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Sample records for single midazolam concentrations

  1. Acute cross tolerance to midazolam, and not pentobarbital and pregnanolone, following a single dose of chlordiazepoxide in monkeys discriminating midazolam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, Lisa R.; McMahon, Lance R.; France, Charles P.

    2010-01-01

    Although cross tolerance can develop among positive GABAA modulators acting at the same modulatory site, cross tolerance does not always develop to drugs acting at sites that are different from the site of action of the drug administered chronically. To examine the relationship between cross tolerance and site of action, four rhesus monkeys discriminated midazolam and, on separate occasions, received 32 mg/kg of chlordiazepoxide 24 hr before dose-effect determinations for drugs acting at different sites. Midazolam, pentobarbital and pregnanolone produced >80% midazolam-lever responding. Although monkeys responded on the midazolam lever 2–4 hr after 32 mg/kg of chlordiazepoxide, they responded on the saline lever 24 hr later. Twenty-four hr after an acute injection of 32 mg/kg of chlordiazepoxide, midazolam dose-effect curves were shifted 4.6-fold to the right whereas pregnanolone dose-effect curves were shifted 3-fold to the left. Sensitivity to pentobarbital increased in one monkey and decreased in others 24 hr after chlordiazepoxide. Decreased sensitivity to midazolam demonstrates that acute cross tolerance develops following chlordiazepoxide administration, although it does not develop to drugs acting at other sites. These differences among positive GABAA modulators suggest that even short-term benzodiazepine administration changes GABAA receptors, and those changes impact modulatory sites differently. PMID:19020414

  2. Benzodiazepine receptor equilibrium constants for flumazenil and midazolam determined in humans with the single photon emission computer tomography tracer [123I]iomazenil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, C; Friberg, L; Holm, S

    1993-01-01

    bolus injection of [123I]iomazenil. The tracer in plasma was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography and also by a simple octanol extraction procedure. The free concentration of flumazenil and midazolam in plasma water averaged 52% and 3.5% of that in whole plasma. The Kd values for the entire...... cortical rim for flumazenil were 7.4, 10.0, 10.3 and 17.7 nmol/l plasma water and, for midazolam, 73, 76, 58 and 30 nmol/l plasma water. The variation exceeds random methodological error and is probably due to interindividual differences in receptor affinity. The Kd level of midazolam is considerably...

  3. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cause drowsiness, relieve anxiety, and prevent any memory of the event. It is also sometimes given ... lengthy use (>3 hours) of general anesthetic or sedation drugs such as midazolam in infants and children ...

  4. The effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinee Wongnawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees has been widely used for centuries in Asia for the treatment of common coldand diarrhea. Although it was previously reported to inhibit cytochrome P450 in vitro, the potential to cause herb-druginteraction has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. paniculata on the pharmacokineticsand pharmacodynamics of midazolam, a CYP3A4 probe drug, in normal healthy volunteers. The study was anopen-label, randomized, 2-phase crossover design with a 2-weeks washout period. Twelve healthy male volunteers received4 capsules of 250 mg A. paniculata 3 times a day orally for 7 days. Midazolam plasma concentration time profiles werecharacterized after a single oral dose of 7.5 mg midazolam on the day before and after A. paniculata medication. Pharmacodynamicsof midazolam were also evaluated. The results demonstrated that pretreatment with A. paniculata did not changemean pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-12, AUC0-”, T1/2, Cl/F of oral midazolam. Since midazolam is the mostsensitive substrate for CYP3A4, thus, herb-drug interaction caused by CYP3A4 inhibition after A. paniculata in healthyvolunteers was considered not clinically relevant. However, A. paniculata potentiated the effect of midazolam in loweringblood pressure and pulse rate. Therefore, co-administration of A. paniculata with midazolam should be warranted.

  5. Effect of an oral contraceptive preparation containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene on CYP3A4 activity as measured by midazolam 1'-hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palovaara, S; Kivistö, K T; Tapanainen, P; Manninen, P; Neuvonen, P J; Laine, K

    2000-10-01

    To characterize the effect of an oral contraceptive (OC) containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene on the activity of CYP3A4 in vivo as measured by the 1'-hydroxylation of midazolam. In this randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial nine healthy female subjects received either a combined OC (30 microg ethinylestradiol and 75 microg gestodene) or placebo once daily for 10 days. On day 10, a single 7.5 mg dose of midazolam was given orally. Plasma concentrations of midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam were determined up to 24 h and the effects of midazolam were measured with three psychomotor tests up to 8 h. The combined OC increased the mean AUC of midazolam by 21% (95% CI 2% to 40%; P = 0.03) and decreased that of 1'-hydroxymidazolam by 25% (95% CI 10% to 41%; P = 0.01), compared with placebo. The metabolic ratio (AUC of 1'-hydroxymidazolam/AUC of midazolam) was 36% smaller (95% CI 19% to 53%; P = 0.01) in the OC phase than in the placebo phase. There were no significant differences in the Cmax, tmax, t(1/2) or effects of midazolam between the phases. A combined OC preparation caused a modest reduction in the activity of CYP3A4, as measured by the 1'-hydroxylation of midazolam, and slightly increased the AUC of oral midazolam. This study suggests that, at the doses used, ethinylestradiol and gestodene have a relatively small effect on CYP3A4 activity in vivo.

  6. Population pharmacokinetic evaluation of ADV6209, an innovative oral solution of midazolam containing cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marçon, Frédéric; Guittet, Catherine; Manso, Maria A; Burton, Ingrid; Granier, Luc-André; Jacqmin, Philippe; Dupont, Hervé

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of a licensed formulation in many countries worldwide, ADV6209, an innovative 2mg/ml oral solution of midazolam containing cyclodextrin, has been developed for moderate sedation in paediatric patients. Population pharmacokinetics for ADV6209 is reported. Plasma concentration data were collected from 37 paediatric patients and 12 healthy adults recruited in a single dose, open-label phase II pharmacokinetic study and in a single dose, randomised, open-label two-period crossover bioavailability study, respectively. Data were analysed using non-linear mixed effect modelling. Plasma concentrations of midazolam were described by a two-compartment model. An additional one-compartment model was added for α- hydroxymidazolam. The body weight covariate was found to have a significant impact on midazolam and α-hydroxymidazolam clearance, and on midazolam volume of distribution. The population pharmacokinetic model indicated that 77% of the midazolam dose was absorbed within 30min after oral administration. Parameter estimations for a subject of 34kg indicated values of midazolam clearance of 34.7l·h -1 , a central volume of distribution of 27.9l and a peripheral volume of distribution of 413l. A higher metabolic ratio and a higher midazolam clearance per body weight were observed in the youngest group of subjects, in accordance with literature data. The clearance per body weight of α-hydroxymidazolam remained constant over the different age groups. Pharmacokinetic parameters were close to those reported in the literature with midazolam extemporaneous oral solutions or syrups, demonstrating that cyclodextrin had no significant effect on measured parameters. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Midazolam sedates Passeriformes for field sampling but affects multiple venous blood analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heatley JJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Jennifer Cary,2,3 Lyndsey Kingsley,1 Hughes Beaufrere,4 Karen E Russell,5 Gary Voelker2,3 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, 3Texas A&M Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 4Health Sciences Centre, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada; 5Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Feasibility and effect of midazolam administration on blood analytes and for sedation of Passeriformes being collected in a larger study of genetic biodiversity was assessed. Midazolam (5.6±2.7 mg/kg was administered intranasally prior to sampling, euthanasia, and specimen preparation of 104 passerine birds. Each bird was assessed for sedation score and then multiple analytes were determined from jugular blood samples using the i-STAT® point of care analyzer at “bird side”. Most birds were acceptably sedated, sedation became more pronounced as midazolam dose increased, and only a single bird died. Electrolyte concentrations and venous blood gas analytes were affected by midazolam administration while blood pH, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, and calculated hematocrit were not. Intranasal midazolam gives adequate sedation and is safe for short-term use in free-living Passeriformes. Based on venous blood analyte data, sedation of Passeriformes prior to handling appears to reduce stress but also produces venous blood gas differences consistent with hypoventilation relative to birds which were not given midazolam. Further study is recommended to investigate midazolam's continued use in free-living avian species. Studies should include safety, reversal and recovery, effect upon additional endogenous analytes, and compatibility with studies of ecology and toxicology

  8. Effect of an oral contraceptive preparation containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene on CYP3A4 activity as measured by midazolam 1′-hydroxylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palovaara, Sanna; Kivistö, Kari T; Tapanainen, Pasi; Manninen, Pekka; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Laine, Kari

    2000-01-01

    Aims To characterize the effect of an oral contraceptive (OC) containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene on the activity of CYP3A4 in vivo as measured by the 1′-hydroxylation of midazolam. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial nine healthy female subjects received either a combined OC (30 µg ethinylestradiol and 75 µg gestodene) or placebo once daily for 10 days. On day 10, a single 7.5 mg dose of midazolam was given orally. Plasma concentrations of midazolam and 1′-hydroxymidazolam were determined up to 24h and the effects of midazolam were measured with three psychomotor tests up to 8 h. Results The combined OC increased the mean AUC of midazolam by 21% (95% CI 2% to 40%; P = 0.03) and decreased that of 1′-hydroxymidazolam by 25% (95% CI 10% to 41%; P = 0.01), compared with placebo. The metabolic ratio (AUC of 1′-hydroxymidazolam/AUC of midazolam) was 36% smaller (95% CI 19% to 53%; P = 0.01) in the OC phase than in the placebo phase. There were no significant differences in the Cmax, tmax, t½ or effects of midazolam between the phases. Conclusions A combined OC preparation caused a modest reduction in the activity of CYP3A4, as measured by the 1′-hydroxylation of midazolam, and slightly increased the AUC of oral midazolam. This study suggests that, at the doses used, ethinylestradiol and gestodene have a relatively small effect on CYP3A4 activity in vivo. PMID:11012556

  9. The Effects of Single-Dose Rectal Midazolam Application on Postoperative Recovery, Sedation, and Analgesia in Children Given Caudal Anesthesia Plus Bupivacaine

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    Sedat Saylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to compare the effects of rectal midazolam addition after applying bupivacaine and caudal anesthesia on postoperative analgesia time, the need for additional analgesics, postoperative recovery, and sedation and to find out its adverse effects in children having lower abdominal surgery. Methods. 40 children between 2 and 10 years of ASA I-II were randomized, and they received caudal anesthesia under general anesthesia. Patients underwent the application of caudal block in addition to saline and 1 mL/kg bupivacaine 0.25%. In the postoperative period, Group C (n = 20 was given 5 mL saline, and Group M (n = 20 was given 0.30 mg/kg rectal midazolam diluted with 5 mL saline. Sedation scale and postoperative pain scale (CHIPPS of the patients were evaluated. The patients were observed for their analgesic need, first analgesic time, and adverse effects for 24 hours. Results. Demographic and hemodynamic data of the two groups did not differ. Postoperative sedation scores in both groups were significantly lower compared with the preoperative period. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of sedation and sufficient analgesia. Conclusions. We conclude that caudal anesthesia provided sufficient analgesia in peroperative and postoperative periods, and rectal midazolam addition did not create any differences. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02127489.

  10. Oral midazolam in paediatric premedication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-06

    Apr 6, 1991 ... (iiz) intramuscular midazolam 0,15 mg/kg;2,6, and (iv) oral midazolam 0,45 mg/kg - this was prepared to a strength of 3 mg!ml using raspberry syrup, as previously described.I°. All the assessments were done by a nursing sister trained in research techniques. She was unaware which group the patients.

  11. Single Atoms in Nearly Concentric Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Adrian Nugraha; Nguyen, Chi Huan; Lewty, Nick; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Quantum Optics Group Team

    2017-04-01

    Strong interaction between photons and neutral single atoms are usually observed in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) systems with high finesse mirrors and small physical volume. We demonstrate another approach that employs a near concentric cavity with relatively low finesse mirrors ( 100) and large physical separation between mirrors ( 10 mm). The transmission spectrum of our CQED system with trapped single atoms is observed to exhibit two resolved normal mode peaks, in which the single atom cooperativity is estimated to be around 0.4. The cooperativity of the system can be improved further by increasing the finesse of the mirrors or moving the cavity closer to the concentric point. The successful realization of concentric CQED systems will open opportunities for scaling up with applications in quantum computing. This work is supported by the National Research Foundation and Ministry of Education, Singapore.

  12. Hypnosis for sedation in transesophageal echocardiography: a comparison with midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Gulay; Dogan, Yuksel; Demir, Guray; Tulubas, Evrim; Hergunsel, Oya; Tekdos, Yasemin; Dogan, Murat; Bilgi, Deniz; Abut, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), being a displeasing intervention, usually entails sedation. We aimed to compare the effects of hypnosis and midazolam for sedation in TEE. A prospective single-blinded study conducted on patients scheduled for TEE between April 2011 and July 2011 at a university in Istanbul, Turkey. A total of 41 patients underwent sedation using midazolam and 45 patients underwent hypnosis. Patients were given the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test for anxiety and continuous performance test (CPT) for alertness before and after the procedure. The difficulty of probing and the overall procedure rated by the cardiologist and satisfaction scores of the patients were also documented. Anxiety was found to be less and attention more in the hypnosis group, as revealed by STAI and CPT test scores (P Hypnosis proved to be associated with positive therapeutic outcomes for TEE with regard to alleviation of anxiety and maintenance of vigilance, thus providing more satisfaction compared to sedation with midazolam.

  13. Ontogeny of midazolam glucuronidation in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.N. de Wildt (Saskia); G.L. Kearns (Greg); D.J. Murry (Darryl); G. Koren (Gideon); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In preterm infants, the biotransformation of midazolam (M) to 1-OH-midazolam (OHM) by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is developmentally immature, but it is currently unknown whether the glucuronidation of OHM to 1-OH-midazolam glucuronide (OHMG) is also decreased. The aim of our

  14. Parenteral midazolam is superior to diazepam for treatment of prehospital seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemency, Brian M; Ott, Jamie A; Tanski, Christopher T; Bart, Joseph A; Lindstrom, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Diazepam and midazolam are commonly used by paramedics to treat seizures. A period of drug scarcity was used as an opportunity to compare their effectiveness in treating prehospital seizures. A retrospective chart review of a single, large, commercial agency during a 29-month period was performed. The period included alternating shortages of both medications. Ambulances were stocked with either diazepam or midazolam based on availability of the drugs. Adult patients who received at least 1 parenteral dose of diazepam or midazolam for treatment of seizures were included. The regional prehospital protocol recommended 5 mg intravenous (IV) diazepam, 5 mg intramuscular (IM) diazepam, 5 mg IM midazolam, or 2.5 mg IV midazolam. Medication effectiveness was compared with respect to the primary end point: cessation of seizure without repeat seizure during the prehospital encounter. A total of 440 study subjects received 577 administrations of diazepam or midazolam and met the study criteria. The subjects were 52% male, with a mean age of 48 (range 18-94) years. A total of 237 subjects received 329 doses of diazepam, 64 (27%) were treated with first-dose IM. A total of 203 subjects received 248 doses of midazolam; 71 (35%) were treated with first-dose IM. Seizure stopped and did not recur in 49% of subjects after parenteral diazepam and 65% of subjects after parenteral midazolam (p = 0.002). Diazepam and midazolam exhibited similar first dose success for IV administration (58 vs. 62%; p = 0.294). Age, gender, seizure history, hypoglycemia, the presence of trauma, time to first administration, prehospital contact time, and frequency of IM administration were similar between groups. For parenteral administration, midazolam demonstrated superior first-dose seizure suppression. This study demonstrates how periods of drug scarcity can be utilized to study prehospital medication effectiveness.

  15. Diazepam or midazolam for orotracheal intubation in the ICU?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Lísia; Oliveira, Roselaine P; Becker, Maicon; Friedman, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    to compare clinical and cost effectiveness of midazolam and diazepam for urgent intubation. patients admitted to the Central ICU of the Santa Casa Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre, over the age of 18 years, undergoing urgent intubation during 6 months were eligible. Patients were randomized in a single-blinded manner to either intravenous diazepam or midazolam. Diazepam was given as a 5 mg intravenous bolus followed by aliquots of 5 mg each minute. Midazolam was given as an intravenous bolus of 5 mg with further aliquots of 2.5 mg each minute. Ramsay sedation scale 5-6 was considered adequate sedation. We recorded time and required doses to reach adequate sedation and duration of sedation. thirty four patients were randomized, but one patient in the diazepam group was excluded because data were lost. Both groups were similar in terms of illness severity and demographics. Time for adequate sedation was shorter (132 ± 87 sec vs. 224 ± 117 sec, p = 0.016) but duration of sedation was similar (86 ± 67 min vs. 88 ± 50 min, p = 0.936) for diazepam in comparison to midazolam. Total drug dose to reach adequate sedation after either drugs was similar (10.0 [10.0-12.5] mg vs. 15.0 [10.0-17.5] mg, p = 0.248). Arterial pressure and sedation intensity reduced similarly overtime with both drugs. Cost of sedation was lower for diazepam than for midazolam (1.4[1.4-1.8] vs. 13.9[9.4-16.2] reais, p diazepam and midazolam is effective and well tolerated. Sedation with diazepam is associated to a quicker sedation time and to lower costs.

  16. Diazepam or midazolam for orotracheal intubation in the ICU?

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    Lísia Gehrke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare clinical and cost effectiveness of midazolam and diazepam for urgent intubation. Methods: patients admitted to the Central ICU of the Santa Casa Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre, over the age of 18 years, undergoing urgent intubation during 6 months were eligible. Patients were randomized in a single-blinded manner to either intravenous diazepam or midazolam. Diazepam was given as a 5 mg intravenous bolus followed by aliquots of 5 mg each minute. Midazolam was given as an intravenous bolus of 5 mg with further aliquots of 2.5 mg each minute. Ramsay sedation scale 5-6 was considered adequate sedation. We recorded time and required doses to reach adequate sedation and duration of sedation. Results: thirty four patients were randomized, but one patient in the diazepam group was excluded because data were lost. Both groups were similar in terms of illness severity and demographics. Time for adequate sedation was shorter (132 ± 87 sec vs. 224 ± 117 sec, p = 0.016 but duration of sedation was similar (86 ± 67 min vs. 88 ± 50 min, p = 0.936 for diazepam in comparison to midazolam. Total drug dose to reach adequate sedation after either drugs was similar (10.0 [10.0-12.5] mg vs. 15.0 [10.0-17.5] mg, p = 0.248. Arterial pressure and sedation intensity reduced similarly overtime with both drugs. Cost of sedation was lower for diazepam than for midazolam (1.4[1.4-1.8] vs. 13.9[9.4-16.2] reais, p <0.001. Conclusions: intubation using intravenous diazepam and midazolam is effective and well tolerated. Sedation with diazepam is associated to a quicker sedation time and to lower costs.

  17. Midazolam versus diazepam for combined esophogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, D E; Leventhal, R; Kumar, S; Berman, D; Kajani, M; Yoo, Y K; Carra, J; Tarter, R; Van Thiel, D H

    1989-08-01

    This study compares the effects of two different benzodiazepines used for conscious sedation during combined upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy. Subjects were assessed for their degree of analgesia and amnesia for the procedure, prior experience with endoscopy, and willingness to undergo another similar procedure should such be necessary. The patients were randomized single blind to receive either midazolam or diazepam for their preprocedure sedation. The amount of preprocedure sedation utilized was determined by titration of the dose to achieve slurring of speech. Prior to receiving either agent, the subjects were shown a standard card containing pictures of 10 common objects, were asked to name and remember them, and were told they would be "quizzed" (at 30 min and 24 hr) after being sedated for their recollection as to the objects pictured on the card. Each subject filled out a questionnaire addressing their perceived discomfort during the endoscopic procedure and their memory of the procedure 24 hr after the procedure. Sixty-three percent of the midazolam-sedated subjects reported total amnesia for their colonoscopy vs 20% of diazepam-sedated patients (P less than 0.001). Fifty-three percent of midazolam-sedated patients reported total amnesia of their upper gastrointestinal endoscopy vs only 23% of diazepam-sedated subjects (P less than 0.05). The midazolam-sedated subjects reported experiencing less pain with both upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (P less than 0.05) and colonoscopy (P less than 0.001) than did the diazepam-sedated group. Most importantly, the midazolam group was more willing to undergo another similar endoscopic procedure should they be asked to do so by their physician (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

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    Rajeev Jain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton–Robinson (BR buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB and Tween 20 was studied. Among these surfactants SLS showed significant enhancement in reduction peak. The cathodic peak currents were directly proportional to the concentration of midazolam with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Keywords: Midazolam, Voltammetry, Surfactant, Glassy carbon electrode, Parenteral dosage form

  19. Intramuscular compared to intravenous midazolam for paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sedation in children remains a controversial issue in emergency departments (ED). Midazolam, as a benzodiazepine is widely used for procedural sedation among paediatrics. We compared the effectiveness and safety of two forms of midazolam prescription; intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV). Patients ...

  20. Effects of aging and rifampicin pretreatment on the pharmacokinetics of human cytochrome P450 probes caffeine, warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam in common marmosets genotyped for cytochrome P450 2C19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Akiko; Uehara, Shotaro; Inoue, Takashi; Utoh, Masahiro; Kusama, Takashi; Shimizu, Makiko; Uno, Yasuhiro; Mogi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-07-25

    1. The pharmacokinetics were investigated for human cytochrome P450 probes after single intravenous and oral administrations of 0.20 and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively, of caffeine, warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam to aged (10-14 years old, n = 4) or rifampicin-treated/young (3 years old, n = 3) male common marmosets all genotyped as heterozygous for a cytochrome P450 2C19 variant. 2. Slopes of the plasma concentration-time curves after intravenous administration of warfarin and midazolam were slightly, but significantly (two-way analysis of variance), decreased in aged marmosets compared with young marmosets. The mean hepatic clearances determined by in silico fitting for individual pharmacokinetic models of warfarin and midazolam in the aged group were, respectively, 23% and 56% smaller than those for the young group. 3. Significantly enhanced plasma clearances of caffeine, warfarin, omeprazole and midazolam were evident in young marmosets pretreated with rifampicin (25 mg/kg daily for 4 days). Two- to three-fold increases in hepatic intrinsic clearance values were observed in the individual pharmacokinetic models. 4. The in vivo dispositions of multiple simultaneously administered drugs in old, young and P450-enzyme-induced marmosets were elucidated. The results suggest that common marmosets could be experimental models for aged, induced or polymorphic P450 enzymes in P450-dependent drug metabolism studies.

  1. The pharmacokinetics of midazolam after intravenous, intramuscular, and rectal administration in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M; Muñana, K R; Nettifee-Osborne, J A; Messenger, K M; Papich, M G

    2013-10-01

    Intravenous benzodiazepines are utilized as first-line drugs to treat prolonged epileptic seizures in dogs and alternative routes of administration are required when venous access is limited. This study compared the pharmacokinetics of midazolam after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and rectal (PR) administration. Six healthy dogs were administered 0.2 mg/kg midazolam IV, IM, or PR in a randomized, 3-way crossover design with a 3-day washout between study periods. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at predetermined intervals until 480 min after administration. Plasma midazolam concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detection. Rectal administration resulted in erratic systemic availability with undetectable to low plasma concentrations. Arithmetic mean values ± SD for midazolam peak plasma concentrations were 0.86 ± 0.36 μg/mL (C0) and 0.20 ± 0.06 μg/mL (Cmax), following IV and IM administration, respectively. Time to peak concentration (Tmax ) after IM administration was 7.8 ± 2.4 min with a bioavailability of 50 ± 16%. Findings suggest that IM midazolam might be useful in treating seizures in dogs when venous access is unavailable, but higher doses may be needed to account for intermediate bioavailability. Rectal administration is likely of limited efficacy for treating seizures in dogs. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Intra-operative Patient-Controlled Sedation (PCS:Propofol versus Midazolam Supplementation During Epidural Analgesia (Clinical and Hormonal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S Al-khayat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done on sixty adult males scheduled to have an epidural analgesia for elective inguinal hernia repair. The study was designed to compare propofol and midazolam with regard to their suitability for the patient-controlled sedation (PCS technique during epidural analgesia. Patients were divided into three equal groups and premedicated with 0.2mg.kg -1 oral midazolam. Group I (G1 served as control. Using PCS technique, the pump was programmed to deliver on demand a bolus dose of 0.5 mg.kg- 1 of propofol in Group II (G2 or 0.1mg.kg -1 midazolam in Group III(G3. Patient′s sedation status was assessed by sedation score, comfort scale and by psychometric testing. The total delivered dose of each tested drug was calculated. Serum concentrations of propfol and midazolam, plasma cortisol and free fatty acids were measured. Propofol and midazolam PCS technique produced excellent and easily controllable sedation. The dose needed to produce steady state sedation was 2.8±1.42 and 0.11±0.6 mg.kg -1 .h- 1 for propofol and midazolam respectively. Propofol was more suitable than midazolam for PCS because of its rapid onset, favorable recovery profile and low side effects. PCS proved to be a stress-free and acceptable technique.

  3. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate, Hydromorphone Hydrochloride, Ketamine Hydrochloride, Midazolam, Morphine Sulfate, and Pentobarbital Sodium in Polypropylene Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Collin; MacKay, Mark

    2015-12-16

    Determine the stability of fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose, fentanyl 50 mcg/mL, hydromorphone 100 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, ketamine 10 mg/mL, midazolam 0.4 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, midazolam 5 mg/mL, morphine 1 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, morphine 1 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, and pentobarbital 50 mg/mL when stored as single drug entities at room temperature in polypropylene syringes. Four 5 mL samples of each drug and concentration were prepared in 10 mL polypropylene syringes. The samples were stored at ambient room temperature in a locked cabinet. Triplicate determinations of drug concentration for each sample were performed initially, on day 50 or 51, and on day 100 using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. With the exception of the hydromorphone 100 mcg/mL dilution, all compounds were found to contain greater than 95% of their initial concentration remaining at 100 days. Each sample remained clear and colorless when visually inspected.

  4. Interaction between repeated restraint stress and concomitant midazolam administration on sweet food ingestion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional changes can influence feeding behavior. Previous studies have shown that chronically stressed animals present increased ingestion of sweet food, an effect reversed by a single dose of diazepam administered before testing the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of animals chronically treated with midazolam and/or submitted to repeated restraint stress upon the ingestion of sweet food. Male adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: controls and exposed to restraint 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 40 days. Both groups were subdivided into two other groups treated or not with midazolam (0.06 mg/ml in their drinking water during the 40-day treatment. The animals were placed in a lighted area in the presence of 10 pellets of sweet food (Froot loops®. The number of ingested pellets was measured during a period of 3 min, in the presence or absence of fasting. The group chronically treated with midazolam alone presented increased ingestion when compared to control animals (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and midazolam group: 3.60 ± 0.57 pellets. The group submitted to restraint stress presented an increased ingestion compared to controls (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and stressed group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets. Chronically administered midazolam reduced the ingestion in stressed animals (stressed/water group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets; stressed/midazolam group: 3.2 ± 0.49 pellets. Thus, repeated stress increases appetite for sweet food independently of hunger and chronic administration of midazolam can decrease this behavioral effect.

  5. A gradient of mercury concentrations in Scottish single malt whiskies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Neil L; Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon D

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in 26 Scottish single malt whiskies, and all found to be very low (mercury emissions and deposition over the last 200 years affecting concentrations in local waters used in whisky production. As UK atmospheric emissions of mercury have declined by 90 % since the 1970s, we suggest that whisky being produced today should have even lower Hg concentrations when consumed in 10- to 15-years time. This reduction may be compromised by the remobilisation of contaminants stored in catchment soils being transferred to source waters, but is very unlikely to raise the negligible health risk due to Hg from Scottish single malt whisky consumption.

  6. Midazolam hypersensitivity during the transportation to theater -A case report-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin-Young; Jeon, Young-Tae; Na, Hyo-Seok; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Seong-Ju; Jung, Seung Hye

    2010-12-01

    This report describes a rare case of perioperative midazolam hypersensitivity in a patient without any history of allergy. A 39-year-old man was admitted for endoscopic pansinus surgery. During transportation to the operating room after injecting antibiotic and midazolam intravenously, the patient complained of shortness of breath. At 3 months after the event, an intradermal sensitivity test for midazolam proved positive indicating the incident was caused by midazolam hypersensitivity.

  7. Midazolam hypersensitivity during the transportation to theater -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jin-Young; Jeon, Young-Tae; Na, Hyo-Seok; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Seong-Ju; Jung, Seung Hye

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of perioperative midazolam hypersensitivity in a patient without any history of allergy. A 39-year-old man was admitted for endoscopic pansinus surgery. During transportation to the operating room after injecting antibiotic and midazolam intravenously, the patient complained of shortness of breath. At 3 months after the event, an intradermal sensitivity test for midazolam proved positive indicating the incident was caused by midazolam hypersensitivity.

  8. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and Tween 20 was studied. Among these surfactants SLS showed significant enhancement in reduction peak. The cathodic peak currents were directly proportional to the concentration of midazolam with correlation coefficient of 0.99.

  9. GRIN planar waveguide concentrator used with a single axis tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

    2014-03-10

    It is generally accepted that small to medium level concentrators could be used as cost-competitive replacements for tracked solar panels. The objective is to design a system that can reach a good level of sun concentration with only one sun-tracking axis and is cheap to fabricate. As the most critical parameter for all concentrator designs, optical efficiency needed improvement to reduce the cost of power produced by our system. By using a graded-index planar waveguide with an index profile similar to SELFOC fiber, the ray's path can be controlled. Also, the concentrator can be fabricated in a single block, which reduces Fresnel reflections. Overall, the optical efficiency can be improved by as much as 33% compared to the same system made with a homogeneous waveguide. Furthermore, the ability to cost-effectively fabricate the concentrator by molding can be preserved, making it possible to reduce the cost of the solar power produced.

