; Yamazaki, T.

    1994-01-01

    A new RF-KO (RF knockout) system for the single bunch mode operation of a storage ring has been developed. The knockout signal is modulated by the sum signal of the RF acceleration frequency of the storage ring and a bunch selection signal. We do not need any special device or a timing unit with this method. We obtain a high purity of bunch structure in a short knock out time. The single bunch impurity of 0.2% has been achieved. (author)

  3. Design and experiments of a linear piezoelectric motor driven by a single mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Yao, Zhiyuan; Li, Xiang; Fu, Qianwei

    2016-11-01

    In this contribution, we propose a novel linear piezoelectric motor with a compact stator that is driven by a single mode. The linear piezoelectric motor can realize bidirectional motion by changing the vibration modes of the stator. Finite element analysis is performed to determine the required vibration mode of the stator and obtain the optimal stator structure and dimensions. Furthermore, the trajectories of the driving foot are analyzed with and without consideration of the mechanical contact with the slider. It is shown that the trajectory of the driving foot is an oblique line when disregarding the contact, and the trajectory becomes an oblique ellipse while taking into account the contact. Finally, a prototype of the motor is fabricated based on the results of finite element analysis. The optimization results show that the motor reaches its maximum thrust force of 4.0 kg, maximum thrust-weight ratio of 33.3, maximum unloaded velocity of 385 mm/s under the excitation of Mode-B, and maximum unloaded velocity of 315 mm/s under the excitation of Mode-L.

  4. Single-nanoparticle detection with slot-mode photonic crystal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng; Kita, Shota; Lončar, Marko, E-mail: loncar@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Quan, Qimin [Rowland Institute at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 (United States); Li, Yihang [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-06-29

    Optical cavities that are capable for detecting single nanoparticles could lead to great progress in early stage disease diagnostics and the study of biological interactions on the single-molecule level. In particular, photonic crystal (PhC) cavities are excellent platforms for label-free single-nanoparticle detection, owing to their high quality (Q) factors and wavelength-scale modal volumes. Here, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a high-Q (>10{sup 4}) slot-mode PhC nanobeam cavity, which is able to strongly confine light in the slotted regions. The enhanced light-matter interaction results in an order of magnitude improvement in both refractive index sensitivity (439 nm/RIU) and single-nanoparticle sensitivity compared with conventional dielectric-mode PhC cavities. Detection of single polystyrene nanoparticles with radii of 20 nm and 30 nm is demonstrated in aqueous environments (D{sub 2}O), without additional laser and temperature stabilization techniques.

  5. Experimental demonstration of a simple displacement sensor based on a bent single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiang; Semenova, Yuliya; Wang, Pengfei; Hatta, Agus Muhamad; Farrell, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    A simple displacement sensor based on a bent single-mode–multimode–single-mode (SMS) fiber structure is proposed and experimentally investigated. The sensor offers a wider displacement range, not limited by the risk of fiber breakage, as well as a three-fold increase in displacement sensitivity by comparison with a straight SMS structure sensor. This sensor can be interrogated by either an optical spectral analyzer (OSA) or a ratiometric interrogation system: (1) if interrogated by an OSA assuming a resolution of 1 pm, it has a sensitivity of 28.2 nm for a displacement measurement range from 0 to 280 µm; (2) if interrogated by a ratiometric interrogation system, it has worst and best case resolutions of 556 and 38 nm, respectively, for a displacement measurement range from 0 to 520 µm

  6. Three-Input Single-Output Voltage-Mode Multifunction Filter with Electronic Controllability Based on Single Commercially Available IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Klungtong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a second-order voltage-mode filter with three inputs and single-output voltage using single commercially available IC, one resistor, and two capacitors. The used commercially available IC, called LT1228, is manufactured by Linear Technology Corporation. The proposed filter is based on parallel RLC circuit. The filter provides five output filter responses, namely, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, and all-pass (AP functions. The selection of each filter response can be done without the requirement of active and passive component matching condition. Furthermore, the natural frequency and quality factor are electronically controlled. Besides, the nonideal case is also investigated. The output voltage node exhibits low impedance. The experimental results can validate the theoretical analyses.

  7. Terahertz light-emitting graphene-channel transistor toward single-mode lasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Deepika; Tamamushi, Gen; Watanabe, Takayuki; Mitsushio, Junki; Tobah, Youssef; Sugawara, Kenta; Dubinov, Alexander A.; Satou, Akira; Ryzhii, Maxim; Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi

    2018-03-01

    A distributed feedback dual-gate graphene-channel field-effect transistor (DFB-DG-GFET) was fabricated as a current-injection terahertz (THz) light-emitting laser transistor. We observed a broadband emission in a 1-7.6-THz range with a maximum radiation power of 10 μW as well as a single-mode emission at 5.2 THz with a radiation power of 0.1 μW both at 100 K when the carrier injection stays between the lower cutoff and upper cutoff threshold levels. The device also exhibited peculiar nonlinear threshold-like behavior with respect to the current-injection level. The LED-like broadband emission is interpreted as an amplified spontaneous THz emission being transcended to a single-mode lasing. Design constraints on waveguide structures for better THz photon field confinement with higher gain overlapping as well as DFB cavity structures with higher Q factors are also addressed towards intense, single-mode continuous wave THz lasing at room temperature.

  8. Electrically-pumped, broad-area, single-mode photonic crystal lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Chak, Philip; Poon, Joyce K S; DeRose, Guy A; Yariv, Amnon; Scherer, Axel

    2007-05-14

    Planar broad-area single-mode lasers, with modal widths of the order of tens of microns, are technologically important for high-power applications and improved coupling efficiency into optical fibers. They may also find new areas of applications in on-chip integration with devices that are of similar size scales, such as for spectroscopy in microfluidic chambers or optical signal processing with micro-electromechanical systems. An outstanding challenge is that broad-area lasers often require external means of control, such as injection-locking or a frequency/spatial filter to obtain single-mode operation. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate effective index-guided, large-area, edge-emitting photonic crystal lasers driven by pulsed electrical current injection at the optical telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. By suitable design of the photonic crystal lattice, our lasers operate in a single mode with a 1/e(2) modal width of 25 microm and a length of 600 microm.

  9. Generation of single-frequency tunable green light in a coupled ring tapered diode laser cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    in the broad wavelength range from 1049 nm to 1093 nm and the beam propagation factor is improved from M2 = 2.8 to below 1.1. The laser frequency is automatically locked to the cavity resonance frequency using optical feedback. Furthermore, we show that this adaptive external cavity approach leads to efficient......We report the realization of a tapered diode laser operated in a coupled ring cavity that significantly improves the coherence properties of the tapered laser and efficiently generates tunable light at the second harmonic frequency. The tapered diode laser is tunable with single-frequency output...... frequency doubling. More than 500 mW green output power is obtained by placing a periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal in the external cavity. The single frequency green output from the laser system is tunable in the 530 nm to 533 nm range limited by the LiNbO3 crystal. The optical to optical conversion...

  10. MRPC prototypes for NeuLAND tested using the single electron mode of ELBE/Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, Dmitry; Bemmerer, Daniel; Elekes, Zoltan; Kempe, Mathias; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Aumann, Tom; Boretzky, Konstanze; Caesar, Christoph; Ciobanu, Mircea; Hehner, Joerg; Heil, Michael; Nusair, Omar; Reifarth, Rene; Simon, Haik [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Elvers, Michael; Maroussov, Vassili; Zilges, Andreas [Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The NeuLAND detector at the R{sup 3}B experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt aims to detect fast neutrons (0.2-1.0 GeV) with high time and spatial resolutions ({sigma}{sub t}<100 ps, {sigma}{sub x,y,z}<1 cm). Prototypes for the NeuLAND detector have been built at FZD and GSI and then studied using the 32 MeV pulsed electron beam at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE in Dresden, Germany. Owing to the new, single-electron per bunch mode of operation, a rapid validation of the design criteria ({>=}90% efficiency for minimum ionizing particles, {sigma} {<=} 100 ps time resolution) was possible. Tested properties of the prototypes include glass thickness, spacing of the central anode, and a comparison of single-ended and differential readout. Tested frontend electronics schemes include FOPI (single-ended), PADI-based (both single-ended and differential mode tested), and ALICE (differential).

  11. Multifunction Voltage-Mode Filter Using Single Voltage Differencing Differential Difference Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaichana Amornchai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode multifunction filter based on single voltage differencing differential difference amplifier (VDDDA is presented. The proposed filter with three input voltages and single output voltage is constructed with single VDDDA, two capacitors and two resistors. Its quality factor can be adjusted without affecting natural frequency. Also, the natural frequency can be electronically tuned via adjusting of bias current. The filter can offer five output responses, high-pas (HP, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP and all-ass (AP functions in the same circuit topology. The output response can be selected by choosing the suitable input voltage without the component matching condition and the requirement of additional double gain voltage amplifier. PSpice simulation results to confirm an operation of the proposed filter correspond to the theory.

  12. Design of single-longitudinal-mode laser oscillator for edge Thomson scattering system in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatae, Takaki; Kusama, Yoshinori; Kubomura, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Shin-ichi

    2006-06-01

    A high output energy (5J) and high repetition rate (100 Hz) laser system is required for the edge Thomson scattering system in ITER. A YAG laser (Nd:YAG laser) is a first candidate for the laser system satisfying the requirements. It is important to develop a high beam quality and single longitudinal mode (SLM) laser oscillator in order to realize this high power laser system. In this design work, following activities relating to the SLM laser oscillator have been carried out: design of the laser head and the resonator, estimation of the output power for the SLM laser oscillator, consideration of the feedback control scheme and consideration of interface for amplification system to achieve required performance (5J, 100 Hz). It is expected that the designed laser diode (LD) pumped SLM laser oscillator realizes: 100 Hz of repetition rate, 10 mJ of output energy, 10 ns of pulse width, single longitudinal mode, TEM 00 of transversal mode, divergence less than 4 times of the diffraction limit, energy stability within 5%. (author)

  13. New VCSEL technology with scalability for single mode operation and densely integrated arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guowei; Demir, Abdullah; Freisem, Sabine; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiaohang; Deppe, Dennis G.

    2011-06-01

    Data are presented demonstrating a new lithographic vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) technology, which produces simultaneous mode- and current-confinement only by lithography and epitaxial crystal growth. The devices are grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy, and have lithographically defined sizes that vary from 3 μm to 20 μm. The lithographic process allows the devices to have high uniformity throughout the wafer and scalability to very small size. The 3 μm device shows a threshold current of 310 μA, the slope efficiency of 0.81 W/A, and the maximum output power of more than 5 mW. The 3 μm device also shows single-mode single-polarization operation without the use of surface grating, and has over 25 dB side-mode-suppression-ratio up to 1 mW of output power. The devices have low thermal resistance due to the elimination of oxide aperture. High reliability is achieved by removal of internal strain caused by the oxide, stress test shows no degradation for the 3 μm device operating at very high injection current level of 142 kA/cm2 for 1000 hours, while at this dive level commercial VCSELs fail rapidly. The lithographic VCSEL technology can lead to manufacture of reliable small size laser diode, which will have application in large area 2-D arrays and low power sensors.

  14. A novel L-shaped linear ultrasonic motor operating in a single resonance mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bailiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiaoniu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a large thrust linear ultrasonic motor using an L-shaped stator is described. The stator is constructed by two mutually perpendicular rectangular plate vibrators, one of which is mounted in parallel with the slider to make the motor structure to be more compact. The symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the stator based on the first order bending vibration of two vibrators are adopted, in which each resonance mode is assigned to drive the slider in one direction. The placement of piezoelectric ceramics in a stator could be determined by finite element analysis, and the influence of slots in the head block on the vibration amplitudes of driving foot was studied as well. Three types of prototypes (non-slotted, dual-slot, and single-slot) were fabricated and experimentally investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the prototype with one slot exhibited the best mechanical output performance. The maximum loads under the excitation of symmetric mode and antisymmetric mode were 65 and 90 N, respectively.

  15. Impact of quantum–classical correspondence on entanglement enhancement by single-mode squeezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Sijo K.; Chew, Lock Yue; Sanjuán, Miguel A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum entanglement between two field modes can be achieved through the collective squeezing of the two respective modes. If single-mode squeezing is performed prior to such a two-mode squeezing, an enhancement of entanglement production can happen. Interestingly, the occurrence of this enhancement can be implicitly linked to the local classical dynamical behavior via the paradigm of quantum–classical correspondence. In particular, the entanglement generated through quantum chaos is found to be hardly enhanced by prior squeezing, since it is bounded by the saturation value of the maximally entangled Schmidt state with fixed energy. These results illustrate that entanglement enhancement via initial squeezing can serve as a useful indicator of quantum chaotic behaviour. - Highlights: • Continuous-variable entanglement is explored in the Pullen–Edmonds Hamiltonian. • The local phase-space structure and the entanglement enhancement are related. • Entanglement enhancement via squeezing is smaller for the chaotic orbit. • Entanglement enhancement via squeezing is higher for the regular orbit. • The magnitude of the entanglement enhancement serves as a quantum-chaos indicator

  16. Estimating accidental coincidences for pixelated PET detectors and singles list-mode acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafecas, M.; Torres, I.; Spanoudaki, V.; McElroy, D.P.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the validity of random estimation techniques for various low energy thresholds (LETs) and single list-mode data sets in small animal PET. While a LET below 255 keV helps to increase the sensitivity, it also results in an increase of random coincidences and inter-crystal scatter (ICS). The study is carried out for MADPET-II, a dual-layer positron emission tomography (PET) scanner prototype consisting of LSO crystals read out individually by APDs. The data are acquired in singles list-mode format, and coincidences are computed post-acquisition. To estimate randoms, we have used the delayed coincidence window method (DW), and the singles rate model (SR). Various phantoms were simulated using GATE. For LETs under 255 keV, the number of random events R, estimated using the SR and the DW methods, is larger than the number of randoms which was directly computed from GATE simulations, and R(SR)>R(DW)>R(GATE). The higher the LET, the smaller the overestimation. For LETs >255 keV, R(DW)/R(GATE) ∼1. If scattered singles were excluded from the file, this discrepancy between R(DW or SR) and R(GATE) significantly diminished. This fact points out to ICS as the effect responsible for the mismatch, since for LETs lower than 255 keV, all singles related to an ICS event can be detected independently, thus altering the singles rate. Therefore, if low LETs are used, random estimation techniques should account for ICS

  17. Single mode operation in a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser oscillator with a grazing-incidence four-mirror cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, D K; Binks, D J; Gloster, L A W; King, T A

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate stable single mode operation in a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser oscillator with a novel grazing-incidence four-mirror coupled cavity. This cavity consists of a grating, a gain medium, and four mirrors and, therefore, has a four-arm interferometer configuration. Through the interferometric effect, we could suppress the adjacent modes and obtain stable single mode operation with a bandwidth of < 200 MHz. We also have developed a general analysis of the laser modes and the threshold conditions for configuration and the experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  18. Report on first masing and single mode locking in a prebunched beam FEM oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.; Eichenbaum, A.; Kleinman, H. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Ramat-Aviv (Israel)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Radiation characteristics of a table-top free electron maser (FEM) are described in this paper. The FEM employs a prebunched electron beam and is operated as an oscillator in the low-gain collective (Raman) regime. Using electron beam prebunching single mode locking at any one of the possible oscillation modes was obtained. The electron beam is prebunched by a microwave tube section before it is injected into the wiggler. By tuning the electron beam bunching frequency, the FEM oscillation frequency can be locked to any eigen frequency of the resonant waveguide cavity which is within the frequency band of net gain of the FEM. The oscillation build up process is sped up, when the FEM operates with a prebunched electron beam, and the build-up time of radiation is shortened significantly. First measurements of masing with and without prebunching and characterization of the emitted radiation are reported.

  19. Microwave measurements of energy lost to longitudinal modes by single electron bunches traversing periodic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Loew, G.A.; Weaver, J.N.; Wilson, P.B.

    1981-10-01

    In the design of future linear colliders, it will be important to minimize the loss of beam energy due to the excitation of higher-order modes in the accelerator structure by single bunches of electrons or positrons. This loss is not only detrimental in itself but also gives rise to energy spectrum widening and transverse emittance growth. Microwave measurements made on disk-loaded and alternating-spoke structures to determine the loss to the longitudinal modes are described. In these measurements the Gaussian bunch is simulated by a current pulse of the same shape transmitted through the structure on an axial center conductor. Results to date are presented for the total longitudinal loss parameter per period K in volts per picocoulomb

  20. Diffusion-cooled high-power single-mode waveguide CO2 laser for transmyocardial revascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berishvili, I. I.; Bockeria, L. A.; Egorov, E. N.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Galushkin, Michail G.; Kheliminsky, A. A.; Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Roshin, A. P.; Sigaev, I. Y.; Vachromeeva, M. N.; Vasiltsov, Victor V.; Yoshina, V. I.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Zelenov, Evgenii V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the results on investigations and development of multichannel waveguide CO2 laser with diffusion cooling of active medium excited by discharge of audio-frequency alternating current. The description of high-power single-mode CO2 laser with average beam power up to 1 kW is presented. The result of measurement of the laser basic parameters are offered, as well as the outcomes of performances of the laser head with long active zone, operating in waveguide mode. As an example of application of these laser, various capabilities a description of the developed medical system 'Genom' used in the transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) procedure and clinical results of the possibilities of the TMLR in the surgical treatment are presented.

  1. Evaluation of single photon and Geiger mode Lidar for the 3D Elevation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.; Abdullah, Qassim; Nayegandhi, Amar; Winehouse, Jayna

    2016-01-01

    Data acquired by Harris Corporation’s (Melbourne, FL, USA) Geiger-mode IntelliEarth™ sensor and Sigma Space Corporation’s (Lanham-Seabrook, MD, USA) Single Photon HRQLS sensor were evaluated and compared to accepted 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) data and survey ground control to assess the suitability of these new technologies for the 3DEP. While not able to collect data currently to meet USGS lidar base specification, this is partially due to the fact that the specification was written for linear-mode systems specifically. With little effort on part of the manufacturers of the new lidar systems and the USGS Lidar specifications team, data from these systems could soon serve the 3DEP program and its users. Many of the shortcomings noted in this study have been reported to have been corrected or improved upon in the next generation sensors.

  2. Electrically tunable Brillouin fiber laser based on a metal-coated single-mode optical fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Popov

    Full Text Available We explore tunability of the Brillouin fiber laser employing Joule heating. For this purpose, 10-m-length of a metal-coated single-mode optical cavity fiber has been directly included into an electrical circuit, like a conductor wire. With the current up to ∼3.5 A the laser tuning is demonstrated over a spectrum range of ∼400 MHz. The observed laser line broadening up to ∼2 MHz is explained by frequency drift and mode-hoping in the laser caused by thermal noise. Keywords: Brillouin fiber laser, Metal-coated optical fiber, Laser tuning, Fiber sensors

  3. 2-kW single-mode fiber laser employing bidirectional-pump scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Wenyou; Shi, Pengyang; Zhang, Xinhai

    2018-01-01

    2kW single-mode fiber laser with two cascade home-made cladding light strippers (CLSs) by employing bidirectionalpump scheme has been demonstrated. 2.009 kW signal power is obtained when pump power is 2.63 kW and the slope efficiency is 76.6%. Raman Stokes light is less than -47 dB at 2.009 kW even with a 10-m delivery fiber with core/inner cladding diameter of 20/400um. The beam quality M2<=1.2 and the spectral FWHM bandwidth is 4.34nm. There is no transverse mode instability and the output power stability of +/-0.14% is achieved by special thermal management for a more uniform temperature distribution on the Yb-doped gain fiber.

  4. Harmonics Suppression for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Different Operation Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    -connected PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...... Principle (IMP) is proposed to suppress the harmonic currents injected into the grid. Experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the performance of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated that the proposed method presents an effective solution to harmonics suppression for single......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....

  5. 3-4.5 μm continuously tunable single mode VECSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Zogg, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present continuously tunable Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) in the mid-infrared. The structure based on IV-VI semiconductors is epitaxially grown on a Si-substrates. The VECSEL emit one single mode, which is mode hop-free tunable over 50-100 nm around the center wavelength. In this work, two different devices are presented, emitting at 3.4 μm and 3.9 μm, respectively. The lasers operate near room temperature with thermoelectric stabilization. They are optically pumped, yielding an output power >10 mWp. The axial symmetric emission beam has a half divergence angle of <3.3∘.

  6. Differential modal delay measurements in a graded-index multimode fibre waveguide, using a single-mode fibre pro mode selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunak, H.R.D.; Soares, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    Differential model delay (DMD) measurements in graded-index multimode optical fibre waveguides, which are very promising for many types of communication system were carried out. These DMD measurements give a direct indication of the deviation of the refractive index profile, from the optimum value, at a given wavelength. For the first time, by using a single-mode fibre, a few guided modes in the graded-index fibre were selected, in two different ways: launching a few modes at the input end or selecting a few modes at the output end. By doing so important features of propagation in the fibre were revealed, especially the intermodal coupling that may exist. The importance of this determination of intermodal coupling or mode mixing, particularly when many fibres are joined together in a link, and the merits of DMD measurements in general and their importance for the production of high bandwidth graded-index fibres are discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. Dynamics of Nonlinear Excitation of the High-Order Mode in a Single-Mode Step-Index Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdin, V.; Bourdine, A.

    2018-04-01

    This work is concerned with approximate model of higher-order mode nonlinear excitation in a singlemode silica optical fiber. We present some results of simulation for step-index optical fiber under femtosecond optical pulse launching, which confirm ability of relatively stable higher-order mode excitation in such singlemode optical fiber over sufficiently narrow range of launched optical power variation.

  8. Optical measuring system with an interrogator and a polymer-based single-mode fibre optic sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical measuring system comprising a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system (102), an optical interrogator (101), and an optical arrangement (103) interconnecting the optical interrogator (101) and the polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor...... system (102). The invention further relates to an optical interrogator adapted to be connected to a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system via an optical arrangement. The interrogator comprises a broadband light source arrangement (104) and a spectrum analysing arrangement which receives...

  9. Tunable single photonic defect-mode in cholesteric liquid crystals with laser-induced local modifications of helix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Lee, Chee Heng; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The authors demonstrate a tunable single photonic defect-mode in a single cholesteric liquid crystal material based on a structural defect introduced by local modification of the helix. An unpolymerized region of cholesteric liquid crystal acting as the defect was left between two polymerized regions via a two-photon excitation laser-lithography process. Upon polymerization, the cholesteric liquid crystal helix elongated and became thermally stable, and a single photonic defect mode was exhibited due to the contrast in the helix pitch at the defect. The defect mode showed tunability upon heating, and a 36 nm redshift was seen over a temperature range of 30 deg. C

  10. Response of two-band systems to a single-mode quantized field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z. C.; Shen, H. Z.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-03-01

    The response of topological insulators (TIs) to an external weakly classical field can be expressed in terms of Kubo formula, which predicts quantized Hall conductivity of the quantum Hall family. The response of TIs to a single-mode quantized field, however, remains unexplored. In this work, we take the quantum nature of the external field into account and define a Hall conductance to characterize the linear response of a two-band system to the quantized field. The theory is then applied to topological insulators. Comparisons with the traditional Hall conductance are presented and discussed.

  11. Highly optimized tunable Er3+-doped single longitudinal mode fiber ring laser, experiment and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian; Sejka, Milan

    1993-01-01

    A continuous wave (CW) tunable diode-pumped Er3+-doped fiber ring laser, pumped by diode laser at wavelengths around 1480 nm, is discussed. Wavelength tuning range of 42 nm, maximum slope efficiency of 48% and output power of 14.4 mW have been achieved. Single longitudinal mode lasing...... with a linewidth of 6 kHz has been measured. A fast model of erbium-doped fiber laser was developed and used to optimize output parameters of the laser...

  12. Mode locking of electron spin coherences in singly charged quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilich, A; Yakovlev, D R; Shabaev, A; Efros, Al L; Yugova, I A; Oulton, R; Stavarache, V; Reuter, D; Wieck, A; Bayer, M

    2006-07-21

    The fast dephasing of electron spins in an ensemble of quantum dots is detrimental for applications in quantum information processing. We show here that dephasing can be overcome by using a periodic train of light pulses to synchronize the phases of the precessing spins, and we demonstrate this effect in an ensemble of singly charged (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots. This mode locking leads to constructive interference of contributions to Faraday rotation and presents potential applications based on robust quantum coherence within an ensemble of dots.

  13. Stochastic resonance in a single-mode laser driven by frequency modulated signal and coloured noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Guo-Xiang; Zhang Liang-Ying; Cao Li

    2009-01-01

    By adding frequency modulated signals to the intensity equation of gain-noise model of the single-mode laser driven by two coloured noises which are correlated, this paper uses the linear approximation method to calculate the power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the laser intensity. The results show that the SNR appears typical stochastic resonance with the variation of intensity of the pump noise and quantum noise. As the amplitude of a modulated signal has effects on the SNR, it shows suppression, monotone increasing, stochastic resonance, and multiple stochastic resonance with the variation of the frequency of a carrier signal and modulated signal.

