WorldWideScience

Sample records for single milk samples

  1. [Detection of Coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle bulk tank milk and single tank milk samples by confirmatory testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Angela; Andres, Tatjana; Werner, Ralf; Wehr, Roswitha; Fröhlich, Andreas; Conraths, Franz J; Henning, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by the pathogen Coxiella (C.) burnetii. A wide range of animal species is susceptible to this intracellular bacterium with great importance in ruminants. Human infections occur mainly by airborne transmission. C burnetii was detected in animal products such as raw milk, raw-milk cheese and butter prepared from raw milk as well as in the meat of infected animals. In cattle milk, the pathogen was detected up to 13 months after calving. The risk of human foodborne C. Burnetii infection is still considered to be low, but cannot be completely ruled out and remains under discussion. The aim of this study was to compare different laboratory diagnostic methods for C. burnetii in milk sample. The bulk tank and individual milk samples were sent and studied at the National Reference Laboratory for Q-fever in the context of confirmatory laboratory testing after clinical suspicion or retesting of previously antibody detection was in the analysis of 888 individual milk samples a match of 93.3% (Cohen-kappa). A total of 173 bulk milk samples and 2,807 individual milk samples from bovine herds for the presence of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies were tested against the pathogen. The pathogen was detected in 62.5% of the bulk milk samples and up to 60% in individual milk samples. The highest proportion of positive bulk milks was determined as 68.3% in 2012. In individual milk samples, the highest proportion of seropositive samples was 62.2%.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in plasma and milk samples after a single subcutaneous injection in lactating goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, B; Rowe, J D; Carlson, J; Wetzlich, S E; Tell, L A

    2014-04-01

    Eight adult female dairy goats received one subcutaneous administration of tulathromycin at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Blood and milk samples were assayed for tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulathromycin, respectively, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic disposition of tulathromycin was analyzed by a noncompartmental approach. Mean plasma pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following single-dose administration of tulathromycin were as follows: C(max) (121.54 ± 19.01 ng/mL); T(max) (12 ± 12-24 h); area under the curve AUC(0→∞) (8324.54 ± 1706.56 ng·h/mL); terminal-phase rate constant λz (0.01 ± 0.002 h⁻¹); and terminal-phase rate constant half-life t1/2λz (67.20 h; harmonic). Mean milk pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following 45 days of sampling were as follows: Cmax (1594 ± 379.23 ng/mL); Tmax (12 ± 12-36 h); AUC(0→∞) (72,250.51 ± 18,909.57 ng·h/mL); λz (0.005 ± 0.001 h⁻¹); and t(1/2λz) (155.28 h; harmonic). All goats had injection-site reactions that diminished in size over time. The conclusions from this study were that tulathromycin residues are detectable in milk samples from adult goats for at least 45 days following subcutaneous administration, this therapeutic option should be reserved for cases where other treatment options have failed, and goat milk should be withheld from the human food chain for at least 45 days following tulathromycin administration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multielemental analysis of milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar Al-Dayel; Jameel Al-Hefne; Didarul A Chowdhury; Turki Al-Ajyan

    2002-01-01

    Milk is a basic food since it provides essential nutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (minerals, Vitamins, enzymes). In fact, in formula milk essential elements have been usually added in order to satisfy nutritional requirements. However, too high additions of these elements can produce detrimental effects on human health. More important, milk can also constitute a source of exposure to toxic elements, especially dangerous for infants. Method is presented for the multielemental analysis of a wide range of elements in milk samples. The aim of this work is the development of a multielemental method for the analysis of major, minor and trace essential and toxic elements in milk. Several milk samples with different origins were collected from the Saudi Arabia markets and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). For preparation of the samples for analysis, they were digested by closed vessel microwave digestion system with H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 . About 40 elements were determined. A reference material was analysed for the validation of the proposed method. (Author)

  5. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S.M.; Itawi, R.K.; Saad, A.; Shihab, K.M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi Food Analysis Programme the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples was determined by NAA technique. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb and Br the concentration of the elements was approximately identical in both natural milk and milk powders. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  6. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S. M.; Itawi, R. K.; Saad, A; Shihab, K. M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi food analysis program (IFAP) the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples have been determined by using the NAA techniques. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb, and Br the concentrations of the elements was approximately identical in both the natural milk and milk powder. (author)

  7. Radiochemical analysis of phosphorus in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by thermal neutron activation analysis employing radiochemical separation is described. The radiochemical separation consists of the simultaneous irradiation of samples and standards, dissolution of the milk samples in a perchloric acid and nitric acid mixture, addition of zinc hold-back carrier, precipitation of phosphorus as ammonium phospho molybdate (A.M.P.) and sample counting in a Geiger-Mueller detector. The analysis sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to phosphorus analyses in commercial milk samples. (author)

  8. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  9. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  10. Selenium content in milk and diary samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2005-01-01

    Food is the primary source of Se for human beings. As such determining Se levels in foodstuffs become very important. However, information concerning Se levels in different sources of nutrition in different country, particularly in Brazil, is limited. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to effectively determine micronutrient levels in foodstuffs, such as milk and dairy samples. The advantage of using the INAA technique is that the samples do not require previous dissolution before analysis. In this study, INAA was applied to determine Se concentration in milk and dairy products. The samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After a 8-hour irradiation in the research reactor IEA-R1, selenium was analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials (Whole Milk Powder and Non Fat Milk Powder). Se concentrations in the sample analyzed were below 0.300 μg g -1 . (author)

  11. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-07-07

    We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants' homes. We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. a comparison between the use of single and composite samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr F Neser

    A comparison between single and composite milk samples for the genetic evaluation of milk composition in dairy cattle ... Dairy Cattle Performance Testing Scheme replaced composite sampling with a single sample in 1995. The implementation of the new Scheme was ... Materials and methods. To obtain information on the ...

  13. Genomic regions associated with bovine milk fatty acids in both summer and winter milk samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background - In this study we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for bovine milk fatty acids from summer milk samples. This study replicates a previous study where we performed a GWAS for bovine milk fatty acids based on winter milk samples from the same population. Fatty acids from

  14. Determination of I-131 in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez G, I.; Rodriguez C, G.; Quevedo A, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    In our country, in the near future, an isotope center will be in operation, and due to its characteristics, it is possible the discharge of radionuclides to the atmosphere during its normal exploitation, as well as in case of accident. Considering the kind and the concentration of the radioactive material released to the atmosphere, the possible ways of contamination were determined, playing the milk the most significant role, because the Iodine-131 is in the radionuclide inventory of this center, being possible to pass to the food-chain soil-grass-milk, due to the fact that the center is located in a cattle zone. Owing to these facts, it is necessary to rely on a method for determining Iodine-131 that allows to control its presence in milk samples, when the isotope center start to operate. The direct absorption of Iodine-131 in an anionic exchange resin and the subsequent analysis of this resin for gamma spectrometry with a Nal (Tl) detector is a cheap, simple and fast method with a recovery average greater than the 95%. (authors). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Comparative analyses of milk and cheese samples obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheese was also produced from the different treatment milk samples to determine keeping quality. Biochemical analysis of the milk samples revealed crude protein, fat and moisture were not significantly (p>0.05) different but the values obtained for total solid and solid not fat were significantly (p<0.05) different. Milk yield ...

  16. a comparison between the use of single and composite samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr F Neser

    South African Society for Animal Science. 44. A comparison between single and composite milk samples for the genetic evaluation of milk composition in dairy cattle. R. van Dyk1, F.W.C. Neser1# & F.H. Kanfer2. 1 Department of Animal Science, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.

  17. ESTIMATION OF AMOXICILLIN RESIDUES IN COMMERCIAL MEAT AND MILK SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainee Irum

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the extent of ß - lactam antibiotic, amoxicillin residues in market milk and meat. Samples were randomly collected from Faisalabad city, Pakistan. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method with inflorescent detector was used to detect, identify and quantify the amoxicillin residues in milk and meat samples. The milk samples were purified by performing a protein precipitation step, followed by derivatization. To clean up tissue samples, a liquid extraction, followed by a solid-phase extraction procedure C18 (4.0X4.6mm, 5μm was performed. A 50% meat and 90% milk samples were found contaminated with residues. The residues of amoxicillin in milk were in range of 28 to 46μg/kg and in meat were 9 to 84μg/kg. All of the contaminated milk and 40 out of 50% meat samples fall in maximum residue limits.

  18. Physico-chemical characterisation of some samples of fresh milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soceanu Alina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk consumption is important in the diet of all age groups because it provides important nutrients that are essential for humans. Children are the largest consumers of milk, thus, it’s very important that milk is free of toxic compounds that can be harmful for humans. Aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of some samples of milk powder for different stage of baby growing and for some samples of fresh milk: raw cow’s milk, milk trade and UHT type. The following physico-chemical properties: density, pH, acidity, the presence of acetone, enzymes, antiseptics, dry substance, the ash, total fat, saponification and peroxide index, total nitrogen and protein content were determined. Comparing the values of acidity for analyzed samples it can be concluded that the powder milk acidity value is much lower than the fresh milk. The presence of antiseptics and acetone was not identified, and amylase and peroxidase were found only in raw cow's milk. The highest protein content was found for milk powder (27.22%.

  19. Opportunities and challenges when pooling milk samples using ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Andresen, Lars Ole; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    -positive samples by pooling. To illustrate this, the sensitivity of antibody ELISA on pooled samples of bovine milk for Salmonella Dublin, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, and bovine virus diarrhea was tested. For these milk assays, the analytical sensitivity decreased rapidly with increasing pool sizes...

  20. Sampling study in milk storage tanks by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.G.C.; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the representativeness of samples for assessing chemical elements in milk bulk tanks. Milk samples were collected from a closed tank in a dairy plant and from an open top tank in a dairy farm. Samples were analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). For both experiments, Br, Ca, Cs, K, Na, Rb and Zn did not present significant differences between samples thereby indicating the appropriateness of the sampling procedure adopted to evaluate the analytes of interest. (author)

  1. Oral processing of two milk chocolate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-da-Silva, Ana Margarida; Van Damme, Isabella; Taylor, Will; Hort, Joanne; Wolf, Bettina

    2013-02-26

    Oral processing of two milk chocolates, identical in composition and viscosity, was investigated to understand the textural behaviour. Previous studies had shown differences in mouthcoating and related attributes such as time of clearance from the oral cavity to be most discriminating between the samples. Properties of panellists' saliva, with regard to protein concentration and profile before and after eating the two chocolates, were included in the analysis but did not reveal any correlation with texture perception. The microstructure of the chocolate samples following oral processing, which resembled an emulsion as the chocolate phase inverts in-mouth, was clearly different and the sample that was found to be more mouthcoating appeared less flocculated after 20 chews. The differences in flocculation behaviour were mirrored in the volume based particle size distributions acquired with a laser diffraction particle size analyser. The less mouthcoating and more flocculated sample showed a clear bimodal size distribution with peaks at around 40 and 500 μm, for 10 and 20 chews, compared to a smaller and then diminishing second peak for the other sample following 10 and 20 chews, respectively. The corresponding mean particle diameters after 20 chews were 184 ± 23 and 141 ± 10 μm for the less and more mouthcoating samples, respectively. Also, more of the mouthcoating sample had melted after both 10 and 20 chews (80 ± 8% compared to 72 ± 10% for 20 chews). Finally, the friction behaviour between a soft and hard surface (elastopolymer/steel) and at in-mouth temperature was investigated using a commercial tribology attachment on a rotational rheometer. Complex material behaviour was revealed. Observations included an unusual increase in friction coefficient at very low sliding speeds, initially overlapping for both samples, to a threefold higher value for the more mouthcoating sample. This was followed by a commonly observed decrease in friction coefficient with

  2. The effect of sampling frequency on the accuracy of estimates of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    However, replacement of proportional bulking of individual morning and evening samples with a single evening milk sample would not compromise accuracy .... Table 2 Equations for the regression of lactation fat yield (LFY) estimated from composite (morning and evening) weekly samples vs. composite (morning and ...

  3. The effect of sampling frequency on the accuracy of estimates of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study support the five-weekly sampling procedure currently used by the South African National Dairy Cattle Performance Testing Scheme. However, replacement of proportional bulking of individual morning and evening samples with a single evening milk sample would not compromise accuracy provided ...

  4. Sample processing method for the determination of perchlorate in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, Jason V.; Kirk, Andrea B.; Kalyani Martinelango, P.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many different water sources and foods have been reported to contain perchlorate. Studies indicate that significant levels of perchlorate are present in both human and dairy milk. The determination of perchlorate in milk is particularly important due to its potential health impact on infants and children. As for many other biological samples, sample preparation is more time consuming than the analysis itself. The concurrent presence of large amounts of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, etc., demands some initial cleanup; otherwise the separation column lifetime and the limit of detection are both greatly compromised. Reported milk processing methods require the addition of chemicals such as ethanol, acetic acid or acetonitrile. Reagent addition is undesirable in trace analysis. We report here an essentially reagent-free sample preparation method for the determination of perchlorate in milk. Milk samples are spiked with isotopically labeled perchlorate and centrifuged to remove lipids. The resulting liquid is placed in a disposable centrifugal ultrafilter device with a molecular weight cutoff of 10 kDa, and centrifuged. Approximately 5-10 ml of clear liquid, ready for analysis, is obtained from a 20 ml milk sample. Both bovine and human milk samples have been successfully processed and analyzed by ion chromatography-mass spectrometry (IC-MS). Standard addition experiments show good recoveries. The repeatability of the analytical result for the same sample in multiple sample cleanup runs ranged from 3 to 6% R.S.D. This processing technique has also been successfully applied for the determination of iodide and thiocyanate in milk

  5. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Dela Rue, B.; Turner, S.A.; Petch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting representative milk samples compared with devices used by certified milk recording providers on farms with conventional milking systems (CMS) and (2) devices used on both AMS and CMS comply with accuracy crite...

  6. Mycobacterium bovis in milk samples: a preliminary investigation using PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achel, D.G.; Gyamfi, O.K.; Broni, F.; Gomda, Y.; Brown, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    PCR was used to screen milk samples (n=41) for Mycobacterium bovis. DNA samples were obtained through concentration by 50% sucrose addition and centrifugation. Sixteen (16) samples (or 39%) were positive for M. Bovis DNA and the rest 25 (or 61%) were negative. All four kraals had some samples testing positive for M. bovis; the highest being 50% (5/10) and the lowest being 13% (2/15). (au)

  7. Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)

  8. DNA carryover in milk samples from routine milk recording used for PCR-based diagnosis of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Real-time PCR techniques are increasingly used to detect udder pathogens from milk samples collected non-aseptically at routine milk recording. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the statistical associations between cycle threshold (Ct) values for Staphylococcus aureus in non......-aseptically collected composite samples taken at routine milk recording from cows milked consecutively with the same milking unit and milk meter; and (2) to formulate practical and plausible guidelines for understanding the diagnostic implications of PCR testing for Staph. aureus intramammary infection at routine milk...... recording. The study included 4 herds with conventional milking parlors and repeatedly low Ct-values for Staph. aureus (representing a high DNA load) in bulk tank milk. Composite milk samples were collected from all cows at all milking units during routine milk recording using the Tru-Test electronic milk...

  9. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Dela Rue, B.; Turner, S.A.; Petch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting

  10. Single-Drop Raman Imaging Exposes the Trace Contaminants in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zong; Lou, Ting-Ting; Huang, Zhi-Xuan; Zong, Jing; Xu, Ke-Xin; Li, Qi-Feng; Chen, Da

    2017-08-02

    Better milk safety control can offer important means to promote public health. However, few technologies can detect different types of contaminants in milk simultaneously. In this regard, the present work proposes a single-drop Raman imaging (SDRI) strategy for semiquantitation of multiple hazardous factors in milk solutions. By developing SDRI strategy that incorporates the coffee-ring effect (a natural phenomenon often presents in a condensed circle pattern after a drop evaporated) for sample pretreatment and discrete wavelet transform for spectra processing, the method serves well to expose typical hazardous molecular species in milk products, such as melamine, sodium thiocyanate and lincomycin hydrochloride, with little sample preparation. The detection sensitivity for melamine, sodium thiocyanate, and lincomycin hydrochloride are 0.1 mg kg -1 , 1 mg kg -1 , and 0.1 mg kg -1 , respectively. Theoretically, we establish that the SDRI represents a novel and environment-friendly method that screens the milk safety efficiently, which could be well extended to inspection of other food safety.

  11. Distribution of CNS Species on Teat Skin and in Milk Samples from Dairy Cows in Automatic Milking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser; Svennesen, Line; Pedersen, Karl

    identified in milk samples. Staphylococcus chromogenes was detected in both milk (n= 2) and teat skin (n= 1) samples. Data collection will be finished in April 2017. The final results will give new insights into herd specific CNS species patterns and the microbial ecology and epidemiology of common CNS...... on Staphylococcus selective medium (SA Select) and calf blood agar. Colonies from quarters suspect of having CNS in milk and/or teat skin samples (cut-off five CFU) are subjected for MALDI-TOF assay for species identification. Only isolates from the right hind and left front quarters are analyzed by MALDI-TOF assay...... swabs and one milk sample) were harboring more than one type of the CNS species. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus equorum were the most frequently isolated CNS species from milk samples (7/17) and (5/17), respectively. Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus...

  12. Sensory evaluation of commercial samples of condensed milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laís Andrade Gaspardi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil stands out for the huge production and consumption of condensed milk, industries rely on high-tech production, offering products with high added value and enabling the consumer to purchase products from different brands, prices and quality. This job aimed to verify if there is sensory difference at the 5% level of significance as the acceptance of 6 samples of commercial condensed milk. The samples were evaluated by 120 consumers, recruited voluntarily for the acceptance test. The results of ANOVA showed that the samples C, D, E and F were significantly higher acceptance (p = 0.05 in the other hedonic scale. While the sample A had lower acceptance for all the attributes listed on the hedonic scale. The purchase intention test showed that the C and F samples achieved the highest frequencies of positive purchase intention. The internal preference mapping confirmed the results of the ANOVA and purchase intention test indicating a greater preference of tasters by C and F samples. Acquired samples were made with the same ingredients, it is assumed that the sensory differences occurred due to the quality of raw material and to product development processes in each company. It is necessary to identify the importance of quality of the raw material and the type of process used to obtain the product enabling the improvement of brands less accepted in its production, increasing the acceptance and quality of their own product. The quality along with the standardization of the final product is a key factor for maintaining competitiveness and increasing productivity in the market.

  13. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, C; Dela Rue, B; Turner, S-A; Petch, S-F

    2015-05-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting representative milk samples compared with devices used by certified milk recording providers on farms with conventional milking systems (CMS) and (2) devices used on both AMS and CMS comply with accuracy criteria described by the New Zealand Standard and by the International Committee of Animal Recording (ICAR). Milk recording data from 5 AMS farms were collected during 13 milk recording test days between December 2011 and February 2013. Milk yield was estimated by ICAR-approved milk meters on AMS units. Milk samples were collected over a 48-h period and submitted to an off-site certified laboratory for milk composition analysis. Data were also collected manually from 5 to 10 cows per AMS unit; a complete milking of a cow was weighed to serve as gold standard for milk yield, and 3 milk samples per cow milking were collected and analyzed in the laboratory to serve as gold standards for milk composition. A similar procedure was used during 6 milk recording occasions with devices used during conventional milk recording at a CMS research farm. Farm type, breed, season, and region did not appear to affect accuracy of devices used on AMS units. Milk meters used by AMS units complied with ICAR limits in 12.5 and 25% of the milk recording test days for test bucket weights between 2 and 10kg and for test bucket weights >10kg, respectively. These percentages were 52 and 42%, respectively, for devices used on CMS. Analyzing all samples as one milk recording test day, 1.4% fell outside the 20% difference band for AMS compared with 1.1% of the milk samples for CMS. Devices used by AMS complied with ICAR in 73% of the milk recording test days for fat percentage, compared with 42% of the milk

  14. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree; Symons, Robert; Fürst, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Human milk has been used as a surrogate for the assessment of body burden and exposure to persistent lipophilic organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). With the exception of restricted use of mirex, the use of persistent, lipophilic OCPs has been banned in Australia since the 1980s. The decline of human body burden of OCPs following their ban in many industrialised countries is well recorded worldwide from the 1970s until the 1990s though little is known on whether these trends are continuing. In this study, 157 human milk samples collected during 2002 and 2003 as well as 24 samples collected in 1993 were analysed as 20 regional pools for 17 OCPs. OCPs were detected in all pooled human milk samples from 2002/03 typically with highest concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) (mean+/-standard deviation; median concentration 311+/-174; 279 ng g(-1) lipid) followed by beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) (80+/-173; 21 ng g(-1) lipid). Other OCPs consistently detected included dieldrin (16+/-6; 17 ng g(-1) lipid), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (18+/-16; 14 ng g(-1) lipid), transnonachlor (11+/-5; 9 ng g(-1) lipid) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) (9+/-6; 7 ng g(-1) lipid). The results from this study indicated that following a substantial decline of OCP concentrations from the early 1980s to the 1990s, little decline could be observed since then. Furthermore the use of multivariate statistics indicated some regional trends with slightly higher levels of the broadly used insecticides DDT and HCH in both historic and recent samples from Melbourne, whereas, sample pools collected from mothers that lived in rural Queensland and New South Wales as well as Adelaide and Sydney showed comparatively higher levels of heptachlor and dieldrin - both of which have been used for termite treatment. These results indicate that even 20 years after the discontinuation of usage, historical use of OCPs rather than exposure via global transport of OCPs is

  15. Comparison of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM Proteins of Chianina and Holstein Cattle Breed Milk Samples Through Proteomics Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Pariset

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM, formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholesterolemia-lowering factors, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, bactericidal, suppressors of multiple sclerosis. Using a proteomic approach, we compared MFGM from milk samples of individuals belonging to two different cattle breeds, Chianina and Holstein, representative of selection for milk and meat traits, respectively. We were able to isolate some of the major MFGM proteins in the examined samples and to identify differences between the protein fractions of the two breeds. We detected differences in the amount of proteins linked to mammary gland development and lipid droplets formation, as well as host defence mechanisms. We have shown that proteomics is a suitable, unbiased method for the study of milk fractions proteins and a powerful tool in nutritional genomics.

  16. Rapid Method For Determination Of Radiostrontium In Emergency Milk Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-01-01

    A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of Sr-90 within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than previous method that use calcination or cation exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta interferences. When a 100 ml sample aliquot is used, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq/L, well below generic emergency action levels.

  17. Rapid method for determination of radiostrontium in emergency milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell III, S.L.; Culligan, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of radiostrontium within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than the previous method that use calcination or cation-exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta-interferences. When a 100 mL sample aliquot is used with a 20 minute count time, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq x L -1 , well below generic emergency action levels. (author)

  18. RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN EMERGENCY MILK SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-07-17

    A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of Sr-90 within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than previous method that use calcination or cation exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta interferences. When a 100 ml sample aliquot is used, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq/L, well below generic emergency action levels.

  19. Determination of Na, Cl, Ca, Mg, Mn and K in milk samples by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work cow milk samples distributed for Sao Paulo government institutions, by means of the 'Viva leite' programme, have been monitored. The concentrations of Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na were determined in five milk samples and in three different kinds of commercial powder milk, by instrumental neutron activation. For quality control, the reference materials NIST whole milk powder and non fat milk powder were analysed. The results obtained are in the range of the concentrations mentioned in the literature for these elements. (author)

  20. Phosphatase Activity of Microbial Populations in Different Milk Samples in Relation to Protein and Carbohydrate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosanka Protim SANDILYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle milk is a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and all other major and micro nutrients. At a moderate pH, milk is an excellent media for the growth of microbes and thus, intake of raw milk is precarious. In this study, attempt was made for a qualitative study of eight raw milk samples of different varieties of cow and goat milk, collected from Jorhat district of Assam, India, on the basis of nutritional value and microbial population. The highest microbial population was found in the milk collected from cross hybrid variety of cow, whereas microbial contamination was the least in Jersey cow milk. Samples of C1 (Jersey cow variety showed presence of the highest amount of protein and carbohydrate content as compared to the others. Almost all the milk samples showed positive acid and alkaline phosphatase activity. Maximum acid phosphatase activity was observed in cross hybrid cow milk, whereas local cow milk exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity did not show any co-relationship with microbial population of the milk samples. Similarly, the protein and carbohydrate content of the samples did not have any significant impact on both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  1. Presence of Pathogenic Rickettsiae and Protozoan in Samples of Raw Milk from Cows, Goats, and Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisak, Ewa; Zając, Violetta; Sroka, Jacek; Sawczyn, Anna; Kloc, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the presence of various rickettsiae and protozoan in raw milk and the assessment the potential, milk-borne route in the spread of selected zoonotic pathogens. A total of 119 raw milk samples collected randomly from 63 cows, 29 goats, and 27 sheep bred on 34 farms situated on eight communities in eastern Poland were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the presence of pathogenic rickettsiae (Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp.) and protozoan (Toxoplasma gondii). The only prevalent pathogen was T. gondii, which was found in 10 samples of cow milk (15.9%), in one sample of goat milk (3.4%), and in one sample of sheep milk (3.7%). One sample of cow milk was positive for C. burnetii; however, the sequence analysis did not confirm any species of Coxiella or Coxiella-like organisms, but showed 100% homology to Psychrobacter alimentarius. None of the examined samples showed the presence of A. phagocytophilum or Rickettsia spp. The results of this study suggest a potential hazard of milk-borne Toxoplasma infection, mostly by consumption of raw cow milk. The milk-borne spread seems to be limited or nonsignificant in the case of C. burnetii, A. phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. The false-positive sample for Coxiella spp. suggests that some care should be taken in the interpretation of the results obtained by using the PCR method.

  2. Short communication: Influence of the sampling device on somatic cell count variation in cow milk samples (by official recording)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouz, R.; Vilar, M.J.; Yus, E.; Sanjuán, M.L.; Diéguez, F.J.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in cow´s milk somatic cell counts (SCC) depending on the type of milk meter used by dairy farms for official milk recording. The study was performed in 2011 and 2012 in the major cattle area of Spain. In total, 137,846 lactations of Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed at 1,912 farms. A generalised least squares regression model was used for data analysis. The model showed that the milk meter had a substantial effect on the SCC for individual milk samples obtained for official milk recording. The results suggested an overestimation of the SCC in milk samples from farms that had electronic devices in comparison with farms that used portable devices and underestimation when volumetric meters are used. A weak positive correlation was observed between the SCC and the percentage of fat in individual milk samples. The results underline the importance of considering this variable when using SCC data from milk recording in the dairy herd improvement program or in quality milk programs. (Author)

  3. Measurement of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Cow Milk Samples by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afshin Nazari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazari A1, Noroozi H2, Movahedi M3, Khaksarian M1 1. Instructor, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Aflatoxin M1 is a hydroxylated form of aflatoxin B1 which is produced by Aspergillus flavus. This toxin is produced when cows or other ruminants eat foods contaminated with these mycotoxins and then excrete them in the milk. The toxin is a potent liver and kidney carcinogenetic agent. Materials and methods: Forty two raw cows milk samples from local sources of milk collection and forty samples of commercial pasteurized market milk from Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran were collected in summer and winter season of 2005. Twenty-one cow milk samples and 20 pasteurized milk samples in each season were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 by HPLC immunoaffinity columns. Results: Four of 21 raw milk samples in summer showed AFM1 levels between 0.017-0.046 ng/ml and all samples (100% in winter showed the presence of AFM1 levels between 0.003-0.041ng/ ml. AFM1 was detected in 55% of market pasteurized cow milk samples ranging from 0.017 to 0.533 ng/ml in summer and 100% ranging from 0.005-0.0054 ng/ml in winter.,Only one of all milk samples of pasteurized milk in summer had toxin level (0.533 ng/ml more than the maximum permissive limit (0.5 ng/ml. No significant difference was observed among mean contamination level of raw and pasteurized cow milk in two seasons. Key words: Aflatoxin M1, raw milk, pasteurized milk, Khoramabad, HPLC

  4. Fluorescence sensor array for identification of commercial milk samples according to their thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungkarndee, Radeemada; Techakriengkrai, Ittipon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol

    2016-04-15

    Identification of processed milk is of importance for commercial and legal concerns. The fluorescence response patterns induced by fluorophore/protein interactions allow a possible discrimination of processed milk samples corresponding to their thermal treatment. The fluorescence responses of 4 fluorophores upon addition of commercial milk samples in 96-well plate are measured in the range of 400-600 nm using the excitation wavelength at 375 nm. The pattern recognition of the 53,126 fluorescence responses (4 fluorophores×41 wavelengths×4 thermally processed milks×3 brands×3 lots×3 bottles×3 repeats) are analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) successfully recognizes the milk samples according to their thermal processing, i.e. pasteurized milk, sterilized milk, UHT fresh milk and recombined milk (UHT milk having milk powder), with 100% classification accuracy in a cross validation using a leave-one-out technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variability and reliability of POP concentrations in multiple breast milk samples collected from the same mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Risa; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Akiko; Nakai, Kunihiko; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Ishiyama, Momoko; Ryuda, Noriko; Someya, Takashi; Tokumoto, Ieyasu; Ueno, Daisuke

    2018-01-13

    Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012. Milk samples from each mother were collected 3 to 6 times a day through 3 to 7 days consecutively. Food samples as the duplicated method were collected from two mothers during the period of breast milk sample collection. Those were employed for POP (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, and HCB) analysis. PCB concentrations detected in breast milk samples showed a wide range of variation which was maximum 63 and 60% of relative standard deviation (RSD) in lipid and wet weight basis, respectively. The time course trend of those variations among the mothers did not show any typical pattern. A larger amount of PCB intake through food seemed to affect 10 h after those concentrations in breast milk in lipid weight basis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses indicated that the appropriate sample size for good reproducibility of POP concentrations in breast milk required at least two samples for lipid and wet weight basis.

  6. Solvent extraction method for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingorani, S.B.; Sathe, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A solvent extraction method, using tributyl phosphate, for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and other food samples has been presented in this report in view of large number of samples recieved after Chernobyl accident for checking radioactive contamination. The earlier nitration method in use for the determination of 90 Sr through its daughter 90 Y takes over two weeks for analysis of a sample. While by this extraction method it takes only 4 to 5 hours for sample analysis. Complete estimation including initial counting can be done in a single day. The chemical recovery varies between 80-90% compared to nitration method which is 65-80%. The purity of the method has been established by following the decay of yttrium-90 separated. Some of the results obtained by adopting this chemical method for food analysis are included. The method is, thus, found to be rapid and convenient for accurate estimation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii in goat bulk milk samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy goat herds in Fars, Ghom, Kerman, Khuzestan and Yazd provinces, Iran. In this study, 296 bulk milk samples from 89 dairy goat ...

  8. Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadarmideen Haja N

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years. Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heritability of milk flow in the first lactation were very similar under both mixed inheritance (polygenes + major gene and polygenic models. Segregation analyses yielded very low major gene variances which favour the polygenic determinism of milk flow. Heritabilities and repeatabilities of milk flow in both Brown Swiss and Simmental were high (0.44 to 0.48 and 0.54 to 0.59, respectively. The heritability of milk flow based on scores of milking ability in Holstein was intermediate (0.25. Variance components and heritabilities in the first lactation were slightly larger than those estimates for multiple lactations. The results suggest that milk flow (the quantity of milk per minute of milking is a relevant measurement to characterise the cows milking ability which is a good candidate trait to be evaluated for a possible inclusion in the selection objectives in dairy cattle.

  9. Isolation and molecular identification of Mycobacterium from commercially available pasteurized milk and raw milk samples collected from two infected cattle farms in Alborz Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Mohsen; Mosavari, Nader

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an etiological agent of Johne's disease in ruminant including cattle, sheep and goats. This disease is considered an economically important disease in cattle. Animals with paratuberculosis shed viable MAP, particularly in their milk and feces. MAP may be involved in the development of Crohn's disease in humans through the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Common methods of pasteurization are not enough to kill all MAP present in the milk and the bacterium has been isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and cheese samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two different methods for detecting MAP in milk and milk products. We analyzed the commonly used methods such as culture and molecular biology for identification of MAP. For this study, 50 milk samples from cows with suspected Johne's disease located in two dairy farms and 10 commercially available pasteurized milk and cheese samples from the market in Karaj city, Iran were selected. Following Ziehl-Neelsen staining of milk samples, direct microscopic detection of MAP was performed. All milk samples were centrifuged, and the concentrated samples were decontaminated using hexadecyl pyridinium chloride. The decontaminated milk suspensions were washed three times by centrifuging, and the collected filtrates were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium enriched by Mycobactin J. Finally, identification and confirmation of isolates to MAP was performed using IS900-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). According to the obtained results by culture and PCR methods, none of the pasteurized milk and cheese samples showed the presence of MAP. However, 10% of the tested raw milk samples collected from suspected cattle showed the presence of MAP by both culture and PCR methods. Culture and PCR methods are reliable for identification of MAP from milk samples. Copyright © 2016.

  10. Diagnostic importance of the concentration of milk amyloid A in quarter milk samples from dairy cows with mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vasiľ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute phase proteins have been used as biomarkers of inflammation. Their concentrations increase in milk from cows with latent and subclinical mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate milk amyloid A (MAA as indicator of udder inflammation. We used 24 dairy cows from a herd with 120 Slovak Pied cattle. In addition to bacteriological examination, the following indicators were determined in all quarter milk samples. On the basis of results of clinical examination, Californian mastitis test (CMT, and number of Somatic cell count (SCC, four groups of quarter milk samples were formed. The levels of MAA in both subgroups of Group 1 (healthy cows, divided by the number of SCC - IA (n = 10, IB (n = 15, determined at repeated samplings, differed significantly from the initial levels (P 2 = 0.272, was detected between SCC, and MAA in Group 2 (n = 27 at individual collections (P P 2 = 0.525 was detected between SCC and MAA in this group. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that MAA in milk can act as a marker of inflammation of the udder only in the initial, asymptomatic stages of dairy cow mastitis. The experiment was one of first studies with MAA in Slovak Pied cattle.

  11. Determination of the freezing point in cow milk samples preserved with azidiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pintić-Pukec

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study involved determination of the freezing point of cow milk by a reference (thermistor cryoscopy and an instrumental (infrared spectrometry method. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of milk freezing point determination in milk samples preserved with azidiol by using a reference and an instrumental method of analysis. Five hundred cow milk samples were analysed during three research periods. Samples were taken at milk collection points in north-western Croatia. Samples preserved with azidiol (0.3 mL azidiol/40 mL; 0.011 g sodium azide/40 mL and without preservatives (control samples were analysed. The freezing point of milk was determined in duplicate. Average freezing point results of azidiol preserved samples were lower compared to control samples. A statistically significant difference between the means of the results obtained for azidiol preserved and control samples was determined (P<0.05; P<0.01 in all research periods. The results revealed a significant influence of the preservative azidiol on milk freezing point determination regardless of the method of analysis applied, which could lead to wrong interpretation of the results.

  12. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN AND MILK SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance and identification of strains in Enterobacteriaceae genera isolated from milk, milk products and rectal swabs of chicken was examined in this experiment. After samples collection cultivation and identification of bacterial strain was done. MALDI TOF MS Biotyper for identification of Enterobacteriaceae strains was used. For susceptibility testing disc diffusion methodology was used according by EUCAST. Results showed high level of ampicillin resistance in isolates from milk and milk samples. The highest streptomycin resistance was detected in isolates from rectal swabs of chicken. After identification, we determined that S. enterica ser. Typhimurium, which was isolated from rectal swabs of chicken showed the most multi-resistance from all identificated strains of Enterobacteriaceae. The most isolates bacterial strain was E. coli, which showed resistance against four antibiotics from rectal swabs of chicken. Also our results showed that the higher resistance level is in rectal swabs of chicken like in milk samples.

  13. Within-herd prevalence thresholds for herd-level detection of mastitis pathogens using multiplex real-time PCR in bulk tank milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltau, J B; Einax, E; Klengel, K; Katholm, J; Failing, K; Wehrend, A; Donat, K

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the value of quantitative multiplex real-time PCR examination of bulk tank milk samples for bovine mastitis pathogens as a tool for herd level diagnosis. Using a logistic regression model, this study is aimed at calculating the threshold level of the apparent within-herd prevalence as determined by quarter milk sample cultivation of all lactating cows, thus allowing the detection of a herd positive for a specific pathogen within certain probability levels. A total of 6,335 quarter milk samples were collected and cultured from 1,615 cows on 51 farms in Germany. Bulk tank milk samples were taken from each farm and tested by bacterial culture as well as the commercial PCR assay Mastit 4A (DNA Diagnostic A/S, Risskov, Denmark) identifying Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis. In addition, PCR was performed on pooled herd milk samples containing milk aliquots from all lactating cows in each of the 51 herds. Only 1 out of the 51 herds was found PCR positive for Streptococcus agalactiae in bulk tank and pooled herd milk samples, and cultured quarter milk samples. Spearman's rank correlations between the cycle threshold value of bulk tank milk PCR and the apparent within-herd prevalence were calculated in regard to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis. For these pathogens, significant correlations were found. If 1 bulk tank milk sample per herd was tested, the estimated within-herd prevalence thresholds for 90% probability of detection were 27.6% for Staphylococcus aureus, 9.2% for Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and 13.8% for Streptococcus uberis on the cow level. On the quarter level, the within-herd prevalence had to be at least 32.6% for Staphylococcus aureus, 1.7% for Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and 4.3% for Streptococcus uberis to detect a herd as positive using a single bulk milk sample. The results indicate that mastitis

  14. Milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    --+----- LPO: Ml1k pasteurised immediately after LPS activation. -0 - LP3: M,ilk pasteurised, 3 hours after LPS activation "\\. -h:-- PX: Tanzania Bureau of Standard (TB~), pH limit forpasteuris~d mjIk. -x- LP6: Milk pasteurised.6 hours after/LPS activation. ~. ''o: •. ,. ; ~,. " \\. - -- - LP9: Milk pasteur~ed. 9 hO!lfs after LPSactivation,< . ,.

  15. Physico-chemical and organoleptic comparison of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their yogurt samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Elahi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their respective yogurt samples were analyzed. Milk samples, 200ml each, were inoculated with sucrose, skimmed milk powder, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) along with varying concentrations of starter culture and incubated at 45 degree C for 5 hours for yogurt preparation. The physico-chemical parameters studied were pH, tritable acidity, ash, moisture, fat, solid-non fat, total solids, crude protein, specific gravity and total energy, whereas the organoleptic analysis included texture, taste, colour and odor. Results revealed that commercial starter culture, sucrose, CMC and skimmed milk powder, in the concentrations of 0.05%, 0.5%, 0.075% and 0.5% respectively, was the best composition for fermentation. The milk and yogurt of buffalo was found to be physico-chemically and organoleptically superior. However, results showed that goat milk and yogurt could be a valuable substitute, especially in comparison to cow milk and yogurt. goat, milk, yogurt, physico-chemical analysis, organoleptic analysis, carboxymethyl cellulose. (author)

  16. A study on chemical composition and detection of chemical adulteration in tetra pack milk samples commercially available in Multan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Adeela; Naseer, Misbah; Iqbal, Aasfa; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Rehana; Iqbal, Furhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the chemical composition of 8 tetra pack milk samples, Olpers (S1), Haleeb (S2), Good milk (S3), Everyday (S4), Milk Pack (S5), Dairy Queen (S6), Dairy Umang (S7), Nurpur (S8) available in local markets and to detect the presence of various chemical adulterants in tetra pack milk samples in Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Density, pH, solid not fat, total solids, lactometer reading, specific gravity and fat contents were analyzed to determine the chemical composition of milk samples. Our results revealed that all the studied parameters had statistically non significant differences (P>0.05) except total fat in milk samples which was significantly different (P=0.03) among the 8 studied milk samples. Presence of a number of chemical adulterants, formalin, cane sugar, starch, glucose, ammonium sulphate, salt, pulverized soap, detergents, skim milk powder, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, borax, boric acid and alkalinity were also detected in milk samples following standard procedures. Results indicated that formalin, cane sugar, glucose, alkalinity and benzoic acid were present in all samples while salt test was positive only for Olper milk. All other studied adulterants were not detected in 8 milk samples under study. % fat was the only significantly different feature among the studied milk quality parameters with S8 containing lowest while S5 having the maximum % fat.

  17. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  18. Studies on radioimmunoassay diagnosis of cow pregnancy at an early period by milk sample communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meiwen

    1986-01-01

    Cow pregancy was diagnosed at an early period by milk sample communication and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Liquid milk samples were converted into solid forms on filter paper and mailed to the laboratory from appointed locations, and concentrations of progesterone in milk samples were then determined by RIA method. Milks were sampled 19 and 23 days after mating. Criterion used for the judgement of cow pregnancy was as follows: When the progesterone content in milk was 5 ng/ml or less, the cow was not pregnant; when progesterone content was between 5-11 ng/ml, it was doubtful; when progesterone content was 11 ng/ml or more, it was pregnant. According to this criterion, among 215 cows, 131 were pregnant, 73 were not pregnant, and 11 were doubtful. The results were further checked by palpation 3 months after inseminations. The unpregnancy and pregnancy accuracies were 97.6% and 89.2%, respectively. Forther milk samples were collected on 44 days for above cows that had been diagnosed on 19 and 23 days showing pregnancy to diagnose embryo forming. Among 91 cows, 74 had embryo. 7 had none, and the other 10 were doubtful. The embryo and unembryo accuracies were 94.6% and 100% respectively checking by palpation 3 months after inseminations

  19. Occurrence of aflatoxin M₁ in UHT milk and infant formula samples consumed in Burdur, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahindokuyucu Kocasari, Fatma

    2014-10-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites found in foods and feeds. Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁), a metabolite of the potent carcinogen aflatoxin B₁(AFB₁), occurs in milk from animals consuming feed contaminated with AFB1. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and levels of AFM₁ in ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk and infant formula samples consumed in Burdur City. During 2011, 41 samples of UHT milk and 33 samples of infant formula were randomly collected from different supermarkets and drug stores. The occurrence and contamination levels of AFM₁ in the samples were investigated using the competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) method. AFM₁ was detected in 30 samples (73.2%) in concentrations ranging from 6.42 to 71.33 ng/L (mean level, 17.76 ng/L). Altogether, only three (7.3%) samples of UHT milk were contaminated at levels above the Turkish legal limit (50 ng/L). However, AFM₁ was not detected in all infant formula samples. It is concluded that despite the widespread occurrence of AFM₁ in UHT milk samples, the contamination levels were not serious for public health.

  20. DISTRIBUTION OF COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI SPECIES ON TEAT SKIN AND IN MILK SAMPLES FROM DAIRY COWS IN AUTOMATIC MILKING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim; Svennesen, Line; Pedersen, Karl

    . After vortexing, 0.01 mL of each quarter milk sample and 0.1 mL of each quarter teat swab are streaked simultaneously on Staphylococcus selective medium (SA Select) and calf blood agar. Colonies from right hind and left front quarters suspected of being CNS in milk and/or teat skin samples (cut-off five...

  1. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical and Bacterial Properties of Pasteurized Milk Samples Collected from Tabriz, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Farhoodi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are important components of a balanced diet. Milk does have distinct physicochemical, biological and microbial characteristics. The bacterial contamination of milk not only reduces the nutritional quality but its consumption threatens health of the society. In this study, 100 pasteurized milk samples were collected randomly from Tabriz City, northwestern and were analyzed for total plate count (TPC, coliform, E. coli and some physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity and density. 33.3% of samples had unacceptable microbial contamination in both warm and cold seasons. E. coli contamination was not detected in all milk samples, but 54% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated with coliforms. The pH value (6.6-6.8 and titratable acidity (0.14-0.16% were in acceptable range. The means value of samples’ density was 1028.79±1.04. Lower microbial contamination level in this area indicates that the dairy factories are concerned about appropriate sanitary practice and pasteurization process.

  3. Vitamin concentrations in human milk vary with time within feed, circadian rhythm, and single-dose supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance: Human milk is the subject of many nutrition studies but methods for representative sample collection are not established. Our recently improved, validated methods for analyzing micronutrients in human milk now enable systematic study of factors affecting their concentration. Objective...

  4. Assessment of AflatoxinM1 Contamination in UHT Flavored Milk Samples in Karaj, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashak, Zohreh; Jafari Sohi, Hadi; Heshmati, Ali; Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ) in 30 UHT flavored milk samples in Karaj, Alborz province, Iran. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to analyze AFM 1 in the samples. The results showed that aflatoxin M 1 was detected in all the UHT flavored milk samples, the AFM 1 concentration ranged from 0.015 to 0.14 µg/L. Also, 10 samples (33.3%) were contaminated with more than 0.05 µg/L of European Union regulations for aflatoxin M 1 . Wherease, according to the proposed Iranian national standard and FDA (0.5 µg/L), none of the samples has not been contaminated more than the maximum AFM 1 concentrations threshold. This is the first report discovering the fact that UHT flavored milk is an important contributor to the dietary intake of AFM 1 in Iran.

  5. β-Galactosidase activity of commercial lactase samples in raw and pasteurized milk at refrigerated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T W; Dunn, M L; Eggett, D L; Ogden, L V

    2011-07-01

    Many consumers are unable to enjoy the benefits of milk due to lactose intolerance. Lactose-free milk is available but at about 2 times the cost of regular milk or greater, it may be difficult for consumers to afford. The high cost of lactose-free milk is due in part to the added cost of the lactose hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis at refrigerated temperatures, possibly in the bulk tank or package, could increase the flexibility of the process and potentially reduce the cost. A rapid β-galactosidase assay was used to determine the relative activity of commercially available lactase samples at different temperatures. Four enzymes exhibited low-temperature activity and were added to refrigerated raw and pasteurized milk at various concentrations and allowed to react for various lengths of time. The degree of lactose hydrolysis by each of the enzymes as a function of time and enzyme concentration was determined by HPLC. The 2 most active enzymes, as determined by the β-galactosidase assay, hydrolyzed over 98% of the lactose in 24h at 2°C using the supplier's recommended dosage. The other 2 enzymes hydrolyzed over 95% of the lactose in 24h at twice the supplier's recommended dosage at 2°C. Results were consistent in all milk types tested. The results show that it is feasible to hydrolyze lactose during refrigerated storage of milk using currently available enzymes. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Filter-aided sample preparation with dimethyl labeling to identify and quantify milk fat globule membrane proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Boeren, J.A.; Vries, de S.C.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine milk is a major nutrient source in many countries and it is produced at an industrial scale. Milk is a complex mixture of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The composition of the bovine milk samples can vary depending on the genetic makeup of the bovine species as well as

  7. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Hungary: screening of dairy cows, sheep, commercial milk samples, and ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Dénes, Béla; Hornok, Sándor; Kovács, Péter; Horváth, Gábor; Jurkovich, Viktor; Varga, Tamás; Hajtós, István; Szabó, Réka; Magyar, Tibor; Vass, Nóra; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Erdélyi, Károly; Bhide, Mangesh; Dán, Ádám

    2012-08-01

    Q fever is an important zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. There are few reliable data about C. burnetii infection available. The aim of this study was to assess the importance and potential infectious sources of Q fever in Hungary. A total of 215 milk samples (10 individual samples from each herd and 1 bulk tank milk sample from each cattle herd), and 400 serum samples (20 from each herd) were tested from 15 dairy cattle herds and 5 sheep flocks located in different parts of Hungary. The study found 19.3% (58/300) and 38.0% (57/150) seropositivity in cattle, and 0% (0/100) and 6.0% (3/50) seropositivity in sheep, by complement fixation test (CFT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. C. burnetii DNA was detected by IS1111 element-based TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 8.7% (13/150) of individual dairy cow milk samples, 4.0% (2/50) of individual sheep milk samples, and 66.7% (10/15) of dairy bulk tank milk samples. Samples taken from nine different commercially-available pasteurized cow milk products from different Hungarian producers were also tested for the presence of C. burnetii DNA, and eight of these samples were found to be positive (88.9%). The real-time PCR examination of 5402 ixodid ticks collected from different parts of the country yielded negative results. Knowledge of the true prevalence of Q fever is crucial for policymakers involved in evidence-based decision making.

  8. The milk samples collected with filter paper for progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua; Geng Guoxia; Zhang Huaiyu

    1985-01-01

    The cow milk was collected with filter paper treated with ethanol during eastrus-day (0 day) and 22th and 24th day after mating. Then it was dried and stored in room temprature until analysis for progesterone by means of radioimmunoassay. The sensitivity is 13.62 pg/bule (n = 4), the coefficients of variation within a group and between groups are 8.8% (n = 10) and 16.65% (n = 8) respectively, and the recovery is 91.23% (n = 4). The average progesterone level for 22th and 24th day in the pregnant cows (6.28 +- 1.28 ng/ml) was much higher than that in the non-pregnant cow (2.00 +- 1.18 ng/ml), the difference being significant (P < 0.001). The judgement based on progesterone level (5 pregnant and 5 non-pregnant cows) faily agreed with the clinical diagnosis

  9. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner

    2013-01-01

    identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow...... characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1......Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive...

  10. Effects of Freezing Milk Samples on the Recovery of Alimentary Pathogens and Indicator Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hubáčková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of freezing and subsequent storage on quantitative results of bacteriologic culturing of selected alimentary pathogens and indicator microorganisms in milk. Two model experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, raw milk samples were frozen and stored at -20 °C for 72 hours, 7 days or 21 days. After thawing, the following counts of indicator microorganisms were assessed: total bacteria count and counts of coliform and psychrotrophic microorganisms. The counts of these microorganisms determined before freezing served as control. In the second experiment, milk samples were inoculated with strains of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus and bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and frozen. After storage for the above times, recovery was performed and colony-forming unit counts per millilitre were assessed. It was documented that freezing had a considerable adverse effect on the recovery of shigatoxigenic E. coli (P P P E. coli and psychrotrophic microorganisms continued with the time of storage - 72 hours and 7 days (P P L. monocytogenes and total bacterial count. Freezing caused a slight increase (P S. aureus counts in milk samples after 72 hours and 7 days of storage. The results of this study indicate that the freezing of milk samples is unsuitable for sample storage before the assessment of hygienic quality because potential risk of misdiagnosis may be high.

  11. Study on Quantity and Quality of Sheep Milk Sampled from Three Areas of Timis County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Sorin Voia

    2016-10-01

    The average fat percentage was significantly (p≤0.001 higher, by 0.56 and 0.46 percentage in V centre, compared to C and E. The average percentage of protein varied in very close (V = 5.75%, C 5.70% and E 5.66%, differences were not significant (p> 0.05. The milk had a slightly acid pH of 6.78. No antibiotics residues were identified or cow and goat milk was added. Addition of water was identified in 55% of milk samples taken from the C centre, and 22% from the E centre. Current results suggest that the milk of sheep taken from three centres in Timis County meets current European regulations on quality and food safety

  12. Assessment of toxic metals in raw and processed milk samples using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Jalbani, Nusrat; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2009-09-01

    Milk and dairy products have been recognized all over the world for their beneficial influence on human health. The levels of toxic metals (TMs) are an important component of safety and quality of milk. A simple and efficient microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method has been developed for the determination of TMs (Al, Cd, Ni and Pb), in raw and processed milk samples. A Plackett-Burman experimental design and 2(3)+star central composite design, were applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for MAE. Concentrations of TMs were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by standard addition method and conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM), for comparative purpose. No significant differences were observed (P>0.05), when comparing the values obtained by the proposed MAE method and CDM (paired t-test). The average relative standard deviation of the MAE method varied between 4.3% and 7.6% based on analyte (n=6). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of understudy TMs in milk samples. The results of raw and processed milk indicated that environmental conditions and manufacturing processes play a key role in the distribution of toxic metals in raw and processed milk.