  10. Hybrid entanglement concentration assisted with single coherent state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Zhou Lan; Sheng Yu-Bo; Gu Shi-Pu; Wang Xing-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid entangled state (HES) is a new type of entanglement, which combines the advantages of an entangled polarization state and an entangled coherent state. HES is widely discussed in the applications of quantum communication and computation. In this paper, we propose three entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for Bell-type HES, W-type HES, and cluster-type HES, respectively. After performing these ECPs, we can obtain the maximally entangled HES with some success probability. All the ECPs exploit the single coherent state to complete the concentration. These protocols are based on the linear optics, which are feasible in future experiments. (paper)

  11. Comparison of dexmedetomidine versus midazolam for intranasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    not cause mucosal stimulation, making it suitable for intranasal administration in paediatric patients.9,10. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dexmedetomidine versus midazolam for intranasal premedication in children posted for elective surgery on preoperative anxiety, sedation, heart rate.

  12. Oral transmucosal midazolam premedication for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, U A; Collier, P J; Malviya, S; Voepel-Lewis, T; Wagner, D; Siewert, M J

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the acceptance and effectiveness of 0.2 mg x kg(-1) of oral transmucosal midazolam as a premedicant in infants and preschool children. In a randomized, prospective double-blind placebo controlled study, 44 healthy children, between the ages of eight months to six years, presenting for elective surgery were divided in two groups. The medicated group received 0.2 mg x kg(-1) of injectable midazolam mixed with an equal volume of strawberry syrup and the placebo group received plain syrup 0.08 ml x kg(-1). Medications were placed on the anterosuperior aspect of the child's tongue in 3-5 aliquots of 0.2-0.4 ml. A blinded observer assessed the acceptance of the medication by willingness to open the mouth for the next aliquot and the efficacy of the medication was assessed by ease of separation from the parent. Ninety-six percent of the children in the placebo group and 95% in the midazolam group willingly accepted the medication. Separation of children from parents was successful in 95% of the medicated children compared with 59% in the placebo group (P = 0.006). Oral midazolam in thick strawberry syrup, administered in small aliquots via the oral transmucosal route was well accepted and proved to be an effective premedicant in infants and preschool children.

  13. Coma mixedematoso y midazolam: Reporte de caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pinto Valdivia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un paciente varón sin antecedente previo de patología tiroidea que ingresó por coma mixedematoso y desarrolló insuficiencia respiratoria después de la administración endovenosa de midazolam. Tenía 55 años de edad, y una enfermedad de dos semanas caracterizado por letargia, debilidad, hiporexia y cefalea. Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron anemia, hiponatremia severa y niveles elevados de transaminasas y creatinquinasa. TSH elevada y T4 y T3 en niveles muy bajos. Se inició tratamiento con levotiroxina, corticoides endovenosos y solución hipertónica de cloruro de sodio. La evolución fue mala, se colocó un catéter venoso central bajo sedación con midazolam endovenoso para monitoreo hemodinámico, luego del cual, el paciente desarrolló insuficiencia respiratoria, mayor compromiso del sensorio y falleció. En pacientes con hipotiroidismo, el metabolismo del midazolam esta alterado y puede causar insuficiencia respiratoria. (Rev Med Hered 2008; 19:171-174.

  14. Hybrid entanglement concentration assisted with single coherent state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Guo; Lan, Zhou; Shi-Pu, Gu; Xing-Fu, Wang; Yu-Bo, Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid entangled state (HES) is a new type of entanglement, which combines the advantages of an entangled polarization state and an entangled coherent state. HES is widely discussed in the applications of quantum communication and computation. In this paper, we propose three entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for Bell-type HES, W-type HES, and cluster-type HES, respectively. After performing these ECPs, we can obtain the maximally entangled HES with some success probability. All the ECPs exploit the single coherent state to complete the concentration. These protocols are based on the linear optics, which are feasible in future experiments. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Qing Lan Project in Jiangsu Province, China, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. 15KJA120002), and the Priority Academic Development Program of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  15. Oral midazolam in paediatric premedication | Payne | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a premedication study involving 135 children, aged 1 - 10 years, four regimens were investigated: (I) no premedication; (il) oral trimeprazine tartrate 2 mg/kg, methadone 0,1 mg/kg, droperidol 0,15 mg/kg (TMD); (iil) intramuscular midazolam . (Dormicum; Roche) 0,15 mg/kg; and (iv) oral midazolam 0,45 mg/kg.

  16. EcoDopplercardiografia em coelhos: uso de midazolam e midazolam associado à cetamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de animais como modelos experimentais muitas vezes exige a administração de sedativos ou anestésicos, particularmente quando se trata de avaliação ecoDopplercardiográfica de coelhos. No entanto, existem poucas informações sobre os protocolos e seus efeitos nestes parâmetros. Diante deste contexto, foram utilizados 20 coelhos Nova Zelândia machos, com cinco meses e 3,2kg, distribuídos em dois grupos de 10 animais cada: G1 - maleato de midazolam associado ao cloridrato de cetamina, e G2 - maleato de midazolam. Compararam-se o efeito dos dois protocolos sob os índices funcionais do ventrículo esquerdo e os fluxos valvares, e observaram-se menores valores de frequência cardíaca e da fração de ejeção e maiores valores de diâmetro do ventrículo esquerdo na sístole, de volume sistólico final do ventrículo esquerdo e de diâmetro aórtico no grupo que recebeu apenas maleato de midazolam (G2. Concluiu-se que, o maleato de midazolam apresentou-se mais eficaz, pois causou boa sedação nos animais, permitindo a realização de ecoDopplercardiogramas de qualidade e efeitos limitados no sistema cardiovascular.

  17. Intravenous sedation for implant surgery: midazolam, butorphanol, and dexmedetomidine versus midazolam, butorphanol, and propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Tomita, Shu; Nakaike, Yoshihiro; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2014-02-01

    We compared the amnesic action, recovery process, and satisfaction of patients and surgeons after the use of 2 different sedation regimens for 40 patients undergoing scheduled implant surgery. Butorphanol, midazolam, dexmedetomidine (BMD) was administered to 20 patients who were maintained with continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine after the induction with butorphanol and midazolam, and butorphanol, midazolam, propofol (BMP) was administered to 20 patients who were maintained with continuous infusion of propofol after the induction with butorphanol and midazolam. To assess the amnesic action, the memory of local anesthesia, auditory memory, and visual memory were evaluated. The Trieger Dot Test (TDT) was applied during the recovery process. A questionnaire regarding the patient's feelings of the management of sedation was taken from each patient and was also filled out by the surgeon. The comparison between groups was analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. No significant differences in the amnesic action and the TDT were noted. Both methods also satisfied the patients and surgeons, as determined by the questionnaire results. In conclusion, both sedation regimens are appropriate for implant surgery.

  18. Allosteric activation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by efavirenz facilitates midazolam binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Tsujino, Hirofumi; Miki, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Masaya; Matsubara, Chiaki; Miyata, Sara; Yamashita, Taku; Takeshita, Kohei; Yonezawa, Yasushige; Uno, Tadayuki

    2017-12-18

    1. The purpose of this study is to investigate the heteroactivation mechanism of CYP3A4 by efavirenz, which enhances metabolism of midazolam in vivo, in terms of its binding to CYP3A4 with in vitro spectroscopic methods. 2. Efavirenz exhibited a type II spectral change with binding to CYP3A4 indicating a possible inhibitor. Although dissociation constant (K d ) was approximated as 520 μM, efavirenz enhanced binding affinity of midazolam as a co-existing drug with an estimated iK d value of 5.6 µM which is comparable to a clinical concentration. 3. Efavirenz stimulated the formation of 1'-hydroxymidazolam, and the product formation rate (V max ) concentration-dependently increased without changing the K m . Besides, an efavirenz analogue, [6-chloro-1,4-dihydro-4-(1-pentynyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-3,1-benzoxazin-2-one] (efavirenz impurity) slightly facilitated the binding affinity of midazolam in a concentration-dependent manner. These results propose that efavirenz affects midazolam-binding via binding to the peripheral site which is apart from the active site of CYP3A4. 4. A molecular dynamics simulation also suggested the bound-efavirenz was repositioned to effector-binding site. As a consequence, our spectroscopic studies clarified the heteroactivation of CYP3A4 caused by efavirenz with a proper affinity to the peripheral site, and we concluded the method can be a useful tool for characterising the potential for drug-drug interactions.

  19. Effects of midazolam and morphine on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alfen-van der Velden, A A E M; Hopman, J C W; Klaessens, J H G M; Feuth, T; Sengers, R C A; Liem, K D

    2006-01-01

    Midazolam sedation and morphine analgesia are commonly used in ventilated premature infants. To evaluate the effects of midazolam versus morphine infusion on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants. 11 patients (GA 26.6-33.0 weeks, BW 780-2,335 g) were sedated with midazolam (loading dose 0.2 mg/kg, maintenance 0.2 mg/kg/h) and 10 patients (GA 26.4-33.3 weeks, BW 842-1,955 g) were sedated with morphine (loading dose 0.05 mg/kg, maintenance 0.01 mg/kg/h). Changes in oxyhemoglobin (Delta cO2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (Delta cHHb) were assessed using near infrared spectrophotometry. Changes in cHbD (= Delta cO(2)Hb - Delta cHHb) reflect changes in cerebral blood oxygenation and changes in concentration of total hemoglobin (Delta ctHb = Delta cO2Hb + Delta cHHb) represent changes in cerebral blood volume (DeltaCBV). Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (DeltaCBFV) were intermittently measured using Doppler ultrasound. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), arterial oxygen saturation (saO2) and transcutaneous measured pO2 (tcpO2) and pCO2 (tcpCO2) were continuously registered. Statistical analyses were carried out using linear mixed models to account for the longitudinal character study design. Within 15 min after the loading dose of midazolam, a decrease in saO2, tcpO2 and cHbD was observed in 5/11 infants. In addition, a fall in MABP and CBFV was observed 15 min after midazolam administration. Immediately after morphine infusion a decrease in saO2, tcpO2 and cHbD was observed in 6/10 infants. Furthermore, morphine infusion resulted in a persistent increase in CBV. Administration of midazolam and morphine in ventilated premature infants causes significant changes in cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics, which might be harmful. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Stability of midazolam hydrochloride injection 1-mg/mL solutions in polyvinyl chloride and polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlage, Kelly; Earhart, Zachary; Green-Boesen, Kelly; Myrdal, Paul B

    2011-08-15

    The stability of midazolam hydrochloride injection 1-mg/mL solutions in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyolefin bags under varying conditions was evaluated. Triplicate solutions of midazolam hydrochloride 1-mg/mL were prepared in polyolefin and PVC i.v. bags by diluting midazolam hydrochloride injection 5 mg/mL with 5% dextrose injection. Bags were then stored under refrigeration (3-4 °C), exposed to light at room temperature (20-25 °C), or protected from light in amber bags at room temperature. Samples were taken immediately after preparation (day 0) and on days 1, 2, 3, 6, 13, 20, and 27 for analysis with a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay in order to determine solution concentration. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial drug concentration. The pH of each solution was also measured weekly. Sterility of the i.v. bags was determined at the end of the study by microbiological testing with culture in growth media. Differences in concentrations under the various storage conditions and bags used were analyzed using analysis of variance. All solutions retained over 98% of the initial midazolam hydrochloride concentration, with no statistically significant (p ≥ 0.05) change in concentration over the four-week period. Stability was not affected by temperature, exposure to light, or bag type. The pH of all solutions remained between 3.2 and 3.4 throughout the study. Sterility after 28 days was retained. Midazolam hydrochloride 1-mg/mL solutions diluted in 5% dextrose injection remained stable over 27 days in both polyolefin and PVC i.v. bags, regardless of storage condition.

  1. Changes to the bispectral index and regional cerebral blood flow in a sedative state, caused by midazolam administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Junko

    2006-01-01

    Psychosedation, as used in the field of dentistry, is intended to provide trouble-free dental care while maintaining a proper level of sedation. One drug used in psychosedation is midazolam, which is known to have a strong amnestic effect. In the current research, I sought to clarify whether the bispectral index (BIS) using electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis can be used for assessment of optimal sedation in psychosedation, and what effects midazolam has on the cerebrum's mechanism of memory. The subjects were 17 healthy adult volunteers. Intravenous sedation involved a single administration of 0.06 mg/kg midazolam, or 6 mg/kg/h propofol, administered for 5 minutes and then continuously administered for 25 minutes at 3 mg/kg/h. For nitrous oxide inhalation sedation, 10-30% nitrous oxide was used. Clinical sedation and the BIS were measured in a variety of circumstances. To examine the effects of midazolam on the central nervous system, changes in brain oxygen consumption in visual memory tasks were assessed through observing changes in areas of brain activation using 3T fMRI. With intravenous sedation using midazolam or propofol, the BIS decreased immediately after drug administration, and the BIS at which optimal sedation was clinically determined was about 65. In contrast, no decrease in the BIS was noted with nitrous oxide inhalation sedation. In observing areas of brain activation by fMRI, the oxygen consumption mainly of visual cortices in the occipital lobe increased as a result of stimulation by visual memory tasks. Regardless of the amnestic effect midazolam produced in subjects, it did not suppress activation of the visual cortices in the occipital lobe. In intravenous sedation using midazolam or propofol, the BIS is effective in determining optimal sedation, and appropriate perioperative management can be performed using the BIS. However, in nitrous oxide inhalation sedation it appears that the BIS cannot be used to monitor levels of sedation. Amnestic

  2. Safety of adjunct pre-emptive intravenous tramadol with midazolam sedation for third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Lars B; Tegelberg, Åke

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient safety, in terms of adverse events, alterations in blood pressure or oxygen saturation (SpO2) in two routine sedation procedures, with and without intravenous analgesia. Patients referred for surgical removal of mandibular third molars were treated in a randomized, controlled, single-blinded procedure. Eighty-seven men and women, aged 18 to 44 years, were allotted to either of two treatment groups, midazolam + tramadol (M + T) and midazolam + saline (M + S) or to a control group (C), given no sedation. Tramadol at 1 mg/kg body weight resulted in a higher frequency of oxygen desaturation (SpO2 surgery. In both the test groups, there was a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (p surgery. The results confirm that pre-emptive intravenous tramadol, administered at 1 mg/kg body weight as an adjunct to midazolam sedation for third molar surgery, offers a safe method. But, it should be noted that our previous study shows that it is not a particularly effective analgesic. Further testing is therefore warranted, using other doses or other drugs, to find a better intravenous protocol for postoperative analgesia, with maximum effect and minimal risk, in outpatient oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures.

  3. Superiority of split dose midazolam as conscious sedation for outpatient colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2009-08-14

    To elucidate the efficacy and safety of a split dose of midazolam in combination with meperidine for colonoscopy. Eighty subjects undergoing outpatient colonoscopy were randomly assigned to group A or B. Group A (n = 40) received a split dose of midazolam in combination with meperidine. Group B (n = 40) received a single dose of midazolam in combination with meperidine. Outcome measurements were level of sedation, duration of sedation and recovery, degree of pain and satisfaction, procedure-related memory, controllability, and adverse events. Group A had a lower frequency of significant hypoxemia (P = 0.043) and a higher sedation score on withdrawal of the endoscope from the descending colon than group B (P = 0.043). Group B recovered from sedation slightly sooner than group A (P memory, except insertion-related memory, were lower in group A one week after colonoscopic examination (P = 0.018 and P sedation status during colonoscopic examination and a reduction in procedure-related pain and memory, but resulted in longer recovery time.

  4. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel of midazolam prepared with Ficus carica mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Shyamoshree; Bandyopadhyay, Amal Kumar

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare mucoadhesive in situ nasal gels with mucilage isolated from fig fruits (Ficus carica, family: Moraceae) containing midazolam hydrochloride. Nasal gels of midazolam were prepared using three different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% w/v) of F. carica mucilage (FCM) and synthetic polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and Carbopol 934). Evaluation of FCM showed that it was as safe as the synthetic polymers for nasal administration. In situ gels were prepared with mixture Pluronic F127 and mucoadhesive agents. Evaluation of the prepared gels was carried out, including determination of viscosity, texture profile analysis and mucoadhesive strength. In vitro drug permeation study was conducted with the gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (0.5% w/v sodium taurocholate) using excised goat nasal mucosa. In vitro permeation profiles were evaluated, and histological study of nasal mucosae before and after permeation study was also conducted to determine histological change, if any. In vivo experiments conducted in rabbits further confirmed that in situ nasal gels provided better bioavailability of midazolam than the gels prepared from synthetic mucoadhesive polymers. It was observed that the nasal gel containing 0.5% FCM and 0.5% sodium taurocholate exhibited appropriate rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties and showed better drug release profiles. Moreover, this formulation produced no damage to the nasal mucosa that was used for the permeation study, and absolute bioavailability was also higher compared to gels prepared from synthetic polymers.

  5. Could conscious sedation with midazolam for dental procedures be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CS) with intravenous midazolam could become an alternative modality to general anesthesia (GA) for dental procedures. Materials and Methods: In our study, 58 and 47 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA).1 pediatric patients, aged ...

  6. SUBLINGUAL BUPRENORPHINE VS MIDAZOLAM FOR PREMEDICATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A HASANI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preanesthetic medication may reduce the risks of adverse psychological and physiological sequel of induction in children. Administration of premedication by sublingual route may provide the best compromise because of relatively rapid absorption without causing pain. In this study sedative and anxitolytic effects of sublingual midazolam and buprenorphine in children were compared. Methods. In a randomized, controlled, double blind clinical trial, one hundred and fifty children aged between 4 to 10 years in first or second class of ASA scheduled for adenotonsillectomy were divided in three equal groups. These groups recieved sublingual bupronorphine 3 µg/kg, midazolam 0.2 mg/kg and no premedication respectively. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded from the time of premedication to awakening from anesthesia. Anxiety and sedation scores and patients acceptance of mask at induction were recorded using four point rating scales. Time of spontaneous eye opening and postoperative emesis occurrence were also recorded. Findings. Children recieving sublingual midazolam or buprenorphine had similar sedation, anxiety and mask acceptance scores, but different from no premedication group (P < 0.0001. None of the children experienced respiratory depression or oxygen desaturation after drug administration and during postoperative period. Time of spontaneous eye opening was longer in the midazolam group (P < 0.0001.Emetic episodes were similar in all groups. Conclusion. Midazolam is extensively studied and demonstrated that the drug is highly effective in alleviating anxiety and increasing cooperation. We concluded that sublingual buprenorphine is as effective as sublingual midazolam in providing sedation and anxitolysis for pediatric premedication.

  7. Preemptive analgesic effects of midazolam and diclofenac in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigona Hasani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the preemptive analgesic effects of intraperitoneally administrated midazolam and diclofenac, before acute and inflammatory induced pain in rat model.One hundred twenty-eight (n=8 in each group male Sprague Dawley rats were included in the study. Paw movements in response to thermal stimulation or paw flinching in response to formalin injection were compared after midazolam (0.1, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg and diclofenac (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal administration. Saline was used as a control.Preemptive analgesic effect was significant in both tests when diclofenac and midazolam was administrated before the pain stimuli (p<0.01 and p<0.001. Intraperitoneal injection of midazolam in doses 5 and 10 mg/kg, increase the response time in hot plate test and decrease the number of flinches in formalin test (p<0.01 vs. p<0.001. ED50 of midazolam (with diclofenac in hot plate test was 2.02 mg/kg (CI95% =-3.47-5.03 mg; and, 0.9 mg/kg (CI95% =-0.87-4.09 mg in phase I and 0.7 mg/kg (CI95% = 0.48-6.63 mg in phase II, in formalin test.Intraperitoneally administered midazolam and diclofenac had preemptive analgesic effects on acute thermal, and inflammatory induced pain in rats.

  8. Plasma concentrations of clonazepam after single rectal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylance, G W; Poulton, J; Cherry, R C; Cullen, R E

    1986-01-01

    Clonazepam was administered rectally to six children aged 1.4 to 4.7 years in a dose of 0.05 mg/kg and to five children aged 1.4 to 4.1 years in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations indicate that it is rapidly absorbed, and it may therefore be an alternative to rectal administration of diazepam in continuing convulsions. PMID:3954443

  9. Comparison of subcutaneous dexmedetomidine-midazolam versus alfaxalone-midazolam sedation in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Grayson A; Fink, Dustin M; Sladky, Kurt K; Mans, Christoph

    2017-09-01

    To compare dexmedetomidine-midazolam with alfaxalone-midazolam for sedation in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). Prospective, randomized, blinded, complete crossover study. Nine healthy adult leopard geckos. Geckos were administered a combination of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg kg -1 ) and midazolam (1.0 mg kg -1 ; treatment D-M) or alfaxalone (15 mg kg -1 ) and midazolam (1.0 mg kg -1 ; treatment A-M) subcutaneously craniodorsal to a thoracic limb. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (f R ), righting reflex, palpebral reflex, superficial and deep pain reflexes, jaw tone and escape response were assessed every 5 minutes until reversal. Conditions for intubation and response to needle prick were evaluated. Antagonist drugs [flumazenil (0.05 mg kg -1 ) ± atipamezole (1.0 mg kg -1 )] were administered subcutaneously, craniodorsal to the contralateral thoracic limb, 45 minutes after initial injection, and animals were monitored until recovery. HR, but not f R , decreased significantly over time in both treatments. HR was significantly lower than baseline at all time points in D-M and for all but the 5 and 10 minute time points in A-M. HR was significantly higher in A-M at all time points after drug administration when compared with D-M. Sedation scores between protocols were similar for most time points. All animals in A-M lost righting reflex compared with seven out of nine (78%) geckos in D-M. Geckos in A-M lost righting reflex for significantly longer time. Mean ± standard deviation time to recovery after antagonist administration was 6.1 ± 2.2 minutes for D-M and 56 ± 29 minutes for A-M, and these times were significantly different. Combination D-M or A-M provided sedation of a level expected to allow physical examinations and venipuncture in leopard geckos. A-M provided a faster onset of sedation compared with D-M. Recovery was significantly faster following antagonist reversal of D-M, compared with A-M. Copyright © 2017 Association of

  10. [Sedation with midazolam for ambulatory pediatric dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavlokhova, E A; Ostreĭkov, I F; Korolenkova, M V

    2014-01-01

    To improve the quality of dental treatment in children by using combined anaesthesia technique including local anaesthesia and conscious sedation, and to assess the effectiveness of conscious sedation for younger children undergoing dental treatment. The study included 208 children aged 14-88 months who received dental treatment for tooth decay and its complication under combined anaesthesia. Midazolam was used as sedative medication. Sedation level was assessed by visual scale and BIS-monitoring. ANI-monitoring was also used for pain sensitiveness evaluation. Results All 208 children were successfully treated under combined anaesthesia which showed satisfactory sedation rates both by visual scale and and BIS-monitoring values. While mean patient age was 39 months 20.6% were younger than 24 months. These data are extremely valuable as according to literature review conscious sedation in early infancy remains controversial. Our results proved conscious sedation to be effective in younger children undergoing dental treatment thus representing important alternative for general anaesthesia and providing a basis for later behavior management.

  11. SODIUM THIOPANTAL AND MIDAZOLAM USE IN NEUROLEPTIC ANESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P SAJEDI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study amnesic and anesthetic effects of Midazolam used to reduce awarness and recall of neurolept Anesthesia. Methods: The study was clinical trial with simple random sampling. Patients were studied in four groups of 30 numbers. Each preparation and induction of anesthesia was identical in all groups. Bolous Thiopental (BT group received 0.3mg/kg NaThiopental during induction of Anesthesia. Infusion thiopental group (IT 0.3mg/kg Na thiopental was given during induction plus 100mg/kg/min for Maintaince of anesthesia. Bolous Midazolam (BM group recieved 0.1 mg/kg Midazolam during induction and Infusion Midazolam (lM groug 0.1 mg/kg during Induction plus 0.1mg/kg/h for maintainance of Anesthesia. All groups were observed for signs of awareness and recall. Also hemodynamic variables and duration of recovery were measured and compared between groups with analysis of variance and Chi square tests. Result: Signs of Awareness (tachycardia and Lacrimation in IM group was significantly less than other groups. (P<0.05 Percent of patients reported recall were significantly lower in IM group. (P<0.05 Discussion: Infusion of Midazolam can reduce signs of awareness and recall during neurolept anesthesia without increase in complications or duration of recovery period

  12. Comparison of oral midazolam with a combination of oral midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation in the effectiveness of dental sedation for young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Zahrani A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of 0.6 mg/kg oral midazolam sedation alone and a combination of 0.6 mg/kg oral midazolam plus nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation, in controlling the behavior of uncooperative children during dental treatment. Study Design: The study had a crossover design where the same patient received two different sedation regimens, that is, oral midazolam 0.6 mg/kg and oral midazolam 0.6 mg/kg with nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation during two dental treatment visits. Materials and Methods: Thirty children (17 males and 13 females were randomly selected for the study, with a mean age of 55.07 (± 9.29 months, ranging from 48 - 72 months. A scoring system suggested by Houpt et al. (1985 was utilized for assessment of the children′s behavior. Results : There was no significant (p > 0.05 difference in the overall behavior assessment between the two sedation regimens, that is, oral midazolam alone and oral midazolam plus nitrous oxide-oxygen. However, the combination of midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen showed significantly (p < 0.05 superior results as compared to midazolam alone, in terms of controlling movement and crying during local anesthesia administration and restorative procedures. Conclusion: Compared to oral midazolam alone, a combination of oral midazolam and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation appears to provide more comfort to pediatric dental patients and operators during critical stages of dental treatment.

  13. Ketamine versus midazolam in bipolar depression with suicidal thoughts: A pilot midazolam-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunebaum, Michael F; Ellis, Steven P; Keilp, John G; Moitra, Vivek K; Cooper, Thomas B; Marver, Julia E; Burke, Ainsley K; Milak, Matthew S; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate feasibility and effects of a sub-anesthetic infusion dose of ketamine versus midazolam on suicidal ideation in bipolar depression. Neurocognitive, blood and saliva biomarkers were explored. Sixteen participants with bipolar depression and a Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) score of ≥4 were randomized to ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) or midazolam (0.02 mg/kg). Current pharmacotherapy was maintained excluding benzodiazepines within 24 hours. The primary clinical outcome was SSI score on day 1 post-infusion. Results supported feasibility. Mean reduction of SSI after ketamine infusion was almost 6 points greater than after midazolam, although this was not statistically significant (estimate=5.84, SE=3.01, t=1.94, P=.074, 95% confidence interval ([CI)]=-0.65 to 12.31). The number needed to treat for response (SSI ketamine (ρ=-.89, P=.007). Pre- to post-infusion decrease in serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) correlated with reduction in SSI from baseline to day 1 after ketamine (n=5, ρ=0.90, P=.037) but not midazolam (P=.087). The study demonstrated feasibility. Suicidal thoughts were lower after ketamine than after midazolam at a trend level of significance, likely due to the small pilot sample. Memory improvement and BDNF are promising biomarkers. Replication is needed in an adequately powered full-scale trial. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Assessment of buccal aerosolized midazolam for pediatric conscious sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Radhika; Marwaha, Mohita

    2015-02-01

    To assess the acceptance and efficacy of aerosolized midazolam through buccal mucosa for conscious sedation. Thirty-five children aged 2-6 years with Grade I and II Frankl behavior rating scale were selected for various dental procedures under local anesthesia. Initially behavior-shaping procedures were used and Houpt behavior scoring was recorded. Thereafter, midazolam was administered using a spray through buccal mucosa and scores for acceptance of drug and behavior after sedation were recorded. The data were compiled and a Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to assess the difference in behavior before and after the sedation. Eighty-three percent of the patients accepted the drug without any complaint. A statistically significant improvement was seen in the Houpt scores before and after drug administration (P < 0.001). Buccal aerosolized midazolam can be used successfully for pediatric conscious sedation. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate, Hydromorphone Hydrochloride, Ketamine Hydrochloride, Midazolam, Morphine Sulfate, and Pentobarbital Sodium in Polypropylene Syringes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Collin; MacKay, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Determine the stability of fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose, fentanyl 50 mcg/mL, hydromorphone 100 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, ketamine 10 mg/mL, midazolam 0.4 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, midazolam 5 mg/mL, morphine 1 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, morphine 1 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, and pentobarbital 50 mg/mL when stored as single drug entities at room temperature in polypropylene syringes. Methods: Four 5 mL samples of each drug and concentra...

  16. Does Intravenous Midazolam Dose Influence the Duration of Recovery Room Stay Following Outpatient Third Molar Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Kyle S; Jacob, Adam K; Viozzi, Christopher F; Van Ess, James M; Fillmore, W Jonathan; Arce, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of intravenous midazolam dose on the duration of recovery room stay for patients undergoing outpatient third molar surgery. Using a retrospective cohort study design, a sample of patients undergoing outpatient third molar surgery under intravenous sedation at Mayo Clinic from 2010 to 2014 was identified. All patients underwent extraction of all 4 third molars during a single operative procedure and the age range was limited to 14 to 29 years. The primary predictor variable was the total dose of intravenous midazolam administered during sedation. The primary outcome variable was recovery room length of stay (LOS) after completion of surgery. Multiple covariates also abstracted included patient age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, duration of surgical procedure, complexity of surgical procedure, types and dosages of all intravenous medications administered during sedation, and volume of crystalloid fluid administered perioperatively. Univariable and multivariable models were developed to evaluate associations between the primary predictor variable and covariates relative to the primary outcome variable. The study sample was composed of 2,610 patients. Mean age was 18.3 years (SD, 3.0 yr; range, 14 to 29 yr) and gender distribution was 52% female. Mean dosage of midazolam administered was 4.1 mg (SD, 1.1 mg; range, 0.5 to 10.0 mg). Variables predicting shorter LOS at multivariable analysis included older age (P third molar surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The volumes and transcript counts of single cells reveal concentration homeostasis and capture biological noise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempe, H.; Schwabe, A.; Crémazy, F.; Verschure, P.J.; Bruggeman, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional stochasticity can be measured by counting the number of mRNA molecules per cell. Cell-to-cell variability is best captured in terms of concentration rather than molecule counts, because reaction rates depend on concentrations. We combined single-molecule mRNA counting with

  18. Effectiveness of low-dose midazolam plus ketamine in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of two different dosages of intravenous midazolam in combination with ketamine in the prevention of shivering during spinal anaesthesia for emergency lower limb surgery. Design: This was a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo- controlled study.