  14. Generation efficiency of single-photon current pulses in the Geiger mode of silicon avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhovtseva, A. V.; Gergel, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistical fluctuations of the avalanche's multiplication efficiency were studied as applied to the single-photon (Geiger) mode of avalanche photodiodes. The distribution function of partial multiplication factors with an anomalously wide (of the order of the average) dispersion was obtained. Expressions for partial feedback factors were derived in terms of the average gain and the corresponding dependences on the diode's overvoltage were calculated. Final expressions for the photon-electric pulse's conversion were derived by averaging corresponding formulas over the coordinate of initiating photoelectron generation using the functions of optical photon absorption in silicon.

  15. Cantilever-based sensor with integrated optical read-out using single mode waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication and mechanical characterisation of an integrated optical read-out scheme for cantilever-based biosensors. A cantilever can be used as a biosensor by monitoring its bending caused by the surface stress generated due to chemical reactions occurring on its...... surface. Here, we present a novel integrated optical read-out scheme based on single-mode waveguides that enables the fabrication of a compact system. The complete system is fabricated in the polymer SU-8. This manuscript shows the principle of operation and the design well as the fabrication...

  16. Plasma-implantation-based surface modification of metals with single-implantation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. B.; Cui, J. T.; Yang, S. Q.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma ion implantation has proven to be an effective surface modification technique. Its biggest advantage is the capability to treat the objects with irregular shapes without complex manipulation of target holder. Many metal materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, tool steel, titanium, magnesium etc, has been treated using this technique to improve their wear-resistance, corrosion-resistance, fatigue-resistance, oxidation-resistance, bio-compatiblity etc. However in order to achieve thicker modified layers, hybrid processes combining plasma ion implantation with other techniques have been frequently employed. In this paper plasma implantation based surface modification of metals using single-implantation mode is reviewed.

  17. Single-mode waveguides with SU-8 polymer core and cladding for MOEMS applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Boisen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication and optical characterization of singlemode polymeric embedded waveguides are performed. A specific material combination (SU-8 2005 as core and the modified SU-8 mr-L 6050XP as cladding) is chosen in order to obtain a small refractive index difference for single-mode propagation combined...... can fabricate waveguides with an index difference in the order of 10−3, where both the core material and the cladding material are based on SU-8. The refractive index measurements are performed on thin polymeric films, while further optical characterizations are performed on waveguides with a height...

  18. Self-pulsing and chaos in inhomogeneously broadened single mode lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R; Cho, Y

    1983-08-01

    A four-dimensional model and a six-dimensional model describing the self-pulsing instabilities and chaotic dynamics of inhomogeneously broadened single-mode lasers are derived as the first two steps of an infinite hierarchy of approximations increasing in accuracy and complexity. The results of a linear stability analysis of the time-independent states and some numerical solutions are given to show the various types of dynamic behavior which can occur in these models. The dynamic behavior is found to be much more complex than in the homogeneously broadened case and is obtained under physically more realistic conditions. 10 references.

  19. Single-longitudinal-mode BEFL incorporating a Bragg grating written in EDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Sun, Junqiang; Chen, Guodong; Xie, Heng

    2015-06-01

    A stable and tunable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Brillouin/Erbium fiber laser (BEFL) with narrow linewidth is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A uniform Bragg grating written in a segment of unpumped Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) is incorporated as an auto-tracking filter to achieve SLM operation. A length of 5 m pumped EDF is used to provide both Brillouin and linear gain in the cavity. The linewidth is measured to be 18 kHz and the lasing peak power fluctuation and wavelength shift are monitored less than 0.027 dB and 2 pm respectively.

  20. Highly damped quasinormal modes of generic single-horizon black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghigh, Ramin G [Physics Department, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9 (Canada); Kunstatter, Gabor [Winnipeg Institute for Theoretical Physics, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2005-10-07

    We calculate analytically the highly damped quasinormal mode spectra of generic single-horizon black holes using the rigorous WKB techniques of Andersson and Howls (2004 Class. Quantum Grav. 21 1623). We thereby provide a firm foundation for previous analysis, and point out some of their possible limitations. The numerical coefficient in the real part of the highly damped frequency is generically determined by the behaviour of coupling of the perturbation to the gravitational field near the origin, as expressed in tortoise coordinates. This fact makes it difficult to understand how the famous ln(3) could be related to the quantum gravitational microstates near the horizon.

  1. Writing single-mode waveguides in lithium niobate by ultra-low intensity solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, E.; Ramadan, W.; Petris, A.; Chauvet, M.; Bosco, A.; Vlad, V.I.; Bertolotti, M.

    2005-01-01

    Optical waveguides can be conveniently written in photorefractive materials by using spatial solitons. We have generated bright spatial solitons inside lithium niobate which allow single-mode light propagation. Efficient waveguides have been generated with CW light powers as high as few microwatts. According to the soliton formation, waveguides can be formed with different shapes. Due to the slow response time of the lithium niobate, both for soliton formation and relaxation, the soliton waveguide remains memorised for a long time, of the order of months

  2. Investigation of the glide modes of single crystals of beryllium; Etude des modes de glissement de monocristaux de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-05-01

    The flow characteristics of single crystals of beryllium specially oriented for slip along a single plane and a single direction have been thoroughly investigated. The elastic limit and the strain hardening in basal glide have been investigated in the temperature range (-195 deg. C, 400 deg. C) in tension as well as in compression. Observation of the slip lines and of the dislocation configurations have also been made in addition to the mechanical tests. The prismatic slip has been studied in greater detail: tensile tests have been performed on specimens carefully oriented at different temperatures, strain rates and with varying orientations of the basal and of the prism planes. Tests have also been made in the micro-strain range; the slip lines and the dislocation arrangements were observed in detail. The very unusual variation of the elastic limit with temperature is not due to impurities but to a cross slip mechanism. A model of dislocation locking is proposed to account for the experimental results. This mechanism assumes that the a-bar dislocations may also dissociate on the prism planes [101-bar 0]. Various possible dissociations are suggested, the most probable of which corresponds to the phase transformation: Hexagonal close packed to body centered cubic. This proposal can be extended to account for the relative ease of glide on the different systems in the hexagonal close packed metals. (author) [French] L' ecoulement de monocristaux de berylliurn deformes en glissement basal et en glissement prismatique a ete etudie sur des echantillons orientes de maniere a favoriser au maximum la deformation suivant une seule direction d'un seul systeme de glissement. L'influence de la temperature sur la limite elastique et la consolidation en glissement basal a ete etudie depuis -195 deg. C jusqu' 400 deg. C sur des echantillons deformes en tension et sur d'autres deformes en compression. Ces essais mecaniques ont ete completes par l'observation des lignes de

  3. DBD plasma source operated in single-filamentary mode for therapeutic use in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Mertmann, Philipp; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter [Institute for Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Wandke, Dirk [CINOGY GmbH, Max-Naeder-Str. 15, 37114 Duderstadt (Germany); Vioel, Wolfgang, E-mail: rajasekaran@aept.rub.d, E-mail: mertmann@aept.rub.d, E-mail: Nikita.Bibinov@rub.d, E-mail: dirk.wandke@cinogy.co, E-mail: vioel@hawk-hhg.d, E-mail: awakowicz@aept.rub.d [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-11-21

    Our dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source for bio-medical application comprises a copper electrode covered with ceramic. Objects of high capacitance such as the human body can be used as the opposite electrode. In this study, the DBD source is operated in single-filamentary mode using an aluminium spike as the opposite electrode, to imitate the conditions when the discharge is ignited on a raised point, such as hair, during therapeutic use on the human body. The single-filamentary discharge thus obtained is characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, numerical simulation, voltage-current measurements and microphotography. For characterization of the discharge, averaged plasma parameters such as electron distribution function and electron density are determined. Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O{sub 3}) and photons reaching the treated surface are simulated. The calculated fluxes are finally compared with corresponding fluxes used in different bio-medical applications.

  4. Steady-state crack growth in single crystals under Mode I loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2017-01-01

    The active plastic zone that surrounds the tip of a sharp crack growing under plane strain Mode I loading conditions at a constant velocity in a single crystal is studied. Both the characteristics of the plastic zone and its effect on the macroscopic toughness is investigated in terms of crack tip...... that the largest shielding effect develops in HCP crystals, while the lowest shielding exists for FCC crystals. Rate-sensitivity is found to affect the plastic zone size, but the characteristics overall remain similar for each individual crystal structure. An increasing rate-sensitivity at low crack velocities...... shielding due to plasticity (quantified by employing the Suo, Shih, and Varias set-up). Three single crystals (FCC, BCC, HCP) are modelled in a steady-state elastic visco-plastic framework, with emphasis on the influence of rate-sensitivity and crystal structures. Distinct velocity discontinuities...

  5. Single top quarks at the Tevatron and observation of the s-channel production mode

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview of single-top-quark production at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The talk covers measurements of the total s+t channel production cross section and the extraction of the CKM matrix element |V_tb|. Furthermore, separate analyses of the s-channel and t-channel production modes are discussed. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment and represent in most cases the full Run-II dataset. Through a combination of the CDF and D0 measurements the first observation of single-top-quark production in the s-channel is claimed. This is particularly highlighted in the seminar.

  6. Temperature Insensitive Current-Mode Four Quadrant Multiplier Using Single CFCTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuntrakool Sunti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A four quadrant multiplier of two current input signals using active building block, namely current follower cascaded transconductance amplifier (CFCTA is presented in this paper. The proposed multiplier consists of only single CFCTA without the use of any passive element. The presented circuit has low impedance at current input node and high impedance at current output node which is convenient for cascading in current mode circuit without the need of current buffer circuits. The output current can multiply two input currents with temperature insensitivity. Moreover, the magnitude of output current can be controlled electronically via DC bias current. With only single active building block, the presented multiplier is suitable for integrated circuit implementation for analog signal processing. Simulation results from a PSpice program are presented in order to demonstrate the multiplier proposed here.

  7. A narrow linewidth tunable single longitudinal mode Ga-EDF fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Halip, N. H.; Abu Bakar, M. H.; Latif, A. A.; Muhd-Yasin, S. Z.; Zulkifli, M. I.; Mat-Sharif, K. A.; Omar, N. Y. M.; Mansoor, A.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    A tunable ring cavity single longitudinal mode (SLM) fiber laser incorporating Gallium-Erbium co-doped fiber (Ga-EDF) gain medium and several mode filtration techniques is demonstrated. With Ga-EDF, high emission power was accorded in short fiber length, allowing shorter overall cavity length and wider free spectral range. Tunable bandpass filter, sub-ring structure, and cascaded dissimilar fiber taper were utilized to filter multi-longitudinal modes. Each of the filter mechanism was tested individually within the laser cavity to assess its performance. Once the performance of each filter was obtained, all of them were deployed into the laser system. Ultimately, the 1561.47 nm SLM laser achieved a narrow linewidth laser, optical signal-to-noise ratio, and power fluctuation of 1.19 kHz, 61.52 dB and 0.16 dB, respectively. This work validates the feasibility of Ga-EDF to attain a stable SLM output in simple laser configuration.

  8. Anisotropic anti-resonant elements gives broadband single-mode low-loss hollow-core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Bang, Ole; Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core fibers with node-free anisotropic anti-resonant elements give broadband low-loss fibers that are also single-moded. At 1.06 μm silica-based fiber designs show higher-order-mode extinction-ratio >1000 and losses below 10 dB/km over a broad wavelength range....

  9. Tuning the dispersion and single/multi-modeness of a hole-assisted fiber by the hole's geometrical parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2008-01-01

    Using a vectorial finite element mode solver developed earlier, we studied a hole-assisted multi-ring fiber. We report the role of the hole’s geometrical parameters in tuning the waveguide dispersion and the single/multi-modeness of the particular fiber. By correctly selecting the hole’s size and

  10. Design of Slow and Fast Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides for Single-photon Emission Using a Bloch Mode Expansion Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Rigal, B.; Kapon, E.

    We design slow and fast light photonic crystal waveguides for single-photon emission using a Bloch mode expansion and scattering matrix technique. We propose slow light designs that increase the group index-waveguide mode volume ratio for larger Purcell enhancement, and address efficient slow-to-...

  11. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers: Conception and characterization of a single mode source for Cesium atoms manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocquelin, B.

    2009-02-01

    Lasers currently used in atomic clocks or inertial sensors are suffering from a lack of power, narrow linewidth or compactness for future spatial missions. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers, which combine the approach of classical solid state lasers and the engineering of semiconductor laser, are considered here as a candidate to a metrological laser source dedicated to the manipulation of Cesium atoms in these instruments. These lasers have demonstrated high power laser emission in a circular single transverse mode, as well as single longitudinal mode emission, favoured by the semiconductor structure and the external cavity design. We study the definition and the characterization of a proper semiconductor structure for the cooling and the detection of Cesium atoms at 852 nm. A compact and robust prototype tunable on the Cesium D2 hyperfine structure is built. The laser frequency is locked to an atomic transition thanks to a saturated absorption setup. The emission spectral properties are investigated, with a particular attention to the laser frequency noise and the laser linewidth. Finally, we describe and model the thermal properties of the semiconductor structure, which enables the simulation of the laser power characteristic. The experimental parameters are optimised to obtain the maximum output power with our structure. Thanks to our analysis, we propose several ways to overcome these limitations, by reducing the structure heating. (authors)

  12. Simple immunoglobulin G sensor based on thin core single-mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingfang; Lang, Tingting; Shen, Tingting; Shen, Changyu

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a simple fiber biosensor (FOB) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) detection is designed and experimentally verified. The FOB is constructed by a 20 mm long thin core single-mode fiber (TCSMF) sandwiched between two single-mode optical fibers (SMFs). First, the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of the fiber structures is calculated by the beam propagation method. The refractive index sensing experiment is performed using different concentrations of glycerol solutions, and the experimental results are mostly consistent with the simulation predictions. The experimental RI sensitivity increases with the surrounding RI and reaches 82.7 nm/RIU. Then the surface of the FOB is functionalized by APTES for covalent bonding. The human IgG and goat anti-human IgG are chosen as a bioconjugated pair to examine the bio-sensing effectiveness of this FOB. The sensitivity of IgG detection is determined to be 10.4 nm/(mg/ml). And the serum IgG concentration in normal adults lies within the range of 6-16 mg/ml (Worsfold et al., 1985), so the sensor is applicable to human IgG monitoring. The specificity of the FOB is also verified by a contrast experiment conducted using rabbit immunoglobulin G. The proposed FOB is simple, low loss, cost-effective, and can be used for various biological and chemical applications.

  13. Mode Engineering of Single Photons from Cavity Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion Source and Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Uttam

    Over the past decade, much effort has been made in identifying and characterizing systems that can form a building block of quantum networks, among which semiconductor quantum dots (QD) and spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source are two of the most promising candidates. The work presented in this thesis will be centered on investigating and engineering the mentioned systems for generating customizable single photons. A type-II SPDC source can generate a highly flexible pair of entangled photons that can be used to interface disparate quantum systems. In this thesis, we have successfully implemented a cavity-SPDC source that emits polarization correlated photons at 942 nm with a lifetime of 950-1050ps that mode matches closely with InAs/GaAs QD photons. The source emits 80 photon pairs per second per mW pump power within the 150MHz bandwidth. Though the detection of idler photons, the source is capable of emitting heralded photons with g2?0.5 for up to 40 mW pump power. For a low pump power of 5 mW, the heralded g2 is 0.06, indicating that the system is an excellent heralded single photon source. By directly exciting a single QD with cavity-SPDC photons, we have demonstrated a heralded-absorption of SPDC photons by QD, resulting in the coupling of the two systems. Due to the large pump bandwidth, the emitted source is highly multimode in nature, requiring us to post-filter the downconverted field, resulting in a lower photon pair emission rate. We propose placing an intra-cavity etalon to suppress the multi-mode emissions and increase the photon count rate. Understanding and experimentally implementing two-photon interference (HOM) measurements will be crucial for building a scalable quantum network. A detailed theoretical description of HOM measurements is given and is experimentally demonstrated using photons emitted by QD. Through HOM measurements we demonstrated that the QD sample in the study is capable of emitting indistinguishable photons, with

  14. Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifier as an Effective Example to Teach Normalization, Conduction Modes, and Circuit Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Pejovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of a single phase rectifier as an example in teaching circuit modeling, normalization, operating modes of nonlinear circuits, and circuit analysis methods is proposed.The rectifier supplied from a voltage source by an inductive impedance is analyzed in the discontinuous as well as in the continuous conduction mode. Completely analytical solution for the continuous conduction mode is derived. Appropriate numerical methods are proposed to obtain the circuit waveforms in both of the operating modes, and to compute the performance parameters. Source code of the program that performs such computation is provided.

  15. Q-switching and efficient harmonic generation from a single-mode LMA photonic bandgap rod fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Saby, Julien; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a Single-Mode (SM) Large-Mode-Area (LMA) ytterbium-doped PCF rod fiber laser with stable and close to diffraction limited beam quality with 110W output power. Distributed-Mode-Filtering (DMF) elements integrated in the cladding of the rod fiber provide a robust spatial mode...... with a Mode-Field-Diameter (MFD) of 59 mu m. We further demonstrate high pulse energy Second-Harmonic-Generation (SHG) and Third Harmonic Generation (THG) using a simple Q-switched single-stage rod fiber laser cavity architecture reaching pulse energies up to 1mJ at 515nm and 0.5mJ at 343nm. (C) 2011 Optical...

  16. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  17. Comparison of higher order modes damping techniques for 800 MHz single cell superconducting cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkov, Ya. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Petrushina, I. I.; Zobov, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    At present, applications of 800 MHz harmonic cavities in both bunch lengthening and shortening regimes are under consideration and discussion in the framework of the High Luminosity LHC project. In this paper we study electromagnetic characteristics of high order modes (HOMs) for a single cell 800 MHz superconducting cavity and arrays of such cavities connected by drifts tubes. Different techniques for the HOMs damping such as beam pipe grooves, coaxial-notch loads, fluted beam pipes etc. are investigated and compared. The influence of the sizes and geometry of the drift tubes on the HOMs damping is analyzed. The problems of a multipacting discharge in the considered structures are discussed and the operating frequency detuning due to the Lorentz force is evaluated.

  18. Stochastic resonance for signal-modulated pump noise in a single-mode laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangying Zhang; Li Cao; Fahui Zhu

    2006-01-01

    By adopting the gain-noise model of the single-mode laser in which with bias and periodical signals serve as inputs, combining with the effect of coloured pump noise, we use the linear approximation method to calculate the power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the laser intensity under the condition of pump noise and quantum noise cross-related in the form of δ function. It is found that with the change of pump noise correlation time, both SNR and the output power will occur stochastic resonance (SR). If the bias signal α is very small, changing the intensities of pump noise and quantum noise respectively does not lead to the appearance of SR in the SNR; while α increases to a certain number, SR appears.

  19. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1xM bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a, uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes

  20. Comparison of higher order modes damping techniques for 800 MHz single cell superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashkov, Ya.V., E-mail: shashkovyv@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sobenin, N.P.; Petrushina, I.I. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zobov, M.M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati INFN, Rome (Italy)

    2014-12-11

    At present, applications of 800 MHz harmonic cavities in both bunch lengthening and shortening regimes are under consideration and discussion in the framework of the High Luminosity LHC project. In this paper we study electromagnetic characteristics of high order modes (HOMs) for a single cell 800 MHz superconducting cavity and arrays of such cavities connected by drifts tubes. Different techniques for the HOMs damping such as beam pipe grooves, coaxial-notch loads, fluted beam pipes etc. are investigated and compared. The influence of the sizes and geometry of the drift tubes on the HOMs damping is analyzed. The problems of a multipacting discharge in the considered structures are discussed and the operating frequency detuning due to the Lorentz force is evaluated.

  1. Semiconductor laser engineering, reliability and diagnostics a practical approach to high power and single mode devices

    CERN Document Server

    Epperlein, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emitting diode lasers by addressing the complementary topics of device engineering, reliability engineering and device diagnostics in the same book, and thus closes the gap in the current book literature. Diode laser fundamentals are discussed, followed by an elaborate discussion of problem-oriented design guidelines and techniques, and by a systematic treatment of the origins of laser degradation and a thorough exploration of the engineering means to enhance the optical strength of the laser. Stability criteria of critical laser characteristics and key laser robustness factors are discussed along with clear design considerations in the context of reliability engineering approaches and models, and typical programs for reliability tests and laser product qualifications. Novel, advanced diagnostic methods are reviewed to discuss, for the first time in detail in book literature, performa...

  2. Interaction of a single mode field cavity with the 1D XY model: Energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonchev, H; Donkov, A A; Chamati, H

    2016-01-01

    In this work we use the fundamental in quantum optics Jaynes-Cummings model to study the response of spin 1/2chain to a single mode of a laser light falling on one of the spins, a focused interaction model between the light and the spin chain. For the spin-spin interaction along the chain we use the XY model. We report here the exact analytical results, obtained with the help of a computer algebra system, for the energy spectrum in this model for chains of up to 4 spins with nearest neighbors interactions, either for open or cyclic chain configurations. Varying the sign and magnitude of the spin exchange coupling relative to the light-spin interaction we have investigated both cases of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic spin chains. (paper)

  3. PREPARATION OF THE SINGLE MODE PLANAR OPTICAL SPLITTER MODULES AND THEIR CHARACTERIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Doan Mien

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical splitter modules have been prepared based on 1x8 single mode silica planar waveguide optical splitter chips with 250 µm spacing and v-groove fiber arrays for applications in fiber optic communications. We report the technology of precise optical coupling and packaging of the splitter modules and the measurements of the insertion loss (< 11 dB,  uniformity (< 0.80 dB and polarization dependence loss (PLD < 0.10 dB as well as the lateral profile and the image of the input and output lights for the wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm. The main characteristics of the prepared splitter modules are about the same for the commercial available products. The prepared modules have been tested for operation in the conditions of wide temperature range (5–80°C and humidity range (50–98% and no changes in the main characteristics were observed.

  4. A long-baseline interferometer employing single-mode fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaklan, Stuart

    The idea of the Fiber-Linked Optical Array Telescope proposed by Connes (1987) is to mount several small optical telescopes around the perimeter of a radio dish or other large steerable structure, couple the light into single-mode (SM) fibers, and use the fibers to coherently combine the beams at the output. This paper examines the important properties of SM fibers and then discusses the whole system in general terms, starting with the telescopes and following the light through to the detectors, along with the results of laboratory experiments evaluating the performance of SM fibers. The imaging capabilities of the array were simulated, and it was found that, using 10 telescopes on a 440-m dish, the array obtains images with resolution of the order of 2 milliarc seconds in the visible range.

  5. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Gironi, Gianna; Suetta, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes energetic, spatial, temporal and spectral characterization measurements of the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) of the Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA) used in the ALADIN instrument currently under development for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The EQM is equivalent to the Flight Model, with the exception of some engineering grade components. The Laser Transmitter Assembly, based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate laser pulses at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz during bursts. It is capable to operate in Single Longitudinal Mode and to be tuned over 25 GHz range. An internal "network" of sensors has been implemented inside the laser architecture to allow "in flight" monitoring of transmitter. Energy in excess of 100 mJ, with a spatial beam quality factor (M2) lower than 3, a spectral linewidth less than 50 MHz with a frequency stability better than 4 MHz on short term period have been measured on the EQM. Most of the obtained results are well within the expected values and match the Instrument requirements. They constitute an important achievement, showing the absence of major critical areas in terms of performance and the capability to obtain them in a rugged and compact structure suitable for space applications. The EQM will be submitted in the near future to an Environmental test campaign.

  6. Trapped-ion anomalous diffusion coefficient on the basis of single mode saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Yuji; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Ogasawara, Masatada.