  13. INORGANIC ELEMENTS IN COW AND SHEEP RAW MILK SAMPLES FROM NATIONAL PARK OF GARGANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carosielli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A study about cow and sheep raw milk collected from different farms in the National Park of Gargano was carried out. A number of 93 raw milk samples (50 cow milk and 43 sheep milk were analysed for the detection of several trace element (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Mn, Pb, Se, Zn and artificial gamma radionuclide (Cs-134, Cs-137 content. Data analysis shows a significant statistical difference between the two species. Cow milk mean values are always lower than sheep ones for Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb. Artificial longterm gamma radionuclide activity was not detected in all samples, resulting lower than the minimum detectable concentration (MDC. All inorganic contaminant concentration levels actually don’t represent a primary health concern. This research is also a contribution in the risk assessment related to the consumption of these products and confirm both sheep and cow milk as a good environmental pollution indicator. Furthermore, this investigation is a contribution to enhance safety and quality of typical dairy products from National Park of Gargano.

  14. Evaluation of a multiresidue capillary electrophoresis-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for the determination of antibiotics in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-González, David; Hamed, Ahmed M; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-08-11

    A selective and rapid method has been developed to determine 15 antibiotic residues (eight tetracyclines and seven quinolones) in milk samples by capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CZE-Q-TOF-MS). The use of this hybrid mass spectrometer allowed obtaining full scan and full MS/MS spectra for quantification/confirmation purposes in a single run. In addition, solid phase extraction (SPE) using the new Oasis PRiME HLB cartridge was proposed for the extraction, achieving excellent results in terms of sample throughput. The proposed method was validated using whole cow milk as representative matrix. Good linearity was obtained (R 2 >0.99) for all the studied compounds. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (%, RSD), at two concentration levels (50 and 100μgkg -1 ) was below 13%. Recoveries obtained from goat milk, whole cow milk and semi-skimmed cow milk, at two concentration levels, ranged from 76 to 106%, while limits of quantification ranged from 1.5 to 9.6μgkg -1 , being lower than the established maximum residue limits in the European legislation. Matrix effect was negligible in all cases, showing that with this new SPE sorbent cleanest extracts were obtained with a minimum number of steps in the sample treatment. Thus, the proposed SPE-CZE-Q-TOF-MS method is suitable for multiclass multiresidue monitoring in different types of milk samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of flavor enhancers in milk powder by one-step sample preparation and two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yunan; Hou, Xiaofang; He, Langchong

    2014-04-01

    Maltol, ethyl maltol, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin are important food additives as flavor enhancers. To quantify the four additives in milk powder, a novel 2D liquid chromatographic (2DLC) method was developed in this article. In such a 2DLC system, the target fractions eluted from the first dimensional column (C4) are stored onto the trapping column (C8) for subsequent analysis; after that, they were switched into the second dimensional column (C18) by a two-position six-port switching valve. A one-step sample preparation method was used prior to 2DLC chromatographic analysis, which was easy and convenient. After optimization of all experimental parameters, the new method was validated in terms of linearity, LODs, and LOQs, intra- and interday precision, and accuracy. A conventional single-dimensional liquid chromatographic method was also proposed in this work for comparison. In order to evaluate the applicability of the new 2DLC method, five brands of commercial milk powder samples (n = 8) were analyzed. Vanillin and ethyl vanillin were detected in two samples, respectively. It is showed that the 2DLC method is effective in quality control programs of milk powder products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Rapid detection of whey in milk powder samples by spectrophotometric and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Bruna Mara Aparecida; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; dos Reis Coimbra, Jane Sélia; Minim, Luis Antônio; de Souza Barcellos, Edilton; da Silva Júnior, Willer Ferreira; Detmann, Edenio; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto

    2015-05-01

    A rapid method for the detection and quantification of the adulteration of milk powder by the addition of whey was assessed by measuring glycomacropeptide protein using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR). Fluid milk samples were dried and then spiked with different concentrations of GMP and whey. Calibration models were developed using multivariate techniques, from spectral data. For the principal component analysis and discriminant analysis, excellent percentages of correct classification were achieved in accordance with the increase in the proportion of whey samples. For partial least squares regression analysis, the correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in the best model were 0.9885 and 1.17, respectively. The rapid analysis, low cost monitoring and high throughput number of samples tested per unit time indicate that MIR spectroscopy may hold potential as a rapid and reliable method for detecting milk powder frauds using cheese whey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM) Proteins of Chianina and Holstein Cattle Breed Milk Samples Through Proteomics Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lorraine Pariset; Silvia Bongiorni; Alessio Valentini; Lello Zolla; Leonardo Murgiano; Anna Maria Timperio

    2009-01-01

    Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM), formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholest...

  18. Preliminary observations on the metal content in some milk samples from an acid geoenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhonen, P.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The metal content of some milk samples was analyzed from areas of acid sulphate soils along the course of the river Kyrönjoki in western Finland. Comparative analyses were made with samples from the Artjärvi-Porlammi area. The variations of analyzed metals AI, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Na, Sr and Zn are not great in both areas except that of Al, which is clearly associated with the acid environment in the Kyrönjoki valley. The portions of these elements in milk are relatively high as compared with data from literature. It is obvious that they show environmental contamination. Under acid circumstances the metals in milk may create serious geomedical problems.

  19. Somatic Cells in Bulk Samples and Purchase Prices of Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Kvapilík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There were calculated the somatic cell count (SCC 209 (36 – 468 103ml–1, the total count of microorganisms (TCM 25 103ml–1 (from 5 to 377, fat 3.84 % (from 3.23 to 4.46 and protein content 3.39 % (from 3.04 to 3.75 and milk freezing point (MFP –0.525 °C (from –0.534 to –0.395 of the 522 monthly bulk milk samples from 11 experimental stables during the period from 2012 to 2015. Residues of inhibitory substances were not detected in any sample. Milk sale reached 7,999 liters (l with fluctuating between 6,150 and 10,532 l per cow. This can be deduced from the regression coefficients that due to increase in the SCC by 100 103ml–1 the TCM increased by 2.9 to 4.2 103ml–1, the fat content decreased by 0.09 to 0.13 % and protein about 0.01 to 0.05 %. Influence of SCC, TCM and the fat and protein content calculated from monthly samples for individual stables can be estimated at –0.12 CZC, fluctuations between the stables at +0.46 to –0.84 CZC per l of milk. The increase in milk price by 0.17 CZC in the range of –0.92 to +0.92 CZC per l of milk corresponds to averages of indicators calculated from 522 samples.

  20. Bacterial Composition and Diversity in Breast Milk Samples from Mothers Living in Taiwan and Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiao-Wen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is widely recognized as the best source of nutrients for healthy growth and development of infants; it contains a diverse microbiota. Here, we characterized the diversity of the microbiota in the breast milk of East Asian women and assessed whether delivery mode influenced the microbiota in the milk of healthy breast-feeding mothers. We profiled the microbiota in breast milk samples collected from 133 healthy mothers in Taiwan and in six regions of mainland China (Central, East, North, Northeast, South, and Southwest China by using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Lactation stage (months postpartum when the milk sample was collected and maternal body mass index did not influence the breast milk microbiota. Bacterial composition at the family level differed significantly among samples from the seven geographical regions. The five most predominant bacterial families were Streptococcaceae (mean relative abundance: 24.4%, Pseudomonadaceae (14.0%, Staphylococcaceae (12.2%, Lactobacillaceae (6.2%, and Oxalobacteraceae (4.8%. The microbial profiles were classified into three clusters, driven by Staphylococcaceae (abundance in Cluster 1: 42.1%, Streptococcaceae (Cluster 2: 48.5%, or Pseudomonadaceae (Cluster 3: 26.5%. Microbial network analysis at the genus level revealed that the abundances of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia were negatively correlated with those of the Gram-negative Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Halomonas, Herbaspirillum, and Pseudomonas. Milk from mothers who had undergone Caesarian section (C-section group had a significantly higher abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05 and a higher number of unique unclassified operational taxonomic units (OTUs (P < 0.001 than that from mothers who had undergone vaginal delivery (vaginal group. These findings revealed that (i geographic differences in the microbial profiles were found in breast milk from mothers living in Taiwan and mainland China, (ii the

  1. Macro- and micro-element analysis in milk samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sanja M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the determination of Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl and Zn, as well as total fat content of milk samples, originated from different sources. The analyzed milk samples were: human milk, fresh cow milk, pasteurized cow milk from a local market, and reconstituted powder milk. The milk samples were obtained from Jablanica District (Serbia territory. Preparation of samples for macro- and micro-analyses was done by wet digestion. Concentrations of the elements after digestion were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Total fat content of milk samples was determinate by the Weibull and Stoldt method. The results showed that potassium and calcium concentrations were the highest in all samples: 1840.64 - 2993.26 mg/L and 456.05 - 1318.08 mg/L, respectively. Of all heavy metals from the examined milk samples (copper, zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium, and lead, the most common were zinc and copper, with approximately similar content in the range of 5 - 12 mg/l, while cadmium nickel and manganese were not detected at all. Samples of fresh cow milk and human milk showed the highest fat content of 3.6 and 4.2 %, respectively. Results for total fat and macro- and micro-analyses showed that fresh cow milk has the highest contents of fat and calcium, making it the most nutritious. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34012

  2. Nutritional values in aspects of essential and non essential elements in variety of milk samples by AAS and FES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perween, R.; Haque, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Milk makes a significant contribution to the human diet through provision of macro nutrient, vitamins and minerals. The exact composition of milk varies by species to naturally or contamination. It is recognized that imbalance quantity of minerals and trace element being a serious health hazards especially for infants. Therefore, some essentials elements like K, Fe, Co and Pb (as a non essential element) have been determined in locally available milk powder of infant formulas, milk powder of growing children , processed milk or tetra pack milk of different brands and fresh milk samples (cow and buffalo) by sophisticated analytical techniques flame emissions spectroscopy (FES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The range of mean concentration of elements (K, Fe and Co) in milk samples was found to be 650.00-1500.00 mg/l, 2.76-8.93 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l respectively. The levels of these elements in milk powder of infant formulas (1 and 2) were compared with the standards of FAO/WHO, recommended values of the Committee on Nutrition of the American Academy of Pediatrics, human milk and cow's milk. (author)

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Different Anions in Milk Samples Using Ion Chromatography with Conductivity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Gümüş Yılmaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of a simple method for simultaneous determination of chloride, nitrate, sulfate, iodide, phosphate, thiocyanate, perchlorate, and orotic acid in milk samples was outlined. The method involves the use of dialysis cassettes for matrix elimination, followed by ion chromatography on a high capacity anion exchange column with suppressed conductivity detection. The novelty of dialysis process was that it did not need any chemical and organic solvent for elimination of macromolecules such as fat, carbohydrates and proteins from milk samples. External standard calibration curves for these analytes were linear with great correlation coefficients. The relative standard deviations of analyte concentrations were acceptable both inter-day and intra-day evaluations. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (Signal-to-Noise ratio = 3 for chloride, phosphate, thiocyanate, perchlorate, iodide, nitrate, sulfate, and orotate was found to be 0.012, 0.112, 0.140, 0.280, 0.312, 0.516, 0.520, and 0.840 mg L−1, respectively. Significant results were obtained for various spiked milk samples with % recovery in the range of 93.88 - 109.75 %. The proposed method was successfully applied to milk samples collected from Istanbul markets. The advantages of the method described herein are reagent-free, simple, and reliable.

  4. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacteria isolated from raw milk samples of cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahlina Tanzin

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Two different species of bacteria i.e., S. aureus and E. coli are contaminating with milk samples. The pathogenic bacteria can be controlled effectively by using Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin in the case of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 62-67

  5. Comparative proteomics dataset of skimmed milk samples from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinske Tacoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples were collected from Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cattle maintained under the same management practices and environmental conditions over a seven-day period. Milk samples were collected twice daily from six cows of each breed as previously described (Tacoma et al., 2016 [1]. Samples were composited within individual cow over the experimental period and skimmed to remove the fat layer. Skimmed milk samples were fractionated using CaCl2 precipitation, ultracentrifugation and ProteoMiner treatment to remove the high abundance milk proteins. Separation of the low abundance proteins was achieved using SDS-PAGE. Differential protein abundances were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches followed by statistical analyses of the peptide count data. The complete list of low-abundance proteins identified in both breeds is provided in the dataset as well as the total number of distinct sequenced peptides and gene ontology functions for each protein. The relative abundance of a select few proteins is depicted using the SIEVE software.

  6. 90Sr and 137Cs determination in milk and foodstuff samples in North and Middle Moravia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartuskova, M.; Lusnak, J.; Rada, J.; Beckova, V.

    2008-01-01

    Activities of radionuclides Sr-90 and Cs-137 in milk and parts of foodstuff have been determined in National Radiation Protection Institute for many years. Sr-90 activity in those samples determinate branch Ostrava by radiochemical procedure - precipitation with oxalic acid and measuring with using gas-flow proportional detector. Gamma spectrometry with HPGe detector is using for 137 Cs determination. (authors)

  7. Double use of focused microwave irradiation for accelerated matrix hydrolysis and lipid extraction in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Ayuso, L.E.; Luque de Castro, M.D.; Velasco, J.; Dobarganes, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Irradiation with microwave energy has allowed to carry out the extraction of lipids from milk samples (namely, cow, goat and sheep) with quantitative results similar to the Weibull–Berntrop extraction procedure but milk fat obtained by microwave assisted extraction undergoes lesser chemical transformation of triglycerides during the whole process. A considerable reduction of the procedure time (50 min versus 10 h) is achieved with similar reproducibility to that provided by the conventional method. An in situ’ solvent recycling step makes the method environmentally clean

  8. Evaluation of six sample preparation procedures for qualitative and quantitative proteomics analysis of milk fat globule membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Anderson, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheng

    2018-04-12

    Proteomic analysis of membrane proteins is challenged by the proteins solubility and detergent incompatibility with MS analysis. No single perfect protocol can be used to comprehensively characterize the proteome of membrane fraction. Here, we used cow milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteome analysis to assess six sample preparation procedures including one in-gel and five in-solution digestion approaches prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The largest number of MFGM proteins were identified by suspension trapping (S-Trap) and filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) methods, followed by acetone precipitation without clean-up of tryptic peptides method. Protein identifications with highest average coverage was achieved by Chloroform/MeOH, in-gel and S-Trap methods. Most distinct proteins were identified by FASP method, followed by S-Trap. Analyses by Venn diagram, principal-component analysis, hierarchical clustering and the abundance ranking of quantitative proteins highlight differences in the MFGM fraction by the all sample preparation procedures. These results reveal the biased proteins/peptides loss occurred in each protocol. In this study, we found several novel proteins that were not observed previously by in-depth proteomics characterization of MFGM fraction in milk. Thus, a combination of multiple procedures with orthologous properties of sample preparation was demonstrated to improve the protein sequence coverage and expression level accuracy of membrane samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Residues of PCDDs and PCDFs in human milk samples in Ahmedabad, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, R.; Bhatnagar, V.; Sadhu, H.; Jhamb, N.; Karanjkar, R.; Saiyed, H. [National Inst. of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad (India)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and Polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs) represent a class of organic environmental pollutants. They are unwanted byproduct of incineration, uncontrolled burning and certain industrial processes. They are persistent in nature and bioaccumulates through food chain. These are hazardous to human health and environment. The residues of these toxicants have been detected in human adipose tissue, blood and milk. WHO has coordinated two rounds of follow up studies on levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in human milk and the data shows a decreasing trend during the last 30 years. However, in India there is no data available on the exposure and residues of these contaminants. This study presents first time the levels of dioxin and furans in human milk samples collected from the Ahmedabad city in India.

  10. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Marijke I; Brisson, Alain R; van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; Tan, Sisareuth; van de Lest, Chris H A; Redegeld, Frank A; Garssen, Johan; Wauben, Marca H M; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at -80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system.

  11. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke I. Zonneveld

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system.

  12. Specific IgA and IgG antibodies in paired serum and breast milk samples in human strongyloidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Ferreira, Daniela M L; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do Rosário F; Júnior, Alvaro Ferreira; Sopelete, Mônica C; Abdallah, Vânia O S; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2009-02-01

    Strongyloidiasis, caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the major worldwide parasitic infections in humans. Breastfeeding may offer a potential protection against this infection. Feces, serum and milk samples were obtained from 90 lactating women from Clinical Hospital of Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Brazil. The fecal samples were collected for parasitological diagnosis and the serum and milk samples were examined for specific S. stercoralis IgA and IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fecal examination showed that the rate of prevalence of S. stercoralis infection in the lactating women was 4.4%. IFAT manifested a 16.7% positivity rate for specific IgA antibody in serum and a 28.9% rate in milk samples; specific IgG was 41.1% in serum and 25.5% in milk samples. According to ELISA the positivity rate for specific IgA antibody was 21.1% in serum and 42.2% in milk samples; specific IgG was 40% in serum and 18.9% in milk samples. In serum samples, these immunological tests showed a concurrence of 91.1% and 94.4%, respectively, in detecting specific IgA and IgG antibodies. In milk samples, they showed a concurrence of 70% and 78.9%, respectively, in detecting specific IgA and IgG antibodies. There was a statistically significant difference between concordant and discordant results of immunological tests (Pantibodies in serum and in milk samples reconfirming prior studies that the serological method is a complement to the direct diagnosis of the parasite, and suggesting that immunological methods using milk samples can also be helpful. Furthermore, in endemic areas, infants may acquire antibodies to S. stercoralis from breast milk, possibly, contributing to the enhancement of specific mucosal immunity against this parasite.

  13. Maternal characteristics associated with milk leptin content in a sample of Filipino women and associations with infant weight for age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Elizabeth A; Largado, Fe; Borja, Judith B; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2015-05-01

    Human milk contains many metabolic hormones that may influence infant growth. Milk leptin is positively associated with maternal adiposity and inversely associated with infant growth. Most research has been conducted in populations with higher leptin levels; it is not well understood how milk leptin may vary in lean populations or the associations that reduced leptin may have with infant size for age. It is also largely unknown if associations between maternal body composition and milk leptin persist past 1 year of age. We investigated the association between maternal body composition and milk leptin content in a sample of lean Filipino women and the association between milk leptin content and infant size for age. Milk samples were collected at in-home visits from 113 mothers from Cebu, Philippines. Milk leptin content was measured using EIA techniques; anthropometric data, dietary recalls, and household information were also collected. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) milk leptin in this sample was 300.7 ± 293.6 pg/mL, among the lowest previously reported. Mean ± SD maternal percentage body fat was 24.8% ± 3.5%. Mean ± SD infant age was 9.9 ± 7.0 months, and mean ± SD weight for age z-score was -0.98 ± 1.06. Maternal percentage body fat was a significant, positive predictor of milk leptin content. Milk leptin was a significant, inverse predictor of infant weight and body mass index z-scores in infants 1 year old or younger. The association between maternal body composition, milk leptin, and infant growth persists in mothers with lean body composition. Milk leptin is not associated with growth in older infants. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Research And Establishment Of The Analytical Procedure For/Of Sr-90 In Milk Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thi Tuyet Mai; Duong Duc Thang; Nguyen Thi Linh; Bui Thi Anh Duong

    2014-01-01

    Sr-90 is an indicator for the transfer radionuclides from environment to human. This work was setup to build a procedure for Sr-90 determination in main popular foodstuff and focus to fresh milk. The deal of this work was establish procedure for Sr-90 , assessment for chemical yield and test sample of Vietnam fresh milk, also in this work, the QA, QC for the procedure was carried out using standard sample of IAEA. The work has been completed for the procedure of determination Sr-90 in milk. The chemical yield of recovery for Y-90 and Sr-90 were at 46.76 % ±1.25% and 0.78 ± 0.086, respectively. The QA & QC program was carried out using reference material IAEA-373. The result parse is appropriate equally and well agreement with the certificate value. Three reference samples were analyses with 15 measurements. The results of Sr-90 concentration after processing statistics given a value at 3.69 Bq/kg with uncertainty of 0.23 Bq/kg. The certificate of IAEA-154 for Sr-90 (half live 28.8 year) is the 6.9 Bq/kg, with the range 95% Confidence Interval as (6.0 -8.0 ) Bq/kg at 31st August 1987. After adjusting decay, the radioactivity at this time is 3.67 Bq/kg. It means that such the result of this work was perfect matching the value of stock index IAEA. Five Vietnam fresh milk samples were analyzed for Sr-90, the specific radioactivity of Sr-90 in milk were in a range from 0.032 to 0.041 Bq/l. (author)

  15. Cadmium and lead determination by ICPMS: Method optimization and application in carabao milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza A. Magbitang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method utilizing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS as the element-selective detector with microwave-assisted nitric acid digestion as the sample pre-treatment technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in milk samples. The estimated detection limits were 0.09ìg kg-1 and 0.33ìg kg-1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range 0.01 to 500ìg kg-1with correlation coefficients of 0.999 for both analytes.The method was validated using certified reference material BCR 150 and the determined values for Cd and Pb were 18.24 ± 0.18 ìg kg-1 and 807.57 ± 7.07ìg kg-1, respectively. Further validation using another certified reference material, NIST 1643e, resulted in determined concentrations of 6.48 ± 0.10 ìg L-1 for Cd and 21.96 ± 0.87 ìg L-1 for Pb. These determined values agree well with the certified values in the reference materials.The method was applied to processed and raw carabao milk samples collected in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.The Cd levels determined in the samples were in the range 0.11 ± 0.07 to 5.17 ± 0.13 ìg kg-1 for the processed milk samples, and 0.11 ± 0.07 to 0.45 ± 0.09 ìg kg-1 for the raw milk samples. The concentrations of Pb were in the range 0.49 ± 0.21 to 5.82 ± 0.17 ìg kg-1 for the processed milk samples, and 0.72 ± 0.18 to 6.79 ± 0.20 ìg kg-1 for the raw milk samples.

  16. Bacterial microbiota compositions of naturally fermented milk are shaped by both geographic origin and sample type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z; Hou, Q; Kwok, L; Yu, Z; Zheng, Y; Sun, Z; Menghe, B; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    Naturally fermented dairy products contain a rich microbial biodiversity. This study aimed to provide an overview on the bacterial microbiota biodiversity of 85 samples, previously collected across a wide region of China, Mongolia, and Russia. Data from these 85 samples, including 55 yogurts, 18 naturally fermented yak milks, 6 koumisses, and 6 cheeses, were retrieved and collectively analyzed. The most prevalent phyla shared across samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, which together accounted for 99% of bacterial sequences. The predominant genera were Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Acetobacter, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, and Macrococcus, which together corresponded to 96.63% of bacterial sequences. Further multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota structure across sample geographic origin and type. First, on the principal coordinate score plot, samples representing the 3 main sample collection regions (Russia, Xinjiang, and Tibet) were mostly located respectively in the upper left, lower right, and lower left quadrants, although slight overlapping occurred. In contrast, samples from the minor sampling areas (Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Gansu, and Sichuan) were predominantly distributed in the lower left quadrant. These results suggest a possible association between sample geographical origin and microbiota composition. Second, bacterial microbiota structure was stratified by sample type. In particular, the microbiota of cheese was largely distinct from the other sample types due to its high abundances of Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The fermented yak milk microbiota was most like that of the yogurts. Koumiss samples had the lowest microbial diversity and richness. In conclusion, both geographic origin and sample type shape the microbial diversity of naturally fermented milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Applicability of the CALUX bioassay for screening of dioxin levels in human milk samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laier, P.; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Larsen, John Christian

    2003-01-01

    lower REP in CALUX. The total dioxin-like activity was determined in 16 Danish human milk samples and was in the range 20.5-55.8 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. These values were compared with TEQs obtained from GC/MS analysis (range 14.8-43.6 pg TEQ-g(-1) fat) that overall were a little lower than CALUX TEQs...... and applied for monitoring levels of dioxins in human milk samples. Combination effects of dioxin-like compounds were evaluated by testing potential mechanisms of interaction between seven of the major dioxin-like compounds in human milk using the isobole method. Results showed that the compounds acted....... The results obtained with the bioassay when testing milk extracts fractionated into dioxins/furans, non-ortho PCB and mono/di-ortho PCB fractions indicated that the correlation between the bioassay and the chemical analyses depends primarily on the A receptor activity observed in the mono/di-ortho PCB...

  18. Applicability of the CALUX bioassay for screening of dioxin levels in human milk samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laier, P.; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Larsen, John Christian

    2003-01-01

    and applied for monitoring levels of dioxins in human milk samples. Combination effects of dioxin-like compounds were evaluated by testing potential mechanisms of interaction between seven of the major dioxin-like compounds in human milk using the isobole method. Results showed that the compounds acted...... lower REP in CALUX. The total dioxin-like activity was determined in 16 Danish human milk samples and was in the range 20.5-55.8 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. These values were compared with TEQs obtained from GC/MS analysis (range 14.8-43.6 pg TEQ-g(-1) fat) that overall were a little lower than CALUX TEQs....... The results obtained with the bioassay when testing milk extracts fractionated into dioxins/furans, non-ortho PCB and mono/di-ortho PCB fractions indicated that the correlation between the bioassay and the chemical analyses depends primarily on the A receptor activity observed in the mono/di-ortho PCB...

  19. Production of enterotoxins of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from samples of sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Zigo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In our study was followed occurrence of mastitis in herd of 430 sheep of breed zoslachtena valaska with hand milking technology examined two times during one lactation season. Individual examination consisted from clinical examination of udder and microbiological examination of milk samples. By PCR was determined presence of genes coding production of enterotoxins, and by ELISA methods production individual types of enterotoxins. From individual forms of mastitis were frequently detected subacute (6.7%, subclinical (5.7% and acute (2.9%. The coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were identified in 102 (65.4% from all 156 positive isolates. The CNS and S. aureus caused subacute (5.1%, subclinical (3.9% and acute (2.4% forms of mastitis. The most frequently isolated were S. epidermidis, followed by S. chromogenes and S. xylosus from ewes with subacute and subclinical mastitis. From acute and chronical forms of mastitis were  predominantly isolated S. aureus, S. uberis and S. epidermidis. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE - SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and the presence of genes sec (3, sea (2, seb (2 and sed (2 were determined in S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. schleiferi and S. chromogenes, respectively. The results suggested on the high occurrence (12.4% of subacute and subclinical forms. Confirmed production of enterotoxins and presence of genes coding their production present a risk for human health and decreased a quality of milk and products from sheep´s milk.

  20. Comparison of the risk of microbiological contamination between samples of breast milk obtained at home and at a healthcare facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Vera Vanina; Teves, Sergio; López de Volder, Agustina; Ossorio, Fabiana; Aguilar, Nora; Armadans, Marcelo

    2013-04-01

    Breast milk is the best food for preterm infants. Due to their inadequate suction- swallowing action, the administration of expressed breast milk should be done with an orogastric tube. There is little information available regarding the microbiological safety of expressed breast milk. The aim of this article was to evaluate if there were any differences regarding the contamination of breast milk obtained at a healthcare facility versus at home. Cross-sectional study that analyzed pairs of breast milk samples (one obtained at home and the other one at a healthcare facility, the same day) from mothers of hospitalized newborn infants with a gestational age =35 weeks. Samples with over 105CFU/mL of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, or with the presence of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, enterobacterias, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, fungi, and yeast were considered contaminated. A total of 280 breast milk samples (140 pairs) from 53 mothers were analyzed; 139 samples (49.6%; 95% CI: 43.6 to 55.6) were contaminated; contamination was significantly more frequent in the samples obtained at home than in those obtained at a healthcare facility (59.6% versus 39.6%; p = 0.0008; OR 2.25; 95% IC: 1.36 to 3.7). Half of the breast milk samples had bacterial growth, which was more frequent in the samples obtained at home than those obtained at a healthcare facility.

  1. Rapid milk group classification by 1H NMR analysis of Le and H epitopes in human milk oligosaccharide donor samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Sander S; Schoemaker, Ruud J W; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leusen-van Kan, Ellen J M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major constituent of human breast milk and play an important role in reducing the risk of infections in infants. The structures of these HMOs show similarities with blood group antigens in protein glycosylation, in particular in relation to fucosylation in

  2. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides 40 K, 137 Cs and 232 Th (from 208 Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464± 12 Bq/kg for 40 K, 3,46 ± 1,05 and 0,46 ± 1,05 and 0,46 ± 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of 137 Cs and 232 Th, respectively. For the milk Polly, the results were: 452±10 Bq/kg for 40 K, 3,19 ± 0

  3. Study on occurrence and antibiogram pattern of Escherichia coli from raw milk samples in Anand, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Thaker

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with aim to isolate Escherichia coli from raw milk samples and determine antibiogram pattern of E. coli isolates. Materials and Methods: During 6 months duration of study a total of 100 raw milk samples were collected from different places in and around Anand city such as individual household, cattle farms, milk collection centres of Co-operative milk dairies and milk vendors. All raw milk samples were enriched in peptone water and inoculated on selective media and various biochemical tests were performed for confirmation of isolates. Antibiogram pattern of E.coli to antimicrobial agents was evaluated by disk diffusion method. E. coli isolates were sent to National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh for serotyping. Results: The result of present study revealed that out of 100 samples, 38 samples were found contaminated with E.coli. Antibiogram pattern revealed high resistance against ampicillin (100 %, whereas moderate resistance was observed for streptomycin (57.89 %, oxytetracycline (47.37 % and amoxy-clav (42.11 %. Also lesser percentage of resistance was observed for co-trimoxazole (13.16 % and chloramphenicol (5.26 %. Serotypes detected were O24 (7 isolates, followed by O36 (1 isolate, O89 (1 isolate, O91 (1 isolate and O153(1 isolate. Conclusions: Results suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of E.coli originating from raw milk sources. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 556-559

  4. Examination of Aerobic Bacteria from Milk Samples of Bitches with Clinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Seval Fatma TOYDEMIR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Canine mastitis occurs primarily during the postpartum period and may also occur during pseudopregnancy, as well as after early weaning of puppies. Clinical and bacteriological examinations of mammary secretion were performed in 17 bitches and results of the bacteriological examination of milk samples were evaluated. Staphylococcus intermedius (n=11 was the predominant isolate from the canine milk while the other microorganisms were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, Citrobacter freundii, S. epidermidis and S. hyicus. According to the antimicrobial susceptibility test results, isolates were found mostly to be sensitive to gentamycin, while cefixime was detected as the least effective antimicrobial agent. As we had limited number of dogs in our study, further studies on this subject will be helpful for the veterinarians working with pet animals. Because dogs and humans live very closely in urban life style zoonotic transmissibility of S. intermedius shall be of interest to examine further in the future.

  5. Factors associated with Salmonella presence in environmental samples and bulk tank milk from US dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzante, J M; Lombard, J E; Wagner, B; Fossler, C P; Karns, J S; Van Kessel, J A S; Gardner, I A

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate herd characteristics and management practices associated with presence of Salmonella in the farm environment and in bulk tank milk (BTM) in US dairy herds. Herd management data, environmental culture, BTM and in-line milk filter polymerase chain reaction results for Salmonella from 260 US dairy herds surveyed during the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2007 study were analysed. Herd characteristics and management practices were screened by univariate analysis, and selected variables were used to construct a logistic regression model to identify factors associated with the presence of Salmonella in environmental samples. To identify factors associated with the occurrence of Salmonella in BTM and milk filters, a priori selected variables that were related to milking procedures were analysed univariately and a logistic regression model was constructed. The presence of Salmonella in the farm environment was associated with location of the operation in the East (OR = 4.8; CI: 1.9-11.6), not using a broadcast manure spreader (OR = 3.2; CI: 1.4-7.5), use of bovine somatotropin (BST) (OR = 2.7; CI: 1.5-5.0) and use of anionic salts (OR = 2.2; CI: 1.2-3.9). In the final multivariable model, herds with fewer than 100 cows were at decreased odds (OR = 0.3; CI: 0.1-0.7) of being culture positive for Salmonella as were herds with between 100 and 499 cows (OR = 0.4; CI: 0.2-0.8) compared with herds having 500 or more cows. The presence of culture-positive environmental samples and herd size were significantly associated with Salmonella BTM contamination. The herd-level factors identified in this study were in agreement with prior studies but also identified other potential factors that can be targeted in Salmonella control programmes. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Use of radioimmunoassay for quantitative determination of progesterone in milk samples from dairy cows in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymark, P.J.; McCabe, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum 90-day service interval is an important economic factor in dairying. The determination of pregnancy at 21 to 26 days post-insemination can ensure that particular attention is paid to non-pregnant cows at subsequent heats, and thus help reduce this interval. In Zimbabwe a radioimmunoassay for milk progesterone using an iodinated tracer was developed in 1982 from a previously established assay for plasma progesterone. Progesterone antiserum is produced locally and the assay is used as an early pregnancy diagnosis test in dairy cattle. During 1983 two pilot schemes were instituted to investigate breed differences, logistics, and feasibility under the local conditions, and to identify constraints. Milk samples taken 24 days post-insemination were found to differentiate best between pregnant and non-pregnant cows for both major breeds in the country (Friesian/Holstein and Jersey). Pregnant cows had an average of 13.76 ng/mL (+-1.06) progesterone on day 24 while non-pregnant cows averaged 0.34 ng/mL (+-0.13) of progesterone. Apparently 12.2% of cows subsequently lost their embryos after day 24, and these cows averaged 9.98 ng/mL (+-1.52). Milk samples were also taken on the day of insemination; the results showed that 11% of cows were incorrectly inseminated when progesterone concentrations were high (2.59 ng/mL+-0.80). A National Early Pregnancy Diagnosis Scheme using milk progesterone was implemented in December 1984 and results to date are discussed in the paper. (author)

  7. Modification of Lipid Profile in Commercial Cow Milk Samples before and after Their Expiration Date: Evaluation of Storage Crucial Parameters and Possible Environmentally Friendly Disposal Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sommella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk waste is considered a highly polluting material and its disposal is an economic and environmental problem for the dairy sector. Despite this, it can be turned into a source of nutraceutical products and biodiesel substrate. The objective of this study was to determine the qualitative and quantitative variation of single fatty acids in cow milk samples before expiration date and within 28 days after expiration date in order to monitor how the profile of the lipid fraction is influenced by different physicochemical parameters. It was shown that lipolysis in milk is a process independent of time but dependent on the values of pH and total titratable acidity, while crucial parameters for the lipid oxidation are temperature and time of exposure to atmospheric oxygen. All of these factors are at the basis of the efficacy of milk storage conditions. Moreover, our data demonstrate that milk, several weeks after its expiry date, is a rich source of fatty acids that may be recovered as potential substrates for the formulation of economically viable products and eco-friendly diesel-like fuels.

  8. Contamination Levels and Identification of Bacteria in Milk Sampled from Three Regions of Tanzania: Evidence from Literature and Laboratory Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Msalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk in Tanzania has been reported to be contaminated with large number of bacteria. This is because (1 milk is obtained from animals with unknown health status, (2 good milking and handling practices are to a large extent not observed, and (3 marketing and distribution are done in informal channels. These factors are potential causes of milk-borne diseases and milk quality loss. The aim of this study was to assess nutritional risks in milk as reported in literature over a period of 20 years and through analyses of samples collected during the present study. The issues highlighted in literature were high bacteria and coliform counts exceeding standard levels in East Africa, prevalence of bacteria and drug residues in milk, and adulteration. Based on performed analyses, total bacterial count 1.0×107 colony forming units per millilitre (cfu/ml and total coliform count 1.1×107 cfu/ml, also greater than recommended levels, were found. Ten bacteria types were isolated from milk samples (five, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, and Klebsiella spp. are reported in Tanzanian for the first time. Two drugs tetracycline and sulphur were detected. Therefore, it is worth noting that integrated research is needed to evaluate the situation and address these challenges.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of TetracyclinesResidues in Bovine Milk Samples by Solid Phase Extraction and HPLC-FL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Mesgari Abbasi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Tetracyclines (TCs are widely used in animal husbandry and their residues in milk may resultinharmful effects on human. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of TCs residues in various bovine milk samples from local markets of Ardabil, Iran. Methods:One hundred and fourteen pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were collected from markets of Ardabil. Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline and Chlortetracycline (TCs residues extraction carried out by Solid Phase Extraction method. Determination of TCs residues were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method using Fluorescence detector.Results: The mean of total TCs residues in all samples (114 samples was 97.6 ±16.9ng/g and that of pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were 87.1 ± 17.7, 112.0 ± 57.3 and 154.0 ± 66.3ng/g respectively. Twenty five point four percent of the all samples, and24.4%, 30% and 28.6% of the pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples, respectively had higher TCs residues than the recommended maximum levels (100ng/g. Conclusion:This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues more than allowed amount. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal period before milking the animals and definite supervisions are necessary on application of these drugs.

  10. Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in some samples of UHT, raw & pasteurized milk from Indian states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Vinutha; Nanjegowda, Divyashree Kallenahalli; Viswanath, Prema

    2012-11-01

    Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is a toxic metabolite found in the milk of lactating animals which have consumed feedstuffs contaminated with aflatoxin B(1). Ultra high temperature treated (UHT) milk is a product which is becoming popular in developing countries like India as there is a lack of proper cold storage or refrigeration facilities. In this study, 45 samples of UHT milk of popular brands prevalent in the market were analyzed for the presence of AFM(1) by reversed phase HPLC using fluorescent detector after cleanup of sample with immunoaffinity columns. All samples of plain UHT milk were positive for AFM(1) and 38% of these contained levels more than 0.5 μg/kg, the maximum permitted limit prescribed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and by the mandatory regulations of the country, the FSSAI Regulations, 2011. In 62.5% of flavored UHT milk, AFM(1) was below detectable levels (0.02 μgL(-1)). However, 12.5% of these samples also contained levels exceeding the maximum permitted limits. AFM(1) was present in 61.6% of the 52 raw milk samples analyzed from the two states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu with a range of 0.1-3.8 μgL(-1). 17.3% of these samples also exceeded the regulatory limits of the country. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of indigenous lactobacilli isolated from curd and human milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Gulati, Sachin; Thakur, Nishchal; Singh, Brij Pal; Gupta, Sanjolly; Kaur, Simranpreet; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Puniya, Anil Kumar; Gill, Jatinder Pal Singh; Panwar, Harsh

    2017-05-01

    The gut microbiota plays a vital role in host well-being and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have gained an overwhelming attention as health promoter. This perception has evolved from traditional dairy products to a money-spinning market of probiotics. The safety of probiotics is coupled to their intended use and LAB may act as pool of antimicrobial resistance genes that could be transferred to pathogens, either in food matrix or in gastrointestinal tract, which could be detrimental to host. This study evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of LAB isolated from curd (20) and human milk (11) samples. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined against 26 common antibiotics, following reference disc diffusion assay. A varied response in terms of susceptibility and resistance towards antibiotics was recorded. Among curd isolates, D7 (Lactobacillus plantarum) was the most resistant followed by D4, D8, D10 and D25. Among human milk isolates, HM-1 (L. casei) showed the highest resistance profile. All LAB isolates displayed high susceptibility pattern towards imipenem and meropenem. In general, high resistivity was exhibited by human milk isolates. The present study showed that antibiotic resistance is widespread among different lactobacilli, which may pose a food safety concern. Therefore, antibiotic sensitivity should be considered as a vital tool for safety assessment of probiotics.

  12. Just add water: Accuracy of analysis of diluted human milk samples using mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R W; Adamkin, D H; Farris, A; Radmacher, P G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the maximum dilution of human milk (HM) that yields reliable results for protein, fat and lactose when analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy. De-identified samples of frozen HM were obtained. Milk was thawed and warmed (40°C) prior to analysis. Undiluted (native) HM was analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy for macronutrient composition: total protein (P), fat (F), carbohydrate (C); Energy (E) was calculated from the macronutrient results. Subsequent analyses were done with 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions of each sample with distilled water. Additional samples were sent to a certified lab for external validation. Quantitatively, F and P showed statistically significant but clinically non-critical differences in 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. Differences at higher dilutions were statistically significant and deviated from native values enough to render those dilutions unreliable. External validation studies also showed statistically significant but clinically unimportant differences at 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. The Calais Human Milk Analyzer can be used with HM samples diluted 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 and return results within 5% of values from undiluted HM. At a 1 : 5 or 1 : 10 dilution, however, results vary as much as 10%, especially with P and F. At the 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions these differences appear to be insignificant in the context of nutritional management. However, the accuracy and reliability of the 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions are questionable.

  13. Fatty acid composition in the mature milk of Bolivian forager-horticulturalists: controlled comparisons with a US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Melanie A; Lassek, William D; Gaulin, Steven J C; Evans, Rhobert W; Woo, Jessica G; Geraghty, Sheela R; Davidson, Barbara S; Morrow, Ardythe L; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition varies greatly among individual women, including in percentages of the long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFA) 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid, AA) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), which are important for infant neurological development. It has been suggested that owing to wide variation in milk LCPUFA and low DHA in Western diets, standards of milk FA composition should be derived from populations consuming traditional diets. We collected breast milk samples from Tsimane women at varying lactational stages (6-82 weeks). The Tsimane are an indigenous, natural fertility, subsistence-level population living in Amazonia Bolivia. Tsimane samples were matched by lactational stage to samples from a US milk bank, and analysed concurrently for FA composition by gas-liquid chromatography. We compared milk FA composition between Tsimane (n = 35) and US (n = 35) mothers, focusing on differences in LCPUFA percentages that may be due to population-typical dietary patterns. Per total FAs, the percentages of AA, DHA, total n-3 and total n-6 LCPUFA were significantly higher among Tsimane mothers. Mean percentages of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid) and trans FAs were significantly higher among US mothers. Tsimane mothers' higher milk n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA percentages may be due to their regular consumption of wild game and freshwater fish, as well as comparatively lower intakes of processed foods and oils that may interfere with LCPUFA synthesis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Detection and enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine milk samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botaro, B G; Cortinhas, C S; Março, L V; Moreno, J F G; Silva, L F P; Benites, N R; Santos, M V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based method to detect and quantify Staphylococcus aureus in bronopol-preserved milk samples from subclinical intramammary infections (IMI). Serial dilutions of milk artificially inoculated with Staph. aureus ATCC 29213 were used to establish a standard curve (cfu/mL) of the qPCR assay targeting the Staph. aureus thermonuclease-encoding gene nuc according to the strain plate count. The analytical sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability of the qPCR assay were determined. A total of 60 milk samples, collected from mammary quarters without abnormal appearance and with positive isolation of Staph. aureus, were submitted to both the qPCR protocol and Staph. aureus plate counting and results from both methods were compared. Staphylococcus aureus from bronopol-preserved, subclinical IMI milk samples were not accurately enumerated by qPCR compared with plate counting of the nonpreserved, raw milk sample. The detection limit of the qPCR protocol of inoculated Staph. aureus ATCC 29213 in bronopol-preserved milk samples was 1.04 × 10(1) cfu/mL. The qPCR protocol can be a high-throughput and rapid diagnostic assay to accurately detect Staph. aureus IMI from bronopol-preserved milk samples compared with a traditional culturing method. However, the proposed qPCR protocol is not accurate for counting of Staph. aureus in bronopol-preserved milk samples from naturally infected mammary glands. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bifunctional monomer magnetic imprinted nanomaterials for selective separation of tetracyclines directly from milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Tang, Yuhai; Zhao, Yayun; Gao, Ruixia; Zhang, Junjie; Fu, Delai; Li, Zhaolun; Li, Hecheng; Tang, Xiaoshuang

    2018-04-01

    Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted nanomaterials (DA + BSA-MMIPs) were prepared adopting bovine serum albumin (BSA) and dopamine as bifunctional monomers for the first time. Besides the role of assistant functional monomer, BSA can exclude the proteins with like charges and promote low molecular weight tetracyclines to be adsorbed. Thus, the DA + BSA-MMIPs could fulfil the selective separation of tetracyclines directly from milk samples. The characteristics, polymerization conditions, and adsorption performances of the resultant nanomaterials were investigated in detail. In addition of uniform imprinting layers, stable crystalline phase, and good magnetism of the DA + BSA-MMIPs, they have rapid binding kinetic, high adsorption capacity, and favorable reusability. The imprinted nanomaterials were coupled with HPLC to selectively extract and determine trace tetracyclines from untreated milk samples. The recoveries of tetracyclines are in the range of 84.1-95.8% with relative standard deviations of less than 6.7%. The developed method is especially suitable for the selective enrichment and detection of target compounds directly from a complex sample with proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria Staphylococcus spp. isolated from samples of raw sheep's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vasiľ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From samples of raw sheep's milk were determined results of bacteriological examination from two herds in region of Eastern Slovakia in three years lasting study. The occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. 41.6% (124 was determined from 298 samples. The seven species of staphylococci were on a regular basis isolated: S. epidermidis (34, S. chromogenes (26, S. aureus (16. Alternately have been recorded S. warneri (16, S. schleiferi (15, S. haemolyticus (9 and S. xylosus (8. All isolated pathogens were tested by in vitro test on Mueller-Hinton agar by disc methods on resistance to 10 types of antibiotics.  Highest value of resistance was determined to Penicilin 21.0%, Neomycin 10.5% and Novobiocin 9.7%. Lower resistance was in to Oxacilin 7.2% and Amoxicilin 6.5%. Minimal resistance was founded to Cefoxitin 0.8%, Linkomycin 2.4%, Erytromycin, and Streptomycin 3.2%. Was founded total resistance (21.0% to all antibiotics in S. epidermidis (34 during the three years, S. chromogenes (26 showed resistance to 8 types of antibiotics (12.9%, S. aureus (16 to 6 antibiotics (10.5% and S. warneri (16 to 4 antibiotics (5.6%. It was confirmed that sheep's milk remains a major source of staphylococci. Bacteria in comparison with isolates from cows' raw milk, showed lower values of resistance, but were resistant to more than two antibiotics. Recorded occurrence of resistance in staphylococci may be connected with a minimum use of antibiotics in the treatment of mastitis and other diseases in sheep herds. Reported resistance to the tested antibiotics became the basis for the recommendation to use preparations to treat mastitis in sheep principally by the detection of resistance to antibiotics contained.

  17. A single-sampling hair trap for mesocarnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan N. Pauli; Matthew B. Hamilton; Edward B. Crain; Steven W. Buskirk

    2007-01-01

    Although techniques to analyze and quantifY DNA-based data have progressed, methods to noninvasively collect samples lag behind. Samples are generally collected from devices that permit coincident sampling of multiple individuals. Because of cross-contamination, substantive genotyping errors can arise. We developed a cost-effective (US$4.60/trap) single-capture hair...

  18. Determination of strontium-90 in milk samples using a controlled precipitation clean-up step prior to ion-chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.; Warwick, P.; Carpenter, R.C.; Morrison, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium-90 may be determined by β-counting its yttrium-90 daughter following separation by ion-chromatography, using a three column system comprising a chelating concentrator column, a cation-exchange column and an anion-exchange separator column. The column system has previously been applied to the determination of strontium-90 in water and urine samples. The applicability of the system to the analysis of milk is hampered by the large concentrations of calcium present, which significantly reduces the extraction of yttrium-90 by the concentrator column. A maximum of approximately 200 mg of calcium can be present for the successful extraction of yttrium-90, which greatly limits the quantity of milk that can be analysed. The quantity of milk analysed can be increased by the inclusion of a controlled precipitation step prior to the ion-chromatographic separation. The precipitation is carried out on acid digested milk samples by the addition of ammonia solution until the addition of one drop causes a reduction in pH resulting in the precipitation of calcium hydrogenphosphate. Under these conditions, approximately 20% of the calcium present in the original milk sample is precipitated, yttrium-90 is precipitated whereas strontium-90 is not precipitated. Dissolution of the precipitate, followed by separation of yttrium-90 using the ion-chromatography system facilitates the analysis of a litre of milk with recoveries of greater than 80%

  19. Monoclonal antibody based inhibition ELISA as a new tool for the analysis of melamine in milk and pet food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Li, Chun-Yuan; Li, Yan-Song; Ren, Hong-Lin; Lu, Shi-Ying; Tian, Xiang-Li; Hao, Ya-Ming; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Shen, Qing-Feng; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Meng, Xian-Mei; Zhang, Jun-Hui

    2012-12-15

    Stories of recent cases about melamine misuse to raise the false impression of a high protein content of milk in China emerged in September of 2008, have become an international health event. To meet the need for rapid and reliable monitoring of melamine in milk samples, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) was produced and an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed based on the mAb. The standard curve was linear in the range from 0.03 to 9 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.01 ng mL(-1). The sensitivity of the assay was 0.35 ng mL(-1). The average recovery values of melamine in the liquid milk, powder milk, dog food and cat food were 99%, 96%, 9% and 98%, respectively and the coefficient of variation (CV) values of all samples were less than 10%. The obtained results showed a potential method as a tool for the rapid and reliable monitoring of melamine in liquid milk and milk powder samples (158 words). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, Per Ola, E-mail: poda@slv.se [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Aune, Marie; Larsson, Lotta [Chemistry Division 2, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Lignell, Sanna [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Mutshatshi, Tshinanne; Okonkwo, Jonathan; Botha, Ben [Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Agyei, Nana [Department of Chemistry, Limpopo University, Medunsa (South Africa)

    2011-09-01

    The non-occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was studied by collecting human breast milk samples from mothers residing in Thohoyandou area, a rural district in the Limpopo Province, northern part of South Africa (SA). Of all collected samples to be analysed (n = 28), those with large enough milk volumes, (n = 14) were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (9 congeners: BDE-28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on a GC equipped with dual capillary columns and dual electron-capture detectors (ECD). The levels of PBDE congeners (median sumBDE 1.3 ng/g of lipids) and of HBCD were not far from levels generally found in European studies, and this study may be the first report on the presence of PBDEs and HBCD in SA breast milk. On a congener basis, the finding of comparably high BDE-183 levels suggests a specific PBDE usage, or contamination situation in SA. Apart from BFRs, the high DDT levels found in the breast milk from this area (median and maximum sumDDT levels of about 4 600 and over 20 000 ng/g of lipids, respectively; n = 28) have earlier been reported. In addition, other POPs (PCBs, HCB and HCHs) were found in SA breast milk, at relatively low levels. To conclude, measurable levels of PBDEs and HBCD, and a specific BDE congener pattern, were found in breast milk from the Limpopo province, SA. A number of other POPs, including DDTs in high levels, were also present. - Highlights: {yields} Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in South African breast milk. {yields} Focus of interest were brominated flame retardants (BRFs). {yields} Sampling area was the rural Limpopo Province, northern SA. {yields} Probably the first reported African data on BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD) in breast milk. {yields} Reported BFR data similar to European levels.