  19. Development of midazolam sublingual tablets: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odou, P; Barthelemy, C; Robert, H

    1998-01-01

    Midazolam is a benzodiazepine with short elimination half-life, used as induction or continuous agent for general anesthesia. At present, only injectable solution is available from French hospital pharmacies. The aim of the study is the development of 5 mg midazolam sublingual tablets to realize a short general anesthesia without intravenous or intramuscular injection. Incorporation of citric acid in the tablet formulation leads to an increase of dissolution rates of active drug, but a decrease of diffusion through lipid membranes is observed with 10 mg of citric acid when using the Dibbern's Resomat three phases apparatus. One explanation of this result is that midazolam (pKa = 6.1) in presence of 10 mg of citric acid is ionised. The ionised form, more hydrophilic, cannot cross the artificial lipid membrane and therefore the diffusion decreases. On the other hand, the decrease of diffusion's rate, when pH increases, is explained by the precipitation of midazolam at pH higher than 6. A compromise between dissolution and diffusion results leads us to choose the sublingual formulation containing 5 mg of citric acid per tablet.

  20. The effect of intrathecal midazolam on the characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine the onset of sensory block, the time to achieve the maximum level of sensory block and the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal midazolam when given in combination with bupivacaine, and also to observe any undesirable side-effects produced by the ...

  1. A comparison of the effects of propofol and midazolam on memory during two levels of sedation by using target-controlled infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roode, A; van Gerven, J M; Schoemaker, R C; Engbers, F H; Olieman, W; Kroon, J R; Cohen, A F; Bovill, J G

    2000-11-01

    We examined memory during sedation with target-controlled infusions of propofol and midazolam in a double-blinded five-way, cross-over study in 10 volunteers. Each active drug infusion was targeted to sedation level 1 (asleep) and level 4 (lethargic) as determined with the Observer Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale. At the target level of sedation, drug concentration was clamped for 30 min, during which time neutral words were presented. After 2 h, explicit memory was assessed by recall, and implicit memory by using a wordstem completion test. Venous drug concentrations (mean +/- SD) were 1350 ng/mL (+/-332 ng/mL) for propofol and 208 ng/mL (+/-112 ng/mL) for midazolam during Observer Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale level 4; and 1620 ng/mL (+/-357 ng/mL) and 249 ng/mL (+/-82 ng/mL) respectively during level 1. The wordstem completion test frequencies at low level sedation were significantly higher than spontaneous frequencies (8.7% + 2.4%; P: sedation were accompanied by small differences in venous propofol or midazolam concentrations. This indicates steep concentration-effect relationships. Neutral information is still memorized during low-level sedation with both drugs. The memory effect of propofol and midazolam did not differ significantly. Implicit memory can occur during different states of consciousness and might lead to psychological damage. In 10 volunteers, implicit memory was investigated during sedation with propofol and midazolam in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. To compare the effects of both drugs, they were titrated using a computer-controlled infusion system to produce similar high and low levels of sedation.

  2. Comparison of ease of administration of intranasal midazolam spray and oral midazolam syrup by parents as premedication to children undergoing elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, Milthi; Satya Prakash, M V S; Swaminathan, Srinivasan; Kamaladevi, Rithu Krishna

    2017-06-01

    The efficacy of midazolam as premedication in children for providing pre-operative sedation and reducing parental separation anxiety has been well established. Many studies have compared the effectiveness and medication acceptance of midazolam via oral and intranasal routes. In this study, we have compared the ease of administration of oral midazolam syrup and intranasal midazolam spray as premedication, administered by parents to children. Ninety children were randomly allocated into one of the two groups: group N received nasal midazolam spray 0.2 mg/kg and group O received oral midazolam syrup 0.5 mg/kg administered by the parent. The parent recorded ease of administration score and facial hedonic score. The observer recorded modified medication acceptance score. Vitals and sedation scores were assessed at specific intervals. Thirty minutes after drug administration the child was separated from the parent, and parental separation anxiety score was recorded. Mask acceptance score was recorded after application of mask upon arrival in the OT. Oral midazolam syrup was found to have better ease of administration than intranasal midazolam spray as felt by the parent. Medication acceptance was better for oral midazolam. Both the groups had similar sedation scores at 15 and 30 min. Children in the oral group had a better reduction in parental separation anxiety at 30 min after drug administration and better mask acceptance than the nasal group. Oral midazolam syrup is easier for parents to administer and has better medication acceptance in children when compared to intranasal midazolam spray.

  3. Effects of midazolam on cerebral blood flow in human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, A.; Juge, O.; Morel, D.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of intravenously administered midazolam on cerebral blood flow were evaluated in eight healthy volunteers using the 133 Xe inhalation technique. Six minutes after an intravenous dose of 0.15 mg/kg midazolam, the cerebral blood flow decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) from a value of 40.6 +/- 3.3 to a value of 27.0 +/- 5.0 ml . 100 g-1 . min-1. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) increased from 2.8 +/- 0.2 to 3.9 to 0.6 mmHg/(ml . 100 g-1 . min-1)(P less than 0.001). Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) from 117 +/- 8 to 109 +/- 9 mmHg and arterial carbon dioxide tension increased from 33.9 +/- 2.3 to 38.6 +/- 3.2 mmHg (P less than 0.05). Arterial oxygen tension remained stable throughout the study, 484 +/- 95 mmHg before the administration of midazolam and 453 +/- 76 mmHg after. All the subjects slept after the injection of the drug and had anterograde amnesia of 24.5 +/- 5 min. The decrease in mean arterial blood pressure was probably not important since it remained in the physiologic range for cerebral blood flow autoregulation. The increase in arterial carbon dioxide tension observed after the midazolam injection may have partially counteracted the effect of this new benzodiazepine on cerebral blood flow. Our data suggest that midazolam might be a safe agent to use for the induction of anethesia in neurosurgical patients with intracranial hypertension

  4. Melatonin and intravenous midazolam administered orally in drug induced sleep electroencephalography of children: randomized clinical trial of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Razieh; Yadegari, Yaser; Behdad, Shekofah; Akhavan Karbasi, Sedighah

    2014-11-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of seizure and differentiating it from seizure-like attacks. Cooperation and immobility of the patient is crucial and in children who do not naturally sleep, pharmacological agents and procedural sedation should be used for sleep inducement. The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of melatonin and intravenous solution of midazolam administered orally in sedation induction for EEG of children. In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, sixty 1 - 8 year old children who were referred to EEG Unit of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran from September 2011 to March 2012 were evaluated. The Children were randomly assigned into two groups to receive orally 0.3 mg/kg melatonin or 0.75 mg/kg ampoule of midazolam. The primary outcome was efficacy in adequate sedation (Ramsay sedation score of four) and recording of EEG. Secondary outcome was clinical side effects. Nineteen girls (31.7%) and 41 boys (68.3%) with the mean age of 2.8 ± 1.8 years were evaluated. Adequate  sedation  and  recording  of EEG was  achieved in  36.7% of  midazolam  group and  in 73.3%  of  melatonin group, (p = 0.004). Transient agitation was seen in 6.6% of midazolam group. No significant difference was observed from the viewpoint of side effects frequency between the two drugs, (p = 0.15).   Melatonin is a safe and an effective drug in sedation induction for EEG in children.

  5. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride in the horse: serum, synovial, peritoneal and urine concentrations after single dose intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M P; Stover, S M; Kelly, R H; Farver, T B; Knight, H D

    1981-03-01

    Six adult mares were given a single intravenous injection of oxytetracycline HCl (50 mg/ml) at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. Serum, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and urine oxytetracycline concentrations were measured serially over a 48-h period. The highest measured serum oxytetracycline concentration was 8.01 mcg/ml at 1/2 h. Oxytetracycline was detected in synovial fluid and peritoneal fluid, which obtained mean peak oxytetracycline concentrations of 4.43 mcg/ml and 4.20 mcg/ml, at 1/2 h and 1 h, respectively. These concentrations steadily declined in parallel with serum concentrations and were not measurable at 48 h. Urine oxytetracycline concentration was relatively high, with a peak concentration of 1565.2 mcg/ml at 1/2 h after drug administration.

  6. Midazolam inhibits chondrogenesis via peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ching; Wu, King-Chuen; Huang, Bu-Miin; So, Edmund Cheung; Wang, Yang-Kao

    2018-05-01

    Midazolam, a benzodiazepine derivative, is widely used for sedation and surgery. However, previous studies have demonstrated that Midazolam is associated with increased risks of congenital malformations, such as dwarfism, when used during early pregnancy. Recent studies have also demonstrated that Midazolam suppresses osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Given that hypertrophic chondrocytes can differentiate into osteoblast and osteocytes and contribute to endochondral bone formation, the effect of Midazolam on chondrogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we applied a human MSC line, the KP cell, to serve as an in vitro model to study the effect of Midazolam on chondrogenesis. We first successfully established an in vitro chondrogenic model in a micromass culture or a 2D high-density culture performed with TGF-β-driven chondrogenic induction medium. Treatment of the Midazolam dose-dependently inhibited chondrogenesis, examined using Alcian blue-stained glycosaminoglycans and the expression of chondrogenic markers, such as SOX9 and type II collagen. Inhibition of Midazolam by peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) antagonist PK11195 or small interfering RNA rescued the inhibitory effects of Midazolam on chondrogenesis. In addition, Midazolam suppressed transforming growth factor-β-induced Smad3 phosphorylation, and this inhibitory effect could be rescued using PBR antagonist PK11195. This study provides a possible explanation for Midazolam-induced congenital malformations of the musculoskeletal system through PBR. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. Clinical Pharmacology of Midazolam in Neonates and Children: Effect of Disease—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Midazolam is a benzodiazepine with rapid onset of action and short duration of effect. In healthy neonates the half-life (t1/2 and the clearance (Cl are 3.3-fold longer and 3.7-fold smaller, respectively, than in adults. The volume of distribution (Vd is 1.1 L/kg both in neonates and adults. Midazolam is hydroxylated by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5; the activities of these enzymes surge in the liver in the first weeks of life and thus the metabolic rate of midazolam is lower in neonates than in adults. Midazolam acts as a sedative, as an antiepileptic, for those infants who are refractory to standard antiepileptic therapy, and as an anaesthetic. Information of midazolam as an anaesthetic in infants are very little. Midazolam is usually administered intravenously; when minimal sedation is required, intranasal administration of midazolam is employed. Disease affects the pharmacokinetics of midazolam in neonates; multiple organ failure reduces the Cl of midazolam and mechanical ventilation prolongs the t1/2 of this drug. ECMO therapy increases t1/2, Cl, and Vd of midazolam several times. The adverse effects of midazolam in neonates are scarce: pain, tenderness, and thrombophlebitis may occur. Respiratory depression and hypotension appear in a limited percentage of infants following intravenous infusion of midazolam. In conclusion, midazolam is a safe and effective drug which is employed as a sedative, as antiepileptic agent, for infants who are refractory to standard antiepileptic therapy, and as an anaesthetic.

  8. Evaluation of single and double centrifugation tube methods for concentrating equine platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, D; Carmona, J U; Pastor, J; Iborra, A; Viñals, L; Martínez, P; Bach, E; Prades, M

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate single and double centrifugation tube methods for concentrating equine platelets. Whole blood samples were collected from clinically normal horses and processed by use of single and double centrifugation tube methods to obtain four platelet concentrates (PCs): PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D, which were analyzed using a flow cytometry hematology system for hemogram and additional platelet parameters (mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, mean platelet component concentration, mean platelet component distribution width). Concentrations of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta(1)) were determined in all the samples. Platelet concentrations for PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D were 45%, 44%, 71%, and 21% higher, respectively, compared to the same values for citrated whole blood samples. TGF-beta(1) concentrations for PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D were 38%, 44%, 44%, and 37% higher, respectively, compared to citrated whole blood sample values. In conclusion, the single and double centrifugation tube methods are reliable methods for concentrating equine platelets and for obtaining potentially therapeutic TGF-beta(1) levels.

  9. Concentrations of amoxicillin and clindamycin in teeth following a single dose of oral medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssl, Yvonne; Pelz, Klaus; Kempf, Jürgen; Otten, Jörg-Elard

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is the detection of amoxicillin and clindamycin concentrations in teeth. Eleven patients received 2 g of amoxicillin, and 11 patients received 600 mg of clindamycin in a single dose of oral medication at least 60 min prior to tooth extraction due to systemic diseases. The concentrations were determined in crowns and roots separately using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Amoxicillin (13 samples) and clindamycin (12 samples) were detected in the samples of the root and crown preparations of the extracted teeth. The mean concentration of amoxicillin was 0.502 μg/g in the roots and 0.171 μg/g in the crowns. The mean concentration of clindamycin was 0.270 μg/g in the roots and 0.064 μg/g in the crowns. A single dose of oral amoxicillin and clindamycin leads to concentrations of both antibiotics in teeth which exceed the minimal inhibition concentration of some oral bacteria. The proof of antibacterial activity in dental hard tissue after oral single-dose application is new. The antimicrobial effect of amoxicillin and clindamycin concentrations in roots of teeth may be of clinical relevance to bacterial reinfection from dentinal tubules.

  10. Effect of midazolam versus propofol sedation on markers of neurological injury and outcome after isolated severe head injury: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ghori, Kamran A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Midazolam and propofol are sedative agents commonly administered to patients with brain injury. We compared plasma concentrations of glial cell S100beta protein and nitric oxide (NO) between patients who received midazolam and those who received propofol sedation after severe brain injury, and investigated the association between S100beta and NO concentrations and neurological outcome. DESIGN: 28 patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Score <9) who required sedation and ventilation were randomly assigned to receive midazolam (n =15) or propofol (n = 13) based sedation. Blood samples were drawn daily for 5 days for estimation of S100beta and NO concentrations. Neurological outcome was assessed 3 months later as good (Glasgow Outcome Score [GOS], 4-5) or poor (GOS, 1-3). RESULTS: A good neurological outcome was observed in 8\\/15 patients (53%) in the midazolam group and 7\\/13 patients (54%) in the propofol group. Patients with a poor outcome had higher serum S100beta concentrations on ICU admission and on Days 1-4 in the ICU than those with a good outcome (mean [SD] on Day 1, 0.99 [0.81] v 0.41 [0.4] microg\\/L; Day 2, 0.80 [0.81] v 0.41 [0.24] microg\\/L; Day 3, 0.52 [0.55] v 0.24 [0.25] microg\\/L; and Day 4, 0.54 [0.43] v 0.24 [0.35] microg\\/L; P<0.05). There was no significant difference on Day 5. Plasma NO concentrations were not associated with outcome. In subgroup analysis, there was no difference in S100beta and NO concentrations between patients with a good outcome versus those with a poor outcome in either the midazolam or propofol group. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma concentrations of markers of neurological injury in patients with severe head injury were similar in those who received midazolam sedation and those who received propofol. Patients who had a poor neurological outcome at 3 months had consistently higher serum S100beta concentrations during the initial 4 days after injury than patients who had a good outcome.

  11. Evident cognitive impairments in seemingly recovered patients after midazolam-based light sedation during diagnostic endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Hsuan Hsu; Feng-Sheng Lin; Chi-Cheng Yang; Chih-Peng Lin; Mau-Sun Hua; Wei-Zen Sun

    2015-01-01

    Midazolam is a widely used sedative agent during colonoscopy, with cognitive toxicity. However, the potential cognitive hazard of midazolam-based light sedation has not been sufficiently examined. We aimed to examine the cognitive safety and vulnerability profile under midazolam light sedation, with a particular focus on individual variations. Methods: We conducted a prospective case-controlled study in an academic hospital. In total, 30 patients undergoing sedative colonoscopy as part of ...

  12. Two Oral Midazolam Preparations in Pediatric Dental Patients: A Prospective Randomised Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Katayoun Salem; Shaqayegh Kamranzadeh; Maryam Kousha; Shahnaz Shaeghi; Fatemeh AbdollahGorgi

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological sedation is an alternative behavior management strategy in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral and physiologic effects of “commercially midazolam syrup” versus “orally administered IV midazolam dosage form (extemporaneous midazolam (EF))” in uncooperative pediatric dental patients. Eighty-eight children between 4 to 7 years of age received 0.2–0.5 mg/kg midazolam in this parallel trial. Physiologic parameters were recorded at baseline and e...

  13. Effect of midazolam on memory: a study of process dissociation procedure and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S Y; Zou, L; Quan, X; Zhang, Y; Xue, F S; Ye, T H

    2010-06-01

    To assess the effects of midazolam on explicit and implicit memories, 12 volunteers were randomly divided into the two groups: one with an Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation score of 3 (mild sedation) and one with a score of 1 (deep sedation). Blood oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging was measured before and during an auditory stimulus, then with midazolam sedation, and then during a second auditory stimulus with continuous midazolam sedation. After 4 h, explicit and implicit memories were assessed. There was no evidence of explicit memory at the two levels of midazolam sedation. Implicit memory was retained at a mild level of midazolam sedation but absent at a deep level of midazolam sedation. At a mild level of midazolam sedation, activation of all brain areas by auditory stimulus (as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging) was uninhibited. However, a deep level of midazolam sedation depressed activation of the superior temporal gyrus by auditory stimulus. We conclude that midazolam does not abolish implicit memory at a mild sedation level, but can abolish both explicit and implicit memories at a deep sedation level. The superior temporal gyrus may be one of the target areas.

  14. Intranasal Midazolam May Prevent Gagging Reflex: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Arslan Malkoc

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gagging can become a conditioned response that makes dental treatment difficult or impossible for both the individual and the dentist. The aim of this study is to report a 50 year old female and two children (15 and 11 years old with exaggerated gag reflex referred to Faculty of Dentistry of Selçuk University.Methods: During obtaining records, taking impression procedure was elicited the patients’ hypersensitive gagging reflex. Therefore, it was decided to administer intranasal midazolam to facilitate the taking of accurate dental impressions. After given verbal information about the procedure, 2.5 mg intranasal midazolam (Demizolam, Dem Medikal, Istanbul were applied incrementally in both nostrils.Results: Five minutes later; patients had no gagging reflex and allowed the clinician to take satisfying impressions. No serious adverse effects were observed and the patients remained cooperative during the entire procedure which was completed to the full satisfaction of all involved. The short absorption time and the fast relief process of anaesthetics transferred to the systemic circulatory system are important advantages of nasal application.Conclusions: Intranasal midazolam may be very useful for the treatment of gag reflex probably effecting on the depression of upper airway reflex sensitivity.

  15. Intranasal midazolam may prevent gagging reflex: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Meral Arslan; Demir, Necla; Ileri, Zehra; Erdur, Aybuke; Apiliogullari, Seza

    2013-01-01

    Gagging can become a conditioned response that makes dental treatment difficult or impossible for both the individual and the dentist. The aim of this study is to report a 50 year old female and two children (15 and 11 years old) with exaggerated gag reflex referred to Faculty of Dentistry of Selçuk University. During obtaining records, taking impression procedure was elicited the patients' hypersensitive gagging reflex. Therefore, it was decided to administer intranasal midazolam to facilitate the taking of accurate dental impressions. After given verbal information about the procedure, 2.5 mg intranasal midazolam (Demizolam, Dem Medikal, Istanbul) were applied incrementally in both nostrils. Five minutes later; patients had no gagging reflex and allowed the clinician to take satisfying impressions. No serious adverse effects were observed and the patients remained cooperative during the entire procedure which was completed to the full satisfaction of all involved. The short absorption time and the fast relief process of anaesthetics transferred to the systemic circulatory system are important advantages of nasal application. Intranasal midazolam may be very useful for the treatment of gag reflex probably effecting on the depression of upper airway reflex sensitivity.

  16. The effects of intrathecal midazolam on the duration of analgesia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Midazolam has been shown to prolong the duration of analgesia when used as an adjuvant, providing the added advantages of mild sedation and amnesia, while being devoid of neurotoxicity, and the adverse effects of opioids. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2 mg preservative-free intrathecal midazolam ...

  17. Effects of midazolam and morphine on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.A.E.M. van der; Hopman, J.C.W.; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Feuth, A.B.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Midazolam sedation and morphine analgesia are commonly used in ventilated premature infants. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of midazolam versus morphine infusion on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants. METHODS: 11 patients (GA 26.6-33.0 weeks, BW

  18. Effect of midazolam on memory during fiberoptic gastroscopy under conscious sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun Jeong; Jang, Eun Hye; Hwang, Jihye; Roh, Jee Hoon; Kwon, Miseon; Lee, Don; Lee, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    As the fiberoptic gastroscopy using midazolam is being in widespread use, the exact nature of midazolam on memory should be clarified. We intended to examine whether midazolam causes selective anterograde amnesia and what impact it has on other aspects of memory and general cognitive function. We recruited healthy subjects undergoing fiberoptic gastroscopy under conscious sedation. At baseline, history taking for retrograde amnesia and the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment were performed. A man's name and address were given immediately after intravenous midazolam administration. After gastroscopy, the subjects were asked to recall those items. By the time they had fully recovered consciousness, the same test was repeated along with the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and a test for retrograde amnesia. A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in this study. Subjects with high-dose midazolam showed lower scores in the immediate and delayed recall of "a man's name and address" compared with those with low-dose midazolam. The midazolam dose was inversely correlated with the delayed recall scores of "a man's name and address." On full recovery of consciousness, the subjects did not exhibit any of anterograde or retrograde amnesia. These findings suggest that midazolam causes transient selective anterograde amnesia in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. Activity concentrations of 137Cs in meat of broiler chicken after single and continuous application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.; Balas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Previously we examined the transfer, distribution and half-live of radiocaesium in broiler chicken after the application of artificially contaminated feed mixture or wheat wheat contaminated from the Chernobyl accident. Our results pointed to a different dynamics of radiocaesium in breast meat compared to leg meat in the chicken after short-time application (3 oral applications in 1 day). The aim of the present study was to find if the results are similar also after single and repeated (long-time) applications of an artificially contaminated feed mixture. Two experiments were carried out with broiler chickens (White Leghorn hybrid, race ISA VEDETTE). In experiment 1, one artificially contaminated oral dose of 5160 Bq of 137 Cs (activity concentration 1664 Bq/g) was administered to 18-day-old chickens. In experiment 2, artificially contaminated oral doses of 500 Bq of 137 Cs (activity concentration 161.3 Bq/g) were administered to 14-day-old chickens twice a day (at 8:00 and 20:00 h.) for 10 days. In either experiment, four chickens were slaughtered for activity determination in meat (breast and leg muscles) 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours and 2, 4, 8, 10 days, respectively, after the first application of 137 Cs. The uptake of the single oral 137 Cs was rapid and the maximum 137 Cs activity concentrations were found in breast meat (0.783 Bq/g) 24 hours and in leg meat (1.005 Bq/g) 6 hours after 137 Cs application. From the 24th hour of the experiment, radiocaesium activity concentrations in breast and leg meat decreased with the biological half-life (T 1/2b ) of 84 and 66 hours, respectively. During a 10-day application of continuous doses of 137 Cs, the Cs activity concentrations increased and were 3.988 Bq/g in breast meat and 5.610 Bq/g in leg meat on day 2, and 7.427 Bq/g and 7.698 Bq/g, respectively, on day 10. Immediately after the administration of radiocaesium was stopped, the 137 Cs activity concentrations decreased rapidly with T 1/2b = 4.5 and 3.8 days in

  20. Prismatic dislocation loops and concentric dislocation loops in HPHT-grown diamond single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.-W.; Li, M.-S.; Zou, Z.-D.; Gong, Z.-G.; Hao, Z.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    As-grown diamond single crystals grown from Fe-Ni-C system under high temperature-high pressure were examined by transmission electron microscopy. There exist prismatic dislocation loops and concentric dislocation loops in the diamond, which are related to the nonequilibrium nature of the diamond synthesis process. The prismatic dislocation loops may be formed by vacancy condensation during rapid cooling from high temperature, and the Burgers vector of the dislocation is determined by diffraction contrast as 1/2 . Moire fringes formed by two overlapping (1 1 1) close-packed planes were used to study concentric dislocation loops. The concentric dislocation loops may be derived from thermal stress caused by the inclusions in the diamond, which cause a strain field due to the thermal contraction difference between the inclusions and the diamond during cooling from high temperature

  1. Concentration and separation of trace metals from seawater using a single anion exchange bead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, M.; Lee, D.S.; Stallard, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the quantitative adsorption of trace metals onto a single anion exchange bead. The application to the assay of trace metals in seawater was explored with the following radionuclides: 109 Cd, 103 Pd, 192 Ir, 195 Au, 237 Pu, and /sup 99m/Tc. The major ions, Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , and Ca 2+ exist primarily as positively charged species in seawater under nearly all conditions and did not interfere in the adsorption of anionic forms of trace metals onto the single bead. Three types of applications of the technique were investigated: (A) determination of metals in seawater by the direct adsorption onto a single bead without prior concentration, with or without a subsequent desorption from the bead (e.g., Cd, Zn); (B) determination of metals in seawater by the adsorption onto a single bead after a preconcentration step from several liters of seawater (e.g., Pd, Au, Ir), and (C) increasing the yield of Pu and Tc onto a single bead for improved sensitivity in mass spectrometric analyses

  2. Hypnotic efficacy of midazolam in pre-surgical patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Cailar, J.; Holzer, J.; Jullien, Y.; Passeron, D.

    1983-01-01

    1 The hypnotic effect of midazolam on the sleep of pre-surgical patients was studied in 99 patients (53 males, 46 females) due to undergo surgery the following day. 2 One tablet of 15 mg midazolam was administered at 21.00 h and a second was given 45 min later if the subject had not fallen asleep, sleep-onset latency being measured from the time the second tablet was taken. 3 Eighty patients required 1 tablet and 19 required 2 tablets. According to the subjective assessment, patients receiving 1 tablet fell asleep in 22.9 ± 14.9 min and those taking 2 tablets fell asleep in 38.4 ± 25.3 min (difference significant P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the 1- and 2-tablet groups with regard to sleep duration, number of awakenings, overall assessment of the night's sleep, sleep quality and state on awakening. 4 Factors which had a statistically significant influence on the dosage requirement were (a) sex, 30.4% females requiring a second tablet v. 9.4% males; (b) age, the mean age of the 2-tablet group being 36.5 v. 47 years in the lower dose group; (c) weight, patients with lower body weight requiring the higher dosage, mean 57.5 v. 66 kg; (d) current insomnia or a history of sleeping problems; (e) previous use of hypnotics; (f) degree of insomnia, moderate/severe insomnia needing a higher dosage (42% v. 21%). 5 One tablet of 15 mg midazolam is sufficient to induce sleep in most cases, a higher dose being indicated where insomnia is chronic and in young robust patients. No definite statement as to whether sex affects the dosage needed can be made on the basis of these findings, and this aspect would require further investigation in a study in which sex is the only variable. PMID:6138065

  3. Disruption of cortical integration during midazolam-induced light sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peipeng; Zhang, Han; Xu, Yachao; Jia, Wenbin; Zang, Yufeng; Li, Kuncheng

    2015-11-01

    This work examines the effect of midazolam-induced light sedation on intrinsic functional connectivity of human brain, using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, within-subject design. Fourteen healthy young subjects were enrolled and midazolam (0.03 mg/kg of the participant's body mass, to a maximum of 2.5 mg) or saline were administrated with an interval of one week. Resting-state fMRI was conducted before and after administration for each subject. We focus on two types of networks: sensory related lower-level functional networks and higher-order functions related ones. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify these resting-state functional networks. We hypothesize that the sensory (visual, auditory, and sensorimotor) related networks will be intact under midazolam-induced light sedation while the higher-order (default mode, executive control, salience networks, etc.) networks will be functionally disconnected. It was found that the functional integrity of the lower-level networks was maintained, while that of the higher-level networks was significantly disrupted by light sedation. The within-network connectivity of the two types of networks was differently affected in terms of direction and extent. These findings provide direct evidence that higher-order cognitive functions including memory, attention, executive function, and language were impaired prior to lower-level sensory responses during sedation. Our result also lends support to the information integration model of consciousness. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Achieve single-stage autotrophic biological nitrogen removal process by controlling the concentration of free ammonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-Li; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xu, Zheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Tang, Zhi-Gang; Deng, Jiu-Hu

    2011-01-01

    Through controlling the concentration of free ammonia in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), the single-stage autotrophic biological nitrogen removal process was achieved, including partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The experiment was completed via two steps, the enrichment of nitrite bacteria and the inoculation of the mixture of anammox biomass. The operating temperature in the SBR was (31 +/- 2) degrees C. During the step of the enrichment of nitrite bacteria, pH was about 7.8. Changes of FA concentration were achieved by controlling the concentration of influent NH4(+) -N(56-446 mg x L(-1)), in order to inhibit and eliminate the nitrate bacteria. The activity tests of the sludge, 55d after enrichment, showed strong activity of aerobic ammonium oxidation [2.91 kg x (kg x d)(-1)] and low activity of nitrite oxidation [0.03 kg x(kg x d)(-1)]. During the inoculation of the mixture of anammox biomass, changes of FA concentration were achieved by controlling the concentration of influent NH4(+) -N and pH. As the inoculation of anammox biomass, abundant of bacteria and nutrient content were into the reactor and there kept high activity of aerobic ammonium oxidation [2.83 kg x (kg x d)(-1)] and a certain activity of nitrite oxidation, at the same time, the activity of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification reached 0.65 kg x (kg x d)(-1) and 0.11 kg x (kg x d)(-1), respectively.