    1982-03-01

    Expressions of the anomalous diffusion coefficient due to the dissipative trapped ion instability (DTII) are derived for the case with and without the effect of magnetic shear. Derivation is made by taking into account of the single mode saturation of the DTII previously obtained numerically. In the absence of the shear effect, the diffusion coefficient is proportional to #betta#sub(i)a 2 (#betta#sub(i) is the effective collision frequency of the trapped ions and a is the minor radius of a torus) and is much larger than the neoclassical ion heat conductivity. In the presence of the shear effect, the diffusion coefficient is much smaller than the Kadomtsev and Pogutse's value and is the same order of magnitude as the neoclassical ion heat conductivity. Dependences of the diffusion coefficient on the temperature and on the total particle number density are rather complicated due to the additional spectral cut-off, which is introduced to regularize the short wavelength modes in the numerical analysis. (author)

  7. Tunneling Mode of Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy: Probing Electrochemical Processes at Single Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Wang, Dengchao; Mirkin, Michael V

    2018-06-18

    Electrochemical experiments at individual nanoparticles (NPs) can provide new insights into their structure-activity relationships. By using small nanoelectrodes as tips in a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM), we recently imaged individual surface-bound 10-50 nm metal NPs. Herein, we introduce a new mode of SECM operation based on tunneling between the tip and a nanoparticle immobilized on the insulating surface. The obtained current vs. distance curves show the transition from the conventional feedback response to electron tunneling between the tip and the NP at separation distances of less than about 3 nm. In addition to high-resolution imaging of the NP topography, the tunneling mode enables measurement of the heterogeneous kinetics at a single NP without making an ohmic contact with it. The developed method should be useful for studying the effects of nanoparticle size and geometry on electrocatalytic activity in real-world applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Multipacting and higher order mode analysis of 325 MHz single spoke resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Mukesh Kumar; Gaur, Rahul; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting Single Spoke Resonators (SSRs) will be used to accelerate the H - ions from 3 MeV to 160 MeV in the injector linac for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source (ISNS) at RRCAT. Electromagnetic design studies of 325 MHz SSRs have been performed for βg = 0.11, 0.22 and 0.42. Performance of SSRs are typically limited by multipacting phenomenon and higher order modes. In our design, we have performed detailed studies of electron multipacting phenomenon, which is a resonant process, using a computer code CST-PS. Based on this analysis, refinements in the geometry of the SSRs have been made, in order to reduce the growth rate of multipacting. We have also carried out extensive analysis of Higher Order Mode (HOM) for the SSR structure, using the computer code CST-MWS, where the R/Q parameter has been calculated for monopole, dipole and quadrupole HaMs. Details of these calculations will be presented in this paper. (author)

  9. Interferometric measurement of refractive index modification in a single mode microfiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid; Ahsani, Vahid; Jun, Martin B. G.

    2017-02-01

    Efficient and cost effective measurement of the refractive index profile in an optical fiber is a significant technical job to design and manufacture in-fiber photonic devices and communication systems. For instance, to design fiber gratings, it is required to estimate the refractive index modulation to be inscribed by the fabrication apparatus such as ultraviolet or infrared lasers. Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based quantification of refractive index change written in single mode microfiber by femtosecond laser radiation is presented in this study. The MZI is constructed by splicing a microfiber (core diameter: 3.75 μm, cladding diameter: 40 μm) between standard single mode fibers. To measure the RI inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser, 200 μm length of the core within the MZI was scanned with laser radiation. As the higher index was written within 200 μm length of the core, the transmission spectrum of the interferometer displayed a corresponding red shift. The observed spectral shift was used to calculate the amount of refractive index change inscribed by the femtosecond irradiation. For the MZI length of 3.25 mm, and spectral shift of 0.8 nm, the calculated refractive index was found to be 0.00022. The reported results display excellent agreement between theory and experimental findings. Demonstrated method provides simple yet very effective on-site measurement of index change in optical fibers. Since the MZI can be constructed in diverse fiber types, this technique offers flexibility to quantify index change in various optical fibers.

  10. Silicon photonics WDM transmitter with single section semiconductor mode-locked laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliana; Hauck, Johannes; Shen, Bin; Romero-García, Sebastian; Islamova, Elmira; Azadeh, Saeed Sharif; Joshi, Siddharth; Chimot, Nicolas; Moscoso-Mártir, Alvaro; Merget, Florian; Lelarge, François; Witzens, Jeremy

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a wavelength domain-multiplexed (WDM) optical link relying on a single section semiconductor mode-locked laser (SS-MLL) with quantum dash (Q-Dash) gain material to generate 25 optical carriers spaced by 60.8 GHz, as well as silicon photonics (SiP) resonant ring modulators (RRMs) to modulate individual optical channels. The link requires optical reamplification provided by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in the system experiments reported here. Open eye diagrams with signal quality factors (Q-factors) above 7 are measured with a commercial receiver (Rx). For higher compactness and cost effectiveness, reamplification of the modulated channels with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) operated in the linear regime is highly desirable. System and device characterization indicate compatibility with the latter. While we expect channel counts to be primarily limited by the saturation output power level of the SOA, we estimate a single SOA to support more than eight channels. Prior to describing the system experiments, component design and detailed characterization results are reported including design and characterization of RRMs, ring-based resonant optical add-drop multiplexers (RR-OADMs) and thermal tuners, S-parameters resulting from the interoperation of RRMs and RR-OADMs, and characterization of Q-Dash SS-MLLs reamplified with a commercial SOA. Particular emphasis is placed on peaking effects in the transfer functions of RRMs and RR-OADMs resulting from transient effects in the optical domain, as well as on the characterization of SS-MLLs in regard to relative intensity noise (RIN), stability of the modes of operation, and excess noise after reamplification.

  11. Coupling single NV-centres to high-Q whispering gallery modes of a preselected frequency-matched microresonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schietinger, Stefan; Benson, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the controlled coupling of fluorescence from a single NV-centre in a single nanodiamond to the high-Q modes of a preselected microsphere. Microspheres from an ensemble with a finite size distribution can be characterized precisely via white light Mie-scattering. The mode spectrum of individual spheres can be determined with high precision. A sphere with an appropriate spectrum can be selected, and a nanodiamond containing a single NV-centre can be coupled to it. The spectral position of the calculated lowest order whispering gallery modes are found to be in very good agreement with the experimentally observed resonances of the coupled fluorescence from the single NV-re.

  12. A tuneable, power efficient and narrow single longitudinal mode fibre ring laser using an inline dual-taper fibre Mach–Zehnder filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H; Dernaika, M; Alimadad, M; Ibrahim, M F; Lim, K S; Harun, S W; Kharraz, O M

    2014-01-01

    A tuneable single longitudinal mode fibre ring laser with dual-taper fibre filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. The single longitudinal mode operation, and power limitations for a Mach–Zehnder interferometer filter generated from a single mode fibre, are verified for the first time. Incorporating an in-line taper fibre Mach–Zehnder interferometer filter inside the laser ring cavity causes a spatial mode beating interference, resulting in a passive narrow band filter with the ability to generate stable single longitudinal modes. The single longitudinal mode achieves a side mode suppression ratio of more than 60 dB using low pump power. The tuneability of the fibre laser ranges from 1525 to 1562 nm using a passive band pass filter. A study of the stability and limitation of the single longitudinal mode in the Mach–Zehnder tapered fibre is also presented. (paper)

  13. A Single Mode Study of a Quasi-Geostrophic Convection-Driven Dynamo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, M.; Calkins, M. A.; Julien, K. A.; Tobias, S.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary magnetic fields are thought to be the product of hydromagnetic dynamo action. For Earth, this process occurs within the convecting, turbulent and rapidly rotating outer core, where the dynamics are characterized by low Rossby, low magnetic Prandtl and high Rayleigh numbers. Progress in studying dynamos has been limited by current computing capabilities and the difficulties in replicating the extreme values that define this setting. Asymptotic models that embrace these extreme parameter values and enforce the dominant balance of geostrophy provide an option for the study of convective flows with actual relevance to geophysics. The quasi-geostrophic dynamo model (QGDM) is a multiscale, fully-nonlinear Cartesian dynamo model that is valid in the asymptotic limit of low Rossby number. We investigate the QGDM using a simplified class of solutions that consist of a single horizontal wavenumber which enforces a horizontal structure on the solutions. This single mode study is used to explore multiscale time stepping techniques and analyze the influence of the magnetic field on convection.

  14. Mode I fracture toughness analysis of a single-layer grapheme sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ky, Minh Nguyen; Yum, Young Jin [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To predict the fracture toughness of a single-layer graphene sheet (SLGS), analytical formulations were devised for the hexagonal honeycomb lattice using a linkage equivalent discrete frame structure. Broken bonds were identified by a sharp increase in the position of the atoms. As crack propagation progressed, the crack tip position and crack path were updated from broken bonds in the molecular dynamics (MD) model. At each step in the simulation, the atomic model was centered on the crack tip to adaptively follow its path. A new formula was derived analytically from the deformation and bending mechanism of solid-state carbon-carbon bonds so as to describe the mode I fracture of SLGS. The fracture toughness of single-layer graphene is governed by a competition between bond breaking and bond rotation at a crack tip. K-field based displacements were applied on the boundary of the micromechanical model, and FEM results were obtained and compared with theoretical findings. The critical stress intensity factor for a graphene sheet was found to be K{sub IC} = 2.63 ∼ 3.2 MPa√m for the case of a zigzag crack.

  15. Dual-mode optical microscope based on single-pixel imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate an inverted microscope that can image specimens in both reflection and transmission modes simultaneously with a single light source. The microscope utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) for patterned illumination altogether with two single-pixel photosensors for efficient light detection. The system, a scan-less device with no moving parts, works by sequential projection of a set of binary intensity patterns onto the sample that are codified onto a modified commercial DMD. Data to be displayed are geometrically transformed before written into a memory cell to cancel optical artifacts coming from the diamond-like shaped structure of the micromirror array. The 24-bit color depth of the display is fully exploited to increase the frame rate by a factor of 24, which makes the technique practicable for real samples. Our commercial DMD-based LED-illumination is cost effective and can be easily coupled as an add-on module for already existing inverted microscopes. The reflection and transmission information provided by our dual microscope complement each other and can be useful for imaging non-uniform samples and to prevent self-shadowing effects.

  16. Design and Characterization of 64K Pixels Chips Working in Single Photon Processing Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Llopart Cudie, Xavier; Campbell, M

    2007-01-01

    Progress in CMOS technology and in fine pitch bump bonding has made possible the development of high granularity single photon counting detectors for X-ray imaging. This thesis studies the design and characterization of three pulse processing chips with 65536 square pixels of 55 µm x 55 µm designed in a commercial 0.25 µm 6-metal CMOS technology. The 3 chips share the same architecture and dimensions and are named Medipix2, Mpix2MXR20 and Timepix. The Medipix2 chip is a pixel detector readout chip consisting of 256 x 256 identical elements, each working in single photon counting mode for positive or negative input charge signals. The preamplifier feedback provides compensation for detector leakage current on a pixel by pixel basis. Two identical pulse height discriminators are used to define an energy window. Every event falling inside the energy window is counted with a 13 bit pseudo-random counter. The counter logic, based in a shift register, also behaves as the input/output register for the pixel. Each...

  17. Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Mark; Itzler, Mark A.; Chen, Jim; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir

    2012-06-01

    The unparalleled sensitivity of 3D LADAR imaging sensors based on single photon detection provides substantial benefits for imaging at long stand-off distances and minimizing laser pulse energy requirements. To obtain 3D LADAR images with single photon sensitivity, we have demonstrated focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InGaAsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) optimized for use at either 1.06 μm or 1.55 μm. These state-of-the-art FPAs exhibit excellent pixel-level performance and the capability for 100% pixel yield on a 32 x 32 format. To realize the full potential of these FPAs, we have recently developed an integrated camera system providing turnkey operation based on FPGA control. This system implementation enables the extremely high frame-rate capability of the GmAPD FPA, and frame rates in excess of 250 kHz (for 0.4 μs range gates) can be accommodated using an industry-standard CameraLink interface in full configuration. Real-time data streaming for continuous acquisition of 2 μs range gate point cloud data with 13-bit time-stamp resolution at 186 kHz frame rates has been established using multiple solid-state storage drives. Range gate durations spanning 4 ns to 10 μs provide broad operational flexibility. The camera also provides real-time signal processing in the form of multi-frame gray-scale contrast images and single-frame time-stamp histograms, and automated bias control has been implemented to maintain a constant photon detection efficiency in the presence of ambient temperature changes. A comprehensive graphical user interface has been developed to provide complete camera control using a simple serial command set, and this command set supports highly flexible end-user customization.

  18. 3 kW single stage all-fiber Yb-doped single-mode fiber laser for highly reflective and highly thermal conductive materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, S.; Nguyen, H. K.; Kashiwagi, M.; Uchiyama, K.; Shima, K.; Tanaka, D.

    2017-02-01

    A 3 kW single stage all-fiber Yb-doped single-mode fiber laser with bi-directional pumping configuration has been demonstrated. Our newly developed high-power LD modules are employed for a high available pump power of 4.9 kW. The length of the delivery fiber is 20 m which is long enough to be used in most of laser processing machines. An output power of 3 kW was achieved at a pump power of 4.23 kW. The slope efficiency was 70%. SRS was able to be suppressed at the same output power by increasing ratio of backward pump power. The SRS level was improved by 5dB when 57% backward pump ratio was adopted compared with the case of 50%. SRS was 35dB below the laser power at the output power of 3 kW even with a 20-m delivery fiber. The M-squared factor was 1.3. Single-mode beam quality was obtained. To evaluate practical utility of the 3 kW single-mode fiber laser, a Bead-on-Plate (BoP) test onto a pure copper plate was executed. The BoP test onto a copper plate was made without stopping or damaging the laser system. That indicates our high power single-mode fiber lasers can be used practically in processing of materials with high reflectivity and high thermal conductivity.

  19. Toward single-mode random lasing within a submicrometre-sized spherical ZnO particle film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyuki, Ryo; Fujiwara, Hideki; Sasaki, Keiji; Ishikawa, Yoshie; Koshizaki, Naoto; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We had recently reported unique random laser action such as quasi-single-mode and low-threshold lasing from a submicrometre-sized spherical ZnO nanoparticle film with polymer particles as defects. The present study demonstrates a novel approach to realize single-mode random lasing by adjusting the sizes of the defect particles. From the dependence of random lasing properties on defect size, we find that the average number of lasing peaks can be modified by the defect size, while other lasing properties such as lasing wavelengths and thresholds remain unchanged. These results suggest that lasing wavelengths and thresholds are determined by the resonant properties of the surrounding scatterers, while the defect size stochastically determines the number of lasing peaks. Therefore, if we optimize the sizes of the defects and scatterers, we can intentionally induce single-mode lasing even in a random structure (Fujiwara et al 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 061110). (paper)

  20. Comparison of single-/few-/multi-mode 850 nm VCSELs for optical OFDM transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsuan-Yun; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Leong, Shan-Fong; Peng, Chun-Yen; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Jian Jang; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Shih, Tien-Tsorng; Jou, Jau-Ji; Cheng, Wood-Hi; Wu, Chao-Hsin; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2017-07-10

    For high-speed optical OFDM transmission applications, a comprehensive comparison of the homemade multi-/few-/single-transverse mode (MM/FM/SM) vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) chips is performed. With microwave probe, the direct encoding of pre-leveled 16-QAM OFDM data and transmission over 100-m-long OM4 multi-mode-fiber (MMF) are demonstrated for intra-datacenter applications. The MM VCSEL chip with the largest emission aperture of 11 μm reveals the highest differential quantum efficiency which provides the highest optical power of 8.67 mW but exhibits the lowest encodable bandwidth of 21 GHz. In contrast, the SM VCSEL chip fabricated with the smallest emission aperture of only 3 μm provides the highest 3-dB encoding bandwidth up to 23 GHz at a cost of slight heat accumulation. After optimization, with the trade-off set between the receiving signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bandwidth, the FM VCSEL chip guarantees the highest optical OFDM transmission bit rate of 96 Gbit/s under back-to-back case with its strongest throughput. Among three VCSEL chips, the SM VCSEL chip with nearly modal-dispersion free feature is treated as the best candidate for carrying the pre-leveled 16-QAM OFDM data over 100-m OM4-MMF with same material structure but exhibits different oxide-layer confined gain cross-sections with one another at 80-Gbit/s with the smallest receiving power penalty of 1.77 dB.

  1. Dynamics of a Dispersion-Managed Passively Mode-Locked Er-Doped Fiber Laser Using Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiko Nishizawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the dynamics of a dispersion-managed, passively mode-locked, ultrashort-pulse, Er-doped fiber laser using a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT device. A numerical model was constructed for analysis of the SWNT fiber laser. The initial process of passive mode-locking, the characteristics of the output pulse, and the dynamics inside the cavity were investigated numerically for soliton, dissipative-soliton, and stretched-pulse mode-locking conditions. The dependencies on the total dispersion and recovery time of the SWNTs were also examined. Numerical results showed similar behavior to experimental results.

  2. Single-mode temperature and polarisation-stable high-speed 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaruk, D E; Blokhin, S A; Maleev, N A; Bobrov, M A; Pavlov, M M; Kulagina, M M; Vashanova, K A; Zadiranov, Yu M; Ustinov, V M; Kuzmenkov, A G; Vasil'ev, A P; Gladyshev, A G; Blokhin, A A; Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (JSV Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" >Fefelov, A G

    2014-01-01

    A new intracavity-contacted design to realize temperature and polarization-stable high-speed single-mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is proposed. Temperature dependences of static and dynamic characteristics of the 4.5 pm oxide aperture InGaAlAs VCSEL were investigated in detail. Due to optimal gain-cavity detuning and enhanced carrier localization in the active region the threshold current remains below 0.75 mA for the temperature range within 20-90°C, while the output power exceeds 1 mW up to 90°C. Single-mode operation with side-mode suppression ratio higher than 30 dB and orthogonal polarization suppression ratio more than 18 dB was obtained in the whole current and temperature operation range. Device demonstrates serial resistance less than 250 Ohm, which is rather low for any type of single-mode short- wavelength VCSELs. VCSEL demonstrates temperature robust high-speed operation with modulation bandwidth higher than 13 GHz in the entire temperature range of 20-90°C. Despite high resonance frequency the high-speed performance of developed VCSELs was limited by the cut-off frequency of the parasitic low pass filter created by device resistances and capacitances. The proposed design is promising for single-mode high-speed VCSEL applications in a wide spectral range

  3. Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers for single-mode amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poli, Frederica; Passaro, Davide; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2009-01-01

    The competition among the guided modes in rod-type photonic crystal fibers with a low refractive index ring in the Yb-doped core is investigated with an amplifier model to demonstrate the effective higher-order mode suppression.......The competition among the guided modes in rod-type photonic crystal fibers with a low refractive index ring in the Yb-doped core is investigated with an amplifier model to demonstrate the effective higher-order mode suppression....

  4. Single-mode solid-state polymer dye laser fabricated with standard I-line UV lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Mironov, Andrej; Nilsson, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G.......We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G....

  5. Tailoring light-sound interactions in a single mode fiber for the high-power transmission or sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulistan, Aamir; Rahman, M. M.; Ghosh, Souvik; Rahman, B. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A full-vectorial numerically efficient Finite Element Method (FEM) based computer code is developed to study complex light-sound interactions in a single mode fiber (SMF). The SBS gain or SBS threshold in a fiber is highly related to the overlap between the optical and acoustic modes. For a typical SMF the acoustic-optic overlap strongly depends on the optical and acoustic mode profiles and it is observed that the acoustic mode is more confined in the core than the optical mode and reported overlap is around 94 % between these fundamental optical and acoustic modes. However, it is shown here that selective co-doping of Aluminum and Germanium in core reduces the acoustic index while keeping the optical index of the same value and thus results in increased acoustic- optic overlap of 99.7%. On the other hand, a design of acoustic anti-guide fiber for high-power transmission systems is also proposed, where the overlap between acoustic and optical modes is reduced. Here, we show that by keeping the optical properties same as a standard SMF and introducing a Boron doped 2nd layer in the cladding, a very low value of 2.7% overlap is achieved. Boron doping in cladding 2nd layer results in a high acoustic index and acoustic modes shifts in the cladding from the core, allowing much high power delivery through this SMF.

  6. MICROSTRUCTURING OF SILICON SINGLE CRYSTALS BY FIBER LASER IN HIGH-SPEED SCANNING MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Trifonova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The surface structure of the silicon wafers (substrate with a thermally grown silicon dioxide on the surface (of SiO2/Si is studied after irradiation by pulse fiber laser of ILI-1-20 type. The main requirements for exposure modes of the system are: the preservation of the integrity of the film of silicon dioxide in the process of microstructuring and the absence of interference of surrounding irradiated areas of the substrate. Method. Studies were carried out on silicon wafers KEF-4,5 oriented in the crystallographic plane (111 with the source (natural silicon dioxide (SiO2 with thickness of about 4 nm, and SiO2 with 40 nm and 150 nm thickness, grown by thermal oxidation in moist oxygen. Also, wafers KHB-10 oriented in the plane (100 with 500 nm thickness of thermal oxide were investigated. Irradiation of SiO2/Si system was produced by laser complex based on ytterbium fiber pulse laser ILI-1-20. Nominal output power of the laser was 20 W, and the laser wavelength was λ = 1062 nm. Irradiation was carried out by a focused beam spot with a diameter of 25 microns and a pulse repetition rate of 99 kHz. The samples with 150 nm and 40 nm thickness of SiO2 were irradiated at a power density equal to 1,2·102 W/cm2, and the samples of SiO2 with 500 nm thickness were irradiated at a power density equal to 2,0·102 W/cm2. Scanning was performed using a two-axis Coordinate Scanning Device based on VM2500+ drives with control via a PC with the software package "SinMarkTM." Only one scan line was used at the maximum speed of the beam equal to 8750 mm/s. Morphology control of the irradiated samples was conducted by an optical microscope ZeissA1M with high-resolution CCD array. A scanning probe microscope Nanoedicator of the NT-MDT company was used for structural measurements. Main Results. It has been shown that at a single exposure of high-frequency pulsed laser radiation on SiO2/Si system, with maintaining the integrity of the SiO2 film

  7. Single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements with the OMEGA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J.P.; Verdon, C.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Boehly, T.R.; Bradley, D.K.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Ofer, D.; McKenty, P.W.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H.; Watt, R.G.; Gobby, P.L.; Willi, O.; Taylor, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The results from a series of single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five to six 351-nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10 14 W/cm 2 . Experiments were performed with both 3-ns ramp and 3-ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%endash 7% over a 600-μm-diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using through-foil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets with and without a foam buffer. The growth of both 31-μm and 60-μm wavelength perturbations was found to be in good agreement with ORCHID simulations when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The addition of a 30-mg/cc, 100-μm-thick polystyrene foam buffer layer resulted in reduced growth of the 31-μm perturbation and essentially unchanged growth for the 60-μm case when compared to targets without foam. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Capacitive deionization of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in a single-pass mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen-Shiuan; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan; Hou, Chia-Hung

    2017-10-01

    A single-pass-mode capacitive deionization (CDI) reactor was used to remove arsenic from groundwater in the presence of multiple ions. The CDI reactor involved an applied voltage of 1.2 V and six cell pairs of activated carbon electrodes, each of which was 20 × 30 cm 2 . The results indicate that this method achieved an effluent arsenic concentration of 0.03 mg L -1 , which is lower than the arsenic concentration standard for drinking water and irrigation sources in Taiwan, during the charging stage. Additionally, the ability of the CDI to remove other coexisting ions was studied. The presence of other ions has a significant influence on the removal of arsenic from groundwater. From the analysis of the electrosorption selectivity, the preference for anion removal could be ordered as follows: NO 3 -  > SO 4 2-  > F -  > Cl - >As. The electrosorption selectivity for cations could be ordered as follows: Ca 2+  > Mg 2+  > Na +  ∼ K + . Moreover, monovalent cations can be replaced by divalent cations at the electrode surface in the later period of the electrosorption stage. Consequently, activated carbon-based capacitive deionization is demonstrated to be a high-potential technology for remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-mode optical waveguides on native high-refractive-index substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Grote

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-refractive-index semiconductor optical waveguides form the basis for modern photonic integrated circuits (PICs. However, conventional methods for achieving optical confinement require a thick lower-refractive-index support layer that impedes large-scale co-integration with electronics and limits the materials on which PICs can be fabricated. To address this challenge, we present a general architecture for single-mode waveguides that confine light in a high-refractive-index material on a native substrate. The waveguide consists of a high-aspect-ratio fin of the guiding material surrounded by lower-refractive-index dielectrics and is compatible with standard top-down fabrication techniques. This letter describes a physically intuitive, semi-analytical, effective index model for designing fin waveguides, which is confirmed with fully vectorial numerical simulations. Design examples are presented for diamond and silicon at visible and telecommunications wavelengths, respectively, along with calculations of propagation loss due to bending, scattering, and substrate leakage. Potential methods of fabrication are also discussed. The proposed waveguide geometry allows PICs to be fabricated alongside silicon CMOS electronics on the same wafer, removes the need for heteroepitaxy in III-V PICs, and will enable wafer-scale photonic integration on emerging material platforms such as diamond and SiC.

  10. Experimental demonstration of single-mode fiber coupling over relatively strong turbulence with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Xian, Hao

    2015-10-10

    High-speed free-space optical communication systems using fiber-optic components can greatly improve the stability of the system and simplify the structure. However, propagation through atmospheric turbulence degrades the spatial coherence of the signal beam and limits the single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the SMF coupling efficiency over various turbulences. The results show that the SMF coupling efficiency drops from 81% without phase distortion to 10% when phase root mean square value equals 0.3λ. The simulations of SMF coupling with adaptive optics (AO) indicate that it is inevitable to compensate the high-order aberrations for SMF coupling over relatively strong turbulence. The SMF coupling efficiency experiments, using an AO system with a 137-element deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, obtain average coupling efficiency increasing from 1.3% in open loop to 46.1% in closed loop under a relatively strong turbulence, D/r0=15.1.