  1. Isolation of Two Virus-Like Circular DNAs from Commercially Available Milk Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Falida, Konstantina; Eilebrecht, Sebastian; Gunst, Karin; zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological data indicate a potential relationship between milk and dairy product consumption and the incidence of breast cancer, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. We report the isolation of two novel circular DNA molecules isolated from commercially available milk.

  2. Microbiological evaluation of milk samples positive to California Mastitis Test in dairy buffalo cows (Buballus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Sturion

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the microbiological status of CMT positive samples, 734 apparently health mammary quarters from buffalo cows were submitted to physical evaluation, strip cup test and CMT. After milk samples inoculation in 10% ovine blood agar base media and in MacConkey agar and incubation under aerobic condition for 72 hours at 37oC, identification was proceeded. According to CMT, 227 quarters (30,93% were positive, among them 73 (32,16% presented 1+ reaction, 53 (23,35% were 2+ and 101 (44,49% were 3+. Microbiological exams of such samples were positive in 147 (64,76% out of 227 CMT positive samples and among the remaining 72 (31,72% were negative and 8 (3,52 were contaminated. In the 147 microbiological positive samples 204 bacteria were found in pure or associated growth and the most frequent agents were: Corynebacterium sp (59,25%; Staphylococcus sp (17,65% among which 86,11% were coagulase negative and 13,89% were coagulase positive; and Micrococcus sp (6,37%. The results revealed that, excluding the eight contaminated samples, 147 (67,12% quarters out of 219 CMT positive could be considered as bacteria-carrier and that even in a smaller percentage false-positive results can cause problems in a sanitary program for mastitis control in dairy buffalo cows.

  3. Identification of sixteen peptides reflecting heat and/or storage induced processes by profiling of commercial milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jennifer; Baum, Florian; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-09-16

    Peptide profiles of different drinking milk samples were examined to study how the peptide fingerprint of milk reflects processing conditions. The combination of a simple and fast method for peptide extraction using stage tips and MALDI-TOF-MS enabled the fast and easy generation and relative quantification of peptide fingerprints for high-temperature short-time (HTST), extended shelf life (ESL) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk of the same dairies. The relative quantity of 16 peptides changed as a function of increasing heat load. Additional heating experiments showed that among those, the intensity of peptide β-casein 196-209 (m/z 1460.9Da) was most heavily influenced by heat treatment indicating a putative marker peptide for milk processing conditions. Storage experiments with HTST- and UHT milk revealed that the differences between different types of milk samples were not only caused by the heating process. Relevant was also the proteolytic activity of enzymes during storage, which were differently influenced by the heat treatment. These results indicate that the peptide profile may be suitable to monitor processing as well as storage conditions of milk. In the present study, peptide profiling of different types of milk was carried out by MALDI-TOF-MS after stage-tip extraction and relative quantification using an internal reference peptide. Although MALDI-TOF-MS covers only part of the peptidome, the method is easy and quick and is, therefore, suited for routine analysis to address several aspects of food authenticity. Using this method, 16 native peptides were detected in milk that could be modulated by different industrial processes. Subsequent heating and storage experiments with pasteurized and UHT milk confirmed that these peptides are indeed related to the production or storage conditions of the respective products. Furthermore, the heating experiments revealed one peptide, namely the β-casein-derived sequence β-casein 196-209, which underwent

  4. Single versus duplicate blood samples in ACTH stimulated adrenal vein sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, T.; Arntz, M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Deinum, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the preferred test for subtyping primary aldosteronism. However, the procedure is technically demanding and costly. In AVS it is common practice to take duplicate blood samples at each location. In this paper we explore whether a single sample procedure

  5. Mammary candidiasis: molecular-based detection of Candida species in human milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschlechner, W; Karall, D; Hartmann, C; Streiter, B; Baumgartner-Sigl, S; Orth-Höller, D; Lass-Flörl, C

    2016-08-01

    In this prospective and monocentric study, we investigated the performance of a commercialized real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test system for the specific detection of DNA from Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis in human milk samples of patients suspicious of mammary candidiasis. For this purpose, 43 breast-feeding women with characteristic symptoms of mammary candidiasis and 40 asymptomatic controls were enrolled. By culture, Candida spp. were detected in 8.8 % (4/46) and 9.3 % (4/43) of patient and control samples, respectively. Candida albicans (2/46), C. parapsilosis (1/46), and C. guilliermondii (1/46) were present in patient samples, and C. lusitaniae (3/43) and C. guilliermondii (1/43) were present in the controls. After RT-PCR was applied, Candida spp. were found to be present in 67.4 % (31/46) and 79.1 % (34/43) of patient and control samples investigated, respectively. PCR detection of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis revealed only a low sensitivity and specificity of 67.4 % and 41.9 %, respectively. Our data do not support the use of Candida RT-PCR for sensitive and specific diagnosis of mammary candidiasis.

  6. Detection and Enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk Samples by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Nara Ladeira; Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; Silva, Luis Felipe de Prada E; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with DNA extraction directly from composite milk and bulk tank samples for detection and enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae (SAG) causing subclinical mastitis. Dilutions of sterile reconstituted skim milk inoculated with SAG ATCC 13813 were used to establish a standard curve (cfu/mL) for the qPCR assay targeting SAG. The analytical sensitivity and repeatability of the qPCR assay were determined. Bulk tank (BTM; n = 38) and composite milk samples (CM; n = 26) collected from lactating cows with positive isolation of SAG were submitted to the qPCR protocol and SAG plate counting, with results from both methods compared. Amplification of DNA was not possible in two out of 64 samples, indicating that qPCR was able to detect SAG in 96 and 97% of BTM and CM samples, respectively. The inter-assay coefficient of variation was qPCR protocol can be a high-throughput and rapid diagnostic assay to accurately detect SAG from BTM and CM samples compared with conventional microbiological culture method. However, the evaluated qPCR protocol is not accurate for enumerating SAG in milk samples, probably due to quantification of DNA of non-viable cells.

  7. 90Sr- 90Y and 89Sr beta radioactivity measurement in milk samples using a proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mananes, A.; Perez Santos, C.; Martinez Churiaque, F.

    1987-01-01

    A thin window glas flow proportional counter is used to measure the 90 Sr- 90 Y and 89 Sr beta radioactivity in milk samples. A chemical procedure is used to separate strontium-yttrium from the other radionuclides present in milk. A calculation of the total efficiency of the system is performed which includes an empirical estimation of the backscattering factor. The calibration of the whole process allows the determination of the 90 Sr activity within 10% relative error in spite of uncertainties in the recovery yields of strontium and yttrium. No 89 Sr activity has been detected, and the mean value obtained for the 90 Sr activity in nine milk samples of Cantabria is 0.115 Bq/1 with a minimum detectable activity of 0.0105 Bq. (author) 18 refs

  8. Vitamin Concentrations in Human Milk Vary with Time within Feed, Circadian Rhythm, and Single-Dose Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Islam, M Munirul; Peerson, Janet M; Allen, Lindsay H

    2017-04-01

    Background: Human milk is the subject of many studies, but procedures for representative sample collection have not been established. Our improved methods for milk micronutrient analysis now enable systematic study of factors that affect its concentrations. Objective: We evaluated the effects of sample collection protocols, variations in circadian rhythms, subject variability, and acute maternal micronutrient supplementation on milk vitamin concentrations. Methods: In the BMQ (Breast-Milk-Quality) study, we recruited 18 healthy women (aged 18-26 y) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, at 2-4 mo of lactation for a 3-d supplementation study. On day 1, no supplements were given; on days 2 and 3, participants consumed ∼1 time and 2 times, respectively, the US-Canadian Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamins at breakfast (0800-0859). Milk was collected during every feeding from the same breast over 24 h. Milk expressed in the first 2 min (aliquot I) was collected separately from the remainder (aliquot II); a third aliquot (aliquot III) was saved by combining aliquots I and II. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, A, and E and fat were measured in each sample. Results: Significant but small differences (14-18%) between aliquots were found for all vitamins except for vitamins B-6 and B-12. Circadian variance was significant except for fat-adjusted vitamins A and E, with a higher contribution to total variance with supplementation. Between-subject variability accounted for most of the total variance. Afternoon and evening samples best reflected daily vitamin concentrations for all study days. Acute supplementation effects were found for thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and A at 2-4 h postdosing, with 0.1-6.17% passing into milk. Supplementation was reflected in fasting, 24-h postdose samples for riboflavin and vitamin B-6. Maximum amounts of dose-responding vitamins in 1 feeding ranged from 4.7% to 21.8% (day 2) and 8.2% to 35.0% (day 3) of Adequate Intake

  9. Analysis of ewe’s milk by FT Near Infrared spectroscopy: measurement of samples on Petri dishes in reflectance mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Květoslava Šustová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work deals with a possibility of determination of basic composition (dry matter, fat, protein, casein, lactose and urea nitrogen of ewe’s milk and colostrum by FT NIR spectroscopy. Samples of milk were warmed to 40 °C, agitated, cooled to 20 °C, transferred into Petri dishes and analysed by reference methods and by FT NIR in reflectance mode. The measured area was spaced by a metallic mirror. Statistically significant differences between the reference values and the calculated values of NIR were not found (p=0.05. Results of calibration for ewe’s milk determined the highest correlation coefficients: dry matter 0.983, fat 0.989, true protein 0.997, casein 0.977, lactose 0.980 and urea nitrogen 0.973. The study showed that NIRS method, when samples of milk are measured on Petri dishes, is a useful technique for the prediction of dry matter, fat, protein and casein in ewe’s milk.

  10. Differential expression of cancer-related proteins in paired breast milk samples from women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, Kathleen F; Browne, Eva P; Qin, Wenyi; Zhang, Ke; Anderton, Douglas L; Sauter, Edward R

    2012-11-01

    Breast cancer risk increases during pregnancy and remains elevated for a number of years thereafter. Cancer-associated proteins that are secreted into breast milk may provide a means to detect cancer in the lactating breast or to assess future breast cancer risk. To determine whether proteins linked to breast cancer would be differentially expressed in matched (both breasts from each participant) human milk samples collected from women with unilateral breast cancer. Five cancer-associated proteins (basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], YKL-40, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and transforming growth factor β1 and β2) were analyzed in milk provided by 5 lactating women, 4 of whom were known to have cancer in 1 breast (and the opposite breast clinically disease free) at the time of milk collection and 1 who developed breast cancer 2 years after milk collection. Expression was significantly higher for TGFβ2 (P = .03) and bFGF (P =.03) in the breasts with cancer. These proteins may play a role in assessing a woman's risk of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Because of variable protein concentration among patients and the limited sample size, the results are considered preliminary.

  11. Measurement of thyroid hormones in donkey (Equus asinus) blood and milk: validation of ELISA kits and evaluation of sample collection, handling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todini, Luca; Malfatti, Alessandro; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fantuz, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Donkey's milk is well tolerated by human infants with cow's milk allergy and is useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases and in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate lactation and active triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could take paracrine action supporting lactogenesis in the mother, and play physiological roles for the suckling offspring (systemic or within the gastrointestinal tract). The aims were to measure TH concentrations in donkey blood and milk, validate ELISA methods, evaluate the effects of sample collection and post-collection handling and the stability of TH in milk and blood serum and plasma samples. In milk and blood samples obtained from lactating jennies total concentrations of TH were assayed using competitive-type ELISA kits. Good validation results were obtained for both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk samples extracted with cold (-20°C) ethanol alkalinized (pH 9·0) with NH4OH. In most of the milk extract samples, thyroxine (T4) concentrations resulted below the sensitivity threshold. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations of TH concentrations in different blood and milk samples were below 10%. Parallelism tests gave displacement lines parallel to those of the calibrators for both TH in blood serum and plasma and for T3 in milk extracts. Mean recovery rates were between 95% and 123%, but the concentration values approaching the highest calibrators were overestimated. Therefore, serum and plasma samples for T3 assay must be previously diluted with buffer. Both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk did not change during storage for up to 6 months at -20°C. In conclusion, the ELISA methods tested in the present study are suitable for determination of both TH concentrations in donkey blood samples, and for T3 measurement in milk, after extraction with cold alkaline ethanol.

  12. Toxic metals in breast milk samples from Ankara, Turkey: assessment of lead, cadmium, nickel, and arsenic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbay, Aylin; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Eken, Ayşe; Sayal, Ahmet; Girgin, Gözde; Yurdakök, Murat; Yiğit, Şule; Erol, Dilek Demir; Şahin, Gönül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    Toxic metals are one of the significant groups of chemical contaminants that humans are exposed to by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Exposure to these chemicals begins with intrauterine life and continues during lactation period at the first years of life. Breastfeeding has a much more special place than other nutrition options for infants. However, when possibility of contaminant transfer by breast milk is considered, its safety and quality is essential. Regarding infant and mother health and limited number of information on this field in Turkey, measuring contamination levels in breast milk is important. Therefore, in the present study, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 64 breast milk samples obtained from mothers from Ankara, Turkey. Pb and Ni levels in breast milk samples were found to be 391.45±269.01 μg/l and 43.94±33.82 μg/l (mean ± SD), respectively. Cd was found only in one of 64 samples, and the level was 4.62 μg/l. As level was below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 7.6 μg/l) in all samples. These findings will accurately direct strategies and solutions of protection against contaminants in order to reduce their levels in biological fluids.

  13. LC-MS/MS analysis of permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans derived from human, bovine, and goat milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xue; Zhou, Shiyue; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Oligosaccharides in milk not only provide nutrition to the infants but also have significant immune biofunctions such as inhibition of pathogen binding to the host cell. The main component in milk oligosaccharides is free oligosaccharides. Since the proteins in milk are highly glycosylated, N-glycans in milk also play an import role. In this study, we investigated the permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans extracted from bovine, goat, and human milks using LC-MS/MS. Quantitation profiles of free oligosaccharides and N-glycans were reported. The number of free oligosaccharides observed in bovine, goat, and human milk samples (without isomeric consideration) were 11, 8, and 11, respectively. Human milk had more complex free oligosaccharides structures than the other two milk samples. Totally 58, 21, and 43 N-glycan structures (without isomeric consideration) were associated with whey proteins extracted from bovine, goat, and human milk samples, respectively. Bovine milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were highly sialylated and to a lesser extend fucosylated. Goat and human milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were both highly fucosylated. Also, the isomeric glycans in milk samples were determined by porous graphitic carbon LC at elevated temperatures. For example, separation of human milk free oligosaccharide Gal-GlcNAc-(Fuc)-Gal-Glc and Gal-GlcNAc-Gal-Glc-Fuc isomers was achieved using porous graphitic carbon column. Permethylation of the glycan structures facilitated the interpretation of MS/MS. For example, internal cleavage and glycosidic bond cleavage are readily distinguished in the tandem mass spectra of permethylated glycans. This feature resulted in the identification of several isomers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Genomic Sequencing of Single Microbial Cells from Environmental Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishoey, Thomas; Woyke, Tanja; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Novotny, Mark; Lasken, Roger S.

    2008-02-01

    Recently developed techniques allow genomic DNA sequencing from single microbial cells [Lasken RS: Single-cell genomic sequencing using multiple displacement amplification, Curr Opin Microbiol 2007, 10:510-516]. Here, we focus on research strategies for putting these methods into practice in the laboratory setting. An immediate consequence of single-cell sequencing is that it provides an alternative to culturing organisms as a prerequisite for genomic sequencing. The microgram amounts of DNA required as template are amplified from a single bacterium by a method called multiple displacement amplification (MDA) avoiding the need to grow cells. The ability to sequence DNA from individual cells will likely have an immense impact on microbiology considering the vast numbers of novel organisms, which have been inaccessible unless culture-independent methods could be used. However, special approaches have been necessary to work with amplified DNA. MDA may not recover the entire genome from the single copy present in most bacteria. Also, some sequence rearrangements can occur during the DNA amplification reaction. Over the past two years many research groups have begun to use MDA, and some practical approaches to single-cell sequencing have been developed. We review the consensus that is emerging on optimum methods, reliability of amplified template, and the proper interpretation of 'composite' genomes which result from the necessity of combining data from several single-cell MDA reactions in order to complete the assembly. Preferred laboratory methods are considered on the basis of experience at several large sequencing centers where >70% of genomes are now often recovered from single cells. Methods are reviewed for preparation of bacterial fractions from environmental samples, single-cell isolation, DNA amplification by MDA, and DNA sequencing.

  15. Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus in canned food and coconut milk samples by addition of enterocin AS-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martínez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    The cyclic bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested on a cocktail of two Geobacillus stearothermophilus strains in canned food samples (corn and peas), and in coconut milk. AS-48 (7 microg/g) reduced viable cell counts below detection levels in samples from canned corn and peas stored at 45 degrees C for 30 days. In coconut milk, bacterial inactivation by AS-48 (1.75 microg/ml) was even faster. In all canned food and drink samples inoculated with intact G. stearothermophilus endospores, bacteriocin addition (1.75 microg per g or ml of food sample) rapidly reduced viable cell counts below detection levels and avoided regrowth during storage. After a short-time bacteriocin treatment of endospores, trypsin addition markedly increased G. stearothermophilus survival, supporting the effect of residual bacteriocin on the observed loss of viability for endospores. Results from this study support the potential of enterocin AS-48 as a biopreservative against G. stearothermophilus.

  16. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients with history of raw milk consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To detect the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients with history of raw milk consumption and to determine the public health significance of isolates, especially their role in causing human diseases.Materials and Methods: Atotal of 100 stool samples from diarrhoeal patients, with history of raw milk consumption were collected from primary health centres in and around Anand city, under aseptic conditions and a total of 50 raw milk samples were collected from milk vendors, retail shops located in Anand city in sterilized sample bottles. MacConkey broth was used for the enrichment of all the samples and inoculation was done on MacConkey agar and EMB agar was used as the selective media. This was followed by the confirmation of isolates using biochemical tests. For the serotyping,E. coli isolates were sent to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute (CRI, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh.Detection of virulence genes was performed using PCR technique.Results: During the present investigation, 26 (52% E. coli isolates from 50 milk samples and 59 (59% E. coli isolates from 100 stool samples were recovered. Out of 85 E. coli isolates sent for serotyping, 74 isolates could be typed which were further distributed into 13 different serogroups O2, O4, O8, O17, O22, O25, O29, O36, O45, O60, O90, O116 and O172, whereas 8 isolates were found untypable and 3 isolates were reported rough isolates. Of the 59 E. coli isolates from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients tested, 15 isolates (25.42% were reported to be positive for stx genes, among that 6 (10.16% were positive for stx1 gene, 9 (15.25% isolates were positive for stx2 gene, while 3 isolates (5.08% were positive for eaeA gene. In this study, 21 E. coliisolates were found to be Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC while none of the isolates were positive for the serotype O157. Conclusions: Our present findings indicate that raw

  17. Effect of genetic and nongenetic factors on chemical composition of individual milk samples from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Fábri, Zs N; Varga, L; Reiczigel, J; Juhász, J

    2017-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to monitor the changes in gross chemical composition of individual dromedary camel milk over a 5-yr period, to provide reference values, and to determine the effect of genetic and nongenetic factors influencing camel milk composition under intensive management. A total of 1,528 lactating dromedary camels were included in the study. Animals were fed a constant diet and were milked twice a day in a herringbone parlor. Milk samples were collected at monthly intervals using a sampling device and then fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS), and solids-nonfat (SNF) concentrations of raw camel milk were determined with an automatic milk analyzer. For each milk sample, production parameters were recorded and quantities (grams) of milk constituents were calculated. The overall mean quantity and fat, protein, lactose, SNF, and TS concentrations of the morning milk were 4.0 kg, 2.58%, 2.95%, 4.19%, 8.08%, and 10.46%, respectively. Milk quantity showed a positive correlation with lactose and a negative correlation with all other components. Parity exerted a strong effect on all milk parameters. Primiparous dromedaries (n = 60) produced less milk with higher concentrations of components than did multiparous animals (n = 1,468). Milk composition varied among the 7 breeds tested, but none of the genotypes was found to be superior to the others in this respect. We detected a significant, yet small calf sex-biased difference in milk yield and composition. Stage of lactation and season strongly influenced milk yield and all milk components. We also found a significant interaction between month postpartum (mPP) and month of the year. The concentration of all milk components decreased from 1 to 5 mPP. Later, lactose concentration and quantity continued to decrease parallel with decreasing milk production. The concentration of other components showed a temporary increase in mid lactation, from 6 to 11 mPP, and in late lactation, from 18 to 23 m

  18. Detection of toxic shock toxin (tst gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baniardalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative pathogen of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle all over the world. This agent produces a variety of extracellular toxins and virulence factors in-cluding toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1 which is the major cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS. In the present study, 76 S. aureus isolates have been obtained from milk samples collected from 7 dairy herds in Hamedan province of Iran. The isolates were identified based on the biochemical and molecular methods using PCR amplification of the femA gene. The staphylococcal isolates were also examined for the presence of TSST-1 (tst encoding gene. This gene was detected in only one S. aureus isolate (1.3%. The results revealed that S. aureus strains causing bovine mastitis may potentially produce staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, indicating that it is very important to follow the presence of TSST-1 producing S. aureus isolates in foodstuffs to protect consumers against the risk of toxic shock syndrome

  19. Possible additional exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds from waste incineration. Biomonitoring using human milk and animal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Murk, A. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    In the ambit of an Environmental Health Survey Program relative to a MSW facility, which has been operating near to Lisbon since 1999 a biomonitoring study using human breast milk has been performed. Specific aims of this study were: (1) determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases dioxin maternal body burden and accordingly perinatal (intra-uterus and lactacional) exposure; (2) to investigate the possibility of increased human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds via locally produced food items from animal origin. Therefore, levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been determined in human milk samples collected in the vicinity of the incinerator and in a control area, for comparison. From the same areas, cow and sheep milk and eggs from free-range chickens have also been collected to get an indication of possible local additional exposure to air-borne dioxins via the food chain. Analyses of TCDD-equivalents (TEQs) were mainly performed with a reporter gene assay for dioxin-like activity, the DR-CALUX bioassay (Dioxin Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression).To determine congeners profile, some human milk samples have also been analysed for PCDD/Fs and relevant dioxin-like PCBs, by using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Both the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, and of the Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa have approved the study protocol.

  20. 40 K, 137 Cs and 232 Th activities in Brazilian milk samples measured by gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melquiades, Fabio L.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive activities in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, using a HPGe detector coupled to a standard electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Preliminary measurements were accomplished to define the kind of the system shield, the geometry of the sample recipient, the size of the sampling and the self absorption correction. It was possible to measure the radionuclides 40 K, 137 Cs and 208 Tl, whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms. The detector efficiency was measured employing calibrated samples, prepared with IAEA certificate standards mixed with powdered milk. Tukey's average comparison test was used to check the repeatability of the measurements and the absence of significant systematic deviation. (author)

  1. Multipesticide residue levels in UHT and raw milk samples by GC-μECD after QuEChER extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Sana; Talpur, Farah N; Nizamani, Shafi M; Khaskheli, Abid A; Afridi, H I

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, milk samples including raw and ultra-high temperature (UHT) processed milk were analyzed for pesticide residue levels, including five pesticides, viz chloripyrifos, endosulfan (α and β), profenofos and bifenthrin by gas chromatography microelectron capture detector (GC-μECD) after extraction by QuEChERS method. Further confirmation of the pesticide residue was done by GC-MS. The pesticide residual level in raw and UHT milk samples (n = 70) was determined in the range of 0.1-30 μg L(-1). All UHT processed milk samples contain pesticide residues within permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO); however, among raw milk samples, chloripyrifos (12 %), α (24 %), and β (14 %) endosulfan were found above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of these four pesticide residues were also calculated as 1.32, 16.16, 5.30, 10.20, and 9.93 μg kg(-1) body weight for chloripyrifos, endosulfan α, profenofos, endosulfan β, and bifenthrin, respectively. It is concluded that the raw milk samples showed higher prevalence of pesticide residues as compared to UHT processed milk. Graphical abstract Determination of pesticide residues in dairy milk by GC-μECD after QuEChERS extraction method.

  2. Influence of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study the effect of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria at the level of quarter milk samples. Ten Italian Friesian cows, in which two homologous quarters (front quarters in 1 cow, rear quarters in 6 cows and both rear and front quarters in 3 cows were characterised by a milk SCC400,000 cells/mL (HC-milk, respectively, were selected. Cows were milked at quarter level during the morning milking and a single sample was collected from each selected quarter, thus, 26 quarter milk samples were collected. Compared to LC-milk, HC-milk was characterised by a lower content of phosphorus and potassium and by a higher content of both sodium and chloride. The equilibrium of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between the colloidal and soluble phase of milk and the mineralisation degree of the casein micelles, were not different between HC and LC milk.

  3. Solid phase extraction-capillary electrophoresis determination of sulphonamide residues in milk samples by use of C18-carbon nanotubes as hybrid sorbent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-Luque, M L; Simonet, B M; Valcárcel, M

    2013-07-07

    The exceptional sorption capabilities of carbon nanotubes were used to preconcentrate trace sulphonamides from milk samples. To this end, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) dispersed in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were retained on a C18 stationary phase to obtain a hybrid material in a simple manner. In this approach ionic liquids are an excellent alternative to improve the dispersion of CNTs, without chemical modification or the use of solid substances or organic solvents. MWNTs provided better results than SWNTs. Carbon nanotubes retained in the C18 sorbent matrix were found to confer aromatic character, increasing its preconcentration capacity as a result. The conventional C18 stationary phase played a two-fold role: as a support to retain carbon nanotubes in the cartridge and as a medium to prevent their aggregation. The modified MWNT/C18 and SWNT/C18 materials were used to preconcentrate residual sulphonamides (SAs) in milk samples for their determination at concentrations as low as 0.03-0.069 mg L(-1) by capillary electrophoresis. Analyte recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 103.2 to 98.8% and precision, as RSD, from 8.2 to 5.4%.

  4. Fast Determination of Manganese in Milk and Similar Infant Food Samples Using Multivariate Optimization and GF AAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina de Amorim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an essential element, but high levels in foods can be toxic mainly for children. A fast and efficient method to determine Mn in milk and other infant foods using slurries and liquid samples is presented. Slurries were prepared in ultrapure water with 10 minutes of sonication. Liquid samples were diluted in ultrapure water when necessary. Multivariate optimization was used to establish some optimal analytical parameters through a fractional factorial design and a central composite design. Slurred and diluted samples were analyzed directly by GF AAS. The method presented limit of detection of (0.98±0.04 μg L−1, characteristic mass of (2.9±0.3 pg (recommended value 2 pg, RSD of 2.3% (n=5, and linear range from 0.98 to 20.0 μg L−1 using iridium as permanent modifier. The accuracy was evaluated analyzing two certified reference materials: nonfat milk powder (SRM1549 and whole milk powder (SRM8435. The powdered samples concentrations were between 0.210 and 26.3 μg g−1.

  5. [Monitoring of udder health by quarterwise measurement of initial milking samples for electric conductivity--results of serial examinations of individual animals and herds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, H; Schulz, J; Beuche, W; Labitzke, H

    1981-01-01

    More than 400 cows were involved in three experimental series in which quarterwise measurement was applied continuously, even daly in a number of instances, to initial milking samples, with the view to establishing the electric conductivity of the milk. Electric cell count determination, high-speed mastitis tests, clinical examination of udders and secretions, and bacteriological milk tests were complementarily conducted. The major purpose of the effort was to find out whether milk conductivity measurement would be helpful in detecting subclinical mastitis. Conductivity measurement, in addition to being in fair agreement with milk cell count data, proved to be suitable an approach to high-continuity monitoring of udder condition, with no disruption of the production process being required. Specification of limit values and diagnostic value of differences between quarter milking data from one and the same udder were additional subjects of this study.

  6. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Iran as determined by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Karim, Guity; Doosti, Abbas

    2011-02-01

    Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular micro-organism Coxiella burnetii. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Isfahan province, Iran. In the present study, 567 bulk milk samples from 186 dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds were tested for C. burnetii using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. In total, 8 of 247 (3.2%) bovine milk samples were positive; the positive samples originated from 6 of 90 (6.7%) dairy herds. Eight of 140 (5.7%) ovine bulk milk samples from 42 sheep breeding farms and 5 of 110 (4.5%) caprine bulk milk samples from 32 goat breeding farms were positive for C. burnetii. One of 70 (1.4%) camel bulk milk samples from 22 camel breeding farms was also positive for C. burnetii. Although no extensive prevalence study was undertaken, the results of this study indicate that clinically healthy dairy animals are important sources of C. burnetii infection in Iran. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii using polymerase chain reaction in bulk milk samples from dairy ovine herds in Iran and the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy camel herds. Further intensive prevalence studies on Coxiella infection and on possible risks of dairy products will be needed to elucidate the epidemiology of Q fever in Iran.

  7. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdas, D. A.; Cristea, G.; Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V.; Cordea, D. V.; Mihaiu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ 18 O and δ 2 H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ 18 O and δ 2 H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source

  8. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdas, D. A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Cristea, G., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cordea, D. V.; Mihaiu, M. [University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source.

  9. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, D. A.; Cristea, G.; Cordea, D. V.; Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V.; Mihaiu, M.

    2013-11-01

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ18O and δ2H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ18O and δ2H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source.

  10. Comparison of PCR-ELISA and LightCycler real-time PCR assays for detecting Salmonella spp. in milk and meat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perelle, Sylvie; Dilasser, Françoise; Malorny, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    , minced beef and raw milk, and 92 naturally-contaminated milk and meat samples. When using either PCR-ELISA or LC-PCR assays, only Salmonella strains were detected. PCR-ELISA and LC-PCR assays gave with pure Salmonella cultures the same detection limit level of 10(3) CFU/ml, which corresponds respectively...

  11. Factors influencing degree of glycosylation and phosphorylation of caseins in individual cow milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, N A; Jensen, H B; Larsen, L B

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine variations in posttranslational modifications (PTM) of caseins (CN) in milk from individual cows and determine how these differ between breeds, across lactation, and between variants. Furthermore, we examined the variation of casein PTM in relation to rennet coagulation properties of milk. In total, detailed protein composition of milk from 892 Danish Holstein and Jersey cows was determined by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The method measured relative contents of the main milk proteins as well as several variants and PTM. The results showed that the 2 breeds had distinct milk protein composition. Milk from Danish Holstein cows was mainly characterized by higher relative contents of β-CN, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), and β-lactoglobulin, and a higher fraction of glycosylated κ-CN (G κ-CN), whereas milk from Danish Jersey cows was characterized by higher relative contents of κ-CN, αS2-CN, and the less phosphorylated forms of αS1-CN and αS2-CN. Univariate linear models including days in milk and parity as class effects showed variation in the detailed protein profile across and between lactations; in particular, changes in the degree of glycosylation of κ-CN were pronounced, but changes in αS1-CN 8P to total αS1-CN and αS2-CN 11P to αS2-CN were also observed over lactation for both breeds. The phosphorylated forms of αS1-CN and αS2-CN were, to some extent, correlated. Further, the κ-CN BB genotype was associated with higher relative contents of both unglycosylated κ-CN (UG κ-CN) and G κ-CN compared with κ-CN AA; κ-CN AB showed intermediate results in both breeds. The influence of protein composition on rennet coagulation properties was explored based on 4 classes for curd firming rate: noncoagulation, and poor, average, and good coagulation. The results revealed breed differences: Holstein milk, higher relative content of κ-CN to total protein, and higher content of G κ-CN were

  12. Occurrence and characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from bovine mastitis milk samples in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindonis, Veera; Taponen, Suvi; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Pyörälä, Satu; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Salmenlinna, Saara; Lindholm, Laura; Rantala, Merja

    2013-08-28

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates. The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillin-resistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring.

  13. The potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of milk samples to predict energy intake and efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of animal-level and herd-level energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency affect day-to-day herd management strategies; information on these traits at an individual animal level is also useful in animal breeding programs. A paucity of data (especially at the individual cow level), of feed intake in particular, hinders the inclusion of such attributes in herd management decision-support tools and breeding programs. Dairy producers have access to an individual cow milk sample at least once daily during lactation, and consequently any low-cost phenotyping strategy should consider exploiting measureable properties in this biological sample, reflecting the physiological status and performance of the cow. Infrared spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with matter and it is used globally to predict milk quality parameters on routinely acquired individual cow milk samples and bulk tank samples. Thus, exploiting infrared spectroscopy in next-generation phenotyping will ensure potentially rapid application globally with a negligible additional implementation cost as the infrastructure already exists. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) analysis is already used to predict milk fat and protein concentrations, the ratio of which has been proposed as an indicator of energy balance. Milk FTIRS is also able to predict the concentration of various fatty acids in milk, the composition of which is known to change when body tissue is mobilized; that is, when the cow is in negative energy balance. Energy balance is mathematically very similar to residual energy intake (REI), a suggested measure of feed efficiency. Therefore, the prediction of energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency (i.e., REI) from milk FTIRS seems logical. In fact, the accuracy of predicting (i.e., correlation between predicted and actual values; root mean square error in parentheses) energy intake, energy balance, and REI from milk FTIRS in

  14. Prevalence, Virulence Potential, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Bovine Raw Milk Samples Obtained From Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjita; Sharma, Vishnu; Dahiya, Dinesh Kumar; Khan, Aarif; Mathur, Manisha; Sharma, Amit

    2017-03-01

    Listeriosis is a serious foodborne disease of a global concern, and can effectively be controlled by a continuous surveillance of the virulent and multidrug-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes. This study was planned to investigate prevalence of L. monocytogenes in bovine raw milk samples. A total of 457 raw milk samples collected from 15 major cities in Rajasthan, India, were analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes by using standard microbiological and molecular methods. Five of the 457 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Multiplex serotyping showed that 3/5 strains belonged to serotype 4b followed by one strain each to 1/2a and to 1/2c. Further virulence potential assessment indicated that all strains possessed inlA and inlC internalins, and, in addition, two strains also possessed the gene for inlB. All strains were positive for Listeriolysin O (LLO) and showed phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity on an in vitro agar medium with variations in production levels among the strains. A good correlation between the in vitro pathogenicity test and the chick embryo test was observed, as the strains showing higher LLO and PI-PLC activity were found to be lethal to fertilized chick embryos. All strains were resistant to the majority of antibiotics and were designated as multidrug-resistant strains. However, these strains were susceptible to 9 of the 22 tested antibiotics. The maximum zone of inhibition (mm) and acceptable minimum inhibitory concentration were observed with azithromycin, and thus it could be the first choice of a treatment. Overall, the presence of multidrug-resistant L. monocytogenes strains in the raw milk of Rajasthan region is an indicator of public health hazard and highlighting the need of consumer awareness in place and implementation of stricter food safety regulations at all levels of milk production.

  15. A Single Platinum Microelectrode for Identifying Soft Drink Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammograms recorded with a single platinum microelectrode were used along with a non-supervised pattern recognition, namely, Principal Component Analysis, to conduct a qualitative analysis of sixteen different brands of carbonated soft drinks (Kuat, Soda Antarctica, H2OH!, Sprite 2.0, Guarana Antarctica, Guarana Antarctica Zero, Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola Plus, Pepsi, Pepsi Light, Pepsi Twist, Pepsi Twist Light, Pepsi Twist 3, Schin Cola, and Classic Dillar’s. In this analysis, soft drink samples were not subjected to pre-treatment. Good differentiation among all the analysed soft drinks was achieved using the voltammetric data. An analysis of the loading plots shows that the potentials of −0.65 V, −0.4 V, 0.4 V, and 0.750 V facilitated the discrimination process. The electrochemical processes related to this potential are the reduction of hydrogen ions and inhibition of the platinum oxidation by the caffeine adsorption on the electrode surface. Additionally, the single platinum microelectrode was useful for the quality control of the soft drink samples, as it helped to identify the time at which the beverage was opened.

  16. Determination of penicillins in milk of animal origin by capillary electrophoresis: is sample treatment the bottleneck for routine laboratories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, María-Ysabel; Bauza, Roberto; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is increasingly being used not only for research purposes but also for routine analyses. The latter, however, are especially difficult when the analytes are present at very low concentrations in complex food samples (e.g. penicillins in milk of animal origin). No study of the difficulties encountered in daily practice in sample treatments for the determination of penicillins (PENs) in milk by CE has to our knowledge been reported. Rather than reviewing the main uses of CE for determining PENs in different types of samples, this paper focuses on the weaknesses of available methods for this purpose, which originate in sample treatment rather than in a lack of robustness of the CE technique. Some problems which, based on our own experience, often confront sample treatment and method development in this context are discussed here. Clearly, the greatest source of error in this context is sample processing, which must provide optimal extraction and preconcentration of analytes, and extracts compatible with the separation technique to be used. In this respect, using time-consuming procedures can cause the loss of variable amounts of analytes in different steps. Interestingly, dramatically simplifying the sample preparation process can detract from sensitivity but lead to increased recoveries. As with any methodological development in routine analysis, acceptable results can only be obtained by considering all potentially influential factors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Medida de energia total do leite materno de mães de trigêmeos, gêmeos e filhos únicos Total energy supplied by the human milk from mothers of triplet, twin and single neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Nadólskis Severine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a energia total do leite materno de mães de trigêmeos, gêmeos e filhos únicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal e controlado feito com mães usuárias do banco de leite do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. Foram analisadas seis amostras de leite materno de mães de trigêmeos, 13 de gêmeos e 17 de filhos únicos, coletadas sob paramentação, conforme normas técnicas da Rede Brasileira de Bancos de Leite Humano. A análise foi realizada por meio do teste de crematócrito e os resultados submetidos à análise de variância de Kuskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: A energia total do leite materno de mães de trigêmeos apresentou mediana de calorias maior (651kcal/L, quando comparada à do leite de mães de filhos únicos (560kcal/L (pOBJECTIVE: To compare the total energy of the human milk of mothers of triplets, twins and single-children. METHODS: A cross-sectional and controlled study with mothers from the Human Milk Bank of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein was performed. Six samples of triplet, 13 of twin and 17 of only-child mother's milk were analyzed. The milk samples were collected according to the Brazilian Human Milk Banks Network techniques and procedures and were analyzed by creamatocrit method. The results were compared by Kruskal-Wallis variance test. RESULTS: The total milk energy from triplets mothers was statistically higher (median - 651kcal/L than single-child mothers (560kcal/L (p<0.05. The milk of twin mothers and of single child mothers, regarding energy content, were similar. The triplet neonates presented lower birth weight (median-1344g when compared to single neonates (1975g (p<0.01. There was no significant difference among the studied groups regarding maternal age and gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The present study, the first addressing this subject in literature, indicates a higher value of total energy in milk from triplets' mothers. However, further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of

  18. Gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric fragmentation study of phytoestrogens as their trimethylsilyl derivatives: Identification in soy milk and wastewater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Imma; Barber, Larry B.; Thurman, E. Michael

    2009-01-01

    An analytical method for the identification of eight plant phytoestrogens (biochanin A, coumestrol, daidzein, equol, formononetin, glycitein, genistein and prunetin) in soy products and wastewater samples was developed using gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS). The phytoestrogens were derivatized as their trimethylsilyl ethers with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). The phytoestrogens were isolated from all samples with liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Daidzein-d4 and genistein-d4 labeled standards were used as internal standards before extraction and derivatization. The fragmentation patterns of the phytoestrogens were investigated by isolating and fragmenting the precursor ions in the ion-trap and a typical fragmentation involved the loss of a methyl and a carbonyl group. Two characteristic fragment ions for each analyte were chosen for identification and confirmation. The developed methodology was applied to the identification and confirmation of phytoestrogens in soy milk, in wastewater effluent from a soy-milk processing plant, and in wastewater (influent and effluent) from a treatment plant. Detected concentrations of genistein ranged from 50,000 ??g/L and 2000 ??g/L in soy milk and in wastewater from a soy-plant, respectively, to 20 ??g/L and <1 ??g/L for influent and effluent from a wastewater treatment plant, respectively. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on milk and serum samples for detection of neosporosis and leukosis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Robert B; Kelton, David F; Hietala, Sharon K; Duffield, Todd F

    2013-04-01

    Serum and milk samples from 1229 cows on 22 Ontario dairy farms were individually tested for antibodies specific for bovine leukosis virus (BLV) and Neospora caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies against BLV were present in 361 serum samples (29.4%) and 369 milk samples (30.0%). Comparing the 2 tests, agreement was almost perfect (k = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.83 to 0.90) and the proportions of samples positive were not significantly different (P = 0.56). Both tests identified the same 3 herds free of bovine leukosis virus. Antibodies against N. caninum were detected in 138 serum samples (11.2%), and 111 milk samples (9.0%). Agreement between the 2 tests was moderate (k = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.59). Four herds were free of neosporosis by the serum test, while 10 herds were negative by the milk test. The ELISA on milk samples facilitates sample collection to classify herds free of BLV; the milk N. caninum ELISA was less reliable in predicting herd-level infection.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine milk samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, O.C.; Lam, T.G.J.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Schukken, Y.H.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether antimicrobial resistance profiles of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species isolated from milk of dairy cows differed between bacterial species, and to compare results obtained by phenotypic and genotypic profiling of resistance to penicillin,

  1. Lysis of mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cow milk samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To avoid the use of broad spectrum antibiotics which can induce antibiotic resistance, we developed a recombinant lysostaphin with high purity against mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cow milk. The gene encoding for mature lysostaphin peptide was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression systems, pET28a, ...

  2. Transfer of K-40 from soil to grass and grass to milk: Samples of Brazilian rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabra, Karina B.M.; Peres, Sueli S.

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of natural radionuclides concentration levels and their distribution in the environment allow to assessing the human exposure. Among of primordial radionuclides found in the earth's crust, 40 K is the largest contributor to the dose received by humans. In this paper, is presented a study carried out to estimate the activity concentration and to evaluate the transfer of 40 K along environmental compartments and exposure pathways. This study was performed in two rural sites of São Paulo, Brazil. In both locations, soil, grass, animal feed and cow milk samples were collected, conditioned, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations obtained were similar for both sites, showing, in this case, that the difference in the animal diet probably does not have a significant influence on the transfer of 40 K to cow's milk. (author)

  3. Existing drug resistance among Staphylococcus spp. from raw milk samples in Khon Kaen province, Northeastern Thailand by direct quadriplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buppachat Trakarnchan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To describe the proportion of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and mupirocin resistant among the isolates from milk, three hundred and eighty-one samples were collected in Khon Kaen province, Thailand, during January to March, 2014. Quadriplex PCR was a method of choice. The occurrence of S. aureus and other Staphylococcus spp. were 21.26 and 34.12%, respectively. Among the 81 S. aureus isolates, 82.72 (67/81, 11.11 (9/81, and 6.17% (5/81 were S. aureus, S. aureus carrying mecA, and S. aureus harboring mupA genes, respectively. These two mutant genes may possibly be transferred to other bacteria in milk. Therefore, good hygienic practices and strict control may limit the spread.

  4. Transfer of K-40 from soil to grass and grass to milk: Samples of Brazilian rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seabra, Karina B.M.; Peres, Sueli S., E-mail: karina.uerj@ymail.com, E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN--RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The knowledge of natural radionuclides concentration levels and their distribution in the environment allow to assessing the human exposure. Among of primordial radionuclides found in the earth's crust, {sup 40}K is the largest contributor to the dose received by humans. In this paper, is presented a study carried out to estimate the activity concentration and to evaluate the transfer of {sup 40}K along environmental compartments and exposure pathways. This study was performed in two rural sites of São Paulo, Brazil. In both locations, soil, grass, animal feed and cow milk samples were collected, conditioned, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations obtained were similar for both sites, showing, in this case, that the difference in the animal diet probably does not have a significant influence on the transfer of {sup 40}K to cow's milk. (author)

  5. Culture results from milk samples submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories from August 2003 to December 2006 in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovski, K R; Williamson, N B; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Parkinson, T J; Tucker, I G

    2011-11-01

    To determine the pattern of isolation of major mastitis-causing organisms isolated from milk samples submitted to five veterinary diagnostic laboratories in New Zealand. The culture results of 25,288 milk samples that were collected from dairy cows throughout New Zealand from August 2003 to December 2006 and submitted to a group of veterinary diagnostic laboratories were assembled, reviewed and summarised. Logistic regression was used to analyse the effect of year, region (i.e. North vs South Island), and season on the probability of isolating the two most common organisms. The most commonly isolated mastitis causing organisms from all samples were: Streptococcus uberis (23.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (23.5%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; 7.2%), Strep. dysgalactiae (6.2%), Bacillus spp. (4.0%), and coliforms (3.7%). The percentage of samples with isolates of Strep. uberis or Staph. aureus was affected by island, year and season (pculture of milk samples submitted to diagnostic laboratories in New Zealand, has changed significantly over the last 40 years, with a substantial increase in the percentage of isolates that are Strep. uberis and a decrease in isolates of Strep. agalactiae. There is a clear seasonal pattern to the isolation of both Strep. uberis and Staph. aureus, particularly the former. Knowledge of the aetiological agents causing bovine mastitis on a farm is of value in determining the choice of treatment. This dataset shows that, although there is seasonal pattern to the isolation of mastitis-causing organisms in New Zealand, both Strep. uberis and Staph. aureus are isolated throughout the year, so bacteriology is of value in determining aetiology even in late winter/early spring.

  6. Qualitative, Biochemical and Nanoparticle-Antimicrobial Analysis of Lactobacillus SPS screened from the various milk and curd samples of southern Tamilnadu

    OpenAIRE

    U. Malathi; Praveenkumar. G; Suneetha V

    2015-01-01

    To study probiotic microbes like lactobacillus species were isolated from various milk and curd samples was collected from different places such as vellore , kannamangalam , gudiyatham. Which were subjected to screening and characterized and examined for the presence of probiotic properties of lactobacillus. Lactobacillus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria and It’s a group of regular,non-sporing, gram positive bacteria,rod shaped,non-motile and absence of catalase enzyme. Milk and curd sample...

  7. Nevirapine resistance and breast-milk HIV transmission: effects of single and extended-dose nevirapine prophylaxis in subtype C HIV-infected infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Moorthy

    Full Text Available Daily nevirapine (NVP prophylaxis to HIV-exposed infants significantly reduces breast-milk HIV transmission. We assessed NVP-resistance in Indian infants enrolled in the "six-week extended-dose nevirapine" (SWEN trial who received single-dose NVP (SD-NVP or SWEN for prevention of breast-milk HIV transmission but who also acquired subtype C HIV infection during the first year of life.Standard population sequencing and cloning for viral subpopulations present at > or =5% frequency were used to determine HIV genotypes from 94% of the 79 infected Indian infants studied. Timing of infection was defined based on when an infant's blood sample first tested positive for HIV DNA. SWEN-exposed infants diagnosed with HIV by six weeks of age had a significantly higher prevalence of NVP-resistance than those who received SD-NVP, by both standard population sequencing (92% of 12 vs. 38% of 29; p = 0.002 and low frequency clonal analysis (92% of 12 vs. 59% of 29; p = 0.06. Likelihood of infection with NVP-resistant HIV through breast-milk among infants infected after age six weeks was substantial, but prevalence of NVP-resistance did not differ among SWEN or SD-NVP exposed infants by standard population sequencing (15% of 13 vs. 15% of 20; p = 1.00 and clonal analysis (31% of 13 vs. 40% of 20; p = 0.72. Types of NVP-resistance mutations and patterns of persistence at one year of age were similar between the two groups. NVP-resistance mutations did differ by timing of HIV infection; the Y181C variant was predominant among infants diagnosed in the first six weeks of life, compared to Y188C/H during late breast-milk transmission.Use of SWEN to prevent breast-milk HIV transmission carries a high likelihood of resistance if infection occurs in the first six weeks of life. Moreover, there was a continued risk of transmission of NVP-resistant HIV through breastfeeding during the first year of life, but did not differ between SD-NVP and SWEN groups. As with SD-NVP, the

  8. Human Milk Shows Immunological Advantages Over Organic Milk Samples For Infants in the Presence of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS in 3D Energy Maps Using an Organic Nanobiomimetic Memristor/Memcapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S-H. DUH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is well known for its immunological advantages of protection and support for healthy early childhood cognitive development and prevention of chronic diseases over cow milk for infants. However, little is known about how the immunological advantages are linked to reduce Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO regarding neural synapse net energy outcomes when lipopolysaccharide (LPS attacks at a clinical concentration range compared with that in cow milk in a 3D energy map. We developed a nanostructure biomimetic memristor/memcapacitor device with a dual function of chronoamperometric (CA sensing/voltage sensing for the direct quantitative evaluation of immunological advantages between human milk and organic cow milk for infants in the presence of wide LPS concentration ranges; those ranges were between 5.0 pg/mL to 500 ng/mL and from 50 ng/mL to 1 µg/mL for both a CA and a voltage method, respectively. The Detection of Limit (DOL results are as follows: 3.73×10-18 g LPS vs. 1.2×10-16 g LPS in 40 µL milk samples using the 3.11×10-7cm3 voltage sensor and the 0.031cm2 CA sensor, respectively, under antibody-free and reagent-free conditions. The 3D energy map results show that cow milk is ten-times more prone to E. Coli attack, and the positive link was revealed that Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO formations occurred over the studied LPS concentration range from 50 ng/mL up to 1000 ng/mL from Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep frequency, fast gamma frequency to Sharp Wave-Ripple Complexes (SPW- R frequency. There had no pHFO with human milk samples at Slow Wave Sleeping (SWS, REM and SPW- R frequencies. The microbiota in the human milk samples successfully overcame the endotoxin attack from E. coli bacteria, however the pHFO only occurred at fast gamma frequency linked with the LPS level ≥ 500 ng/mL. Organic milk samples show an order of magnitude lower synapse energy density compared with human milk at SWS for with

  9. Toxoplasma gondii and pre-treatment protocols for polymerase chain reaction analysis of milk samples: a field trial in sheep from Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw milk has been suggested as a risk for transmission to humans. Here the authors evaluated pre-treatment protocols for DNA extraction on T. gondii tachyzoite-spiked sheep milk with the aim of identifying the method that resulted in the most rapid and reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR positivity. This protocol was then used to analyse milk samples from sheep of three different farms in Southern Italy, including real time PCR for DNA quantification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for genotyping. The pre-treatment protocol using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Tris-HCl to remove casein gave the best results in the least amount of time compared to the others on spiked milk samples. One sample of 21 collected from sheep farms was positive on one-step PCR, real time PCR and resulted in a Type I genotype at one locus (SAG3. Milk usually contains a low number of tachyzoites and this could be a limiting factor for molecular identification. Our preliminary data has evaluated a rapid, cost-effective and sensitive protocol to treat milk before DNA extraction. The results of the present study also confirm the possibility of T. gondii transmission through consumption of raw milk and its unpasteurised derivatives.