  5. Hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS of dogs anesthetized with midazolam and ketamine associated with medetomidine or dexmedetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy Avaliação hemodinâmica e do índice bispectral (BIS de cadelas anestesiadas com midazolam e cetamina associados à medetomidina ou dexmedetomidina e submetidas a ovário-salpingo-histerectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando do Carmo Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS in bitches anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam in combination with dexmedetomidine or medetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Twenty bitches pretreated with levomedetomidine and buprenorphine were anesthetized with 5 mg.kg-1 ketamine and 0.2 mg.kg-1 midazolam i.v. Continuous infusion of 0.4 mg.kg-1.h-1 midazolam and 20 mg.kg-1.h-1 ketamine was initiated in combination with DEX (n=10: 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 dexmedetomidine or MED (n=10: 30 µg.kg-1.h-1 medetomidine over 30 minutes. A pharmacokinetic study provided dexmedetomidine plasma concentration, set to be 3.0 ng.mL-1. RESULTS: BIS decreased in both groups (P0.05, but heart rate decreased in both groups, as compared to control values (POBJETIVO: Verificar o comportamento hemodinâmico e o índice bispectral de cadelas anestesiadas com cetamina e midazolam associados à dexmedetomidina ou medetomidina. MÉTODOS: Vinte cadelas receberam pré-tratamento com levomepromazina e buprenorfina e foram anestesiadas com cetamina, 5 mg.kg-1 i.v., e midazolam, 0,2 mg.kg-1 i.v., seguidos da administração contínua de midazolam, 0,4 mg.kg-1.h-1, e cetamina, 20 mg.kg-1.h-1, associados, conforme o grupo, à: DEX (n=10: dexmedetomidina 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 ou MED (n=10: medetomidina 30 µg.kg-1.h-1, mantidos por 30 minutos. A dose de dexmedetomidina foi obtida por meio de estudo farmacocinético planejando-se concentração plasmática de 3,0 ng.mL-1. RESULTADOS: Os valores do BIS diminuíram em ambos os grupos (P0,05, sem a presença de efeitos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: A administração contínua de dexmedetomidina em concentração plasmática calculada de 3 ng.mL-1, em combinação com midazolam e cetamina, resulta em plano anestésico adequado para castração de cadelas, estabilidade hemodinâmica e despertar tranquilo, sem efeitos adversos.

  6. Premedication with melatonin vs midazolam in anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Berrin; Baygin, Ozgül; Bodur, Haluk

    2008-07-01

    Failure of dental treatment caused by anxiety is a common problem in children. Oral midazolam has been the most commonly used premedication for pediatric patient but the use of midazolam may be associated with paradoxical reactions in children. Melatonin may induce a natural sleepiness and improve sedation. We have investigated premedication with melatonin compared with midazolam in children under nitrous oxide/oxygen (N(2)O/O(2)) sedation for dental treatment. In a randomized study, 60 children received either 3 mg of melatonin [Melatonina (3 mg(R)) 60 min before the procedure (n = 15); group I], 0.5 mg.kg(-1) melatonin 60 min before the procedure (n = 15; group II), 0.75 mg.kg(-1) midazolam [Dormicum (15 mg/3 ml (R)) 15 min before the procedure (n = 15); group III] or 3 ml of 0.09 NaCl 15 min (n = 7) or 60 min before the procedure (n = 8; group IV) orally. The children were sedated with 40/60% N(2)O/O(2) inhalation. The heart rate and O(2) saturation were monitored during the treatment period. The level of sedation was assessed according to the Ramsay Sedation Scale. The children's sedation success during dental treatment was classified. The sedation success and other sedation-related events recorded. Comparisons among the four groups were made using one-way anova or Kruskal-Wallis test, and if any significant differences were noted, the Tukey's HSD or Mann-Whitney U-test were used for intergroup comparisons. All differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. The evaluation of sedation success was as follows: group I: satisfactory (n = 1), average satisfactory (n = 4), and unsatisfactory (n = 10); group II: satisfactory (n = 2), average satisfactory (n = 3), and unsatisfactory (n = 10); group III: satisfactory (n = 9), average satisfactory (n = 6); and group IV: satisfactory (n = 1), average satisfactory (n = 3), and unsatisfactory (n = 11). In these doses and clinical conditions, melatonin was similar to that of placebo and did not contribute to N(2)O/O(2

  7. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in Korean soils determined by single and sequential extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Ahn, Byung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of thallium in soils collected near suspected areas such as cement plants, active and closed mines, and smelters and to examine the extraction of thallium in the soils using 19 single chemical and sequential chemical extraction procedures. Thallium concentrations in soils near cement plants were distributed between 1.20 and 12.91 mg kg(-1). However, soils near mines and smelters contained relatively low thallium concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1.09 mg kg(-1). Thallium extractability with 19 single chemical extractants from selected soils near cement plants ranged from 0.10% to 8.20% of the total thallium concentration. In particular, 1.0 M NH4Cl, 1.0 M (NH4)2SO4, and 1.0 M CH3COONH4 extracted more thallium than other extractants. Sequential fractionation results of thallium from different soils such as industrially and artificially contaminated soils varied with the soil properties, especially soil pH and the duration of thallium contamination.

  8. A general approach to break the concentration barrier in single-molecule imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Loveland, Anna B.

    2012-09-09

    Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is often incompatible with physiological protein concentrations, as fluorescence background overwhelms an individual molecule\\'s signal. We solve this problem with a new imaging approach called PhADE (PhotoActivation, Diffusion and Excitation). A protein of interest is fused to a photoactivatable protein (mKikGR) and introduced to its surface-immobilized substrate. After photoactivation of mKikGR near the surface, rapid diffusion of the unbound mKikGR fusion out of the detection volume eliminates background fluorescence, whereupon the bound molecules are imaged. We labeled the eukaryotic DNA replication protein flap endonuclease 1 with mKikGR and added it to replication-competent Xenopus laevis egg extracts. PhADE imaging of high concentrations of the fusion construct revealed its dynamics and micrometer-scale movements on individual, replicating DNA molecules. Because PhADE imaging is in principle compatible with any photoactivatable fluorophore, it should have broad applicability in revealing single-molecule dynamics and stoichiometry of macromolecular protein complexes at previously inaccessible fluorophore concentrations. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Seasonal variations of radon concentrations in single-family houses with different sub-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations have been studied in 70 single-family houses selected according to the type of sub-structure and the type of soil underneath the house. Five categories of sub-structure were included - slab-on-grade, crawl space, basement, and combinations...... of basement with slab-on-grade or crawl space. Half of the houses are located on clayey till and the other half on glaciofluvial gravel. In each house radon was measured in a living room and a bedroom, in the basement if present, and in the crawl space if present and accessible. The measurements were made...... with track detectors on a quarterly basis throughout a year. For living rooms and bedrooms the seasonal variations range from being highly significant for the slab-on-grade houses to being insignificant for the crawl space houses. For basements and crawl spaces the geometric mean radon concentrations do...

  10. More effective induction of anesthesia using midazolam-butorphanol-ketamine-sevoflurane compared with ketamine-sevoflurane in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi

    2016-02-01

    The common marmoset has been increasingly used for research in the biomedical field; however, there is little information available regarding effective methods of anesthesia in this species. This study retrospectively analyzed 2 regimens of anesthesia induction: intramuscular injection of ketamine followed by inhalation of 5% sevoflurane, and intramuscular injection of midazolam, butorphanol and ketamine followed by inhalation of 5% sevoflurane. Anesthetic depth did not reach the surgical anesthesia stage in 7 out of 99 animals receiving the former regimen, whereas there were only 2 such animals out of 273 receiving the latter regimen. The latter regimen, when followed by maintenance anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane inhalation, was successfully used in various nociceptive procedures. These results indicate that the injection of a combination of midazolam, butorphanol and ketamine followed by inhalation of a high concentration of sevoflurane is effective for anesthesia induction in marmosets.

  11. Refractory metabolic acidosis as a complication of high-dose midazolam infusion for pediatric status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Myke D; Kelly, Robert; Harrison, Rick E

    2009-01-01

    The use of midazolam for the treatment of status epilepticus in children has generally been shown to be well tolerated and safe. Furthermore, encouraging efficacy has been observed when pediatric patients with status epilepticus have received continuous intravenous infusions of midazolam. A 9-year-old girl was treated with high-dose, continuous intravenous infusion of midazolam for the management of refractory status epilepticus. The patient developed a severe hyperchloremic, non-anion gap metabolic acidosis and resultant hemodynamic compromise, necessitating significant inotropic support and the initiation of a vasopressor infusion. We speculate that this complication was due to the preparation of parenteral midazolam with hydrochloric acid. The midazolam infusion was stopped, and, in less than 5 hours, the patient's metabolic acidosis resolved. The patient's inotropic and vasopressor infusions could only be weaned after discontinuing the use of high-dose midazolam. Although this complication was observed in only 1 pediatric patient with cortical dysplasia, caution and close clinical and laboratory surveillance should be exercised when administering continuous intravenous infusions of midazolam to pediatric patients.

  12. Efficacy and safety of midazolam in the treatment of night terrors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoviciu, L; Corfariu, O

    1983-01-01

    Midazolam, in an oral dose of 15 mg, and placebo were administered to 15 children aged 6-15 years in treatment of night terrors. After an initial adaptation night, the patients received placebo for 2 nights, followed by 15 mg midazolam for 2 nights and placebo again on the final 2 nights. Eight-hour nocturnal polygraphic recordings were made after the administration of both placebo and midazolam. The patients were continuously monitored by means of closed circuit infra-red television. Ten of the patients manifested simple episodes while five had attacks associated with motor automatisms and EEG anomalies. The total sleep time was lengthened by midazolam in most of the children; sleep architecture was favourably modified, mainly in terms of the amount and proportion of REM sleep (accompanied by dreams) and stage 2 sleep. Night terrors were eliminated by midazolam in all except one patient. REM sleep latency also decreased as did the number of nocturnal arousals (clinical and/or EEG). In the five cases with a background of organic cerebral disorders, the EEG anomalies and these attacks were suppressed by midazolam especially during the first sleep cycles. Patients' subjective assessment of the quality of sleep was favourable. Midazolam was well tolerated with no side-effects.

  13. Monitoring single-synapse glutamate release and presynaptic calcium concentration in organised brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Thomas P; Zheng, Kaiyu; Tyurikova, Olga; Reynolds, James P; Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2017-06-01

    Brain function relies in large part on Ca 2+ -dependent release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from neuronal axons. Establishing the causal relationship between presynaptic Ca 2+ dynamics and probabilistic glutamate release is therefore a fundamental quest across neurosciences. Its progress, however, has hitherto depended primarily on the exploration of either cultured nerve cells or giant central synapses accessible to direct experimental probing in situ. Here we show that combining patch-clamp with time-resolved imaging of Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescence lifetime of Oregon Green BAPTA-1 (Tornado-FLIM) enables readout of single spike-evoked presynaptic Ca 2+ concentration dynamics, with nanomolar sensitivity, in individual neuronal axons in acute brain slices. In parallel, intensity Tornado imaging of a locally expressed extracellular optical glutamate sensor iGluSnFr provides direct monitoring of single-quantum, single-synapse glutamate releases in situ. These two methods pave the way for simultaneous registration of presynaptic Ca 2+ dynamics and transmitter release in an intact brain at the level of individual synapses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dexmedetomidine vs midazolam or propofol for sedation during prolonged mechanical ventilation: two randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Stephan M; Ruokonen, Esko; Grounds, R Michael; Sarapohja, Toni; Garratt, Chris; Pocock, Stuart J; Bratty, J Raymond; Takala, Jukka

    2012-03-21

    Long-term sedation with midazolam or propofol in intensive care units (ICUs) has serious adverse effects. Dexmedetomidine, an α(2)-agonist available for ICU sedation, may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and enhance patient comfort. To determine the efficacy of dexmedetomidine vs midazolam or propofol (preferred usual care) in maintaining sedation; reducing duration of mechanical ventilation; and improving patients' interaction with nursing care. Two phase 3 multicenter, randomized, double-blind trials carried out from 2007 to 2010. The MIDEX trial compared midazolam with dexmedetomidine in ICUs of 44 centers in 9 European countries; the PRODEX trial compared propofol with dexmedetomidine in 31 centers in 6 European countries and 2 centers in Russia. Included were adult ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilation who needed light to moderate sedation for more than 24 hours (midazolam, n = 251, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 249; propofol, n = 247, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 251). Sedation with dexmedetomidine, midazolam, or propofol; daily sedation stops; and spontaneous breathing trials. For each trial, we tested whether dexmedetomidine was noninferior to control with respect to proportion of time at target sedation level (measured by Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale) and superior to control with respect to duration of mechanical ventilation. Secondary end points were patients' ability to communicate pain (measured using a visual analogue scale [VAS]) and length of ICU stay. Time at target sedation was analyzed in per-protocol population (midazolam, n = 233, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 227; propofol, n = 214, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 223). Dexmedetomidine/midazolam ratio in time at target sedation was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.97-1.18) and dexmedetomidine/propofol, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.92-1.08). Median duration of mechanical ventilation appeared shorter with dexmedetomidine (123 hours [IQR, 67-337]) vs midazolam (164 hours [IQR, 92-380]; P = .03) but not with dexmedetomidine

  15. Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam/Hydroxyzine versus Chloral Hydrate/Hydroxyzine on 2-6 Year-Old Uncooperative Dental Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Different drugs are used for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry either single or in combination. This study assessed the comparative effect of midazolam/hydroxyzine and chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine on 2-6 year-old uncooperative children needing dental treatment.A double blind cross-over randomized clinical trial was designed and 16 children aged 2-6 years with ASA1 status who were judged with negative to definitely negative behavior (according to Frankl were chosen. Cases were divided randomly into two groups. The first group received midazolam/hydroxyzine (MH at the first visit while the second group received chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine (CHH as the first medication. Both groups received the other regimen at the second visit. Midazolam 0.5mg/kg and chloral hydrate 50mg/kg with 1mg/kg hydroxyzine were administered. Cases were subsequently assessed for sedation and then dental treatment was performed. Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and pulse rate (PR were measured before and after drug administration, as well as during and after dental treatment. The Houpt scale was also used for the level of sedation before, during and after treatment. Data were analyzed using Wilcox-on signed rank test and the paired t-test.Sedative success rate was 64.3% in cases of MH and 33.3% in CHH. The difference between groups was significant (P=0.046. The success rate was significantly different between groups at different measurement stages as well (P<0.05. No difference was found on the child's behavior scale based on the type of drugs used first; this indicates no carry-over effect. Comparing the PR and SpO2 values at different readings showed no significant differences.Midazolam/hydroxyzine showed a significantly higher sedative effect than chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine in this study.

  16. In vitro characterization of antithrombin III concentrates--a single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstern, P; Moberg, U; Ekblad, M; Anders, C U; Faller, B; Müller, S

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-three lots of five antithrombin III (AT III) concentrates from four manufacturers were analyzed in a single-blind study. All the preparations had been virus-inactivated by pasteurization, and one concentrate had also been treated with solvent/detergent (S/D). AT III activities were determined using two thrombin-based and one factor Xa-based chromogenic substrate assays. AT III antigen was measured by kinetic nephelometry. All AT III assays were tested against the first international reference preparation coded 72/1. In addition, AT III was characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis in the presence of heparin and by gel filtration. The following were quantified: heparin cofactor II activity and antigen content, heparin activity, thrombin-AT III complexes, AT III-protease complexes, total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins, glucose and pH. The AT III concentrates differed markedly in terms of their purity and potency. The specific activities of AT III and the ratios of AT III activity to antigen content ranged from 3.4 to 6.9 and from 0.63 to 0.84, respectively. The highest values were found in five lots of the concentrate that had been treated by both pasteurization and S/D. This preparation was the only one that was virtually free of denaturated AT III, as judged by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Marked batch-to-batch variation in AT III potencies was found in two out of the five preparations analyzed. In two out of five lots from one manufacturer, the measured potencies were more than 10% lower than the declared potencies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Oral preanaesthetic medication for children: double-blind randomized study of a combination of midazolam and ketamine vs midazolam or ketamine alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W; Jakob, W; Riedl, T; Taeger, K

    2000-03-01

    Anxiolysis and sedation with oral midazolam are common practice in paediatric anaesthesia. However, good or excellent results are seen in only 50-80% of cases. For this reason, we investigated if addition of a low dose of oral ketamine (MIKE: ketamine 3 mg kg-1, midazolam 0.5 mg kg-1) resulted in better premedication compared with oral midazolam 0.5 mg kg-1 or ketamine 6 mg kg-1 alone, in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. We studied 120 children (mean age 5.7 (range 2-10) yr) undergoing surgery of more than 30 min duration. After oral premedication in the ward and transfer, the child's condition in the induction room was evaluated by assigning 1-4 points to the quality of anxiolysis, sedation, behaviour at separation from parent and during venepuncture (transfer score). On days 1 and 7 after operation, parents were interviewed for changes in behaviour (eating, sleep, dreams, toilet training), recollection and satisfaction, using a standardized questionnaire. The groups were similar in age, sex, weight, intervention and duration of anaesthesia. The transfer score was significantly better in the MIKE group (12.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.9-13.1)) than in the ketamine or midazolam groups (10.6 (9.8-11.4) and 11.5 (10.7-12.3), respectively). Success rates for anxiolysis and behaviour at separation were greater than 90% with the combination, approximately 70% with midazolam and only 51% with ketamine alone. The incidence of salivation, excitation and psychotic symptoms was low in all groups. Vertigo and emesis before induction were significantly more frequent after ketamine premedication. During recovery, there were no differences in sedation or time of possible discharge. After 1 week, parents reported nightmares (ketamine five, midazolam three, MIKE one), restless sleep (five/four/four) or negative memories (three/four/one). There were no major or continuing disturbances in behaviour or development. In summary, significantly better anxiolysis and

  18. Energetics analysis of interstitial loops in single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Xin; Niu, Liang-Liang; Wang, Shaoqing

    2018-04-01

    Systematic energetics analysis on the shape preference, relative stability and radiation-induced segregation of interstitial loops in nickel-containing single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys have been conducted using atomistic simulations. It is shown that the perfect loops prefer rhombus shape for its low potential energy, while the Frank faulted loops favor ellipse for its low potential energy and the possible large configurational entropy. The decrease of stacking fault energy with increasing compositional complexity provides the energetic driving force for the formation of faulted loops, which, in conjunction with the kinetic factors, explains the experimental observation that the fraction of faulted loops rises with increasing compositional complexity. Notably, the kinetics is primarily responsible for the absence of faulted loops in nickel-cobalt with a very low stacking fault energy. We further demonstrate that the simultaneous nickel enrichment and iron/chromium depletion on interstitial loops can be fully accounted for by their energetics.

  19. Peculiar behavior of magnetoresistance in HgSe single crystal with low electron concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonchakov, A. T.; Bobin, S. B.; Deryushkin, V. V.; Okulov, V. I.; Govorkova, T. E.; Neverov, V. N.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetoresistive properties of the single crystal of HgSe with a low electron concentration were studied in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. Some fundamental parameters of the spectrum and scattering of electrons were experimentally determined. Two important features of magnetic transport were found—strong transverse magnetoresistance (MR) and negative longitudinal MR, which can indicate the existence of the topological phase of the Weyl semimetal (WSM) in HgSe. Taking this hypothesis into account, we suggest a modified band diagram of mercury selenide at low electron energies. The obtained results are essential for the deeper understanding of both physics of gapless semiconductors and WSMs—promising materials for various applications in electronics, spintronics, computer, and laser technologies.

  20. Methodological details of determining maximum single concentration of dust along scraper longwalls of coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubanov, G.P.; Grebtsov, E.M.; Kurnosov, V.K.; Tolstoi, G.I.

    1988-06-01

    Recommendations of 'Instructions on determining pneumoconiosis danger of mine work in coal mines' for choice of a basic point for measuring maximum single concentration of dust along scraper longwalls do not make it possible to objectively evaluate dust load at working places. In the Instructions, a point at 10 to 15 m from exit of longwall on the ventilation drift with an emergent stream of air is proposed for the dust probe. This designated point does not take into account the influence of the scheme of ventilation of the walls on formation of dust currents. Investigations of probes taken at different places along the longwall (at the beginning, 15 m from the begining, 15 m from the end, at the niche and transfer point of the longwal) using direct and reverse flow schemes of ventilation showed that the best point for determining maximum single concentratin of dust is a point in the middle of the longwall where dust currents are the same for both systems of ventilation, and use of a new method of calculating the dust load by testing at many different positions along the scraper longall makes it possible to determine the category of pneumonoconiosis danger for workers at scraper longwalls.

  1. The Effect of Gender on the Rate of Metabolism of Midazolam in Humans Using Liver Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    include skeletal muscle relaxation, blunting of the stress response to surgical stimulation without suppressing adrenocorticoid synthesis , decrease...T, (1993), Effects of a sauna on the pharmacokinetics and pharmaco- dynamics of midazolam and ephedrine in healthy young women, European Journal

  2. Application to Add Midazolam to the Model List of Essential Medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.D. Wildschut (Enno); N.J. Vet (Nienke); S.N. de Wildt (Saskia)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSummary statement of the proposal for inclusion The benzodiazepine midazolam has proven sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic properties. It is extensively used for premedication and procedural sedation in both adults and children. In comparison to other benzodiazepine and

  3. Inotropic effects of propofol, thiopental, midazolam, etomidate, and ketamine on isolate human atrial muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelissen, HPMM; Epema, AH; Henning, RH; Krijnen, HJ; Hennis, PJ; denHertog, A

    Background: Cardiovascular instability after intravenous induction of anesthesia may be explained partly by direct negative inotropic effects. The direct inotropic influence of etomidate, ketamine, midazolam, propofol, and thiopental on the contractility of isolated human atrial tissue was

  4. Evident cognitive impairments in seemingly recovered patients after midazolam-based light sedation during diagnostic endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsuan Hsu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Midazolam-based light sedation induced selective cognitive impairments and prolonged cognitive impairments occurred in patients with advanced age. A longer observation time and further screening were recommended for patients due to their at risk state.

  5. Predictive Modelling of Concentration of Dispersed Natural Gas in a Single Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai JIMOH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at developing a mathematical model equation to predict the concentration of natural gas in a single room. The model equation was developed by using theoretical method of predictive modelling. The model equation developed is as given in equation 28. The validity of the developed expression was tested through the simulation of experimental results using computer software called MathCAD Professional. Both experimental and simulated results were found to be in close agreement. The statistical analysis carried out through the correlation coefficients for the results of experiment 1, 2, 3 and 4 were found to be 0.9986, 1.0000, 0.9981 and 0.9999 respectively, which imply reasonable close fittings between the experimental and simulated concentrations of dispersed natural gas within the room. Thus, the model equation developed can be considered a good representation of the phenomena that occurred when there is a leakage or accidental release of such gas within the room.

  6. Recurrent Metabolic Acidosis during High-dose Midazolam Therapy for Refractory Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalendra; Khandelwal, Ankur; Datta, Rashmi; Kaushal, Ashutosh; Singh, Gyaninder Pal

    2018-02-01

    High-dose continuous midazolam therapy has been used successfully for control of refractory status epilepticus. However, normal anion gap (AG) metabolic acidosis, a deleterious complication of this therapy is underrecognized. Even though previously reported in an isolated case report in a pediatric patient, we observed similar complication in an adult patient. Stereotyped normal AG metabolic acidosis along with hypotension developed on two occasions during high-dose continuous midazolam hydrochloride infusion that reverted rapidly following cessation of the infusion.

  7. Midazolam-Ketamine Dual Therapy Stops Cholinergic Status Epilepticus And Reduces Morris Water Maze Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niquet, Jerome; Baldwin, Roger; Norman, Keith; Suchomelova, Lucie; Lumley, Lucille; Wasterlain, Claude G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Pharmacoresistance remains an unsolved therapeutic challenge in status epilepticus (SE) and in cholinergic SE induced by nerve agent intoxication. SE triggers a rapid internalization of synaptic GABAA receptors and externalization of NMDA receptors that may explain the loss of potency of standard anti-epileptic drugs (AED). We hypothesized that a drug combination aimed at correcting the consequences of receptor trafficking would reduce SE severity and its long-term consequences. Methods A severe model of SE was induced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats with a high dose of lithium and pilocarpine. The GABAA receptor agonist midazolam, the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and/or the AED valproate were injected 40 min after SE onset in combination or as monotherapy. Measures of SE severity were the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were acute neuronal injury, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), and Morris water maze (MWM) deficits. Results Midazolam-ketamine dual therapy was more efficient than double-dose midazolam or ketamine monotherapy or than valproate-midazolam or valproate-ketamine dual therapy in reducing several parameters of SE severity, suggesting a synergistic mechanism. In addition, midazolam-ketamine dual therapy reduced SE-induced acute neuronal injury, epileptogenesis and MWM deficits. Significance This study showed that a treatment aimed at correcting maladaptive GABAA receptor and NMDA receptor trafficking can stop SE and reduce its long-term consequences. Early Midazolam-ketamine dual therapy may be superior to monotherapy in the treatment of benzodiazepine-refractory SE. PMID:27500978

  8. Two Oral Midazolam Preparations in Pediatric Dental Patients: A Prospective Randomised Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Salem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological sedation is an alternative behavior management strategy in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral and physiologic effects of “commercially midazolam syrup” versus “orally administered IV midazolam dosage form (extemporaneous midazolam (EF” in uncooperative pediatric dental patients. Eighty-eight children between 4 to 7 years of age received 0.2–0.5 mg/kg midazolam in this parallel trial. Physiologic parameters were recorded at baseline and every 15 minutes. Behavior assessment was conducted objectively by Houpt scale throughout the sedation and North Carolina at baseline and during injection and cavity preparation. No significant difference in behavior was noted by Houpt or North Carolina scale. Acceptable behavior (excellent, very good, and good was observed in 90.9% of syrup and 79.5% of EF subjects, respectively. Physiological parameters remained in normal range without significant difference between groups and no adverse effect was observed. It is concluded that EF midazolam preparation can be used as an acceptable alternative to midazolam syrup.

  9. Two Oral Midazolam Preparations in Pediatric Dental Patients: A Prospective Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Katayoun; Kamranzadeh, Shaqayegh; Kousha, Maryam; Shaeghi, Shahnaz; AbdollahGorgi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological sedation is an alternative behavior management strategy in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral and physiologic effects of "commercially midazolam syrup" versus "orally administered IV midazolam dosage form (extemporaneous midazolam (EF))" in uncooperative pediatric dental patients. Eighty-eight children between 4 to 7 years of age received 0.2-0.5 mg/kg midazolam in this parallel trial. Physiologic parameters were recorded at baseline and every 15 minutes. Behavior assessment was conducted objectively by Houpt scale throughout the sedation and North Carolina at baseline and during injection and cavity preparation. No significant difference in behavior was noted by Houpt or North Carolina scale. Acceptable behavior (excellent, very good, and good) was observed in 90.9% of syrup and 79.5% of EF subjects, respectively. Physiological parameters remained in normal range without significant difference between groups and no adverse effect was observed. It is concluded that EF midazolam preparation can be used as an acceptable alternative to midazolam syrup.

  10. Evident cognitive impairments in seemingly recovered patients after midazolam-based light sedation during diagnostic endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yen-Hsuan; Lin, Feng-Sheng; Yang, Chi-Cheng; Lin, Chih-Peng; Hua, Mau-Sun; Sun, Wei-Zen

    2015-06-01

    Midazolam is a widely used sedative agent during colonoscopy, with cognitive toxicity. However, the potential cognitive hazard of midazolam-based light sedation has not been sufficiently examined. We aimed to examine the cognitive safety and vulnerability profile under midazolam light sedation, with a particular focus on individual variations. We conducted a prospective case-controlled study in an academic hospital. In total, 30 patients undergoing sedative colonoscopy as part of a health check-up were recruited. Neuropsychological testing on the full cognitive spectrum was evaluated at 15 minutes and 120 minutes after low-dose midazolam administration. The modified reliable change index (RCI) was used for intrapersonal comparisons and controlling for practice effects. Midazolam affected psychomotor speed (48%), memory (40%), learning (32%), working memory (17%), and sustained attention (11%), while sparing orientation and the fluency aspect of executive function at the acute stage. Residual memory (10%) and learning (10%) impairments at 2 hours after administration were evidenced in some patients. The three object recall and digit symbol coding tests can serve as useful screening tools. Midazolam-based light sedation induced selective cognitive impairments and prolonged cognitive impairments occurred in patients with advanced age. A longer observation time and further screening were recommended for patients due to their at risk state. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A comparison of the sedative effect of oral versus nasal midazolam combined with nitrous oxide in uncooperative children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musani, I E; Chandan, N V

    2015-10-01

    To compare a combination of oral midazolam (0.2 mg/kg body weight) and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation with a combination of intranasal midazolam (0.1 mg/kg body weight) and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation for effectiveness, patient acceptability and safety profile in controlling the behaviour of uncooperative children. Thirty children, 4-10 years of age, referred for dental treatment were included in the study with a crossover design. Each patient was sedated with a combination of either oral midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation or intranasal midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation at subsequent dental treatment visits. During the treatment procedure, the study recorded scales for drug acceptability, onset of sedation, acceptance of nasal mask, sedation, behavioural, safety, overall behaviour and alertness. The grade of acceptability of midazolam in both groups was consistently good. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in the time of onset of sedation, which was significantly quicker with the intranasal administration of midazolam. The mean time of onset for oral midazolam was 20.1 (17-25) min and for intranasal midazolam 12.1 (8-18) min. The efficacy profile of the present study included: acceptance of nasal mask, sedation score, crying levels, motor movements and overall behaviour scores. The results did not show any statistically significant differences. All the parameters were highly satisfactory. The difference in alertness was statistically significant (p value <0.05), being higher in the intranasal group than the oral group and suggestive of faster recovery using intranasal midazolam. The intranasal route of midazolam administration has a quick onset of action and a quick recovery of the patient from sedation as compared to the oral route of midazolam administration. Midazolam administered through the intranasal route is as effective as the oral route at a lower dosage. Therefore, it is an effective alternative to oral route for a

  12. Intravenous ketamine is as effective as midazolam/fentanyl for procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, S M; Fathil, S M; Nidzwani, M M; Ismail, A K; Yatim, F M

    2011-08-01

    The study compared the effectiveness of ketamine and midazolam/fentanyl as procedural sedation and analgesia agents for reduction of fractures and dislocated joints. Forty-one adult patients were enrolled by convenience sampling. They were randomized to receive ketamine or midazolam/fentanyl. Depth of sedation, pain score, procedural outcome and memory of the procedure were documented. The ketamine group had deeper sedation, but there was no statistical difference in other variables between the two groups. Three patients in the midazolam/fentanyl group had oxygen desaturation. More adverse effects were associated with ketamine. Intravenous ketamine is as effective as midazolam/fentanyl for procedural sedation.