  11. Role of third-order dispersion in chirped Airy pulse propagation in single-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wangyang; Wang, Lei; Wen, Shuangchun

    2018-04-01

    The dynamic propagation of the initial chirped Airy pulse in single-mode fibers is studied numerically, special attention being paid to the role of the third-order dispersion (TOD). It is shown that for the positive TOD, the Airy pulse experiences inversion irrespective of the sign of initial chirp. The role of TOD in the dynamic propagation of the initial chirped Airy pulse depends on the combined sign of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) and the initial chirp. If the GVD and chirp have the opposite signs, the chirped Airy pulse compresses first and passes through a breakdown area, then reconstructs a new Airy pattern with opposite acceleration, with the breakdown area becoming small and the main peak of the new Airy pattern becoming asymmetric with an oscillatory structure due to the positive TOD. If the GVD and chirp have the same signs, the finite-energy Airy pulse compresses to a focal point and then inverses its acceleration, in the case of positive TOD, the distance to the focal point becoming smaller. At zero-dispersion point, the finite-energy Airy pulse inverses to the opposite acceleration at a focal point, with the tight-focusing effect being reduced by initial chirp. Under the effect of negative TOD, the initial chirped Airy pulse disperses and the lobes split. In addition, in the anomalous dispersion region, for strong nonlinearity, the initial chirped Airy pulse splits and enters a soliton shedding regime.

  12. Fidelity of Quantum Teleportation for Single-Mode Squeezed State Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-Xiang; XIE Chang-De; PENG Kun-Chi

    2005-01-01

    @@ The fidelity of quantum teleportation of a single-mode squeezed state of light is calculated based on the general theory of quantum-mechanical measurement in the Schrodinger picture. It is shown that the criterion for the nonclassical state teleportation is different from that for coherent state. F = 1/2 is no longer the rigorous boundary between classical and quantum teleportation for a squeezed state of light. When the quantum entanglement of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) beam used for teleportation and the parameters of the system are given,the fidelity depends on the squeezing of the input squeezed state. The higher the squeezing is, the smaller the fidelity is, and the lower the classical limitation of fidelity is. The dependence of the optimum gain for teleporting a squeezed vacuum state upon the EPR entanglement is also calculated. The results obtained provide important references for designing experimental systems of teleporting a non-classical state and judging the quality of the teleported quantum state.

  13. Single Mode SU8 Polymer Based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for Bio-Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiragi, Indrajit; Kundu, Sushanta; Makkar, Roshan; Chalapathi, Krishnamurthy

    2011-10-01

    This paper explains the influence of different parameters to the sensitivity of an optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) for real time detection of biomolecules. The sensing principle is based on the interaction of evanescence field with the biomolecules that get immobilized on sensing arm. The sensitivity has been calculated by varying the sensing window length, wavelength and concentration of bio-analyte. The maximum attainable sensitivity for the preferred design is the order of 10-8 RIU at 840 nm wavelength with a sensing window length of 1cm. All the simulation work has been carried out with Opti-BPMCAD for the optimization of MZI device parameters. The SU8 polymers are used as a core and clad material to fabricate the waveguide. The refractive index of cladding layer is optimized by varying the curing temperature for a fixed time period and the achieved index difference between core and clad is Δn = 0.0151. The fabricated MZI device has been characterized with LASER beam profiler at 840 nm wavelength. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the different parameter to the sensitivity of a single mode optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for bio-sensing application.

  14. Influence of photo- and thermal bleaching on pre-irradiation low water peak single mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jianchong; Wen, Jianxiang; Luo, Wenyun; Xiao, Zhongyin; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2011-12-01

    Reducing the radiation-induced transmission loss in low water peak single mode fiber (LWP SMF) has been investigated by using photo-bleaching method with 980nm pump light source and using thermal-bleaching method with temperature control system. The results show that the radiation-induced loss of pre-irradiation optical fiber can be reduced effectively with the help of photo-bleaching or thermal-bleaching. Although the effort of photo-bleaching is not as significant as thermal-bleaching, by using photo-bleaching method, the loss of fiber caused by radiation-induced defects can be reduced best up to 49% at 1310nm and 28% at 1550nm in low pre-irradiation condition, the coating of the fiber are not destroyed, and the rehabilitating time is just several hours, while self-annealing usually costs months' time. What's more, the typical high power LASER for photo-bleaching can be 980nm pump Laser Diode, which is very accessible.

  15. Pulsed x-ray induced attenuation measurements of single mode optical fibers and coupler materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johan, A.; Charre, P.

    1994-01-01

    Pulsed X-ray induced transient radiation attenuation measurements of single mode optical fibers have been performed versus total dose, light wavelength, optical power and fiber coil diameter in order to determine the behavior of parameters sensitive to ionizing radiation. The results did not show any photobleaching phenomenon and the attenuation was found independent of the spool diameter. As expected, transient attenuation was lower for higher wave-lengths. The recovery took place in the millisecond range and was independent of total dose, light wavelength and optical power. In optical modules and devices a large range of behaviors was observed according to coupler material i.e., Corning coupler showed a small peak attenuation that remained more than one day later; on the other hand LiTaO 3 material experienced an order of magnitude higher peak attenuation and a recovery in the millisecond range. For applications with optical fibers and integrated optics devices the authors showed that in many cases the optical fiber (length above 100 m) is the most sensitive device in a transient ionizing radiation field

  16. Single-mode, All-Solid-State Nd:YAG Laser Pumped UV Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Armstrong, Darrell, J.; Edwards, William C.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the status of a high-energy, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser pumped nonlinear optics based UV converter development is discussed. The high-energy UV transmitter technology is being developed for ozone sensing applications from space based platforms using differential lidar technique. The goal is to generate greater than 200 mJ/pulse with 10-50 Hz PRF at wavelengths of 308 nm and 320 nm. A diode-pumped, all-solid-state and single longitudinal mode Nd:YAG laser designed to provide conductively cooled operation at 1064 nm has been built and tested. Currently, this pump laser provides an output pulse energy of >1 J/pulse at 50 Hz PRF and a pulsewidth of 22 ns with an electrical-to-optical system efficiency of greater than 7% and a M(sup 2) value of UV converter arrangement basically consists of an IR Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) and a Sum Frequency Generator (SFG) setups that are pumped by 532 nm wavelength obtained via Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). In this paper, the operation of an inter cavity SFG with CW laser seeding scheme generating 320 nm wavelength is presented. Efforts are underway to improve conversion efficiency of this mJ class UV converter by modifying the spatial beam profile of the pump laser.

  17. A Novel Technique for Sterilization Using a Power Self-Regulated Single-Mode Microwave Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverte-Ors, Juan D; Pedreño-Molina, Juan L; Fernández, Pablo S; Lozano-Guerrero, Antonio J; Periago, Paula M; Díaz-Morcillo, Alejandro

    2017-06-07

    In this paper, a novel technique to achieve precise temperatures in food sterilization has been proposed. An accurate temperature profile is needed in order to reach a commitment between the total removal of pathogens inside the product and the preservation of nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. The minimal variation of the target temperature in the sample by means of a monitoring and control software platform, allowing temperature stabilization over 100 °C, is the main goal of this work. A cylindrical microwave oven, under pressure conditions and continuous control of the microwave supply power as function of the final temperature inside the sample, has been designed and developed with conditions of single-mode resonance. The uniform heating in the product is achieved by means of sample movement and the self-regulated power control using the measured temperature. Finally, for testing the sterilization of food with this technology, specific biological validation based on Bacillus cereus as a biosensor of heat inactivation has been incorporated as a distribution along the sample in the experimental process to measure the colony-forming units (CFUs) for different food samples (laboratory medium, soup, or fish-based animal by-products). The obtained results allow the validation of this new technology for food sterilization with precise control of the microwave system to ensure the uniform elimination of pathogens using high temperatures.

  18. A Novel Technique for Sterilization Using a Power Self-Regulated Single-Mode Microwave Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Reverte-Ors

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel technique to achieve precise temperatures in food sterilization has been proposed. An accurate temperature profile is needed in order to reach a commitment between the total removal of pathogens inside the product and the preservation of nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. The minimal variation of the target temperature in the sample by means of a monitoring and control software platform, allowing temperature stabilization over 100 °C, is the main goal of this work. A cylindrical microwave oven, under pressure conditions and continuous control of the microwave supply power as function of the final temperature inside the sample, has been designed and developed with conditions of single-mode resonance. The uniform heating in the product is achieved by means of sample movement and the self-regulated power control using the measured temperature. Finally, for testing the sterilization of food with this technology, specific biological validation based on Bacillus cereus as a biosensor of heat inactivation has been incorporated as a distribution along the sample in the experimental process to measure the colony-forming units (CFUs for different food samples (laboratory medium, soup, or fish-based animal by-products. The obtained results allow the validation of this new technology for food sterilization with precise control of the microwave system to ensure the uniform elimination of pathogens using high temperatures.

  19. Bending , Heating and Pressure Effects of He-Ne Laserin Single Mode Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Salim Shnan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a single mode fiber have been chosen with a refractive index (1.50 to the core, and (1.485 to the cladding, with length of (2 m. It was exposed this optical fiber to a bending with different diameters, and to a different temperatures as well as pressure due to putting different weights to study dispersion phenomenon which affects on a pulse shape that travels in optical fiber. Experimental results explain when a bending diameter for an optical fiber increases it will decrease the dispersion and pulse shape will approximate from a Gaussian shape , and the increasing in temperature will increasing  the attenuation in the pulse transfer through the optical fiber .                                                                                                 But when increasing pressure, the dispersion will increases and the pulse shape will be distorted

  20. Saline-enhanced hepatic radiofrequency ablation using a perfused-cooled electrode: comparison of dual probe bipolar mode with monopolar and single probe bipolar modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Dae Jin; Lee, Min Woo; Cho, Gyung Goo; Han, Chang Jin; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether saline-enhanced dual probe bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using perfused-cooled electrodes shows better in-vitro efficiency than monopolar or single probe bipolar RFA in creating larger coagulation necrosis. RF was applied to excised bovine livers in both bipolar and monopolar modes using a 200W generator (CC-3; Radionics) and the perfused-cooled electrodes for 10 mins. After placing single or double perfused-cooled electrodes in the explanted liver, 30 ablation zones were created at three different regimens: group A; saline-enhanced monopolar RFA, group B; saline-enhanced single probe bipolar RFA, and group C; saline-enhanced dual probe bipolar RFA. During RFA, we measured the tissue temperature at 15mm from the electrode. The dimensions of the ablation zones and changes in the impedance currents and liver temperature during RFA were then compared between the groups. The mean current values were higher for monopolar mode (group A) than for the bipolar modes (group B and C): 1550 ± 25 mA in group A, 764 ±189 mA in group B and 819 ± 98 mA in group C(ρ 3 in group A, 23.7 ±3.8 cm 3 in group B, and 34.2 ± 5.1 cm 3 in group C(ρ 0.05). The temperature at 15 mm from the electrode was higher in group C than in the other groups: 70 ± 18 .deg. C in group A, 59 ± 23 .deg. C in group B and 96 ± 16 .deg. C in group C (ρ < 0.05). Saline-enhanced bipolar RFA using dual perfused-cooled electrodes increases the dimension of the ablation zone more efficiently than monopolar RFA or single probe bipolar RFA

  1. Single-mode Brillouin fiber laser passively stabilized at resonance frequency with self-injection locked pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirin, V V; Lopez-Mercado, C A; Megret, P; Fotiadi, A A

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-mode Brillouin fiber ring laser, which is passively stabilized at pump resonance frequency by using self-injection locking of semiconductor pump laser. Resonance condition for Stokes radiation is achieved by length fitting of Brillouin laser cavity. The laser generate single-frequency Stokes wave with linewidth less than 0.5 kHz using approximately 17-m length cavity

  2. Fingerprinting of traditional Chinese medicines on the C18-Diol mixed-mode column in online or offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Tong, Ling; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Li

    2016-06-05

    In the present study, a mixed-mode stationary phase, C18-Diol, was applied for fingerprint analysis of traditional Chinese medicines. Hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions were demonstrated to contribute the retention separately or jointly, which endowed the C18-Diol stationary phase with distinct selectivity compared to the bare C18 one. The separation of total alkaloids extracted from Fritillaria hupehensis was compared on the C18-Diol and conventional C18 column with the greater resolving power and better symmetry responses on the former one. Besides, a novel two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column (2D-LC-1C) was realized on C18-Diol with the offline mode for the alcohol extract of Fritillaria hupehensis and online mode for Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. The early co-eluted extracted components with great polarity on the first dimension were reinjected on the same column and well separated on the second dimension. The results exhibited that the two complementary RPLC and HILIC modes on C18-Diol stationary phase enhanced the separation capacity and revealed more abundant chemical information of the sample, which was a powerful tool in analyzing complex herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultra-wideband and high-gain parametric amplification in telecom wavelengths with an optimally mode-matched PPLN waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Yong Meng; Chen, Jia-Yang; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2018-06-15

    We report a wideband optical parametric amplification (OPA) over 14 THz covering telecom S, C, and L bands with observed maximum parametric gain of 38.3 dB. The OPA is realized through cascaded second-harmonic generation and difference-frequency generation (cSHG-DFG) in a 2 cm periodically poled LiNbO 3 (PPLN) waveguide. With tailored cross section geometry, the waveguide is optimally mode matched for efficient cascaded nonlinear wave mixing. We also identify and study the effect of competing nonlinear processes in this cSHG-DFG configuration.

  4. Tunable single-polarization single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser employing a CMFBG filter and saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Suchun; Lu, Shaohua; Peng, Wanjing; Li, Qi; Feng, Ting; Jian, Shuisheng

    2013-04-01

    A tunable single-polarization single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber ring laser is proposed and demonstrated. For the first time as we know, a chirped moiré fiber Bragg grating (CMFBG) filter with ultra-narrow transmission band and a uniform fiber Bragg grating (UFBG) are used to select the laser longitudinal mode. The stable SLM operation of the fiber laser is guaranteed by the combination of the CMFBG filter and 3 m unpumped erbium-doped fiber acting as a saturable absorber. The single polarization operation of the fiber laser is obtained by using an inline broadband polarizer. A tuning range of about 0.7 nm with about 0.1 nm step is achieved by stretching the uniform FBG.

  5. Efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Cooper, L J; Sahu, J K; Clarkson, W A

    2006-01-15

    A novel approach to achieving robust single-spatial-mode operation of cladding-pumped fiber lasers with multimode cores is reported. The approach is based on the use of a fiber geometry in which the core has a helical trajectory within the inner cladding to suppress laser oscillation on higher-order modes. In a preliminary proof-of-principle study, efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber laser with a 30 microm diameter core and a numerical aperture of 0.087 has been demonstrated. The laser yielded 60.4 W of output at 1043 nm in a beam with M2 clad fiber lasers.

  6. Dissociation pathways of a single dimethyl disulfide on Cu(111): Reaction induced by simultaneous excitation of two vibrational modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motobayashi, Kenta, E-mail: kmotobayashi@cat.hokudai.ac.jp [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Kim, Yousoo [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Arafune, Ryuichi [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Ohara, Michiaki; Ueba, Hiromu; Kawai, Maki, E-mail: maki@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-05-21

    We present a novel reaction mechanism for a single adsorbed molecule that proceeds via simultaneous excitation of two different vibrational modes excited by inelastic tunneling electrons from a scanning tunneling microscope. Specifically, we analyze the dissociation of a single dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, (CH{sub 3}S){sub 2}) molecule on Cu(111) by using a versatile theoretical method, which permits us to simulate reaction rates as a function of sample bias voltage. The reaction is induced by the excitation of C-H stretch and S-S stretch modes by a two-electron process at low positive bias voltages. However, at increased voltages, the dissociation becomes a single-electron process that excites a combination mode of these stretches, where excitation of the C-H stretch is the energy source and excitation of the S-S stretch mode enhances the anharmonic coupling rate. A much smaller dissociation yield (few orders of magnitude) at negative bias voltages is understood in terms of the projected density of states of a single DMDS on Cu(111), which reflects resonant excitation through the molecular orbitals.

  7. Single-transverse-mode near-IR superluminescent diodes with cw output power up to 100 mW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, E V; Il'chenko, S N; Kostin, Yu O; Yakubovich, S D

    2014-01-01

    A series of light-emitting modules based on single-mode quantum-well superluminescent diodes with centre emission wavelengths of about 790, 840, 960 and 1060 nm and a cw output power up to 100 mW in free space is developed. A sufficiently long service life of these devices is demonstrated. (lasers)

  8. Open quantum systems and the two-level atom interacting with a single mode of the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, A.; Stefanescu, E.

    1987-07-01

    On the basis of Lindblad theory of open quantum systems we obtain new optical equations for the system of two-level atom interacting with a single mode of the electromagnetic field. The conventional Block equations in a generalized form with field phases are obtained in the hypothesis that all the terms are slowly varying in the rotating frame.(authors)

  9. Single-Mode, High Repetition Rate, Compact Ho:YLF Laser for Space-Borne Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Wong, Teh-Hwa; Chen, Songsheng; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    A single transverse/longitudinal mode, compact Q-switched Ho:YLF laser has been designed and demonstrated for space-borne lidar applications. The pulse energy is between 34-40 mJ for 100-200 Hz operation. The corresponding peak power is >1 MW.

  10. Single-transverse-mode near-IR superluminescent diodes with cw output power up to 100 mW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, E V; Il' chenko, S N; Kostin, Yu O [Superlum Diodes Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation); Yakubovich, S D [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-29

    A series of light-emitting modules based on single-mode quantum-well superluminescent diodes with centre emission wavelengths of about 790, 840, 960 and 1060 nm and a cw output power up to 100 mW in free space is developed. A sufficiently long service life of these devices is demonstrated. (lasers)

  11. Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Dortu, Fabian; Schrevens, Olivier; Giannone, Domenico; Bouville, David; Cassan, Eric; Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Sohlström, Hans; Sanchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Hill, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present an efficient and highly alignment-tolerant light coupling and distribution system for a multichannel Si3N4/SiO2 single-mode photonics sensing chip. The design of the input and output couplers and the distribution splitters is discussed. Examples of multichannel data obtained with the system are given.

  12. Over 19 W Single-Mode 1545 nm Er,Yb Codoped All-Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadong Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a high-power cladding-pumped Er,Yb codoped all-fiber laser with truly single transverse mode output. The fiber laser is designed to operate at 1545 nm by the use of a pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs to lock and narrow the output spectrum, which can be very useful in generating the eye-safe ~1650 nm laser emission through the Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS in silica fibers that is of interest in many applications. Two pieces of standard single-mode fibers are inserted into the laser cavity and output port to guarantee the truly single-mode output as well as good compatibility with other standard fiber components. We have obtained a maximum output power of 19.2 W at 1544.68 nm with a FWHM spectral width of 0.08 nm, corresponding to an average overall slope efficiency of 31.9% with respect to the launched pump power. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest output power reported from simple all-fiber single-mode Er,Yb codoped laser oscillator architecture.

  13. Mode I crack analysis in single crystals with anisotropic discrete dislocation plasticity : I. Formulation and crack growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishvan, Siamak Soleymani; Van der Giessen, Erik

    Analyses of monotonic loading of a plane-strain mode I crack in an fcc single crystal under small-scale yielding are carried out using discrete dislocation plasticity (DDP) incorporating anisotropic elasticity. Two crystallographically symmetric crack orientations are considered where plane-strain

  14. Tunable and stable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser with 1.3 nm mode spacing output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C H; Shih, F Y; Wang, C H; Chow, C W; Chi, S

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, we propose and investigate a stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with self-injected Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) scheme. By using an FP-LD incorporated with a tunable bandpass filter (TBF) within the gain cavity, the fiber laser can lase at two single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) wavelengths simultaneously due to the self-injected operation. The proposed dual-wavelength laser has a good performance of the output power and optical side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). The laser also shows a wide tuning range from 1523.08 to 1562.26 nm. Besides, the output stabilities of the fiber laser are also discussed

  15. Realization of Current Mode Universal Filter and a Dual-Mode Single Resistance Controlled Quadrature Oscillator Employing VDCC and Only Grounded Passive Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript presents a circuit that can act as a universal filter as well as a single resistence controlled oscillator by unpretentiously changing the switch positions. The circuit employs only two active devices and all grounded passive elements. The utilization of only grounded passive components makes this circuit a better choice for integrated circuit implementation. The current mode biquadratic filter offers all the five basic responses along with independent tunability of its quality factor. The dual-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator offers explicit current outputs along with voltage outputs. The circuit also offers a simple and uncoupled condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation. The typical analysis such as non-ideal, sensitivity and parasitic analysis along with the regular simulation results as well as experimental results are exposed here, to strengthen the design idea.

  16. Self-similar photonic crystal cavity with ultrasmall mode volume for single-photon nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Hyeongrak; Heuck, Mikkel; Englund, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    We propose a photonic crystal cavity design with self-similar structure to achieve ultrasmall mode volume. We describe the concept with a silicon-air nanobeam cavity at λ ∼ 1550nm, reaching a mode volume of ∼ 7.01 × 10∼5λ3.......We propose a photonic crystal cavity design with self-similar structure to achieve ultrasmall mode volume. We describe the concept with a silicon-air nanobeam cavity at λ ∼ 1550nm, reaching a mode volume of ∼ 7.01 × 10∼5λ3....

  17. Tunable single and dual mode operation of an external cavity quantum-dot injection laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebersdorf, A; Lingk, C; De Giorgi, M; Feldmann, J; Sacher, J; Arzberger, M; Ulbrich, C; Boehm, G; Amann, M-C; Abstreiter, G

    2003-01-01

    We investigate quantum-dot (QD) lasers in an external cavity using Littrow and Littman configurations. Here, we report on a continuously tunable QD laser with a broad tuning range from 1047 to 1130 nm with high stability and efficient side mode suppression. The full-width at half-maximum of the laser line is 0.85 nm determined mainly by the quality of the external grating. This laser can be operated in a dual-mode modus, where the mode-spacing can be tuned continuously between 1.1 and 34 nm. Simultaneous emission of the two laser modes is shown by sum frequency generation experiments

  18. Physics of reshock and mixing in single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, O; Latini, M; Don, W

    2006-01-01

    The ninth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method is used to investigate the physics of reshock and mixing in two-dimensional single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability to late times. The initial conditions and computational domain were adapted from the Mach 1.21 air(acetone)/SF 6 shock tube experiment of Collins and Jacobs [J. Fluid Mech. 464, 113 (2002)]: the growth of the bubble and spike perturbation amplitudes from fifth- and ninth-order WENO simulations of this experiment were compared to the predictions of amplitude growth models, and were shown to be in very good agreement with the experimental data prior to reshock [Latini, Schilling and Don, Phys. Fluids (2007), in press]. In the present investigation, the density, vorticity, baroclinic vorticity production, and simulated density Schlieren fields are first presented to qualitatively describe reshock. The baroclinic circulation deposition on the interface is shown to agree with the predictions of the Samtaney and Zabusky [J. Fluid Mech. 269, 45 (1994)] model and linear instability theory. The time-evolution of the positive and negative circulation on the interface is considered before and after reshock: it is shown that the circulations are equal before, as well as after reshock, until the interaction of the reflected rarefaction with the layer leads to flow symmetry breaking and different evolutions of the positive and negative circulation. The post-reshock mixing layer growth is shown to be in very good agreement with three models predicting linear growth for a short time following reshock. Next, a comprehensive investigation of local and global mixing properties as a function of time is performed. The distribution and amount of mixed fluid along the shock propagation direction is characterized using averaged mole fraction profiles, a fast kinetic reaction model, and molecular mixing fractions. The modal distribution of energy in the mixing layer is quantified using the

  19. ESTABLISHED MODES AND STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTOR POWERED WITH SINGLE PHASE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Malyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed to study the operation of three-phase asynchronous motor with squirrel-cage rotor when the stator winding is powered from a single phase network. To create a rotating magnetic field one of the phases is fed through the capacitor. Due to the asymmetry of power feed not only transients, but the steady-state regimes are dynamic, so they are described by differential equations in any coordinate system. Their study cannot be carried out with sufficient adequacy on the basis of known equivalent circuits and require the use of dynamic parameters. In the mathematical model the state equations of the circuits of the stator and rotor are composed in the stationary three phase coordinate system. Calculation of the established mode is performed by solving the boundary problem that makes it possible to obtain the coordinate dependences over the period, without calculation of the transient process. In order to perform it, the original nonlinear differential equations are algebraized by approximating the variables with the use of cubic splines. The resulting nonlinear system of algebraic equations is a discrete analogue of the initial system of differential equations. It is solved by parameter continuation method. To calculate the static characteristics as a function of a certain variable, the system is analytically differentiated, and then numerically integrated over this variable. In the process of integration, Newton's refinement is performed at each step or at every few steps, making it possible to implement the integration in just a few steps using Euler's method. Jacobi matrices in both cases are the same. To account for the current displacement in the rods of the squirrel-cage rotor, each of them, along with the squirrel-cage rings, is divided in height into several elements. This results in several squirrel-cage rotor windings which are represented by three-phase windings with magnetic coupling between them.