  10. Effect of KNO3 to remove silver interferences in the determination of mercury(II: Application in milk and breast milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury determination was performed at rotating silver electrode (RSE using square wave voltammetry (SWV in electrolytic mixture of HCl (0.1 mol L−1 and KNO3 (0.2 mol L−1. The reproducibility, sensitivity and accuracy are good, provided the proper instrumental parameters and supporting electrolyte are used. The relationship between the peak current of mercury(II and its concentration is linear with regression equation: I(μA = 0.784 [Hg(II] + 49.5 (r2 = 0.9878 in the dynamic range from 1.0 × 10−7 to 8.0 × 10−4 mol L−1. The detection limit (DL,3σ and quantification limit (QL,10σ were 4.61 × 10−8 mol L−1 and 15.3 × 10−8 mol L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD for seven replicate analysis of a solution containing 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 was 2.19%. Possible effects of Cu, Co, Fe, MnO4, Zn, were investigated but did not cause any significant interferences. Immobilization of mercury(II on the surface of rotating silver electrode obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG°ads value showed that the interaction between mercury and silver electrodes is mainly controlled by a chemisorption process. This methodology was potentially applied for mercury determination in milk and breast milk samples.

  11. Triacylglycerol Analysis in Human Milk and Other Mammalian Species: Small-Scale Sample Preparation, Characterization, and Statistical Classification Using HPLC-ELSD Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten-Doménech, Isabel; Beltrán-Iturat, Eduardo; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Sancho-Llopis, Juan Vicente; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2015-06-24

    In this work, a method for the separation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) present in human milk and from other mammalian species by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a core-shell particle packed column with UV and evaporative light-scattering detectors is described. Under optimal conditions, a mobile phase containing acetonitrile/n-pentanol at 10 °C gave an excellent resolution among more than 50 TAG peaks. A small-scale method for fat extraction in these milks (particularly of interest for human milk samples) using minimal amounts of sample and reagents was also developed. The proposed extraction protocol and the traditional method were compared, giving similar results, with respect to the total fat and relative TAG contents. Finally, a statistical study based on linear discriminant analysis on the TAG composition of different types of milks (human, cow, sheep, and goat) was carried out to differentiate the samples according to their mammalian origin.

  12. Solid-Phase Extraction and Large-Volume Sample Stacking-Capillary Electrophoresis for Determination of Tetracycline Residues in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Islas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase extraction in combination with large-volume sample stacking-capillary electrophoresis (SPE-LVSS-CE was applied to measure chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline in milk samples. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method had a linear range of 29 to 200 µg·L−1, with limits of detection ranging from 18.6 to 23.8 µg·L−1 with inter- and intraday repeatabilities < 10% (as a relative standard deviation in all cases. The enrichment factors obtained were from 50.33 to 70.85 for all the TCs compared with a conventional capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE. This method is adequate to analyze tetracyclines below the most restrictive established maximum residue limits. The proposed method was employed in the analysis of 15 milk samples from different brands. Two of the tested samples were positive for the presence of oxytetracycline with concentrations of 95 and 126 µg·L−1. SPE-LVSS-CE is a robust, easy, and efficient strategy for online preconcentration of tetracycline residues in complex matrices.

  13. Impact of pasteurization on the antibacterial properties of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gysel, Marjan; Cossey, Veerle; Fieuws, Steffen; Schuermans, Annette

    2012-08-01

    Growing evidence favours the use of human milk for the feeding of preterm newborns based on its many beneficial effects. Despite the many benefits, human milk has been associated as a possible vehicle of transmission for a number of infections. Although pasteurization of human milk can diminish the risk of neonatal infection, it also significantly reduces the concentrations of immunological components in human milk due to thermal damage. In order to evaluate the impact of pasteurization on the antibacterial properties of human milk, we aimed to compare the capacity of raw and pasteurized human milk to inhibit bacterial proliferation. Therefore, a single milk sample was collected from ten healthy lactating mothers. Each sample was divided into two aliquots; one aliquot was pasteurized, while the other was kept raw. Both aliquots were inoculated either with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus and incubated at 37 °C during 8 h. Viable colony counts from the inoculated samples were performed at regular time points to compare the bacterial growth in both forms of breast milk. Relative to the tryptic soy broth control sample, both raw and pasteurized milk samples exhibited an inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. Compared with the raw portion, growth inhibition was significantly lower in the pasteurized milk at every time point beyond T0 (after 2, 4 and 8 h of incubation) (p = 0.0003 for E. coli and p pasteurization adversely affects the antibacterial properties of human milk.

  14. Comparison of the measured specific activities in milk and beef in Aachen after 1986 with calculations using a single- and multicompartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.; Schmelz, G.

    1998-01-01

    After the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl until the end of 1990 the specific activity in milk from five farms and in beef from the slaughterhouse Aachen was measured. At the same time the specific activity in grass and other feed was determined at the farms. Transfer factors for feed-milk and feed-beef were derived from the data. The development of the measured specific activities can be approximated very well using single- or multi-compartment models. (orig.) [de

  15. Single-stage mass spectrometric analyses of resin bead samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. H.; Walker, R. L.; Bertram, L. K.; Carter, J. A.

    1978-10-01

    Plutonium and uranium from dissolver solutions loaded on resin beads can be analyzed on single-stage mass spectrometers with little or no degradation of results provided proper care is exercised with regard to sample handling techniques. Additionally, storage of samples on resin beads is feasible for periods at least as long as six months provided the beads are not exposed to residual HNO/sub 3/ and air; it is probable that beads will retain their integrity much longer than six months when stored under collodion, but as yet no data to support this contention have been collected. Conventional or commercial mass spectrometers can readily be adapted to the resin bead technique by installing a pulse-counting detection system. The cost of such conversion will vary depending on whether or not a data acquisition system will be needed. A reasonable estimate is that the cost will be in the neighborhood of $15,000; this figure includes the price of a multi-channel analyzer to serve as a temporary data storage device, but does not include the cost of a computer. It does not appear that it will be practicable to switch easily back and forth between pulse-counting and current integration modes unless the instrument is provided with a movable Faraday cup. Using the same multiplier in both modes would undoubtedly degrade its performance in each. The requirements of low background counting rates and high gain for pulse counting, and of relatively high signal handling capacity in current integration are mutually incompatible if demanded of the same multiplier.

  16. Metalloproteomics Approach to Analyze Mercury in Breast Milk and Hair Samples of Lactating Women in Communities of the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, M R; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, C P; Oliveira, G; Padilha, I F; Silva, T M; Zara, L F; Silva, N J; Padilha, P M

    2018-02-01

    Mercury is a potentially toxic element that is present in the environment of the Brazilian Amazon and is responsible for adverse health effects in humans. This study sought to assess possible protein biomarkers of mercury exposure in breast milk samples from lactating women in the Madeira and Negro Rivers in the Brazilian Amazon. The mercury content of hair samples of lactating women was determined, and the proteome of breast milk samples was obtained using two-dimensional electrophoresis after protein precipitation with acetone. Mercury measurements of protein spots obtained via protein fractionation were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), and it was observed that mercury is linked to proteins with molecular masses in the range of 14-26 kDa. The total mercury concentration was also determined by GFAAS in unprocessed milk, lyophilized milk, and protein pellets, with the purpose of determining the mercury mass balance in relation to the concentration of this element in milk and pellets. Approximately 85 to 97% of mercury present in the lyophilized milk from samples of lactating women of the Madeira River is bound in the protein fraction. From lactating women of the Negro River, approximately 49% of the total mercury is bound in the protein fraction, and a difference of 51% is bound in the lipid fraction.

  17. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 1: a baseline for the development of a tool to assist the milk industry in designing sampling plans for controlling aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Marcello; Farkas, Zsuzsa; Serraino, Andrea; Zambrini, Angelo Vittorio; Pizzamiglio, Valentina; Giacometti, Federica; Ámbrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    The presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk was assessed in Italy in the framework of designing a monitoring plan actuated by the milk industry in the period 2005-10. Overall, 21,969 samples were taken from tankers collecting milk from 690 dairy farms. The milk samples were representative of the consignments of co-mingled milk received from multiple (two to six) farms. Systematic, biweekly sampling of consignments involved each of the 121 districts (70 in the North, 17 in the Central and 34 in the South regions of Italy). AFM1 concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay method (validated within the range of 5-100 ng kg(-1)) whereas an HPLC method was used for the quantification of levels in the samples that had concentrations higher than 100 ng kg(-1). Process control charts using data collected in three processing plants illustrate, as an example, the seasonal variation of the contamination. The mean concentration of AFM1 was in the range between 11 and 19 ng kg(-1). The 90th and 99th percentile values were 19-34 and 41-91 ng kg(-1), respectively, and values as high as 280 ng kg(-1) were reached in 2008. The number of non-compliant consignments (those with an AFM1 concentration above the statutory limit of 50 ng kg(-1)) varied between 0.3% and 3.1% per year, with peaks in September, after the maize harvest season. The variability between different regions was not significant. The results show that controlling the aflatoxins in feed at farm level was inadequate, consequently screening of raw milk prior to processing was needed. The evaluation of the AFM1 contamination level observed during a long-term period can provide useful data for defining the frequency of sampling.

  18. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese and sour cream samples from Costa Rica using enzyme-assisted extraction and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, Guadalupe; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro-Cascante, Margarita; Molina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites, which can be found in feed. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into milk when ruminants ingest aflatoxin B1 contaminated feedstuffs. Due to its carcinogenic potential, contamination of milk and dairy products with AFM1 may pose a risk for consumers. Hence, it is considered a public health concern. In this survey, the level of AFM1 contamination of dairy products marketed in Costa Rica was determined by enzyme-assisted extraction, immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FLD) in fluid milk (n = 70), fresh cheese (n = 70) and sour cream (n = 70) collected at local convenience stores and supermarkets. AFM1 concentrations in milk and fresh cheese ranged from 19 to 629 ng/L and from 31 to 276 ng/L, with mean values of 136 ng/L and 74 ng/L, respectively, whereas none of the sour cream samples analysed tested positive for this aflatoxin. In 30 milk samples, and 10 cheese samples, AFM1 concentrations surpassed threshold concentrations as established by the European Commission. Thus, sour cream and - to a lesser extent - cheese manufacturing seems to reduce the amount of AFM1 present in milk, possibly due to fraction redistribution or microbiological degradation. The survey results reveal improper quality control procedures in the Costa Rican dairy industry. Therefore, a surveillance programme for dairy products in our country is recommended.

  19. Iron concentration in breast milk normalised within one week of a single high-dose infusion of iron isomaltoside in randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Charlotte; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Nørgaard, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    at a mean daily dose of 70.5mg. We included 65 women with sufficient breast milk three days after inclusion - 30 from the intravenous iron group and 35 from the oral iron group - and collected breast milk and maternal blood samples three days and one week after allocation. RESULTS: The mean (± standard...... deviation) iron concentration in breast milk in the intravenous and oral groups were 0.72 ± 0.27 mg/L and 0.40 ± 0.18 mg/L at three days (p

  20. Comparison of PCR-ELISA and LightCycler real-time PCR assays for detecting Salmonella spp. in milk and meat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perelle, Sylvie; Dilasser, Françoise; Malorny, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    , minced beef and raw milk, and 92 naturally-contaminated milk and meat samples. When using either PCR-ELISA or LC-PCR assays, only Salmonella strains were detected. PCR-ELISA and LC-PCR assays gave with pure Salmonella cultures the same detection limit level of 10(3) CFU/ml, which corresponds respectively...... to 50 and 10 cells per PCR tube. Data on artificially contaminated samples indicated that both PCR methods were able to detect after enrichment less than five Salmonella cells in 25 g of food, giving 100% concordance with the ISO 6579 reference method. The results on naturally contaminated samples...

  1. Detection of genetic variation affecting milk coagulation properties in Danish Holstein dairy cattle by analyses of pooled whole-genome sequences from phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, H P; Gregersen, V R; Poulsen, N; Nielsen, R O; Das, A; Madsen, L B; Buitenhuis, A J; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Larsen, L B; Bendixen, C

    2016-04-01

    Rennet-induced milk coagulation is an important trait for cheese production. Recent studies have reported an alarming frequency of cows producing poorly coagulating milk unsuitable for cheese production. Several genetic factors are known to affect milk coagulation, including variation in the major milk proteins; however, recent association studies indicate genetic effects from other genomic regions as well. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variation affecting milk coagulation properties, measured as curd-firming rate (CFR) and milk pH. This was achieved by examining allele frequency differences between pooled whole-genome sequences of phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq).. Curd-firming rate and raw milk pH were measured for 415 Danish Holstein cows, and each animal was sequenced at low coverage. Pools were created containing whole genome sequence reads from samples with "extreme" values (high or low) for both phenotypic traits. A total of 6,992,186 and 5,295,501 SNP were assessed in relation to CFR and milk pH, respectively. Allele frequency differences were calculated between pools and 32 significantly different SNP were detected, 1 for milk pH and 31 for CFR, of which 19 are located on chromosome 6. A total of 9 significant SNP, which were selected based on the possible function of proximal candidate genes, were genotyped in the entire sample set ( = 415) to test for an association. The most significant SNP was located proximal to , explaining 33% of the phenotypic variance. , coding for κ-casein, is the most studied in relation to milk coagulation due to its position on the surface of the casein micelles and the direct involvement in milk coagulation. Three additional SNP located on chromosome 6 showed significant associations explaining 7, 3.6, and 1.3% of the phenotypic variance of CFR. The significant SNP on chromosome 6 were shown to be in linkage disequilibrium with the SNP peaking proximal to ; however, after accounting for the genotype of

  2. Development of a Single-Sampling Noninvasive Hair Snare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner-Harrison, Samantha; Harrison, Stephen W. R.; Cypher, Brian L.

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive hair and fecal DNA sampling provides a means of collecting information on elusive species, while causing little or no disturbance. However, current methods of hair collection do not preclude multiple sampling, thus risking sample contamination. We developed a hair snare that prevents ...

  3. Directional emission of single photons from small atomic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; V. Poulsen, Uffe; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state i...... is coupled by a classical laser field to an optically excited state which rapidly decays to the ground atomic state. Our model accounts for the different field polarization components via re-absorption and emission of light by the Zeeman manifold of optically excited states.......We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state...

  4. Development of a Single-Sampling Noninvasive Hair Snare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner-Harrison, Samantha; Harrison, Stephen W. R.; Cypher, Brian L.

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive hair and fecal DNA sampling provides a means of collecting information on elusive species, while causing little or no disturbance. However, current methods of hair collection do not preclude multiple sampling, thus risking sample contamination. We developed a hair snare that prevents...... multiple sampling, is cost-effective, easy to construct, and safe for target and nontarget species. Our initial field tests on endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and swift foxes (Vulpes velox) suggest that this hair snare may be effective in collecting uncontaminated samples for DNA...

  5. Accurate determination of the Ca2+ activity in milk-based systems by Ca-ISE: Effects of ionic composition on the single Ca2+ activitiy coefficient and liquid junction potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, R.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion selective electrode (Ca-ISE) was found to underestimate the actual Ca2+ ion activity in simulated milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF) and milk. It is shown that the ionic compositional difference between conventional calibration solutions and milk type samples had a significant effect on the

  6. Occurrence of mycobacteria in bovine milk samples from both individual and collective bulk tanks at farms and informal markets in the southeast region of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; de Figueiredo Pantoja, José Carlos; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Miyata, Marcelo; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Motta, Rodrigo Garcia; Listoni, Fernando José Paganini

    2013-04-24

    Mycobacterium spp. is one of the most important species of zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from cattle to humans. The presence of these opportunistic, pathogenic bacteria in bovine milk has emerged as a public-health concern, especially among individuals who consume raw milk and related dairy products. To address this concern, the Brazilian control and eradication program focusing on bovine tuberculosis, was established in 2001. However, bovine tuberculosis continues to afflict approximately 1,3 percent of the cattle in Brazil. In the present study, 300 samples of milk from bovine herds, obtained from both individual and collective bulk tanks and informal points of sale, were cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests and restriction-enzyme pattern analysis were then performed on the colonies exhibiting phenotypes suggestive of Mycobacterium spp., which were characterized as acid-fast bacilli. Of the 300 bovine milk samples that were processed, 24 were positively identified as Mycobacterium spp.Molecular identification detected 15 unique mycobacterial species: Mycobacterium bovis, M. gordonae, M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. flavescens, M. duvalii, M. haemophilum, M. immunogenum, M. lentiflavum, M. mucogenicum, M. novocastrense, M. parafortuitum, M. smegmatis, M. terrae and M. vaccae. The isolation of bacteria from the various locations occurred in the following proportions: 9 percent of the individual bulk-tank samples, 7 percent of the collective bulk-tank samples and 8 percent of the informal-trade samples. No statistically significant difference was observed between the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in the three types of samples collected, the milk production profiles, the presence of veterinary assistance and the reported concerns about bovine tuberculosis prevention in the herds. The microbiological cultures associated with PCR-based identification tests are possible tools for the

  7. Implementation of the Bacillus cereus microbiological plate used for the screening of tetracyclines in raw milk samples with STAR protocol - the problem with false-negative results solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor Lainšček, P; Biasizzo, M; Henigman, U; Dolenc, J; Kirbiš, A

    2014-01-01

    In antibiotic residue analyses the first step of screening is just as important as the following steps. Screening methods need to be quick and inexpensive, but above all sensitive enough to detect the antibiotic residue at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). In the case of a positive result, the next step is conducted and further methods are used for confirmation. MRLs stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010 for tetracyclines in raw milk are: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and no limit for doxycycline because it is prohibited for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption. The current five-plate microbiological screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk was found to be simple and inexpensive, but not specific, sensitive and reliable enough to detect tetracycline at MRL in routine raw milk screening procedures. Spiking samples with tetracycline at the MRL level and applying them on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 microbiological plates often gave false-negative results, indicating that tetracyclines may have to be inactivated or masked. Tetracyclines seem to bind to a certain component in milk. Consequently, when applying samples to the B. cereus microbiological plate the antibiotic cannot inhibit the growth of B. cereus which disables the formation of inhibition zones on the test plate. After adding the appropriate amount of citric acid into the milk samples, we solved the problem of false-negative results. During the validation 79 samples of milk were spiked with tetracyclines at different concentrations: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 80 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and 30 µg kg(-1) for doxycycline. Concentrations used in the validation matched the requirements for MRLs (they were either at or below the MRLs) stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010. The sensitivity of the validation was 100%.

  8. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Converti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  9. Effect of leaving milk trucks empty and idle for 6 h between raw milk loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eva; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2018-02-01

    The US Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) allows milk tanker trucks to be used repeatedly for 24 h before mandatory clean-in-place cleaning, but no specifications are given for the length of time a tanker can be empty between loads. We defined a worst-case hauling scenario as a hauling vessel left empty and dirty (idle) for extended periods between loads, especially in warm weather. Initial studies were conducted using 5-gallon milk cans (pilot-scale) as a proof-of-concept and to demonstrate that extended idle time intervals could contribute to compromised raw milk quality. Based on pilot-scale results, a commercial hauling study was conducted through partnership with a Pacific Northwest dairy co-op to verify that extended idle times of 6 h between loads have minimal influence on the microbiological populations and enzyme activity in subsequent loads of milk. Milk cans were used to haul raw milk (load 1), emptied, incubated at 30°C for 3, 6, 10, and 20 h, and refilled with commercially pasteurized whole milk (load 2) to measure cross-contamination. For the commercial-scale study, a single tanker was filled with milk from a farm known to have poorer quality milk (farm A, load 1), emptied, and refilled immediately (0 h) or after a delay (6 h) with milk from a farm known to have superior quality milk (farm B, load 2). In both experiments, milk samples were obtained from each farm's bulk tank and from the milk can or tanker before unloading. Each sample was microbiologically assessed for standard plate count (SPC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and coliform counts. Selected isolates were assessed for lipolytic and proteolytic activity using spirit blue agar and skim milk agar, respectively. The pilot-scale experiment effectively demonstrated that extended periods of idle (>3 h) of soiled hauling vessels can significantly affect the microbiological quality of raw milk in subsequent loads; however, extended idle times of 6 h or less would not measurably compromise milk

  10. Identification of lactose ureide, a urea derivative of lactose, in milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, K; Sasaki, A; Oritani, T; Hosono, A

    2011-12-01

    With the widespread consumption of milk, the complete characterization of the constituents of milk and milk products is important in terms of functionality and safety. In this study, a novel nonreducing carbohydrate was separated from powdered skim milk and was identified using electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (m/z 385.1[M + H(+)]), ¹H, ¹³C, ¹H¹H-correlation spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The carbohydrate was identified as a lactose derivative of urea, N-carbamoyl-o-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranosylamine (lactose ureide, LU). For the HPLC analysis of LU in milk and milk products, benzoylated LU, hepta-o-benzoyl lactose ureide (melting point 137-139°C; m/z 1,113 [M + H⁺]; wavelength of maximum absorption, λ(max), 229 nm; molar extinction coefficient, ε, 8.1037 × 10⁷), was used as a standard. The crude nonreducing carbohydrate fraction from raw milk, thermally processed milk, and milk products such as powdered milks were directly benzoylated and subjected to HPLC analysis using an octadecylsilyl column to determine the quantity of LU. The content of LU in 10% solutions of powdered skim milk and powdered infant formula (5.0±1.1 and 4.9±1.5 mg/L, respectively) were almost 3-fold higher than that of UHT milk (1.6±0.5 mg/L) and higher than that of low-temperature, long-time-processed (pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min) milk (1.2±0.3 mg/L) and the fresh raw milk sample (0.3±0.1 mg/L). A time-course of the LU content in raw milk during heating at 110°C revealed that LU increased with time. From these results, it is likely that LU is formed by the Maillard-type reaction between the lactose and urea in milk and milk products. Because the concentration of LU in milk increased with the degree of processing heat treatment, it could serve as an indicator of the thermal deterioration of milk. Although it is known that the human intestine is unable to digest LU, the gastrointestinal bacteria

  11. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set—Effect of Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified. PMID:26927169

  12. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk samples collected from the local vendors in the region of Tirupathi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanthirakodi Sudhanthiramani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with the aim to identify the suitability of the milk for consumer use with special reference to Staphylococcus aureus from milk samples collected from various local vendors and determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of those positive isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 milk samples were collected from the local milk vendors in and around Tirupathi region of India. All the samples were enriched with buffered peptone water in 9:1 ratio and the then inoculated on baird parker agar medium with added 2% egg yolk tellurite emulsion as selective medium for S.aureus and confirmed with mannitol salt agar, Gram’s staining and biochemical tests. The typical cultural characters with coagulase-positive samples were taken as positive samples the positive samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility with 10 different antibiotics by employing disc diffusion method. Results: Prevalence of coagulase-positive S. aureus was 39.09% (43/110 from the milk samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test of positive isolates showed high resistant toward penicillin G 37/43 (86.04% and ampicillin 32/43 (74.42%, and also showed resistant to methicillin 6/43 (13.95%, cephalothin 6/43 (13.95%, tetracycline 6/43 (13.95%, ciprofloxacin 4/43 (9.30%, enrofloxacin 3/43 (6.97%, cefoxitin 2/43 (4.65%, gentamicin 2/43 (4.65%, and co-trimoxazole 2/43 (4.65%. Many individual isolates showed resistant against two or more antibiotics in our study. Conclusion: The above study results show that the milk samples collected from local vendor having S. aureus, which can induce disease condition as well as antibiotic resistant to the humans particularly young children and old age peoples by means of consumption of raw milk and its products. This is the public health issue, which needs to be solved by educating the local vendors regarding health problems related to unhygienic milk supply and make the awareness among the consumers about this

  13. Reliable single cell array CGH for clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew T Czyż

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disseminated cancer cells (DCCs and circulating tumor cells (CTCs are extremely rare, but comprise the precursors cells of distant metastases or therapy resistant cells. The detailed molecular analysis of these cells may help to identify key events of cancer cell dissemination, metastatic colony formation and systemic therapy escape. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Ampli1™ whole genome amplification (WGA technology and high-resolution oligonucleotide aCGH microarrays we optimized conditions for the analysis of structural copy number changes. The protocol presented here enables reliable detection of numerical genomic alterations as small as 0.1 Mb in a single cell. Analysis of single cells from well-characterized cell lines and single normal cells confirmed the stringent quantitative nature of the amplification and hybridization protocol. Importantly, fixation and staining procedures used to detect DCCs showed no significant impact on the outcome of the analysis, proving the clinical usability of our method. In a proof-of-principle study we tracked the chromosomal changes of single DCCs over a full course of high-dose chemotherapy treatment by isolating and analyzing DCCs of an individual breast cancer patient at four different time points. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The protocol enables detailed genome analysis of DCCs and thereby assessment of the clonal evolution during the natural course of the disease and under selection pressures. The results from an exemplary patient provide evidence that DCCs surviving selective therapeutic conditions may be recruited from a pool of genomically less advanced cells, which display a stable subset of specific genomic alterations.

  14. The human milk study, HUMIS. Presentation of a birth cohort study which aims to collect milk samples from 6000 mothers, for the assessment of persistent organic pollutants (POPS), relating it to exposure factors and health outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggesboe, M.; Stigum, H.; Becher, G.; Magnus, P. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Polder, A.; Skaare, J.U. [The Norwegian School of Veterinay Science, Oslo (Norway); Lindstroem, G. [Orebro Univ., Orebro (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Although PCB has been forbidden for more than 20 years now, and its levels in human milk is declining, it remains among the chemicals in human milk causing most concern with regard to its possible detrimental effects on the fetus and the breastfed child. Due to our industry, amongst others, the Norwegian population has been rather heavily exposed to PCB. Furthermore, new environmental toxicants are steadily entering the scene, such as the Brominated flame retardants. The level of Brominated flame retardants in human milk has shown an exponential increase during the last ten years, and this group of chemicals, are causing increasingly more concern. Studies from Sweden has shown that the levels differ greatly between individuals, however, for reasons yet unknown. In Norway, the highest levels of Brominated flame retardants ever measured in the world was reported from fish in Mjoesa. Surprisingly few attempts has been made to identify dietary habits or other life style factors that are associated with the levels of these toxicants in human milk. Such knowledge is needed in order for accurate prophylactic measures to be taken by the population and of special importance to women before and during child bearing age, in order to keep the levels in human milk as low as possible. Furthermore, there is great need for more knowledge of the effects of these toxicants on child health. The need for more research in this field, especially the need for prospective exposure data and the need for interdisciplinary approaches has been specifically targeted. Therefore a research initiative was taken in Norway to establish a prospective birth cohort which aims to recruit 6000 mother/child pairs, in whom human milk samples are collected in infancy and information on health outcomes are collected throughout the child's first seven years of life. The aim of this presentation is to describe this project in more detail and to give some preliminary results.

  15. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-U-104 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue.Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-U-104. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the July 16, 1996 sampling of SST 241-U-104. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  16. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BX-110 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-BX-110. This document presents sampling data resulting from the April 30, 1996 sampling of SST 241-BX-110. Analytical results will be presented in a separate report issued by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which supplied and analyzed the sampling media

  17. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-106 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-106. This document presents In Situ vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 13, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-106. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which'supplied and analyzed the sample media

  18. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-103 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-103. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 12, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-103. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  19. Performance of API Staph ID 32, Staph-Zym for identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine milk samples

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Performance of API Staph ID 32, Staph-Zym for identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine milk samples NETHERLANDS (Sampimon, O.C.) NETHERLANDS Received: 2008-06-06 Revised: 2008-11-03 Accepted: 2008-11-06

  20. Rapid, sensitive, and reproducible screening of liquid milk for adulterants using a portable Raman spectrometer and a simple, optimized sample well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, M K; Holroyd, S E; McGoverin, C M; Simpson, M C; Williams, D E

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a powerful general spectroscopic method for rapidly screening liquid milk for adulterants by combining reflective focusing wells simply fabricated in aluminum with a small, portable Raman spectrometer with a focusing fiber optic probe. Hemispherical aluminum sample wells were specially designed to optimize internal reflection and sampling volume by matching the focal length of the mirror to the depth of focus of the laser probe. The technique was tested on milk adulterated with 4 different nitrogen-rich compounds (melamine, urea, dicyandiamide, and ammonium sulfate) and sucrose. No sample preparation of the milk was needed, and the total analysis time was 4min. Reliable sample presentation enabled average reproducibility of 8% residual standard deviation. The limit of detection interval measured from partial least squares calibrations ranged between 140 and 520mg/L for the 4 N-rich compounds and between 7,000 and 36,000mg/L (0.7-3.6%) for sucrose. The portability of the system and the reliability and reproducibility of this technique open opportunities for general, reagentless screening of milk for adulterants at the point of collection. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of sorbitol-negative of slow-fermenting (suspected O157) Escherichia coli isolated from milk samples in Lombardy region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picozzi, C.; Foschino, R.; Heuvelink, A.E.; Beumer, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate phenotypic and genotypic aspects of sorbitol-negative or slow-fermenting Escherichia coli, suspected to belong to O157 serogroup, isolated in Italy. Methods and Results: Milk samples originating from goats and cows were screened for the presence of E. coli O157 with cultural

  2. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  3. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat and dairy sheep farms in The Netherlands in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; van Maanen, K; Vellema, P

    2012-03-24

    In 2007, a human Q fever epidemic started, mainly in the south eastern part of The Netherlands with a suspected indirect relation to dairy goats, and, to a lesser degree, to dairy sheep. This article describes the Q fever prevalences in Dutch dairy goat and dairy sheep bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, using a real-time (RT) PCR and ELISA. Results of BTM PCR and ELISA were compared with the serological status of individual animals, and correlations with a history of Q fever abortion were determined. When compared with ELISA results, the optimal cut-off value for the RT-PCR was 100 bacteria/ml. In 2008, there were 392 farms with more than 200 dairy goats, of which 292 submitted a BTM sample. Of these samples, 96 (32.9 per cent) were PCR positive and 87 (29.8 per cent) were ELISA positive. All farms with a history of Q fever abortion (n=17) were ELISA positive, 16 out of 17 were also PCR positive. BTM PCR or ELISA positive farms had significantly higher within-herd seroprevalences than BTM negative farms. In the south eastern provinces, the area where the human Q fever outbreak started in 2007, a significantly larger proportion of the BTM samples was PCR and ELISA positive compared to the rest of The Netherlands. None of the BTM samples from dairy sheep farms (n=16) were PCR positive but three of these farms were ELISA positive. The higher percentage of BTM positive farms in the area where the human Q fever outbreak started, supports the suspected relation between human cases and infected dairy goat farms.

  4. Validation of modified milk reference sample in terms of its suitability for infra-red analysis calibration via evaluation of physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Routine milk analyses using the efficient indirect infra-red method are important for the milk food chain quality. The reliability of the results depends on the calibration quality. It is important to use a relevant set of reference calibration samples (RCSs. RCSs with right range of values can be prepared using various methods. This paper was aimed to balance the impacts of dilution for decrease of main components in RCSs because of minimal change of matrix interference effects. Cow milk samples (MSs were diluted (4/1 using distilled water, NaCl solution and a solution with specific composition (SC; because of disturbance in the balance of the milk matrix (NaCl 1.145; KCl 0.849; K2HPO4 1.8463; citric acid 1.7; urea 0.3 g / l for reduction in main milk components. Fat (F, crude protein (CP, lactose (L, milk freezing point (MFP, osmolality (OS and electrical conductivity (EC were measured in all (original as well as modified MSs. The lowest MFP and OS were in the original milk −0.5559 °C and 274.5 mOsmol/kg. The MFP was increased to −0.4369 °C and osmolality decreased to 217.83 ­mOsmol/kg by the addition of water. The MFP was decreased (−0.4903 °C and returned to original milk value by the addition of NaCl solutin. MFP was −0.4788 °C due to SC addition. The decrease was less than for NaCl. The ability of other SC components (K2HPO4, KCl, citric acid and urea to MFP decrease is less than for NaCl solution. EC was highest for NaCl set 4.69 mS / cm, EC for SC was 4.48 mS / cm (P < 0.001. The original MSs set showed EC 4.27 mS / cm. The SC was the nearest to original MSs in terms of total mineral composition. ECs for both modifications differed (P < 0.001 from original MSs. The procedure is applicable for balance of interference effects of milk matrix because of relevant calibration.

  5. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to predict cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits from unprocessed bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of fresh unprocessed milk samples for predicting cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were obtained from 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows. Individual measurements of 7 new cheese yield-related traits were obtained from the laboratory cheese-making procedure, including the fresh cheese yield, total solid cheese yield, and the water retained in curd, all as a percentage of the processed milk, and nutrient recovery (fat, protein, total solids, and energy) in the curd as a percentage of the same nutrient contained in the milk. All individual milk samples were analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). Two spectral acquisitions were carried out for each sample and the results were averaged before data analysis. Different chemometric models were fitted and compared with the aim of improving the accuracy of the calibration equations for predicting these traits. The most accurate predictions were obtained for total solid cheese yield and fresh cheese yield, which exhibited coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation (1-VR) of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. A less favorable result was obtained for water retained in curd (1-VR=0.65). Promising results were obtained for recovered protein (1-VR=0.81), total solids (1-VR=0.86), and energy (1-VR=0.76), whereas recovered fat exhibited a low accuracy (1-VR=0.41). As FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid, cheap, high-throughput technique that is already used to collect standard milk recording data, these FTIR calibrations for cheese yield and nutrient recovery highlight additional potential applications of the technique in the dairy industry, especially for monitoring cheese

  6. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii in goat bulk milk samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... useful for the diagnosis of acute infection due to the delay in antibody development. Furthermore, it is ... reaction (PCR) assay has become a useful tool for the detection of C. burnetii in clinical samples .... the efficiency of control schemes aimed at controlling and/or preventing C. burnetii infection in dairy.

  7. Survey on the presence of 90Sr in milk samples by a validated ultra low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dell’Oro D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 90Sr is one of the most biologically hazardous radionuclides produced in nuclear fission processes and decays emitting high-energy beta particles turning 90Y. 90Sr is transferred from soil-plant to cow’s milk and then to humans if it is introduced into the environment. Radiostrontium is chemically similar to calcium entering the human body through several food chains and depositing in bone and blood-forming tissue (bone marrow. Among main foodstuffs assumed in human diet, milk is considered of special interest for radiostrontium determination, especially in emergency situations, because the consumption of contaminated milk is the main source of internal radiation exposure, particularly for infants. In this work an analytical method for the determination of radiostrontium in milk was developed and validated in order to determine low activity levels by liquid scintillation counting (LSC after achieving 90Y secular equilibrium condition. The analytical procedure was applied both in surveillance and routine programmes to detect radiocontamination in cow’s, goat and sheep milk samples.

  8. Quantitative proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk samples through iTRAQ labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Cong, Min; Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Junrui; Wu, Rina; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Yue, Xiqing

    2016-05-18

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins have many functions. To explore the different proteomics of human and bovine MFGM, MFGM proteins were separated from human and bovine colostrum and mature milk, and analyzed by the iTRAQ proteomic approach. A total of 411 proteins were recognized and quantified. Among these, 232 kinds of differentially expressed proteins were identified. These differentially expressed proteins were analyzed based on multivariate analysis, gene ontology (GO) annotation and KEGG pathway. Biological processes involved were response to stimulus, localization, establishment of localization, and the immune system process. Cellular components engaged were the extracellular space, extracellular region parts, cell fractions, and vesicles. Molecular functions touched upon were protein binding, nucleotide binding, and enzyme inhibitor activity. The KEGG pathway analysis showed several pathways, including regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, neurotrophin signaling pathway, leukocyte transendothelial migration, tight junction, complement and coagulation cascades, vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, and adherens junction. These results enhance our understanding of different proteomes of human and bovine MFGM across different lactation phases, which could provide important information and potential directions for the infant milk powder and functional food industries.

  9. Effect of increased milking frequency and residual milk removal on milk production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Kovac, Lucia; Shingfield, Kevin J; Agenäs, Sigrid

    2017-11-01

    It has been well established that milk yield is affected both by milking frequency and due to the removal of residual milk, but the influence of a combination of these factors is unclear. In this study, four mid-lactation cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the effects of more frequent milking and residual milk removal on milk yield and composition are additive and alter milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised two or four times daily milking in combination with (or without) residual milk removal over a 96 h interval preceded by a 2 d pretreatment period and followed by a 8 d washout in each 14 d experimental period. Milk was sampled at each milking for the analysis of gross composition and SCC. Samples of available and residual milk collected on the last milking during each treatment period were collected and submitted for fatty acid composition analysis. Increases in milking frequency and residual milk removal alone or in combination had no effect on milk yield or on the secretion of lactose and protein in milk. However, residual milk removal during more frequent milking increased milk fat yield. Milking treatments had no major influence on the fatty acid composition of available milk, but resulted in rather small changes in the relative abundance of specific fatty acids, with no evidence that the additive effects of treatments were due to higher utilisation of preformed fatty acids relative to fatty acid synthesis de novo. For all treatments, fat composition of available and residual milk was rather similar indicating a highly uniform fatty acid composition of milk fat within the mammary gland.

  10. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Israel D.; Melo, Lidervan P. [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Jardim, Isabel C.S.F. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Monteiro, Juliana C.S.; Nakano, Ana Marcia S. [Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C., E-mail: mariaeqn@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-17

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL{sup −1} (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL{sup −1} with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from −1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymer modified with a hydrophilic external layer (RAM-MIP) was synthesized in a silica capillary. • RAM-MIP capillary, used as sorbent for in-tube SPME, established specific interaction with parabens present in milk samples. • The matrix components that interacted only with the hydrophilic external layer (non-adsorptive network) were excluded.

  11. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii in goat bulk milk samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... volume of 25 µl containing 5 µl of DNA sample, 0.5 mM MgCl2, 0.2. mM (each) dNTPs, 1 µM primer OMP1, 1 µM primer OMP2 and 0.5. U/reaction of Taq DNA polymerase (Roche Applied Science,. Germany). The PCR assay was performed at 94°C for 4 min and then for 30 cycles of 94°C for 1 min, 56°C for ...

  12. Microwave-assisted wet digestion with H2O2 at high temperature and pressure using single reaction chamber for elemental determination in milk powder by ICP-OES and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Edson I; Souza, Juliana P; Muller, Cristiano C; Muller, Aline L H; Mello, Paola A; Bizzi, Cezar A

    2016-08-15

    In this work a green digestion method which only used H2O2 as an oxidant and high temperature and pressure in the single reaction chamber system (SRC-UltraWave™) was applied for subsequent elemental determination by inductively coupled plasma-based techniques. Milk powder was chosen to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of the proposed method. Samples masses up to 500mg were efficiently digested, and the determination of Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), while trace elements (B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Residual carbon (RC) lower than 918mgL(-1) of C was obtained for digests which contributed to minimizing interferences in determination by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Accuracy was evaluated using certified reference materials NIST 1549 (non-fat milk powder certified reference material) and NIST 8435 (whole milk powder reference material). The results obtained by the proposed method were in agreement with the certified reference values (t-test, 95% confidence level). In addition, no significant difference was observed between results obtained by the proposed method and conventional wet digestion using concentrated HNO3. As digestion was performed without using any kind of acid, the characteristics of final digests were in agreement with green chemistry principles when compared to digests obtained using conventional wet digestion method with concentrated HNO3. Additionally, H2O2 digests were more suitable for subsequent analysis by ICP-based techniques due to of water being the main product of organic matrix oxidation. The proposed method was suitable for quality control of major components and trace elements present in milk powder in consonance with green sample preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparative study of minor and trace elements in human, animal and commercial milk samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Weginwar, R.G.; Chutke, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    Human, animal (cow, buffalo and goat) and commercial milk powders (for infants and adults) have been analyzed for 5 minor (Na, K, Mg, Cl and P) and 13 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, Se, Sb, Cs and Br) by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation. Milk standards NIST SRM 1549 and IAEA A-11 along with diet standards RM 8431a and IAEA H-9 were also analyzed for quality assurance. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation for 10 m, 1 h, 6 h and 1 week in a reactor followed by high resolution γ-spectrometry. Concentrations of Fe, Co, Zn, Sb and Se were also determined by radiochemical solvent extraction. Mean concentrations of Na, K, Mg, P, Cl, Fe, Mn and Cu in human milk (colostrum) are comparable with that of a WHO/IAEA study. It has, however, lower contents of toxic trace elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Br, Se, Sb and As) compared to breast tissue from the same area. Cow milk is richer in Na, K, Cl, Mn and Se but it has comparable amounts of Mg, Zn, Br, Fe and Sb with respect to breast milk. Significant differences have been observed for elemental concentrations of Na, K, P and Fe in commercial formula milk powders for infants and adults. Infant's milk powders contain all the nutrient elements in balanced amounts required for the higher growth rate of a child. (author) 41 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Validation of deep freezing of pilot samples for checking of time stability of indirect analyses of basic milk composition and for their long shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential part of raw milk component measurement is indirect infraanalyse. The checking of time measurement stability is important there. The preparation of pilot samples was described. Information about deep frozen milk pilot sample stability are sporadic. Aim of this work was to verify the stability of long-term stored and deep frozen pilot samples (FPSs. Pilot samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen bath −196 °C and after that stored at −21 °C for one month (A and more months (B till analyse. The pilot samples were measured by CombiFoss 6000: fat F (%; protein CP (%; lactose L (%; casein C (%; solid non fat SNF (%; urea U (mg/100ml; somatic cell count SCC (ths./ml. In the short-term (A experiment the impact of freezing on pilot milk samples was relatively small, in the framework of acceptable value of repeatability (±0.02 % for components. The stability of values of FPSs was better according to standard deviations for important F evaluation in H (Holstein breed samples. The repeatability of values of FPSs in the time was very good for other components. The repeatability was better for SCC in J (Jersey breed samples (±16.5 thousands/ml. That is why the higher variability (±30.1 thousands/ml in H sample is visible less sceptically. The apparent result trends were not observable in the repeatability development of important milk indicators in FPSs. The mild trend was only in CP, but this trend covered absolutely very small shift (variation range. There are only oscillations, which are similar between J and H samples. It is possible to attribute these oscillations rather to instrument effects than to sample effects. The oscilations were markedly higher in the long-term (B experiment. Between J and H samples the oscilations were very similar in curves F and L. It is also possible to attribute them more to instrumental effects. The repeatability values (standard deviations sd of FPSs were mostly lower than ±0.06 %. It is acceptable for

  15. Comparison of the compositions of the stool microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula, cow milk-based formula, or breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained.

  16. Effects of sample treatments on genome recovery via single-cell genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clingenpeel, Scott [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Schwientek, Patrick [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Hugenholtz, Philip [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Woyke, Tanja [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2014-06-13

    It is known that single-cell genomics is a powerful tool for accessing genetic information from uncultivated microorganisms. Methods of handling samples before single-cell genomic amplification may affect the quality of the genomes obtained. Using three bacterial strains we demonstrate that, compared to cryopreservation, lower-quality single-cell genomes are recovered when the sample is preserved in ethanol or if the sample undergoes fluorescence in situ hybridization, while sample preservation in paraformaldehyde renders it completely unsuitable for sequencing.

  17. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A true milk allergy differs from milk protein intolerance or lactose intolerance. Unlike a milk allergy, intolerance doesn't ... allergy. Common signs and symptoms of milk protein intolerance or lactose intolerance include digestive problems, such as bloating, gas ...

  18. Application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sorbents for the extraction of mycotoxins in water samples and infant milk formula prior to high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; González-Sálamo, Javier; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a simple and environmental friendly methodology has been developed for the analysis of a group of six mycotoxins with estrogenic activity produced by Fusarium species (i.e. zearalanone, zearalenone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol), using microdispersive SPE the symbol micro should de before dSPE with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sorbent. Separation, determination, and quantification were achieved by HPLC coupled to ion trap MS with an ESI interface. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of µ-dSPE such as pH of the sample, amount of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and type and volume of elution solvent, were studied and optimized. The methodology was validated for mineral, pond, and wastewater as well as for powdered infant milk using 17β-estradiol-2,4,16,16,17-d5 (17β-E2 -D5 ) as internal standard, obtaining recoveries ranging from 85 to 120% for the three types of water samples and from 77 to 115% for powdered infant milk. RSD values were lower than 10%. The LOQs achieved were in the range 0.05-2.90 μg/L for water samples and 2.02-31.9 μg/L for powdered infant milk samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Métodos de conservação de amostras de leite para determinação da contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo Milk sample conservation methods to determine the total bacteria count by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2010-02-01

    adicionadas de azidiol.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51. Three hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 ºC - frozen: 7 ºC - refrigerated, and 24 ºC - room temperature, three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days. For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC, the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 ºC with the addition of azidiol.

  20. Comparison of composition and whey protein fractions of human, camel, donkey, goat and cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima El-Hatmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical parameters of milk samples of five different species: cow, goat, donkey, camel and human. Also the analysis of whey protein profile in different milk samples was performed by anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC while polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify a single fraction. Camel milk was the most acid (pH 6.460±0.005 and the richest in total proteins (3.41±0.31 % and ash (0.750±0.102 %, whereas donkey milk had a neutral pH (7.03±0.02 and characterised by low proteins (1.12±0.40 % and fat (0.97±0.03 % content, being very close to human milk. Proteomic analysis of cow, goat, donkey, camel and human milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was similar to human milk in lacking of β-lactoglobulin and richness of α-lactalbumin. The knowledge gained from the proteomic comparison of the milk samples analysed within this study might be of relevance, both, in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  1. FAAS and k/sub 0/-INAA analysis protocols for the determination of essential and toxic metals in fresh and packed milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the intake adequacy of elements determined in fresh, ultra high temperature (UHT) treated and powder milk samples. The samples were analyzed for fourteen elements (Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb, Sn, Sr and Zn) by semi-absolute k/sub 0/ instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) with proper method validation. NAA and AAS methodologies were validated by analyzing three reference materials. The results of 10 elements (Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn) determined in IAEA-336 by k/sub 0/-INAA, iodine in NIST-SRM-1572 (citrus leaves) by ENAA and 4 elements (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) by AAS are presented with 95% confidence intervals. The daily intakes were compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) defined for male of age group 31-50 years. This comparison reveals that fresh milk is best in providing most of the essential elements (Ca, I, P, Zn, Mg). UHT treated and powder samples are slightly better in Cu and Fe. It can be said that fresh milk is good source of Ca, I, P and Zn but poor source of Fe. The daily intake of lead, identified in only two samples, was compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) defined by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), which is 25 mu g/(kg body weight). Lead was evaluated for a person drinking 250 ml of milk/day and weighing 70 kg. It produced weekly intake of 3.1 mu g, a value well below the PTWI. (Orig./A.B.)

  2. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Israel D; Melo, Lidervan P; Jardim, Isabel C S F; Monteiro, Juliana C S; Nakano, Ana Marcia S; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C

    2016-08-17

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL(-1) (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL(-1) with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from -1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of freeze-drying infant fecal samples on measures of their bacterial community profiles and milk-derived oligosaccharide content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zachery T; Davis, Jasmine C C; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2016-01-01

    Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization) offers a cost-effective way to preserve some biological samples for transport and analysis at a later date. Currently, it is unknown what, if any, biases are introduced into various analyses by the freeze-drying process. Here, we investigated how freeze-drying affected analysis of two relevant and intertwined aspects of infant fecal samples, marker gene amplicon sequencing of the bacterial community and the fecal oligosaccharide profile (undigested human milk oligosaccharides). No differences were discovered between the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of wet and freeze-dried samples. The marker gene sequencing data showed an increase in proportional representation of Bacteriodes and a decrease in detection of bifidobacteria and members of class Bacilli after freeze-drying. This sample treatment bias may possibly be related to the cell morphology of these different taxa (Gram status). However, these effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among individuals, as the community data still strongly grouped by subject and not by freeze-drying status. We also found that compensating for sample concentration during freeze-drying, while not necessary, was also not detrimental. Freeze-drying may therefore be an acceptable method of sample preservation and mass reduction for some studies of microbial ecology and milk glycan analysis.

  4. The impact of freeze-drying infant fecal samples on measures of their bacterial community profiles and milk-derived oligosaccharide content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery T. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization offers a cost-effective way to preserve some biological samples for transport and analysis at a later date. Currently, it is unknown what, if any, biases are introduced into various analyses by the freeze-drying process. Here, we investigated how freeze-drying affected analysis of two relevant and intertwined aspects of infant fecal samples, marker gene amplicon sequencing of the bacterial community and the fecal oligosaccharide profile (undigested human milk oligosaccharides. No differences were discovered between the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of wet and freeze-dried samples. The marker gene sequencing data showed an increase in proportional representation of Bacteriodes and a decrease in detection of bifidobacteria and members of class Bacilli after freeze-drying. This sample treatment bias may possibly be related to the cell morphology of these different taxa (Gram status. However, these effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among individuals, as the community data still strongly grouped by subject and not by freeze-drying status. We also found that compensating for sample concentration during freeze-drying, while not necessary, was also not detrimental. Freeze-drying may therefore be an acceptable method of sample preservation and mass reduction for some studies of microbial ecology and milk glycan analysis.

  5. Standard Specification for Sampling Single-Phase Geothermal Liquid or Steam for Purposes of Chemical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the basic requirements for equipment to be used for the collection of uncontaminated and representative samples from single-phase geothermal liquid or steam. Geopressured liquids are included. See Fig 1.

  6. Microbiological Quality of Raw Cow Milk across the Milk Supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The milk samples were subjected to laboratory analyses to evaluate total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count (TAMBC), total coliform count (TCC), yeast count (YC) and mold count (MC) in the laboratory to determine the microbiological quality of the milk. Mean TAMBC, TCC, YC and MC for raw cow milk samples collected ...

  7. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Optimal sampling strategies to assess inulin clearance in children by the inulin single-injection method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Lyonne K.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Cransberg, Karlien; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2003-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate in patients can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of inulin with the single-injection method. In this method, a single bolus injection of inulin is administered and several blood samples are collected. For practical and convenient application of this method

  9. EVALUATION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN RAW BUFFALO MILK DURING PRIMARY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cortesi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation EC 852/2004 lays down rules concerning hygiene requirements and the adoption of adequate measures for identification, prevention and control of contamination risks during milking in primary production. Aim of this research was to detect Listeria monocytogenes and to check the total viable count (TVC at 30° in raw buffalo milk coming from ten dairy farms. On the whole 207 samples of raw buffalo milk were collected and analysed during one year, 189 samples were collected from single animals and 18 samples from tank-bulk milk. In raw bulk-tank milk Listeria monocytogenes was never detected. In two out five positive samples from single animals Listeria monocytogenes was detected by means of quantitative method at levels ≤1 cfu/ml.

  10. Handling milking as a risk factor in the occurrence of microorganisms in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk is naturally a good provider of a whole range of nutrients, however an inadequate milking may significantly interfere on its nutritional and microbiological quality. The main purpose of this study was to isolate and identify microorganisms from bulk tanks of southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil and establish a correlation between animal management and presence of pathogens in the milk. To this end, raw milk samples were collected from different dairy herds and submitted to microbiological analyses. Mean bacterial counts were Staphylococcus sp. (5,32x106 CFU/mL, S. aureus (1,33x105 CFU/mL and enterobacteria (1,82x107 CFU/mL. The major pathogens isolated and their respective frequency were Escherichia coli (27.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae (6.2%, S. dysgalactiae (37.2%, S. uberis (16.8%, Candida sp. (15.7%, Aspergillus sp. (5.8%, Trichosporum sp. (3.6% and Cryptococcus sp. (1.5%. In addition, it was identified an Odds Ratio of 3.2 for S. agalactiae regarding manual milking and 3.1 when a single cloth towel was used for drying the udder. For S. bovis the Odds Ratio was 2.8 in properties milking their animals in stalls wood. Somatic cell count (SCC was significantly higher (p=0,003 in milk samples manually extracted in comparison with machine milking. Likewise, manual milking resulted in the increase in S. aureus counts (p=0.04. Pre-dipping practice have contributed for a significant reduction (p=0.04 in the Staphylococcus sp. counts. Taken together, our results show that the adoption of poor management practices can negatively interfere in the microbiological quality of milk increasing the risks of occurrence of pathogens and their counts.