  13. Simultaneous detection of ketamine, lorazepam, midazolam and sufentanil in human serum with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for monitoring of analgosedation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosseir, N S; Michels, G; Binder, P; Wiesen, M H J; Müller, C

    2014-10-12

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination and quantification of four predominantly used analgosedatives in the intensive care unit: ketamine, lorazepam, midazolam and sufentanil in human serum. The extraction procedure consisted of protein precipitation of serum samples with acetonitrile and subsequent centrifugation. D 5 -fentanyl and D 4 -midazolam served as internal standards (ISTD). Separation of analytes was performed with a Hypersil C18 column and a mobile phase with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (60/40, v/v) under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 280μl/min. Analytes were simultaneously detected with a triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) in a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with positive heated electrospray ionization (HESI) within a single 2-min run. Calibration curves were linear over a range of 50-2000 for ketamine, 10-1000 for lorazepam, 5-500 for midazolam and 1-100 for sufentanil (ng/ml). The limit of detection and the lower limit of quantification were 0.01 and 10.00 for ketamine, 0.005 and 10.00 for lorazepam, 0.018 and 5.00 for midazolam and 0.068 and 0.25 for sufentanil (ng/ml). Intra- and inter-day accuracies and precisions of all analytes were less than 15%. Bench stability with spiked serum samples was ensured after 12, 24 and 48h at room temperature, freeze- and thaw-stability after 3 cycles of thawing and freezing. The method was successfully established according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline Q2 (R1) "Validation of Analytical Procedures" and applied in critically ill adult patients in the intensive care unit. We suggest its suitability for parallel quantification of the sedative analgesics ketamine, lorazepam, midazolam and sufentanil. The method serves as an instrumental tool for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and pharmacokinetic studies [1]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intravenous midazolam infusion for sedation of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eugene; Taddio, Anna; Ohlsson, Arne

    2017-01-31

    Proper sedation for neonates undergoing uncomfortable procedures may reduce stress and avoid complications. Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine that is used increasingly in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). However, its effectiveness as a sedative in neonates has not been systematically evaluated. Primary objeciveTo assess the effectiveness of intravenous midazolam infusion for sedation, as evaluated by behavioural and/or physiological measurements of sedation levels, in critically ill neonates in the NICU. Secondary objectivesTo assess effects of intravenous midazolam infusion for sedation on complications including the following.1. Incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)/periventricular leukomalacia (PVL).2. Mortality.3. Occurrence of adverse effects associated with the use of midazolam (hypotension, neurological abnormalities).4. Days of ventilation.5. Days of supplemental oxygen.6. Incidence of pneumothorax.7. Length of NICU stay (days).8. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. We selected for review randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of intravenous midazolam infusion for sedation in infants aged 28 days or younger. We abstracted data regarding the primary outcome of level of sedation. We assessed secondary outcomes such as intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, death, length of NICU stay and adverse effects associated with midazolam. When appropriate, we performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) and risk differences (RDs), and if the RD was statistically significant, we calculated the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or an additional harmful outcome (NNTH), along with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for categorical variables, and weighted mean differences (WMDs) for continuous variables. We assessed heterogeneity by performing the I-squared (I2) test. We included in the review three trials enrolling 148 neonates. We identified no new trials for this update

  15. Refractory Status Epilepticus in Children: Intention to Treat With Continuous Infusions of Midazolam and Pentobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Robert C; Goodkin, Howard P; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Chapman, Kevin E; Abend, Nicholas S; Arya, Ravindra; Brenton, James N; Carpenter, Jessica L; Gaillard, William D; Glauser, Tracy A; Goldstein, Joshua; Helseth, Ashley R; Jackson, Michele C; Kapur, Kush; Mikati, Mohamad A; Peariso, Katrina; Wainwright, Mark S; Wilfong, Angus A; Williams, Korwyn; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    To describe pediatric patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus in whom there is intention to use an IV anesthetic for seizure control. Two-year prospective observational study evaluating patients (age range, 1 mo to 21 yr) with refractory status epilepticus not responding to two antiepileptic drug classes and treated with continuous infusion of anesthetic agent. Nine pediatric hospitals in the United States. In a cohort of 111 patients with refractory status epilepticus (median age, 3.7 yr; 50% male), 54 (49%) underwent continuous infusion of anesthetic treatment. The median (interquartile range) ICU length of stay was 10 (3-20) days. Up to four "cycles" of serial anesthetic therapy were used, and seizure termination was achieved in 94% by the second cycle. Seizure duration in controlled patients was 5.9 (1.9-34) hours for the first cycle and longer when a second cycle was required (30 [4-120] hr; p = 0.048). Midazolam was the most frequent first-line anesthetic agent (78%); pentobarbital was the most frequently used second-line agent after midazolam failure (82%). An electroencephalographic endpoint was used in over half of the patients; higher midazolam dosing was used with a burst suppression endpoint. In midazolam nonresponders, transition to a second agent occurred after a median of 1 day. Most patients (94%) experienced seizure termination with these two therapies. Midazolam and pentobarbital remain the mainstay of continuous infusion therapy for refractory status epilepticus in the pediatric patient. The majority of patients experience seizure termination within a median of 30 hours. These data have implications for the design and feasibility of future intervention trials. That is, testing a new anesthetic anticonvulsant after failure of both midazolam and pentobarbital is unlikely to be feasible in a pediatric study, whereas a decision to test an alternative to pentobarbital, after midazolam failure, may be possible in a multicenter

  16. Refractory Status Epilepticus in Children: intention-to-treat with continuous infusions of midazolam and pentobarbital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Robert C; Goodkin, Howard P; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Chapman, Kevin E; Abend, Nicholas S; Arya, Ravindra; Brenton, James N; Carpenter, Jessica L; Gaillard, William D; Glauser, Tracy A; Goldstein, Joshua; Helseth, Ashley R; Jackson, Michele C; Kapur, Kush; Mikati, Mohamad A; Peariso, Katrina; Wainwright, Mark S; Wilfong, Angus A; Williams, Korwyn; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe pediatric patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in whom there is intention-to-use an intravenous anesthetic for seizure control. Design Two-year prospective observational study evaluating patients (age range one month to 21 years) with RSE not responding to two antiepileptic drug classes and treated with continuous infusion of anesthetic agent. Setting Nine pediatric hospitals in the United States. Patients In a cohort of 111 patients with RSE (median age 3.7 years, 50% male), 54 (49%) underwent continuous infusion of anesthetic treatment. Main Results The median (interquartile range, IQR) intensive care unit length-of-stay was 10 (3–20) days. Up to four ‘cycles’ of serial anesthetic therapy were used and seizure termination was achieved in 94% by the second cycle. Seizure duration in controlled patients was 5.9 (1.9–34) hours for the first cycle, and longer when a second cycle was required (30 [4,−120] hours, p=0.048). Midazolam was the most frequent first-line anesthetic agent (78%); pentobarbital was the most frequently used second-line agent after midazolam failure (82%). An electroencephalographic endpoint was used in over half of the patients; higher midazolam dosing was used with a burst suppression endpoint. In midazolam non-responders, transition to a second agent occurred after a median of one day. Most patients (94%) experienced seizure termination with these two therapies. Conclusions Midazolam and pentobarbital remains the mainstay of continuous infusion therapy for RSE in the pediatric patient. The majority of patients experience seizure termination within a median of 30 hours. These data have implications for the design and feasibility of future intervention trials. That is, testing a new anesthetic anticonvulsant after failure of both midazolam and pentobarbital is unlikely to be feasible in a pediatric study, whereas a decision to test an alternative to pentobarbital, after midazolam failure

  17. Preliminary investigation into the ventilatory effects of midazolam in isoflurane-anaesthetised goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F. Stegmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ventilatory effects of intravenous midazolam (MDZ were evaluated in isoflurane- anaesthetised goats. Eight female goats aged 2–3 years were fasted from food and water for 12 h. Anaesthesia was then induced using a face mask with isoflurane in oxygen, whilst the trachea was intubated with a cuffed tracheal tube and anaesthesia maintained with isoflurane at 1.5% end-tidal concentration. Ventilation was spontaneous. The goats were treated with either a saline placebo (PLC or MDZ intravenously at 0.2 mg/kg. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used for the analysis of data. Significance was taken at the 0.05 level. Differences between treatments were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for tidal volume, ventilation rate, tidal volume/kg (VT/kg and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure. Within treatments, VT and VT/kg differed 5 min after MDZ administration; this was statistically significant (p < 0.05. The occurrence of apnoea in the MDZ-treated goats was statistically significant (p = 0.04 compared with the PLC treated goats. Intravenous MDZ at 0.2 mg/kg administered to isoflurane-anaesthetised goats may result in transient apnoea and a mild decrease in VT and VT/kg.

  18. Epileptic manifestations induced by midazolam in the neonatal period Manifestações epilépticas induzidas por midazolam no período neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Montenegro

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptic drugs may cause worsening of epilepsy by aggravating pre-existing seizures or by triggering new seizure types. There are several reports of adverse effects related to midazolam, but only a few authors reported epileptic manifestations. We report four newborns seen at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of our University Hospital, who developed seizures a few seconds after the administration of midazolam. It is difficult to identify the patients at risk, but it is important to be aware and recognize this situation.Drogas antiepilépticas podem piorar o controle da epilepsia por agravar crises epilépticas pre-existentes ou por desencadear novos tipos de crises. Existem vários relatos de eventos adversos relacionados ao midazolam; entretanto, poucos autores referem manifestações epilépticas. Neste estudo relatamos a ocorrência de crises epilépticas poucos segundos após a administração de midazolam, em quatro neonatos atendidos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do nosso hospital universitário. É difícil determinar quais pacientes estão em risco, mas é importante estar atento e reconhecer esta situação.

  19. A new plastic scintillation resin for single-step separation, concentration and measurement of technetium-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, J; Tarancón, A; Bagán, H; García, J F

    2016-09-14

    Technetium is a synthetic element with no stable isotopes, produced as waste in nuclear power plants and in cyclotrons used for nuclear medicine. The element has high mobility, in the form of TcO4(-); its determination is therefore important for environmental protection. Technetium is found in low concentrations and therefore common methods for its analysis include long treatments in several steps and require large amounts of reagents for its purification and preconcentration. Plastic scintillation resins (PSresin) are novel materials used to separate, preconcentrate and measure radionuclides in a single step. The objective of this study is to prepare and characterise a PSresin for the preconcentration and measurement of (99)Tc. The study first evaluates the reproducibility of the production of PSresins between batches and over time; showing good reproducibility and storage stability. Next, we studied the effect of some common non-radioactive interferences, showing small influences on measurement, and radioactive interferences ((36)Cl and (238)U/(234)U). (36)Cl can be removed by a simple treatment with 0.5 M HCl and (238)U/(234)U can be removed from the column by cleaning with a mixture of 0.1 M HNO3 and 0.1 M HF. In the latter case, a slight change in the morphology of the PSresin caused an increase in detection efficiency. Finally, the PSresin was applied to the measurement of real spiked samples (sea water and urine) with deviations lower than 10% in all cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of fluorophore concentration in scattering media by a single optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Herbert; Beck, Tobias; Beyer, Wolfgang; Pfaller, Christian; Sroka, Ronald; Baumgartner, Reinhold

    2006-02-01

    Motivation: Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) with interstitial light delivery by multiple fibers for the treatment of large tissue volumes requires measurement of sensitizer distribution for dosimetric considerations. For stereotactic interstitial PDT of malignant glioma, for instance, a pre-irradiation comparison of the contrast enhancing tissue volume in MR-imaging with the photosensitized volume as assessed by fluorescence detection is desirable. For PDT of prostate cancer, the quantitative measurement of the selectivity of sensitizer uptake in cancer versus normal prostate parenchyma is important. Methods: It has previously been shown by others that the fluorescence intensity measured by a thin single optical fiber for excitation and detection is largely independent on optical parameters of the tissue that contains the fluorochrome. However, the investigators assumed similar values for excitation and emission wavelengths. This study concerned liquid phantom measurements (absorber: ink or hemoglobin, fluorochrome: Na-fluorescein) and Monte Carlo calculations, with extended conditions, where the absorption differs by a factor of 10 between excitation (426 nm) and emission (530 nm) wavelengths. The absorption coefficient (μ a') was varied between 0.01 - 0.3 mm-1 (@ 426 nm), the effective scattering coefficient (μ s') between 0.6 - 2.5 mm-1. A 200 μm and a 1000 μm core fiber were used. Results: Fluorescence intensity measured at 530 nm via a thin optical fiber (core diameter small compared to light penetration depth) depends minimally on optical tissue parameters. This result is valid for ink as absorber (μa identical at excitation and emission) as well as for hemoglobin (μa different). Fluorochrome concentration measurements seem possible with a 200 μm core fiber, but not with the 1000 μm core fiber.

  1. A new plastic scintillation resin for single-step separation, concentration and measurement of technetium-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, J. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1-11, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tarancón, A., E-mail: alex.tarancon@ub.edu [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1-11, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Bagán, H. [Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Getingevägen 60, hus II, 22100 SE, Lund (Sweden); García, J.F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1-11, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-09-14

    Technetium is a synthetic element with no stable isotopes, produced as waste in nuclear power plants and in cyclotrons used for nuclear medicine. The element has high mobility, in the form of TcO{sub 4}{sup −}; its determination is therefore important for environmental protection. Technetium is found in low concentrations and therefore common methods for its analysis include long treatments in several steps and require large amounts of reagents for its purification and preconcentration. Plastic scintillation resins (PSresin) are novel materials used to separate, preconcentrate and measure radionuclides in a single step. The objective of this study is to prepare and characterise a PSresin for the preconcentration and measurement of {sup 99}Tc. The study first evaluates the reproducibility of the production of PSresins between batches and over time; showing good reproducibility and storage stability. Next, we studied the effect of some common non-radioactive interferences, showing small influences on measurement, and radioactive interferences ({sup 36}Cl and {sup 238}U/{sup 234}U). {sup 36}Cl can be removed by a simple treatment with 0.5 M HCl and {sup 238}U/{sup 234}U can be removed from the column by cleaning with a mixture of 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.1 M HF. In the latter case, a slight change in the morphology of the PSresin caused an increase in detection efficiency. Finally, the PSresin was applied to the measurement of real spiked samples (sea water and urine) with deviations lower than 10% in all cases. - Highlights: • A plastic scintillation resin for selective analysis of {sup 99}Tc has been developed. • The method is valid for analysis of {sup 99}Tc in seawater and urine samples. • Presence of Cl{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, {sup 36}Cl, U and Th not affect retention of {sup 99}Tc.

  2. High concentration of basidiolichens in a single family of agaricoid mushrooms (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrey, James D; Lücking, Robert; Sipman, Harrie J M; Chaves, José L; Redhead, Scott A; Bungartz, Frank; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2009-10-01

    The Agaricales is the largest and most diverse order of mushroom-forming Basidiomycota, with over 100 natural groups recognized in recent Fungal Tree of Life studies. Most agarics are either saprotrophic or ectomycorrhizal fungi, but the family Hygrophoraceae is in part characterized by a unique and remarkable diversity of lichenized forms. The most familiar of these is the chlorolichen genus Lichenomphalia, whose phylogenetic position in the Agaricales has been established. Recent limited evidence suggested that Hygrophoraceae also contains cyanolichens in the genus Dictyonema, which indicates a remarkable concentration and diversity of lichen-formers in a single family of agarics. To demonstrate the relationships of lichen-formers to other fungi in the family, we assembled ribosomal sequences from 52 species representing recognized groups within the Hygrophoraceae, among them new sequences representing Acantholichen and most species and forms of Dictyonema. The molecular data were evaluated using parsimony, likelihood, Bayesian, and distance analyses, including coding of ambiguous regions by means of INAASE and ARC, all of which indicate that Dictyonema and Acantholichen form a monophyletic clade derived from the primarily bryophilous genus Arrhenia and sister to the enigmatic Athelia pyriformis, a species unrelated to the Atheliales for which we are proposing a new genus name Eonema. The chlorolichen genus Lichenomphalia may be polyphyletic. Fungi in the Dictyonema-Acantholichen clade are typically tropical, entirely lichenized, and associate with cyanobacterial photobionts. Our data indicate a transition from agaricoid-omphalinoid basidiomes observed in Arrhenia to stereoid-corticioid forms in Dictyonema, and also support a previous suggestion of a connection between loss of clamp connections and lichenization. The diverse basidiome and thallus morphologies and nutritional ecologies of these fungi indicate a remarkable evolutionary flexibility that appears to

  3. To explore the relationship between the use of midazolam and cessation of oral intake in the terminal phase of hospice inpatients: A retrospective case note review: Does midazolam affect oral intake in the dying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Alison; Sykes, Nigel

    2017-01-01

    Sedative drugs are used to improve comfort in dying patients but have been accused of shortening survival by reducing patients' ability to maintain nutrition and hydration. However, as part of the dying process, patients in the last days of life often have impaired conscious levels and an inability to maintain oral intake. To establish whether the decline in oral intake is related to the use of midazolam in the last week of life. This is a retrospective case note review. The data were obtained from nursing records and medication charts of 125 consecutive hospice inpatients who died at a hospice in South London. A total of 72 patients received midazolam on one or more days within the last 7 days of life (midazolam group) and 49 patients received no midazolam (control group). Mean oral intake was reduced 7 days prior to death and declined sequentially over subsequent days in both patient groups. More patients required midazolam as death approached and most patients received midazolam for less than 3 days. Mean doses of midazolam used were low. Patients in the midazolam group had lower oral intake than those in the control group, but this association does not indicate causation.

  4. [Withdrawal syndrome in a critically ill child after sedation with midazolam and fentanyl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Itaru; Tomiyama, Hiroshi; Tokumine, Joho; Sugahara, Kazuhiro

    2004-07-01

    A 7-year-old girl suffered from withdrawal syndrome with systemic convulsion after sedation with midazolam and fentanyl. She had a history of severe accidental alkaline esophagitis, and under went polysurgeries. This time, she was scheduled to receive reconstruction of the esophagus with small intestine in order to resolve esophageal stenosis. Operation and anesthesia lasted for 14 hours, and 17 hours, respectively. In the postoperative period, she was under heavy sedation with midazolam and fentanyl in order to keep neck position immobile. Her sedation persisted for 14 postoperative days, and the total doses of midazolam and fentanyl were more than 100 mg x kg(-1), and 6.4 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Thereafter, her sedation was tapered and discontinued within about 24 hours. After 12 hours, she suddenly developed systemic convulsion with loss of consciousness. There was no evidence of obvious organic central nervous system abnormality. We suspected withdrawal syndrome, and gradual decrease of midazolam and fentanyl prevented her from going into withdrawal syndrome. We have to pay attention to withdrawal syndrome when heavy and long sedation with midazolam and fentanyl was employed and the drugs were then tapered and discontinued.

  5. Low-dose intranasal versus oral midazolam for routine body MRI of claustrophobic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschirch, Frank T.C.; Goepfert, Kerstin; Brunner, Genevieve; Weishaupt, Dominik; Froehlich, Johannes M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess prospectively the potential of low-dose intranasal midazolam compared to oral midazolam in claustrophobic patients undergoing routine body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventy-two adult claustrophobic patients referred for body MRI were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (TG1 and TG2). The 36 patients of TG1 received 7.5 mg midazolam orally 15 min before MRI, whereas the 36 patients of TG2 received one (or, if necessary, two) pumps of a midazolam nasal spray into each nostril immediately prior to MRI (in total, 1 or 2 mg). Patients' tolerance, anxiety and sedation were assessed using a questionnaire and a visual analogue scale immediately before and after MRI. Image quality was evaluated using a five-point-scale. In TG1, 18/36 MRI examinations (50%) had to be cancelled, the reduction of anxiety was insufficient in 12/18 remaining patients (67%). In TG2, 35/36 MRI examinations (97%) were completed successfully, without relevant adverse effects. MRI image quality was rated higher among patients of TG2 compared to TG1 (p<0.001). Low-dose intranasal midazolam is an effective and patient-friendly solution to overcome anxiety in claustrophobic patients in a broad spectrum of body MRI. Its anxiolytic effect is superior to that of the orally administrated form. (orig.)

  6. Low-dose intranasal versus oral midazolam for routine body MRI of claustrophobic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschirch, Frank T.C.; Goepfert, Kerstin; Brunner, Genevieve; Weishaupt, Dominik [University Hospital Zuerich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Klus-Apotheke, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess prospectively the potential of low-dose intranasal midazolam compared to oral midazolam in claustrophobic patients undergoing routine body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventy-two adult claustrophobic patients referred for body MRI were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (TG1 and TG2). The 36 patients of TG1 received 7.5 mg midazolam orally 15 min before MRI, whereas the 36 patients of TG2 received one (or, if necessary, two) pumps of a midazolam nasal spray into each nostril immediately prior to MRI (in total, 1 or 2 mg). Patients' tolerance, anxiety and sedation were assessed using a questionnaire and a visual analogue scale immediately before and after MRI. Image quality was evaluated using a five-point-scale. In TG1, 18/36 MRI examinations (50%) had to be cancelled, the reduction of anxiety was insufficient in 12/18 remaining patients (67%). In TG2, 35/36 MRI examinations (97%) were completed successfully, without relevant adverse effects. MRI image quality was rated higher among patients of TG2 compared to TG1 (p<0.001). Low-dose intranasal midazolam is an effective and patient-friendly solution to overcome anxiety in claustrophobic patients in a broad spectrum of body MRI. Its anxiolytic effect is superior to that of the orally administrated form. (orig.)

  7. The effects of concurrent atorvastatin therapy on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous midazolam.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Donnell, C G

    2012-02-03

    Midazolam is a commonly used anaesthetic agent and is metabolised by the 3A4 isoform of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Atorvastatin is also metabolised by cytochrome P450 3A4 and, in vitro, atorvastatin inhibits the cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated metabolism of mexazolam. We hypothesised that concurrent administration of atorvastatin and midazolam would result in altered midazolam pharmacokinetics. Fourteen patients scheduled to undergo general anaesthesia for elective surgery were recruited in a matched pair design to receive intravenous midazolam (0.15 mg.kg-1). Of these patients, seven were taking long-term atorvastatin. Atorvastatin patients demonstrated a greater area under the curve (889.4 (standard deviation 388.6) ng-h.ml-1) vs. control patients (629.1 (standard deviation 197.2) ng-h.ml-1) (p < 0.05). Patients taking atorvastatin also demonstrated a decreased clearance (0.18 (standard deviation 0.08) l-kg. h-1) vs. control patients (0.27 (standard deviation 0.08) l-kg.h-1) (p < 0.05). This study suggests that chronically administered atorvastatin decreases the clearance of intravenously administered midazolam.

  8. Conscious sedation by oral administration of midazolam in paediatric dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, A L; Bäckman, B; Stenström, A; Stecksén-Blicks, C

    2001-01-01

    Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine with rapid onset, short duration of action and minimal side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral administration of midazolam as pre-operative sedation in the dental treatment of uncooperative pediatric patients. Included in the study were 160 children with a mean age of 6.7 +/- 2.6 years (1-14 years), 83 boys and 77 girls. All the patients had been referred for specialist treatment due to behavioral management problems. Treatment was performed in 250 sessions. All the children received an oral dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight of midazolam. Acceptance of treatment was evaluated according to Rud & Kisling. Local anesthesia followed by restorative treatment and/or extractions constituted more than 90% of the performed treatments. Of the 250 sessions, 63% were performed with total acceptance and 30% with doubtful acceptance. In 7%, no treatment could be performed. No serious complications were registered during or after treatment. All the children were able to leave the clinic one hour after treatment. In conclusion, we consider oral administration of midazolam a safe form of premedication. The route of administration, the short waiting-time and half-life, in combination with a level of sedation that allows treatment to be performed, are the principal advantages of conscious sedation with orally administered midazolam.

  9. Prophylactic antiemetic effects of midazolam, dexamethasone, and its combination after middle ear surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhdoom, Naeem K; Farid, Magdy F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of the combination of midazolam and dexamethasone, with midazolam and dexamethasone alone, for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in female patients undergoing middle ear surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 80 female patients (mean age 32.6 years), undergoing middle ear surgery with general anesthesia at Ohud Hospital, Madina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from May 2007 to May 2008. Patients were classified into 4 groups. They received intravenous normal saline (S group), midazolam 0.075 mg/kg (M group), or dexamethasone 10 mg (D group), or a combination of midazolam and dexamethasone (MD group), before the induction of anesthesia. Postoperatively for 24 hours observation and assessment of nausea, vomiting, rescue anti-emetics, and side effects of the study drugs such as headache and drowsiness were carried out. There was a significant difference between the 4 groups. The MD group was the least to develop PONV compared to other groups (p<0.01). Regarding nausea, there was a non-significant difference between the 4 groups, although the MD group developed the least symptoms among the 4 groups, there were no significant differences in pain intensity and side effects such as, headache, dizziness, and drowsiness between the 4 groups. The combination of midazolam 0.075 mg/kg and dexamethasone 10 mg intravenously is better than either drug alone in reducing the incidence of PONV in female patients after middle ear surgery. (author)

  10. [Sedation with intravenous midazolam during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy--changes in hemodynamics, oxygen saturation and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Matsuki, Michiko; Gouda, Yoshinori; Nishiyama, Tomoki; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2003-09-01

    Cardiorespiratory adverse effects are often observed in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation. In this study, we examined hemodynamics, oxygen saturation and memory during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy under sedation with intravenous midazolam. Eight healthy outpatients without any obvious complications received intravenous midazolam 5 mg for sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Blood pressure, heart rate and percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured before, during and after endoscopy. After the arousal by intravenous flumazenil, we inquired the patients about the level of memory during the endoscopy. Blood pressure decreased significantly two minutes after midazolam administration, but increased significantly after the insertion of an endoscope which was not different from the control value. Heart rate increased significantly one and three minutes after the insertion of the endoscope. SpO2 decreased significantly after midazolam administration and stayed at around 95%. No patients remembered the procedure. Sedation with intravenous midazolam during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is useful to control the cardiovascular responses, and to obtain amnesia. However, a decrease in SpO2 should be watched carefully.

  11. Estudo comparativo de midazolam com cetamina S(+ versus midazolam com bloqueio paracervical uterino para aspiração manual intra-uterina Estudio comparativo de midazolam con cetamina S(+ versus midazolam con bloqueo paracervical uterino para aspiración manual intrauterina Comparative study of midazolam with ketamine S(+ versus midazolam with uterine paracervical block for manual intrauterine aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonaldo Torres de Almeida

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a efetividade, a analgesia pós-operatória e o grau de satisfação e recomendação das pacientes submetidas à aspiração manual intra-uterina por meio da comparação de duas técnicas anestésicas. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas, prospectivamente, 80 pacientes distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos. Todas receberam midazolam, por via venosa. Em seguida, o Grupo MC recebeu cetamina S(+ por via venosa e o Grupo MP, bloqueio paracervical uterino. Na sala de cirurgia a eficácia da técnica foi avaliada por três observadores (o pesquisador, o obstetra e o residente de obstetrícia e, após uma hora, foi avaliada por um observador que desconhecia a técnica realizada, a analgesia pós-operatória, os graus de satisfação de recomendação da paciente mediante escala verbal. RESULTADOS: As técnicas mostraram-se eficientes em 95% das pacientes do Grupo MC e 76,7% das pacientes do Grupo MP (p = 0,04. Entre as pacientes do Grupo MC, 67% não apresentaram dor após uma hora, enquanto no grupo MP a porcentagem de pacientes sem dor foi de 33,3% (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la efectividad, la analgesia postoperatoria y el grado de satisfacción y recomendación de las pacientes sometidas a la aspiración manual intrauterina a través de la comparación de las técnicas anestésicas. MÉTODO: Formando parte de un estudio de prospección, se estudiaron 80 pacientes distribuidas aleatoriamente en 2 grupos. Todas recibieron midazolam por vía venosa. En seguida, el Grupo MC, recibió cetamina S(+ por vía venosa y el Grupo MP bloqueo paracervical uterino. En la sala de cirugía la eficacia de la técnica fue evaluada por tres observadores (el investigador, el obstetra y el residente de obstetricia y después de una hora, fue evaluada por un observador que desconocía la técnica realizada, la analgesia postoperatoria y los grados de satisfacción de recomendación de la paciente mediante escala verbal

  12. Sedation and physiologic response to manual restraint after intranasal administration of midazolam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Lahner, Lesanna L; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Sladky, Kurt K

    2012-09-01

    Administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Adult parrots (n=9) were administered either midazolam (2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution intranasally before a 15-minute manual restraint in a complete crossover study. Respiratory rate and sedation scores were recorded before and during capture and during and after 15 minutes of manual restraint. Heart rate and cloacal temperature were recorded during manual restraint. After restraint, the parrots received intranasal flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution, and the recovery time was recorded. In those birds that received midazolam, sedation was observed within 3 minutes of administration, and vocalization, flight, and defense responses were significantly reduced during capture. During manual restraint, the mean rate of cloacal temperature increase was significantly slower and remained significantly lower in birds that received midazolam compared with controls. Mean respiratory rates were significantly lower for up to 12 minutes in parrots that received midazolam compared with those receiving saline solution. Flumazenil antagonized the effects of midazolam within 10 minutes. No overt clinical adverse effects to intranasal midazolam and flumazenil administration were observed. Further studies on the safety of intranasal midazolam and flumazenil in this species are warranted.