  20. A comparative study of the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, X.; Deng, X.-L.; Jiang, L.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is studied numerically to find a reasonable nonlinear theoretical model which can be applied to predict the interface evolution from the linear stage to the early nonlinear stage. The cut-cell-based sharp-interface methods MuSiC+ (Chang et al. in J Comput Phys 242:946-990, 2013) and CCGF (Bai and Deng in Adv Appl Math Mech 9(5):1052-1075, 2017) are applied to generate numerical results for comparisons. Classical Air-SF6 and Air-Helium conditions are applied in this study, and initial amplitude and Atwood number are varied for comparison. Comparisons to the simulation results from the literature show the applicability of MuSiC+ and CCGF. Comparisons to the nonlinear theoretical models show that ZS (Zhang and Sohn in Phys Lett A 212:149-155, 1996; Phys Fluids 9:1106-1124, 1997), SEA (Sadot et al. in Phys Rev Lett 80:1654-1657, 1998), and DR (Dimonte and Ramaprabhu in Phys Fluids 22:014104, 2010) models are valid for both spike and bubble growth rates, and MIK (Mikaelian in Phys Rev E 67:026319, 2003) and ZG (Zhang and Guo in J Fluid Mech 786:47-61, 2016) models are valid for bubble growth rate, when the initial perturbation is small and the Atwood number is low, but only the DR model is applicable for both spike and bubble growth rates when the initial perturbation amplitude and the Atwood number are large. A new term of non-dimensional initial perturbation amplitude is presented and multiplied to the DR model to get a unified fitted DR model, which gives consistent results to the simulation ones for small and large initial amplitudes.

  1. Model of a single mode energy harvester and properties for optimal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yabin; Sodano, Henry A

    2008-01-01

    The process of acquiring the energy surrounding a system and converting it into usable electrical energy is termed power harvesting. In the last few years, the field of power harvesting has experienced significant growth due to the ever increasing desire to produce portable and wireless electronics with extended life. Current portable and wireless devices must be designed to include electrochemical batteries as the power source. The use of batteries can be troublesome due to their finite energy supply, which necessitates their periodic replacement. In the case of wireless sensors that are to be placed in remote locations, the sensor must be easily accessible or of disposable nature to allow the device to function over extended periods of time. Energy scavenging devices are designed to capture the ambient energy surrounding the electronics and covert it into usable electrical energy. The concept of power harvesting works towards developing self-powered devices that do not require replaceable power supplies. The development of energy harvesting systems is greatly facilitated by an accurate model to assist in the design of the system. This paper will describe a theoretical model of a piezoelectric based energy harvesting system that is simple to apply yet provides an accurate prediction of the power generated around a single mode of vibration. Furthermore, this model will allow optimization of system parameters to be studied such that maximal performance can be achieved. Using this model an expression for the optimal resistance and a parameter describing the energy harvesting efficiency will be presented and evaluated through numerical simulations. The second part of this paper will present an experimental validation of the model and optimal parameters

  2. Single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements on the OMEGA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J. P.; Betti, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Goncharov, V. N.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Verdon, C. P.

    2000-01-01

    The results from a series of single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five or six 351 nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10 14 W/cm 2 . Experiments were performed with both 3 ns ramp and 3 ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%-7% over a 600 μm diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using throughfoil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets. Two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations (ORCHID) [R. L. McCrory and C. P. Verdon, in Inertial Confinement Fusion (Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 1989), pp. 83-124] of the growth of 20, 31, and 60 μm wavelength perturbations were in good agreement with the experimental data when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The amplitude of the simulation optical depth is in good agreement with the experimental optical depth; therefore, great care must be taken when the growth rates are compared to dispersion formulas. Since the foil's initial condition just before it is accelerated is not that of a uniformly compressed foil, the optical density measurement does not accurately reflect the amplitude of the ablation surface but is affected by the initial nonuniform density profile. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  3. Single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements on the OMEGA laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauer, J. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Boehly, T. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Collins, T. J. B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Goncharov, V. N. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); McKenty, P. W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Smalyuk, V. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Verdon, C. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-01-01

    The results from a series of single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five or six 351 nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Experiments were performed with both 3 ns ramp and 3 ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%-7% over a 600 {mu}m diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using throughfoil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets. Two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations (ORCHID) [R. L. McCrory and C. P. Verdon, in Inertial Confinement Fusion (Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 1989), pp. 83-124] of the growth of 20, 31, and 60 {mu}m wavelength perturbations were in good agreement with the experimental data when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The amplitude of the simulation optical depth is in good agreement with the experimental optical depth; therefore, great care must be taken when the growth rates are compared to dispersion formulas. Since the foil's initial condition just before it is accelerated is not that of a uniformly compressed foil, the optical density measurement does not accurately reflect the amplitude of the ablation surface but is affected by the initial nonuniform density profile. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Toward photostable multiplex analyte detection on a single mode planar optical waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xei, Hongshi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Aaron S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jennifer S [NON LANL; Swanson, Basil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the sensitive and specific detection of biomarkers associated with disease. Our technology combines the superior optical properties of single-mode planar waveguides, the robust nature of functionalized self-assembled monolayer sensing films and the specificity of fluorescence sandwich immunoassays to detect biomarkers in complex biological samples such as serum, urine and sputum. We have previously reported the adaptation of our technology to the detection of biomarkers associated with breast cancer and anthrax. However, these approaches primarily used phospholipid bilayers as the functional film and organic dyes (ex: AlexaFluors) as the fluorescence reporter. Organic dyes are easily photodegraded and are not amenable to multiplexing because of their narrow Stokes' shift. Here we have developed strategies for conjugation of the detector antibodies with quantum dots for use in a multiplex detection platform. We have previously evaluated dihydroxylipoic acid quantum dots for the detection of a breast cancer biomarker. In this manuscript, we investigate the detection of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen using antibodies conjugated with polymer-coated quantum dots. Kinetics of binding on the waveguide-based biosensor is reported. We compare the sensitivity of quantum dot labeled antibodies to those labeled with AlexaFluor and demonstrate the photostability of the former in our assay platform. In addition, we compare sulfydryl labeling of the antibody in the hinge region to that of nonspecific amine labeling. This is but the first step in developing a multiplex assay for such biomarkers on our waveguide platform.

  5. Low-NA single-mode LMA photonic crystal fiber amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Scolari, Lara

    2011-01-01

    a spatially Distributed Mode Filter (DMF). This approach achieves SM performance in a short and straight rod fiber and allows preform tolerances to be compensated during draw. A low-NA SM rod fiber amplifier having a mode field diameter of ~60μm at 1064nm and a pump absorption of 27dB/m at 976nm...

  6. High core count single-mode multicore fiber for dense space division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aikawa, K.; Sasaki, Y.; Amma, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Multicore fibers and few-mode fibers have the potential to realize dense-space-division multiplexing systems. Several dense-space-division multiplexing system transmission experiments over multicore fibers and few-mode fibers have been demonstrated so far. Multicore fibers, including recent resul...

  7. Single-mode distributed feedback laser operation with no dependence on the morphology of the gain medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umar, Muhammad [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyungtaek [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Inter-university Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heonsu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghwan [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Organic distributed feedback (DFB) lasers can be useful photonic tools for biological applications where the roles of organic materials are important, because highly coherent single mode emission with broad tuning range can be obtained. However, the formulaic structures of organic lasers, and the uses of gain media as resonators themselves, are not suitable for inducing laser emission from irregular shaped gain media, such as dye-staining cells and tissues. Here, we report a reusable photonic template comprising an exceedingly thin and discrete titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) layer on a one-dimensional (1D) quartz grating to induce single mode DFB lasing from a variety of states of optical gain media. Using the same template, the external gain media of optically thick and thin casted film, liquid, and a free-standing thick film reveal single mode lasing with reliable performance. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the 25-nm thick TiO{sub 2} disconnected grating lines support a spatially confined DFB mode in the vertical direction, even under no index difference between superstrate and substrate. Additionally, not using the typical waveguide gain layer promises high sensitivity and detection limit in refractometric sensing. These results suggest that the photonic structure may serve as a versatile sensing platform for bioapplications. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. A Comparison between Boundary and Continuous Conduction Modes in Single Phase PFC Using 600V Range Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and comparison of boundary conduction mode (BCM) and continuous conduction mode (CCM) in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications. The comparison is based on double pulse tester (DPT) characterization results of state-of-the-art superjunction devices...... in the 600V range. The measured switching energy is used to evaluate the devices performance in a conventional PFC. This data is used together with a mathematical model for prediction of the conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI). This allows comparing the different devices in BCM and CCM operation...

  9. Strong coupling between a single nitrogen-vacancy spin and the rotational mode of diamonds levitating in an ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delord, T.; Nicolas, L.; Chassagneux, Y.; Hétet, G.

    2017-12-01

    A scheme for strong coupling between a single atomic spin and the rotational mode of levitating nanoparticles is proposed. The idea is based on spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers embedded in aspherical nanodiamonds levitating in an ion trap. We show that the asymmetry of the diamond induces a rotational confinement in the ion trap. Using a weak homogeneous magnetic field and a strong microwave driving we then demonstrate that the spin of the nitrogen-vacancy center can be strongly coupled to the rotational mode of the diamond.

  10. Towards a single European electricity market. A structured approach to regulatory mode decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the processes through which the rules and regulations that govern European electricity markets - and inherently, their integration process - are established. So far, European policy makers have largely followed a 'trial-and-error' approach to finding an appropriate regulatory mode (process) for dealing effectively with market integration issues. This unstructured approach to regulatory mode selection leads to several problems: - Today's trial-and-error strategy of shifting from one regulatory mode to another is time-consuming. - In the regulatory mode selection process, certain key principles of good governance are insufficiently considered. - European regulatory processes are experienced as vague, intransparent, and illegitimate by 'outside' stakeholders. This study develops a 'structured approach to regulatory mode decision-making' (STARMODE) based on the theory of decision modelling in policy management and a case study exploring three key market integration issues in the field of electricity markets: interconnector investment, congestion management and market transparency. The main objective is to present a systematic and comprehensive framework for analysing and improving regulatory mode decision-making in the context of the European Union, focusing on electricity market integration. The STARMODE approach is generally applicable to (and relevant for) European market integration issues in industries characterized by a natural monopoly and/or an essential service. The approach may also contribute to national regulatory mode decision-making and multi-state decision-making in other continents.

  11. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through April 1999

  12. Design and prototyping of self-centering optical single-mode fiber alignment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraert, Evert; Gao, Fei; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission’s goal of providing each European household with at least a 30 Mb s −1 Internet connection by 2020 would be facilitated by a widespread deployment of fibre-to-the-home, which would in turn be sped up by the development of connector essential components, such as high-precision alignment features. Currently, the performance of state-of-the-art physical contact optical fiber connectors is limited by the tolerance on the cladding of standard telecom-grade single-mode fiber (SMF), which is typically smaller than  ±1 μ m. We propose to overcome this limit by developing micro-spring-based self-centering alignment structures (SCAS) for SMF-connectors. We design these alignment structures with robustness and low-cost replication in mind, allowing for large-scale deployment. Both theoretical and finite element analysis (FEA) models are used to determine the optimal dimensions of the beams of which the micro-springs of the SCAS are comprised. Two topologies of the SCAS, consisting of three and four micro-springs respectively, are investigated for two materials: polysulfone (PSU) and polyetherimide (PEI). These materials hold great potential for high-performance fiber connectors while being compatible with low-cost production and with the harsh environmental operation conditions of those connectors. The theory and FEA agree well (<3% difference) for a simple micro-spring. When including a pedestal on the micro-spring (to bring it further away from the fiber) and for shorter spring lengths the agreement worsens. This is due to spring compression effects not being taken into account in our theoretical model. Prototypes are successfully fabricated using deep proton writing and subsequently characterized. The controlled insertion of an SMF in the SCAS is investigated and we determine that a force of 0.11 N is required. The fiber insertion also causes an out-of-plane deformation of the micro-springs in the SCAS of about 7 μ m, which is no

  13. The entanglement of two moving atoms interacting with a single-mode field via a three-photon process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Wu; Mao-Fa, Fang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the entanglement of two moving atoms induced by a single-mode field via a three-photon process is investigated. It is shown that the entanglement is dependent on the category of the field, the average photon number N, the number p of half-wave lengths of the field mode and the atomic initial state. Also, the sudden death and the sudden birth of the entanglement are detected in this model and the results show that the existence of the sudden death and the sudden birth depends on the parameter and the category of the mode field. In addition, the three-photon process is a higher order nonlinear process. (general)

  14. Single Mode Theory for Impedance Eduction in Large-Scale Ducts with Grazing Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Willie R.; Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; June, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    An impedance eduction theory for a rigid wall duct containing an acoustic liner with an unknown impedance and uniform grazing flow is presented. The unique features of the theory are: 1) non-planar waves propagate in the hard wall sections of the duct, 2) input data consist solely of complex acoustic pressures acquired on a wall adjacent to the liner, and 3) multiple higher-order modes may exist in the direction perpendicular to the liner and the opposite rigid wall. The approach is to first measure the axial propagation constant of a dominant higher-order mode in the liner sample section. This axial propagation constant is then used in conjunction with a closed-form solution to a reduced form of the convected Helmholtz equation and the wall impedance boundary condition to educe the liner impedance. The theory is validated on a conventional liner whose impedance spectrum is educed in two flow ducts with different cross sections. For the frequencies and Mach numbers of interest, no higher-order modes propagate in the hard wall sections of the smaller duct. A benchmark method is used to educe the impedance spectrum in this duct. A dominant higher-order vertical mode propagates in the larger duct for similar test conditions, and the current theory is applied to educe the impedance spectrum. Results show that when the theory is applied to data acquired in the larger duct with a dominant higher-order vertical mode, the same impedance spectra is educed as that obtained in the small duct where only the plane wave mode is present and the benchmark method is used. This result holds for each higher-order vertical mode that is considered.

  15. Single mode step-index polymer optical fiber for humidity insensitive high temperature fiber Bragg grating sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Stefani, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated the first single-mode step-index and humidity insensitive polymer optical fiber operating in the 850 nm wavelength ranges. The step-index preform is fabricated using injection molding, which is an efficient method for cost effective, flexible and fast preparation of the fiber...... preform. The fabricated single-mode step-index (SI) polymer optical fiber (POF) has a 4.8µm core made from TOPAS grade 5013S-04 with a glass transition temperature of 134°C and a 150 µm cladding made from ZEONEX grade 480R with a glass transition temperature of 138°C. The key advantages of the proposed...... SIPOF are low water absorption, high operating temperature and chemical inertness to acids and bases and many polar solvents as compared to the conventional poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene based POFs. In addition, the fiber Bragg grating writing time is short compared to microstructured...

  16. Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissibl, Timo; Thiele, Simon; Herkommer, Alois; Giessen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Micro-optics are widely used in numerous applications, such as beam shaping, collimation, focusing and imaging. We use femtosecond 3D printing to manufacture free-form micro-optical elements. Our method gives sub-micrometre accuracy so that direct manufacturing even on single-mode fibres is possible. We demonstrate the potential of our method by writing different collimation optics, toric lenses, free-form surfaces with polynomials of up to 10th order for intensity beam shaping, as well as chiral photonic crystals for circular polarization filtering, all aligned onto the core of the single-mode fibres. We determine the accuracy of our optics by analysing the output patterns as well as interferometrically characterizing the surfaces. We find excellent agreement with numerical calculations. 3D printing of microoptics can achieve sufficient performance that will allow for rapid prototyping and production of beam-shaping and imaging devices. PMID:27339700

  17. The use of Lorentz group formalism in solving polarization effects of a birefringent single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiekwene, G.C.; Brown, C.S.; Mensah, S.Y.; Bak, A.E.

    2000-07-01

    A theoretical analysis on the polarization effects of a light beam propagating in a birefringent single-mode fiber is presented. We derive a system of differential equations representing the evolution of Stokes parameters and illustrate their application to polarization effects in a straight birefringent single mode optical fiber. The solutions to the set of equations are obtained using specifically the methods of the unified formalism for polarization optics which adopt the use of the Stokes-Mueller equation and the Lorentz group to model polarization phenomena in media such as optical fibers. The analytical results presented using this approach are identical to results obtained from other conventional methods. We observe the characteristic exponential decrease in the total intensity of the input light due to attenuation by the fiber. (author)

  18. A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoying; Fang, Xia; Liao, Changrui; Wang, D N; Sun, Junqiang

    2009-11-23

    A simple linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on a Fabry-Perot filter which consists of a pair of fiber Bragg gratings is proposed for tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength operation. The single-longitudinal-mode is obtained by the saturable absorption of an unpumed erbium-doped fiber together with a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating. Under the high pump power (>166 mW) condition, the stable dual-wavelength oscillation with uniform amplitude can be realized by carefully adjusting the polarization controller in the cavity. Wavelength selection and switching are achieved by tuning the narrow-band fiber Bragg grating in the system. The spacing of the dual-wavelength can be selected at 0.20 nm (approximately 25.62 GHz), 0.22 nm (approximately 28.19 GHz) and 0.54 nm (approximately 69.19 GHz).

  19. Quantum properties of a superposition of squeezed displaced two-mode vacuum and single-photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Orany, Faisal A A; Obada, A-S F; M Asker, Zafer; Perina, J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study some quantum properties of a superposition of displaced squeezed two-mode vacuum and single-photon states, such as the second-order correlation function, the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, quadrature squeezing, quasiprobability distribution functions and purity. These type of states include two mechanisms, namely interference in phase space and entanglement. We show that these states can exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing and deviate from the classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Moreover, the amount of entanglement in the system can be increased by increasing the squeezing mechanism. In the framework of the quasiprobability distribution functions, we show that the single-mode state can tend to the thermal state based on the correlation mechanism. A generation scheme for such states is given.

  20. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed

  1. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States); Ge, Nien-Hui, E-mail: nhge@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.

  2. Single and two-mode mechanical squeezing of an optically levitated nanodiamond via dressed-state coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Wenchao; Bhattacharya, M

    2016-01-01

    Nonclassical states of macroscopic objects are promising for ultrasensitive metrology as well as testing quantum mechanics. In this work, we investigate dissipative mechanical quantum state engineering in an optically levitated nanodiamond. First, we study single-mode mechanical squeezed states by magnetically coupling the mechanical motion to a dressed three-level system provided by a nitrogen-vacancy center in the nanoparticle. Quantum coherence between the dressed levels is created via microwave fields to induce a two-phonon transition, which results in mechanical squeezing. Remarkably, we find that in ultrahigh vacuum quantum squeezing is achievable at room temperature with feedback cooling. For moderate vacuum, quantum squeezing is possible with cryogenic temperature. Second, we present a setup for two mechanical modes coupled to the dressed three levels, which results in two-mode squeezing analogous to the mechanism of the single-mode case. In contrast to previous works, our study provides a deterministic method for engineering macroscopic squeezed states without the requirement for a cavity. (paper)

  3. Single and two-mode mechanical squeezing of an optically levitated nanodiamond via dressed-state coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wenchao; Bhattacharya, M.

    2016-10-01

    Nonclassical states of macroscopic objects are promising for ultrasensitive metrology as well as testing quantum mechanics. In this work, we investigate dissipative mechanical quantum state engineering in an optically levitated nanodiamond. First, we study single-mode mechanical squeezed states by magnetically coupling the mechanical motion to a dressed three-level system provided by a nitrogen-vacancy center in the nanoparticle. Quantum coherence between the dressed levels is created via microwave fields to induce a two-phonon transition, which results in mechanical squeezing. Remarkably, we find that in ultrahigh vacuum quantum squeezing is achievable at room temperature with feedback cooling. For moderate vacuum, quantum squeezing is possible with cryogenic temperature. Second, we present a setup for two mechanical modes coupled to the dressed three levels, which results in two-mode squeezing analogous to the mechanism of the single-mode case. In contrast to previous works, our study provides a deterministic method for engineering macroscopic squeezed states without the requirement for a cavity.

  4. Phonon Self-Energy Corrections to Nonzero Wave-Vector Phonon Modes in Single-Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, P. T.; Mafra, D. L.; Sato, K.; Saito, R.; Kong, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    Phonon self-energy corrections have mostly been studied theoretically and experimentally for phonon modes with zone-center (q=0) wave vectors. Here, gate-modulated Raman scattering is used to study phonons of a single layer of graphene originating from a double-resonant Raman process with q≠0. The observed phonon renormalization effects are different from what is observed for the zone-center q=0 case. To explain our experimental findings, we explored the phonon self-energy for the phonons with nonzero wave vectors (q≠0) in single-layer graphene in which the frequencies and decay widths are expected to behave oppositely to the behavior observed in the corresponding zone-center q=0 processes. Within this framework, we resolve the identification of the phonon modes contributing to the G⋆ Raman feature at 2450cm-1 to include the iTO+LA combination modes with q≠0 and also the 2iTO overtone modes with q=0, showing both to be associated with wave vectors near the high symmetry point K in the Brillouin zone.

  5. A sensitivity-enhanced refractive index sensor using a single-mode thin-core fiber incorporating an abrupt taper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Xiao, Shilin; Yi, Lilin; Bi, Meihua

    2012-01-01

    A sensitivity-enhanced fiber-optic refractive index (RI) sensor based on a tapered single-mode thin-core diameter fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is formed by splicing a section of tapered thin-core diameter fiber (TCF) between two sections of single-mode fibers (SMFs). The cladding modes are excited at the first SMF-TCF interface, and then interfere with the core mode at the second interface, thus forming an inter-modal interferometer (IMI). An abrupt taper (tens of micrometers long) made by the electric-arc-heating method is utilized, and plays an important role in improving sensing sensitivity. The whole manufacture process only involves fiber splicing and tapering, and all the fabrication process can be achieved by a commercial fiber fusion splicer. Using glycerol and water mixture solution as an example, the experimental results show that the refractive index sensitivity is measured to be 0.591 nm for 1% change of surrounding RI. The proposed sensor structure features simple structure, low cost, easy fabrication, and high sensitivity.

  6. A Sensitivity-Enhanced Refractive Index Sensor Using a Single-Mode Thin-Core Fiber Incorporating an Abrupt Taper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensitivity-enhanced fiber-optic refractive index (RI sensor based on a tapered single-mode thin-core diameter fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is formed by splicing a section of tapered thin-core diameter fiber (TCF between two sections of single-mode fibers (SMFs. The cladding modes are excited at the first SMF-TCF interface, and then interfere with the core mode at the second interface, thus forming an inter-modal interferometer (IMI. An abrupt taper (tens of micrometers long made by the electric-arc-heating method is utilized, and plays an important role in improving sensing sensitivity. The whole manufacture process only involves fiber splicing and tapering, and all the fabrication process can be achieved by a commercial fiber fusion splicer. Using glycerol and water mixture solution as an example, the experimental results show that the refractive index sensitivity is measured to be 0.591 nm for 1% change of surrounding RI. The proposed sensor structure features simple structure, low cost, easy fabrication, and high sensitivity.

  7. Watt-level widely tunable single-mode emission by injection-locking of a multimode Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Paul; Piccardo, Marco; Anand, Sajant; Mejia, Enrique A.; Wang, Yongrui; Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Xie, Feng; Lascola, Kevin; Belyanin, Alexey; Capasso, Federico

    2018-02-01

    Free-running Fabry-Perot lasers normally operate in a single-mode regime until the pumping current is increased beyond the single-mode instability threshold, above which they evolve into a multimode state. As a result of this instability, the single-mode operation of these lasers is typically constrained to few percents of their output power range, this being an undesired limitation in spectroscopy applications. In order to expand the span of single-mode operation, we use an optical injection seed generated by an external-cavity single-mode laser source to force the Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser into a single-mode state in the high current range, where it would otherwise operate in a multimode regime. Utilizing this approach, we achieve single-mode emission at room temperature with a tuning range of 36 cm-1 and stable continuous-wave output power exceeding 1 W at 4.5 μm. Far-field measurements show that a single transverse mode is emitted up to the highest optical power, indicating that the beam properties of the seeded Fabry-Perot laser remain unchanged as compared to free-running operation.