  11. Polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological comparative analysis of raw milk samples and buffalo mozzarella produced and marketed in Caserta in the Campania region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To help identify an epidemiological link between the consumption of buffalo mozzarella prepared with raw milk (not heat-treated and cases of human brucellosis, 80 samples of raw buffalo milk and 315 samples of mozzarella were tested for the presence of Brucella spp. Samples originated from Caserta, the province with the highest number of Brucella-positive buffalo herds in Campania, the region in which 96.02% of all cases of human brucellosis reported in 2000-2005 were recorded. To take into account possible seasonal variations, between February 2006 and March 2007, samples were purchased directly from 72 dairy outlets that were representative of the province. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and bacterial isolation. Samples tested negative for Brucella using both methods. Spiked samples were then prepared and tested by PCR and bacterial isolation and the sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and limit of detection were determined. The PCR limit of detection was below 1 colony-forming unit (cfu/g. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were 100% (p = 0.95, the sensitivity was 96.7% (p = 0.95 and the specificity was 100% (p = 0.95.

  12. Heavy metal content and element analysis of infant formula and milk powder samples purchased on the Tanzanian market: International branded versus black market products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, M; McCulloch, C R; Schoder, D

    2018-07-30

    Milk powder is a food for malnourished African children and for healthy infants of women with HIV/AIDS. High demand and low purchasing power has resulted in a huge informal, black market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Forty-three milk powder batches were analyzed for 43 chemical elements using ICP-MS One sample (2.3%) was contaminated at a lead concentration of 240 µg/kg dry weight exceeding the European threshold (130 µg/kg dry weight). Macroelement contents revealed a trend decreasing in concentration through skimmed, full cream products to infant formulae. Concentration ranges by dry weight differed in respect of uncertainty intervals of  ±10%. Median Ca, K and P concentrations declined from 11.14 g/kg to 3.21 g/kg, 14.11 g/kg to 4.95 g/kg and 9.12 g/kg to 2.75 g/kg dry mass, respectively. Milk powder samples obtained from the Tanzanian black market were comparable in respect of nutritional and chemical content to international branded full cream products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of contagious and environmental mastitis agents isolated from milk samples collected from clinically health buffalo cows between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Maia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to evaluate the microbiological characteristics of clinically health quarters submitted to milking and also to observe the distribution of contagious and environmental agents between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year. During nine months 734 quarters from 37 buffalo cows were submitted monthly to udder inspection, palpation and strip cup test before milking. 734 asseptic milk samples were inoculated in 10% ovine blood agar and in MacConkey agar media, then incubated for 72 hours at 37oC. Among the 580 isolated microrganisms, 182 (31,38% were recovered from samples collected during the rainy season and 398 (68,62% from the dry season. In the rainy period the most prevalent agents were: bacteria from the genus Corynebacterium sp (53,30%, Staphylococcus sp (19,78% and Rhodococcus equi (13,74%. In the dry period, the commonest ones were: Corynebacterium sp (44,97%, Staphylococcus sp (18,84% and Micrococcus sp (9,55%. The results demonstrated that the methods used to select health quarters in brazilian dairy buffalo farms allow the transmission of contagious bacteria during both seasons of the year, maintaining Ital.J.Anim.Sci. vol. 6, (Suppl. 2, 896-899, 2007 897 VIII World Buffalo Congress agents known to cause mainly subclinical inflammatory reactions that compromise cronically the physiology and production of the mammary gland.

  14. A label-free and portable multichannel surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for on site analysis of antibiotics in milk samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández, F.; Hegnerová, Kateřina; Piliarik, Marek; Sanchez-Baeza, F.; Homola, Jiří; Marko, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2010), s. 1231-1238 ISSN 0956-5663 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance * antibiotics * milk Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 5.361, year: 2010

  15. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G.J.; Class, Thomas J.; Costa Pinheiro, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For

  16. Analysis of U and Pu resin bead samples with a single stage mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; Bertram, L.K.; Carter, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Resin bead sampling enables the shipment of nanogram U and Pu quantities for analysis. Application of this sampling technique to safeguards was investigated with a single-stage mass spectrometer. Standards gave results in good agreement with NBS certified values. External precisions of +-0.5% were obtained on isotopic ratios of approx. 0.01; precisions on quantitative measurements are +-1.0%

  17. Analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on DNA traces from plasma and dried blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catsburg, Arnold; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Morre, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA derived from samples containing low numbers of cells or from suboptimal sources can be difficult. A new procedure to characterize multiple SNPs in traces of DNA from plasma and old dried blood samples was developed. Six SNPs in the

  18. Risk assessment due to ingestion of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in the milk samples: a case study from a proposed uranium mining area, Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Gurdeep; Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M

    2011-04-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides and heavy metals through drinking water and food intake represents one of the important pathways for long-term health considerations. Milk and milk products are main constituents of the daily diet. Radionuclides and heavy metals can be apprehended in the ecosystem of the East Singhbhum region which is known for its viable grades of uranium, copper and other minerals. For the risk assessment studies, samples of milk were collected from twelve villages around Bagjata mining area and analysed for U(nat), 226Ra, 230Th, 210Po, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni. Analysis of the results of the study reveals that the geometric mean of U(nat), 226Ra, 230Th and 210Po was 0.021, 0.24, 0.23 and 1.08 Bq l(-1), respectively. The ingestion dose was calculated to be 12.34 μSvY(-1) which is reflecting the natural background dose via the route of ingestion, and much below the 1 mSv limit set in the new ICRP recommendations. The excess lifetime cancer risk was estimated to be 1.72×10(-4) which is within the acceptable excess individual lifetime cancer risk value of 1×10(-4). The geometric mean of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Ni was 4.91, 0.29, 4.77, 0.56 and 0.48 mgl(-1), respectively; whereas the daily intake was computed to be 0.44, 0.03, 0.43, 0.05 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively. Pb was not detected in any of the samples. The hazard quotient revealed that the intake of the heavy metals through the ingestion of milk does not pose any apparent threat to the local people as none of the HQ of the heavy metals exceeds the limit of 1.

  19. Quantitative Single-letter Sequencing: a method for simultaneously monitoring numerous known allelic variants in single DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duborjal Hervé

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogens such as fungi, bacteria and especially viruses, are highly variable even within an individual host, intensifying the difficulty of distinguishing and accurately quantifying numerous allelic variants co-existing in a single nucleic acid sample. The majority of currently available techniques are based on real-time PCR or primer extension and often require multiplexing adjustments that impose a practical limitation of the number of alleles that can be monitored simultaneously at a single locus. Results Here, we describe a novel method that allows the simultaneous quantification of numerous allelic variants in a single reaction tube and without multiplexing. Quantitative Single-letter Sequencing (QSS begins with a single PCR amplification step using a pair of primers flanking the polymorphic region of interest. Next, PCR products are submitted to single-letter sequencing with a fluorescently-labelled primer located upstream of the polymorphic region. The resulting monochromatic electropherogram shows numerous specific diagnostic peaks, attributable to specific variants, signifying their presence/absence in the DNA sample. Moreover, peak fluorescence can be quantified and used to estimate the frequency of the corresponding variant in the DNA population. Using engineered allelic markers in the genome of Cauliflower mosaic virus, we reliably monitored six different viral genotypes in DNA extracted from infected plants. Evaluation of the intrinsic variance of this method, as applied to both artificial plasmid DNA mixes and viral genome populations, demonstrates that QSS is a robust and reliable method of detection and quantification for variants with a relative frequency of between 0.05 and 1. Conclusion This simple method is easily transferable to many other biological systems and questions, including those involving high throughput analysis, and can be performed in any laboratory since it does not require specialized

  20. In vitro–in vivo studies of the quantitative effect of calcium, multivitamins and milk on single dose ciprofloxacin bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishakhi Dey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin, commonly used in India as an anti-microbial for prolonged use in chronic and non-specific indications, may affect the bioavailability of the drug. The drug prescribed is commonly taken with multivitamins, calcium and milk. A simple and reliable analytical methodology obtaining a correlation with in vivo urinary excretion studies using UV and HPLC and in vitro dissolution studies (IVIVC has shown a significant increase in elimination rate of ciprofloxacin co-administered with multivitamins, calcium and milk. Appreciable IVIVC results proved that dissolution studies could serve as an alternative to in vivo bioavailability and also support bio-waivers.

  1. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic to cow's milk are also allergic to soy milk. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) A food ... formulas are based on soy protein instead of milk. Soy formulas are fortified to be nutritionally complete — but, ...

  2. Milk concentration improves Bluetongue antibody detection by use of an indirect ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaignat, Valérie; Nitzsche, Sabine; Schärrer, Sara; Feyer, Dora; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Thur, Barbara

    2010-07-14

    A national Bluetongue antibody surveillance in cattle through bulk milk was conducted in Switzerland between July 2007 and June 2008. Using ID Screen Bluetongue Milk ELISA (ID VET, Montpellier, France), samples from 15 out of 210 dairy farms at least once gave a positive result. In only three of these herds bluetongue positive animals were found. Therefore, specificity for bulk milk was not as good as expected and when individual milk samples were tested, it was even lower. As further investigations of positive results were time-consuming and no other ELISA was available at that time, we aimed at discriminating false from true positive samples with a confirmatory test using a protein precipitation method followed by retesting with the same ELISA. Additionally, we examined whether testing of single milk samples can reliably be used to assess status of cows, and whether sampling at the beginning or at the end of milking, as well as freezing and thawing of the milk could influence the performance of the test. Screening with ID VET milk ELISA and confirmatory testing after protein precipitation yielded a clear increase of specificity without any loss of sensitivity in both bulk and single milk samples. This testing scheme allowed minimizing follow-up investigations by blood testing. Antibody levels in plasma and milk showed a good correlation. Tested by logistic regression, none of the possible influencing factors (time point of sample collection, freezing, or milk content of the samples) had a significant influence on the test performance. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid, sensitive and reproducible method for point-of-collection screening of liquid milk for adulterants using a portable Raman spectrometer with novel optimized sample well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Michel K.; Holroyd, Steve E.; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Simpson, M. Cather; Williams, David E.

    2017-02-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics are of interest in the medical, security and food industry, the latter particularly for screening food adulterated for economic gain. Milk adulteration continues to be a major problem worldwide and different methods to detect fraudulent additives have been investigated for over a century. Laboratory based methods are limited in their application to point-of-collection diagnosis and also require expensive instrumentation, chemicals and skilled technicians. This has encouraged exploration of spectroscopic methods as more rapid and inexpensive alternatives. Raman spectroscopy has excellent potential for screening of milk because of the rich complexity inherent in its signals. The rapid advances in photonic technologies and fabrication methods are enabling increasingly sensitive portable mini-Raman systems to be placed on the market that are both affordable and feasible for both point-of-care and point-of-collection applications. We have developed a powerful spectroscopic method for rapidly screening liquid milk for sucrose and four nitrogen-rich adulterants (dicyandiamide (DCD), ammonium sulphate, melamine, urea), using a combined system: a small, portable Raman spectrometer with focusing fibre optic probe and optimized reflective focusing wells, simply fabricated in aluminium. The reliable sample presentation of this system enabled high reproducibility of 8% RSD (residual standard deviation) within four minutes. Limit of detection intervals for PLS calibrations ranged between 140 - 520 ppm for the four N-rich compounds and between 0.7 - 3.6 % for sucrose. The portability of the system and reliability and reproducibility of this technique opens opportunities for general, reagentless adulteration screening of biological fluids as well as milk, at point-of-collection.

  4. Problems in isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from frozen-stored raw milk and bovine fecal samples: genetic confirmation using multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murinda, Shelton E; Nguyen, Lien T; Oliver, Stephen P

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of various protocols for the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from bulk tank milk and bovine fecal samples that were stored frozen for varying times, and to develop a rapid DNA-based protocol that distinguishes C. jejuni from other thermophilic Campylobacter spp. The pathogen was recovered from fecal samples that had been stored for 96-251 days at -20 degrees C with glycerol as the cryopreservative. In a separate study, C. jejuni-positive bovine fecal samples were stored at 5 degrees C for up to 70 days without compromising subsequent recovery of the pathogen. However, the pathogen could not be recovered from pathogenpositive fecal samples stored with or without glycerol (5 mL/11 g sample) for 21 days at -20 degrees C. Bolton broth (BB) and Bolton broth with 5% blood (BBB), containing BB supplement, were used for enrichment. Bacterial isolation was achieved by streaking from BB and BBB, and filtering from BBB onto blood-free charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (CCDA). The use of BB for the recovery of Campylobacter was more sensitive than BBB, and streaking achieved better isolation rates than filtration. Multiplex PCR incorporating thermophilic Campylobacter-specific 23S rRNA and C. jejuni-specific hippuricase gene sequences was used to confirm C. jejuni. All 265 bulk tank milk samples analyzed were negative for C. jejuni, whereas five of 411 (1.2%) fecal samples tested positive. This is the first report that has used a combination of sequences of the two genes in a multiplex format to identify C. jejuni to the species level. The method described has potential for routine use in the detection of thermophilic Campylobacter in farm environmental samples as well as other samples.

  5. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  6. Sample Size Induced Brittle-to-Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Aluminum Nitride by GA Gazonas and JW McCauley Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL JJ Guo, KM Reddy, A Hirata, T Fujita, and MW Chen...Sample Size Induced Brittle-to-Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...their microscopic structure. In this study, we report a size induced brittle-to-ductile transition in single-crystal aluminum nitride (AlN). When the

  7. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES; Estudo comparativo na determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de produtos lacteos por AANI e ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Equipamentos Especializados; Maihara, Vera A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  8. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  9. Assessing the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures: results from three large samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)-a more psychometrically established measure. Two large samples from Washington (N = 13,064) and Oregon (N = 2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a representative German sample (N = 1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62-0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78-0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001-0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS was very small (average absolute difference = 0.015-0.042). Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use.

  10. Milk and other foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautavaara, A.

    1987-01-01

    In January-April 1986 the nationwide survey of man-made radionuclides in milk and other foodstuffs covered milk, beef and pork samples. The nationwide, production-weighted mean contents of both 90 Sr and 137 Cs in these foodstuffs were slightly lower than in 1985. The mean content of 90 Sr in milk was 0.10 Bq l -1 . Correspondingly the mean content of 137 Cs was 0.23 Bq l -1 in milk, 0.9 Bq kg -1 in beef and 0.2 Bq kg -1 in pork

  11. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol in Holstein whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Zambito, D A; Magliaro, A L; Kensinger, R S

    2007-07-01

    Some individuals have expressed concern about estrogens in food because of their potential to promote growth of estrogen-sensitive human cancer cells. Researchers have reported concentrations of estrogen in milk but few whole milk samples have been analyzed. Because estrogen associates with the fat phase of milk, the analysis of whole milk is an important consideration. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to quantify 17beta-estradiol (E2) in whole milk from dairy cows and to determine whether E2 concentrations in milk from cows in the second half of pregnancy were greater than that in milk from cows in the first half of pregnancy or in nonpregnant cows. Milk samples and weights were collected during a single morning milking from 206 Holstein cows. Triplicate samples were collected and 2 samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell counts (SCC); 1 sample was homogenized and analyzed for E2. The homogenized whole milk (3 mL) was extracted twice with ethyl acetate and once with methanol. The extract was reconstituted in benzene:methanol (9:1, vol/vol) and run over a Sephadex LH-20 column to separate E2 from cholesterol and estrone before quantification using radioimmunoassay. Cows were classified as not pregnant (NP, n = 138), early pregnant (EP, 1 to 140 d pregnant, n = 47), or midpregnant (MP, 141 to 210 d pregnant, n = 21) at the time of milk sampling based on herd health records. Mean E2 concentration in whole milk was 1.4 +/- 0.2 pg/mL and ranged from nondetectable to 22.9 pg/mL. Milk E2 concentrations averaged 1.3, 0.9, and 3.0 pg/mL for NP, EP, and MP cows, respectively. Milk E2 concentrations for MP cows were greater and differed from those of NP and EP cows. Milk composition was normal for a Holstein herd in that log SCC values and percentages of fat, protein, and lactose averaged 4.9, 3.5, 3.1, and 4.8, respectively. Estradiol concentration was significantly correlated (r = 0.20) with percentage fat in milk. Mean milk yield was

  12. High-pressure oxygenation of thin-wall YBCO single-domain samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaud, X; Savchuk, Y; Sergienko, N; Prikhna, T; Diko, P

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen annealing of ReBCO bulk material, necessary to achieve superconducting properties, usually induces micro- and macro-cracks. This leads to a crack-assisted oxygenation process that allows oxygenating large bulk samples faster than single crystals. But excellent superconducting properties are cancelled by the poor mechanical ones. More progressive oxygenation strategy has been shown to reduce drastically the oxygenation cracks. The problem then arises to keep a reasonable annealing time. The concept of bulk Y123 single-domain samples with thin-wall geometry has been introduced to bypass the inherent limitation due to a slow oxygen diffusion rate. But it is not enough. The use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) enables to speed up further the process. It introduces a displacement in the equilibrium phase diagram towards higher temperatures, i.e., higher diffusion rates, to achieve a given oxygen content in the material. Remarkable results were obtained by applying such a high pressure oxygen annealing process on thin-wall single-domain samples. The trapped field of 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain samples was doubled (0.6T vs 0.3T at 77K) using an annealing time twice shorter (about 3 days). The initial development was made on thin bars. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample

  13. Preterm human milk macronutrient concentration is independent of gestational age at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Jan; Burianova, Iva; Vitkova, Veronika; Ticha, Eva; Navratilova, Martina; Cermakova, Eva

    2018-01-20

    To evaluate the amount of macronutrients in aggregate of human milk samples after preterm delivery during the first 2 months of lactation. Analysis of the donated single milk samples, gained by complete emptying of the whole breast at the same daytime between 24+0 and 35+6 gestational age (GA), was designed as prospective observational cohort trial. Two milk samples were analysed every postnatal week up to the discharge from the hospital, week 9 or loss of lactation. 24-Hour milk collection was not done. Analysis was performed using the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser (MIRIS AB, Uppsala, Sweden). A set of 1917 human milk samples donated by 225 mothers after preterm labour was analysed. Group A (24-30 GA) contains 969 milk samples; group B (31-35 GA) contains 948 milk samples. No difference in milk composition between the groups was identified. Median of true protein content decreased from 1.6 g/dL in group A and 1.5 g/dL in group B in the first week of life, to 1.1 g/dL in both groups at the end of week 3, and then remained stable up to week 9. Content of carbohydrates and fat was stable during the whole observation, with interindividual differences. Human milk does not differ as a function of degree of prematurity. Protein content of preterm human milk is low and decreases during the first 3 weeks of lactation. Recommended daily protein intake cannot be achieved with routine fortification in majority of milk samples. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Preparation and characterization of single crystal samples for high-pressure experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, D; Antonangeli, D; Aracne, C; Benterou, J

    2005-10-26

    To date, most research utilizing the diamond anvil cell (DAC) has been conducted with polycrystalline samples, thus the results are limited to addressing average bulk properties. However, experiments on single crystals can yield data on a range of orientation dependent properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, elasticity and plasticity. Here we report new procedures to produce extremely high-quality metallic single crystal samples of size compatible with DAC experiments in the Mbar range. So far, we have produced samples of zinc, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, cobalt, molybdenum and cerium, and have evaluated the quality of the finished samples with white-light interferometry, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and inelastic x-ray scattering.

  15. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (powdered milk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in powdered milk were determined using radiochemical analysis. Six brands of commercial milk were purchased as samples in consuming districts in December 1984. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 33 +- 1.0 pCi/kg and 140 +- 2 pCi/kg, respectively, in skim milk manufactured by Meiji. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Bacterial isolates exhibiting multidrug resistance, hemolytic activity, and high 16S rRNA gene similarity with well-known pathogens found in camel milk samples of Riyadh region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirad, Abdurahman H; Ahmad, Javed; Alkhedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Bahkali, Ali H; Khan, Shams T

    2018-03-01

    Customary consumption of unpasteurized milk by the population in the central Najed region of Saudi Arabia may pose a health risk. Therefore, 80 camel milk samples were collected aseptically from seven different stations of Riyadh region. The biochemical and microbiological properties of these milk samples were determined. Nutrient agar and brain heart infusion agar were used to determine mesophilic aerobic counts (MACs). The MAC in each mL of milk varied from 60 to 16 × 10 4  CFU/mL on nutrient agar. Based on the colony morphology, 176 colonies were collected from different samples, and these isolates were de-replicated into 80 unique isolates using rep-PCR analysis. Surprisingly, the 16S rRNA sequence analysis of these strains revealed that more than one-third of the collected milk samples contained strains that share maximum sequence similarities with well-known pathogens, such as Brucella, Bacillus anthracis, Listeria monocytogenes, and MRSA. Furthermore, many strains exhibit 16S rRNA gene similarity with opportunistic pathogens such as Citrobacter freundii and Kytococcus schroeteri. Many strains exhibit β-hemolytic activity and resistant to six different antibiotics. Our study suggested that consumption of raw camel milk from this region constitutes a great health risk. © 2018 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Microbiological evaluation of Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT)-treated milk close to expiry date and routine home practices for preservation of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Udayalaxmi Jeppu; Namitha Jayaram; Sneha Satya; Amrutha Kandathil Purayil

    2015-01-01

    Background: As milk is an excellent medium for growth of microorganisms, milk gets contaminated very easily leading to its early spoilage and to milk-borne diseases. Objectives: To compare the quality of pasteurized milk with milk cooker-treated milk and to compare the quality of fresh ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk with that of UHT milk close to expiry date. Materials and Methods: Samples of pasteurized milk, milk heated in milk cooker, fresh UHT milk, and UHT milk nearing expiry date wer...

  18. Molecular-based detection of the gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus in unpasteurized milk samples from two cattle farms in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koziel Monika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Campylobacter jejuni and coli are collectively regarded as the most prevalent cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide. An emerging species, Campylobacter ureolyticus has recently been detected in patients with gastroenteritis, however, the source of this organism has, until now, remained unclear. Herein, we describe the molecular-based detection of this pathogen in bovine faeces (1/20 and unpasteurized milk (6/47 but not in poultry (chicken wings and caeca. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the presence of this potential gastrointestinal pathogen in an animal source, possibly suggesting a route for its transmission to humans.

  19. Determination of the micro-nutrient elements and the toxic in food of peruvian children of the city of Lima. Part I: determination through instrumental neutron activation of Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na in samples of milk and milk with cereal consumed by peruvian children in the age of weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya R, E.; Bedregal, P.; Diaz, A.; Zavaleta, N.; Berlanga, R.

    1993-01-01

    The contents of Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na in milk and milk with cereal, consumed by the peruvian children were determined by short irradiation INAA using RP-10 reactor, with a thermal flux of 10 13 n/cm -2 s -1 and a pneumatic system. The comparative method with solutions of primary standards of each element determined was used. The IAEA-A11-milk powder, IAEA-H4-animal muscle and IAEA-V10-hay powder, reference materials were periodically analyzed, together with the samples, in order to check the quality of analytical results. (authors) 3 refs., 3 tabs, 2 figs

  20. Performance of API Staph ID 32 and Staph-Zym for identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampimon, O C; Zadoks, R N; De Vliegher, S; Supré, K; Haesebrouck, F; Barkema, H W; Sol, J; Lam, T J G M

    2009-05-12

    In this study, the accuracy of two phenotypic tests, API Staph ID 32 and Staph-Zym, was determined for identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) from bovine milk samples in comparison with identification based on DNA-sequencing. A total of 172 CNS isolated from bovine milk were classified into 17 species. The most frequently isolated species based on rpoB sequencing were Staphylococcus chromogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus equorum (37, 13, 9, 8 and 6% of isolates, respectively). The API Staph ID 32 correctly identified 41% of the CNS isolates. Best agreement with rpoB sequence based species identification was found for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus hyicus and S. xylosus (100, 89 and 87%, respectively). The positive predictive value was 89, 100 and 52%, respectively. Poor sensitivity was observed for 3 of the 5 most frequently found species, S. chromogenes (37%), Staphylococcus warneri (15%) and S. equorum (0%) albeit with specificity of 100%. The Staph-Zym needed additional tests for 66% of the isolates and identified 31% of the CNS isolates correctly. Good sensitivity was found for S. epidermidis, S. simulans and S. xyloxus (100, 78 and 73%, respectively). The positive predictive value was 89, 78 and 98%, respectively. Poor sensitivity was observed for S. chromogenes, S. warneri and S. equorum (0, 54 and 0%, respectively) but with a specificity of 100, 99 and 100%, respectively. Both phenotypic tests misidentified a large proportion of CNS isolates and were thus unsuitable for identification of CNS species from bovine milk samples.

  1. Fluorometric determination of uric acid in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Torben; Moyes, Kasey M

    2010-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is to validate a new fast method for determination of uric acid in milk. The method is based on an enzymatic-fluorometric technique that requires minimal pre-treatment of milk samples. The present determination of uric acid is based on the enzymatic oxidation of uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate via uricase where the liberated hydrogen peroxide reacts with 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine via peroxidase and the fluorescent product, resorufin, is measured fluorometrically. Fresh composite milk samples (n=1,072) were collected from both Jersey (n=38) and Danish Holstein (n=106) cows from one local herd. The average inter- and intra-assay variations were 7·1% and 3·0%, respectively. Percent recovery averaged 103·4, 107·0 and 107·5% for samples spiked with 20, 40 or 60 μm of standard, respectively, with a correlation (r=0·98; Pmilk when compared with no storage or samples stored at -18°C for 24 h. Addition of either allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor) or dimethylsulfoxide (a solvent for allopurinol) did not affect milk uric acid concentrations (P=0·96) and may indicate that heat treatment before storage and analysis was sufficient to degrade xanthine oxidase activity in milk. No relationship was observed between milk uric acid and milk yield and milk components. Authors recommend a single heat treatment (82°C for 10 min) followed by either an immediate analysis of fresh milk samples or storage at -18°C until further analysis.

  2. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  3. The use of dissolvable layered double hydroxide components in an in situ solid-phase extraction for chromatographic determination of tetracyclines in water and milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiroonsoontorn, Nattaphorn; Sansuk, Sira; Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2017-10-13

    This research presents a simple and green in situ solid phase extraction (is-SPE) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the simultaneous analysis of tetracyclines (TCs) including tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline. In is-SPE, TCs were efficiently extracted through the precipitation formation of dissolvable layered double hydroxides (LDHs) by mixing the LDH components such as magnesium and aluminum ions (both in metal chloride salts) thoroughly in an alkaline sample solution. After the centrifugation, the precipitate was completely dissolved with trifluoroacetic acid to release the enriched TCs, and then analyzed by HPLC. Under optimized conditions, this method gave good enrichment factors (EFs) of 41-93 with low limits of detection (LODs) of 0.7-6μg/L and limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 3-15μg/L. Also, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of TCs in water and milk samples with the recoveries ranging from 81.7-108.1% for water and 55.7-88.7% for milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simple, cost-effective and sensitive liquid chromatography diode array detector method for simultaneous determination of eight sulfonylurea herbicides in soya milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejczak, Tomasz; Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2016-11-18

    In this study authors propose a simple, cost-effective and sensitive liquid chromatography diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of eight sulfonylurea herbicides (oxasulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, rimsulfuron, chlorsulfuron, mesosulfuron-methyl, amidosulfuron and bensulfuron-methyl) in soya milk samples. QuEChERS-based extraction procedure presents good performance for all of the analytes with recoveries in the range of 61-108% and relative standard deviations (RSD%) less than 15%. No significant matrix effect was observed thanks to application of effective zirconium-dioxide based sorbent (Z-Sep). Method LOQs for all investigated analytes were set at satisfactory low value of 10ngmL -1 of food product. The procedure was evaluated in terms of natural samples analysis. Chlorsulfuron was determined at concentration of 14.2ngmL -1 of soya milk product, which was qualitatively confirmed via LC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The most important steps of procedure optimization are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Minimal dose of milk protein concentrate to enhance the anabolic signalling response to a single bout of resistance exercise; a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Zeng, Nina; D'Souza, Randall F; Mitchell, Sarah M; Aasen, Kirsten; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2017-01-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to induce muscle hypertrophy. Supplemental protein intake is known to enhance gains in muscle mass through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which initiates protein translation. While the optimal dose of high quality protein to promote post exercise anabolism in young or older men has been investigated, little is known about the minimum doses of protein required to potentiate the resistance exercise activation of anabolic signalling in middle aged men. Twenty healthy men (46.3 ± 5.7 years, BMI: 23.9 ± 6.6 kg/m 2 ) completed a single bout of unilateral resistance exercise consisting of 4 sets of leg extension and press at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Participants were randomised to consume either formulated milk product containing 9 g milk protein (FMP) or an isoenergetic carbohydrate placebo (CHO) immediately post exercise, in a double blind fashion. A single muscle biopsy was collected at pre-exercise baseline and then bilateral biopsies were collected 90 and 240 min after beverage consumption. P70S6K Thr389 phosphorylation was increased with exercise irrespective of group, P70S6K Thr421/Ser424 was increased with exercise only in the FMP group at 240 min. Likewise, rpS6 Ser235/236 phosphorylation was increased with exercise irrespective of group, rpS6 Ser240/244 increased to a greater extent following exercise in the FMP group. mRNA expression of the amino acid transporter, LAT1/ SLC7A5 increased with both exercise and beverage consumption irrespective of group. PAT1/ SLC36A1 , CAT1/ SLC7A1 and SNAT2/ SLC38A2 mRNA increased only after exercise regardless of group. Nine grams of milk protein is sufficient to augment some measures of downstream mTORC1 signalling after resistance exercise but does not potentiate exercise induced increases in amino acid transporter expression. Formulated products containing nine grams of milk protein would be expected stimulate muscle

  6. Single injection 51Cr EDTA plasma clearance determination in children using capillary blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Christoffersen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of a determination of the total 51 Cr EDTA plasma clearance (e) (and with it the glomerular filtration rate), by a simplified single injection method (injected dose: 4.5 μCi per kg b.w.) using capillary blood samples (0.2 ml), was investigated in twenty children. Clearance values determined from capillary blood samples did not differ significantly from those measured simultaneously from venous blood samples, the mean ratio+-SD being 1.02+-0.06(n = 10). The reproducibility (total day-to-day variation) of E determined from capillary blood samples was 6.7% in children with decreased renal function (n = 3) and 6.9% in children with normal renal function (n = 7). The present data indicate that the use of capillary blood samples is an accurate and very precise approach for determination of E in children. (Auth.)

  7. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  8. A contribution to the bacteriological and hygienic risk assessment of raw milk and raw milk products from farm marketing with emphasis on pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Coenen, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    During the last years farm marketing has significantly increased. The present study deals with the bacteriological-hygienic quality, particularly with pathogenic microorganisms of raw milk and raw milk products from farm marketing. 709 samples of raw milk and raw milk products were collected nationwide. Certified milk (a kind of raw certified grade A milk), ex-farm milk, raw milk cheeses (soft cheese, semihard and hard cheese) and other products made of raw milk underwent quality checks for L...

  9. Determination of estrogenic compounds in milk and yogurt samples by hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Giovanni; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio Vicente; Fanali, Salvatore; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2016-10-01

    An environmentally friendly method based on hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) was developed for the extraction of selected estrogenic compounds (i.e. four natural sexual hormones: estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-estradiol and estriol; two exoestrogens: 17α-ethynylestradiol and 2-methoxyestradiol; two synthetic stilbenes: dienestrol and hexestrol; and five resorcylic acid lactones: zearalenone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol), from whole cow and semi-skimmed goat milk and whole natural yogurt. After the optimization of the sample preparation procedure, spiked extracts were derivatized to their trimethylsilyl products using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide reagent and then analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Once optimum extraction conditions were established (protein precipitation with acetonitrile, extraction and the back-extraction in acetonitrile following the HF-LPME procedure), the method was validated and the calibration range, precision and accuracy were studied. The RSD values for the intra- and inter-day precision of the peak areas were in the range 0.65-9.69 and 1.00-11.47 %, respectively. The determination coefficients were higher than 0.991 for method calibration curves while LOD and LOQ values were between 0.06-2.55 and 0.16-6.11 μg/L for whole cow milk, 0.04-1.70 and 0.11-4.86 μg/L for semi-skimmed goat milk and 0.07-3.73 and 0.23-9.81 μg/L for natural yogurt, respectively. Finally, the accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated, obtaining a value in the range 84 81-119 % and RSD values lower than 20 % in all cases.

  10. The Prediction of the Expected Current Selection Coefficient of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated with Holstein Milk Yield, Fat and Protein Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk-related traits (milk yield, fat and protein have been crucial to selection of Holstein. It is essential to find the current selection trends of Holstein. Despite this, uncovering the current trends of selection have been ignored in previous studies. We suggest a new formula to detect the current selection trends based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP. This suggestion is based on the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP and the Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection both of which are trait-dependent. Fisher’s theorem links the additive genetic variance to the selection coefficient. For Holstein milk production traits, we estimated the additive genetic variance using SNP effect from BLUP and selection coefficients based on genetic variance to search highly selective SNPs. Through these processes, we identified significantly selective SNPs. The number of genes containing highly selective SNPs with p-value <0.01 (nearly top 1% SNPs in all traits and p-value <0.001 (nearly top 0.1% in any traits was 14. They are phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B, serine/threonine kinase 40 (STK40, collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1, ephrin-A1 (EFNA1, netrin 4 (NTN4, neuron specific gene family member 1 (NSG1, estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, neurexin 3 (NRXN3, spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1, ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 1 (ARFIP1, mutL homolog 1 (MLH1, transmembrane channel-like 7 (TMC7, carboxypeptidase X, member 2 (CPXM2 and ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12 (ADAM12. These genes may be important for future artificial selection trends. Also, we found that the SNP effect predicted from BLUP was the key factor to determine the expected current selection coefficient of SNP. Under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of SNP markers in current generation, the selection coefficient is equivalent to 2*SNP effect.

  11. Single- versus multiple-sample method to measure glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Flamant, Martin; Dubourg, Laurence; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lemoine, Sandrine; Cavalier, Etienne; Schaeffner, Elke; Ebert, Natalie; Pottel, Hans

    2018-01-08

    There are many different ways to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using various exogenous filtration markers, each having their own strengths and limitations. However, not only the marker, but also the methodology may vary in many ways, including the use of urinary or plasma clearance, and, in the case of plasma clearance, the number of time points used to calculate the area under the concentration-time curve, ranging from only one (Jacobsson method) to eight (or more) blood samples. We collected the results obtained from 5106 plasma clearances (iohexol or 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)) using three to four time points, allowing GFR calculation using the slope-intercept method and the Bröchner-Mortensen correction. For each time point, the Jacobsson formula was applied to obtain the single-sample GFR. We used Bland-Altman plots to determine the accuracy of the Jacobsson method at each time point. The single-sample method showed within 10% concordances with the multiple-sample method of 66.4%, 83.6%, 91.4% and 96.0% at the time points 120, 180, 240 and ≥300 min, respectively. Concordance was poorer at lower GFR levels, and this trend is in parallel with increasing age. Results were similar in males and females. Some discordance was found in the obese subjects. Single-sample GFR is highly concordant with a multiple-sample strategy, except in the low GFR range (<30 mL/min). © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  12. Sampling and single particle analysis for the chemical characterisation of fine atmospheric particulates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Michele; Gasparon, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    To better understand the potential environmental and human health impacts of fine airborne particulate matter (APM), detailed physical and chemical characterisation is required. The only means to accurately distinguish between the multiple compositions in APM is by single particle analysis. A variety of methods and instruments are available, which range from filter-based sample collection for off-line laboratory analysis to on-line instruments that detect the airborne particles and generate size distribution and chemical data in real time. There are many reasons for sampling particulates in the ambient atmosphere and as a consequence, different measurement strategies and sampling devices are used depending on the scientific objectives and subsequent analytical techniques. This review is designed as a guide to some of the techniques available for the sampling and subsequent chemical analysis of individual inorganic particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A simple microfluidic dispenser for single-microparticle and cell samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukurti, A; Eggleton, C D; Desai, S A; Disharoon, D I; Marr, D W M

    2014-12-21

    Non-destructive isolation of single-cells has become an important need for many biology research laboratories; however, there is a lack of easily employed and inexpensive tools. Here, we present a single-particle sample delivery approach fabricated from simple, economical components that may address this need. In this, we employ unique flow and timing strategies to bridge the significant force and length scale differences inherent in transitioning from single particle isolation to delivery. Demonstrating this approach, we use an optical trap to isolate individual microparticles and red blood cells that are dispensed within separate 50 μl droplets off a microfluidic chip for collection into microscope slides or microtiter plates.

  14. Collective Ion-Pair Single-Drop Microextraction Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Determination of Perchlorate in Bioenvironmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrawanshi, Swati; Verma, Santosh K; Deb, Manas K

    2017-09-28

    Perchlorate (ClO₄ - ) is an environmental pollutant that affects human health. Perchlorate acts as a competitive inhibitor of iodine uptake in the thyroid gland (sodium-iodide symporter inhibitor); thus, its determination is important for public health concerns. Water and milk constitute a significant portion of the human diet. Because regular intake leads to an increase in perchlorate concentration in the human body, the estimation of perchlorate is of great concern. In this work, ion-pair single-drop microextraction (SDME) combined with attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy has been developed for the determination of perchlorate in bioenvironmental (soil, water, dairy milk, breast milk, and urine) samples. Perchlorate was extracted in a single drop of methyl isobutyl ketone as an - with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonuim bromide under optimized conditions. The strongest IR peak (at 1076 cm -1 ) was selected for the quantification of perchlorate among three observed vibrational peaks. Eight calibration curves for different concentration ranges of perchlorate were prepared, and excellent linearity was observed for absorbance and peak area in the range of 0.03-100 ng/mL perchlorate, with r values of 0.977 and 0.976, respectively. The RSDs ( n = 8) for the perchlorate concentration ranges of 0.03-100, 0.03-0.5, 0.5-10, and 10-100 ng/mL were in the range of 1.9-2.7% for the above calibration curves. The LOD and LOQ in the present work were 0.003 and 0.02 ng/mL, respectively. The extracted microdrop was analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The parameters affecting SDME, i.e, effect of pH, stirring rate, reagent concentration, microdrop volume, and extraction time, were optimized, and the role of foreign species was also investigated. F - and t -tests were performed to check the analytical QA of the method. A noteworthy feature of the reported method is the noninterference of any of the associated ions. The results were compared with

  15. Investigation of applicability of extrapolation method for sample field determination in single-yoke measuring setup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stupakov, Oleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 307, - (2006), s. 279-287 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS100100508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic measurement * open magnetic sample * surface field determination * single-yoke setup * magnetic non-destructive testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.212, year: 2006

  16. Chromium-51-EDTA clearance in adults with a single-plasma sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, J; Groth, S; Rehling, M; Gref, M

    1998-12-01

    In 1996, a committee on renal clearance recommended a mean sojourn time-based methodology for single-sample determination of plasma clearance of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) to be used on adults if the patient's glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is suspected to be >30 ml/min. The main purpose of this study was to derive a mean sojourn time-based formula for calculation of 51Cr-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) clearance in adults. Two groups of patients with 51Cr-EDTA clearance (Cl) between 16 and 172 ml/min were studied. In Group I (n = 46), reference Cl was determined as a multiplasma sample, single-injection method (ClSM). Sixteen blood samples were drawn from 0 until 5 hr after a single intravenous injection of 51Cr-EDTA. In Group II (n = 1046), reference Cl was determined by the Brøchner-Mortensen four-sample clearance method (ClBM). The plasma time-activity curves of Group I were used to derive two mean sojourn time-based formulas (Formulas 1 and 2) for calculation of a single-sample clearance. Formula 1 was derived from the entire time-activity curve, whereas the derivation of Formula 2 used only the final slope of the time-activity curve. The accuracy of the two formulas and the Christensen and Groth 99mTc-DTPA formula was tested on Group II. Chromium-51-EDTA Cl calculated by Formula 1 was almost identical to the Cl calculated by the reference Cl method (r = 0.982; SDdiff = 5.82 ml/min). Both 51Cr-EDTA Cl calculated by Formula 2 and by the 99mTc-DTPA formula showed close correlation with the reference method (r = 0.976, r = 0.985, respectively) but systematically overestimated GFR for the whole range of clearance values by 3.5 and 3.2 ml/min (ptime methodology. The determination is marginally more accurate (ptime-activity curve than from only the final slope. The single-sample formula derived for determination of 99mTc-DTPA Cl tends slightly to overestimate GFR if used to calculate 51Cr-EDTA Cl.

  17. Microbiological Evaluation of Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT)-Treated Milk Close to Expiry Date and Routine Home Practices for Preservation of Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppu, Udayalaxmi; Jayaram, Namitha; Satya, Sneha; Purayil, Amrutha Kandathil

    2015-01-01

    As milk is an excellent medium for growth of microorganisms, milk gets contaminated very easily leading to its early spoilage and to milk-borne diseases. To compare the quality of pasteurized milk with milk cooker-treated milk and to compare the quality of fresh ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk with that of UHT milk close to expiry date. Samples of pasteurized milk, milk heated in milk cooker, fresh UHT milk, and UHT milk nearing expiry date were tested by methylene blue reduction test, coliform test, and colony count test. The results were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. All milk samples passed the methylene blue test and UHT-treated milk passed the coliform test also. Out of the 30 fresh pasteurized milk samples, seven (23.3%) passed the coliform test; but the same after milk cooker treatment, 16 (53.3%) passed the coliform test (P milk samples failed the colony count test, but the same after milk cooker treatment only eight (26.6%) failed the test (P = 0.583). Only seven out of the 60 UHT milk samples failed the colony count test and out of these six (20%) were close to expiry date (P Milk cooker-treated milk appears to be safer than the fresh pasteurized milk. Fresh UHT-treated milk is safer then UHT milk close to expiry date.

  18. Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mirzaii

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The first step in utilizing appropriate microorganisms to produce probiotic milk products is to recognize their growth conditions in milk and the factors influencing them. In this research, the effect of dextrose, valine, glycine, thiamine and different temperatures on growth rate of Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk has been studied and for this purpose, fermented milk by B. bifidum has been used as stock culture in order to inoculate the milk samples. First 28, 35, 42, 49 and then 35, 38, 41 and 44°C incubators were used to choose the suitable incubation temperature for growth of the microorganisms and the acidity of milk samples were measured as a growth index of the microorganisms prior to and during incubation. Concentrations of 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15 ppm of thiamine; 0(control, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1% of dextrose; 0(control, 30, 60, 90 and 120 ppm of glycine and valine were used to evaluate their effects on the growth rate of B. bifidum and acidity of milk samples were measured before incubation and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours of incubation at 42°C. The rate of increase of acidity at 44°C and 41°C was significantly higher than the other temperatures (p

  19. FT-Raman and chemometric tools for rapid determination of quality parameters in milk powder: Classification of samples for the presence of lactose and fraud detection by addition of maltodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Júnior, Paulo Henrique; de Sá Oliveira, Kamila; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Rocha; De Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Stephani, Rodrigo; Pinto, Michele da Silva; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler

    2016-04-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy has been explored as a quick screening method to evaluate the presence of lactose and identify milk powder samples adulterated with maltodextrin (2.5-50% w/w). Raman measurements can easily differentiate samples of milk powder, without the need for sample preparation, while traditional quality control methods, including high performance liquid chromatography, are cumbersome and slow. FT-Raman spectra were obtained from samples of whole lactose and low-lactose milk powder, both without and with addition of maltodextrin. Differences were observed between the spectra involved in identifying samples with low lactose content, as well as adulterated samples. Exploratory data analysis using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis was also developed to classify samples with PCA and PLS-DA. The PLS-DA models obtained allowed to correctly classify all samples. These results demonstrate the utility of FT-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics to infer about the quality of milk powder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextration of chlorobenzenes from water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Lorena [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Domini, Claudia E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Grane, Nuria [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Psillakis, Elefteria [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania, Crete (Greece); Canals, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: a.canals@ua.es

    2007-05-29

    A one-step and in-situ sample preparation method used for quantifying chlorobenzene compounds in water samples has been developed, coupling microwave and headspace single-drop microextraction (MW-HS-SDME). The chlorobenzenes in water samples were extracted directly onto an ionic liquid single-drop in headspace mode under the aid of microwave radiation. For optimization, a Plackett-Burman screening design was initially used, followed by a mixed-level factorial design. The factors considered were: drop volume, aqueous sample volume, stirring speed, ionic strength, extraction time, ionic liquid type, microwave power and length of the Y-shaped glass-tube. The optimum experimental conditions found from this statistical evaluation were: a 5 {mu}L microdrop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate exposed for 20 min to the headspace of a 30 mL aqueous sample, irradiated by microwaves at 200 W and placed in a 50 mL spherical flask connected to a 25 cm Y-shaped glass-tube. Under the optimised experimental conditions, the response of a high performance liquid chromatographic system was found to be linear over the range studied and with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The method showed a good level of repeatability, with relative standard deviations varying between 2.3 and 8.3% (n = 5). Detection limits were found in the low {mu}g L{sup -1} range varying between 0.016 and 0.039 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Overall, the performance of the proposed method demonstrated the favourable effect of microwave sample irradiation upon HS-SDME. Finally, recovery studies from different types of environmental water samples revealed that matrix had little effect upon extraction.

  1. Microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextration of chlorobenzenes from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Lorena; Domini, Claudia E.; Grane, Nuria; Psillakis, Elefteria; Canals, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    A one-step and in-situ sample preparation method used for quantifying chlorobenzene compounds in water samples has been developed, coupling microwave and headspace single-drop microextraction (MW-HS-SDME). The chlorobenzenes in water samples were extracted directly onto an ionic liquid single-drop in headspace mode under the aid of microwave radiation. For optimization, a Plackett-Burman screening design was initially used, followed by a mixed-level factorial design. The factors considered were: drop volume, aqueous sample volume, stirring speed, ionic strength, extraction time, ionic liquid type, microwave power and length of the Y-shaped glass-tube. The optimum experimental conditions found from this statistical evaluation were: a 5 μL microdrop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate exposed for 20 min to the headspace of a 30 mL aqueous sample, irradiated by microwaves at 200 W and placed in a 50 mL spherical flask connected to a 25 cm Y-shaped glass-tube. Under the optimised experimental conditions, the response of a high performance liquid chromatographic system was found to be linear over the range studied and with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The method showed a good level of repeatability, with relative standard deviations varying between 2.3 and 8.3% (n = 5). Detection limits were found in the low μg L -1 range varying between 0.016 and 0.039 μg L -1 . Overall, the performance of the proposed method demonstrated the favourable effect of microwave sample irradiation upon HS-SDME. Finally, recovery studies from different types of environmental water samples revealed that matrix had little effect upon extraction

  2. Detection of Janus Kinase 2 gene single point mutation in real samples with electrochemical DNA biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Seda Nur; Kosova, Buket; Ozsoz, Mehmet

    2014-02-15

    Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) gene single point mutations, which have been reported to be associated with myeloproliferative disorders, are usually detected through conventional methods such as melting curve assays, allele-specific and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCRs). Herein, an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of a Guanine (G) to Thymine (T) transversion at nucleotide position 1849 of the JAK2 gene was reported. Due to clinical importance of this mutation, easy and sensitive tests are needed to be developed. Our aim was to design a biosensor system that is capable of detecting the mutation within less than 1h with high sensitivity. For these purposes, an electrochemical sensing system was developed based on detecting hybridization. Hybridization between probe and its target and discrimination of single point mutation was investigated by monitoring guanine oxidation signals observed at +1.0 V with Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) by using synthetic oligonucleotides and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplicons. Hybridization between probe and PCR amplicons was also determined with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). We successfully detect hybridization first in synthetic samples, and ultimately in real samples involving blood samples from patients as well as additional healthy controls. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was calculated as 44 pmol of target sequence in a 40-μl reaction volume in real samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of season on milk temperature, milk growth hormone, prolactin, and somatic cell counts of lactating cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igono, M. O.; Johnson, H. D.; Steevens, B. J.; Hainen, W. A.; Shanklin, M. D.

    1988-09-01

    Monthly fluctuations in milk temperature, somatic cell counts, milk growth hormone and prolactin of lactating cows were measured in milk samples over a 1 year period. The seasonal patterns in milk temperature, somatic cell count and milk prolactin concentration showed a positive trend with increasing environmental temperatures. Milk growth hormone concentration increased with lactation level and declined significantly during summer heat. Milk temperature and the measured hormonal levels may serve as indicators of the impact of the climatic environment on lactating cattle.

  4. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Milk Allergy Print en español Alergia a la leche So many foods are made with milk and ... places, such as processed lunchmeats, margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is ...

  5. Simple and Reproducible Sample Preparation for Single-Shot Phosphoproteomics with High Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R.; Sultan, Abida; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    The traditional sample preparation workflow for mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics is time consuming and usually requires multiple steps, e.g., lysis, protein precipitation, reduction, alkylation, digestion, fractionation, and phosphopeptide enrichment. Each step can introduce chemical...... artifacts, in vitro protein and peptide modifications, and contaminations. Those often result in sample loss and affect the sensitivity, dynamic range and accuracy of the mass spectrometric analysis. Here we describe a simple and reproducible phosphoproteomics protocol, where lysis, denaturation, reduction......, and alkylation are performed in a single step, thus reducing sample loss and increasing reproducibility. Moreover, unlike standard cell lysis procedures the cell harvesting is performed at high temperatures (99 °C) and without detergents and subsequent need for protein precipitation. Phosphopeptides are enriched...

  6. A single sample GnRHa stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani Parvin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH has been the standard test for diagnosing central precocious puberty. Because GnRH is no longer available, GnRH analogues (GnRHa are now used. Random LH concentration, measured by the third-generation immunochemiluminometric assay, is a useful screening tool for central precocious puberty. However, GnRHa stimulation test should be considered, when a basal LH measurement is inconclusive. However optimal sampling times for luteinizing hormone (LH have yet to be established. Purpose To determine the appropriate sampling time for LH post leuprolide challenge. Methods A retrospective analysis of multi-sample GnRHa stimulation tests performed in 155 children (aged 1–9 years referred for precocious puberty to Texas Children’s Hospital. After 20 mcg/kg of SQ leuprolide acetate, samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, and 6 hours. Results Of 71 children with clinical evidence of central precocious puberty, fifty nine children had a peak LH >5 mIU/mL. 52 (88% of these responders had positive responses at 1 hour (95% CI is 80–96%, whereas all 59 children (100% had a peak LH response >5 mIU/mL at 3 hours (95% CI is 94-100%, P = 0.005. Conclusions A single serum LH sample collected 3 hours post GnRHa challenge is the optimal sample to establish the diagnosis of central precocious puberty.