  13. LITGS: a new technique for single shot temperature and fuel concentration measurements in turbulent combusting environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, Roberta; Giorgi, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D. [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    In the present study the possibility to apply time resolved Laser Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy (LITGS) to detect fuel concentration and temperature in mixtures and flames at atmospheric pressure or higher is investigated. The resonant IR single photon absorption of two short pulse pump beams is used to initially generate a population grating, decaying into a thermal grating due to relaxation processes in the gas mixture. The thermal grating evolution is followed by monitoring the scattered signal of a cw visible probe beam after the end of the pump pulse. The use of the IR optical transition of diesel fuel assured a high species selectivity and a negligible influence of the visible emission background due to the presence of electronically excited species in flames. Fuel concentration and temperature measurements in a pressurized cell, with pressure ranging between 0.1 an 1.5 MPa, and in a diffusion turbulent flame generated by a burner feed with diesel fuel operating at atmospheric pressure are presented. The experimental investigation shows that LITGS signal increase linearly with gas density. This characteristic makes LITGS a very interesting technique for fuel distribution and temperature measurements in hostile (high-pressure and turbulent flow) environments. Detection limit for diesel fuel at atmospheric pressure is found to be about 40 ppm and it decreases with the increase of the pressure. The low detection limit which can be reached makes this technique suitable also for monitoring minor species and radicals. [Italian] Nel presente studio si investiga la possibilita' di applicare la tecnica LITGS (Laser Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy) per misurare la concentrazione e la temperatura di carburante in miscele e fiamme a pressiona atmosferica o superiore. L'assorbimento risonante di un singolo fotone IR proveniente da uno dei due laser impulsati di pompa e' utilizzato per generare inizialmente un reticolo di popolazione, che decade

  14. Flavonoids diosmetin and luteolin inhibit midazolam metabolism by human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP 3A4 and CYP3A5 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintieri, Luigi; Palatini, Pietro; Nassi, Alberto; Ruzza, Paolo; Floreani, Maura

    2008-03-15

    We evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations of the flavonoids salvigenin, diosmetin and luteolin on the in vitro metabolism of midazolam (MDZ), a probe substrate for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes, which is converted into 1'-hydroxy-midazolam (1'-OH-MDZ) and 4-hydroxy-midazolam (4-OH-MDZ) by human liver microsomes. Salvigenin had only a modest effect on MDZ metabolism, whereas diosmetin and luteolin inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the formation of both 1'-OH-MDZ and 4-OH-MDZ, with apparent K(i) values in the 30-50mumol range. Both diosmetin and luteolin decreased 1'-OH-MDZ formation by human recombinant CYP3A4, but not CYP3A5, whereas they decreased 4-OH-MDZ formation by both recombinant enzymes. To assess whether any relationship exists between the physico-chemical characteristics of flavones and their effects on MDZ metabolism, we tested the effects of three other flavones (flavone, tangeretin, chrysin) on MDZ metabolism by human liver microsomes. Whereas flavones possessing more than two hydroxyl groups (luteolin, diosmetin) inhibited MDZ biotransformation, flavones lacking hydroxyl groups in their A and B rings (flavone, tangeretin) stimulated MDZ metabolism. We also found close relationships between the maximum stimulatory or inhibitory effects of flavones on 1'-OH-MDZ and 4-OH-MDZ formation rates and their log of octanol/water partition coefficients (logP) or their total number of hydroxyl groups. The results of the study may be of clinical relevance since they suggest that luteolin and diosmetin may cause pharmacokinetic interactions with co-administered drugs metabolized via CYP3A.

  15. Efficacy and safety of midazolam for sedation in pediatric dentistry: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Isabelita Duarte; Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; da Costa, Anna Paula Serejo; Bosco, Vera Lúcia; Moritz, Rachel Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological management of uncooperative children is becoming increasingly common in the dental setting. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of 3 different doses of midazolam for sedation in 2- to 4- year-old children with multiple dental needs and negative behavior. Ten children participated in this crossover, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial, which evaluated their behavior, appointment length and patient response after administration of 3 different doses of midazolam or placebo. Oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were monitored in all sessions. Sedated children exhibited a more positive behavior compared to the placebo group, both at the beginning of the appointment (sitting in the chair) and during administration of local anesthesia (P=.008 and Pbehavior overall. No changes in oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were observed. Midazolam was effective and safe for pediatric sedation in the dosages studied.

  16. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular midazolam versus rectal diazepam in controlling status epilepticus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Azizi Malamiri, Reza; Nikkhah, Ali; Jafari, Maryam; Fayezi, Abbas; Riahi, Kourosh; Maraghi, Elham

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intramuscular midazolam in controlling convulsive status epilepticus in children, by comparing it with rectal diazepam. In this randomized trial, 100 children (50 in each group) with convulsive status epilepticus aged 1 month to 16 years were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 0.3 mg/kg intramuscular midazolam or 0.5 mg/kg rectal diazepam. Main outcome measure was stopping of all motor activity after drug administration. Another measures were times between patient's arrival to emergency department till drug administration, between drug administration to seizure cessation, and between patient's arrival to seizure cessation. Both medication were effective for seizure control and no significant difference was found between successful treatments after administering the medication (P = 0.061). In the midazolam group, in 96% (48/50) of cases treatment was successful and in the diazepam group, in 94% (47/50) of cases treatment was successful. Time from arrival to administering the medication was significantly shorter in midazolam group (P = 0.017). The majority of seizures in midazolam group were stopped in less than 66 s (median) compared to 130 s (median) for diazepam group, (P diazepam for controlling of status epilepticus in children. Midazolam via IM route could be one of the choices in children with convulsive status seizures who have difficult IV access. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of a low dose of IV midazolam used orally for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mortazavi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Midazolam is preferably used in pediatric dentistry for quick onset of action and recovery. The aim of this prospective, observer-blind and placebo-controlled study was to assess the efficacy of a low dose of oral midazolam in modification of  the behavior of young pediatric dental patients. Methods: Forty children aged 3 to 5 years who displayed ratings 1 or 2 on the Frankl Scale and  were healthy by the American Society of Anesthesiologists-I status were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 20 each. All children required pulpotomy and restoration of D and E teeth and received either 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup or the syrup alone. Subjects were continuously observed and monitored with pulse oximetry. Houpt's Behavioral Ratings was used to determine the overall behavior, the degree of crying and movement during treatment. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Results and major conclusion: Patients who received 0.25mg/kg of the prepared oral midazolam significantly behaved better during treatment than the placebo controls (P<0.05. In comparison with the placebo group, reduced movement and crying were observed in the midazolam group (P<0.05. No adverse effects were observed and treatments were completed successfully. A low dose of 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup was found to be effective in conscious sedation of young pediatric dental patients.

  18. Sedation with orally administered midazolam in elderly dental patients with major neurocognitive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignell, Lena; Mikati, Mona; Wertsén, Madeleine; Hägglin, Catharina

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate acceptance of treatment after oral sedation with midazolam in dental patients with major neurocognitive disorder. Midazolam is commonly used as premedication in paediatric dentistry, oral surgery and people suffering from dental fear. Little is known about its use in other patient groups. Dental and sedation records of 61 patients (64% women) sedated with midazolam were examined retrospectively. All records came from patients with major neurocognitive disorder who had been referred to a special dental care unit in Sweden due to uncooperative behaviour and sedated with orally administered midazolam between 2006 and 2011. Data concerning dose, degree of acceptance of dental treatment (four-point scale) and number of possible interacting drugs were collected from dental records. On average, the participants were 80 years old (range: 62-93) and used 3.4 possible interacting drugs. The average midazolam dose was 0.11 mg/kg body weight, which is in line with the regional medical guidelines for sedation. Twenty-seven participants (44%) had no cooperation problems when sedated, twenty-six (43%) were treated with minor adaptations, five had poor cooperation, and three were not possible to treat. No statistically significant differences were found for degree of acceptance of treatment and dose or number of possible interacting drugs. Antiepileptics were used by 13% (n=7) with good or quite good acceptance compared to 37% (n=3) among those with poor or no acceptance. Unfavourable side effects were rare; one participant became hyperactive and one drowsier than expected. Sedation with orally administered midazolam seems to be effective and safe in dental treatment of uncooperative persons with major neurocognitive disorder. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Midazolam administration at a department of pediatric radiology: Conscious sedation for diagnostic imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madzik, J.; Marcinski, A.; Brzewski, M.; Jakubowska, A.; Roik, D.; Majkowska, Z.; Biejat, A.; Krzemien, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the usefulness of midazolam administration for sedation prior to some diagnostic examinations in children and to present the requirements and rules for sedation in departments of pediatric radiology. From Oct. 2001 to Aug. 2005, two hundred children were investigated after conscious sedation with midazolam. The examinations were: voiding cystourethrography (129), voiding sonocystography (64), barium enema (3), ultrasonography (1), urography (1), X-ray of facial bone (1), and brain CT (1). The children's age-range was 4 months to 13 years 9 months. The decision for sedation was based on conversation with the child and/or parents, their experience with previous examinations, emotional status of the child, and exclusion of contraindications (renal insufficiency, hepatic failure, respiratory/circulatory insufficiency, allergy to benzodiazepines in anamnesis). Midazolam was given orally in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight, 15-20 minutes before examination (already at the department of pediatric radiology). The parents were informed of the possible side effects and what to do after the procedure. All diagnostic procedures with conscious sedation were well tolerated by the children and accepted by the parents. The parents with experience from previous diagnostic procedures indicated that they would want their child to have midazolam again if the examination needed to be repeated. No significant complications were observed in the children receiving midazolam and few adverse effect on voiding during cystourethrography. In three children (2.5, 3, and 5 years old), paradoxical reactions occurred (psychomotor agitation) which disappeared spontaneously after some minutes and had no influence on the procedure. Application of midazolam for conscious sedation diminished anxiety and discomfort from diagnostic procedures and short anterograde amnesia protected the child's mind from painful experience. Conscious sedation should be widely used in

  20. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, BrittonâRobinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl ...

  1. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton–Robinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl ...

  2. Improving the optical efficiency and concentration of a single-plate quantum dot solar concentrator using near infra-red emitting quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, M.; McCormack, S.J.; Doran, J.; Norton, B. [Dublin Energy Lab., Dublin Institute of Technology, Focas Institute, DIT - Kevin Street, Dublin 8, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-07-15

    Low luminescent quantum yields and large overlap between quantum dot (QD) emission and absorption spectra of present commercially-available visible-emitting QDs have led to low optical efficiencies for single-plate quantum dot solar concentrators (QDSCs). It is shown that using near infra-red (NIR) emitting QDs, re-absorption of QD emitted photons can be reduced greatly, thereby diminishing escape cone losses thus improving optical efficiencies and concentration ratios. Using Monte-Carlo ray-trace modelling, escape cone losses are quantified for different types of QD. A minimum 25% escape cone loss would be expected for a plate with refractive index of 1.5 containing QDs with no spectral overlap. It is shown that escape cone losses account for {proportional_to}57% of incident photons absorbed in QDSCs containing commercially-available visible-emitting QDs. (author)

  3. The effect of complementary and alternative medicines on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of three different substrates: 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin, midazolam and docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooiman, Kim D; Maas-Bakker, Roel F; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Bank, Paul C D; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    2014-06-01

    Concomitant use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and anticancer drugs can affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs by inhibiting the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) (EC 1.14.13.157). Several in vitro studies determined whether CAM can inhibit CYP3A4, but these studies revealed contradictory results. A plausible explanation for these conflicting results is the use only of a single model CYP3A4 substrate in each study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the potential of selected CAM (β-carotene, Echinacea, garlic, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea extract, milk thistle, saw palmetto, valerian, vitamin B6, B12 and C) to inhibit CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of different substrates: 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin (BFC), midazolam and docetaxel. The effect of CAM on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of an anticancer drug has never been determined before in vitro, which makes this study unique. The oncolytic CYP3A4 substrate docetaxel was used to establish the predictive value of the model substrates for pharmacokinetic interactions between CAM and anticancer drugs in vitro, and to more closely predict these interactions in vivo. The inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin (BFC) by CAM was assessed in Supersomes, using the fluorometric CYP3A4 inhibition assay. In human liver microsomes (HLM) the inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of midazolam and docetaxel was determined, using liquid-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results confirmed grape seed and green tea as potent inhibitors and milk thistle as moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of BFC, midazolam and docetaxel. Clinical studies are required to determine the clinical relevance of the determined CYP3A4 inhibition by grape seed, green tea and milk thistle. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Process design and simulation for optimizing the oxygen concentration in Czochralski-grown single-crystal silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. J.; Kim, W. K.; Jung, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The highest-concentration impurity in a single-crystal silicon ingot is oxygen, which infiltrates the ingot during growth stage. This oxygen adversely affects the wafer is quality. This study was aimed at finding an optimal design for the Czochralski (Cz) process to enable high-quality and low cost (by reducing power consumption) wafer production by controlling the oxygen concentration in the silicon ingots. In the Cz process, the characteristics of silicon ingots during crystallization are greatly influenced by the design and the configuration of the hot zone, and by crystallization rate. In order to identify process conditions for obtaining an optimal oxygen concentration of 11 - 13 ppma (required for industrial-grade ingots), designed two shield shapes for the hot zone. Furthermore, oxygen concentrations corresponding to these two shapes were compared by evaluating each shape at five different production speeds. In addition, simulations were performed to identify the optimal shield design for industrial applications.

  5. Process design and simulation for optimizing the oxygen concentration in Czochralski-grown single-crystal silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y. J.; Kim, W. K.; Jung, J. H. [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The highest-concentration impurity in a single-crystal silicon ingot is oxygen, which infiltrates the ingot during growth stage. This oxygen adversely affects the wafer is quality. This study was aimed at finding an optimal design for the Czochralski (Cz) process to enable high-quality and low cost (by reducing power consumption) wafer production by controlling the oxygen concentration in the silicon ingots. In the Cz process, the characteristics of silicon ingots during crystallization are greatly influenced by the design and the configuration of the hot zone, and by crystallization rate. In order to identify process conditions for obtaining an optimal oxygen concentration of 11 - 13 ppma (required for industrial-grade ingots), designed two shield shapes for the hot zone. Furthermore, oxygen concentrations corresponding to these two shapes were compared by evaluating each shape at five different production speeds. In addition, simulations were performed to identify the optimal shield design for industrial applications.

  6. Midazolam oral como medicação pré-anestésica em blefaroplastias Oral sedation with midazolam in blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Dantas Rodrigues Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do emprego oral de midazolam (15 mg como medicação pré-anestésica em pacientes submetidos a blefaroplastias. MÉTODOS: Foi desenvolvido um ensaio clínico prospectivo, duplo cego, randomizado, controlado com 42 pacientes, risco ASA I e II, divididos em três grupos de 14 pacientes: grupo M (midazolam 15 mg, grupo P (placebo e grupo SM (sem medicação. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto ao grau de sedação e dor intraoperatórias e variação entre os períodos pré e transoperatórios da ansiedade, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica, frequência respiratória e pulso. RESULTADOS: A análise de variância unifatorial com teste de Tukey mostrou que a administração de midazolam ocasionou uma redução significativa da pressão arterial sistólica e da frequência respiratória no período transoperatório em relação aos pacientes que utilizaram placebo ou não fizeram uso de medicamento. Esses efeitos foram discretos e acompanhados de diminuição na percepção da dor, discreta sedação e redução da ansiedade. CONCLUSÃO: A sedação via oral com midazolam em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias palpebrais demonstrou ser eficiente de fácil aplicação e com mínimos efeitos sistêmicos.PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and usefulness of the use of oral sedation with midazolam (15 mg in patients submitted to blepharoplasty. METHODS: Randomized double-blind prospective study of 42 patients (surgical risk ASA I and II divided into three groups of 14 patients each: Group M (midazolam 15 mg, group P (placebo and group SM (no medication. All patients were evaluated according to the degree of sedation and pain during surgery and the variation of anxiety between the preoperative and intraoperative period, arterial pressure (systolic-SAP and diastolic-DAP, respiratory frequency (RF and pulsation. RESULTS: Unifatorial variance analysis with Tukey test demonstrated that the use of midazolam

  7. Does Ca2+ reach millimolar concentrations after single photon absorption in Drosophila photoreceptor microvilli?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Marten; Oberwinkler, J; Stavenga, DG

    1999-01-01

    The quantum bump, the elementary event of fly phototransduction induced by the absorption of a single photon, is a small, transient current due to the opening of cation-channels permeable to Ca2+. These channels are located in small, tube-like protrusions of the cell membrane, the microvilli. Using

  8. Flux Concentration and Pole Shaping in a Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2010-01-01

    The single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM) may be a good candidate for low-cost drives used for pump applications. This paper presents a new design of the HSRM with improved starting torque achieved by stator pole shaping, and a better arrangement of the embedded stator permanent...

  9. A Comparison of Midazolam, Lorazepam, and Diazepam for the Treatment of Status Epilepticus in Children: A Network Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Yu; Wang, Hong-Ying; Wen, Bin; Yang, Zhi-Bo; Feng, Kang; Fan, Jing-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Midazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam were recommended as emergent initial therapy for status epilepticus. However, there are no current studies to confirm the best agent for pediatric status epilepticus. We compared the efficacy of midazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam in treating pediatric status epilepticus using a network meta-analysis method. In total, 16 randomized controlled trials containing 1821 patients were included. Nonintravenous midazolam, intravenous lorazepam, and intravenous diazepam were more successful in achieving seizure cessation when compared with nonintravenous diazepam (odds ratio = 2.23, 95% credibility interval: 1.62, 3.10; odds ratio = 2.71, 95% credibility interval: 1.25, 5.89; odds ratio = 2.65, 95% credibility interval: 1.12, 6.29; respectively). Among lorazepam, midazolam, and diazepam, midazolam had the highest probability (surface under the cumulative ranking area [SUCRA] = 0.792) of achieving seizure cessation, and lorazepam had the largest probability (surface under the cumulative ranking area = 0.4346) of being the best treatment in reduction of respiratory depression. In conclusion, nonintravenous midazolam and intravenous lorazepam were superior to intravenous or nonintravenous diazepam, and intravenous lorazepam was at least as effective as nonintravenous midazolam in treating pediatric status epilepticus. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. [Examination of the optimal midazolam dose required for loss of puncture memory at the time of spinal anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boku, Aiji; Koyama, Shinichi; Kishimoto, Naotaka; Nakatani, Keiji; Kurita, Satoshi; Nagata, Noboru; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2011-08-01

    We examined midazolam ED50 according to age that was necessary for loss of puncture memory at the time of spinal anesthesia and determined whether we could estimate the presence of puncture memory from the degree of sedation after midazolam administration. We enrolled patients with ASA PS 1 or 2 and patients from 50 to 80 years of age who had been planned for surgery with spinal anesthesia. We divided the patients into groups according to their age--50s, 60s, and 70s as L, M, and H groups, respectively. We evaluated the degree of sedation with six phases of scores after intravenous administration of midazolam and spinal anesthesia was performed. The midazolam dose was based on the ups and downs method. The midazolam ED50s required for the loss of puncture memory in groups L, M, and H were 0.043, 0.035, and 0.026 mg x kg(-1), respectively. We estimated the association between the sedation degree score after midazolam administration and the puncture memory from ROC curve, but AUC was 0.56 for all cases. The midazolam ED50 required for the loss of puncture memory decreased with age but it was difficult to estimate puncture memory from the degree of sedation.

  11. Double Centrifugation Versus Single Centrifugation of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate in Sinus Floor Elevation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thiago Altro; Aloise, Antonio Carlos; Orosz, José Eduardo; de Mello E Oliveira, Rafael; de Carvalho, Paulo; Pelegrine, André Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the regenerative results of the addition of bone marrow aspirate concentrate, using a single or double centrifugation protocol, to a xenogeneic bone graft in sinus floor elevation. Using a randomized, controlled pilot study design in 15 consecutive patients, sinus floor elevation procedures were performed with a xenogenous bone graft alone (control group, CG) or associated with bone marrow aspirate concentrate obtained by single centrifugation (single centrifugation group, SCG) or double centrifugation (double centrifugation group, DCG). In the patients in the single and double centrifugation groups, bone marrow was harvested from the iliac bone. Six months after the grafting procedures, bone biopsy specimens were obtained during implant placement and were analyzed by histomorphometry. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a great amount of vital mineralized tissue in SCG followed by DCG when compared with the CG (38.44 ± 12.34%, 34.63 ± 9.84%, and 27.30 ± 5.55%, respectively). SCG and DCG presented smaller amounts of nonvital mineralized tissue when compared with the CG (13.70 ± 7.50%, 19.63 ± 8.35%, and 22.79 ± 9.60%, respectively), thus presenting higher levels of resorption. Although these differences were not statistically significant (P > .05), a tendency toward bone gain in the experimental groups (SCG and DCG) was found. All groups (SCG, DCG, and CG) showed similar levels of nonmineralized tissue (47.87 ± 6.31%, 45.73 ± 7.33%, and 49.90 ± 7.64%, respectively). This pilot study indicates that the clinical use of bone marrow aspirate concentrate, obtained by either a single or double centrifugation process, combined with a xenograft for maxillary sinus elevation seems to result in more adequate bone repair. However, clinical trials with a larger number of patients are required.

  12. Intestinal first pass metabolism of midazolam in liver cirrhosis --effect of grapefruit juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Pedersen, Natalie; Larsen, Niels-Erik

    2002-01-01

    subjects after ingestion of grapefruit juice. However, this interaction has not been studied in patients with impaired liver function. Accordingly, the effect of grapefruit juice on the AUC of midazolam and the metabolite alpha-hydroxymidazolam was studied in patients with cirrhosis of the liver....

  13. The Influence of Verapamil and Nicardipine on the Rate of Metabolism of Midazolam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    premedicant and for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Midazolam produces anxiolysis, amnesia, hypnosis , skeletal muscle relaxation, and anticonvulsant...metabolizing properties. The results of competition can involve toxic and or ineffective dosages of the competing drugs (Hardman et al., 1996). Hepatic

  14. Safety of oral midazolam sedation use in paediatric dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineni, Arathi; Lourenço-Matharu, Liege; Ashley, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available as to the safety of midazolam when used as an oral sedative. To evaluate the side effects and other adverse outcomes following use of oral midazolam for behaviour management in paediatric dentistry. A review of published literature relating to the safety and side effects of oral midazolam for use in paediatric dental procedures was conducted. Both randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies were assessed. Reported side effects were recorded and classified as either significant or minor. The percentage prevalence of significant or minor side effects per episode of treatment was calculated. Sixteen papers of randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. None of the side effects recorded were considered as significant. Minor side effects were reported (n = 68, 14%), with nausea and vomiting being the most frequently recorded (n = 30, 6%). Eleven papers of non-randomised studies were included. No significant side effects were recorded. Minor side effects were recorded (n = 157, 8%), with paradoxical reaction being the most common at 3.8%. Significant side effects associated with oral midazolam usage for behaviour management in children and adolescents requiring dental treatment appear to be rare. Minor side effects are more common but determining precise figures is complicated by poor reporting. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  15. [Pre-anesthetic medication with intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral midazolam as an anxiolytic. A clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares Segovia, B; García Cuevas, M A; Ramírez Casillas, I L; Guerrero Romero, J F; Botello Buenrostro, I; Monroy Torres, R; Ramírez Gómez, X S

    2014-10-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a pharmacological option for sedation in children. In this study, the efficacy of intranasal dexmedetomidine to reduce preoperative anxiety in pediatric patients is compared with that of oral midazolam. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted on children 2-12 years of age, randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: group A received premedication with oral midazolam and intranasal placebo, group B received intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral placebo. Anxiety was assessed with the modified Yale scale, and a risk analysis and number needed to treat was performed. A total of 108 patients were included, 52 (48.1%) treated with dexmedetomidine, and 56 (51.9%) with midazolam. Anxiety was less frequent in the dexmedetomidine group at 60minutes (P=.001), induction (p=.04), and recovery (P=.0001). Risk analysis showed that dexmedetomidine reduced the risk of anxiety by 28% (RAR=0.28, 95% CI; 0.12 to 0.43) and to prevent one case of anxiety, four patients need to be treated with intranasal dexmedetomidine (NNT=4, 95% CI: 3-9).Changes in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation, were statistically significant in the dexmedetomidine group, with no clinical consequences. There were no cases of bradycardia, hypotension or oxygen desaturation. Intranasal dexmedetomidine premedication is more effective than oral midazolam to reduce preoperative anxiety in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of oral ketamine and oral midazolam as sedative agents in pediatric dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damle S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The safe and effective treatment of uncooperative or combative preschool children with extensive dental needs is one of pediatric dentist′s ongoing challenges. The traditional methods of behavior management are no longer acceptable to parents as they are not ready to spare more time for dental treatment of their children. Keeping this in mind, the present study was designed and carried out to evaluate the sedative effects of oral ketamine and oral midazolam prior to general anesthesia. Twenty uncooperative children in the age-group of 2-6 years were selected after thorough medical examination and investigations. Informed consent was obtained from the parent. This was a randomized double-blind study. An anesthesiologist administered either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam or 5 mg/kg ketamine orally. The heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation were recorded at regular intervals. The sedation and anxiolysis scores were also recorded. The parents were asked to answer a questionnaire at the follow-up session the next day on the surgical experience of the parent and the child and side effects experienced, if any. When the data was subjected to statistical analysis, it was observed that both drugs resulted in adequate sedation at the end of 30 min, with oral midazolam providing significantly better anxiolysis. The heart rate and respiratory rate were marginally higher with oral ketamine. The questionnaire revealed a better response with oral midazolam; side effects were more prominent with oral ketamine.

  17. Comparison of oral ketamine and oral midazolam as sedative agents in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, S G; Gandhi, M; Laheri, V

    2008-09-01

    The safe and effective treatment of uncooperative or combative preschool children with extensive dental needs is one of pediatric dentist's ongoing challenges. The traditional methods of behavior management are no longer acceptable to parents as they are not ready to spare more time for dental treatment of their children. Keeping this in mind, the present study was designed and carried out to evaluate the sedative effects of oral ketamine and oral midazolam prior to general anesthesia. Twenty uncooperative children in the age-group of 2-6 years were selected after thorough medical examination and investigations. Informed consent was obtained from the parent. This was a randomized double-blind study. An anesthesiologist administered either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam or 5 mg/kg ketamine orally. The heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation were recorded at regular intervals. The sedation and anxiolysis scores were also recorded. The parents were asked to answer a questionnaire at the follow-up session the next day on the surgical experience of the parent and the child and side effects experienced, if any. When the data was subjected to statistical analysis, it was observed that both drugs resulted in adequate sedation at the end of 30 min, with oral midazolam providing significantly better anxiolysis. The heart rate and respiratory rate were marginally higher with oral ketamine. The questionnaire revealed a better response with oral midazolam; side effects were more prominent with oral ketamine.

  18. Effect of midazolam premedication on the dose of propofol for laryngeal mask airway insertion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Priyesh; Malik, Anita; Kapoor, Rajni; Kohli, Monica; Agarwal, Jyotsana; Harjai, Mamta

    2010-10-01

    The present study was conducted on 120 pediatric patients of ASA Grade I and II of either sex aged 3-12 years scheduled for pediatric surgeries under general anaesthesia. PATIENTS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; All patients were randomly divided into Group A and Group B. Group A was further divided into 3 subgroups of unpremedicated patients who received 3, 4 and 5 mg kg (-1) propofol only designated as A1, A2 and A3 respectively. Group B was further divided into subgroups of premedicated patients with midazolam (0.05 mg kg (-1) ) intravenous and received 3, 4 and 5 mg kg (-1) propofol designated as B1, B2 and B3 respectively. Results showed that increasing dose of propofol decreases the adverse events like inadequate jaw relaxation, limb movements, coughing, gagging and laryngospasm. Midazolam when added to propofol further reduces the incidence of adverse events and provides more favorable environment for insertion of LMA. At higher doses of propofol (5 mg kg (-1) ), hypotension is a major problem due to its cardiovascular depressant action. Therefore, 4 mg kg (-1) propofol along with midazolam is the optimum dose because there is more hemodynamic stability and we get better conditions for LMA insertion. Midazolam is an effective premedication in children which is synergistic with propofol and reduces its effective dose, required for LMA insertion.

  19. Oral midazolam reduces cortisol levels during local anaesthesia in children: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Sousa GOMES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about whether midazolam sedation can reduce salivary cortisol levels and consequently influence children’s behaviour during dental treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of midazolam sedation on salivary cortisol and its correlation with children’s behaviour during restorative dental treatment. Eighteen healthy children, aged two to five years, were randomly assigned to two dental treatment appointments, both with physical restraint: oral midazolam 1 mg/kg (MS and placebo (PS. An observer assessed the children’s behaviour (videos using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS. The children’s saliva was collected just after waking up, on arrival at the dental school, 25 minutes after local anaesthesia, and 25 minutes after the end of the procedure. Salivary cortisol levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The data were analysed by bivariate tests and multivariate analysis of variance (5% level. Salivary cortisol levels were lower in the MS group than in the PS group at the time of anaesthesia (p = 0.004, but did not vary during the appointment within sedation (p = 0.319 or placebo (p = 0.080 groups. Children’s behaviour was negative most of the time and did not differ between MS and PS; however, the behaviour (OSUBRS did not correlate with salivary cortisol levels. Oral midazolam is able to control salivary cortisol levels during dental treatment of pre-schoolers, which might not lead to better clinical behaviour.

  20. The effects of intrathecal midazolam on the duration of analgesia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-13

    Feb 13, 2011 ... neurotoxicity and the adverse effects of opioids.4. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2 mg preservative-free intrathecal midazolam added to spinal bupivacaine during postoperative analgesia, and the incidence of adverse effects, if any, in patients undergoing knee arthroscopies. Method.