  8. Single-mode optical fiber design with wide-band ultra low bending-loss for FTTH application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watekar, Pramod R; Ju, Seongmin; Han, Won-Taek

    2008-01-21

    We propose a new design of a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) which exhibits ultra low bend sensitivity over a wide communication band (1.3 microm to 1.65 microm). A five-cladding fiber structure has been proposed to minimize the bending loss, estimated to be as low as 4.4x10(-10) dB/turn for the bend radius of 10 mm.

  9. Toward single-mode UV to near-IR guidance using hollow-core anti-resonant silica fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Md Selim; Antonio-Lopez, Jose Enrique; Van Newkirk, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Hollow-core anti-resonant (HC-AR) fibers with a “negative-curvature” of the core-cladding boundary have been extensively studied over the past few years owing to their low loss and wide transmission bandwidths. The key unique feature of the HC-AR fiber is that the coupling between the core and cl...... a silica HC-AR fiber having a single ring of 7 non-touching capillaries, designed to have effectively single-mode operation and low loss from UV to near-IR....

  10. “MODAL NOISE” IN SINGLE-MODE FIBERS: A CAUTIONARY NOTE FOR HIGH PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITY INSTRUMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Samuel; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schwab, Christian, E-mail: shalverson@psu.edu [Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2015-12-01

    Exploring the use of single-mode fibers (SMFs) in high precision Doppler spectrometers has become increasingly attractive since the advent of diffraction-limited adaptive optics systems on large-aperture telescopes. Spectrometers fed with these fibers can be made significantly smaller than typical “seeing-limited” instruments, greatly reducing cost and overall complexity. Importantly, classical mode interference and speckle issues associated with multi-mode fibers, also known as “modal noise,” are mitigated when using SMFs, which also provide perfect radial and azimuthal image scrambling. However, SMFs do support multiple polarization modes, an issue that is generally ignored for larger-core fibers given the large number of propagation modes. Since diffraction gratings used in most high resolution astronomical instruments have dispersive properties that are sensitive to incident polarization changes, any birefringence variations in the fiber can cause variations in the efficiency profile, degrading illumination stability. Here we present a cautionary note outlining how the polarization properties of SMFs can affect the radial velocity (RV) measurement precision of high resolution spectrographs. This work is immediately relevant to the rapidly expanding field of diffraction-limited, extreme precision RV spectrographs that are currently being designed and built by a number of groups.

  11. Fully quantum-mechanical dynamic analysis of single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide coupled to a traveling-wave resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hach, Edwin E. III; Elshaari, Ali W.; Preble, Stefan F.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide coupled to a micro-optical resonator by using a fully quantum-mechanical model. We examine the propagation of a single-photon Gaussian packet through the system under various coupling conditions. We review the theory of single-photon transport phenomena as applied to the system and we develop a discussion on the numerical technique we used to solve for dynamical behavior of the quantized field. To demonstrate our method and to establish robust single-photon results, we study the process of adiabatically lowering or raising the energy of a single photon trapped in an optical resonator under active tuning of the resonator. We show that our fully quantum-mechanical approach reproduces the semiclassical result in the appropriate limit and that the adiabatic invariant has the same form in each case. Finally, we explore the trapping of a single photon in a system of dynamically tuned, coupled optical cavities.

  12. Theoretical and experimental study on active sound transmission control based on single structural mode actuation using point force actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Akira; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2012-08-01

    This study deals with the feedforward active control of sound transmission through a simply supported rectangular panel using vibration actuators. The control effect largely depends on the excitation method, including the number and locations of actuators. In order to obtain a large control effect at low frequencies over a wide frequency, an active transmission control method based on single structural mode actuation is proposed. Then, with the goal of examining the feasibility of the proposed method, the (1, 3) mode is selected as the target mode and a modal actuation method in combination with six point force actuators is considered. Assuming that a single input single output feedforward control is used, sound transmission in the case minimizing the transmitted sound power is calculated for some actuation methods. Simulation results showed that the (1, 3) modal actuation is globally effective at reducing the sound transmission by more than 10 dB in the low-frequency range for both normal and oblique incidences. Finally, experimental results also showed that a large reduction could be achieved in the low-frequency range, which proves the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  13. Investigation on utilization of biogas and Karanja oil biodiesel in dual fuel mode in a single cylinder DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna Pattanaik, Bhabani; Nayak, Chandrakanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Gandhi Institute for Technological Advancement, Madanpur, Bhubaneswar - 752054, Odisha (India); Kumar Nanda, Basanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Maharaja Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, experiments were performed on a single cylinder DI diesel engine by using bio-gas as a primary fuel and Karanja oil biodiesel and diesel oil as secondary fuels in dual fuel operation. The experiments were performed to measure performance parameters i.e. (brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature) and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide unburned hydro carbon and smoke etc. at different load conditions. For the dual-fuel system, the intake system of the test engine was modified to convert into biogas and biodiesel of a dual-fueled combustion engine. Biogas was injected during the intake process by gas injectors. The study showed that, the engine performance parameters like BP, BTE and EGT gradually increase with increase in engine load for all test conditions using both pilot fuels diesel and KOBD. However, the BSFC of the engine showed decreasing slope with increase in engine load for all test conditions. Above 40% engine load the BSFC values for all test fuels are very close to each other. The engine emission analysis showed that the CO2, CO and NOx emissions increase with increase in engine load for both single and dual fuel mode operation using both pilot fuels. The NOx concentration of exhaust gases in dual fuel mode is superior than that of single mode.

  14. Enhancement of single mode operation in coaxial optical waveguide using DB boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohia, Pooja; Prajapati, Y.; Saini, J. P.; Rai, B. S.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a competent numerical strategy to compute the dispersion of optical waveguides is presented and propagation of electromagnetic waves in a coaxial optical waveguide with DB boundary conditions is instigated. For this intend, cylindrical coordinates are here being used to derive the DB boundary conditions and to obtain field components for the modes. The propagation constant for the waveguide to be studied is determined by solving the Bessel and the modified Bessel functions. The cutoff frequencies for various lower order modes have been calculated and their dispersion characteristics are plotted correspondingly. The behavior of the coaxial optical waveguide under DB boundary conditions is shown to be significantly different from that of coaxial optical waveguide and conventional optical waveguide under traditional or tangential boundary conditions. Finally, the effect of waveguide dimensions on the mode cutoff frequencies and fabrication issues are also addressed.

  15. Single-temporal-mode photon generation beyond the low-power regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinstrie, C. J.; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a strongly-birefringent fiber generates signal and idler photons that are associated with only one pair of temporal modes, for a wide range of pump powers. Nonlinear phase modulation degrades the heralded-signal purity only slightly.......Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a strongly-birefringent fiber generates signal and idler photons that are associated with only one pair of temporal modes, for a wide range of pump powers. Nonlinear phase modulation degrades the heralded-signal purity only slightly....

  16. Fracture mode during cyclic loading of implant-supported single-tooth restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Kleven, Erik; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    restorations of zirconia abutment-retained crowns with zirconia copings veneered with glass-ceramics (n=8) and feldspathic ceramics (n=8). The control group was composed of 16 metal ceramic restorations of titanium abutment-retained crowns with gold alloy copings veneered with glass (n=8) and feldspathic...... ceramics (n=8). The palatal surfaces of the crowns were exposed to cyclic loading of 800 N with a frequency of 2 Hz, which continued to 4.2 million cycles or until fracture of the copings, abutments, or implants. The number of cycles and the fracture modes were recorded. The fracture modes were analyzed...

  17. On the effectiveness of single and multiple base station sleep modes in cellular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marsan, Marco Ajmone; Chiaraviglio, Luca; Ciullo, Delia; Meo, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study base station sleep modes that, by reducing power consumption in periods of low traffic, improve the energy efficiency of cellular access networks. We assume that when some base stations enter sleep mode, radio coverage and service provisioning are provided by the base stations that remain active, so as to guarantee that service is available over the whole area at all times. This may be an optimistic assumption in the case of the sparse base station layouts typical of ru...

  18. A single source microwave photonic filter using a novel single-mode fiber to multimode fiber coupling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John; Fok, Mable P; Meister, James; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-03-11

    In this paper we present a fully tunable and reconfigurable single-laser multi-tap microwave photonic FIR filter that utilizes a special SM-to-MM combiner to sum the taps. The filter requires only a single laser source for all the taps and a passive component, a SM-to-MM combiner, for incoherent summing of signal. The SM-to-MM combiner does not produce optical interference during signal merging and is phase-insensitive. We experimentally demonstrate an eight-tap filter with both positive and negative programmable coefficients with excellent correspondence between predicted and measured values. The magnitude response shows a clean and accurate function across the entire bandwidth, and proves successful operation of the FIR filter using a SM-to-MM combiner.

  19. Surface plasmon modes of a single silver nanorod: An electron energy loss study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Olivia; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2011-01-01

    We present an electron energy loss study using energy filtered TEM of spatially resolved surface plasmon excitations on a silver nanorod of aspect ratio 14.2 resting on a 30 nm thick silicon nitride membrane. Our results show that the excitation is quantized as resonant modes whose intensity maxima...

  20. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through June 1999. A decontamination factor for the RMCS exhauster filter housing is calculated based on operation data

  1. Divertor power load studies for attached L-mode single-null plasmas in TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurizio, R.; Elmore, S.; Fedorczak, N.; Gallo, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Labit, B.; Theiler, C.; Tsui, C. K.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; TCV team,; MST1 Team,

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the power loads at the inner and outer divertor targets of attached, Ohmic L-mode, deuterium plasmas in the TCV tokamak, in various experimental situations using an Infrared thermography system. The study comprises variations of the outer divertor leg length and target flux

  2. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2013-08-01

    We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester Cdbnd O and diazo Ndbnd N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single Cdbnd O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.

  3. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  4. The quantum dynamics of two qubits inside two distant microcavities connected via a single-mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Van Hieu; Nguyen, Bich Ha; Duong, Hai Trieu

    2010-01-01

    For application to studying the transmission of quantum information, also called quantum communication, between two identical qubits placed inside two identical single-mode microcavities connected via a single-mode optical fiber, the time evolution of this system is investigated. In the Markovian approximation, the von Neumann equation for its reduced density matrix contains a completely positive linear operator called the Liouvillian operator describing the decoherence of this system due to its interaction with the environment. By using the Linblad formula for the Liouvillian operator, a system of rate equations can be derived. In the special case of resonance between the energy difference of two states in each qubit and the energy of the fiber mode, the rate equations for the system excited up to the first level are solved in first order approximation with respect to the decoherence constants. It is shown that when there is no decoherence, the perfect quantum state transmission between two qubits can take place if the physical parameters of the system satisfy definite conditions. A possible extension to studying the system excited to high energy states is also discussed

  5. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  6. Signal Processing using Nonlinear Optical Eects in Single- and Few-Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    noise, loss, and pump depletion on the noise properties of parametric frequency conversion and phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive parametric amplification. An important part of realizing space-division multiplexing is the ability of optical signal processing so the second part of this thesis......-wave mixing in two-mode fibers acvi counting for six simultaneous processes is derived, and the conversion efficiency from signal to idler in the four-wave mixing processes of phase conjugation and Bragg scattering in two two-mode fibers with different phase matching properties are experimentally investigated......The stagnating increase in data transmission capacity in optical communication systems combined with the ever growing demand of transmission bandwidth is leading to an impending capacity crunch, referring to the point in time after which the available bandwidth of the individual user starts...

  7. Phonon self-energy corrections to non-zero wavevector phonon modes in single-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Paulo; Mafra, Daniela; Sato, Kentaro; Saito, Richiiro; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred

    2012-02-01

    Phonon self-energy corrections have mostly been studied theoretically and experimentally for phonon modes with zone-center (q = 0) wave-vectors. Here, gate-modulated Raman scattering is used to study phonons of a single layer of graphene (1LG) in the frequency range from 2350 to 2750 cm-1, which shows the G* and the G'-band features originating from a double-resonant Raman process with q 0. The observed phonon renormalization effects are different from what is observed for the zone-center q = 0 case. To explain our experimental findings, we explored the phonon self-energy for the phonons with non-zero wave-vectors (q 0) in 1LG in which the frequencies and decay widths are expected to behave oppositely to the behavior observed in the corresponding zone-center q = 0 processes. Within this framework, we resolve the identification of the phonon modes contributing to the G* Raman feature at 2450 cm-1 to include the iTO+LA combination modes with q 0 and the 2iTO overtone modes with q = 0, showing both to be associated with wave-vectors near the high symmetry point K in the Brillouin zone.

  8. Single-mode saturation of the bump-on-tail instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1976-01-01

    A slightly unstable plasma with only one or a few linear modes unstable is considered. Nonlinear saturation at small amplitudes has been treated by time-asymptotic analysis which is a generalization of the methods of Bogolyubov and co-workers. In this paper the method is applied to instability in a collisionless plasma governed by the vlasov equation. The bump-on-tail instability is considered for a one-dimensional plasma

  9. Excitation of surface plasmon polariton modes with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers in single nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Lausen, Jens L; Andersen, Sebastian K H; Roberts, Alexander S; Radko, Ilya P; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E; Smith, Cameron L C; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds are interesting due to their remarkable characteristics that are well suited to applications in quantum-information processing and magnetic field sensing, as well as representing stable fluorescent sources. Multiple NV centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) are especially useful as biological fluorophores due to their chemical neutrality, brightness and room-temperature photostability. Furthermore, NDs containing multiple NV centers also have potential in high-precision magnetic field and temperature sensing. Coupling NV centers to propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes gives a base for lab-on-a-chip sensing devices, allows enhanced fluorescence emission and collection which can further enhance the precision of NV-based sensors. Here, we investigate coupling of multiple NV centers in individual NDs to the SPP modes supported by silver surfaces protected by thin dielectric layers and by gold V-grooves (VGs) produced via the self-terminated silicon etching. In the first case, we concentrate on monitoring differences in fluorescence spectra obtained from a source ND, which is illuminated by a pump laser, and from a scattering ND illuminated only by the fluorescence-excited SPP radiation. In the second case, we observe changes in the average NV lifetime when the same ND is characterized outside and inside a VG. Fluorescence emission from the VG terminations is also observed, which confirms the NV coupling to the VG-supported SPP modes. (paper)

  10. Excitation of surface plasmon polariton modes with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers in single nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Lausen, Jens L.; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.; Andersen, Sebastian K. H.; Roberts, Alexander S.; Radko, Ilya P.; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds are interesting due to their remarkable characteristics that are well suited to applications in quantum-information processing and magnetic field sensing, as well as representing stable fluorescent sources. Multiple NV centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) are especially useful as biological fluorophores due to their chemical neutrality, brightness and room-temperature photostability. Furthermore, NDs containing multiple NV centers also have potential in high-precision magnetic field and temperature sensing. Coupling NV centers to propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes gives a base for lab-on-a-chip sensing devices, allows enhanced fluorescence emission and collection which can further enhance the precision of NV-based sensors. Here, we investigate coupling of multiple NV centers in individual NDs to the SPP modes supported by silver surfaces protected by thin dielectric layers and by gold V-grooves (VGs) produced via the self-terminated silicon etching. In the first case, we concentrate on monitoring differences in fluorescence spectra obtained from a source ND, which is illuminated by a pump laser, and from a scattering ND illuminated only by the fluorescence-excited SPP radiation. In the second case, we observe changes in the average NV lifetime when the same ND is characterized outside and inside a VG. Fluorescence emission from the VG terminations is also observed, which confirms the NV coupling to the VG-supported SPP modes.

  11. Nonlinear Phenomena in the Single-Mode Dynamics in an AFM Cantilever Beam

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura; Lenci, Stefano; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the nonlinear dynamics arising in an atomic force microscope cantilever beam. After analyzing the static behavior, a single degree of freedom Galerkin reduced order model is introduced, which describes the overall scenario

  12. Seismic response of elastically restrained single bellows expansion joint in lateral mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameswara Rao, C.; Radhakrishna, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper attempts to derive an exact solution for the seismic response of U type of single bellows that are considered elastically restrained against rotation to classical fixed-fixed case considered by Morishita et al. (author)

  13. Multistabilities and symmetry-broken one-color and two-color states in closely coupled single-mode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Eoin; O'Brien, Stephen; Amann, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of two mutually coupled, identical single-mode semi-conductor lasers. For small separation and large coupling between the lasers, symmetry-broken one-color states are shown to be stable. In this case the light outputs of the lasers have significantly different intensities while at the same time the lasers are locked to a single common frequency. For intermediate coupling we observe stable symmetry-broken two-color states, where both lasers lase simultaneously at two optical frequencies which are separated by up to 150 GHz. Using a five-dimensional model, we identify the bifurcation structure which is responsible for the appearance of symmetric and symmetry-broken one-color and two-color states. Several of these states give rise to multistabilities and therefore allow for the design of all-optical memory elements on the basis of two coupled single-mode lasers. The switching performance of selected designs of optical memory elements is studied numerically.

  14. Sliding-mode control of single input multiple output DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Wan, Qiyang

    2016-10-01

    Various voltage levels are required in the vehicle mounted power system. A conventional solution is to utilize an independent multiple output DC-DC converter whose cost is high and control scheme is complicated. In this paper, we design a novel SIMO DC-DC converter with sliding mode controller. The proposed converter can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage DC bus and middle-voltage output terminals, which endow the converter with characteristics of simple structure, low cost, and convenient control. In addition, the sliding mode control (SMC) technique applied in our converter can enhance the performances of a certain SIMO DC-DC converter topology. The high-voltage DC bus can be regarded as the main power source to the high-voltage facility of the vehicle mounted power system, and the middle-voltage output terminals can supply power to the low-voltage equipment on an automobile. In the respect of control algorithm, it is the first time to propose the SMC-PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm, in which the SMC algorithm is utilized and the PID control is attended to the conventional SMC algorithm. The PID control increases the dynamic ability of the SMC algorithm by establishing the corresponding SMC surface and introducing the attached integral of voltage error, which endow the sliding-control system with excellent dynamic performance. At last, we established the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model, tested performance of the system, and built the hardware prototype based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Results show that the sliding mode control is able to track a required trajectory, which has robustness against the uncertainties and disturbances.

  15. Failure mode analysis in adrenal vein sampling: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trerotola, Scott O; Asmar, Melissa; Yan, Yan; Fraker, Douglas L; Cohen, Debbie L

    2014-10-01

    To analyze failure modes in a high-volume adrenal vein sampling (AVS) practice in an effort to identify preventable causes of nondiagnostic sampling. A retrospective database was constructed containing 343 AVS procedures performed over a 10-year period. Each nondiagnostic AVS procedure was reviewed for failure mode and correlated with results of any repeat AVS. Data collected included selectivity index, lateralization index, adrenalectomy outcomes if performed, and details of AVS procedure. All AVS procedures were performed after cosyntropin stimulation, using sequential technique. AVS was nondiagnostic in 12 of 343 (3.5%) primary procedures and 2 secondary procedures. Failure was right-sided in 8 (57%) procedures, left-sided in 4 (29%) procedures, bilateral in 1 procedure, and neither in 1 procedure (laboratory error). Failure modes included diluted sample from correctly identified vein (n = 7 [50%]; 3 right and 4 left), vessel misidentified as adrenal vein (n = 3 [21%]; all right), failure to locate an adrenal vein (n = 2 [14%]; both right), cosyntropin stimulation failure (n = 1 [7%]; diagnostic by nonstimulated criteria), and laboratory error (n = 1 [7%]; specimen loss). A second AVS procedure was diagnostic in three of five cases (60%), and a third AVS procedure was diagnostic in one of one case (100%). Among the eight patients in whom AVS ultimately was not diagnostic, four underwent adrenalectomy based on diluted AVS samples, and one underwent adrenalectomy based on imaging; all five experienced improvement in aldosteronism. A substantial percentage of AVS failures occur on the left, all related to dilution. Even when technically nondiagnostic per strict criteria, some "failed" AVS procedures may be sufficient to guide therapy. Repeat AVS has a good yield. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Position Control of the Single Spherical Wheel Mobile Robot by Using the Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Navabi; Soroush Sadeghnejad; Sepehr Ramezani; Jacky Baltes

    2017-01-01

    A spherical wheel robot or Ballbot—a robot that balances on an actuated spherical ball—is a new and recent type of robot in the popular area of mobile robotics. This paper focuses on the modeling and control of such a robot. We apply the Lagrangian method to derive the governing dynamic equations of the system. We also describe a novel Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller (FSMC) implemented to control a spherical wheel mobile robot. The nonlinear nature of the equations makes the controller nontrivi...

  17. Thermal Effects on the Single-Mode Regime of Distributed Modal Filtering Rod Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Poli, Federica; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2012-01-01

    Power scaling of fiber laser systems requires the development of innovative active fibers, capable of providing high pump absorption, ultralarge effective area, high-order mode suppression, and resilience to thermal effects. Thermally induced refractive index change has been recently appointed...... as one major limitation to the achievable power, causing degradation of the modal properties and preventing to obtain stable diffraction-limited output beam. In this paper, the effects of thermally induced refractive index change on the guiding properties of a double-cladding distributed modal filtering...

  18. Single-shot readout of accumulation mode Si/SiGe spin qubits using RF reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Christian; Martins, Frederico; Malinowski, Filip; Marcus, Charles M.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand

    Spin qubits based on gate-defined quantum dots are promising systems for realizing quantum computation. Due to their low concentration of nuclear-spin-carrying isotopes, Si/SiGe heterostructures are of particular interest. While high fidelities have been reported for single-qubit and two-qubit gate operations, qubit initialization and measurement times are relatively slow. In order to develop fast read-out techniques compatible with the operation of spin qubits, we characterize double and triple quantum dots confined in undoped Si/Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructures using accumulation and depletion gates and a nearby RF charge sensor dot. We implement a RF reflectometry technique that allows single-shot charge read-out at integration times on the order of a few μs. We show our recent advancement towards implementing spin qubits in these structures, including spin-selective single-shot read-out.

  19. Threshold and maximum power evolution of stimulated Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh backscattering in a single mode fiber segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Lara, R; Alvarez-Chavez, J A; Mendez-Martinez, F; De la Cruz-May, L; Perez-Sanchez, G G

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and Rayleigh backscattering phenomena, which limit the forward transmission power in modern, ultra-long haul optical communication systems such as dense wavelength division multiplexing systems is analyzed via simulation and experimental investigation of threshold and maximum power. Evolution of SBS, Rayleigh scattering and forward powers are experimentally investigated with a 25 km segment of single mode fiber. Also, a simple algorithm to predict the generation of SBS is proposed where two criteria of power thresholds was used for comparison with experimental data. (paper)

  20. Statistical properties of intensity of partially polarised semiconductor laser light backscattered by a single-mode optical fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T; Gorshkov, B G

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of studying statistical properties of the intensity of partially polarised coherent light backscattered by a single mode optical fibre. An expression is derived for the deviation of the backscattered light intensity depending on the scattering region length, the degree of the light source coherence and the degree of scattered light polarisation. It is shown that the backscattered light in a fibre scattered-light interferometer is partially polarised with the polarisation degree P = 1/3 in the case of external perturbations of the interferometer fibre. (scattering of light)

  1. High and tunable spin current induced by magnetic-electric fields in a single-mode spintronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala Kumar, S; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G; Liang, G-C

    2009-01-01

    We proposed that a viable form of spin current transistor is one to be made from a single-mode device which passes electrons through a series of magnetic-electric barriers built into the device. The barriers assume a wavy spatial profile across the conduction path due to the inevitable broadening of the magnetic fields. Field broadening results in a linearly increasing vector potential across the conduction channel, which increases spin polarization. We have identified that the important factors for generating high spin polarization and conductance modulation are the low source-drain bias, the broadened magnetic fields, and the high number of FM gates within a fixed channel length.

  2. 75 W 40% efficiency single-mode all-fiber erbium-doped laser cladding pumped at 976 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Yashkov, M V; Guryanov, A N; Lhermite, J; Février, S; Cormier, E

    2013-07-01

    Optimization of Yb-free Er-doped fiber for lasers and amplifiers cladding pumped at 976 nm was performed in this Letter. The single-mode fiber design includes an increased core diameter of 34 μm and properly chosen erbium and co-dopant concentrations. We demonstrate an all-fiber high power laser and power amplifier based on this fiber with the record slope efficiency of 40%. To the best of our knowledge, the achieved output power of 75 W is the highest power reported for such lasers.

  3. Self-pulsing in a 2 km single-mode fiber with the seed source broadened via WNS phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Congwen; Sun, Yinhong; Wang, Yanshan; Li, Tenglong; Peng, Wanjing; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Kai

    2018-03-01

    The seed source with spectral linewidth broadening via phase modulation is potential to achieve the higher output power with effective SBS suppression. However, self-pulsing from the amplifier output is harmful. In this work, we study the self-pulsing characteristics in a long single-mode fiber with lower self-pulsing threshold instead of the high power amplifier. We provide a powerful experimental support for the self-pulsing mechanism in high-power narrow-linewidth fiber lasers, which is important for further output power scaling.