  7. Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katholm, Jørgen; Bennedsgaard, T.W.; Koskinen, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a commercial real-time PCR analysis for 11 mastitis pathogens from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from all 4,258 Danish dairy herds in November 2009 to January 2010 were compared with somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacteria count (TBC) estimates in BTM. For Streptococcus agalactiae......, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis, a low real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value (corresponding to high bacterial DNA quantity) was correlated with higher SCC and higher TBC. For Staphylococcus aureus, low Ct values were correlated only with higher SCC. For the environmental mastitis...... pathogens Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, low Ct values had a correlation with higher TBC. Staphylococcus spp. were found in the BTM from all herds, Strep. uberis in 95%, Staph. aureus in 91%, and Strep. dysgalactiae in 86%, whereas E. coli, Klebsiella, and Strep. agalactiae were...

  8. Natural radiation levels in powdered milk samples Níveis de radioatividade natural em amostras de leite em pó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. Melquiades

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The control and monitoring of radioactive elements in foodstuffs is fundamental for human health maintenance. This work presents procedures to measure radioactivity levels in powdered milk samples and also a brief discussion of radionuclide transference from the environment to mankind. The measurements were performed utilizing a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer using an HPGe detector. The results allowed the quantification of 40K, 137Cs and 208Tl radionuclides. For 40K the average activity was 482 ± 37 Bq/kg and for 137Cs and 208Tl the lower level of detection was, respectively, 3.7 ± 1.1 and 0.5 ± 0.2 (Bq/kg. The results obtained for the milk samples were compared to data found in the literature and to the limits established by the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN to assure its safety to human consuption.A medida de traços radioativos, no ambiente e em elimentos, é de fundamental importância para o monitoramento dos níveis de radiação a que o homem està exposto, direta ou indiretamente. Este trabalho consiste na medida de traços radioativos em leite em pó, através da espectrometria gama de alta resolução. Foi possível identificar os radionuclídeos 40K, 137Cs e 232Th (obtido do 208Tl com as respectivas atividades médias, em Bq/Kg, 482 ± 37, 5,1 - 11,2 and 1,6 - 3,7. Os resultados foram comparados com os limites estabelecidos pela Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN, apresentando níveis normais para os leites analisados, podendo ser consumido sem restrições.

  9. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an aver...

  10. High Thermo-Separation Efficiency of 99mTc from Molten 100MoO3 Samples by Repeated Milking Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Kawabata, Masako; Sato, Nozomi; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji

    2014-08-01

    High thermo-separation efficiencies of about 90 and 70% have been obtained for the first time for 99mTc from molten MoO3 samples containing 99Mo with thicknesses of 4.0 and 8.5 mm, respectively, by repeated milking tests. 99Mo was produced with 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo by using neutrons from 3H(d,n)4He. The thermo-separation efficiency was determined by measuring the 141 keV γ-ray yield of 99mTc within the molten MoO3 samples with a radiation detector as a function of the furnace temperature and time. The diffusion coefficients of 99mTc in the molten MoO3 samples were estimated in order to help understand the high thermo-separation efficiency. The present result solves a long-standing problem of decreasing the separation efficiency of 99mTc from MoO3 while increasing the sample mass or repeating sublimation in thermo-separation, and will bring a major breakthrough to obtain high-quality 99mTc from MoO3 irradiated by accelerator-neutrons (protons) or reactor-neutrons.

  11. Zooplankton diversity analysis through single-gene sequencing of a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Mutsumi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans cover more than 70% of the earth's surface and are critical for the homeostasis of the environment. Among the components of the ocean ecosystem, zooplankton play vital roles in energy and matter transfer through the system. Despite their importance, understanding of zooplankton biodiversity is limited because of their fragile nature, small body size, and the large number of species from various taxonomic phyla. Here we present the results of single-gene zooplankton community analysis using a method that determines a large number of mitochondrial COI gene sequences from a bulk zooplankton sample. This approach will enable us to estimate the species richness of almost the entire zooplankton community. Results A sample was collected from a depth of 721 m to the surface in the western equatorial Pacific off Pohnpei Island, Micronesia, with a plankton net equipped with a 2-m2 mouth opening. A total of 1,336 mitochondrial COI gene sequences were determined from the cDNA library made from the sample. From the determined sequences, the occurrence of 189 species of zooplankton was estimated. BLASTN search results showed high degrees of similarity (>98% between the query and database for 10 species, including holozooplankton and merozooplankton. Conclusion In conjunction with the Census of Marine Zooplankton and Barcode of Life projects, single-gene zooplankton community analysis will be a powerful tool for estimating the species richness of zooplankton communities.

  12. Estimation of technetium 99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine plasma clearance by use of one single plasma sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Suur, R.; Magnusson, G.; Karolinska Inst., Stockholm; Bois-Svensson, I.; Jansson, B.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that technetium 99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3) is a suitable replacement for iodine 131 or 123 hippurate in gamma-camera renography. Also, the determination of its clearance is of value, since it correlates well with that of hippurate and thus may be an indirect measure of renal plasma flow. In order to simplify the clearance method we developed formulas for the estimation of plasma clearance of MAG-3 based on a single plasma sample and compared them with the multiple sample method based on 7 plasma samples. The correlation to effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) (according to Tauxe's method, using iodine 123 hippurate), which ranged from 75 to 654 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , was determined in these patients. Using the developed regression equations the error of estimate for the simplified clearance method was acceptably low (18-14 ml/min), when the single plasma sample was taken 44-64 min post-injection. Formulas for different sampling times at 44, 48, 52, 56, 60 and 64 min are given, and we recommend 60 min as optimal, with an error of estimate of 15.5 ml/min. The correlation between the MAG-3 clearances and ERPF was high (r=0.90). Since normal values for MAG-3 clearance are not yet available, transformation to estimated ERPF values by the regression equation (ERPF=1.86xC MAG-3 +4.6) could be of clinical value in order to compare it with the normal values for ERPF given in the literature. (orig.)

  13. Pheno- and genotyping of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk and human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorberg, B. M.; Kuhn, I.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    (PFGE) and 122 by ribotyping. PFGE showed single patterns in the human strains with one exception; one strain was categorised as the same clone as four of the milk strains. PFGE divided 73 of the milk strains into 62 different patterns. The PFGE method had high discriminatory power and shows that many...... different S. epidermidis types exist in milk samples. Antibiotic resistance patterns matched the SmaI profiles closely in the two herds, but poorly in the routinely collected milk samples. Isolates from herd I showed one to five patterns, depending on the typing method used. Isolates from the milker's skin...... showed one pattern, which was identical to the most common pattern found in the milk isolates. Isolates from herd 2 showed three to four patterns, two of these being identical to skin isolates from the milker. As dairy cows are not a natural host for S. epidermidis the results suggest a human source...

  14. Structural and magnetic properties evolution study method using a single ribbon-shaped sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Javier A.

    2017-06-01

    A new type of study is presented for magnetic and structural characterization of amorphous or nanocrystalline metallic alloys in ribbon or wire-shaped samples. A single sample is subjecting to successive steps of flash isocurrent heat treatments with increasing duration in time, followed by a rapid cooling, while magneto-electric properties evolution are scanned in situ at room temperature. When one set of isocurrent heat treatments is finished, the annealing current is increased and a new set of isocurrent treatments starts. The properties studied were the saturation magnetization and the coercive field at 50 Hz, magnetic permeability at 100 kHz and electrical resistance from where we also obtained the crystalline fraction. The method was applied on two samples of Finemet-like alloys and the results were analyzed from the perspective of current literature. With the present method it is possible to obtain a general and meticulous understanding of the structural and magnetic evolution of the samples tested, with a considerable saving of time and samples.

  15. A Bayesian predictive sample size selection design for single-arm exploratory clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramukai, Satoshi; Daimon, Takashi; Zohar, Sarah

    2012-12-30

    The aim of an exploratory clinical trial is to determine whether a new intervention is promising for further testing in confirmatory clinical trials. Most exploratory clinical trials are designed as single-arm trials using a binary outcome with or without interim monitoring for early stopping. In this context, we propose a Bayesian adaptive design denoted as predictive sample size selection design (PSSD). The design allows for sample size selection following any planned interim analyses for early stopping of a trial, together with sample size determination before starting the trial. In the PSSD, we determine the sample size using the method proposed by Sambucini (Statistics in Medicine 2008; 27:1199-1224), which adopts a predictive probability criterion with two kinds of prior distributions, that is, an 'analysis prior' used to compute posterior probabilities and a 'design prior' used to obtain prior predictive distributions. In the sample size determination of the PSSD, we provide two sample sizes, that is, N and N(max) , using two types of design priors. At each interim analysis, we calculate the predictive probabilities of achieving a successful result at the end of the trial using the analysis prior in order to stop the trial in case of low or high efficacy (Lee et al., Clinical Trials 2008; 5:93-106), and we select an optimal sample size, that is, either N or N(max) as needed, on the basis of the predictive probabilities. We investigate the operating characteristics through simulation studies, and the PSSD retrospectively applies to a lung cancer clinical trial. (243) Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2012.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Dong, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The method described is intended for the quantification of all fatty acids, including commercially important groups of fatty acids used for labeling reasons [i. e., trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9] and/or individual fatty acids (i. e., linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) in milk products, infant formula, and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. These products often contain milk fat and/or vegetable oils and are supplemented or not supplemented with oils rich in long-chain PUFA. The determination is performed by direct transesterification of ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid concentrate or powder products without prior fat extraction. Single-laboratory validation (SLV) data were submitted to the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Nutrient Methods for review at the AOAC Annual Meeting held on September 30 to October 3, 2012, in Las Vegas, NV. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR® 2012.011) set by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) and was approved as an AOAC Official First Action method. The analytical range for SPIFAN samples was between 0.001 and 7.94 g/100 g reconstituted product or RTF liquid. LOQ was estimated as 0.001 g/100 g, while repeatability and intermediate precision were both less than 1.8% RSD above 0.05 g/100 g and acids ranged from 100.0 to 102.9% for three different SPIFAN products. All the parameters evaluated during the SLV were well within the values defined in SMPR 2012.011.

  17. [Milk fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M

    1989-05-01

    Infectious complications following delivery were, in the past, attributed to "milk fever": these were milk congestion, milk deposits, rancid milk, etc., that were held responsible. The milk was reabsorbed into the blood of the patient and settled in the peritoneum ("milk peritonitis"), in the broad ligaments (pelvic abscess), in the thighs (phlebitis) and also in the breasts (breast abscess). This belief, originated by Aristotle, was accepted by excellent authors like Andre Levret (1703-1780), one of the most famous French obstetricians and Nicolas Puzos, at the same time. More recently, authors alluded to it and blamed "milk fever" for being at the origin of dramatic pictures which they described in their novels, like Victor Hugo and Guy de Maupassant, for instance.

  18. Detection of antibiotic residues and association of cefquinome residues with the occurrence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in waste milk samples from dairy farms in England and Wales in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Luke; Heinrich, Katharina; Horton, Robert; Brunton, Lucy; Sharman, Matthew; Bailey-Horne, Victoria; Sharma, Meenaxi; McLaren, Ian; Coldham, Nick; Teale, Chris; Jones, Jeff

    2014-02-01

    Waste milk samples from 103 farms in England and Wales were examined for the presence of β-lactam antibiotics and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Approximately 10 months after the initial sampling, further waste milk, environmental and faecal samples from farms shown to be positive for CTX-M Escherichia coli were investigated further. Isolates with an ESBL phenotype were tested by PCR for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaOXA, blaSHV and blaTEM genes. Isolates positive for blaCTX-M were sequenced to determine CTX-M type. Representative isolates were further examined by PFGE, plasmid replicon typing and serotyping. Of particular interest, 21.4% of waste milk samples contained residues of the cephalosporin cefquinome, which was significantly associated with CTX-M bacteria. Such bacteria occurred in 5.8% of the waste milk samples (including 3.9% CTX-M E. coli). CTX-M types identified were 1, 14, 14b and 15, but none of the E. coli were serotype O25, the serotype of the human pandemic strain. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Determining the source of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banykó, J; Vyletelová, M

    2009-03-01

    Strain-specific detection of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk, and yoghurt during processing. Randomly selected isolates of Bacillus spp. were subjected to PCR analysis, where single primer targeting to the repetitive sequence Box elements was used to fingerprint the species. The isolates were separated into six different fingerprint patterns. The results show that isolates clustered together at about the 57% similarity level with two main groups at the 82% and 83% similarity levels, respectively. Contamination with identical strains both of B. cereus and B. licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk was found as well as contaminated with different strains (in the case of raw milk and yoghurt/pasteurized milk and yoghurt). Several BOX types traced in processed milk samples were not discovered in the original raw milk. BOX-PCR fingerprinting is useful for characterizing Bacillus populations in a dairy environment. It can be used to confirm environmental contamination, eventually clonal transfer of Bacillus strains during the technological processing of milk. Despite the limited number of strains analysed, the two Bacillus species yielded adequately detectable banding profiles, permitting differentiation of bacteria at the strain level and showing their diversity throughout dairy processing.

  1. Camel milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  2. Prediction of two-sample 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid plasma clearance from single-sample method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Li; Ma Ying-Chun; Wang Mei; Zhang Chun-Li; Wang Rong-Fu; Wang Hai-Yan

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an equation to predict dual plasma sample method (DPSM) 99m Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA) plasma clearance from single plasma sample method (SPSM), and to clarify the condition in which DPSM can be substituted by SPSM in measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were selected. Watson modified Christensen and Groth equation was used to calculate 99m Tc-DTPA plasma clearance by SPSM (sGFR). The equation recommended by the Nephrourology Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine was used to calculate 99m Tc-DTPA plasma clearance by DPSM (tGFR) in each patient. The difference between sGFR and tGFR was expressed as percent of the average of these two methods, and tGFR was predicted from sGFR. Plasma creatinine was measured by the kinetic picrate method, and GFR estimated by abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation (aGFR) and Cockcroft-Gault equation (cGFR) were evaluated as criteria in selection of DPSM and SPSM. Three hundred and sixty-nine patients with CKD were selected (208 male and 161 female). The average age and body weight were 51.4±15.5 years and 67.2±12.5 kg, respectively. The causes of CKD were glomerular disease, renal arterial stenosis, chronic tubulointerstitial disease, and other causes or causes unknown. The average tGFR was 62.9±36.5 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , ranging from 1-180 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . sGFR was significantly correlated with tGFR (r=0.9194, p 2 ; in contrast, then tGFR was±30 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , the difference was constant (-1.1%, 95% confidence interval -18.3%, 16.1%), and tGFR could be predicted from sGFR using the equation: predicted tGFR (ml/min/1.73 m 2 )=7 4244+0.7318 x sGFR+0.0022 x sGFR 2 (n=299, r 2 =0.9428, p 2 , the diagnostic sensitivity of a cut off value of aGFR=45 ml/min/1.73 m 2 was 91.8%, and recommended as a criterion in the selection of DPSM and SPSM. When GFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , t

  3. Variation in orgasm occurrence by sexual orientation in a sample of U.S. singles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A; Wallen, Kim; Fisher, Helen E

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding orgasm variation, little is known about ways in which sexual orientation is associated with men's and women's orgasm occurrence. To assess orgasm occurrence during sexual activity across sexual orientation categories. Data were collected by Internet questionnaire from 6,151 men and women (ages 21-65+ years) as part of a nationally representative sample of single individuals in the United States. Analyses were restricted to a subsample of 2,850 singles (1,497 men, 1,353 women) who had experienced sexual activity in the past 12 months. Participants reported their sex/gender, self-identified sexual orientation (heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual), and what percentage of the time they experience orgasm when having sex with a familiar partner. Mean occurrence rate for experiencing orgasm during sexual activity with a familiar partner was 62.9% among single women and 85.1% among single men, which was significantly different (F1,2848  = 370.6, P sexual orientation: heterosexual men 85.5%, gay men 84.7%, bisexual men 77.6% (F2,1494  = 2.67, P = 0.07, η(2)  = 0.004). For women, however, mean occurrence rate of orgasm varied significantly by sexual orientation: heterosexual women 61.6%, lesbian women 74.7%, bisexual women 58.0% (F2,1350  = 10.95, P sexual orientation, have less predictable, more varied orgasm experiences than do men and that for women, but not men, the likelihood of orgasm varies with sexual orientation. These findings demonstrate the need for further investigations into the comparative sexual experiences and sexual health outcomes of sexual minorities. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Lactation Persistency as a Component Trait of the Selection Index and Increase in Reliability by Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Net Merit Defined as the First Five Lactation Milk Yields and Herd Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Togashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We first sought to clarify the effects of discounted rate, survival rate, and lactation persistency as a component trait of the selection index on net merit, defined as the first five lactation milks and herd life (HL weighted by 1 and 0.389 (currently used in Japan, respectively, in units of genetic standard deviation. Survival rate increased the relative economic importance of later lactation traits and the first five lactation milk yields during the first 120 months from the start of the breeding scheme. In contrast, reliabilities of the estimated breeding value (EBV in later lactation traits are lower than those of earlier lactation traits. We then sought to clarify the effects of applying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP on net merit to improve the reliability of EBV of later lactation traits to maximize their increased economic importance due to increase in survival rate. Net merit, selection accuracy, and HL increased by adding lactation persistency to the selection index whose component traits were only milk yields. Lactation persistency of the second and (especially third parities contributed to increasing HL while maintaining the first five lactation milk yields compared with the selection index whose only component traits were milk yields. A selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency accounted for 99.4% of net merit derived from a selection index whose components were identical to those for net merit. We consider that the selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency is a practical method for increasing lifetime milk yield in the absence of data regarding HL. Applying SNP to the second- and third-lactation traits and HL increased net merit and HL by maximizing the increased economic importance of later lactation traits, reducing the effect of first-lactation milk yield on HL (genetic correlation (rG = −0.006, and by augmenting the effects of the second- and

  5. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  6. MPLEx: a Robust and Universal Protocol for Single-Sample Integrative Proteomic, Metabolomic, and Lipidomic Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Sims, Amy C.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Shukla, Anil K.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.; Chia, Nicholas

    2016-05-03

    ABSTRACT

    Integrative multi-omics analyses can empower more effective investigation and complete understanding of complex biological systems. Despite recent advances in a range of omics analyses, multi-omic measurements of the same sample are still challenging and current methods have not been well evaluated in terms of reproducibility and broad applicability. Here we adapted a solvent-based method, widely applied for extracting lipids and metabolites, to add proteomics to mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements. Themetabolite,protein, andlipidextraction (MPLEx) protocol proved to be robust and applicable to a diverse set of sample types, including cell cultures, microbial communities, and tissues. To illustrate the utility of this protocol, an integrative multi-omics analysis was performed using a lung epithelial cell line infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which showed the impact of this virus on the host glycolytic pathway and also suggested a role for lipids during infection. The MPLEx method is a simple, fast, and robust protocol that can be applied for integrative multi-omic measurements from diverse sample types (e.g., environmental,in vitro, and clinical).

    IMPORTANCEIn systems biology studies, the integration of multiple omics measurements (i.e., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics) has been shown to provide a more complete and informative view of biological pathways. Thus, the prospect of extracting different types of molecules (e.g., DNAs, RNAs, proteins, and metabolites) and performing multiple omics measurements on single samples is very attractive, but such studies are challenging due to the fact that the extraction conditions differ according to the molecule type. Here, we adapted an organic solvent-based extraction method that demonstrated

  7. Single-Tube Flow Cytometry Assay for the Detection of Mature Lymphoid Neoplasms in Paucicellular Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacchini, Alessandra; Demurtas, Anna; Aliberti, Sabrina; Barreca, Antonella; Novero, Domenico; Pacchioni, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) has become a useful support for cytomorphologic evaluation (CM) of fine-needle aspirates (FNA) and serous cavity effusions (SCE) in cases of suspected non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). FC results may be hampered by the scarce viability and low cellularity of the specimens. We developed a single-tube FC assay (STA) that included 10 antibodies cocktailed in 8-color labeling, a cell viability dye, and a logical gating strategy to detect NHL in hypocellular samples. The results were correlated with CM and confirmed by histologic or molecular data when available. Using the STA, we detected B-type NHL in 31 out of 103 hypocellular samples (81 FNA and 22 SCE). Of these, 8 were not confirmed by CM and 2 were considered to be only suspicious. The FC-negative samples had a final diagnosis of benign/reactive process (42/72), carcinoma (27/72), or Hodgkin lymphoma (3/72). The STA approach allowed obtainment of maximum immunophenotyping data in specimens containing a low number of cells and a large amount of debris. The information obtained by STA can help cytomorphologists not only to recognize but also to exclude malignant lymphomas. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Selective ionic liquid ferrofluid based dispersive-solid phase extraction for simultaneous preconcentration/separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasih Ramandi, Negin; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, a selective ionic liquid ferrofluid has been used in dispersive solid phase extraction (IL-FF-D-SPE) for simultaneous preconcentration and separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. To improve the selectivity of the ionic liquid ferrofluid, the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles with a magnetic core as sorbent was modified by loading 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol. Due to the rapid injection of an appropriate amount of ionic liquid ferrofluid into the aqueous sample by a syringe, extraction can be achieved within a few seconds. In addition, based on the attraction of the ionic liquid ferrofluid to a magnet, no centrifugation step is needed for phase separation. The experimental parameters of IL-FF-D-SPE were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) after a Plackett-Burman screening design. Under the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviations of 2.2% and 2.4% were obtained for lead and cadmium, respectively (n=7). The limit of detections were 1.21 µg L(-1) for Pb(II) and 0.21 µg L(-1) for Cd(II). The preconcentration factors were 250 for lead and 200 for cadmium and the maximum adsorption capacities of the sorbent were 11.18 and 9.34 mg g(-1) for lead and cadmium, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. MILK CANDIES WITH INCREASED SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  10. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R.; Lef?vre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.; Hassiotou, Foteini

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that...

  11. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Andrea B.; Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ∼ 150 μg of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ► Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a μg/kg basis, ∼ 5 × higher than those of mothers. ► Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ► Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  12. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  13. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam P. Sagar; Bhavbhuti M. Mehta; K. N. Wadhwani; V. B. Darji; K. D. Aparnathi

    2016-01-01

    Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT) of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT ...

  14. Absorption, distribution, and milk secretion of neptunium in the dairy goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, A.A.; Lloyd, S.R.; Mosley, R.E.; Potter, G.D.; Patzer, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Two of three lactating goats confined in metabolism stalls were each given a single oral dose of citrate-buffered neptunium-234 chloride, and the third goat was given a single intravenous dose. During the next 5 days, blood samples and all of the milk, urine, and feces from the goats were collected for neptunium-234 analysis

  15. Sequential injection spectrophotometric determination of tetracycline antibiotics in pharmaceutical preparations and their residues in honey and milk samples using yttrium (III) and cationic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanasarakhan, Wish; Kruanetr, Senee; Deming, Richard L; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Wangkarn, Sunantha; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2011-06-15

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) spectrophotometric method for determining tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) in different sample matrices were described. The method was based on the reaction between tetracyclines and yttrium (III) in weak basic micellar medium, yielding the light yellow complexes, which were monitored at 390, 392 and 395 nm, respectively. A cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used to obtain the micellar system. The linear ranges of calibration graphs were between 1.0 × 10(-5) and 4 × 10(-4) mol L(-1), respectively. The molar absorptivities were 5.24 × 10(5), 4.98 × 10(4) and 4.78 × 10(4) L mol(-1)cm(-1). The detection limits (3σ) were between 4.9 × 10(-6) and 7.8 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) whereas the limit of quantitations (10σ) were between 1.63 × 10(-5) and 2.60 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) the interday and intraday precisions within a weak revealed as the relative standard deviations (R.S.D., n=11) were less than 4%. The method was rapid with a sampling rate of over 60 samples h(-1) for the three drugs. The proposed method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of tetracycline and its derivatives in pharmaceutical preparations together with their residues in milk and honey samples collected in Chiang Mai Province. The accuracy was found to be high as the Student's t-values were found to be less than the theoretical ones. The results were compared favorably with those obtained by the conventional spectrophotometric method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of 131J-Jodohippurateclearance by a simplified method using a single plasma sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, H.; Golde, G.; Kampf, D.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical volumes calculated from the reciprocal of the plasma concentration of 131 J-Jodohippurate were compared in 95 patients with clearance values calculated by the 2-compartment-method and in 18 patients with conventional PAH-clearance. For estimating Hippurate-clearance from a single blood sampling the most favorable time is 45 min. after injection (r = 0.96; clearance 400/ml/min.: r = 0.98). Clearance values may be derived from the formula: C = 0.4 + 7.26 V - 0.021 x V 2 (V = injected activity/activity per l plasma taken 45 min. after injection). The simplicity, precision and reproducibility of the above mentioned clearance-method is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  17. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an average freezing point of -0.528°C for buffalo milk and -0.522°C for bovine milk. Given the lack of data on the freezing point of buffalo milk, our study provides the first indication of a basic freezing point of the milk of this species in Italy.

  18. Single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle using Cartesian sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzl, Jens; Schmidt, Michaela; Pontana, François; Longère, Benjamin; Lugauer, Felix; Maier, Andreas; Hornegger, Joachim; Forman, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate a single-breath-hold approach for Cartesian 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle with a nearly isotropic resolution of [Formula: see text] and a breath-hold duration of [Formula: see text]19 s against a standard stack of 2-D CINE slices acquired in multiple breath-holds. Validation is performed with data sets from ten healthy volunteers. A Cartesian sampling pattern based on the spiral phyllotaxis and a compressed sensing reconstruction method are proposed to allow 3-D CINE imaging with high acceleration factors. The fully integrated reconstruction uses multiple graphics processing units to speed up the reconstruction. The 2-D CINE and 3-D CINE are compared based on ventricular function parameters, contrast-to-noise ratio and edge sharpness measurements. Visual comparisons of corresponding short-axis slices of 2-D and 3-D CINE show an excellent match, while 3-D CINE also allows reformatting to other orientations. Ventricular function parameters do not significantly differ from values based on 2-D CINE imaging. Reconstruction times are below 4 min. We demonstrate single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging in volunteers and three example patient cases, which features fast reconstruction and allows reformatting to arbitrary orientations.

  19. Single cell PCR amplification of diatoms using fresh and preserved samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paul B.; Lefebvre, Keely E.; Bull, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Single cell Chelex® DNA extraction and nested PCR amplification were used to examine partial gene sequences from natural diatom populations for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies at and above the level of species. DNA was extracted from cells that were either fresh collected or stored in RNAlater. Extractions from Lugol's fixation were also attempted with limited success. Three partial gene sequences (rbcL, 18S, and psbA) were recovered using existing and new primers with a nested or double nested PCR approach with amplification and success rates between 70 and 96%. An rbcL consensus tree grouped morphologically similar specimens and was consistent across the two primary sample treatments: fresh and RNAlater. This tool will greatly enhance the number of microscopic diatom taxa (and potentially other microbes) available for barcoding and phylogenetic studies. The near-term increase in sequence data for diatoms generated via routine single cell extractions and PCR will act as a multiproxy validation of longer-term next generation genomics. PMID:26528252

  20. Long-term detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in individual and bulk tank milk from a dairy herd with a low prevalence of Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khol, J L; Wassertheurer, M; Sodoma, E; Revilla-Fernández, S; Damoser, J; Osterreicher, E; Dünser, M; Kleb, U; Baumgartner, W

    2013-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants and is shed into the milk of infected cows, which contributes to the controversial discussion about a possible link between MAP and Crohn's disease in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the risk for the entry of MAP in the food chain via milk from dairy farms with subclinical JD. Therefore, the occurrence of MAP in the milk of a dairy herd with a low prevalence of JD was studied in single and bulk tank milk samples over a period of 23 mo and compared with MAP shedding into feces. Milk, fecal, and blood samples were taken from all cows older than 1.5 yr of age at the beginning and the end of the trial and analyzed for MAP or specific antibodies. In addition, 63 cows (33 MAP infected and 30 MAP noninfected) were selected for monthly sampling. Raw and pasteurized bulk tank milk samples were collected on a monthly basis. The milk samples were tested for MAP by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the fecal samples were tested for bacterial shedding by qPCR or solid culture. Based on the results of the herd investigations, the prevalence of cows shedding MAP was around 5%; no cases of clinical JD were observed during the study period. The results of the ELISA showed high variation, with 2.1 to 5.1% positive milk samples and 14.9 to 18.8% ELISA-positive blood samples. Monthly milk sampling revealed low levels of MAP shedding into the individual milk samples of both MAP-infected and noninfected cows, with only 13 cows shedding the bacterium into milk during the study period. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was not detected by qPCR in any raw or pasteurized bulk tank milk sample throughout the study. A significant positive association could be found between MAP shedding into milk and feces. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that MAP is only shed via milk in a small proportion of cows with subclinical JD for a limited period of time and

  1. Impact of Freezing Time on Dornic Acidity in Three Types of Milk: Raw Donor Milk, Mother's Own Milk, and Pasteurized Donor Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, Sara; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Alonso-Díaz, Clara; Lora, David; Martín-Pelegrina, María Dolores; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-03-01

    Although under certain circumstances it is necessary to express milk, there are not many recommendations about the ideal storage conditions for human milk. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effects on Dornic acidity of frozen storage at -20 °C in three types of milk: raw donor milk, mother's own raw milk, and pasteurized donor milk. Forty-three samples of raw donor milk, 40 samples of pasteurized donor milk, and 16 samples of mother's own milk were analyzed. Dornic acidity was measured at time 0, before freezing. The remaining aliquots were frozen and analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks and after 2 and 3 months. In raw donor milk, the median acidity at the start was 3 °D (interquartile range [IQR] 2-3 °D); after 3 months, it was 5 °D (IQR 3-7 °D), with a significant increase in acidity after the second week. In mother's own milk, the mean acidity at the start was 3 °D (IQR 2-4 °D) and 7 °D (IQR 4-8 °D) at 3 months. The increase was significant after the third week. In pasteurized donor milk, the mean acidity was 3 °D (IQR 2-3 °D) at the start and 2 °D (IQR 2-3 °D) at the end. When comparing the three types of milk, there were significant differences from the first week between the two types of raw milk and the pasteurized milk (p raw milks (p = 0.77). Dornic acidity in unpasteurized milk significantly increases with the duration of freezing, probably due to the action of lipases, which is lost with pasteurization. It would be advisable to reduce the length of freezing time for unpasteurized milk.

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (powdered milk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in powdered milk were determined using radiochemical analysis. Four brands of commercial milk were purchased as samples in consuming districts in June and July 1985. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 31 +- 1.2 pCi/kg and 62 +- 1.5 pCi/kg, respectively, in skim milk manufactured by Meiji. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  4. Brief communication: Is variation in the cranial capacity of the Dmanisi sample too high to be from a single species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee

    2005-07-01

    This study uses data resampling to test the null hypothesis that the degree of variation in the cranial capacity of the Dmanisi hominid sample is within the range variation of a single species. The statistical significance of the variation in the Dmanisi sample is examined using simulated distributions based on comparative samples of modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Results show that it is unlikely to find the maximum difference observed in the Dmanisi sample in distributions of female-female pairs from comparative single-species samples. Given that two sexes are represented, the difference in the Dmanisi sample is not enough to reject the null hypothesis of a single species. Results of this study suggest no compelling reason to invoke multiple taxa to explain variation in the cranial capacity of the Dmanisi hominids. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  5. Color Changes of UHT Milk During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov-Raljić, Jovanka V; Lakić, Nada S; Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka G; Barać, Miroljub B; Sikimić, Višnja M

    2008-09-25

    In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET) based packages, and stored for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at ambient temperature (20±5°C) were examined. Results are shown in four different systems that define measurement of color parameters expressed in: CIE, CIE L*a*b*, Hünter and ANLAB - Adams Nickerson systems. Average value of mean reflectance of UHT milk determined in CIE system statistically is highly significantly changed, (p milk fat, as well as on the interaction of the mentioned factors. For the UHT milk with 1.6% milk fat statistically significant (p milk with 3.2% milk fat established on 45 th day of storage.

  6. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  7. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pudding Recaldent (R) Rennet casein Sour cream, sour cream solids Sour milk solids Tagatose Whey (in all forms) Whey protein hydrolysate Yogurt Other Possible Sources of Milk: Artificial butter flavor Baked goods Caramel candies Chocolate Lactic acid starter culture and other ...

  8. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-03-01

    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (raw milk tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of enterotoxin genes and macrorestriction analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis and bulk-tank milk samples in Italy. An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to genotypically compare S. aureus isolates from mastitis milk and raw milk to identify therelation between strains and to assess the enterotoxigenicity of the isolates. Eighty-three Staphylococcus aureus isolatesrecovered from cows and bulk tank milk of five farms in northern Italy were compared genotypically. The genes for theenterotoxins A, D, G and I, but not for B, C, E and H and the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, were detected byPCR amplification. Macrorestriction analysis with the restrictions enzyme SmaI revealed 14 pulsed-field gel electrophoresispatterns. These were in part different from each other only in a few fragments and thus displayed a closeclonal relation. The results of the present investigation showed that identical or closely related clones seemed to beresponsible for the cases of bovine mastitis in the farms investigated and partly responsible for contamination of bulktank milk.

  10. Neutral oligosaccharide content of preterm human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhla, T; Fu, D; Zopf, D; Brodsky, N L; Hurt, H

    1999-11-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides are known to play a role in protection against certain infectious diseases. Previous reports indicate that the content of human milk oligosaccharides varies widely among individuals at term but such information on preterm milk is lacking. After removal of the fat, protein and most of the lactose from non-pooled human milk samples, a total neutral oligosaccharide fraction was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. A Dionex high-performance anion-exchange chromatography system equipped with a pulsed electrometric detector was then employed to measure the levels of ten neutral oligosaccharides in the individual milk samples. Twenty-three milk samples from thirteen mothers who delivered at a mean gestational age of 29.5 (SD 3.1) weeks were collected between days 0 and 33 of lactation, and compared with three samples of term milk from two mothers. The ranges of the total and individual levels of the ten neutral oligosaccharides in preterm milk were similar to those in term milk. Further, as previously described in term milk, preterm milk exhibited a quantitative individual variation. This variation was independent of the gestational age, day of lactation, and postconceptional age. In conclusion, levels of ten neutral oligosaccharides did not differ between preterm and term human milk.

  11. Single sample expression-anchored mechanisms predict survival in head and neck cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression signatures that are predictive of therapeutic response or prognosis are increasingly useful in clinical care; however, mechanistic (and intuitive interpretation of expression arrays remains an unmet challenge. Additionally, there is surprisingly little gene overlap among distinct clinically validated expression signatures. These "causality challenges" hinder the adoption of signatures as compared to functionally well-characterized single gene biomarkers. To increase the utility of multi-gene signatures in survival studies, we developed a novel approach to generate "personal mechanism signatures" of molecular pathways and functions from gene expression arrays. FAIME, the Functional Analysis of Individual Microarray Expression, computes mechanism scores using rank-weighted gene expression of an individual sample. By comparing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC samples with non-tumor control tissues, the precision and recall of deregulated FAIME-derived mechanisms of pathways and molecular functions are comparable to those produced by conventional cohort-wide methods (e.g. GSEA. The overlap of "Oncogenic FAIME Features of HNSCC" (statistically significant and differentially regulated FAIME-derived genesets representing GO functions or KEGG pathways derived from HNSCC tissue among three distinct HNSCC datasets (pathways:46%, p<0.001 is more significant than the gene overlap (genes:4%. These Oncogenic FAIME Features of HNSCC can accurately discriminate tumors from control tissues in two additional HNSCC datasets (n = 35 and 91, F-accuracy = 100% and 97%, empirical p<0.001, area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 99% and 92%, and stratify recurrence-free survival in patients from two independent studies (p = 0.0018 and p = 0.032, log-rank. Previous approaches depending on group assignment of individual samples before selecting features or learning a classifier are limited by design to

  12. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  13. Gold-FISH: A correlative approach to microscopic imaging of single microbial cells in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seki, David; Woebken, Dagmar; Eickhorst, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is routinely used for the phylogenetic identification, detection, and quantification of single microbial cells environmental microbiology. Oligonucleotide probes that match the 16S rRNA sequence of target organisms are generally applied and the resulting signals are visualized via fluorescence microscopy. Consequently, the detection of the microbial cells of interest is limited by the resolution and the sensitivity of light microscopy where objects smaller than 0.2 µm can hardly be represented. Visualizing microbial cells at magnifications beyond light microscopy, however, can provide information on the composition and potential complexity of microbial habitats - the actual sites of nutrient cycling in soil and sediments. We present a recently developed technique that combines (1) the phylogenetic identification and detection of individual microorganisms by epifluorescence microscopy, with (2) the in situ localization of gold-labelled target cells on an ultrastructural level by SEM. Based on 16S rRNA targeted in situ hybridization combined with catalyzed reporter deposition, a streptavidin conjugate labeled with a fluorescent dye and nanogold particles is introduced into whole microbial cells. A two-step visualization process including an autometallographic enhancement of nanogold particles then allows for either fluorescence or electron microscopy, or a correlative application thereof. We will present applications of the Gold-FISH protocol to samples of marine sediments, agricultural soils, and plant roots. The detection and enumeration of bacterial cells in soil and sediment samples was comparable to CARD-FISH applications via fluorescence microscopy. Examples of microbe-surface interaction analysis will be presented on the basis of bacteria colonizing the rhizoplane of rice roots. In principle, Gold-FISH can be performed on any material to give a snapshot of microbe-surface interactions and provides a promising tool for

  14. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  15. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestorino, N. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: nmestorino@yahoo.com; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-04-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg{sup -1}). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 {mu}g h mL{sup -1} and its elimination half life (T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2}) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2} from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal.

  16. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  17. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

    1997-09-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area.

  18. INSURANCE MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Quilkey, John J.

    1980-01-01

    Where the production of milk for sale on the fresh milk market at 'controlled' prices is subject to nontransferable quotas the holders of quota who wish to maximise profits have a motive to maintain production above the quota level to insure against variations in demand for over-quota sales and yield. The concept of 'production of milk as insurance' is used to clarify the way in which such behaviour gives rise to social costs which could be avoided in a competitive market, by a permissive att...

  19. Somatic cell counts in bulk milk and their importance for milk processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, N. R.; Mikulec, D. P.; Radovanović, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Bulk tank milk somatic cell counts are the indicator of the mammary gland health in the dairy herds and may be regarded as an indirect measure of milk quality. Elevated somatic cell counts are correlated with changes in milk composition The aim of this study was to assess the somatic cell counts that significantly affect the quality of milk and dairy products. We examined the somatic cell counts in bulk tank milk samples from 38 farms during the period of 6 months, from December to the May of the next year. The flow cytometry, Fossomatic was used for determination of somatic cell counts. In the same samples content of total proteins and lactose was determined by Milcoscan. Our results showed that average values for bulk tank milk samples were 273,605/ml from morning milking and 292,895/ml from evening milking. The average values for total proteins content from morning and evening milking are 3,31 and 3,34%, respectively. The average values for lactose content from morning and evening milking are 4,56 and 4,63%, respectively. The highest somatic cell count (516,000/ml) was detected in bulk tank milk sample from evening milk in the Winter and the lowest content of lactose was 4,46%. Our results showed that obtained values for bulk tank milk somatic cell counts did not significantly affected the content of total proteins and lactose.

  20. Microbiological examination of milk in Tarakeswar, India with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the milk quality in Tarakeswar, India with special reference to coliforms. By standard plate count (SPC) method, out of ten raw milk samples, the microbial colonies were found to be high in six samples and the colony content was low in rest four samples. In pasteurized milk samples, the ...

  1. A Comparative Study Between the Antibacterial Effect of Nisin and Nisin-Loaded Chitosan/Alginate Nanoparticles on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohri, Maryam; Alavidjeh, Mohammad Shafiee; Haririan, Ismaeil; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Ebrahimi, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat; Sani, Hadi Tarighati; Sadjadi, Seyed Kazem

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of nisin-loaded chitosan/alginate nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial delivery vehicle. The nisin-loaded nanoparticles were prepared using colloidal dispersion of the chitosan/alginate polymers in the presence of nisin. After the preparation of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties such as size, shape, and zeta potential of the formulations were studied using scanning electron microscope and nanosizer instruments, consecutively. FTIR and differential scanning calorimetery studies were performed to investigate polymer-polymer or polymer-protein interactions. Next, the release kinetics and entrapment efficiency of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles were examined to assess the application potential of these formulations as a candidate vector. For measuring the antibacterial activity of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles, agar diffusion and MIC methods were employed. The samples under investigation for total microbial counts were pasteurized and raw milks each of which contained the nisin-loaded nanoparticles and inoculated Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 19117 at 10(6) CFU/mL), pasteurized and raw milks each included free nisin and S. aureus (10(6) CFU/mL), and pasteurized and raw milks each had S. aureus (10(6) CFU/mL) in as control. Total counts of S. aureus were measured after 24 and 48 h for the pasteurized milk samples and after the time intervals of 0, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 24 h for the raw milk samples, respectively. According to the results, entrapment efficiency of nisin inside of the nanoparticles was about 90-95%. The average size of the nanoparticles was 205 nm, and the average zeta potential of them was -47 mV. In agar diffusion assay, an antibacterial activity (inhibition zone diameter, at 450 IU/mL) about 2 times higher than that of free nisin was observed for the nisin-loaded nanoparticles. MIC of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles (0.5 mg/mL) was about four times less than

  2. Systematic review of the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurl, Stephan; Munzert, Manfred; Boehm, Günther; Matthews, Catherine; Stahl, Bernd

    2017-11-01

    Oligosaccharides are the third largest solid component in human milk. These diverse compounds are thought to have numerous beneficial functions in infants, including protection against infectious diseases. The structures of more than 100 oligosaccharides in human milk have been elucidated so far. The aim of this review was to identify the main factors that affect the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk and to determine whether it is possible to calculate representative and reliable mean concentrations. A comprehensive literature search on oligosaccharide concentrations in human milk was performed in 6 electronic databases: BIOSIS, Current Contents Search, Embase, Lancet Titles, MEDLINE and PubMed. The initial search resulted in 1363 hits. After the elimination of duplicates, the literature was screened. The application of strict inclusion criteria resulted in 21 articles selected. Oligosaccharide concentrations, both mean values and single values, reported in the literature were sorted by gestational age, secretor status of mothers, and defined lactation periods. Mean concentrations, including confidence limits, of 33 neutral and acidic oligosaccharides reported could be calculated. Concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk show variations that are dependent on both the secretor type of the mother and the lactation period as examined by analyses of variance. In addition, large interlaboratory variations in the data were observed. Worldwide interlaboratory quantitative analyses of identical milk samples would be required to identify the most reliable methods of determining concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk. The data presented here contribute to the current knowledge about the composition and quantities of oligosaccharides in human milk and may foster greater understanding of the biological functions of these compounds. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. Genetic comparison of milk production and composition in three maternal rabbit lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gamal Fawzy EL Nagar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare 3 Spanish maternal rabbit lines (A, V and LP in terms of milk production and composition. These lines were founded on different criteria but selected for litter size at weaning. A total of 194 mature does in their third or higher parity were used. The milk yield of does was recorded at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16 and 17 d post-partum (dpp. The milk production traits studied were weekly milk yield (WMY; g/wk and milk conversion ratio (MCR; grams of litter gain per grams of milk suckled during the first 21  dpp. The milk composition traits studied were fat (%, protein  (%, ash (%, lactose (% and total solids (%. The milk samples to be analysed were collected from each doe at 18 dpp. Data were analysed using single trait mixed and fixed models with and without covariates; the covariates were number born alive (NBA and doe weight at kindling (DW. The overall mean of WMY, during the first 3 wk, was 1547±16 g/wk. Milk yields during the different lactation weeks were for line A 872±39, 1503±39 and 1865±39 g for first, second and third lactation weeks, respectively. In line V, the corresponding values were 919±35, 1633±35 and 2004±35  g, and in line LP, they were 1043±36, 1819±36 and 2254±36  g. Means of MCR were 0.41±0.01, 0.41±0.01 and 0.42±0.01 for A, V and LP lines, respectively. Overall means of fat, protein, ash, lactose and total solids (% were 14.62±0.17, 11.10±0.07, 1.89±0.04, 2.67±0.12 and 30.27±0.24, respectively. The differences between lines for milk production traits were significant except for MCR, while the differences between lines for milk composition traits were not significant. NBA had significant effects on all milk yield traits but had no significant effects on milk composition traits. DW only had a significant effect on weekly milk yield. The parity order had no significant effect either for milk production traits or milk composition traits in multiparous does, except

  4. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and milk products from central highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Eyasu Tigabu; Woldetsadik, Daniel Asrat; Mekonen, Tesfu Kassa; Gezahegn, Haile Alemayehu; Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe

    2015-11-30

    Listeria monocytogenes is of major significance in human and veterinary medicine. Most human Listeria infections are foodborne and the association of contaminated milk and dairy produce consumption with human listeriosis is noteworthy. In Ethiopia, there is limited data regarding the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy products. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy produce. A total of 443 milk and milk product samples were microbiologically analyzed following methods recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to isolate Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. was 28.4% and specifically that of L. monocytogenes was 5.6%. Taking the prevalence of Listeria spp. into consideration, cheese was found to be highly contaminated at 60%, followed by pasteurized milk samples (40%), raw milk (18.9%) and yoghurt (5%). Considering the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes only, raw milk had the lowest contamination while cheese had the highest, followed by pasteurized milk and yoghurt. Raw milk and milk products produced in urban and peri-urban areas of central Ethiopia were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, L. monocytogenes. The detection of this pathogen in raw milk and milk products warrants an urgent regulatory mechanism to be put in place and also the potential role of milk processing plants in the contamination of dairy products should be investigated.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of N-acetyllactosamine and lacto-N-biose, the two major building blocks of human milk oligosaccharides in human milk samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a porous graphitic carbon column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Réka; Jankovics, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs

    2015-11-27

    This study presents a validated, porous graphitic carbon stationary phase-based LC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of lacto-N-biose (LNB) and N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc). These compounds are the major building blocks of human milk oligosaccharides, however the presence of their unbound form in human milk has not been examined so far. The separation of these highly related structures in their alditol form was accomplished by a gradient LC method and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis after appropriate sample preparation including size-exclusion chromatography and solid-phase extraction. Baseline separation of the components provides the selectivity for the method. Validation was performed according to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guidelines and the method was found to be precise and accurate. Using our developed and validated method we were able to identify and quantify both saccharides in human milk for the first time. Based on our results the LacNAc concentration is in the range of 6.7-31μg/mL while LNB concentration decreased from 26μg/mL below the detection limit during the first week of lactation. The presence of LNB and LacNAc in human milk also implies new biological functions which can lead us closer to the understanding of the various functions of this complex biofluid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyaniline/MWCNTs/starch modified carbon paste electrode for non-enzymatic detection of cholesterol: application to real sample (cow milk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Vineeta; Singh, Karan P; Yadav, Vijay L

    2018-01-31

    Nanocomposite materials are potentially revolutionizing many technologies, including sensors. In this paper, we described the application of "PANI/MWCNTs/Starch" modified carbon paste electrode (PCS-CPE) as a simple and highly sensitive cholesterol sensor. This novel nano-composite material has integrated nano-morphology, where polyaniline could interact effectively with the additives; pi-pi stacking "MWCNTs," and covalently bonded with starch. Specific binding sites (sugar chains), better electro-catalytic properties and fast electron transfer facilitated the oxidation of cholesterol. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the interaction of cholesterol with the composite material. The sensing response of PCS was measured by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry (0.1 M PBS-5 used as supporting electrolyte). As the amount of cholesterol increased in the test solution, cyclic voltammograms showed a rise of peak current (cathodic and anodic). Under the normal experimental conditions, the developed sensor exhibited wide linear dynamic range (0.032 to 5 mM) (upper limit is due to lack of solubility of cholesterol), high sensitivity (800 μAmM -1  cm -2 ), low detection limit (0.01 mM) and shorter response time (within 4-6 s). Analytical specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity during cholesterol estimation were compared with the response of some other analytes (ascorbic acid, glucose, l-dopa, urea and lactic acid). This novel sensor was successfully applied to estimate cholesterol in cow milk (used as a model real sample). The sensing platform is highly sensitive and shows a linear response towards cholesterol without using any additional redox mediator or enzyme, thus this material is extremely promising for the realization of a low-cost integrated cholesterol sensor device. Graphical abstract Cyclic voltammetric response of cholesterol of composite modified carbon paste capillary electrode.

  7. Ultrasound assisted combined molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of nicotinamide in human urine and milk samples: Spectrophotometric determination and optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid phase microextraction followed by UV-vis spectrophotometer (UA-DSPME-UV-vis) was designed for extraction and preconcentration of nicotinamide (vitamin B 3 ) by HKUST-1 metal organic framework (MOF) based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). This new material was characterized by FTIR and FE-SEM techniques. The preliminary Plackett-Burman design was used for screening and subsequently the central composite design justifies significant terms and possible construction of mathematical equation which give the individual and cooperative contribution of variables like HKUST-1-MOF-NA-MIP mass, sonication time, temperature, eluent volume, pH and vortex time. Accordingly the optimum condition was set as: 2.0mg HKUST-1-MOF-NA-MIP, 200μL eluent and 5.0min sonication time in center points other variables were determined as the best conditions to reach the maximum recovery of the analyte. The UA-DSPME-UV-vis method performances like excellent linearity (LR), limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification of 10-5000μgL -1 with R 2 of 0.99, LOD (1.96ngmL -1 ), LOQ (6.53μgL -1 ), respectively show successful and accurate applicability of the present method for monitoring analytes with within- and between-day precision of 0.96-3.38%. The average absolute recoveries of the nicotinamide extracted from the urine, milk and water samples were 95.85-101.27%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Production and quality evaluation of probiotic soy milk | Onyibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy milk is produced from a protein rich legume with high nutritional value. Adding probiotic agent(s) to soy milk increases its health value. In this study, soy milk and probiotic soy milk samples were produced, their qualities evaluated and shelf life at different temperatures of storage monitored. Products were of good taste ...

  9. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Tangonan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  10. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  11. Adulteration identification in raw milk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coitinho, Tatiane Barbosa; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; Cerqueira, Pedro Henrique Ramos; da Silva, Helen Krystine; Coitinho, Juliana Barbosa; Machado, Paulo Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Adulteration of milk is a common practice that concerns regulatory agencies, industry, and the population. Despite the growing need for checking adulteration, the current methods employed generally have low performance and are highly dependent on manual labor. This study aims to calibrate and validate a compact equipment (MilkoScan FT1) that adopts a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology to monitor adulteration in raw milk. Almost 2500 milk samples were used for reference spectrum construction and 1650 samples were used to validate the identification of the following five most commonly used adulterants (at three different concentrations each): (1) cornstarch, (2) sodium bicarbonate, (3) sodium citrate, (4) formaldehyde, and (5) saccharose, plus the additions of two levels of water or whey. To define the calibration with the best performance in milk adulteration identification, 12 calibrations involving 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, or 18 factors, with one or two outlier eliminations, were developed. The results of sensitivity and specificity analyses, as well as Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison tests, revealed that the calibration that best identified the adulterants was the one involving 14 factors, with a single elimination of outliers, exhibiting for all adulterants simultaneously, 84% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The calibration showed excellent sensitivity to cornstarch (>98%), sodium bicarbonate (100%), sodium citrate (99%), and formaldehyde (>84%), indicating that this calibration has good capacity for adulteration detection. Thus, this methodology is a viable option for the dairy industry to identify adulteration of raw milk.