  1. Premedication with midazolam prior to cesarean delivery in preeclamptic parturients: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Ali M.; Elsakka, Ahmed I.; Ali, Hassan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is a concern in obstetrics, especially in preeclamptic mothers. Sedation is not commonly used in parturients for fear of adverse neonatal effect. We investigated maternal and neonatal outcome of midazolam as an adjuvant to spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial, in which eighty preeclamptic parturients received either an intravenous dose of 0.035 mg/kg of midazolam or an equal volume of normal saline, 30 min before spinal anesthesia. Maternal anxiety was assessed using Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS); postoperative maternal satisfaction was assessed using Maternal Satisfaction Scale for Cesarean Section (MSSCS). Newborns were assessed using Apgar score, Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS), and umbilical artery blood gases. Results: Mothers premedicated with midazolam showed a lower level of preoperative anxiety and a higher degree of postoperative satisfaction than the control group. There were no between-group differences regarding the neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Preeclamptic parturients premedicated with midazolam (0.035 mg/kg) before spinal anesthesia have lower anxiety and higher postoperative satisfaction levels, with no adverse effects on the newborns. PMID:27746564

  2. Single-grain cosmogenic Ne-21 concentrations in fluvial sediment reveal spatially variable erosion rates

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru T. Codilean; P. Bishop; F. M. Stuart; T. B. Hoey; D. Fabel; S. P. H. T. Freeman;  

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that the spatial variation in erosion in a catchment is refl ected in the distribution of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in sediments leaving the catchment. Using published data and four new 10Be measurements in fl uvial sediment collected from the outlets of small river catchments, we constrained the spatial variability of erosion rates in the Gaub River catchment in Namibia. We combined these catchment-averaged erosion rates, and the mean slope values with...

  3. Effective Dosage of Midazolam to Erase the Memory of Vascular Pain During Propofol Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boku, Aiji; Inoue, Mika; Hanamoto, Hiroshi; Oyamaguchi, Aiko; Kudo, Chiho; Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Niwa, Hitoshi

    Intravenous sedation with propofol is often administered to anxious patients in dental practice. Pain on injection of propofol is a common adverse effect. This study aimed to determine the age-adjusted doses of midazolam required to erase memory of vascular pain of propofol administration and assess whether the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) after the pretreatment of midazolam was useful to predict amnesia of the vascular pain of propofol administration. A total of 246 patients with dental phobia requiring dental treatment under intravenous sedation were included. Patients were classified according to their age: 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60s. Three minutes after administration of a predetermined dose of midazolam, propofol was infused continuously. After completion of the dental procedure, patients were interviewed about the memory of any pain or discomfort in the injection site or forearm. The dosage of midazolam was determined using the Dixon up-down method. The first patient was administered 0.03 mg/kg, and if memory of vascular pain remained, the dosage was increased by 0.01 mg/kg for the next patient, and then if the memory was erased, the dosage was decreased by 0.01 mg/kg. The effective dosage of midazolam in 95% of each age group for erasing the memory of propofol vascular pain (ED95) was determined using logistic analysis. The accuracy of RSS to predict the amnesia of injection pain was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The ED95 of midazolam to erase the memory of propofol vascular pain was 0.061 mg/kg in patients in their 30s, 0.049 mg/kg in patients in their 40s, 0.033 mg/kg in patients in their 50s, and 0.033 mg/kg in patients in their 60s. The area under the ROC curve was 0.31. The ED95 of midazolam required to erase the memory of propofol vascular pain demonstrated a downward trend with age. On the other hand, it was impossible to predict the amnesia of propofol vascular pain using the RSS.

  4. Fabrication and Probabilistic Fracture Strength Prediction of High-Aspect-Ratio Single Crystal Silicon Carbide Microspecimens With Stress Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Evans, Laura J.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Sharpe, William N., Jr.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Trapp, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    Single crystal silicon carbide micro-sized tensile specimens were fabricated with deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) in order to investigate the effect of stress concentration on the room-temperature fracture strength. The fracture strength was defined as the level of stress at the highest stressed location in the structure at the instant of specimen rupture. Specimens with an elliptical hole, a circular hole, and without a hole (and hence with no stress concentration) were made. The average fracture strength of specimens with a higher stress concentration was larger than the average fracture strength of specimens with a lower stress concentration. Average strength of elliptical-hole, circular-hole, and without-hole specimens was 1.53, 1.26, and 0.66 GPa, respectively. Significant scatter in strength was observed with the Weibull modulus ranging between 2 and 6. No fractographic examination was performed but it was assumed that the strength controlling flaws originated from etching grooves along the specimen side-walls. The increase of observed fracture strength with increasing stress concentration was compared to predictions made with the Weibull stress-integral formulation by using the NASA CARES/Life code. In the analysis isotropic material and fracture behavior was assumed - hence it was not a completely rigorous analysis. However, even with these assumptions good correlation was achieved for the circular-hole specimen data when using the specimen data without stress concentration as a baseline. Strength was over predicted for the elliptical-hole specimen data. Significant specimen-to-specimen dimensional variation existed in the elliptical-hole specimens due to variations in the nickel mask used in the etching. To simulate the additional effect of the dimensional variability on the probabilistic strength response for the single crystal specimens the ANSYS Probabilistic Design System (PDS) was used with CARES/Life.

  5. Time-course measurements of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko T; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Segawa, Hiroki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    Hair and nails are often used to prove long-term intake of drugs in forensic drug testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of drug testing using hair and nails and the feasibility of determining when drugs were ingested by measuring the time-courses of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of various drugs. Healthy subjects ingested four pharmaceutical products containing eight active ingredients in single doses. Hair and toenails were collected at predetermined intervals, and drug concentrations in hair and nails were measured for 12 months. The administered drugs and their main metabolites were extracted using micropulverized extraction with a stainless steel bullet and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Acidic compounds such as ibuprofen and its metabolites were not detected in both specimens. Acetaminophen, a weakly acidic compound, was detected in nails more frequently than in hair. The maximum concentration of allyl isopropyl acetylurea, a neutral compound, in nails was significantly higher than in hair. Nails are an effective specimen to detect neutral and weakly acidic compounds. For fexofenadine, a zwitterionic compound, and for most basic compounds, the maximum concentrations in hair segments tended to be higher than those in nails. The hair segments showing the maximum concentrations varied between drugs, samples, and subjects. Drug concentrations in hair segments greatly depended on the selection of the hair. Careful interpretation of analytical results is required to predict the time of drug intake. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Orally Administered Intravenous Midazolam Versus a Commercially Prepared Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Katayoun; Khoshrang, Hossein; Kousha, Maryam; Hoseini, Mahboobeh; Ranjbar, Marzieh; Baniasadi, Shadi; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among different categories of sedative agents, benzodiazepines have been prescribed for more than three decades to patients of all ages. The effective and predictable sedative and amnestic effects of benzodiazepines support their use in pediatric patients. Midazolam is one of the most extensively used benzodiazepines in this age group. Oral form of drug is the best accepted route of administration in children. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a commercially midazolam syrup versus orally administered IV midazolam in uncooperative dental patients. Second objective was to determine whether differences concerning sedation success can be explained by child‘s behavioral problems and dental fear. Patients and Methods: Eighty eight uncooperative dental patients (Frankl Scales 1,2) aged 3 to 6 years, and ASA I participated in this double blind, parallel randomized, controlled clinical trial. Midazolam was administered in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg for children under the age 5 and 0.2 mg/kg in patients over 5 years of age. Physiologic parameters including heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure were recorded. Behavior assessment was conducted throughout the course of treatment using Houpt Sedation Rating Scale and at critical moments of treatment (injection and cavity preparation) by North Carolina Scale. Dental fear and behavioral problems were evaluated using Child Fear Schedule Survey-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Independent t-test, Chi-Square, and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis. Results: Acceptable overall sedation ratings were observed in 90% and 86% of syrup and IV/Oral group respectively; Chi-Square P = 0.5. Other domains of Houpt Scale including: sleep, crying and movement were also not significantly different between groups. Physiological parameters remained in normal limits during study without significant

  7. Premedication with melatonin vs midazolam: efficacy on anxiety and compliance in paediatric surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Pietro; Vinci, Enrica; Gugliandolo, Maria Cristina; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba; Russo, Tiziana; Gravina, Maria Rosaria; Arena, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Gitto, Eloisa; Montalto, Angela Simona; Alibrandi, Angela; Marseglia, Lucia; Romeo, Carmelo

    2017-07-01

    Preoperative anxiety is a major problem in paediatric surgical patients. Melatonin has been used as a premedicant agent and data regarding effectiveness are controversial. The primary outcome of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral melatonin premedication, in comparison to midazolam, in reducing preoperative anxiety in children undergoing elective surgery. As secondary outcome, compliance to intravenous induction anaesthesia was assessed. There were 80 children undergoing surgery randomly assigned, 40 per group, to receive oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg, max 20 mg) or oral melatonin (0.5 mg/kg, max 20 mg). Trait anxiety of children and their mothers (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at admission, preoperative anxiety and during anaesthesia induction (Modified Yale Pre-operative Anxiety Scale), and children's compliance with anaesthesia induction (Induction Compliance Checklist) were all assessed. Children premedicated with melatonin and midazolam did not show significant differences in preoperative anxiety levels, either in the preoperative room or during anaesthesia induction. Moreover, compliance during anaesthesia induction was similar in both groups. This study adds new encouraging data, further supporting the potential use of melatonin premedication in reducing anxiety and improving compliance to induction of anaesthesia in children undergoing surgery. Nevertheless, further larger controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm the real effectiveness of melatonin as a premedicant agent in paediatric population. What is Known: • Although midazolam represents the preferred treatment as a premedication for children before induction of anaesthesia, it has several side effects. • Melatonin has been successfully used as a premedicant agent in adults, while data regarding effectiveness in children are controversial. What is New: • In this study, melatonin was as effective as midazolam in reducing children's anxiety in both

  8. Midazolam more effectively suppresses sympathetic activations and reduces stress feelings during mental arithmetic task than propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugayasu, Rie; Handa, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Yuzuru; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of intravenous midazolam and propofol sedation on autonomic nervous activities during psychological stress, and whether these results are associated with changes in subjective stress feelings. Seven healthy male volunteers were included in a randomized crossover manner. The heart rate (HR), HR variability, arterial oxygen saturation, and bispectral index value were continuously monitored. A mental arithmetic task for 7 minutes was given with or without intravenous sedation with midazolam or propofol. A bispectral index value of 75 to 85 and an Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation score of 4 were the targeted sedation level in both groups. HR variability was assessed using the power spectral analysis (low-frequency [LF] and high-frequency [HF] components and LF/HF ratio). The faces anxiety scale was used to grade their stress feelings after each mental arithmetic task. During the mental arithmetic task with intravenous sedation, no differences were found in the bispectral index values, arterial oxygen saturation, or the results of the mental arithmetic task between the 2 groups. The HR, LF/HF ratio, and normalized unit LF increased, and the normalized unit HF decreased in both groups. However, the percentage of changes in LF/HF ratio, normalized unit LF, and normalized unit HF were smaller in the midazolam group. In addition, the reduction in faces anxiety scale was greater in the midazolam group. These results suggest that midazolam more effectively suppresses sympathetic nervous activation and reduces subjective stress feelings during a mental arithmetic task than propofol. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Memory and hippocampal architecture following short-term midazolam in western diet-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Dorothea S; Falangola, Maria F; Ledreux, Aurélie; Nie, Xingju; Suhre, Wendy M; Boger, Heather A; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-05-16

    The impact of short-term benzodiazepine exposure on cognition in middle-aged or older patients is a highly debated topic among anesthesiologists, critical care physicians and public media. "Western diet" (WD) consumption is linked to impaired cognition as well. The combination of benzodiazepines with substantial exposure to WD might set the stage for increased hippocampal vulnerability for benzodiazepines leading to exaggerated cognitive impairment in the postoperative period. In this study, Fischer 344 rats were fed either WD or standard rodent diet from 5 to 10.5 months of age. Rats were exposed to midazolam or placebo two days prior to an MRI scan using Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) to assess brain microstructural integrity, followed by behavioral testing using a water radial arm maze. Hippocampal tissue was collected to assess alterations in protein biochemistry in brain regions associated with learning and memory. Our results showed that rats exposed to the combination of midazolam and WD had significantly delayed time of learning and exhibited spatial memory impairment. Further, we observed an overall increase of kurtosis metrics in the hippocampus and increased expression of the mitochondrial protein VDAC2 in midazolam-treated rats. Our data suggest that both the short-acting benzodiazepine midazolam and WD contribute to negatively affect the brain in middle-aged rats. This study is the first application of DKI on the effects of midazolam and WD exposure, and the findings demonstrate that diffusion metrics are sensitive indicators of changes in the complexity of neurite architecture. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Randomized Clinical Trial of Sedation With Oral Midazolam For Voiding Cystourethrography in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Ghorbann Nooreddini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Voiding Cystourethrography (VCUG is a distressing procedure for children.Conscious sedation with any drug that its dose would not influences the procedure is preferred. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of conscious sedation using oral midazolam in children undergoing VCUG.Methods: From November 2008 to October 2009 period, 93 Patients (68 girls and 25 boys, age ranging from 24 months to 11 years old (mean, 5.8 yearswere double blindly randomized to receive a placebo (water or oral midazolam before the examination. The primary outcome measures were patients' cooperation, facility of the procedure, 48 hours post procedure memory of children, bladder urine residue and detection of Vesocoureteral reflex. The data were analysed by SPSS and categorical variables compared using t-test and continuous variables compared using Chi. Square and Fisher’s exact tests.Results: 93 children were randomizly divided in two groups. In midazolam   group, 44(93.6% patients had good cooperation but in the control group 26(56.5%had bad cooperation and 19 patients (41.3% very bad cooperation (P=0.000. In midazolam group, 36 children (76.6% had easy separation from their parents but in   control group 20 children (43.5% had moderate resistant and 21(45.7% severe resistant. (P=0.000. Eighteen (38 % patients of the study group and twenty patients(43 % of control group had VUR respectively (P=0.65.   Conclusion:According to this study, midazolam is a useful sedation in children undergoing VCUG.  

  11. Determination of chlorine concentration using single temperature modulated semiconductor gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ł.; Kalinowski, P.; Jasiński, G.; Jasiński, P.

    2016-11-01

    A periodic temperature modulation using sinusoidal heater voltage was applied to a commercial SnO2 semiconductor gas sensor. Resulting resistance response of the sensor was analyzed using a feature extraction method based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The amplitudes of the higher harmonics of the FFT from the dynamic nonlinear responses of measured gas were further utilized as an input for Artificial Neuron Network (ANN). Determination of the concentration of chlorine was performed. Moreover, this work evaluates the sensor performance upon sinusoidal temperature modulation.

  12. Determination of the concentration of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous dispersions using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attal, S; Thiruvengadathan, R; Regev, O

    2006-12-01

    Stable, homogeneous, aqueous dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are prepared by nonspecific physical adsorption of surfactants enhanced by sonication. Upon centrifugation, supernatant and precipitate phases are obtained. The initial weights of the SWNTs and the surfactant are divided between these two phases, and the respective SWNT concentration in each phase is unknown. The focus of this work is on the determination of the true concentration of raw, exfoliated HiPCO SWNTs in the supernatant phase. A UV-visible absorption-based approach is suggested for a direct measurement of the SWNT and the surfactant concentration in the supernatant. UV-visible absorbance spectra of SWNTs-surfactant dispersions and surfactants alone reveal that the intensity of a certain peak, attributed to the pi-plasmon resonance absorption, is unaffected by the presence of most surfactants. A calibration plot is then made by monitoring the intensity of the peak as a function of the true concentration of the exfoliated SWNTs. Thus, we are able to determine the unknown concentration of surfactant-dispersed HiPCO SWNTs in the supernatant solution, simply by measuring its optical absorbance. Moreover, we can now calculate the surfactant efficiency in dispersing SWNTs. Cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis techniques are used for the characterization of these dispersions and to complement the UV-visible measurements.

  13. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gujarati, Vivek P., E-mail: vivekgujarati@gmail.com; Deshpande, M. P., E-mail: vishwadeshpande@yahoo.co.in; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-06

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  14. Comparative study between dexmedetomidine/nalbuphine and midazolam/nalbuphine in monitored anesthesia care during ear surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hassan Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that the combination of dexmedetomidine/nalbuphine is a better alternative to midazolam/nalbuphine in MAC since it provides analgesia, amnesia and sedation with better intraoperative and postoperative patient satisfaction with better surgical field exposure.

  15. AMS measurement of C-14 concentration in a single-year ring of a 2500-yr-old tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, H.; Gandou, T.; Kato, W.; Sawaki, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Aoki, T.; Matsuzaki, H.; Gunji, S.; Tokanai, F.

    2004-01-01

    The 14 C concentration in rings of an old tree that date back approximately 2500 yr has been measured at single-year intervals with a highly accurate liquid scintillation counter (LSC) (0.2%) to investigate the 11-yr periodicity of solar activity. To investigate the applicability of AMS to accurate 14 C measurement, 16 graphite samples produced from the cellulose of a single-year tree ring of a 2500-yr-old cedar were measured with the micro analysis laboratory tandem (MALT) accelerator, at The University of Tokyo, and the results were compared with the 14 C age determined using LSC. The average 14 C age of the single-year tree ring calculated from 16 measurements was 2496 ± 23 yr BP, corresponding to the statistical accuracy of 0.26%. This was consistent with the age of 2514 ± 23 yr BP determined using LSC within the acceptable error range, which indicates that accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is applicable for accurate 14 C measurement using multi-graphite for the same single-year tree ring

  16. Homocysteine concentration in coronary artery disease: Influence of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, C; Schnabel, R B; Zengin, E; Lubos, E; Rupprecht, H; Lackner, K; Proust, C; Tregouet, D; Blankenberg, S; Westermann, D; Sinning, C

    2017-02-01

    Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of homocysteine metabolism enzymes influence the rate of cardiovascular (CV) events in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients remains controversial. In this analysis, 1126 subjects from the AtheroGene study with CAD and 332 control subjects without known CAD were included. The following SNPs were investigated: methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR-C667T), methionin synthetase (MS-D919G), and cystathionin beta synthetase (CBS-I278T). The endpoint was the combination of cardiovascular death, stroke, and non-fatal myocardial infarction (N = 286). The median follow-up time was 6.4 years. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis showed an increasing event rate with rising homocysteine levels (p homocysteine was a predictor of the endpoint with a hazard ratio (HR) of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.9-14.6, p homocysteine levels significantly in patients with CAD and individuals without CAD (both p homocysteine levels in CAD patients or controls. The different SNPs of MTHFR, MS, and CBS were not related to an increased event rate. Homocysteine level is a strong predictor of CV events. Subjects with and without CAD and SNPs in the enzyme MTHFR had increased homocysteine levels. This was not observed for MS and CBS SNPs. Although MTHFR SNPs alter homocysteine levels in patients and controls, these polymorphisms had no impact on prognosis in CAD patients. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of number concentration quantification by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: microsecond vs. millisecond dwell times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Álvaro, Isabel; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bolea, Eduardo; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Castillo, Juan R; Laborda, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The quality of the quantitative information in single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) depends directly on the number concentration of the nanoparticles in the sample analyzed, which is proportional to the flux of nanoparticles through the plasma. Particle number concentrations must be selected in accordance with the data acquisition frequency, to control the precision from counting statistics and the bias, which is produced by the occurrence of multiple-particle events recorded as single-particle events. With quadrupole mass spectrometers, the frequency of data acquisition is directly controlled by the dwell time. The effect of dwell times from milli- to microseconds (10 ms, 5 ms, 100 μs, and 50 μs) on the quality of the quantitative data has been studied. Working with dwell times in the millisecond range, precision figures about 5 % were achieved, whereas using microsecond dwell times, the suitable fluxes of nanoparticles are higher and precision was reduced down to 1 %; this was independent of the dwell time selected. Moreover, due to the lower occurrence of multiple-nanoparticle events, linear ranges are wider when dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs are used. A calculation tool is provided to determine the optimal concentration for any instrument or experimental conditions selected. On the other hand, the use of dwell times in the microsecond range reduces significantly the contribution of the background and/or the presence of dissolved species, in comparison with the use of millisecond dwell times. Although the use of dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs offers improved performance working in single-particle mode, the use of conventional dwell times (3-10 ms) should not be discarded, once their limitations are known.

  18. Propofol versus midazolam for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in cirrhotic patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chien Tsai

    Full Text Available Sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy is often achieved using propofol or midazolam in general population. However, impaired protein synthesis, altered drug metabolism, and compromised hepatic blood flow in patients with liver cirrhosis might affect the pharmacokinetics of sedatives, placing cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy at a greater risk of adverse events. The objective of this study was to assess comparative efficacies and safety of propofol and midazolam in cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy.Randomized, controlled trials comparing propofol with midazolam in cirrhotic patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy were selected. We performed the meta-analysis, using a random-effect model, the Review Manager, Version 5.2, statistical software package (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK according to the PRISMA guidelines.Five studies between 2003 and 2012, including 433 patients, were included. Propofol provided a shorter time to sedation (weight mean difference: -2.76 min, 95% confidence interval: -3.00 to -2.51 and a shorter recovery time (weight mean difference -6.17 min, 95% confidence interval: -6.81 to -5.54 than midazolam did. No intergroup difference in the incidence of hypotension, bradycardia, or hypoxemia was observed. Midazolam was associated with the deterioration of psychometric scores for a longer period than propofol.This meta-analysis suggests that Propofol sedation for endoscopy provides more rapid sedation and recovery than midazolam does. The risk of sedation-related side effects for propofol does not differ significantly from that of midazolam. The efficacy of propofol in cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy is superior to those of midazolam.

  19. Changes to the bispectral index and regional cerebral blood flow in a sedative state, caused by midazolam administration

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 淳子; イケダ, ジュンコ; Junko, IKEDA

    2006-01-01

    Psychosedation, as used in the field of dentistry, is intended to provide trouble-free dental care while maintaining a proper level of sedation. One drug used in psychosedation is midazolam, which is known to have a strong amnestic effect. In the current research, I sought to clarify whether the bispectral index (BIS) using EEC analysis can be used for assessment of optimal sedation in psychosedation, and what effects midazolam has on the cerebrum's mechanism of memory. The subjects were 17 h...

  20. Single Pass Albumin Dialysis-A Dose-Finding Study to Define Optimal Albumin Concentration and Dialysate Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Rosa Bianca; Nawrot, Gesa-Henrike; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Pratschke, Johann; Sauer, Igor Maximilian

    2017-02-01

    Several artificial liver support concepts have been evaluated both in vitro and clinically. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD) has shown to be one of the most simple approaches for removing albumin-bound toxins and water-soluble substances. Being faced with acute liver failure (ALF) in everyday practice encouraged our attempt to define the optimal conditions for SPAD more precisely in a standardized experimental setup. Albumin concentration was adjusted to either 1%, 2%, 3%, or 4%, while the flow rate of the dialysate was kept constant at a speed of 700 mL/h. The flow rate of the dialysate was altered between 350, 500, 700, and 1000 mL/h, whereas the albumin concentration was continuously kept at 3%. This study revealed that the detoxification of albumin-bound substances could be improved by increasing the concentration of albumin in the dialysate with an optimum at 3%. A further increase of the albumin concentration to 4% did not lead to a significant increase in detoxification. Furthermore, we observed a gradual increase of the detoxification efficiency for albumin-bound substances, from 350 mL/h to 700 mL/h (for bilirubin) or 1000 mL/h (for bile acids) of dialysate flow. Water-soluble toxins (ammonia, creatinine, urea, uric acid) were removed almost completely, regardless of albumin concentration or flow rate. In conclusion, this study confirmed that SPAD is effective in eliminating albumin-bound as well as water-soluble toxins using a simulation of ALF. Furthermore, this project was successful in evaluating the most effective combination of albumin concentration (3%) and dialysate flow (700 mL/h-1000 mL/h) in SPAD for the first time. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A new single-moment microphysics scheme for cloud-resolving models using observed dependence of ice concentration on temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairoutdinov, M.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of microphysics, especially ice microphysics, remains one of the major uncertainties in cloud-resolving models (CRMs). Most of the cloud schemes use the so-called bulk microphysics approach, in which a few moments of such distributions are used as the prognostic variables. The System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) is the CRM that employs two such schemes. The single-moment scheme, which uses only mass for each of the water phases, and the two-moment scheme, which adds the particle concentration for each of the hydrometeor category. Of the two, the single-moment scheme is much more computationally efficient as it uses only two prognostic microphysics variables compared to ten variables used by the two-moment scheme. The efficiency comes from a rather considerable oversimplification of the microphysical processes. For instance, only a sum of the liquid and icy cloud water is predicted with the temperature used to diagnose the mixing ratios of different hydrometeors. The main motivation for using such simplified microphysics has been computational efficiency, especially in the applications of SAM as the super-parameterization in global climate models. Recently, we have extended the single-moment microphysics by adding only one additional prognostic variable, which has, nevertheless, allowed us to separate the cloud ice from liquid water. We made use of some of the recent observations of ice microphysics collected at various parts of the world to parameterize several aspects of ice microphysics that have not been explicitly represented before in our sing-moment scheme. For example, we use the observed broad dependence of ice concentration on temperature to diagnose the ice concentration in addition to prognostic mass. Also, there is no artificial separation between the pristine ice and snow, often used by bulk models. Instead we prescribed the ice size spectrum as the gamma distribution, with the distribution shape parameter controlled by the

  2. Case study of a grid connected with a battery photovoltaic system: V-trough concentration vs. single-axis tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tina, G.M.; Scandura, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PV systems with sun tracking and concentrators (CPVS) can reduce the cost of energy per kWh produced. ► The V-trough low-concentration system solution is compatible with flat PV module technologies. ► Optical, thermal and electrical models are needed to forecast real power production. ► The description of a PV grid connected system with batteries, a one-axis tracker and CPV photovoltaic system is presented. ► Outdoor measurements of the generating system are provided and discussed. - Abstract: Photovoltaic systems (PVSs) combined with either some form of storage, such as a battery energy storage system (BESS), or direct load control, can play a crucial role in achieving a more economical operation of the electric utility system while enhancing its reliability with additional energy sources. At the same time, it is also important to use cost-effective PV solutions. In this context, a low-concentration PVS (CPVS) is analysed as a feasible alternative. This paper, present a case study of a complex PVS, composed of two PVSs, a storage system (BEES) and an inverter that allows the system to operate in both the island and grid-connected modes. The first PVS, is a 2.76-kWp single-axis tracking system (azimuth) with modules facing south and tilted 30°, while the second PVS is a dual-axis tracking system, rated 860 Wp, consisting of a concentrator at the flat mirrors (DoubleSun® Four). The system is installed on the roof of the main building of the “ITIS Marconi” school (Italy). A detailed description of the system is provided, and preliminary operating data are presented and discussed. The efficiencies of the PV systems are calculated and measured to evaluate the cost effectiveness of a low-concentration system.

  3. Increased pain and muscle glutamate concentration after single ingestion of monosodium glutamate by myofascial temporomandibular disorders patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, A; Castrillon, E E; Baad-Hansen, L; Ghafouri, B; Gerdle, B; Wåhlén, K; Ernberg, M; Cairns, B E; Svensson, P

    2016-10-01

    A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted to investigate if single monosodium glutamate (MSG) administration would elevate muscle/serum glutamate concentrations and affect muscle pain sensitivity in myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients more than in healthy individuals. Twelve myofascial TMD patients and 12 sex- and age-matched healthy controls participated in two sessions. Participants drank MSG (150 mg/kg) or NaCl (24 mg/kg; control) diluted in 400 mL of soda. The concentration of glutamate in the masseter muscle, blood plasma and saliva was determined before and after the ingestion of MSG or control. At baseline and every 15 min after the ingestion, pain intensity was scored on a 0-10 numeric rating scale. Pressure pain threshold, pressure pain tolerance (PPTol) and autonomic parameters were measured. All participants were asked to report adverse effects after the ingestion. In TMD, interstitial glutamate concentration was significantly greater after the MSG ingestion when compared with healthy controls. TMD reported a mean pain intensity of 2.8/10 at baseline, which significantly increased by 40% 30 min post MSG ingestion. At baseline, TMD showed lower PPTols in the masseter and trapezius, and higher diastolic blood pressure and heart rate than healthy controls. The MSG ingestion resulted in reports of headache by half of the TMD and healthy controls, respectively. These findings suggest that myofascial TMD patients may be particularly sensitive to the effects of ingested MSG. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?': Elevation of interstitial glutamate concentration in the masseter muscle caused by monosodium glutamate (MSG) ingestion was significantly greater in myofascial myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients than healthy individuals. This elevation of interstitial glutamate concentration in the masseter muscle significantly increased the intensity of spontaneous pain in myofascial TMD patients. © 2016

  4. Skin and soft tissue concentrations of tedizolid (formerly torezolid), a novel oxazolidinone, following a single oral dose in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahre, Martina; Sabarinath, Sreedharan; Grant, Maria; Seubert, Christoph; Deanda, Carisa; Prokocimer, Philippe; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2012-07-01

    Plasma concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have long been used to correlate exposure with effect, yet one cannot always assume that unbound plasma and tissue concentrations are similar. Knowledge about unbound tissue concentrations is important in the development of antimicrobial drugs, since most infections are localised in tissues. Therefore, a clinical microdialysis study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of tedizolid (TR-700), the active moiety of the antimicrobial prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), into interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues following a single oral 600 mg dose of tedizolid phosphate in fasting conditions. Twelve healthy adult subjects were enrolled. Two microdialysis probes were implanted into the thigh of each subject, one into the vastus medialis muscle and one into subcutaneous adipose tissue. Probes were calibrated using retrodialysis. Dialysate samples were collected every 20 min for 12h following a single oral dose of 600 mg tedizolid phosphate, and blood samples were drawn over 24h. Unbound tedizolid levels in plasma were similar to those in muscle and adipose tissue. The ratios of unbound (free) AUC in tissues over unbound AUC in plasma (fAUC(tissue)/fAUC(plasma)) were 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 for adipose and muscle tissue, respectively. The median half-life was 8.1, 9.2 and 9.6h for plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue, respectively. Mean protein binding was 87.2 ± 1.8%. The study drug was very well tolerated. The results of this study show that tedizolid distributes well into ISF of adipose and muscle tissues. Unbound levels of tedizolid in plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue were well correlated. Free plasma levels are indicative of unbound levels in the ISF of muscle and adipose tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics of intracellular ionic concentrations in single living cells using videomicrofluorometry: application to pHi variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallet, Pierre M.; Yassine, Mohamed; Salmon, Jean-Marie; Vigo, Jean

    1996-01-01

    The intracellular concentration of ions such as H+, Mg2+, Ca2+, is known to monitor the activity of many fundamental enzymes. Furthermore these ions are generally considered as intracellular messengers involved in the transduction of extracellular signals. Recent technological progress, occulting the physicochemical properties of the probe, led to the feeling that accurate data on microvolumes are instantly accessible. Unfortunately fluorescent probes are supposed to fill up conflicting requirements for ionic affinity, absence of fading and intracellular calibration. Such a situation generally precludes the use of the simplest methods of data acquisition and treatment. This paper is based on the use of microspectrofluorometry, resolution of single cell complex fluorescence spectrum, and videomicrofluorometry. The methods of data handling allow us to demonstrate that most of the problems met in intracellular calibration come from the fighting of cells against the modification of the extracellular pH. Using these techniques allows us to restrict the need of comparison between results in cuvettes and intracellular results to the physiological pH range. A consequence of such an approach is that the effect with time of known concentrations of amiloride and nigericin on pHi became accessible. Data is presented allowing us to get information on the behavior of the ionic channels and/or cation/H+ exchangers involved in the pHi regulation. Such a method leads the way to direct investigations and monitoring of the different processes of regulation of the intracellular ionic concentrations in different cell lines at the level of single cells. Using different specific modifiers (activators or blocking agents) and convenient specific fluorescent probes, the efficiency of such pathways is expected to be checked at will. Compared to the patch clamp techniques, the method can be extended to the study of pathways located on the inner cell membranes.