  4. Characteristics of the Single-Longitudinal-Mode Planar-Waveguide External Cavity Diode Laser at 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Alalusi, Mazin; Stolpner, Lew; Margaritis, Georgios; Camp, Jordan; Krainak, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We describe the characteristics of the planar-waveguide external cavity diode laser (PW-ECL). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first butterfly-packaged 1064 nm semiconductor laser that is stable enough to be locked to an external frequency reference. We evaluated its performance from the viewpoint of precision experiments. Using a hyperfine absorption line of iodine, we suppressed its frequency noise by a factor of up to 104 at 10 mHz. The PWECL's compactness and low cost make it a candidate to replace traditional Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillators and fiber lasers in applications that require a single longitudinal mode.

  5. The effect of irradiation temperature on the optical attenuation recovery in heavily Ge-doped single mode silica core fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Mabrouk, M.A.; Ferrari, A.; Serra, A.; Viezzoli, G.

    1992-01-01

    The behaviour under irradiation of a single mode fiber heavily doped with germanium has been investigated at 0.85 μm and 1.3 μm under different irradiation temperatures in the range from -65degC to 60degC. The time behaviour of the recovery of the induced attenuation has been described using empirical equations, for different temperatures. An nth order kinetics seems appropriate to describe the results and the order of kinetics has been determined at different temperatures. (orig.)

  6. The Density Matrix for Single-mode Light after k-Photon Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, H.; Bandilla, A.

    In order to continue and generalize the studies of the density matrix of a light field undergoing k-photon absorption, in this paper we put the emphasis on the off-diagonal elements. The solution obtained earlier for the diagonal elements describing the photon statistics can be found as a special case but will not be discussed again. The general solution calculated by recursion shows an asymptotic behaviour if the initial photon number is sufficiently high. Only the initial phase information survives. Illustrating the solution we start with coherent light and a generalized coherent state.Translated AbstractDie Dichtematrix eines Lichtstrahls nach k-Photonen-Absorption aus einer ModeWir führen die Betrachtungen über das Verhalten der Dichtematrix eines Lichtfeldes nach k-Photonen-Absorption aus einer Mode verallgemeinernd weiter und konzentrieren uns auf die Nichtdiagonalelemente. Die im folgenden angegebene allgemeine Lösung, die durch Rekursion gefunden wurde, enthält die schon früher erhaltene, jedoch hier nicht weiter diskutierte Lösung für die Diagonalelemente als Spezialfall. Sie zeigt ferner, daß es einen asymptotischen Zustand gibt, der eine von der Ausgangsintensität unabhängige Information über die Ausgangsphase enthält. Zur Diskussion der Lösung werden verschiedene Anfangsbedingungen betrachtet, so z. B. kohärentes Licht und kohärentes Licht, das ein Medium mit nichtlinearem Brechungsindex durchlaufen hat (Kerr-Effekt).

  7. Conversion of broadband IR radiation and structural disorder in lithium niobate single crystals with low photorefractive effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Man Nen; Syuy, Alexander V.; Krishtop, Victor V.; Pogodina, Veronika A.; Ponomarchuk, Yulia V.; Sidorov, Nikolay V.; Gabain, Aleksei A.; Palatnikov, Mikhail N.; Litvinov, Vladimir A.

    2016-11-01

    The conversion of broadband IR radiation when the noncritical phase matching condition is fulfilled in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystals with stoichiometric (R = Li/Nb = 1) and congruent (R = 0.946) compositions, as well as in congruent single crystals doped with zinc has been investigated. It is shown that the spectrum parameters of converted radiation, such as the conversion efficiency, spectral width and position of maximum, depend on the ordering degree of structural units of the cation sublattice along the polar axis of crystal.

  8. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion...

  9. DECAY MODES OF HIGH-LYING SINGLE-PARTICLE STATES IN PB-209

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEAUMEL, D; FORTIER, S; GALES, S; GUILLOT, J; LANGEVINJOLIOT, H; LAURENT, H; MAISON, JM; VERNOTTE, J; BORDEWIJK, JA; BRANDENBURG, S; KRASZNAHORKAY, A; CRAWLEY, GM; MASSOLO, CP; RENTERIA, M

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in Pb-209 excited by means of the (alpha, He-3) reaction has been investigated at 122 MeV incident energy using a multidetector array. The high-spin values of these states, inferred from previous inclusive experiments, are confirmed by the

  10. Benchmarking of grid fault modes in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    Pushed by the booming installations of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems, the grid demands regarding the integration of PV systems are expected to be modified. Hence, the future PV systems should become more active with functionalities of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and the grid support...

  11. Position Control of the Single Spherical Wheel Mobile Robot by Using the Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Navabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A spherical wheel robot or Ballbot—a robot that balances on an actuated spherical ball—is a new and recent type of robot in the popular area of mobile robotics. This paper focuses on the modeling and control of such a robot. We apply the Lagrangian method to derive the governing dynamic equations of the system. We also describe a novel Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller (FSMC implemented to control a spherical wheel mobile robot. The nonlinear nature of the equations makes the controller nontrivial. We compare the performance of four different fuzzy controllers: (a regulation with one signal, (b regulation and position control with one signal, (c regulation and position control with two signals, and (d FSMC for regulation and position control with two signals. The system is evaluated in a realistic simulation and the robot parameters are chosen based on a LEGO platform, so the designed controllers have the ability to be implemented on real hardware.

  12. Performance of a residential heat pump operating in the cooling mode with single faults imposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsung; Payne, W. Vance; Domanski, Piotr A.; Yoon, Seok Ho; Hermes, Christian J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The system behavior of a R410A residential unitary split heat pump operating in the cooling mode was investigated. Seven artificial faults were implemented: compressor/reversing valve leakage, improper outdoor air flow, improper indoor air flow, liquid line restriction, refrigerant undercharge, refrigerant overcharge, and presence of non-condensable gas in the refrigerant. This study monitored eight fault detection features and identified the most sensitive features for each fault. The effect of the various fault levels on energy efficiency ratio (EER) was also estimated. Since the studied system employed a thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) as an expansion device, it could adapt to some faults making the fault less detectable. The distinctiveness of the fault depended on the TXV status (fully open or not)

  13. Single-longitudinal mode distributed-feedback fiber laser with low-threshold and high-efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Man; Zhou, Pu; Gu, Xijia

    2018-01-01

    Single-frequency fiber laser has attracted a lot of interest in recent years due to its numerous application potentials in telecommunications, LIDAR, high resolution sensing, atom frequency standard, etc. Phosphate glass fiber is one of the candidates for building compact high gain fiber lasers because of its capability of high-concentration of rare-earth ions doping in fiber core. Nevertheless, it is challenging for the integration of UV-written intra-core fiber Bragg gratings into the fiber laser cavity due to the low photosensitivity of phosphate glass fiber. The research presented in this paper will focus on demonstration of UV-written Bragg gratings in phosphate glass fiber and its application in direct-written short monolithic single-frequency fiber lasers. Strong π-phase shift Bragg grating structure is direct-inscribed into the Er/Yb co-doped gain fiber using an excimer laser, and a 5-cm-long phase mask is used to inscribe a laser cavity into the Er/Yb co-doped phosphate glass fibers. The phase mask is a uniform mask with a 50 μm gap in the middle. The fiber laser device emits output power of 10.44 mW with a slope efficiency of 21.5% and the threshold power is about 42.8 mW. Single-longitudinal mode operation is validated by radio frequency spectrum measurement. Moreover, the output spectrum at the highest power shows an excellent optical signal to noise ratio of about 70 dB. These results, to the best of our knowledge, show the lowest power threshold and highest efficiency among the reports that using the same structure to achieve single-longitudinal mode laser output.

  14. Adaptable Optical Fiber Displacement-Curvature Sensor Based on a Modal Michelson Interferometer with a Tapered Single Mode Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda-Delgado, G; Martinez-Rios, A; Selvas-Aguilar, R; Álvarez-Tamayo, R I; Castillo-Guzman, A; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; Durán-Ramírez, V M; Enriquez-Gomez, L F

    2017-06-02

    A compact, highly sensitive optical fiber displacement and curvature radius sensor is presented. The device consists of an adiabatic bi-conical fused fiber taper spliced to a single-mode fiber (SMF) segment with a flat face end. The bi-conical taper structure acts as a modal coupling device between core and cladding modes for the SMF segment. When the bi-conical taper is bent by an axial displacement, the symmetrical bi-conical shape of the tapered structure is stressed, causing a change in the refractive index profile which becomes asymmetric. As a result, the taper adiabaticity is lost, and interference between modes appears. As the bending increases, a small change in the fringe visibility and a wavelength shift on the periodical reflection spectrum of the in-fiber interferometer is produced. The displacement sensitivity and the spectral periodicity of the device can be adjusted by the proper selection of the SMF length. Sensitivities from around 1.93 to 3.4 nm/mm were obtained for SMF length between 7.5 and 12.5 cm. Both sensor interrogations, wavelength shift and visibility contrast, can be used to measure displacement and curvature radius magnitudes.

  15. 1.5 W high efficiency and tunable single-longitudinal-mode Ho:YLF ring laser based on Faraday effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Ju, Youlun; Dai, Tongyu; Yao, Baoquan; Wang, Yuezhu

    2017-10-30

    We demonstrated an efficient and tunable single-longitudinal-mode Ho:YLF ring laser based on Faraday effect for application to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Single-longitudinal-mode power at 2051.65 nm achieved 528 mW with the slope efficiency of 39.5% and the M 2 factor of 1.07, and the tunable range of about 178 GHz was obtained by inserting a Fabry-Perot (F-P) etalon with the thickness of 0.5 mm. In addition, the maximum single-longitudinal-mode power reached 1.5 W with the injected power of 528 mW at 2051.65 nm by master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) technique. High efficiency and tunable single-longitudinal-mode based on Faraday effect around 2 μm has not been reported yet to the best of our knowledge.

  16. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration. (au)

  17. Note on beam--beam tune shift in single ring multi bunch mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1978-01-01

    If many identical counter-rotating bunches of protons and antiprotons are stored in a single ring, they will have identical orbits. The question is: Is this total tune shift relevant to the problem of beam stability. The answer is: not in general. The nonlinear force is described by its ''strength'', Δν/sub I/, for each bunch interaction individually. It is not at all clear that the sum of the individual Δν/sub I/ is the significant quantity

  18. Direct Single-Molecule Observation of Mode and Geometry of RecA-Mediated Homology Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew J; Endo, Masayuki; Hobbs, Jamie K; Wälti, Christoph

    2018-01-23

    Genomic integrity, when compromised by accrued DNA lesions, is maintained through efficient repair via homologous recombination. For this process the ubiquitous recombinase A (RecA), and its homologues such as the human Rad51, are of central importance, able to align and exchange homologous sequences within single-stranded and double-stranded DNA in order to swap out defective regions. Here, we directly observe the widely debated mechanism of RecA homology searching at a single-molecule level using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) in combination with tailored DNA origami frames to present the reaction targets in a way suitable for AFM-imaging. We show that RecA nucleoprotein filaments move along DNA substrates via short-distance facilitated diffusions, or slides, interspersed with longer-distance random moves, or hops. Importantly, from the specific interaction geometry, we find that the double-stranded substrate DNA resides in the secondary DNA binding-site within the RecA nucleoprotein filament helical groove during the homology search. This work demonstrates that tailored DNA origami, in conjunction with HS-AFM, can be employed to reveal directly conformational and geometrical information on dynamic protein-DNA interactions which was previously inaccessible at an individual single-molecule level.

  19. Multi-kW single fiber laser based on an extra large mode area fiber design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Andreas; Such, Mario; Schötz, Gerhard; Just, Florian; Leich, Martin; Schwuchow, Anka; Grimm, Stephan; Zimer, Hagen; Kozak, Marcin; Wedel, Björn; Rehmann, Georg; Bachert, Charley; Krause, Volker

    2012-02-01

    The quality of Yb-doped fused bulk silica produced by sintering of Yb-doped fused silica granulates has improved greatly in the past five years [1 - 4]. In particular, the refractive index and doping level homogeneity of such materials are excellent and we achieved excellent background fiber attenuation of the active core material down to about 20 dB/km at 1200 nm. The improvement of the Yb-doped fused bulk silica has enabled the development of multi-kW fiber laser systems based on a single extra large multimode laser fiber (XLMA fiber). When a single active fiber is used in combination with the XLMA multimode fiber of 1200 μm diameter simple and robust high power fiber laser setups without complex fiber coupling and fiber combiner systems become possible. In this papper, we will discuss in detail the development of the core material based on Yb-doped bulk silica and the characterization of Yb-doped fibers with different core compositions. We will also report on the excellent performance of a 4 kW fiber laser based on a single XLMA-fiber and show the first experimental welding results of steel sheets achieved with such a laser.

  20. Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy. II. Demonstration of an Active Single-mode Fiber Injection Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawet, D.; Ruane, G.; Xuan, W.; Echeverri, D.; Klimovich, N.; Randolph, M.; Fucik, J.; Wang, J.; Dekany, R.; Delorme, J.-R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wallace, J. K.; Vasisht, G.; Mennesson, B.; Choquet, E.; Serabyn, E., E-mail: dmawet@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) optimally combines high-contrast imaging techniques such as adaptive optics/wavefront control plus coronagraphy to high spectral resolution spectroscopy. HDC is a critical pathway toward fully characterizing exoplanet atmospheres across a broad range of masses from giant gaseous planets down to Earth-like planets. In addition to determining the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres, HDC also enables Doppler mapping of atmosphere inhomogeneities (temperature, clouds, wind), as well as precise measurements of exoplanet rotational velocities. Here, we demonstrate an innovative concept for injecting the directly imaged planet light into a single-mode fiber, linking a high-contrast adaptively corrected coronagraph to a high-resolution spectrograph (diffraction-limited or not). Our laboratory demonstration includes three key milestones: close-to-theoretical injection efficiency, accurate pointing and tracking, and on-fiber coherent modulation and speckle nulling of spurious starlight signal coupling into the fiber. Using the extreme modal selectivity of single-mode fibers, we also demonstrated speckle suppression gains that outperform conventional image-based speckle nulling by at least two orders of magnitude.

  1. Single-Trial Classification of Bistable Perception by Integrating Empirical Mode Decomposition, Clustering, and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualou Liang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose an empirical mode decomposition (EMD- based method to extract features from the multichannel recordings of local field potential (LFP, collected from the middle temporal (MT visual cortex in a macaque monkey, for decoding its bistable structure-from-motion (SFM perception. The feature extraction approach consists of three stages. First, we employ EMD to decompose nonstationary single-trial time series into narrowband components called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs with time scales dependent on the data. Second, we adopt unsupervised K-means clustering to group the IMFs and residues into several clusters across all trials and channels. Third, we use the supervised common spatial patterns (CSP approach to design spatial filters for the clustered spatiotemporal signals. We exploit the support vector machine (SVM classifier on the extracted features to decode the reported perception on a single-trial basis. We demonstrate that the CSP feature of the cluster in the gamma frequency band outperforms the features in other frequency bands and leads to the best decoding performance. We also show that the EMD-based feature extraction can be useful for evoked potential estimation. Our proposed feature extraction approach may have potential for many applications involving nonstationary multivariable time series such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI.

  2. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Nava, Enzo; Stucchi, Emanuele; Trespidi, Franco; Mariottini, Cristina; Wazen, Paul; Falletto, Nicolas; Fruit, Michel

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the laser transmitter assembly used in the ALADIN instrument currently in C/D development phase for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA), based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate tunable laser pulses of 150 mJ at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz. The TXA is composed of the following units: a diodepumped CW Nd:YAG Laser named Reference Laser Head (RLH), used to inject a diode-pumped, Q-switched, amplified and frequency tripled Nd:YAG Laser working in the third harmonic referred as Power Laser Head (PLH) and a Transmitter Laser Electronics (TLE) containing all the control and power electronics needed for PLH and RLH operation. The TXA is made by an European consortium under the leadership of Galileo Avionica (It), and including CESI (It), Quantel (Fr), TESAT (Ge) and Thales (Fr).

  3. Influence of Signal and Noise on Statistical Fluctuation of Single-Mode Laser System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dahai; Cheng Qinghua; Cao Li; Wu Dajin

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of calculating the steady-state mean normalized intensity fluctuation of a signal-mode laser system driven by both colored pump noise with signal modulation and the quantum noise with cross-correlation between its real and imaginary parts, we analyze the influence of modulation signal, noise, and its correlation form on the statistical fluctuation of the laser system. We have found that when the amplitude of modulation signal weakens and its frequency quickens, the statistical fluctuation will reduce rapidly. The statistical fluctuation of the laser system can be restrained by reducing the intensity of pump noise and quantum noise. Moreover, with prolonging of colored cross-correlation time, the statistical fluctuation of laser system experiences a repeated changing process, that is, from decreasing to augmenting, then to decreasing, and finally to augmenting again. With the decreasing of the value of cross-correlation coefficient, the statistical fluctuation will decrease too. When the cross-correlation form between the real part and imaginary part of quantum noise is zero correlation, the statistical fluctuation of laser system has a minimum. Compared with the influence of intensity of pump noise, the influence of intensity of quantum noise on the statistical fluctuation is smaller.

  4. Displacement-enhanced entanglement distillation of single-mode-squeezed entangled states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that entanglement distillation of Gaussian entangled states by means of local photon subtraction can be improved by local Gaussian transformations. Here we show that a similar effect can be expected for the distillation of an asymmetric Gaussian entangled state that is produced...... by a single squeezed beam. We show that for low initial entanglement, our largely simplified protocol generates more entanglement than previous proposed protocols. Furthermore, we show that the distillation scheme also works efficiently on decohered entangled states as well as with a practical photon...

  5. Non-Geiger-Mode Single-Photon Avalanche Detector with Low Excess Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Lo, YuHwa; Farr, William

    2010-01-01

    This design constitutes a self-resetting (gain quenching), room-temperature operational semiconductor single-photon-sensitive detector that is sensitive to telecommunications optical wavelengths and is scalable to large areas (millimeter diameter) with high bandwidth and efficiencies. The device can detect single photons at a 1,550-nm wavelength at a gain of 1 x 10(exp 6). Unlike conventional single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), where gain is an extremely sensitive function to the bias voltage, the multiplication gain of this device is stable at 1 x 10(exp 6) over a wide range of bias from 30.2 to 30.9 V. Here, the multiplication gain is defined as the total number of charge carriers contained in one output pulse that is triggered by the absorption of a single photon. The statistics of magnitude of output signals also shows that the device has a very narrow pulse height distribution, which demonstrates a greatly suppressed gain fluctuation. From the histograms of both pulse height and pulse charge, the equivalent gain variance (excess noise) is between 1.001 and 1.007 at a gain of 1 x 10(exp 6). With these advantages, the device holds promise to function as a PMT-like photon counter at a 1,550- nm wavelength. The epitaxial layer structure of the device allows photons to be absorbed in the InGaAs layer, generating electron/hole (e-h) pairs. Driven by an electrical field in InGaAs, electrons are collected at the anode while holes reach the multiplication region (InAlAs p-i-n structure) and trigger the avalanche process. As a result, a large number of e-h pairs are created, and the holes move toward the cathode. Holes created by the avalanche process gain large kinetic energy through the electric field, and are considered hot. These hot holes are cooled as they travel across a p -InAlAs low field region, and are eventually blocked by energy barriers formed by the InGaAsP/ InAlAs heterojunctions. The composition of the InGaAsP alloy was chosen to have an 80 me

  6. Decay modes of high-lying single-particle states in [sup 209]Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.; Vernotte, J.; Bordewijk, J.A.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M. (Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France) Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747AA Groningen (Netherlands) National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States) Departamento de Fisica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC No. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina))

    1994-05-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in [sup 209]Pb excited by means of the ([alpha],[sup 3]He) reaction has been investigated at 122 MeV incident energy using a multidetector array. The high spin values of these states, inferred from previous inclusive experiments, are confirmed by the present data involving angular correlation measurements and the determination of branching ratios to low lying levels in [sup 208]Pb. The structure located between 8.5 and 12 MeV excitation energy in [sup 209]Pb displays large departures from a pure statistical decay with significant direct feeding of the low-lying collective states (3[sup [minus

  7. Decay modes of high-lying single-particle states in 209Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.

    1993-01-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in 209 Pb excited by means of the (α, 3 He) reaction has been investigated at 122 MeV incident energy using the multidetector array EDEN. The high spin values of these states, inferred from previous inclusive experiments, are confirmed by the present data involving angular correlation measurements and the determination of branching ratios to low lying levels in 208 Pb. The structure located between 8.5 and 12 MeV excitation energy in 209 Pb displays large departures from a pure statistical decay with significant direct feeding of the low-lying collective states (3 - ,5 - ) of 208 Pb. At higher excitation energy up to 20 MeV, the measured neutron decay is in agreement with the predictions of the statistical model. (authors). 24 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Sensor system for multi-point monitoring using bending loss of single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Applications of smart sensors have been extended to safety systems in the aerospace, transportation and civil engineering fields. In particular, structural health monitoring techniques using smart sensors have gradually become necessary and have been developed to prevent dangers to human life and damage to assets. Generally, smart sensors are based on electro-magnets and have several weaknesses, including electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Therefore, fiber optic sensors are an outstanding alternative to overcome the weaknesses of electro-magnetic sensors. However, they require expensive devices and complex systems. This paper proposes a new, affordable and simple sensor system that uses a single fiber to monitor pressures at multiple-points. Moreover, a prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested for a feasibility study. Based on the results of this experimental test, a relationship was carefully observed between the bend loss conditions and light-intensity. As a result, it was shown that impacts at multiple-points could be monitored.

  9. Single-pulse and burst-mode ablation of gold films measured by quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusyak, Oleksiy G.; Bubelnik, Matthew; Mares, Jeremy; McGovern, Theresa; Siders, Craig W.

    2005-02-01

    Femtosecond ablation has several distinct advantages: the threshold energy fluence for the onset of damage and ablation is orders of magnitude less than for traditional nanosecond laser machining, and by virtue of the rapid material removal of approximately an optical penetration depth per pulse, femtosecond machined cuts can be cleaner and more precise than those made with traditional nanosecond or longer pulse lasers. However, in many materials of interest, especially metals, this limits ablation rates to 10-100 nm/pulse. We present the results of using multiple pulse bursts to significantly increase the per-burst ablation rate compared to a single pulse with the same integrated energy, while keeping the peak intensity of each individual pulse below the air ionization limit. Femtosecond ablation with pulses centered at 800-nm having integrated energy of up to 30 mJ per pulse incident upon thin gold films was measured via resonance frequency shifts in a gold-electrode-coated quartz-crystal oscillator. Measurements were performed using Michelson-interferometer-based burst generators, with up to 2 ns pulse separations, as well as pulse shaping by programmable acousto-optic dispersive filter (Dazzler from FastLite) with up to 2 ps pulse separations.

  10. Analytical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode fiber with the pump power recycling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Asadi, H A; Mahdi, M A; Bakar, A A A; Adikan, F R Mahamd

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode optical fiber. Analytical expressions describing the nonlinear phase shift for the pump and Stokes waves in the pump power recycling technique have been derived. The dependence of the nonlinear phase shift on the optical fiber length, the reflectivity of the optical mirror and the frequency detuning coefficient have been analyzed for different input pump power values. We found that with the recycling pump technique, the nonlinear phase shift due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reduced to less than 0.1 rad for 5 km optical fiber length and 0.65 reflectivity of the optical mirror, respectively, at an input pump power equal to 30 mW

  11. Bell's experiment with intra- and inter-pair entanglement: Single-particle mode entanglement as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco; Maruyama, Koji; Brukner, Caslav

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical considerations of Bell-inequality experiments usually assume identically prepared and independent pairs of particles. Here we consider pairs that exhibit both intrapair and interpair entanglement. The pairs are taken from a large many-body system where all the pairs are generally entangled with each other. Using an explicit example based on single mode entanglement and an ancillary Bose-Einstein condensate, we show that the Bell-inequality violation in such systems can display statistical properties that are remarkably different from those obtained using identically prepared independent pairs. In particular, one can have probabilistic violation of Bell's inequalities in which a finite fraction of all the runs result in violation even though there could be no violation when averaging over all the runs. Whether or not a particular run of results will end up being local realistically explainable is 'decided' by a sequence of quantum (random) outcomes.

  12. Statistical properties of single-mode fiber coupling of satellite-to-ground laser links partially corrected by adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuet, Lucien; Védrenne, Nicolas; Conan, Jean-Marc; Petit, Cyril; Artaud, Geraldine; Rissons, Angelique; Lacan, Jerome

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of satellite-to-ground laser downlinks, an analytical model describing the variations of the instantaneous coupled flux into a single-mode fiber after correction of the incoming wavefront by partial adaptive optics (AO) is presented. Expressions for the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function as well as for the average fading duration and fading duration distribution of the corrected coupled flux are given. These results are of prime interest for the computation of metrics related to coded transmissions over correlated channels, and they are confronted by end-to-end wave-optics simulations in the case of a geosynchronous satellite (GEO)-to-ground and a low earth orbit satellite (LEO)-to-ground scenario. Eventually, the impact of different AO performances on the aforementioned fading duration distribution is analytically investigated for both scenarios.