  12. PIXE analysis of powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallak, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    An accelerator-based study, using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) was performed on four full-cream and four half-cream brands of powdered milk commonly consumed in Jordan. The elements detected in the samples are S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. The significance of some of these elements is discussed from the viewpoint of nutrition and also their effect on milk processing and dairy technology. The standard reference milk sample, A-11, which is distributed by IAEA was also examined, and the results for trace elements detected are compared with the values certified by IAEA. (author)

  13. Viscosity and Analytical Differences between Raw Milk and UHT Milk of Czech Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Kumbár V.; Nedomová Š.

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity and analytical differences in four milk samples from Czech cows were described. Three samples of UHT milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat) and one sample of raw milk from a Czech bio-farm were analyzed. The following analytical properties were observed: titratable acidity, fat content, dry matter content, and protein content. Titratable acidity and dry matter content decreased in dependence upon the increasing milk fat content. The protein content ranged 3.51-3.57 g per 100 g milk. The mi...

  14. NMR-based metabolomics of water-buffalo milk after conventional or biological feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Mazzei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological farming in dairy production is often advocated as one of the most virtuous solutions to the environmental problems of conventional farming while improving the sustainability of production and cattle welfare. However, it is still under debate whether the conversion from conventional to biological farming has an influence on milk composition. In addition, the possible frauds related to biological dairy products call for analytical tools enabling the authentication of products quality and consumers protection. The aim of this work was to determine the composition of milk produced by water-buffaloes and to identify the specific metabolic profiles discriminating a biological from a conventional feeding diet. Methods Liquid-state 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies were used to study milk samples which were supplied during a 2-year-long experimentation by a single dairy farm and sampled from conventionally and biologically fed buffaloes (CFM and BFM, respectively. For each milk sample, we obtained NMR spectra of both raw milk and milk cream fractions comprising neutral lipids and phospholipids. Results The elaboration of multinuclear spectroscopic NMR results by the principal component analysis (PCA enabled the identification of diagnostic differences in the milk composition between CFM and BFM samples. In particular, BFM were characterized by larger content of unsaturated lipids and phosphatidylcholine. Our findings confirmed that the conversion from a conventional to biological feeding regime influenced the buffalo milk composition, with possible implications for sensorial and nutritional properties of dairy products. Finally, the analytical methodology of NMR spectroscopy shown here may be considered as a useful tool to assess the quality and the authenticity of biological milk.

  15. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region; Medida de tracos radioativos em amostras de leite em po da regiao de Londrina - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides {sup 40} K, {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th (from {sup 208} Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464{+-} 12 Bq/kg for {sup 40} K, 3,46 {sup {+-}} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th, respectively. For the milk Polly

  16. Biodiversity of antifungal lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw milk samples from cow, ewe and goat over one-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavenne, E; Mounier, J; Déniel, F; Barbier, G; Le Blay, G

    2012-04-16

    Antifungal lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) biodiversity was evaluated in raw milk from ewe, cow and goat over one year period. Lactic acid bacteria were enumerated using 8 semi-selective media, and systematically screened for their antifungal activity against 4 spoilage fungi commonly encountered in dairy products. Depending on the selective medium, between 0.05% (Elliker agar) and 5.5% (LAMVAB agar) screened colonies showed an antifungal activity. The great majority of these active colonies originated from cow (49%) and goat (43%) milks, whereas only 8% were isolated from ewe milk. Penicillium expansum was the most frequently inhibited fungus with 48.5% of colonies active against P. expansum among the 1235 isolated, followed by Mucor plumbeus with 30.6% of active colonies, Kluyveromyces lactis with only 12.1% of active colonies and Pichia anomala with 8.7% of active colonies. In the tested conditions, 94% of the sequenced active colonies belonged to Lactobacillus. Among them, targeted fungal species differed according to the Lactobacillus group, whose presence largely depended on year period and milk origin. The Lb. casei and Lb. reuteri groups, predominantly recovered in summer/fall, were overrepresented in the population targeting M. plumbeus, whereas isolates from the Lb. plantarum group, predominantly recovered in spring, were overrepresented in the population targeting K. lactis, the ones belonging to the Lb. buchneri group, predominantly recovered in spring, were overrepresented in the population targeting P. anomala. Raw milk, especially cow and goat milks from the summer/fall period appeared to be a productive reservoir for antifungal lactobacilli. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition and Variation of Macronutrients, Immune Proteins, and Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Human Milk From Nonprofit and Commercial Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith-Dennis, Laura; Xu, Gege; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Underwood, Mark A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2018-02-01

    When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization. Randomly acquired human milk samples from three different milk banks ( n = 3 from each bank) were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations using a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy human milk analyzer. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, α antitrypsin, casein, and HMO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of protein and fat were significantly ( p milk samples that had undergone retort sterilization had significantly less immune-protective proteins and total and specific HMOs compared with samples that had undergone Holder and vat pasteurization. These data suggest that further analysis of the effect of retort sterilization on human milk components is needed prior to widespread adoption of this process.

  18. Effect of milk fermentation by kefir grains and selected single strains of lactic acid bacteria on the survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuamule, C L S; Wiid, I J; van Helden, P D; Tanner, M; Witthuhn, R C

    2016-01-18

    Mycobacterium bovis that causes Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) can be transmitted to humans thought consumption of raw and raw fermented milk products from diseased animals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in popular traditional milk products in Africa produce anti-microbial compounds that inhibit some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. M. bovis BCG is an attenuated non-pathogenic vaccine strain of M. bovis and the aim of the study was to determine the effect of the fermentation process on the survival of M. bovis BCG in milk. M. bovis BCG at concentrations of 6 log CFU/ml was added to products of kefir fermentation. The survival of M. bovis BCG was monitored at 12-h intervals for 72 h by enumerating viable cells on Middlebrook 7H10 agar plates enriched with 2% BD BACTEC PANTA™. M. bovis BCG was increasingly reduced in sterile kefir that was fermented for a period of 24h and longer. In the milk fermented with kefir grains, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei or Lactobacillus casei, the viability of M. bovis BCG was reduced by 0.4 logs after 24h and by 2 logs after 48 h of fermentation. No viable M. bovis BCG was detected after 60 h of fermentation. Results from this study show that long term fermentation under certain conditions may have the potential to inactivate M. bovis BCG present in the milk. However, to ensure safety of fermented milk in Africa, fermentation should be combined with other hurdle technologies such as boiling and milk pasteurisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection and mapping of Cannabinoids in single hair samples through rapid derivatization- Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, Emma; Francese, Simona; Bassindale, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The sample preparation method reported in this work has permitted for the first time the application of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Profiling and Imaging (MALDI-MSP and MALDI-MSI) for the detection and mapping of cannabinoids in a single hair sample. MALDI-MSI analysis of hair samples has recently been suggested as an alternative technique to traditional methods of GC-MS and LC-MS due to simpler sample preparation, the ability to detect a narrower time frame ...

  20. Trace elements and their distribution in protein fractions of camel milk in comparison to other commonly consumed milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadi, F M; Srikumar, T S

    2001-08-01

    Studies on camels' milk, whether with respect to concentration or bioavailability of trace elements from this milk, are limited and warrant further investigation. The object of this study was to analyse the concentration and distribution of zinc, copper, selenium, manganese and iron in camel milk compared to those in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula under similar experimental conditions. Camels' milk and cows' milk were collected from local farms, human milk samples were obtained from healthy donors in Kuwait and infant formula was purchased locally. Milk fractionation was performed by ultra-centrifugation and gelcolumn chromatography. The concentration of trace elements was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry and that of protein was determined spectrophotometrically. The concentration of manganese and iron in camels' milk was remarkably higher (7-20-fold and 4-10-fold, respectively) than in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula. The zinc content of camels' milk was higher than that of human milk but slightly lower than in cows' milk and infant formula. The concentration of copper in camels' milk was similar to that of cows' milk but lower than in human milk and infant formula. The selenium content of camels' milk was comparable to those of other types of milk, Approximately 50-80% of zinc, copper and manganese in camels' milk were associated with the casein fraction, similar to that of cows' milk, The majority of selenium and iron in camels' milk was in association with the low molecular weight fraction, It is recommended that camels' milk be considered as a potential source of manganese, selenium and iron, perhaps not only for infants, but also for other groups suspected of mild deficiency of these elements. Further investigations are required to confirm this proposal.

  1. Amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ragona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1. In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis- causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/ allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Amiata Donkey Milk Chain: Animal Health Evaluation and Milk Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragona, Giuseppe; Corrias, Franco; Benedetti, Martina; Paladini, Maria; Salari, Federica; Altomonte, Lolanda; Martini, Mina

    2016-06-03

    This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic ( Brucella spp., Leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents ( Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi , Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1). In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis-causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow's milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  3. USE OF SILVER IONS IN PASTEURIZED MILK PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mamaev; K. Leshukov; S. Stepanova

    2012-01-01

    The means of pasteurized milk shelf life prolongation by electro-chemical diffusion of silver ions has been introduced. Three samples of pasteurized milk were test subjects. In the course of study the following data have been examined: organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological parameters of check samples and pilot samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Its shelf life has been determined. It has been determined that the test results of raw and pasteurized milk samples processed by various c...

  4. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow's milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of ...

  5. Relationships between nicotine and cotinine concentrations in maternal milk and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Nelly; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Berlin, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    Breastfeeding may be impaired due to nicotine excreted into the milk of smoking mothers. We investigated the relationships between nicotine and cotinine concentrations in maternal milk and saliva among breastfeeding smokers. The 41 mothers reported their cigarette consumption between waking up and milk and saliva sampling. The median sampling time took place four days after delivery. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography and UV detection, after a single-step saliva or three-step milk liquid-to-liquid extraction. The median (interquartile range) concentrations in milk and saliva were 7 (6-22) and 27 (4-207) μg/L for nicotine and 24 (5-111) and 22 (4-120) μg/L for cotinine, respectively. Milk cotinine was positively associated with saliva cotinine (p breastfeeding mothers. Saliva cotinine concentration may be used instead of milk cotinine concentration to estimate tobacco or nicotine exposure among breastfed neonates or infants. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of light and copper ions on volatile aldehydes of milk and milk fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeno, W.; Bassette, R.; Crang, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Raw, laboratory-pasteurized and plant-pasteurized homogenized milks were exposed to copper ions (5 ppm), to sunlight or fluorescent light and the effects determined on the composition of volatile aldehydes. The greatest change due to copper treatment was an increase in n-hexanal; acetaldehyde showed the least response in each of the sources of milk. The responses were similar from all three sources of milk with laboratory-pasteurized milk samples showing the greatest responses for each aldehyde analyzed. Similar milk samples exposed to sunlight also showed an increase in volatile aldehydes from all milk sources but with the greatest response being acetaldehyde and n-pentanal components. The milk fraction most susceptible to changes in the presence of light was neutralized whey, whereas resuspended cream was most susceptible to copper exposure. Overall, dialyzed whey appeared to be influenced more than other milk fractions by both light and copper ions.

  7. A genome-wide association study for milk production traits in Danish Jersey cattle using a 50K single nucleotide polymorphism chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Duy Minh; Sahana, Goutam; Christiansen, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci for milk production traits in Danish Jersey cattle were mapped by a genome-wide association analysis using a mixed model. The analysis incorporated 1,039 bulls and 33,090 SNP and resulted in 98 detected combinations of QTL and traits on 27 BTA. These QTL comprised 30...... for milk index, 50 for fat index, and 18 for protein index. The evidence presents 33 genome-wide QTL on 14 BTA. Of these, 7 had effects on milk index, 21 on fat index, and 5 on protein index. Among the genome-wide QTL, 26 have been previously reported, 2 on BTA4 and BTA5 were new for milk index, and 5......-like kinase 4. By a chromosome-wide threshold, 65 additional QTL were detected. Many of them are likely to represent QTL. The results are interesting from a breeding perspective and contribute to the search for the genes causing the polymorphisms important for milk production traits....

  8. Identification of cow milk in goat milk by nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jie; Dong, Wen-Bin; Fan, Cheng; Wang, Er-Dan

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop a nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique for identifying and detecting adulteration of goat milk with cow milk. In this study, by taking the Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillatory chemical reaction using acetone and substrates in goat milk or cow milk as main dissipative substances, when the same dosage of goat milk and cow milk was introduced to the "H +  + Mn 2+  + BrO 3 -  + acetone" oscillating system respectively, nonlinear chemical fingerprints were obtained for goat milk and cow milk from the same origin. The results showed that inductive time value and the content of cow milk in goat milk had a linear relationship in the range of 0-100% and the corresponding regression coefficient was 0.9991. A detection limit of 0.0107 g/g was obtained, and the content of cow milk in mixed milk was calculated. The proposed method in this study was simple, economical and effective. In addition, the method did not need the pretreatment and separation of samples for identifying and evaluating cow milk adulteration in goat milk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The occurrence of noncoagulating milk and the association of bovine milk coagulation properties with genetic variants of the caseins in 3 Scandinavian dairy breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, N A; Bertelsen, H P; Jensen, H B; Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Månsson, H Lindmark; Andrén, A; Paulsson, M; Bendixen, C; Buitenhuis, A J; Larsen, L B

    2013-08-01

    Substantial variation in milk coagulation properties has been observed among dairy cows. Consequently, raw milk from individual cows and breeds exhibits distinct coagulation capacities that potentially affect the technological properties and milk processing into cheese. This variation is largely influenced by protein composition, which is in turn affected by underlying genetic polymorphisms in the major milk proteins. In this study, we conducted a large screening on 3 major Scandinavian breeds to resolve the variation in milk coagulation traits and the frequency of milk with impaired coagulation properties (noncoagulation). In total, individual coagulation properties were measured on morning milk collected from 1,299 Danish Holstein (DH), Danish Jersey (DJ), and Swedish Red (SR) cows. The 3 breeds demonstrated notable interbreed differences in coagulation properties, with DJ cows exhibiting superior coagulation compared with the other 2 breeds. In addition, milk samples from 2% of DH and 16% of SR cows were classified as noncoagulating. Furthermore, the cows were genotyped for major genetic variants in the αS1- (CSN1S1), β- (CSN2), and κ-casein (CSN3) genes, revealing distinct differences in variant frequencies among breeds. Allele I of CSN2, which had not formerly been screened in such a high number of cows in these Scandinavian breeds, showed a frequency around 7% in DH and DJ, but was not detected in SR. Genetic polymorphisms were significantly associated with curd firming rate and rennet coagulation time. Thus, CSN1S1 C, CSN2 B, and CSN3 B positively affected milk coagulation, whereas CSN2 A(2), in particular, had a negative effect. In addition to the influence of individual casein genes, the effects of CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN3 composite genotypes were also examined, and revealed strong associations in all breeds, which more or less reflected the single gene results. Overall, milk coagulation is under the influence of additive genetic variation. Optimal milk for

  10. Measurement of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements in human milk and commercially available milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Suma; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Nair, M.G.; Ravi, Prabhat; Bhati, Sharda

    2011-01-01

    Milk is considered to be a complete food and an almost indispensable part of the diets of infants and children. In this paper we present the concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements such as Th, Cs, Co, Rb, Fe, Ca and Zn present in human milk and commercially available milk. The trace elements in human and other milk samples were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The results show that higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Ca and Rb were found in ordinary milk samples in comparison with the human milk samples. Whereas, a higher concentrations of Fe and Co were observed in human milk samples. These data will be useful for the nutritional and biokinetic studies of these elements in infants and children of different age groups. (author)

  11. Relationship of litter size with milk yield, udder morphology and udder health of East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Prpić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relationship between litter size and milk yield, udder morphology, and udder health of East Friesian ewes. For that purpose a total of 80 East Friesian ewes, from 2nd to 4th lactation, with symmetrical udders, without visible (clinical signs of mastitis were involved in this study. Until weaning at average age of 60±5 days lambs suckled their mothers exclusively. During milking period regular milking controls (on a monthly basis were carried out (AT method and, on these occasions, individual milk samples for chemical composition analysis were taken. Three times per lactation (1st, 3rd and 5th milking control, prior to the milking, evaluation and measuring of udder morphology traits were performed. Also, during above-mentioned test-day controls (three times per lactation one sample of half udder milk was taken with purpose of bacterial and somatic cell counts (SCC tests. Ewes with twin and triplet lambs had significantly (P0.05 and depth (P>0.05. Besides that, udders of ewes with twins and triplets had higher cistern, greater teat angle and larger teat dimensions than ewes with singles, although those differences were not statistically significant. Ewes with single lamb had teats more (P<0.05 cranially oriented than ewes with twins and triplets. Significant (P<0.05 differences in somatic cell count (log10SCC between ewes of different litter sizes were determined, regardless of the health status of mammary gland. The higher (P<0.05 prevalence of subclinical mastitis was observed in ewes with twin and triplet lambs than in ewes with singles. In 46% of mammary glands (udder halves of sheep with twins and triplets a subclinical mastitis was established and even 65.8% of them undergone an infection of one or both halves of the udder during the milking period.

  12. Effects of milk preservation using the lactoperoxidase system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sodium percarbonate to fresh milk. Yoghurt and Bambui cheese were processed separately from treated and untreated (control) milk samples. Yogurt was produced from both the treated and the control milk samples at 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% (v/v) culture levels. Yogurt samples were analysed for acidity, protein content and dry

  13. Ion exchange chromatography on a new form of tin dioxide for the isolation of strontium radioisotopes from fission products: an application to milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, R.; Valentini, M.T.G.; Maggi, L.

    1990-01-01

    An amorphous, partially-reduced tin dioxide, having properties of an inorganic exchanger, was tested for application to fission product separations. Due to the good sorption of both strontium and barium the application of the exchanger to radiostrontium isolation from fission product mixtures is subjected to important restrictions. An application to 90 Sr determination in milk is proposed. (author)

  14. Transfer of estradiol to human milk. [Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, S.; Nygren, K.G.; Johansson, E.D.B.

    1978-11-15

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of estradiol in human milk is evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 25 pg of estradiol per milliliter of milk. In milk samples collected from four lactating women during three to four months and from one pregnant and lactating woman, the concentration of estradiol was found to be below the detection limit of the assay. When six lactating women were given vaginal suppositories containing 50 or 100 mg of estradiol, it was possible to estimate the estradiol concentration in milk. A ratio of transfer of estradiol from plasma to milk during physiologic conditions is calculated to be less than 100 : 10.

  15. Transfer of estradiol to human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.; Nygren, K.G.; Johansson, E.D.B.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of estradiol in human milk is evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 25 pg of estradiol per milliliter of milk. In milk samples collected from four lactating women during three to four months and from one pregnant and lactating woman, the concentration of estradiol was found to be below the detection limit of the assay. When six lactating women were given vaginal suppositories containing 50 or 100 mg of estradiol, it was possible to estimate the estradiol concentration in milk. A ratio of transfer of estradiol from plasma to milk during physiologic conditions is calculated to be less than 100 : 10

  16. [The thermophilic streptomycetes flora in milk powders and condensed milk products (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, J

    1978-08-01

    247 specimens of powdered milk and 165 of condensed milk were tested for their contamination with thermophile Streptomycetes. Colonies of these contaminants were isolated from all specimens of powdered milk and from 73 samples of condensed sweeted milk. The isolated strains corresponded with the following species of thermophilic Streptomycetes: Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899 "giant colonies", Micromonospora sp. (Agre et al., 1).

  17. Evaluation of Microbial load and quality of milk & milk based dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Suvra Das

    2015-01-01

    Milk has an importance as valuable & nutritious food product. So, it is essential to evaluate their microbiological quality before consumption. Our study was carried out to examine the microbial load and quality of milk & milk based products. Total 87 samples of 13 different types of milk & dairy foods were collected from different locations in Dhaka city, Bangladesh were taken to the laboratory and stored for analysis. Total viable counts, Total coliform count and fungus count was analyzed &...

  18. Microbiological evaluation of Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT-treated milk close to expiry date and routine home practices for preservation of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayalaxmi Jeppu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As milk is an excellent medium for growth of microorganisms, milk gets contaminated very easily leading to its early spoilage and to milk-borne diseases. Objectives: To compare the quality of pasteurized milk with milk cooker-treated milk and to compare the quality of fresh ultra-high-temperature (UHT milk with that of UHT milk close to expiry date. Materials and Methods: Samples of pasteurized milk, milk heated in milk cooker, fresh UHT milk, and UHT milk nearing expiry date were tested by methylene blue reduction test, coliform test, and colony count test. The results were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 11.5. Results: All milk samples passed the methylene blue test and UHT-treated milk passed the coliform test also. Out of the 30 fresh pasteurized milk samples, seven (23.3% passed the coliform test; but the same after milk cooker treatment, 16 (53.3% passed the coliform test (P < 0.05. Fourteen (46.6% out of 30 fresh pasteurized milk samples failed the colony count test, but the same after milk cooker treatment only eight (26.6% failed the test (P = 0.583. Only seven out of the 60 UHT milk samples failed the colony count test and out of these six (20% were close to expiry date (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Milk cooker-treated milk appears to be safer than the fresh pasteurized milk. Fresh UHT-treated milk is safer then UHT milk close to expiry date.

  19. Fermentation of calcium-fortified soya milk does not appear to enhance acute calcium absorption in osteopenic post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Anne Lise Tang Fook; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Shah, Nagendra P; Strauss, Boyd; Ashton, John F; Stojanovska, Lily

    2011-01-01

    Ageing women may choose to drink soya milk to reduce menopausal symptoms. As fermentation enriches soya milk with isoflavone aglycones, its beneficial qualities may improve. To reduce osteoporotic risk, however, soya milk must be Ca enriched, and it is not known how fermentation affects Ca bioavailability. A randomised crossover pilot study was undertaken to compare the Ca absorption of fortified soya milk with that of fermented and fortified soya milk in twelve Australian osteopenic post-menopausal women. The fortified soya milk was inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 4962 and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. Ca absorption from soya milk samples was measured using a single isotope radiocalcium method. Participants had a mean age of 54·8 (sd 12·3) years, with mean BMI of 26·5 (sd 5·5) kg/m2 and subnormal to normal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (mean 62·5 (sd 19·1) nmol/l). Participants consumed 185 kBq of 45Ca in 44 mg of Ca carrier. The mean fractional Ca absorption (α) from soya milk and fermented soya milk was 0·64 (sd 0·23) and 0·71 (sd 0·29), respectively, a difference not of statistical significance (P = 0·122). Although fermentation of soya milk may provide other health benefits, fermentation had little effect on acute Ca absorption.

  20. Field testing of collection cards for Cannabis sativa samples with a single hexanucleotide DNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Lindsay; Hemenway, John; Shirley, Nicholas; LaNier, Tommy; Coyle, Heather Miller

    2011-09-01

    The validity and feasibility of using DNA collection cards in the field for preservation and analysis of Cannabis sativa genotypes were investigated using a highly specific hexanucleotide marker. Collection cards were submitted to the National Marijuana Initiative, which selectively trained and managed the collection of specific types of samples from a variety of participating agencies. Samples collected at seizure sites included fresh marijuana leaf samples, dried "dispensary" samples, U.S. border seizures, and hashish. Using a standardized PCR kit with custom-labeled oligonucleotide primers specific to marijuana, collection cards produced eight genotypes and 13 different alleles, extremely low baselines, and no cross-reactivity with control plant species. Results were produced from all sample types with the exception of hashish. Plant DNA collection cards represent an easily implementable method for the genetic identification and relatedness of C. sativa street and grow site-seized samples with applications for databasing and market disruption. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Identification of Variable Traits among the Methicillin Resistant and Sensitive Coagulase Negative Staphylococci in Milk Samples from Mastitic Cows in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Mahato

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis has been very well investigated worldwide. However, there are only limited reports on the characterization of methicillin resistant and sensitive coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS across the globe. Hence, in the present study, we aim to determine the phenotypic traits based on antimicrobial susceptibility profile and genotypic characterization by verifying the presence of resistance determinants, virulence and toxin genes present in the CoNS causing clinical mastitis. We obtained 62 CoNS isolates from 167 mastitic milk samples collected from three different states of India. The 62 isolates comprises of 10 different CoNS species S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. chromogenes, S. saprophyticus, S. xylosus, S. simulans, S. agnetis, S. epidermidis, S. gallinarum, and S. cohinii. Susceptibility screening against 11 antibiotics determined 45.16% isolates as multidrug resistant (resistant to more than two class of antibiotic, 46.74% resistant (one or two antibiotic class and 8.06% isolates were pan-sensitive (sensitive to all drugs. High resistance was observed against oxacillin and cefoxitin, whereas all isolates were susceptible toward vancomycin and linezolid. Fifty three isolates were methicillin resistant and 9 isolates were sensitive as determined by oxacillin susceptibility assay. The methicillin resistance gene, mecA was found in 95.16% isolates and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing predominantly revealed Type III (n = 34 and Type V (n = 18. Interestingly, 11.9% of mecA positive isolates were oxacillin susceptible and referred as oxacillin susceptible mecA positive staphylococci (OS-MRS. Additionally, genes encoding for enterotoxin, (sea, seb, seh, see toxic shock syndrome (tsst, exfoliatin (eta, etb, etd and virulence (pvl, Y-hlg were also screened. Of all the genes examined, 67.74% of isolate were positive for the Y-hlg gene, followed by the sea gene in

  2. Identification of Variable Traits among the Methicillin Resistant and Sensitive Coagulase Negative Staphylococci in Milk Samples from Mastitic Cows in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Sudipta; Mistry, Hiral U; Chakraborty, Shalini; Sharma, Paresh; Saravanan, R; Bhandari, Vasundhra

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis has been very well investigated worldwide. However, there are only limited reports on the characterization of methicillin resistant and sensitive coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) across the globe. Hence, in the present study, we aim to determine the phenotypic traits based on antimicrobial susceptibility profile and genotypic characterization by verifying the presence of resistance determinants, virulence and toxin genes present in the CoNS causing clinical mastitis. We obtained 62 CoNS isolates from 167 mastitic milk samples collected from three different states of India. The 62 isolates comprises of 10 different CoNS species S. sciuri , S. haemolyticus, S. chromogenes , S. saprophyticus , S. xylosu s, S. simulans , S. agnetis , S. epidermidis , S. gallinarum , and S. cohinii . Susceptibility screening against 11 antibiotics determined 45.16% isolates as multidrug resistant (resistant to more than two class of antibiotic), 46.74% resistant (one or two antibiotic class) and 8.06% isolates were pan-sensitive (sensitive to all drugs). High resistance was observed against oxacillin and cefoxitin, whereas all isolates were susceptible toward vancomycin and linezolid. Fifty three isolates were methicillin resistant and 9 isolates were sensitive as determined by oxacillin susceptibility assay. The methicillin resistance gene, mecA was found in 95.16% isolates and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) typing predominantly revealed Type III ( n = 34) and Type V ( n = 18). Interestingly, 11.9% of mecA positive isolates were oxacillin susceptible and referred as oxacillin susceptible mecA positive staphylococci (OS-MRS). Additionally, genes encoding for enterotoxin, ( sea, seb, seh, see ) toxic shock syndrome ( tsst ), exfoliatin ( eta, etb, etd ) and virulence ( pvl, Y-hlg ) were also screened. Of all the genes examined, 67.74% of isolate were positive for the Y-hlg gene, followed by the

  3. Genetic variation in genes affecting milk composition and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard

    associated with complex traits. In the present PDH projekt the main emphasis has been on investigating the complex trait of milk coagulation. Utilising a next generation wequencing approach on polled samples resulted in the detection of novel SNPs and possible condidate genes affection milk coagulation....... In addition, exploring genetic variation related to the major milk proteins of bovine milk indntified genetic variations with possitive effects on milk coagulation...

  4. Inert gases in a terra sample - Measurements in six grain-size fractions and two single particles from Lunar 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.; Lakatos, S.; Walton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of inert gas measurements performed on six grain-size fractions and two single particles from four samples of Luna 20 material. Presented and discussed data include the inert gas contents, element and isotope systematics, radiation ages, and Ar-36/Ar-40 systematics.

  5. Raw Milk Hygiene at Local Markets and Automatic Milk Dispenser Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, direct sales of raw milk to the final consumer is developed based on the local regulations. These are in accordance to European Regulation that must meet some quality requirements for the total number of germs, somatic cells, without antibiotics, coming from healthy animals who did not suffer from diseases that can be transmitted to humans through milk. Raw milk is sold in Romania in local markets and by automatic milk dispenser machines. Based on these regulations, a study regarding the quality and security to human health of raw milk was conducted on the commercialized milk in local markets and automatic milk dispensers. During May-June 2014 samples of raw milk were collected from Cluj-Napoca local markets and automatic milk dispensers. All samples were kept to refrigeration conditions until the moment of analyze which took place at the sampling day. The following parameters were taken into account: fat content, protein, casein, lactose, nonfat dry matter, pH, milk freezing point, added water, antibiotics residues, milk urea, number of germ cells and somatic cells. All obtained results were verified by the validated methods applied. Our research can be forward conducted in order to verify the hygiene and composition of milk from the whole dairy chain. 

  6. Label-free isolation and deposition of single bacterial cells from heterogeneous samples for clonal culturing

    OpenAIRE

    J. Riba; T. Gleichmann; S. Zimmermann; R. Zengerle; P. Koltay

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and analysis of single prokaryotic cells down to 1??m and less in size poses a special challenge and requires micro-engineered devices to handle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter range. Here, an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP) was applied for automated and label-free isolation and deposition of bacterial cells encapsulated in 35?pl droplets by inkjet-like printing. To achieve this, dispenser chips to generate micro droplets have been fabricated with nozzles 20??m in size....

  7. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  8. Nonnutritive Sweeteners in Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Gardner, Alexandra L; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E; Garraffo, H Martin; Walter, Peter J; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants' milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications.

  9. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Single point aerosol sampling: Evaluation of mixing and probe performance in a nuclear stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, J.C.; Fairchild, C.I.; Wood, G.O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Alternative Reference Methodologies (ARMs) have been developed for sampling of radionuclides from stacks and ducts that differ from the methods required by the U.S. EPA. The EPA methods are prescriptive in selection of sampling locations and in design of sampling probes whereas the alternative methods are performance driven. Tests were conducted in a stack at Los Alamos National Laboratory to demonstrate the efficacy of the ARMs. Coefficients of variation of the velocity tracer gas, and aerosol particle profiles were determined at three sampling locations. Results showed numerical criteria placed upon the coefficients of variation by the ARMs were met at sampling stations located 9 and 14 stack diameters from flow entrance, but not at a location that is 1.5 diameters downstream from the inlet. Experiments were conducted to characterize the transmission of 10 {mu}m aerodynamic equivalent diameter liquid aerosol particles through three types of sampling probes. The transmission ratio (ratio of aerosol concentration at the probe exit plane to the concentration in the free stream) was 107% for a 113 L/min (4-cfm) anisokinetic shrouded probe, but only 20% for an isokinetic probe that follows the EPA requirements. A specially designed isokinetic probe showed a transmission ratio of 63%. The shrouded probe performance would conform to the ARM criteria; however, the isokinetic probes would not.

  11. Eficiência dos testes COPAN (Microplate e Single na detecção de resíduos de antimicrobianos no leite Efficacy of COPAN (Microplate and Single kits in detection of antimicrobials residues in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G.M.S.C. Tenório

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência dos testes microbiológicos COPAN (Microplate e Single para detecção de resíduos de 13 antimicrobianos inoculados em leite isento de resíduos. Foram utilizadas quatro concentrações, sendo a primeira equivalente à metade do limite de detecção declarado pelo fabricante (C1; a segunda equivalente ao limite máximo de resíduos (LMR estabelecido pela legislação brasileira (C2; a terceira equivalente ao limite de detecção declarado pelo fabricante (C3; e a quarta equivalente ao dobro do limite de detecção declarado pelo fabricante (C4. Os testes apresentaram 100% de sensibilidade na detecção de amoxicilina, ampicilina, cloxacilina, penicilina, tilosina, sulfadiazina, sulfametoxazol, e 96,7% na detecção de oxacilina para as concentrações informadas pelo fabricante como limite de detecção. Em relação às concentrações estabelecidas pela legislação brasileira, verificou-se que os testes foram capazes de detectá-las para a maioria dos antimicrobianos avaliados. Os testes não se mostraram eficientes na detecção das concentrações estabelecidas pela legislação para eritromicina, oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina, trimetoprim e gentamicina (Microplate.The efficacy of the microbiological kits COPAN (Microplate and Single for detection of antimicrobials residues was tested. Thirteen drugs were inoculated into milk without residues at four concentration levels: C1 - half of the detection threshold declared by the manufacturer, C2 - the maximum residues threshold established by the Brazilian legislation, C3 - the detection threshold declared by the manufacturer, and C4 - two fold the detection threshold declared by the manufacturer. The tests showed 100% efficient in detection of amoxicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin, tilosin, sulfadiazine, and sulfa methoxazol; and 96.7% for oxacillin considering the concentration stated by the manufacturer as threshold level. Regarding the concentrations established by

  12. Evaluation of milk enzymes and electrolytes, plasma metabolites, and oxidative status in twin cows milked in an automatic milking system or twice daily in a conventional milking parlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Terzano, M G; Speroni, M; Migliorati, L; Capelletti, M; Calza, F; Bianchi, L; Pirlo, G

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of automatic milking (AM) on milk enzymes and minerals related to mammary epithelial integrity in comparison with twice-daily conventional milking (CM). One cow from each of 6 pairs of twins was assigned to be milked with AM or with CM throughout first lactation. Milk production was recorded and milk samples were collected at 4, 11, 18, 25, 32, and 39 wk of lactation (WOL) to determine fat and protein content, somatic cell count, pH, plasminogen (pl) and plasmin (Pl) activities, Na, K, and Cl. Body condition score was monitored; blood samples were collected to determine energy-related metabolites in the first third of lactation (14 WOL), and plasma oxidative status throughout lactation. Overall mean and standard deviation of milking frequency (MF) in AM were 2.69 and 0.88, respectively. Milk production, fat and protein contents, and somatic cell count did not differ between milking systems. The pl and pl+Pl activities were lesser in AM than in CM. Milk pH was greater in AM than in CM. Milk Na, K, Na/K ratio, and Cl did not differ across the whole lactation. Milk pH had a positive correlation with milk Pl activity (r = 0.41), Na (r = 0.37), and Cl (r = 0.40) concentration, and negative correlation with the log(10) of pl/Pl ratio (r = -0.47). The milk Na/K ratio had a positive correlation (r = 0.55) with milk Pl activity. Milking system (MS) did not seem to affect mammary epithelial permeability. The differences in enzymatic (proteolytic) activity due to the MS, probably related to daily MF, lead one to suppose that the quality of the protein fraction for the cheese-making process was preserved better with AM than with CM, even if differences in pH might negatively interfere. No difference was detected in BCS, and in plasma concentration of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, whereas plasma cholesterol concentration during the first 10 WOL was lesser in AM than CM. Oxidative status, measured by plasma

  13. Milk as an Essential Source of Iodine in Latvian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimane Lolita Vija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are studied as alternative iodine sources, because salt iodisation is controversial due to high salt consumption leading to cardiovascular diseases. However, the iodine concentration in milk markedly varies. This study evaluated the iodine concentration in cow’s milk available in the Latvian market. Iodine and fat concentration was analysed with a spectrophotometer “Varian Cary 50” based ISO 2446:2008 in 20 milk samples. Data from the Central Statistical Bureau and survey among pregnant women were used to analyse milk product consumption and its impact on iodine status. Average iodine concentration in milk samples was 457.6 (179.6 μg/L, winter samples had a higher concentration of iodine than summer samples: 563.4 (329.6 μg/L and 469.2 (162.0 μg/L, but this is not statistically significant p < 0.05. Iodine concentration in skimmed milk was 490 μg/L, milk with the reduced fat content 501.7 (174.8 μg/L, and whole milk — 422.6 (192.11 μg/L. Milk consumption decreased from 2002 to 2014, while yogurt and cheese consumption increased. Higher consumption of milk and milk products was related to higher urinary iodine concentration ρ = 0.115; p = 0.003. Milk and milk products are an important iodine source in Latvia and their consumption should be promoted.

  14. THE INVESTIGATION OF BRUCELLA ANTIBODY WITH MILK RING TEST AND AGGLUTINATION TEST IN MILK COLLECTED FROM SAMSUN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goknur TERZI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study Brucella antibodies were investigated with agglutination test (Whey-AT and Milk Ring Test (MRT in a total of 100 milk samples as 50 of cow milk and 50 of goat milk collected from center and villages of Samsun. According to MRT Brucella antibodies was positive at 10 samples (20 % of cow milk and 6 samples (12 % of goat milk. In cow milk, 4 (8 % positive, 3 (6 % suspicious and 43 (86 % negative samples; in goat milk 3 (6 % positive, 2 (4 % suspicious and 45 (90 % negative samples were determined according to antibodies titre of serum agglutination test (Whey-AT. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000: 196-203

  15. Nonfermented milk and other dairy products: associations with all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognon, Gianluca; Nilsson, Lena M; Shungin, Dmitry; Lissner, Lauren; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Renström, Frida; Wennberg, Maria; Winkvist, Anna; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-06-01

    Background: A positive association between nonfermented milk intake and increased all-cause mortality was recently reported, but overall, the association between dairy intake and mortality is inconclusive. Objective: We studied associations between intake of dairy products and all-cause mortality with an emphasis on nonfermented milk and fat content. Design: A total of 103,256 adult participants (women: 51.0%) from Northern Sweden were included (7121 deaths; mean follow-up: 13.7 y). Associations between all-cause mortality and reported intakes of nonfermented milk (total or by fat content), fermented milk, cheese, and butter were tested with the use of Cox proportional hazards models that were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, education, energy intake, examination year, and physical activity. To circumvent confounding, Mendelian randomization was applied in a subsample via the lactase LCT - 13910 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism that is associated with lactose tolerance and milk intake. Results: High consumers of nonfermented milk (≥2.5 times/d) had a 32% increased hazard (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.48) for all-cause mortality compared with that of subjects who consumed milk ≤1 time/wk. The corresponding value for butter was 11% (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.21). All nonfermented milk-fat types were independently associated with increased HRs, but compared with full-fat milk, HRs were lower in consumers of medium- and low-fat milk. Fermented milk intake (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.94) and cheese intake (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.96) were negatively associated with mortality. Results were slightly attenuated by lifestyle adjustments but were robust in sensitivity analyses. Mortality was not significantly associated with the LCT -13910 C/T genotype in the smaller subsample. The amount and type of milk intake was associated with lifestyle variables. Conclusions: In the present Swedish cohort study, intakes of nonfermented milk and butter are

  16. A single lysis solution for the analysis of tissue samples by different proteomic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, P.; Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.

    2008-01-01

    -based proteomics (reverse-phase lysate arrays or direct antibody arrays), allowing the direct comparison of qualitative and quantitative data yielded by these technologies when applied to the same samples. The usefulness of the CLB1 solution for gel-based proteomics was further established by 2D PAGE analysis...... taken place in molecular biology, cell biology and genomics there is a pressing need to accelerate the translation of basic discoveries into clinical applications. This need, compounded by mounting evidence that cellular model systems are unable to fully recapitulate all biological aspects of human...... dissease, is driving scientists to increasingly use clinically relevant samples for biomarker and target discovery. Tissues are heterogeneous and as a result optimization of sample preparation is critical for generating accurate, representative, and highly reproducible quantitative data. Although a large...

  17. Buying human milk via the internet: just a click away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Sheela R; McNamara, Kelly A; Dillon, Chelsea E; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J; Keim, Sarah A

    2013-12-01

    For past centuries, infants have been fed the milk of mothers who are not their own by latching to another woman's breast. Today, the majority of lactating women use electric pumps to extract milk from their breasts; thus, an infant now may be fed another woman's milk via a bottle or cup. The Internet is an emerging avenue to acquire pumped human milk. The purpose of our study was to participate in and describe the process of buying milk via the Internet. Our goal is to help those involved with the clinical care, research, and public health policy of mothers and infants better understand that families may be buying milk in this way. We anonymously bought 102 human milk samples via the Internet. We characterized the outside box, packing materials, milk container, temperature and condition of the milk, and cost. We bought 2,131 ounces of milk at a total cost of $8,306. Eighty-nine percent of the milk arrived above the recommended frozen temperature of -20°C; 45% of it was even above the recommended refrigerator temperature (4°C). The mean surface temperature of the milk samples in each shipment was correlated with the cost of shipping, time in transit, and condition of the milk containers. The prevalence and potential risks of this practice currently are unknown. Research related to milk quality and infant outcomes related to milk buying via the Internet is urgently needed.

  18. Technical Note Evaluation of extent of water adulteration of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent of water adulteration of milk produced and marketed in Morogoro municipality in Tanzania. A total of 90 milk samples were collected from institutional, private and smallholder farms and milk vendors, The samples were analysed for lactometer reading (LR), butterfat (BF), ...

  19. Microbiological quality and safety of raw and pasteurized milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbiological quality of raw and pasteurized milk marketed in Nairobi and its environs was determined. Milk samples were collected randomly at milk selling points from three market areas: rural (Kiambu/Ngong), urban (East/West of Tom Mboya street) and slum (Kibera/Mathare). Samples were analysed for titratable ...

  20. Bacteriological investigation of sheep and goats milk for brucellosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 418 sheep and goats milk samples were examined culturally. Investigation revealed a 34.75 per cent and 15.88 per cent rate of infection in goats and sheep by milk ring test. Of 277 sheep and 141 goats milk samples examined culturally, brucellae were isolated from four sheep and six goats giving a total of ten ...

  1. Microwave treatment modify antigenicity properties of bovine milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... This work is aimed to assess the effect of a microwave heating on cow's milk protein antigenicity. The heating protocol is established on the power/time relationship. A first share of milk samples were treated at 300 and 400 watts for 10, 15 and 20 min. The second share of milk and whey samples were.

  2. Elemental composition of human and animal milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.

    1982-09-01

    A review is presented of the elemental composition of human and animal milk with special reference to trace elements determined through nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA). In the joint IAEA/WHO research project, 16 of the 24 elements under investigation have been analysed by NAA with the aid of advanced research nuclear reactors. Literature data are discussed and tabulated in 50 separate tables (one for each element) mainly for the period after 1950. Each table uses a standard format comprising 10 columns indicating (1) source of milk (e.g. human or animal), (2) status of the milk (colostrum, transitional or mature), (3) country of origin, (4) year of data publication, (5) mean concentration, (6) range of single values or standard deviation of the mean, (7) number of samples analysed, (8) analytical technique employed, (9) literature source of the data, and (10) relevant remarks, if any. The most abundant data refer to the minor elements Ca, Cl, K, Mg, N, Na, P and S and to the trace elements Cu, Fe and Zn. Fewer data are available for Cd, Hg, I, Mn, Pb and Se. For the remaining elements, including such biologically important trace elements as As, Co, Cr, F, Mo, Ni, Si and Sn, very few reliable data so far appear to exist

  3. ESTIMATION OF QUALITY OF RAW MILK (OPEN & BRANDED BY MILK ADULTERATION TESTING KIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Kandpal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a compulsory part of daily diet for the expectant mothers as well as growing children. Milk is very important due to its special nutritive value and important role for human and animal health. Adulteration is practised either to substitute cheaper ingredients or to impress the buyer to think the product is more valuable or of better quality. Methods: The present study was conducted by the Department of Community Medicine at HIHT, Dehradun. All the samples of the raw milk (open and branded supplied by the vendors in 5 Km radius of HIHT . The samples of milk were also collected from the Girls and Boys Hostel Mess and canteen. 500ml of each variety of open milk and 500 ml packet of branded milk were purchased from the milk vendors. The specific gravity of the milk was assessed by lactometer and chemically tested by Adulteration Test Kit supplied by NICE Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. ( an ISO 9001 Certified Company. Results: It was observed that out of 60 samples of milk, only 12 samples (20 % had specific gravity of 26 and more which is considered as undiluted milk while 48 (80% had specific gravity of less than 26 clearly indicating the dilution of milk with water. It was also observed that all the milk samples including double toned milk collected from different places showed presence of urea and detergents as common adulterants. Conclusion:The findings of this study highlights the need to implement improved hygiene practices and to apply effective monitoring throughout the production to delivery chain. Training and education is also needed for all persons who deal with milk production, marketing and processing.

  4. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate in adults: accuracy of five single-sample plasma clearance methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, M; Rabøl, A

    1989-01-01

    After an intravenous injection of a tracer that is removed from the body solely by filtration in the kidneys, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be determined from its plasma clearance. The method requires a great number of blood samples but collection of urine is not needed. In the present...

  5. Determination of burial dose in incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    -bleached and gamma-irradiated samples. We show that there is a linear relationship between the over-dispersion and the mean dose. Knowing this uncertainty relationship enables us to estimate the burial dose by comparing the predicted uncertainty on the running mean with that calculated from actual dispersion. (c...

  6. Quantitative in-situ TEM nanotensile testing of single crystal Ni facilitated by a new sample preparation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaeeaghmiyoni, Vahid; Idrissi, Hosni; Groten, Jonas; Schwaiger, Ruth; Schryvers, Dominique

    2017-03-01

    Twin-jet electro-polishing and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) were combined to produce small size Nickel single crystal specimens for quantitative in-situ nanotensile experiments in the transmission electron microscope. The combination of these techniques allows producing samples with nearly defect-free zones in the centre in contrast to conventional FIB-prepared samples. Since TEM investigations can be performed on the electro-polished samples prior to in-situ TEM straining, specimens with desired crystallographic orientation and initial microstructure can be prepared. The present results reveal a dislocation nucleation-controlled plasticity, in which small loops induced by FIB near the edges of the samples play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The chemical composition and technological properties of milk obtained from the morning and evening milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Skýpala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk yield varies during lactation, following what is termed a lactation curve. ŽIŽLAVSKÝ and MIKŠÍK (1988 recorded changes in milk yield within a day, too. TEPLÝ et al. (1979 a KOUŘIMSKÁ et al. (2007 published variation within a day ± 1.10 kg in milk yield, ± 0.75 % in milk fat content and ± 0.20 % in milk protein content. Milk yield of cows can be expressed in many different ways, for instance, in kilograms per lactation or in kilograms per day. A practical parameter describing milk production is milk yield (kg per milking.The object of experiment were 12 cows of Holstein cattle on the first lactation from the 100-day of lactation to 200-day of lactation. The samples of milk were collected from January to May 2007, once a month from the morning and evening milking (milking interval 12 h ± 15 min.. The following parameters were monitored: milk production – milk yield (kg, milk protein production (kg, milk fat production (kg; milk composition – milk protein content (%, milk fat content (%, lactose content (%, milk solids-not-fat content (%, milk total solids content (%; technological properties of milk – ti­tra­tab­le acidity (SH, active acidity (pH, rennet coagulation time (s, quality of curd (class and somatic cell count as a parameter of udder health.Highly significant differences were found (P < 0.01 between morning milk yield (15.7 kg and evening milk yield (13.8 kg, between morning milk protein production (0.51 kg and evening milk protein production (0.45 kg and between evening milk fat content (4.41 % and morning milk fat content (3.95 %. A significant difference (P < 0.05 was found between morning milk total solids content (12.62 % and evening milk total solids content (12.07 %. No significant differences were found between morning (M and evening (E values of the remaining parameters: milk fat production (M 0.62 kg; E 0.60 kg, milk protein content (M 3.24 %; E 3.27 %, milk lactose content (M 4.78 %; E 4.86 %, milk

  8. A proposal for the measurement of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction strengths in a single sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Santanu K.; Sil, Shreekantha; Chakrabarti, Arunava

    2012-01-01

    We establish an exact analytical treatment for the determination of the strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions in a single sample by measuring persistent spin current. A hidden symmetry is exploited in the Hamiltonian to show that the spin current vanishes when the strength of the Dresselhaus interaction becomes equal to the strength of the Rashba term. The results are sustained even in the presence of disorder and thus an experiment in this regard will be challenging. -- Highlights: ► An exact analytical treatment is given for the measurement of spin–orbit interaction strengths in a single sample. ► Persistent spin current is calculated. ► Our present analysis gives us confidence to propose an experiment in this line.

  9. The concentrations of adipokines in goat milk: relation to plasma levels, inflammatory status, milk quality and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUZEL, Saime; YIBAR, Artun; BELENLI, Deniz; CETIN, Ismail; TANRIVERDI, Meltem

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of our study were to measure the major adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin in goat milk, to assess their interrelationships and to assess their relationships with the plasma and serum concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, total lipids, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk total aerobic colony and lactobacillus count, and milk components in lactating Saanen goats. The study was performed on eighteen lactating Saanen goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 of lactation postpartum. The milk and plasma adiponectin levels on days 50, 65 and 80 postpartum were significantly higher than those on day 20. The milk and plasma leptin levels were lower on day 20 than on days 35, 50, 65 and 80. The milk concentrations of these major adipokines were positively intercorrelated. The milk and plasma concentrations of these three adipokines were also positively correlated. The plasma CRP concentrations correlated positively with milk leptin and resistin concentrations and inversely with milk adiponectin concentration. Milk adiponectin concentration was inversely related with its SCC. These data confirm that adiponectin, leptin and resistin are present in goat milk. The milk concentrations of these three adipokines were interrelated and interacted with the general inflammatory marker, CRP. The inverse relationship between milk adiponectin concentrations and its SCC suggests that variations in milk adiponectin might be involved in the udder health of lactating goats, but clinical trials are needed to support this hypothesis. PMID:28111374

  10. Detection of antibiotics residues in cow raw milk in Bostanabad Region, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosein Movassagh

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to screen of antibiotic residues in cows' raw milk in Bostanabad milk collection center. 50 samples of cows' raw milk were collected from April to September 2010 by systematic random sampling method. All samples were examined by Copan milk test (CHR. Hansen, Denmark) for the presence of antibiotics reidues. Twelve samples (24%) were positive for antibiotic residues. The study revealed that antibiotic residues in milk were high in Bo...

  11. Determination of essential and trace elements in milk and measurement of short-lived nuclides using FIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.; Kalayoglu, S.; Unseren, E.; Grass, F.; Boeck, H.