  13. Note: Pulsed single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator for sub-Doppler spectroscopy of jet cooled transient species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Boxing; Zhang, Deping; Gu, Jingwang; Zhao, Dongfeng; Chen, Yang

    2017-12-01

    We present a pulsed single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator that was recently constructed for sub-Doppler spectroscopic studies of transient species in a supersonic slit jet expansion environment. The system consists of a Littman-type grazing-incidence-grating resonator and a KTP crystal and is pumped at 532 nm. By spatially filtering the pump laser beam and employing an active cavity-length-stabilization scheme, a frequency down-conversion efficiency up to 18% and generation of Fourier-transform limited pulses with a typical pulse duration of ˜5.5 ns and a bandwidth less than 120 MHz have been achieved. In combination with a slit jet expansion, a sub-Doppler spectrum of SiC2 has been recorded at ˜498 nm, showing a spectral resolution of Δν/ν ≈ 6.2 × 10-7.

  14. A Simple Differential Mode EMI Suppressor for the LLCL-Filter-Based Single-Phase Grid-Tied Transformerless Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Junhao; Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin

    2015-01-01

    The single-phase power converter topologies evolving of photovoltaic applications are still including passive filters, like the LCLor LLCL-filter. Compared with the LCL-filter, the total inductance of the LLCL-filter can be reduced a lot. However, due to the resonant inductor in series...... with the bypass capacitor, the differential mode (DM) electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise attenuation of an LLCL-filter-based grid-tied inverter declines. Conventionally, a capacitor was inserted in parallel with the LC resonant circuit branch of the LLCL-filter to suppress the DM EMI noise. In order...... to achieve a small value of capacitor as well as to minimize the additional reactive power, a novel simple DM EMI suppressor for the LLCL-filter-based system is proposed. The characters of two kinds of DM EMI suppressor are analyzed and compared in detail. Simulations and experiments on a 0.5-kW 110-V/50-Hz...

  15. Transmission of 2.5 Gbit/s Spectrum-sliced WDM System for 50 km Single-mode Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasim; Aljunid, Sayed Alwee; Ahmad, R. Badlisha; Fadil, Hilal Adnan; Rashid, Mohd Abdur

    2011-06-01

    The transmission of a spectrum-sliced WDM channel at 2.5 Gbit/s for 50 km of single mode fiber using an system channel spacing only 0.4 nm is reported. We have investigated the system performance using NRZ modulation format. The proposed system is compared with conventional system. The system performance is characterized as the bit-error-rate (BER) received against the system bit rates. Simulation results show that the NRZ modulation format performs well for 2.5 Gbit/s system bit rates. Using this narrow channel spectrum-sliced technique, the total number of multiplexed channels can be increased greatly in WDM system. Therefore, 0.4 nm channel spacing spectrum-sliced WDM system is highly recommended for the long distance optical access networks, like the Metro Area Network (MAN), Fiber-to-the-Building (FTTB) and Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH).

  16. Finite-size fluctuations and photon statistics near the polariton condensation transition in a single-mode microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, P. R.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2006-01-01

    We consider polariton condensation in a generalized Dicke model, describing a single-mode cavity containing quantum dots, and extend our previous mean-field theory to allow for finite-size fluctuations. Within the fluctuation-dominated regime the correlation functions differ from their (trivial) mean-field values. We argue that the low-energy physics of the model, which determines the photon statistics in this fluctuation-dominated crossover regime, is that of the (quantum) anharmonic oscillator. The photon statistics at the crossover are different in the high-temperature and low-temperature limits. When the temperature is high enough for quantum effects to be neglected we recover behavior similar to that of a conventional laser. At low enough temperatures, however, we find qualitatively different behavior due to quantum effects

  17. ANALYTICAL EXPRESSION FOR THE ELECTRIC FIELD OF THE SINGLE MODE LASER HOMOGENEOUS BROADENING IN THE PULSE REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ayadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The simplest model of the laser is that of a single mode system homogenously broadened. The dynamical behavior of this laser is described by three differential equations, called Haken-Lorenz equations[1],  similar to the Lorenz model [1] already known to predict deterministic chaos. In previous recent work [5-7] we have proposed a simple harmonic expansion method to obtain a series of harmonics terms that yield analytical solutions to the laser equations. ¶This method allows us to derive an analytical expression of the laser field amplitude  when this last  undergoes a  periodic oscillations around zero mean value. We also obtain an analytical expression of the pulsing frequency.

  18. Feasibility of efficient room-temperature solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons using ultrasmall mode volume cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Stephen; Lauk, Nikolai; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Simon, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    Highly efficient sources of indistinguishable single photons that can operate at room temperature would be very beneficial for many applications in quantum technology. We show that the implementation of such sources is a realistic goal using solid-state emitters and ultrasmall mode volume cavities. We derive and analyze an expression for photon indistinguishability that accounts for relevant detrimental effects, such as plasmon-induced quenching and pure dephasing. We then provide the general cavity and emitter conditions required to achieve efficient indistinguishable photon emission and also discuss constraints due to phonon sideband emission. Using these conditions, we propose that a nanodiamond negatively charged silicon-vacancy center combined with a plasmonic-Fabry-Pérot hybrid cavity is an excellent candidate system.

  19. High-temperature sensor based on an abrupt-taper Michelson interferometer in single-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Sumei; Li, Benye; Lu, Yongfeng

    2013-04-01

    This study proposes a high-temperature sensor based on an abrupt fiber-taper Michelson interferometer (FTMI) in single-mode fiber fabricated by a fiber-taper machine and electric-arc discharge. The proposed FTMI is applied to measure temperature and refractive index (RI). A high temperature sensitivity of 118.6 pm/°C is obtained in the temperature range of 500°C-800°C. The wavelength variation is only -0.335 nm for the maximum attenuation peak, with the external RI changed from 1.333 to 1.3902, which is desirable for high-temperature sensing to eliminate the cross sensitivity to RI.

  20. Stochastic resonance driven by time-modulated correlated coloured noise sources in a single-mode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Yi, Chen; Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in a single-mode laser driven by time-modulated correlated coloured noise sources. The power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio R of the laser intensity are calculated by the linear approximation. The effects caused by noise self-correlation time τ 1 , τ 2 and cross-correlated time τ 3 for stochastic resonance are analysed in two ways: τ 1 , τ 2 and τ 3 are taken to be the independent variables and the parameters respectively. The effects of the gain coefficient Γ and loss coefficient K on the stochastic resonance are also discussed. It is found that besides the presence of the standard form and the broad sense of stochastic resonance, the number of extrema in the curve of R versus K is reduced with the increase of the gain coefficient Γ

  1. Modeling satellite-Earth quantum channel downlinks with adaptive-optics coupling to single-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruneisen, Mark T.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Sickmiller, Brett A.

    2017-12-01

    The efficient coupling of photons from a free-space quantum channel into a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) has important implications for quantum network concepts involving SMF interfaces to quantum detectors, atomic systems, integrated photonics, and direct coupling to a fiber network. Propagation through atmospheric turbulence, however, leads to wavefront errors that degrade mode matching with SMFs. In a free-space quantum channel, this leads to photon losses in proportion to the severity of the aberration. This is particularly problematic for satellite-Earth quantum channels, where atmospheric turbulence can lead to significant wavefront errors. This report considers propagation from low-Earth orbit to a terrestrial ground station and evaluates the efficiency with which photons couple either through a circular field stop or into an SMF situated in the focal plane of the optical receiver. The effects of atmospheric turbulence on the quantum channel are calculated numerically and quantified through the quantum bit error rate and secure key generation rates in a decoy-state BB84 protocol. Numerical simulations include the statistical nature of Kolmogorov turbulence, sky radiance, and an adaptive-optics system under closed-loop control.

  2. Stable single longitudinal mode erbium-doped silica fiber laser based on an asymmetric linear three-cavity structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ting; Yan Feng-Ping; Li Qi; Peng Wan-Jing; Feng Su-Chun; Tan Si-Yu; Wen Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    We present a stable linear-cavity single longitudinal mode (SLM) erbium-doped silica fiber laser. It consists of four fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) directly written in a section of photosensitive erbium-doped fiber (EDF) to form an asymmetric three-cavity structure. The stable SLM operation at a wavelength of 1545.112 nm with a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.012 nm and an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of about 60 dB is verified experimentally. Under laboratory conditions, the performance of a power fluctuation of less than 0.05 dB observed from the power meter for 6 h and a wavelength variation of less than 0.01 nm obtained from the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) for about 1.5 h are demonstrated. The gain fiber length is no longer limited to only several centimeters for SLM operation because of the excellent mode-selecting ability of the asymmetric three-cavity structure. The proposed scheme provides a simple and cost-effective approach to realizing a stable SLM fiber laser. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  3. Long-Period Gratings in Highly Germanium-Doped, Single-Mode Optical Fibers for Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlangen, Sebastian; Bremer, Kort; Zheng, Yulong; Böhm, Sebastian; Steinke, Michael; Wellmann, Felix; Neumann, Jörg; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2018-01-01

    Long-period fiber gratings (LPGs) are well known for their sensitivity to external influences, which make them interesting for a large number of sensing applications. For these applications, fibers with a high numerical aperture (i.e., fibers with highly germanium (Ge)-doped fused silica fiber cores) are more attractive since they are intrinsically photosensitive, as well as less sensitive to bend- and microbend-induced light attenuations. In this work, we introduce a novel method to inscribe LPGs into highly Ge-doped, single-mode fibers. By tapering the optical fiber, and thus, tailoring the effective indices of the core and cladding modes, for the first time, an LPG was inscribed into such fibers using the amplitude mask technique and a KrF excimer laser. Based on this novel method, sensitive LPG-based fiber optic sensors only a few millimeters in length can be incorporated in bend-insensitive fibers for use in various monitoring applications. Moreover, by applying the described inscription method, the LPG spectrum can be influenced and tailored according to the specific demands of a particular application. PMID:29702600

  4. Long-Period Gratings in Highly Germanium-Doped, Single-Mode Optical Fibers for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schlangen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-period fiber gratings (LPGs are well known for their sensitivity to external influences, which make them interesting for a large number of sensing applications. For these applications, fibers with a high numerical aperture (i.e., fibers with highly germanium (Ge-doped fused silica fiber cores are more attractive since they are intrinsically photosensitive, as well as less sensitive to bend- and microbend-induced light attenuations. In this work, we introduce a novel method to inscribe LPGs into highly Ge-doped, single-mode fibers. By tapering the optical fiber, and thus, tailoring the effective indices of the core and cladding modes, for the first time, an LPG was inscribed into such fibers using the amplitude mask technique and a KrF excimer laser. Based on this novel method, sensitive LPG-based fiber optic sensors only a few millimeters in length can be incorporated in bend-insensitive fibers for use in various monitoring applications. Moreover, by applying the described inscription method, the LPG spectrum can be influenced and tailored according to the specific demands of a particular application.

  5. Pseudo-single-bunch mode for a 100 MHz storage ring serving soft X-ray timing experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, T.; Leemann, S. C.; Georgiev, G.; Paraskaki, G.

    2018-06-01

    At many storage rings for synchrotron light production there is demand for serving both high-flux and timing users simultaneously. Today this is most commonly achieved by operating inhomogeneous fill patterns, but this is not preferable for rings that employ passive harmonic cavities to damp instabilities and increase Touschek lifetime. For these rings, inhomogeneous fill patterns could severely reduce the effect of the harmonic cavities. It is therefore of interest to develop methods to serve high-flux and timing users simultaneously without requiring gaps in the fill pattern. One such method is pseudo-single-bunch (PSB), where one bunch in the bunch train is kicked onto another orbit by a fast stripline kicker. The light emitted from the kicked bunch can then be separated by an aperture in the beamline. Due to recent developments in fast kicker design, PSB operation in multibunch mode is within reach for rings that operate with a 100 MHz RF system, such as the MAX IV and Solaris storage rings. This paper describes machine requirements and resulting performance for such a mode at the MAX IV 1.5 GeV storage ring. A solution for serving all beamlines is discussed as well as the consequences of beamline design and operation in the soft X-ray energy range.

  6. Single Spatial-Mode Room-Temperature-Operated 3.0 to 3.4 micrometer Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frez, Clifford F.; Soibel, Alexander; Belenky, Gregory; Shterengas, Leon; Kipshidze, Gela

    2010-01-01

    Compact, highly efficient, 3.0 to 3.4 m light emitters are in demand for spectroscopic analysis and identification of chemical substances (including methane and formaldehyde), infrared countermeasures technologies, and development of advanced infrared scene projectors. The need for these light emitters can be currently addressed either by bulky solid-state light emitters with limited power conversion efficiency, or cooled Interband Cascade (IC) semiconductor lasers. Researchers here have developed a breakthrough approach to fabrication of diode mid-IR lasers that have several advantages over IC lasers used for the Mars 2009 mission. This breakthrough is due to a novel design utilizing the strain-engineered quantum-well (QW) active region and quinternary barriers, and due to optimization of device material composition and growth conditions (growth temperatures and rates). However, in their present form, these GaSb-based laser diodes cannot be directly used as a part of sensor systems. The device spectrum is too broad to perform spectroscopic analysis of gas species, and operating currents and voltages are too high. In the current work, the emitters were fabricated as narrow-ridge waveguide index-guided lasers rather than broad stripe-gain guided multimode Fabry-Perot (FP) lasers as was done previously. These narrow-ridge waveguide mid-IR lasers exhibit much lower power consumptions, and can operate in a single spatial mode that is necessary for demonstration of single-mode distributed feedback (DBF) devices for spectroscopic applications. These lasers will enable a new generation of compact, tunable diode laser spectrometers with lower power consumption, reduced complexity, and significantly reduced development costs. These lasers can be used for the detection of HCN, C2H2, methane, and ethane.

  7. Nonlinear Phenomena in the Single-Mode Dynamics in an AFM Cantilever Beam

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2016-12-05

    This study deals with the nonlinear dynamics arising in an atomic force microscope cantilever beam. After analyzing the static behavior, a single degree of freedom Galerkin reduced order model is introduced, which describes the overall scenario of the structure response in a neighborhood of the primary resonance. Extensive numerical simulations are performed when both the forcing amplitude and frequency are varied, ranging from low up to elevated excitations. The coexistence of competing attractors with different characteristics is analyzed. Both the non-resonant and the resonant behavior are observed, as well as ranges of inevitable escape. Versatility of behavior is highlighted, which may be attractive in applications. Special attention is devoted to the effects of the tip-sample separation distance, since this aspect is of fundamental importance to understand the operation of an AFM. We explore the metamorphoses of the multistability region when the tip-sample separation distance is varied. To have a complete description of the AFM response, comprehensive behavior charts are introduced to detect the theoretical boundaries of appearance and disappearance of the main attractors. Also, extensive numerical simulations investigate the AFM response when both the forcing amplitude and the tip-sample separation distance are considered as control parameters. The main features are analyzed in detail and the obtained results are interpreted in terms of oscillations of the cantilever-tip ensemble. However, we note that all the aforementioned results represent the limit when disturbances are absent, which never occurs in practice. Here comes the importance of overcoming local investigations and exploring dynamics from a global perspective, by introducing dynamical integrity concepts. To extend the AFM results to the practical case where disturbances exist, we develop a dynamical integrity analysis. After performing a systematic basin of attraction analysis, integrity

  8. A Comparison of Plasma Performance Between Single-Null and Double-Null Configurations During Elming H-Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, T.W.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Allen, S.L.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Greenfield, C.M.; Hyatt, A.W.; Lasnier, C.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Osborne, T.H.; Porter, G.D.; Rhodes, T.L.; Thomas, D.M.; Watkins, J.G.; West, W.P.; Wolf, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    Tokamak plasma performance generally improves with increased shaping of the plasma cross section, such as higher elongation and higher triangularity. The stronger shaping, especially higher triangularity, leads to changes in the magnetic topology of the divertor. Because there are engineering and divertor physics issues associated with changes in the details of the divertor flux geometry, especially as the configuration transitions from a single-null (SN) divertor to a marginally balanced double-null (DN) divertor, we have undertaken a systematic evaluation of the plasma characteristics as the magnetic geometry is varied, particularly with respect to (1) energy confinement, (2) the response of the plasma to deuterium gas fueling, (3) the operational density range for the ELMing H-mode, and (4) heat flux sharing by the diverters. To quantify the degree of divertor imbalance (or equivalently, to what degree the shape is double-null or single-null), we define a parameter DRSEP. DRSEP is taken as the radial distance between the upper divertor separatrix and the lower divertor separatrix, as determined at the outboard midplane. For example, if DRSEP=O, the configuration is a magnetically balanced DN; if DRSEP = +1.0 cm, the divertor configuration is biased toward the upper divertor. Three examples are shown in Fig. 1. In the following discussions, VB drift is directed toward the lower divertor

  9. Dual-channel amplification in a single-mode diode laser for multi-isotope laser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, James L.; Van Dongen, Janelle; Lebel, Paul; Klappauf, Bruce G.; Madison, Kirk W.

    2007-01-01

    The output from two grating-stabilized external-cavity diode lasers were injected into a single-mode diode laser. Operating at a wavelength of 780 nm, this laser produced ∼50 mW of power with two main frequency components of the same spectral characteristics of the seed lasers. The power ratio of the amplified components was freely adjustable due to gain saturation, and amplification was observed for frequency differences of the two seed lasers in the range from 73 MHz to 6.6 GHz. This system was used to realize a dual isotope magneto-optic trap (MOT) for rubidium ( 85 Rb and 87 Rb). The resulting position and cloud size of the dual isotope MOT was the same as that of the single species MOTs to within ±10 and ±20 μm, respectively. We also characterized the additional spectral components produced by four wave mixing (FWM) in the diode laser amplifier and utilized a particular FWM sideband to realize hyperfine pumping and subsequent laser trapping of 85 Rb in the absence of a 'repump' laser dedicated to hyperfine pumping

  10. High-power actively Q-switched single-mode 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 ring laser, injection-locked by a cw single-frequency microchip laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2015-11-30

    In this paper we report on the realization of a single-mode Q-switched Nd:YVO4 ring laser at 1342 nm. Unidirectional and single-mode operation of the ring laser is achieved by injection-locking with a continuous wave Nd:YVO4 microchip laser, emitting a single-frequency power of up to 40 mW. The ring laser provides a single-mode power of 13.9 W at 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency with a pulse duration of 18.2 ns and an excellent beam quality (M2 laser, a power of 8.7 W at 671 nm with a pulse duration of 14.8 ns and a beam propagation factor of M2 < 1.1 is obtained. The 671 nm radiation features a long-term spectral width of 75 MHz.

  11. Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration in Type 1 Diabetics Using Single Order Sliding Mode Control Combined with Fuzzy On-line Tunable Gain, a Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dinani, Soudabeh Taghian; Zekri, Maryam; Kamali, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is considered as a global affecting disease with an increasing contribution to both mortality rate and cost damage in the society. Therefore, tight control of blood glucose levels has gained significant attention over the decades. This paper proposes a method for blood glucose level regulation in type 1 diabetics. The control strategy is based on combining the fuzzy logic theory and single order sliding mode control (SOSMC) to improve the properties of sliding mode control method and...

  12. Implementation and flight-test of a multi-mode rotorcraft flight-control system for single-pilot use in poor visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindson, William S.

    1987-01-01

    A flight investigation was conducted to evaluate a multi-mode flight control system designed according to the most recent recommendations for handling qualities criteria for new military helicopters. The modes and capabilities that were included in the system are those considered necessary to permit divided-attention (single-pilot) lowspeed and hover operations near the ground in poor visibility conditions. Design features included mode-selection and mode-blending logic, the use of an automatic position-hold mode that employed precision measurements of aircraft position, and a hover display which permitted manually-controlled hover flight tasks in simulated instrument conditions. Pilot evaluations of the system were conducted using a multi-segment evaluation task. Pilot comments concerning the use of the system are provided, and flight-test data are presented to show system performance.

  13. Terraced-heterostructure large-optical-cavity AlGaAs diode laser - A new type of high-power CW single-mode device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botez, D.; Connolly, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A new terraced lateral wave confining structure is obtained by liquid phase epitaxy over channeled substrates misoriented perpendicular to the channels' direction. Single spatial and longitudinal mode CW operation is achieved to 50 mW from one facet, in large spot sizes (2 x 7.5 micron, 1/e squared points in intensity) and narrow beams (6 deg x 23 deg), full width half-power). At 70 C ambient temperature CW lasing is obtained to 15 mW from one facet. Weak mode confinement in an asymmetric lateral waveguides provides discrimination against high-order mode oscillation.

  14. A single-longitudinal-mode Brillouin fiber laser passively stabilized at the pump resonance frequency with a dynamic population inversion grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirin, V V; López-Mercado, C A; Kinet, D; Mégret, P; Fotiadi, A A; Zolotovskiy, I O

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-longitudinal-mode Brillouin ring fiber laser passively stabilized at the resonance frequency with a 1.7 m section that is an unpumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber. The two coupled all-fiber Fabry–Perot interferometers that comprise the cavity, in combination with the dynamical population inversion gratings self-induced in the active fiber, provide adaptive pump-mode selection and Stokes wave generation at the same time. The laser is shown to emit a single-frequency Stokes wave with a linewidth narrower than 100 Hz. (letter)

  15. Highly Sensitive Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Cladding-Etched Thin-Core Fiber Sandwiched between Two Single-Mode Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ben; Li Yi; Dong Xin-Yong; Jin Shang-Zhong; Zhang Zai-Xuan

    2012-01-01

    A refractive index (RI) sensor based on a cladding-etched thin-core single-mode fiber (TCSMF) sandwiched between two single-mode fibers is demonstrated. The experimental results show that the sensitivity, within the RI range of 1.333–1.340, is enhanced at least 6 times by etching. It increases with the surrounding RI and reaches 857.5 nm/RIU at RI of 1.3684, and it can be expected to be higher with the decrease of the cladding diameter of the TCSMF

  16. Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: An integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cih-Su; Chang, Tsung-Yuan; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2014-10-01

    Quasi-periodic structures of natural biomaterial membranes have great potentials to serve as resonance cavities to generate ecological friendly optoelectronic devices with low cost. To achieve the first attempt for the illustration of the underlying principle, the Pieris canidia butterfly wing was embedded with ZnO nanoparticles. Quite interestingly, it is found that the bio-inspired quasi-single-mode random laser can be achieved by the assistance of the skeleton of the membrane, in which ZnO nanoparticles act as emitting gain media. Such unique characteristics can be interpreted well by the Fabry-Perot resonance existing in the window-like quasi-periodic structure of butterfly wing. Due to the inherently promising flexibility of butterfly wing membrane, the laser action can still be maintained during the bending process. Our demonstrated approach not only indicates that the natural biological structures can provide effective scattering feedbacks but also pave a new avenue towards designing bio-controlled photonic devices.

  17. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics in a single mode applicator: Modeling and optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, G.; Sola, R.; Veronesi, P.

    2006-01-01

    The microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics in a single mode applicator has been simulated numerically and performed with the aim of achieving the highest yields, energy efficiency and process reproducibility. The electromagnetic field modeling of the microwave system allowed to chose the proper experimental set-up and the materials more suitable for the application, minimising the reflected power and the risks of arcing. In all the experimental conditions tested, conversions of 3-5 g 1:1 atomic ratio Ni and Al powder compacts into NiAl ranged from 98.7% to 100%, requiring from 30 to 180 s with power from 500 to 1500 W. The optimisation procedure allowed to determine and quantify the effects of the main process variables on the ignition time, the NiAl yields and the specific energy consumption, leading to a fast, reproducible and cost-effective process of microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics

  18. Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: an integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cih-Su; Chang, Tsung-Yuan; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2014-10-23

    Quasi-periodic structures of natural biomaterial membranes have great potentials to serve as resonance cavities to generate ecological friendly optoelectronic devices with low cost. To achieve the first attempt for the illustration of the underlying principle, the Pieris canidia butterfly wing was embedded with ZnO nanoparticles. Quite interestingly, it is found that the bio-inspired quasi-single-mode random laser can be achieved by the assistance of the skeleton of the membrane, in which ZnO nanoparticles act as emitting gain media. Such unique characteristics can be interpreted well by the Fabry-Perot resonance existing in the window-like quasi-periodic structure of butterfly wing. Due to the inherently promising flexibility of butterfly wing membrane, the laser action can still be maintained during the bending process. Our demonstrated approach not only indicates that the natural biological structures can provide effective scattering feedbacks but also pave a new avenue towards designing bio-controlled photonic devices.

  19. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  20. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ''beyond extremely unlikely'' frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high