    1988-01-01

    In the experiments, Gueluem, Sek and Pinar brand of bottled milks and Pinar milk powder which are commercially available were used. As standards IAEA Milk powder A-11, NBS-Orchard Leaves 1571 and for Cu single standard was used. Samples and standards were irradiated together in the central thimble of I.T.U. TRIGA Mark-II reactor for 1-8 hrs and for 60 sec in the fast pneumatic tube of TRIGA Reactor. Depending on the nuclear characteristics of the isotopes to be analyzed, they are counted at different counting times. The activities were measured with a high-purity Ge detector coupled to Canberra 90 model multichannel analyzer in the ITU. In order to determine short half-life nuclides a very fast irradiation and measuring system (FIMS) has been used. When the average values of the 16 elements are considered, it is observed that the amount of Na, As, Al, Mn, Zn, Rb , Co in the milk powder is greater than that of milk, where as in Pinar milk, which is a durable kind of milk, the amount of Na, K, Br, Al , As, Zn, Co is larger than that in daily milk. When daily products of different brands are compared, it was found that the quantity of Fe, Cr, Mg is higher while Cl, Sb, Zn, Rb, Co is less than that in Gueluem milk. The quantity of Cl is about 10 times as much and Mg 7 times less than in Sek milk. It was not possible to investigate how the seasons and the regions from where the milk was collected affect the quantity of the elements. It will be useful to continue the study in this field

  12. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  13. Effect of days in milk and milk yield on testing positive in milk antibody ELISA to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples are becoming more used as a diagnostic specimen for assessment of occurrence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study assessed the effect of days in milk (DIM) and milk yield on testing positive in a commercial MAP specific milk antibody ELISA...... from the first couple of DIM should be excluded from MAP testing until further information on their significance is established. Milk yield also had a significant effect on odds of testing positive due to its diluting effect. Inclusion of milk yield in the interpretation of test results could improve...

  14. Sol-gel-graphene-based fabric-phase sorptive extraction for cow and human breast milk sample cleanup for screening bisphenol A and residual dental restorative material before analysis by HPLC with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Filippou, Olga; Marinou, Eirini; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-06-01

    Fabric-phase sorptive extraction has already been recognized as a simple and green alternative to the conventional sorbent-based sorptive microextraction techniques, using hybrid organic-inorganic sorbent coatings chemically bonded to a flexible fabric surface. Herein, we have investigated the synergistic combination of the advanced material properties offered by sol-gel graphene sorbent and the simplicity of Fabric phase sorptive extraction approach in selectively extracting bisphenol A and residual monomers including bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate derived dental restorative materials from cow and human breast milk samples. Different coatings were evaluated. Final method development employed sol-gel graphene coated media. The main experimental parameters influencing extraction of the compounds, such as sorbent chemistry used, sample loading conditions, elution solvent, sorption stirring time, elution time, impact of protein precipitation, amount of sample, and matrix effect, were investigated and optimized. Absolute recovery values from standard solutions were 50% for bisphenol A, 78% for T triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 110% for urethane dimethacrylate, and 103% for bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, while respective absolute recovery values from milk were 30, 52, 104, and 42%. Method validation was performed according to European Decision 657/2002/EC in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Isolation of RNA from tumor samples: single-step guanidinium acid-phenol method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Naomi; Leek, Russell

    2006-01-01

    The guanidinium acid-phenol method of RNA extraction is relatively fast (4 h) and is useful for the processing of large numbers of samples, without the need for ultracentrifugation. This protocol produces total RNA that includes ribosomal, transfer, and messenger RNA. This high-quality RNA is suitable for Northern blot analysis, dot-blot hybridization, poly (A) RNA selection, in vitro translation, cDNA library construction, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, ribonuclease protection assay, and primer extension experiments.

  16. Research of nitroxynil residues in bovine milk following a single administration in the dry period by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Chirollo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitroxynil (NIT is a halogenated phenol used to control fascioliasis in cattle and sheep. The Commission Regulation EU No 37/2010 has established maximum residue limits for NIT in bovine and ovine muscle (400 μg kg−1, fat (200 μg kg−1, liver (20 μg kg−1 and kidney (400 μg kg−1, and more recently in bovine and ovine milk (20 μg kg−1. Thirty-five pregnant dairy cows were treated in this study with nitroxynil (340 mg/mL solution for injection at the recommended dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at the start of the dry period, i.e. 53 to 74 days before the expected calving. Calving occurred between 43 days and 79 days after treatment. The concentrations of NIT in the milk were monitored for up to 120 days after calving. NIT residues were extracted using acetonitrile; magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride were added to induce liquid-liquid partitioning and purified by dispersive solid phase extraction for clean-up. NIT was detected by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS in negative ionization mode. The highest concentrations of this drug were found in two animals at the first milking, 48 and 53 day post treatment with levels of 362 and 657 μg kg–1, respectively. NIT residues were below the limit of detection of the method (0.24 μg/kg–1 between 67 and 106 day post-treatment. Following calving, residues rapidly depleted in animals and were non-detectable from 10 to 38 days post-calving. In particular, in all animals milk resulted compliant (<20 μg/kg−1 three days post partum.

  17. Multiclass methods for the analysis of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Rosanna; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Diamanti, Irene; Giusepponi, Danilo; Galarini, Roberta

    2018-02-01

    Milk is an important and beneficial food from a nutritional point of view, being an indispensable source of high quality proteins. Furthermore, it is a raw material for many dairy products, such as yoghurt, cheese, cream etc. Before reaching consumers, milk goes through production, processing and circulation. Each step involves potentially unsafe factors, such as chemical contamination that can affect milk quality. Antibiotics are widely used in veterinary medicine for dry cow therapy and mastitis treatment in lactating cows, which can cause the presence of antimicrobial residues in milk. In order to ensure consumers' safety, milk is analyzed to make sure that the fixed Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) for antibiotics are not exceeded. Multiclass methods can monitor more drug classes through a single analysis, so they are faster, less time-consuming and cheaper than traditional methods (single-class); this aspect is particularly important for milk, which is a highly perishable food. Nevertheless, multiclass methods for veterinary drug residues in foodstuffs are real analytical challenges. This article reviews the major multiclass methods published for the determination of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with a special focus on sample preparation approaches.

  18. Genetic parameters of coagulation properties, milk yield, quality, and acidity estimated using coagulating and noncoagulating milk information in Brown Swiss and Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; De Marchi, M; Gallo, L; Bittante, G; Carnier, P

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate heritabilities of rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (a(30)) and their genetic correlations with test-day milk yield, composition (fat, protein, and casein content), somatic cell score, and acidity (pH and titratable acidity) using coagulating and noncoagulating (NC) milk information. Data were from 1,025 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 1,234 Brown Swiss (BS) cows, which were progeny of 54 HF and 58 BS artificial insemination sires, respectively. Milk coagulation properties (MCP) of each cow were measured once using a computerized renneting meter and samples not exhibiting coagulation within 31 min after rennet addition were classified as NC milk. For NC samples, RCT was unobserved. Multivariate analyses, using Bayesian methodology, were performed to estimate the genetic relationships of RCT or a(30) with the other traits and statistical inference was based on the marginal posterior distributions of parameters of concern. For analyses involving RCT, a right-censored Gaussian linear model was used and records of NC milk samples, being censored records, were included as unknown parameters in the model implementing a data augmentation procedure. Rennet coagulation time was more heritable [heritability (h(2))=0.240 and h(2)=0.210 for HF and BS, respectively] than a(30) (h(2)=0.148 and h(2)=0.168 for HF and BS, respectively). Milk coagulation properties were more heritable than a single test-day milk yield (h(2)=0.103 and h(2)=0.097 for HF and BS, respectively) and less heritable than milk composition traits whose heritability ranged from 0.275 to 0.275, with the only exception of fat content of BS milk (h(2)=0.108). A negative genetic correlation, lower than -0.85, was estimated between RCT and a(30) for both breeds. Genetic relationships of MCP with yield and composition were low or moderate and favorable. The genetic correlation of somatic cell score with RCT in BS cows was large and positive and even more positive were

  19. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk: Prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2017-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of CNS species in bulk milk samples and to identify associated subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors. Ninety percent of all bulk milk samples yielded CNS. Staphylococcus equorum was the predominant species, followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A seasonal effect was observed for several CNS species. Bulk milk samples from herds with a loose-pack or a tiestall housing system were more likely to yield CNS species compared with herds with a freestall barn, except for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus cohnii. In September, herds in which udders were clipped had lower odds of yielding Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, the CNS species assumed to be most relevant for udder health, in their bulk milk than herds in which udder clipping was not practiced. Bulk milk of herds participating in a monthly veterinary udder health-monitoring program was more likely to yield these 3 CNS species. Herds always receiving their milk quality premium or predisinfecting teats before attachment of the milking cluster had lower odds of having S. equorum in their bulk milk. Herds not using a single dry cotton or paper towel for each cow during premilking udder

  20. Antibiotic Residues in Milk from Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgey, Amos; Shitandi, Anakalo; Marion, Jason W

    2018-03-19

    Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines' milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers ( N = 25), street vendors ( N = 21), and three MVMs ( N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP tests for tetracyclines, sulfamethazine, beta-lactams, and gentamicin. Overall, 24% of MVM samples and 24% of street vendor samples were presumably positive for at least one antibiotic. No commercial samples were positive. Research into cost-effective screening methods and increased monitoring by food safety agencies are needed to uphold HAACP for improving antibiotic stewardship throughout the Kenyan private dairy industry.

  1. Nevirapine, sodium concentration and HIV-1 RNA in breast milk and plasma among HIV-infected women receiving short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Chiduo, Mercy G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Risk factors for breast milk transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child include high plasma and breast milk viral load, low maternal CD4 count and breast pathology such as mastitis. Objective To determine the impact of nevirapine and subclinical mastitis on HIV-1 RNA in maternal plasma...... and breast milk after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine combined with either 1-week tail of Combivir (zidovudine/lamivudine) or single-dose Truvada (tenofovir/emtricitabine). Methods Maternal plasma and bilateral breast milk samples were collected between April 2008 and April 2011 at 1, 4 and 6 weeks....../mL), respectively. Maternal plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA correlated at all visits (R = 0.48, R = 0.7, R = 0.59; all P = 0.01). Subclinical mastitis was detected in 67% of the women at some time during 6 weeks, and in 38% of the breast milk samples. Breast milk samples with subclinical mastitis had significantly...

  2. PRESENCE OF ENTEROCOCCI IN COW MILK AND THEIR ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci represent an important part of contaminate microflora in raw milk and dairy products. They constitute significant part of nosocomial pathogens with a remarkable capacity of expressing resistance to several antimicrobial  agents. We aimed to assess occurrence and antibiotic resistance of enterococci in the raw milk samples and pasteurized milk samples. In this study total bacterial count, psychrotrophic count and count of enterococci were determine in raw milk cistern samples, storage tank milk samples and milk samples after pasteurization. A collection of 46 enterococcal isolates were identified and screened for their antibiotic resistance. Isolates of E. faecalis were dominant in raw milk samples (56.5 %. Sensitive to teicoplanine (30 mcg/disk were 97.9 % of enterococcal isolates and 15.2 % isolates were resistant to vankomycin (30 mcg/disk.  

  3. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya Ami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most prominent non-occupational source of exposure to methylmercury is the consumption of fish. In this study we examine a fish consuming population to determine the extent of temporal exposure and investigate the extent to which single time estimates of methylmercury exposure based on blood-Hg concentration can provide reliable estimates of longer-term average exposure. Methods Blood-mercury levels were obtained from a portion of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study (AMIBS cohort. Specifically, 56 Japanese women residing in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, US were sampled on three occasions across a one-year period. Results An average of 135 days separated samples, with mean blood-mercury levels for the visits being 5.1, 6.6 and 5.0 μg/l and geometric means being 2.7, 4.5 and 3.1 μg/l. The blood-mercury levels in this group exceed national averages with geometric means for two of the visits being between the 90th and 95th percentiles of nationally observed levels and the lowest geometric mean being between the 75th and 90th percentile. Group means were not significantly different across sampling periods suggesting that exposure of combined subjects remained relatively constant. Comparing intra-individual results over time did not reveal a strong correlation among visits (r = 0.19, 0.50, 0.63 between 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd sample results, respectively. In comparing blood-mercury levels across two sampling interval combinations (1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd visits, respectively, 58% (n = 34, 53% (n = 31 and 29% (n = 17 of the individuals had at least a 100% difference in blood-Hg levels. Conclusions Point estimates of blood-mercury, when compared with three sample averages, may not reflect temporal variability and individual exposures estimated on the basis of single blood samples should be treated with caution as indicators of long-term exposure

  4. A method for multiple sequential analyses of macrophage functions using a small single cell sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R.F. Nascimento

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens such as bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG induce the activation of macrophages. Activated macrophages can be characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites, generated via NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, respectively, and by the increased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II. Multiple microassays have been developed to measure these parameters. Usually each assay requires 2-5 x 10(5 cells per well. In some experimental conditions the number of cells is the limiting factor for the phenotypic characterization of macrophages. Here we describe a method whereby this limitation can be circumvented. Using a single 96-well microassay and a very small number of peritoneal cells obtained from C3H/HePas mice, containing as little as <=2 x 10(5 macrophages per well, we determined sequentially the oxidative burst (H2O2, nitric oxide production and MHC II (IAk expression of BCG-activated macrophages. More specifically, with 100 µl of cell suspension it was possible to quantify H2O2 release and nitric oxide production after 1 and 48 h, respectively, and IAk expression after 48 h of cell culture. In addition, this microassay is easy to perform, highly reproducible and more economical.

  5. Estimation of effective renal plasma flow in children by use of a single plasma sample after injection of orthoiodohippurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauxe, W.N.; Hagge, W.; Stickler, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in adults have been greatly simplified by the use of recently developed regression equations based on a single plasma concentration of radioiodinated orthoiodohippurate (OIH) obtained 44 min after a single intravenous injection of the material. The paper reports similar equations for the prediction of ERPF in children. Studies were made in 30 children of both sexes, aged 4 to 16 years, with a wide variety of renal diseases. A single intravenous injection of labelled OIH was made and plasma was sampled at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after injection. Plasma concentration curves were analysed by the conventional two-compartment analysis technique (Sapirstein, Matthews) and ERPF was computed from them. In addition to ERPF calculations, sizes of the two volumes of distribution (V 1 and V 2 ), intercompartmental flow rates and fractional rate constants were also calculated. Surface area (SA) was calculated from the DuBois height-weight regression formula. Reciprocals of the OIH plasma concentration in terms of per cent injected dose per litre were calculated at each sampling time; this reciprocal is designated x. These values at each sampling time were plotted against ERPF and regression equations and residual error (Sy.x) were calculated. The optimal sampling time was found to occur at 53 min and the corresponding linear regression equation was 19.33 + 3.87x with a Sy.x value of 36 ml. This compares with an optimal sampling time in adults of 44 min. The mean initial volume of distribution (V 1 ) was found to be 5.3 litres and the mean V 2 was found to be 6.8 litres. In contrast to findings in the previous study in adults these volumes were found to correlate well with SA. A mean intercompartmental flow rate of 276 ml/min was found. No correlation between this value and clinical diagnosis was found. The relationship of the concentration reciprocal and plasma flow was a linear one instead of the polynomial one

  6. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Darshna B.; Kapadiya, Dharti B.; Jain, Amit Kumar; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; Darji, Vijaykumar B.; Aparnathi, Kishorkumar D.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes in Surti goat milk. Materials and Methods: Milk samples from Surti goats and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July 2013 to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Milk samples from Kankrej cows were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical characteristics such as acidity, viscosity, surface tension, specific gravity, refractive index, freezing point, and electrical conductivity. Samples were also analyzed for selected processing-related parameters such as heat coagulation time (HCT), rennet coagulation time (RCT), rate of acid production by starter culture, alcohol stability, and activity of selected enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase activity, catalase activity, proteolytic activity, and lipase activity. Results: Goat milk had the highest acidity, viscosity and surface tension, followed by cow milk and buffalo milk. However, the differences in acidity, specific gravity, surface tension, refractive index, electrical conductivity, HCT and lipase activity of three types of milk studied, viz., goat, cow, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (pmilk had the highest specific gravity, followed by those found in cow and goat milk. The viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk was significantly lower (p>0.05) than that of the buffalo milk. However, the difference in viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk and that of the cow milk was statistically non-significant. The cow milk had the highest refractive index, followed by goat and buffalo milk. The cow milk had the highest proteolytic activity and heat coagulation time (HCT), followed by those found in buffalo and goat milk. The goat milk had the lowest freezing point, lipase activity, and RCT, followed by

  7. Testing the accuracy of a Bayesian central-dose model for single-grain OSL, using known-age samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Guillaume; Combès, Benoit; Lahaye, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    remains a difficult task, given the typically considerable dispersion in equivalent dose values measured by OSL - and the numerous sources of such dispersion in measurements. Here, we present the study of 19 samples for which independent age control is available, and whose ages range from 2 to 46ka. Based......-grain OSL and reference ages is about twice as large for the standard approach (12%) as with the Bayesian model (7%). Statistical tests show that, based on our (limited) dataset, the difference between the two models seems to be significant for samples in the age range 4-46ka. Finally, the influence...... on multi-grain OSL age estimates, these samples are presumed to have been both well-bleached at burial, and unaffected by mixing after deposition. Two ways of estimating single-grain ages are then compared: the standard approach on the one hand, consisting of applying the Central Age Model to De values...

  8. Proton-induced single event upset characterisation of a 1 giga-sample per second analog to digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.A.; Marshall, P.W.; Carts, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The SPT7760 is an analog to digital converter that is used in satellite for digital processing. In this paper we describe the characterization and analysis of proton-induced single event upsets (SEU) for the SPT7760 operating at sample rates from 125 Msps (Mega-samples per second) to 1 Gsps. The SEU cross-section has been measured as a function of sample rate for various input levels. The data collected is clearly non-linear for all cases. The data shows that this device has a relative low cross-section for proton-induced SEUs and remains functional at a proton dose of 580 krad (Si). (A.C.)

  9. Storage of Unfed and Leftover Mothers' Own Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogleman, April D; Meng, Ting; Osborne, Jason; Perrin, Maryanne T; Jones, Frances; Allen, Jonathan C

    The objective was to examine the bacteriological and immunological properties of freshly expressed, previously frozen, and leftover mothers' own milk during storage. In the first of two pilot studies, 12 mother-infant dyads participated. The milk studied included freshly expressed unfed and freshly expressed leftover milk. Milk samples were stored at 24°C, 4°C, or -20°C. In the second pilot study, 11 mother-infant dyads participated. The milk studied included milk that had been previously frozen, including previously frozen leftover milk. Milk samples were stored at 24°C and 4°C. After storage in both studies, the milk was analyzed for bacteriological and immunological properties. Bacteriological and immunological characteristics of freshly expressed unfed and freshly expressed leftover milk and previously frozen unfed and previously frozen leftover milk remained stable during storage at 4°C for at least 6 days. The quality of all groups of mothers' milk declined when stored at 24°C for longer than 3 hours. While this study provides evidence that human milk might be safe at longer storage times, storage guidelines should not be revised until more research is performed. This study serves as a call to action for more research on the topic of human milk storage, specifically leftover human milk. The study provides information to inform future study designs on the topic of unpasteurized human milk storage. More research is needed regarding leftover human milk storage with a greater number of participants, determination of the quality of human milk, and the storage of human milk in a real-life setting.

  10. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  11. Pregnancy test via milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, H.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Determining a pregnancy through the milk. Wageningen University is researching the possibilities. The first steps have been taken. Researchers have identified five milk proteins that release a signal of a pregnancy. A pregnancy test via the milk comes within sight.

  12. Donated breast milk stored in banks versus breast milk purchased online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Maude; Chaudhry, Shahnaz; Koren, Gideon

    2015-02-01

    One of my patients asked if she could buy human milk on the Internet to feed her infant if the need arose. Is using donated breast milk from the milk bank safer than buying it online? The World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend the use of donated breast milk as the first alternative when maternal milk is not available, but the Canadian Paediatric Society does not endorse the sharing of unprocessed human milk. Human breast milk stored in milk banks differs from donor breast milk available via the Internet owing to its rigorous donor-selection process, frequent quality assurance inspections, regulated transport process, and pasteurization in accordance with food preparation guidelines set out by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Most samples purchased online contain Gram-negative bacteria or have a total aerobic bacteria count of more than 10(4) colony-forming units per millilitre; they also exhibit higher mean total aerobic bacteria counts, total Gram-negative bacteria counts, coliform bacteria counts, and Staphylococcus spp counts than milk bank samples do. Growth of most bacteria species is associated with the number of days in transit, which suggests poor collection, storage, or shipping practices for milk purchased online. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  13. The AlSi10Mg samples produced by selective laser melting: single track, densification, microstructure and mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Chen, Zhen; Du, Jun; He, Yuyang; Li, Junfeng; Zhou, Yatong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of AlSi10Mg molten pool was analyzed. • The SLM-processed sample with a relatively low surface roughness was obtained. • Effects of parameters on surface topography of scan track were investigated. • Effects of parameters on microstructure of parts were investigated. • Optimum processing parameters for AlSi10Mg SLM was obtained. - Abstract: This densification behavior and attendant microstructural characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) processed AlSi10Mg alloy affected by the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The samples with a single track were produced by SLM to study the influences of laser power and scanning speed on the surface morphologies of scan tracks. Additionally, the bulk samples were produced to investigate the influence of the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the densification level and the resultant microstructure. The experimental results showed that the level of porosity of the SLM-processed samples was significantly governed by energy density of laser beam and the hatch spacing. The tensile properties of SLM-processed samples and the attendant fracture surface can be enhanced by decreasing the level of porosity. The microstructure of SLM-processed samples consists of supersaturated Al-rich cellular structure along with eutectic Al/Si situated at the cellular boundaries. The Si content in the cellular boundaries increases with increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed. The hardness of SLM-processed samples was significantly improved by this fine microstructure compared with the cast samples. Moreover, the hardness of SLM-processed samples at overlaps was lower than the hardness observed at track cores.

  14. The AlSi10Mg samples produced by selective laser melting: single track, densification, microstructure and mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying, E-mail: zywei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhen; Du, Jun; He, Yuyang; Li, Junfeng; Zhou, Yatong

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of AlSi10Mg molten pool was analyzed. • The SLM-processed sample with a relatively low surface roughness was obtained. • Effects of parameters on surface topography of scan track were investigated. • Effects of parameters on microstructure of parts were investigated. • Optimum processing parameters for AlSi10Mg SLM was obtained. - Abstract: This densification behavior and attendant microstructural characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) processed AlSi10Mg alloy affected by the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The samples with a single track were produced by SLM to study the influences of laser power and scanning speed on the surface morphologies of scan tracks. Additionally, the bulk samples were produced to investigate the influence of the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the densification level and the resultant microstructure. The experimental results showed that the level of porosity of the SLM-processed samples was significantly governed by energy density of laser beam and the hatch spacing. The tensile properties of SLM-processed samples and the attendant fracture surface can be enhanced by decreasing the level of porosity. The microstructure of SLM-processed samples consists of supersaturated Al-rich cellular structure along with eutectic Al/Si situated at the cellular boundaries. The Si content in the cellular boundaries increases with increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed. The hardness of SLM-processed samples was significantly improved by this fine microstructure compared with the cast samples. Moreover, the hardness of SLM-processed samples at overlaps was lower than the hardness observed at track cores.

  15. Enzymatic-fluorometric quantification of cholesterol in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes an enzymatic–fluorometric method for the determination of cholesterol in milk and other opaque matrices. The initial step of the method is to liberate chemically and physically bound cholesterol from the milk fat globule membrane by enzymatic action. The method is able...... to discriminate between esterified and free cholesterol in milk. The analysis is cost effective and is developed to work directly on whole, fresh milk thereby eliminating time consuming and tedious pre-treatment procedures of the sample. More than 1000 milk samples were analysed on the day of sampling. The total...... concentration of milk cholesterol ranged from 80 to 756 μM (n = 1068; mean 351 μM). Milk cholesterol was significantly correlated to milk fat concentration as analysed by mid-infra red spectrometry (r = 0.630; n = 853) and by an enzymatic–fluorometric method (triacylglycerol) (r = 0.611; n = 842)....

  16. Sequence-specific detection of different strains of LCMV in a single sample using tentacle probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lina S; Holechek, Susan A; Caplan, Michael R; Blattman, Joseph N

    2017-10-13

    Virus infections often result in quasispecies of viral strains that can have dramatic impacts on disease outcomes. However, sequencing of viruses to determine strain composition is time consuming and often cost-prohibitive. Rapid, cost-effective methods are needed for accurate measurement of virus diversity to understand virus evolution and can be useful for experimental systems. We have developed a novel molecular method for sequence-specific detection of RNA virus genetic variants called Tentacle Probes. The probes are modified molecular beacons that have dramatically improved false positive rates and specificity in routine qPCR. To validate this approach, we have designed Tentacle Probes for two different strains of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) that differ by only 3 nucleotide substitutions, the parental Armstrong and the more virulent Clone-13 strain. One of these mutations is a missense mutation in the receptor protein GP1 that leads to the Armstrong strain to cause an acute infection and Clone-13 to cause a chronic infection instead. The probes were designed using thermodynamic calculations for hybridization between target or non-target sequences and the probe. Using this approach, we were able to distinguish these two strains of LCMV individually by a single nucleotide mutation. The assay showed high reproducibility among different concentrations of viral cDNA, as well as high specificity and sensitivity, especially for the Clone-13 Tentacle Probe. Furthermore, in virus mixing experiments we were able to detect less than 10% of Clone-13 cDNA diluted in Armstrong cDNA. Thus, we have developed a fast, cost-effective approach for identifying Clone-13 strain in a mix of other LCMV strains.

  17. An in vitro tag-and-modify protein sample generation method for single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Kambiz M; Howe, Jesse; Jensen, Madeleine K; Wu, Peng; Cate, Jamie H D; Marqusee, Susan

    2017-09-22

    Biomolecular systems exhibit many dynamic and biologically relevant properties, such as conformational fluctuations, multistep catalysis, transient interactions, folding, and allosteric structural transitions. These properties are challenging to detect and engineer using standard ensemble-based techniques. To address this drawback, single-molecule methods offer a way to access conformational distributions, transient states, and asynchronous dynamics inaccessible to these standard techniques. Fluorescence-based single-molecule approaches are parallelizable and compatible with multiplexed detection; to date, however, they have remained limited to serial screens of small protein libraries. This stems from the current absence of methods for generating either individual dual-labeled protein samples at high throughputs or protein libraries compatible with multiplexed screening platforms. Here, we demonstrate that by combining purified and reconstituted in vitro translation, quantitative unnatural amino acid incorporation via AUG codon reassignment, and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, we can overcome these challenges for target proteins that are, or can be, methionine-depleted. We present an in vitro parallelizable approach that does not require laborious target-specific purification to generate dual-labeled proteins and ribosome-nascent chain libraries suitable for single-molecule FRET-based conformational phenotyping. We demonstrate the power of this approach by tracking the effects of mutations, C-terminal extensions, and ribosomal tethering on the structure and stability of three protein model systems: barnase, spectrin, and T4 lysozyme. Importantly, dual-labeled ribosome-nascent chain libraries enable single-molecule co-localization of genotypes with phenotypes, are well suited for multiplexed single-molecule screening of protein libraries, and should enable the in vitro directed evolution of proteins with designer single-molecule conformational

  18. A review of single-sample-based models and other approaches for radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L. F; Plummer, Niel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the pre-nuclear-detonation 14C content of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) recharged to groundwater that has been corrected/adjusted for geochemical processes in the absence of radioactive decay (14C0) - a quantity that is essential for estimation of radiocarbon age of DIC in groundwater. The models/approaches most commonly used are grouped as follows: (1) single-sample-based models, (2) a statistical approach based on the observed (curved) relationship between 14C and δ13C data for the aquifer, and (3) the geochemical mass-balance approach that constructs adjustment models accounting for all the geochemical reactions known to occur along a groundwater flow path. This review discusses first the geochemical processes behind each of the single-sample-based models, followed by discussions of the statistical approach and the geochemical mass-balance approach. Finally, the applications, advantages and limitations of the three groups of models/approaches are discussed.The single-sample-based models constitute the prevailing use of 14C data in hydrogeology and hydrological studies. This is in part because the models are applied to an individual water sample to estimate the 14C age, therefore the measurement data are easily available. These models have been shown to provide realistic radiocarbon ages in many studies. However, they usually are limited to simple carbonate aquifers and selection of model may have significant effects on 14C0 often resulting in a wide range of estimates of 14C ages.Of the single-sample-based models, four are recommended for the estimation of 14C0 of DIC in groundwater: Pearson's model, (Ingerson and Pearson, 1964; Pearson and White, 1967), Han & Plummer's model (Han and Plummer, 2013), the IAEA model (Gonfiantini, 1972; Salem et al., 1980), and Oeschger's model (Geyh, 2000). These four models include all processes considered in single-sample-based models, and can be used in different ranges of

  19. Human Milk Adrenomedullin Is Unstable During Cold Storage at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Gazzolo, Diego

    2017-11-01

    Under some circumstances human milk (HM) extraction and refrigerated storage may be necessary. Depending on the length and on the type of cold storage, milk may lose some important properties, but current advices on safe HM storage are discordant. Moreover until now no data in literature were present on the effect of prolonged cold storage on biologically active components of the HM such as adrenomedullin (AM). This important peptide is involved in response to hypoxia and inflammation, associated with neovascularization, in several tissues. The aim is to evaluate: (a) the presence of AM in preterm and term HM and (b) the concentration of AM in refrigerated milk at 4°C at 24-hour intervals, up to 96 hours of storage. The experiment was repeated four times. Immediately after collection, each HM sample deriving from each mother was divided into two parts as follows: "Pool" line and "Single Mother" line. One part (Pool line) was pooled and then divided into five aliquots. The other part (Single Mother line) was divided into five aliquots. From each line, one aliquot was analyzed within 3 hours, while the others were stored in the refrigerator for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours, respectively, and then analyzed. AM levels were determined using a specific ELISA test. AM was detectable in all samples. Its concentration was significantly higher in preterm milk with respect to term milk (p quality related with AM, already at 24 hours.

  20. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  1. Frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms of some immune response genes in a population sample from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Campos de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphismsof a few immune response genes in a population sample from SãoPaulo City (SP, Brazil. Methods: Data on allele frequencies ofknown polymorphisms of innate and acquired immunity genes werepresented, the majority with proven impact on gene function. Datawere gathered from a sample of healthy individuals, non-HLA identicalsiblings of bone marrow transplant recipients from the Hospital dasClínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo,obtained between 1998 and 2005. The number of samples variedfor each single nucleotide polymorphism analyzed by polymerasechain reaction followed by restriction enzyme cleavage. Results:Allele and genotype distribution of 41 different gene polymorphisms,mostly cytokines, but also including other immune response genes,were presented. Conclusion: We believe that the data presentedhere can be of great value for case-control studies, to define whichpolymorphisms are present in biologically relevant frequencies and toassess targets for therapeutic intervention in polygenic diseases witha component of immune and inflammatory responses.

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Glycogen in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui-Yatsuhashi, Hiroko; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Takata, Hiroki; Ishida, Miyuki; Takumi, Hiroko; Kakutani, Ryo; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nagao, Saeko; Hirose, Junko; Kuriki, Takashi

    2017-02-22

    Identification as well as a detailed analysis of glycogen in human milk has not been shown yet. The present study confirmed that glycogen is contained in human milk by qualitative and quantitative analyses. High-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and high-performance size exclusion chromatography with a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS) were used for qualitative analysis of glycogen in human milk. Quantitative analysis was carried out by using samples obtained from the individual milks. The result revealed that the concentration of human milk glycogen varied depending on the mother's condition-such as the period postpartum and inflammation. The amounts of glycogen in human milk collected at 0 and 1-2 months postpartum were higher than in milk collected at 3-14 months postpartum. In the milk from mothers with severe mastitis, the concentration of glycogen was about 40 times higher than that in normal milk.

  3. Milk yield and composition of crossbred Sahelian × Anglo-Nubian goats in the semi-intensive system in Mali during the preweaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanogo, Souleymane; Shaker, Mohamed Momani; Nantoumé, Hamidou; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate milk yield and its composition during the preweaning period for Sahelian goats (SG) and Anglo-Nubian (AN) crossbred depending on some factors. The experiments were conducted from January to December 2008 for 44 suckled and hand-milked does, randomized, and divided into two equal groups: SG (n = 22) and F(1) Anglo-Nubian × Sahelian goats (1/2AN; n = 22). The does and their offsprings were kept in a pen where they stayed indoors for 45 days before they were allowed outdoors when the weather was suitable. Each category received supplemental feeds depending on the season (rainy season, dry cold season, and dry hot season). The average daily milk yield was recorded weekly from parturition to 100 days of age. Individual milk samples were taken for chemical analysis in connection with the yield measurements twice per month from the fourth week of lactation throughout the different seasons (rainy, cold dry, and hot dry). The daily milk yield differed between breed types (P = 0.001) during the preweaning, while the effect of kids' sex on daily milk production was not significant. Litter size affected milk yield up to day 60 (P = 0.032) where does with twins producing more milk than those with single kid. However, at day 100, both groups had similar (P = 0.001) milk production. Total milk yield at weaning increased by 103 % in 1/2AN over SG. The highest concentration of total solids of milk was (12.76 %) recorded in the hot dry season. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding native Sahelian goats with high potential Anglo-Nubian buck improved milk production and its composition.

  4. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical colonies were examined by plasmacoagulase test and PCR method was used for detection of species specific fragment SA442 and mecA gene. Standard disk diffusion method was used to determinate resistance to antimicrobial agents. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 25 farms (50%. The antimicrobial resistance showed differences between the farms. Total of 58 samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, of which were 37 (14.2% isolated from raw milk samples and 21 (8.1% from milk filters. From these samples we isolated 62 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 41 isolates bacteria S. aureus from raw milk (66.1% and 21 isolates S. aureus from milk filters (33.9%. The presence of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates was low, most of them were resistant to amoxicilin. According to the results obtained by the PCR method for the methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA, the mecA gene was present in 6 strains (9.7%, 4 isolates obtained from milk samples (6.5% and 2 isolates from milk filters (3.2%.  These isolates can be considered as a possible source of resistance genes, which can be spread through the food chain. Nowadays, a globally unfavourable increasing trend of prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains especially Staphylococcus aureus is being observed worldwide. The improper hygiene and poor farm management practices contributed to the presence of S. aureus in the milk. This may have contributed to the high level of S. aureus isolated

  5. Use of the isotope method to measure breast milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, I.; Victoria, C.G.

    2000-01-01

    A study to test the efficacy of the nutrition counselling (NC) contents of integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Course (IMCI, WHO/UNICEF), funded by WHO, was planned and conducted in Pelotas (southern Brazil). The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial with the random allocation of 14 municipal health centres to receive the NC training and 14 other centres to the control group (current nutrition counselling, if any). The study included testing the knowledge of doctors, observing consultations and visiting the children at home 8, 45 and 180 days after the initial consultation. Dietary intakes were studied on a sub-sample of 66 children (two per health care provider), through daylong observations. Breast milk intake was assessed by the frequency and duration of feeds. The deuterium study was carried out in the same population to validate breast milk intake estimates. The deuterium study was a cross-sectional assessment of breast milk intake among those children enrolled in the day long sub-sample. From the 66 children visited by the day long study, 18 were still breast fed and were selected for the deuterium study. A total of 11 saliva samples were collected from each mother/child pair at a 15-day interval: four from the mother (on days 0, 1, 6 and 14) and seven from the child (on days 0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, and 14). The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the amount of milk as estimated by observation and the amount calculated through the deuterium technique (gold standard) was equal to 0.53. This result indicates that the estimates based on the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding through observation correlated to the results of the gold standard method for breast milk intake assessment, although this correlation was of moderate strength. As the gold standard, the deuterium method showed to be practical and easily to perform at field setting. (author)

  6. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshna B. Prajapati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes in Surti goat milk. Materials and Methods: Milk samples from Surti goats and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July 2013 to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU, Anand. Milk samples from Kankrej cows were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical characteristics such as acidity, viscosity, surface tension, specific gravity, refractive index, freezing point, and electrical conductivity. Samples were also analyzed for selected processing-related parameters such as heat coagulation time (HCT, rennet coagulation time (RCT, rate of acid production by starter culture, alcohol stability, and activity of selected enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase activity, catalase activity, proteolytic activity, and lipase activity. Results: Goat milk had the highest acidity, viscosity and surface tension, followed by cow milk and buffalo milk. However, the differences in acidity, specific gravity, surface tension, refractive index, electrical conductivity, HCT and lipase activity of three types of milk studied, viz., goat, cow, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (p0.05 than that of the buffalo milk. However, the difference in viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk and that of the cow milk was statistically non-significant. The cow milk had the highest refractive index, followed by goat and buffalo milk. The cow milk had the highest proteolytic activity and heat coagulation time (HCT, followed by those found in buffalo and goat milk. The goat milk had the lowest freezing point, lipase activity, and RCT, followed by those found in cow and buffalo milk. The goat milk had the highest electrical conductivity, followed by those found in buffalo and cow milk. The

  7. Viscosity and Analytical Differences between Raw Milk and UHT Milk of Czech Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbár V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity and analytical differences in four milk samples from Czech cows were described. Three samples of UHT milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat and one sample of raw milk from a Czech bio-farm were analyzed. The following analytical properties were observed: titratable acidity, fat content, dry matter content, and protein content. Titratable acidity and dry matter content decreased in dependence upon the increasing milk fat content. The protein content ranged 3.51-3.57 g per 100 g milk. The milk flow behaviour represented by density, dynamic and kinematic viscosity, as well as the dependence of the milk flow behaviour on temperature were investigated. These properties were measured using a digital densitometer and a rotary viscometer. Milk density was studied at temperatures ranging 0-60 °C and dynamic viscosity at 0-100 °C. With increasing temperature, the density and dynamic viscosity of the studied milk samples decreased. The temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was manifested in all samples. Kinematic viscosity was calculated from experimental data. Furthermore, mathematical models using Power law and Gaussian fitting were constructed. Determination coefficients achieved high values (0.843-0.997.

  8. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the functionality of the human

  9. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  10. ( Camelus dromedarius ) Milk In Khartoum State, Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 112 individual camel milk samples were collected during the period from. December 2004 to June 2005 to evaluate the hygienic quality of raw camel milk in two locations of Khartoum State, Sudan. To achieve this the following microbiological counts were done: total bacterial counts, mesophilic counts, ...

  11. The milking capacity of a milking robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonck, B.R.; Donkers, H.W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The automatic milking process is represented by means of a model which allows the factors affecting the capacity of an automatic milking system to be studied. The main factors investigated are the times required for cow movements, milking processes and robot motions. With one robot serving two

  12. 90Sr and 137Cs in powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analyzed the contents of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in powdered milk under the commission of Science and Technology Agency. The samples were purchased on the open market in Tokyo from the powdered milk producers. The analysis of strontium-90 and cesium-137 content was radiochemically carried out using the method applied for the analysis of fresh milk. (author)

  13. Composition of colostrum and milk of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of colostrum, early and late lactation milk from thirteen South African indigenous Nguni goats (SAING) were analysed for contents of total solids (TS), solids-not-fat (SNF), fat, protein, lactose, ash and energy. Relationships between colostrum or milk and some parameters such as litter size (LS), milk yield (MY) and ...

  14. bacterial load in expressed and stored breast milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant bacteria isolated in the breast milk samples ... the number of microbes was within levels considered acceptable in expressed breast milk. Key words: bacterial growth, expressed, breast milk ..... period, the bacterial isolates represented normal skin flora [18].

  15. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of milk is of most importance to the dairy industry and human health. This study was conducted to provide data on the composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in Maroua (Cameroon). Milk and yoghurt samples were collected from 11 breeding sites and 12 producers in the city of Maroua, ...

  16. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PONKA ROGER

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... The composition of milk is of most importance to the dairy industry and human health. This study was conducted to provide data on the composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in. Maroua (Cameroon). Milk and yoghurt samples were collected from 11 breeding sites and 12 producers.

  17. Theory of Reasoned Action predicts milk consumption in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J L; Blake, A J; Rankin, S A; Douglass, L W

    1999-01-01

    To determine the factors influencing the consumption or avoidance of milk in women. One hundred women completed food frequency questionnaires and a milk attitudes questionnaire framed within the Theory of Reasoned Action and performed sensory evaluations of different milk samples. Differences among milk types were assessed using 2-way analysis of variance and least-significant-difference mean comparison procedures. Correlation and multiple regression analyses, and standardized partial regression coefficients, were used to determine the contribution of each component of the model in predicting behavior. Mean age of the 100 subjects was 39 years (range = 20-70 years). Milk consumption among subjects was low; 23 subjects indicated that they seldom or never drank milk. Data from the dairy frequency questionnaire showed that the primary milk for 42%, 36%, 27%, and 18% of the milk drinkers was skim, 2%, 1%, and whole, respectively (subjects could indicate more than 1 type of milk consumed). The Theory of Reasoned Action indicated that health and familiarity belief items were most associated with attitudes toward milk consumption. Skim milk had significantly lower scores for taste and texture belief items than 1%, 2%, and whole milk (P reasons other than beliefs about taste and texture or actual sensory preference. This study identifies important factors contributing to milk consumption such as beliefs, attitudes, and sensory evaluation, which can be used to develop a specific framework in which to examine other components of milk consumption behavior.

  18. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehong; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. The purpose of this work is to identify the air sampling locations where the velocity and contaminant concentrations fall below the 20% coefficient of variation required by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1-1999. Experiments of velocity and tracer gas concentration were conducted on a generic "T" mixing system which included combinations of three sub ducts, one main duct, and air velocities from 0.5 to 2 m s (100 to 400 fpm). The experimental results suggest that turbulent mixing provides the accepted velocity coefficients of variation after 6 hydraulic diameters downstream of the T-junction. About 95% of the cases achieved coefficients of variation below 10% by 6 hydraulic diameters. However, above a velocity ratio (velocity in the sub duct/velocity in the main duct) of 2, velocity profiles were uniform in a shorter distance downstream of the T-junction as the velocity ratio went up. For the tracer gas concentration, the distance needed for the coefficients of variation to drop 20% decreased with increasing velocity ratio due to the sub duct airflow momentum. The results may apply to other duct systems with similar geometries and, ultimately, be a basis for selecting a proper sampling location under the requirements of single point representative sampling.

  19. Single-layer centrifugation separates spermatozoa from diploid cells in epididymal samples from gray wolves, Canis lupus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Linde Forsberg, Catharina; Vilà, Carles; Morrell, Jane M

    2014-09-15

    Sperm samples may be used for assisted reproductive technologies (e.g., farmed or endangered species) or as a source of haploid DNA or sperm-specific RNA. When ejaculated spermatozoa are not available or are very difficult to obtain, as is the case for most wild endangered species, the epididymides of dead animals (e.g., animals that have been found dead, shot by hunters or poachers, or that that require euthanasia in zoological collections) can be used as a source of sperm. Such epididymal sperm samples are usually contaminated with cellular debris, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and sometimes also bacteria. These contaminants may be sources of reactive oxygen species that damage spermatozoa during freezing or contribute undesired genetic material from diploid cells. We used single-layer centrifugation through a colloid formulation, Androcoll-C, to successfully separate wolf epididymal spermatozoa from contaminating cells and cellular debris in epididymal samples harvested from carcasses. Such a procedure may potentially be applied to epididymal sperm samples from other species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Olena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a workflow for in-depth analysis of milk lipids that combines gas chromatography (GC) for fatty acid (FA) profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MSALL for structural characterization of molecular lipid species. To evaluate the performance of the workflow we performed...... a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic...... analysis by MS/MSALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MSALL analysis demonstrated...

  1. Mixed infection and clonal representativeness of a single sputum sample in tuberculosis patients from a penitentiary hospital in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portaels Françoise

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on recurrent tuberculosis (TB, TB molecular epidemiology and drug susceptibility testing rely on the analysis of one Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate from a single sputum sample collected at different disease episodes. This scheme rests on the postulate that a culture of one sputum sample is homogeneous and representative of the total bacillary population in a patient. Methods We systematically analysed several pre-treatment isolates from each of 199 smear-positive male adult inmates admitted to a prison TB hospital by standard IS6110 DNA fingerprinting, followed by PCR typing based on multiple loci containing variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs on a subset of isolates. Drug susceptibility testing (DST was performed on all isolates for isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol. Results We found mixed infection in 26 (13.1% cases. In contrast, analysis of a single pre-treatment isolate per patient would have led to missed mixed infections in all or 14 of these 26 cases by using only standard DNA fingerprinting or the PCR multilocus-based method, respectively. Differences in DST among isolates from the same patient were observed in 10 cases, of which 6 were from patients with mixed infection. Conclusion These results suggest that the actual heterogeneity of the bacillary population in patients, especially in high TB incidence settings, may be frequently underestimated using current analytical schemes. These findings have therefore important implications for correct interpretation and evaluation of molecular epidemiology data and in treatment evaluations.

  2. [Comparison of organic component and di-n-butyl phthalate between human milk and cow milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-jie; Cao, Jia; Shu, Wei-qun

    2011-01-01

    To explore types of organic components and pollution level of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) between human milk and cow milk products. Forty healthy postpartum women with an average age of (27.44 ± 3.43) years old were selected, and a 5 ml sample of breast milk were collected. Four different brands of fresh cow milk and 1 brand of milk powder were randomly selected in the market. A total of 15 samples were collected with 3 from each brand, and the qualitative analysis of types of organic components and quantitative analysis of DBP were conducted by gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) method. A total of 176 different types of organic components were detected in 40 samples of human milk (averaged at (10.58 ± 4.16) types per sample); 37 different types were detected in 12 samples of fresh cow milk (averaged at (8.67 ± 1.61) types per sample); while 31 types of organic components were detected in 3 samples of milk powder (averaged at (12.67 ± 0.58) types per sample). It was obvious that the types of organic components in milk powder were significantly higher than the other two groups (t = 2.09, 4.00, P milk and cow milk was 9-octadecenoic acid (45.00% (18/40) in human milk; 53.33% (8/15) in cow milk). DBP concentrations were (57.78 ± 35.42) µg/L, (20.76 ± 6.60) µg/L and (0.45 ± 0.05) mg/kg (equal to (66.78 ± 7.60) µg/L) in human milk, fresh cow milk and milk powder, respectively. The DBP concentration in fresh cow milk was significantly lower than those in human milk and milk powder (t = 37.02, 46.02, P milk and cow milk contain different types of organic pollutants, some of which have toxic effects on reproduction and human development.

  3. Laboratory and Consumer Evaluations of Alternative Formulations of Recombined Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    blood cholesterol and coronary heart disease (Oliver, 1990). Coconut oil is high in saturated fat (92%) and therefore its use has been scrutinized by the...diglycerides, canola oil with actoloid, canolWsunflower blend. sunflower oil , and coconut oil , was conducted on the island of Okinawa. Japan. Air Force...flavor, milk consistency, and milk mouthfeel. All possible pairs of milk samples were served in random, counteralanced ad Milk filled with coconut oil

  4. Rate of inactivation of cytomegalovirus in raw banked milk during storage at -20 degrees C and pasteurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andersen, H K

    1982-01-01

    Samples of milk from 23 mothers attending the department of obstetrics and gynaecology and 36 who donated milk to the department's milk bank were cultured for cytomegalovirus. Virus was isolated from samples from 12 of the milk donors but none of the mothers attending the department; follow...... degrees C for eight minutes the milk did not contain any viable virus. It is recommended that raw banked milk used for feeding preterm babies should be kept frozen for at least 72 hours before feeding....

  5. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  6. [Contamination of human milk with aerobic flora: Evaluation of losses for a human milk bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, C; Courdent, P; Charlet, C; Dumoulin, D; Courcol, R; Pierrat, V

    2015-05-01

    In France, human milk banks pasteurize milk for the mother's own hospitalized baby (personalized milk) and for donation. There is specific legislation regulating the activity of human milk banks with bacterial screening of donor milk before and after pasteurization. Milk should be tested for Staphylococcus aureus and total aerobic flora. Any sample of milk positive for aerobic flora and/or S. aureus before and/or after pasteurization should be discarded. The real pathogenicity of the total aerobic flora is actually debated as well as the usefulness of systematic postpasteurization screening. The aim of this study was to quantify milk losses related to prepasteurization contamination by total aerobic flora in a regional milk bank, to identify losses due to contamination with S. aureus or aerobic flora, and to analyze differences between centers. This was a prospective observational study conducted in the regional human milk bank of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais area in France. Data were collected from six major centers providing 80% of the milk collected between June 2011 and June 2012. Variables were the volumes of personalized milk collected by each center, volumes of contaminated milk, and the type of bacteria identified. During the study period, the regional human milk bank treated 4715 L (liters) of personalized milk and 508 L (10.8%) were discarded due to bacteriological screening. Among these 508 L, 43% were discarded because of a prepasteurization contamination with aerobic flora, 55% because of a prepasteurization contamination with S. aureus, and 2% because of other pathogenic bacteria. Postpasteurization tests were positive in 25 samples (0.5%). Only five of these 25 samples were positive before pasteurization and in all cases with S. aureus. A total of 218 L were destroyed because of prepasteurization contamination with total aerobic flora, while the postpasteurization culture was sterile. There was a great difference between centers in the percentage of

  7. Temperature and storing time influence on selected physical properties of milk and acidophilus milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Božiková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with thermophysical parameters as: temperature, thermal conductivity, diffusivity and rheologic parameters as: dynamic, kinematic viscosity and fluidity of milk and acidophilus milk. For thermophysical parameters measurements was used Hot Wire method and for rheologic parameters measurements was used single – spindle viscometer. In the first series of measurements we measured relations between thermophysical and rheologic parameters in temperature range (5–25 °C for milk and acidophilus milk. Relations of all physical parameters of milk to the temperature showed influence of relative fat content. Effect of storage on milk and acidophilus milk is shown in the text. All measured relations for milk and acidophilus milk during temperature stabilisation had linear increasing progress with high coefficients of determination in the range (0.991–0.998. It was shown that increasing relative fat content has decreasing influence on milk thermal conductivity. Relations of rheologic parameters as dynamic and kinematic viscosity to the temperature had decreasing exponential progress, while relation of fluidity to the temperature had increasing exponential shape with high coefficients of determination in the range (0.985–0.994.. Mathematical description of the dependencies is summarised by regression equations and all coefficients are in presented tables.

  8. The changes of proteins fractions shares in milk and fermented milk drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonczar, Genowefa; Walczycka, Maria; Duda, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to observe the changes which take place in the electrophoretic picture of milk proteins after pasteurisation and inoculation with different starter cultures (both traditional and probiotic). After incubation, the yoghurt, kefir, acidified milk, fermented Bifidobacterium bifidum drink and Lactobacillus acidophillus drink were chilled for 14 days to observe the changes which occurred. The research materials were raw and pasteurised milk, as well as fermented milk- based drinks. The raw milk used for research came from Polish Holstein-Fresian black and white cows. The milk was sampled 3 times and divided into 5 parts, each of which was pasteurised at 95°C for 10 min and then cooled for inoculation: yoghurt to 45°C, kefir and acidified milk to 22°C and drinks with Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophillus to 38°C. Milk was inoculated with lyophilised, direct vat starter cultures, in an amount equal to 2% of the working starter. For the production of fermented drinks, the subsequent starters were applied: "YC-180" Christian Hansen for yoghurt, "D" Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for kefir, CH-N--11 Christian Hansen for acidified milk, starter by Christian Hansen for the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum milk, starter by Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophillus milk. The analyses were conducted in raw, pasteurised and freshly fermented milk as well as in milk drinks stored for 14 days. The total solid content was estimated by the drying method; the fat content by the Gerber method; the lactose content by