  6. Comparison of the EEG effects of midazolam, thiopental, and propofol: the role of underlying oscillatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshchenko, V A; Veselis, R A; Reinsel, R A

    1997-01-01

    The EEG effects of 3 intravenous sedative drugs from different chemical families were studied during conscious sedation in 47 normal volunteers. The drugs studied were midazolam (a benzodiazepine), propofol (an alkylphenol) and thiopental (a barbiturate). Though these drugs cause different degrees of amnesia, they have the common EEG effects of suppressing alpha-rhythm and increasing total beta-power. A large portion of the increase in beta-power can be accounted for by beta-rhythms. We used the UNIFAC-EEG technique to differentiate oscillatory systems underlying the rhythms induced by these drugs in a quantitative fashion. While thiopental induced beta-rhythms which were similar to those appearing during drowsiness, midazolam and propofol induced beta-rhythms with substantially different characteristics. The differences between the beta-rhythms induced by drug infusion and previously described 'sleep spindles' are discussed. We conclude that a quantitative analysis of beta-rhythms can differentiate the effects of these drugs on the EEG.

  7. SEDAÇAO CONSCIENTE CON MIDAZOLAM ORAL E SUBLINGUAL EM ADULTOS.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabalo, Manuel Moledo

    2017-01-01

    A fim de localizar publicações relacionadas com o assunto deste relatório final de estágio, realizou-se uma pesquisa na base de dados Pubmed e os temas procurados foram a sedação com o midazolam pelas vias oral e sublingual. A busca foi limitada a estudos publicados entre 2007 e 2017 em Inglês e Espanhol, em relação com o tratamento farmacológico com o midazolam e as combinações com outros fármacos realizados em seres humanos. No trabalho foram incluídas revisões sistemáticas e meta-análises....

  8. Induction of anaesthesia with remifentanil after bolus midazolam administration in Landrace/Large White swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacharioudaki, Argyro; Lelovas, Pavlos; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate an alternative combination for anaesthesia induction in swine. Study design Randomized, ‘blinded’ experimental study. Animals Forty-five Landrace/Large White swine weighing 20.0 ± 1.5 kg. Methods Pulse oximetry, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were measured after.......001), better response to intubation (p animals required additional midazolam. In groups R1, R4 and R5, there were decreases in HRs (p = 0.009, p...... variables. One animal developed apnoea and four electrocardiographic anomalies; all resolved without pharmaceutical interventions. Conclusions and clinical relevance A combination of 0.2 mg kg−1 midazolam with 4 or 5 μg kg−1 remifentanil may provide an alternative method of anaesthesia induction for swine....

  9. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine following a single subcutaneous administration of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullian, Chiara; Lema, Pablo; Lavoie, Melissa; Dodelet-Devillers, Aurore; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of slow release buprenorphine in sheep. Twelve adult female sheep (6 Dorset and 6 Suffolk, 12 months of age) were used for this project and were divided into 2 experimental groups (n = 6/group comprising 3 Dorset and 3 Suffolk sheep). Sustained release (SR) buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously in the scapular region at a concentration of 0.1 mg/kg body weight (BW) for group 1 and of 0.05 mg/kg BW for group 2. Following blood collections at selected time points, plasma concentrations of buprenorphine was performed by tandem liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Mean buprenorphine concentration was above 0.1 ng/mL at 48 h up to 192 h post-injection for group 1 and it was above 0.1 ng/mL at 48 h up to 72 h post-injection for group 2. In conclusion, a long lasting potential analgesic plasma level of buprenorphine is attained following a single subcutaneous injection of 0.1 mg/kg BW of SR buprenorphine in sheep. However the effective analgesic plasma threshold still needs to be determined in sheep.

  10. Xylazine, diazepam and midazolam premedicated ketamine anaesthesia in White Leghorn cockerels for typhlectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Maiti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thee different combinations of ketamine hydrochloride were used to induce general anaesthesia for surgical operations (typhlectomy in 30 adult, single-comb White Leghorn cockerels. They were randomly divided into three groups, each comprising 10 birds. Birds in Group I received xylazine-ketamine combinations at the dose rate of 2 mg xylazine and 10 mg ketamine per kg i.v., whereas birds of Group II received diazepam (2.5 mg / kg i.v. and 5 min later ketamine (75 mg / kg i.m.. In the Group III, midazolam (2 mg / kg i.m. and 5 min later ketamine (50 mg / kg i.v. was administered. The onset of sedation / anaesthesia was shortest (1.60 + 0.27 min in Group I, followed by Group II (8.40 + 0.83 min and Group III (17.10 + 1.71 min. Recovery period was shortest in the Group I (65-75 min followed by Group II (80-85 min and Group III (92-105 min. Sedation, muscle relaxation and surgical anaesthesia was optimal and excellent in Group I compared with the other two groups. Torticollis, salivation and dyspnoea were observed in Group III. Short-term limb contractions were present in all birds in Groups II and III, up to 20 min of observation. Recovery from anaesthesia was smooth in all three groups. A Surgical procedure (typhlectomy was performed on all birds. Hypothermia was observed in Group II, whereas heart and respiratory depression was recorded in Group I. Blood sugar level did not vary significantly in any anaesthetic regime. The reduction of haemoglobin was maximum in Group II compared with Groups I and III. Hypoxaemia and hypercapnaea were elevated in all birds in Groups II and III. Blood electrolytes did not vary significantly from the baseline values among the three groups of birds during the period of observation (120 min. The xylazine-ketamine combination was found to be the best anaesthesia for surgical intervention in chickens.

  11. The Comparison Of Total Intravenous Anesthesia (Propofol, Alfentanyl Plus Midazolam, Alfentanyl With General Anesthesia In D&C Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeibi G

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA compared to general anesthesia has some pits and falls. Many drugs have been employed for this anesthesia. Propofol is accounted as the last advent anesthetic drug. It belongs to alkyl phenol families and has been accounted one of the best choices for the continuous infusion. Invention of midazolam as the first water soluble benzodiazepine was also an important event in anesthesia and it can be used as continuous infusion for the anesthesia. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, alfentanyl plus propofol or midazolam were used for TIVA anesthesia in 60 female patients undergoing Dilatation and Curettage (D&C in Dr.Shariati hospital in March 2002 till March 2003. They were allocated reandomly in two group of alfentanyl plus propofol (propofol group or alfentanyl plus midazolam (midazolam group Results: There was no significant difference in mean of age between propofol group and midazolam group (P>0.05, also There was no significant difference in preanesthesia condition such as blood pressure and heart rate between propofol group and midazolam group (p>0.05. After induction of anesthesia there was a gross blood pressure decrease in both group that it was greater in midazolam group (85 mmHg versus 73 mmHg, P0.05 also there was just one naloxane injection in midazolam group that have no significant difference between groups (P>0.05. Recovery room stay was significantly lower in propofol group (25 minutes versus 39 minutes, P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study was similar to Vuyk et.al.In their study there was a significant lower recovery time estimated by psychomotor reflexes and there was significant lower drowsiness, place and time orientation time compared to midazolam group. Finally according to the results of this study it can be resulted that TIVA with propofol is more suitable than midazolam and it can lower hospitalization time and cost. In future studies

  12. Anticonvulsant treatment of sarin-induced seizures with nasal midazolam: An electrographic, behavioral, and histological study in freely moving rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilat, E.; Kadar, T.; Levy, A.; Rabinovitz, I.; Cohen, G.; Kapon, Y.; Sahar, R.; Brandeis, R.

    2005-01-01

    Centrally mediated seizures and convulsions are common consequences of exposure to organophosphates (OPs). These seizures rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE) and contribute to profound brain injury. Effective management of these seizures is critical for minimization of brain damage. Nasal application of midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) after 5 min of sarin-induced electrographic seizure activity (EGSA) ameliorated EGSA and convulsive behavior (238 ± 90 s). Identical treatment after 30 min was not sufficient to ameliorate ECoG paradoxical activity and convulsive behavior. Nasal midazolam (1.5 mg/kg), together with scopolamine (1 mg/kg, im) after 5 min of EGSA, exerted a powerful and rapid anticonvulsant effect (53 ± 10 s). Delaying the same treatment to 30 min of EGSA leads to attenuation of paroxysmal ECoG activity in all cases but total cessation of paroxysmal activity was not observed in most animals tested. Cognitive tests utilizing the Morris Water Maze demonstrated that nasal midazolam alone or together with scopolamine (im), administered after 5 min of convulsions, abolished the effect of sarin on learning. Both these treatments, when given after 30 min of convulsions, only decreased the sarin-induced learning impairments. Whereas rats which were not subject to the anticonvulsant agents did not show any memory for the platform location, both treatments (at 5 min as well as at 30 min) completely abolished the memory deficits. Both treatments equally blocked the impairment of reversal learning when given at 5 min. However, when administered after 30 min, midazolam alone reversed the impairments in reversal learning, while midazolam with scopolamine did not. Rats exposed to sarin and treated with the therapeutic regimen with the exclusion of midazolam exhibited severe brain lesions that encountered the hippocampus, pyriform cortex, and thalamus. Nasal midazolam at 5 min prevented brain damage, while delaying the midazolam treatment to 30 min of EGSA resulted in

  13. Discomfort during bronchoscopy performed after endobronchial intubation with fentanyl and midazolam: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Daisuke; Takigawa, Nagio; Kano, Hirohisa; Ninomiya, Takashi; Kubo, Toshio; Ichihara, Eiki; Ohashi, Kadoaki; Sato, Akiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2017-05-01

    Although endobronchial intubation during a bronchoscopic examination is useful for invasive procedures, it is not routine practice in Japan. The present study evaluated discomfort due to endobronchial intubation using fentanyl and midazolam sedation during bronchoscopy. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled prospectively from November 2014 to September 2015 at Okayama University Hospital. Fentanyl (20 µg) was administered to the patients just before endobronchial intubation, and fentanyl (10 µg) and midazolam (1 mg) were added as needed during the procedure. A questionnaire survey was administered 2 h after the examination. In the questionnaire, patient satisfaction was scored using a visual analog scale as follows: excellent (1 point), good (2 points), normal (3 points), uncomfortable (4 points) and very uncomfortable (5 points). An additional question ('Do you remember the bronchoscopic examination?') was also asked. Predefined parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and complications) were recorded. The enrolled patients included 22 males and 17 females; their median age was 70 (range: 28-88) years. The patients received a mean dose of 47.9 µg of fentanyl (range: 30-90 µg) and 2.79 mg of midazolam (range: 1-7 mg). In total, 28 patients (71.7%) agreed to undergo a second bronchoscopic examination; the mean levels of discomfort and for the re-examination were 2.07 points each. About 41% of the patients remembered the bronchoscopic examination. No severe complications were reported. Endobronchial intubation using fentanyl and midazolam sedation during an invasive bronchoscopic procedure might be recommended. UMIN000015578 in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Bronchoscopic diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lung cancer employing sedation with fentanyl and midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Daisuke; Nakasuka, Takamasa; Ando, Chihiro; Iwamoto Md, Yoshitaka; Sato, Ken; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Shibayama, Takuo; Yonei Md PhD, Toshirou; Sato, Toshio

    2017-09-01

    Sedation with fentanyl and midazolam during bronchoscopic examination is commonly employed by pulmonary physicians in the USA and Europe. We assessed the efficacy of such sedation in the bronchoscopic diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer. We retrospectively evaluated data from 102 patients who underwent transbronchial biopsies (TBB) for diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer. Bronchoscopies with and without fentanyl were performed in 61 (group A) and 41 (group B) patients, respectively. Midazolam was administered to all patients. Medical records were retrieved, and between-group comparisons were made using unpaired Student's t-tests. The mean fentanyl dose was 49.5 μg (range: 10-100 μg), and midazolam doses in groups A and B were 4.29mg (range: 1-14mg) and 5.54mg (range: 1-12mg), respectively. Diagnostic histological specimens were obtained from 75.4% and 65.8% of group A and B patients, respectively (P = 0.30). The diagnostic sensitivities for lung cancer, via at least one of TBB, cytological brushing, or bronchial washing, in groups A and B were 88.5% and 70.4%, respectively (P = 0.035). Moreover, lesion diagnostic sensitivities, via at least one of TBB, cytological brushing, and bronchial washing, in groups A and B were 98.1% and 68.0%, respectively (P = 0.01). Fentanyl and midazolam sedation during bronchoscopy facilitated the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lung cancers. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of 6 years use of sedation with midazolam for dental treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Birthe; Haukali, Gro; Poulsen, Sven

      Abstract: Titel: Evaluering af seks års brug af midazolam til sedering ved tandbehandling. B. Høgsbro Østergaard 1,2 , G. Haukali 1,2, S. Poulsen 2 . 1 Tandplejen Århus, 2 Afd. for Samfundsodontologi og Pædodonti, Århus Tandlægeskole, Århus Universitet. Mål: At evaluere midazolamsedering til...

  16. IS ATOMIZED INTRANASAL MIDAZOLAM A NOVEL SEDATIVE PREMEDICATION IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri D. Kabade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The successful conduct of anaesthesia in children depends on adequate premedication, which not only comforts the anxious child but also comforts the parents or guardians. Atomized Intranasal Midazolam is quickly absorbed through the nasal mucosa, resulting in a rapid and reliable onset of action. Clonidine has several applications in paediatric anaesthesia as a premedication and as an adjuvant in general as well as regional anaesthesia. Thus, in search of a novel premedication technique, we conducted a study to compare the effectiveness of atomized intranasal midazolam with intranasal clonidine for preoperative sedation in paediatric patients undergoing elective surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS After obtaining Institutional Ethical Committee clearance and parent’s consent, a prospective, randomised, double-blinded clinical study was conducted in 78 children of ASA I and II, belonging to 2 - 10 years age, posted for various elective surgery. Group M (n= 39 received atomized intranasal midazolam (0.3 mg/kg and Group C (n= 39 received clonidine (4 mcg/kg instilled into both the nostrils. Sedation score (Ramsay, separation score, mask acceptance, recovery and vital parameters were recorded. Statistical analysis of data was done using IBM-SPSS version 21.0. RESULTS Mean sedation scores (± SD were higher in Group M than in Group C (at 5th minute 1.58 ± 0.55 in Group M and 1.15 ± 0.36 in Group C with P= 0.002, at 10th minute 2.34 ± 0.97 in Group M and 1.75 ± 0.71 in Group C with P= 0.008. Separation scores and mask acceptance were better with Group M than Group C. Haemodynamic parameters were similar in both the groups and no major adverse effects were noted. CONCLUSION Atomized intranasal midazolam produces superior sedation levels, child-parent separation and mask acceptance compared to intranasal clonidine in children.

  17. Midazolam as an active placebo in 3 fentanyl-validated nociceptive pain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosenz, Julian; Gustorff, Burkhard

    2017-07-01

    The use of inactive placebos in early translational trials of potentially analgesic compounds is discouraged because of the side-effect profiles of centrally acting analgesics. Therefore, benzodiazepines are used, although their use has not been validated in this context. Whether benzodiazepines confound the results of acute pain tests is unknown. Midazolam (0.06 mg/kg) as an active placebo was investigated in 3 nociceptive models that included contact heat, electrical pain, and pressure pain thresholds in 24 healthy volunteers. Fentanyl (1 μg/kg) served as an internal validator in this randomized, placebo (saline) controlled, 3-way cross-over trial. The primary outcome parameter (contact heat pain) was analyzed using a one-way, repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey's post test. Midazolam did not reduce pain ([numeric rating scale], 0-100) in a statistically significant manner compared with placebo for the contact heat (mean difference -1.7, 95% confidence interval -10.6 to 7.3; P = 0.89) or electrical pain (4.3, -5.1 to 13.7; P = 0.51) test, nor did it raise the pressure pain thresholds (-28 kPa, -122; 64 kPa, P = 0.73). The width of the confidence intervals suggested that there were no clinically meaningful analgesic effects compared with the placebo. In contrast, the analgesic efficacy of fentanyl was effectively demonstrated in all 3 models (P < 0.01 vs midazolam and placebo). The findings of this study show that midazolam can be used as an active placebo in analgesic drug trials. Furthermore, the proposed models were simple to implement and very effective in detecting analgesia. The test battery can be used in translational trials for new compounds and comes with an active placebo and an optional active comparator.

  18. Efficacy and safety of flumazenil injection for the reversal of midazolam sedation after elective outpatient endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Pyo; Sung, In-Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Sun-Young; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup

    2018-02-01

    Midazolam sedation during elective endoscopy is widely performed and flumazenil is frequently administered after endoscopy to reverse sedation in clinical practice. This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of flumazenil injections after elective endoscopy under midazolam sedation. Participants who underwent an upper endoscopy under midazolam sedation were randomly divided into two groups. In group I, flumazenil was administered i.v. 10 min after the patient's transfer to the recovery room, and no antidote was injected in group II. The time of stay in the recovery room and adverse events were reviewed through the nursing records. We asked the patients about their pain and degree of satisfaction according to a visual analogue scale (VAS), their memory of the procedure, mental status and the presence of uncomfortable symptoms on the day of the procedure and the day afterwards. The length of stay in recovery was significantly shorter in group I than in group II. No significant differences were found in the number of patients with pain (VAS ≥1), adverse events and discomfort between the two groups. Additionally, there were no differences in the patients' memory of the procedure, satisfaction with sedation, willingness to repeat the endoscopy and mental status. The time in the recovery room after flumazenil administration was significantly shortened, and the use of the drug did not increase the risk of adverse events or discomfort. The use of flumazenil for reversing midazolam sedation seems to be safe and effective. © 2018 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Comparison of intranasal and intramuscular ketamine-midazolam combination in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjani, Mehdi; Akbarinejad, Vahid; Bagheri, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare intranasal (INS) and intramuscular (IM) routes of administration of a ketamine-midazolam combination in cats. Randomized block design. Twelve healthy mixed breed cats (six males and six females). The drug combination was ketamine (14 mg kg(-1) ) and midazolam (0.5 mg kg(-1) ). In the IM group, drugs were injected into quadratus femoris muscle; in the INS. group, the combination dropped equally into the two nostrils. Pulse and respiratory rates, peripheral haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) and rectal temperature were monitored before and at intervals after drug administration. Time to onset and duration of sedation and, during recovery to head up, sternal recumbency and recovery were recorded. There were no significant differences between the groups in any time measured except for recovery to sternal recumbency, where time was lower in the INS than in the IM (p = 0.034). Respiratory rate was greater in the INS than in the IM group (p = 0.029), but there was no difference between groups in other physiological parameters. In both groups SpO2 was low before and fell further during sedation. The results substantiated that INS ketamine-midazolam can produce effective sedation in cats. Intranasal (INS) administration of ketamine-midazolam is atraumatic, and its use may avoid the pain of injection of ketamine combinations when this drug is used to induce sedation in cats. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  20. Evaluation of Intranasal Midazolam as an Anesthetic Premedication in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Behdad

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preoperative psycho emotional preparation of patients is one of the principle purposes of anesthesia which can be achieved by administration of premedications. Children should receive premedication before entering the operating room due to their dependence on parents and the fear and anxiety of separation from parents. Different drugs are administered for this purpose, but considering children's sensitivity, it is wise to use the most effective and comfortable medication with least side effects. Midazolam is a rapid onset, short acting and water soluble benzodiazapine which can be administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular, rectal or intranasal routes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of intranasal midazolam administration (0.2 mg/kg as a premedication in children aged 2-6 years.( Min dose and enough time Methods: In this randomized prospective study, 100 children aged between 2-6 years old in class ASA 1 and candidates of surgery were divided into two groups; case and control. The control group received several nasal drops of normal saline, while the case group received 0.2 mg/kg nasal midazolam 20 minutes before anesthesia induction. Results: Twenty minutes after administration of the nasal drops, 14% in the control group and 68% in the case group were alert and calm. (P value=0.0 . Mask acceptance during induction of anesthesia in control and case group was 14%and 72%, respectively (P value >0.00 The recovery time in the case group was longer (P value >0.5, but no complications (nausea, vomiting, respiratory and cardiovascular problems were seen in either group. Conclusion: Nasal midazolam with its anxiolytic, tranquilizing effects and no respiratory or cardiovascular complications is a safe drug and being better than parenteral drugs is acceptable by children.

  1. The effect of auricular acupuncture on pain during colonoscopy with midazolam and pethidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumastuti, R.; Srilestari, A.; Abdurrohim, K.; Abdullah, M.

    2017-08-01

    Colonoscopy is the standard procedure for colorectal cancer screening. One of its common complications is abdominal pain. Analgesia has not provided favorable outcomes so various complementary practices have been developed, including auricular acupuncture. In this study, a randomized controlled trial of 56 patients who underwent colonoscopy was conducted to determine the effect of acupuncture on the pain experienced during colonoscopy. Subjects were divided into two groups: The first received acupuncture combined with midazolam and pethidine, while the second were administered placebo puncture in addition to midazolam and pethidine. The median Critical Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) score was lower in the auricular acupuncture group than in the placebo puncture group(0.7 [0-4.83] vs. 1.9 [0-6.20] p = 0.010), while there were no significant differences to median Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores (29 [0-100] vs. 44.5 [0-100] p = 0.147), heart rate changes (-2.58 [14.31] vs.-2.43 [12.28]; p = 0.970), or the mean time to the cecum (16 [8-51] vs. 22 [5-63] p = 0.206). Auricular acupuncture combined with midazolam and pethidine was found to be effective at reducing pain during colonoscopy.

  2. Remifentanil versus Fentanyl/Midazolam in Painless Reduction of Anterior Shoulder Dislocation; a Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Mohammad Gharavifard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Performance of painful diagnostic and therapeutic procedures is common in emergency department(ED, and procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA is a fundamental skill for every emergency physician.This studywas aim to compare the efficacy of remifentanil with fentanyl/midazolam in painless reduction of anteriorshoulder dislocation. Methods: In this randomized, double blind, clinical trial the procedural characteristics,patients satisfaction as well as adverse events were compared between fentanyl/midazolamand remifentanilfor PSA of 18–64 years old patients, which were presented to ED following anterior shoulder dislocation.Results: 96 cases were randomly allocated to two groups (86.5% male. There were no significant difference betweengroups regarding baseline characteristics. Remifentanil group had lower duration of procedure (2.5§1.6versus 4.6§1.8 minutes, p Ç 0.001, higher pain reduction (53.7§13.3 versus 33.5§19.6, p Ç 0.001, lower failurerate (1 (2.1% versus 15 (31.3%, p Ç 0.001, higher satisfaction (p Æ 0.005. Adverse events were seen in 12 (25%patients in midazolam/fentanyl and 8 (16.7% cases in remifentanil group (p Æ 0.122. Conclusion: It seemsthat use of remifentanil resulted in lower procedural time, lower failure rate, and lower pain during procedureas well as higher patient satisfaction in comparison with midazolam/fentanyl combination in anterior shoulderdislocation.

  3. Special care dentistry: Midazolam conscious sedation for patients with neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capp, P L; de Faria, M E; Siqueira, S R; Cillo, M T; Prado, E G; de Siqueira, J T

    2010-12-01

    Midazolam is used very often to control the anxiety of patients for dental treatment, especially in patients with special needs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Midazolam in patients with neurological diseases referred for dental treatment. Descriptive study. Forty consecutive patients with neurological disorders (encephalopathy, autism, and epilepsy) were referred to dental treatment, and 45 sedations were performed; all were sedated with Midazolam (intramuscular 0.2-0.3 mg/kg or intravenous 0.1mg/kg) and all were anesthetised with lidocaine 2% (0.5-2 mL). During the dental procedure, their behavior was analysed and classified into 3 categories: A (indifferent), B (reacted but allowed treatment), and C (did not allow treatment). Data were tabbed and statistically analysed. The final patients' classification was: A 22 (49%), B 18 (40%) and C 5 (11%); the patients with encephalopathy had the best results of sedation according to the proposed classification (ppatients with neurological and behavioral disturbances, but it was less effective for patients with autism (p<0.05).

  4. Effect Of Midazolam Premedication On Doses Of Propofol For Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion In Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Furqan, Aamir; Sattar, Muhammad Kaleem

    2017-01-01

    Propofol is a widely-accepted medication for the successful insertion of laryngeal mask airway (LMA). When propofol is used alone, larger doses are required which can lead to cardiorespiratory distress resulting in hypotension and prolonged apnoea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of premedication of midazolam on different doses of propofol for LMA insertion. In this randomized clinical trial, eighty-six (86) patients who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery is supine position not requiring the need for tracheal intubation from September 2015 to 6 March 2016 were included. In group I (n=43), the LMA was introduced after induction of anaesthesia with Propofol alone. In Group II (n=43, the patient was premeditated with midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) before induction of anaesthesia with propofol. Each group was divided into three subgroups depending upon the dose of propofol used for LMA insertion. In this study, there were 53.5% females in group I and 48.8% females in group II. The mean age of Children in group I was 7.30±2.55 years and 7.47±2.46 years in group II. Incidence of incomplete Jaw relaxation, coughing and limb movements was significantly high in in Group I patients (pvalues insertion is decreased. The incidence of adverse events during LMA insertion is also low with midazolam premedication.

  5. Midazolam conscious sedation in a large Danish municipal dental service for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uldum, Birgitte; Hallonsten, Anna-Lena; Poulsen, Sven

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the introduction and the first six years use of midazolam for conscious sedation in a municipal dental service in Denmark. In 1998, all dentists were introduced to midazolam conscious sedation. A sedation chart was filled in for each session, and parents' assessment was obtained. In 2004, all clinical materials were collected. Six hundred and eighty sessions were performed; 63.7% of the children were between 2 and 6 years of age; 88.5% belonged to American Society of Anesthesiologists grade 1; 74.8% of the sedations performed used the oral route of administration. Restorations were performed during 60.3% of the sessions, and extractions during 38.4%. Complications during the sessions were rare, the most frequent being double vision (6.1%), hiccups (2.7%), and paradoxical reaction (2.0%). Using Wilton's sedation scale, 42.9% were calm and 27.7% were agitated during treatment, whereas after treatment 61.7% were calm; 80.4% of the parents were very positive towards this sedation method. Sedation with midazolam for dental treatment of children with dental fear and anxiety is a feasible and an efficient method with a low rate of complications. It can probably reduce the need for dental treatment under general anaesthesia.

  6. [Conscious sedation and amnesic effect of intravenous low-dose midazolam prior to spinal anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi; Ohashi, Naotsugu; Kurita, Satoshi; Nakatani, Keiji; Nagata, Noboru; Toyoda, Yoshiroh

    2008-06-01

    The pain associated with spinal puncture is severe, and the memory of this uncomfortable procedure often deters patients from undergoing the procedure again. Therefore, it is important to make the patient as comfortable as possible when this procedure is performed. We administrated a low-dose (1-2.5 mg) of midazolam intravenously several minutes before conducting a spinal-tap in 200 patients undergoing elective surgery of the lower limb. The dose of midazolam used was based on the patient's age and weight, and we investigated remaining of a memory concerning the spinal-tap procedure and side effects of midazolam at the end of surgery. Memory of the spinal-tap procedure remained in 14.0%, 1.9%, and 32.7% of the patients who had received benzodiazepine preoperatively and in 25.0%, 40.0%, and 60.9% of the patients who hadn't received benzodiazepine preoperatively in the age group or =70 years, respectively. No patient experienced severe respiratory depression, but an excessive sedation or restlessness was experienced in 1.6%, 4.8%, and 5.2% of the patients. In the patients aged memory concerning the spinal-tap procedure; however, it is important to note that the number of side effects associated with this procedure increases in patients aged > or =60 years.

  7. Hyperalgesic effect induced by barbiturates, midazolam and ethanol: pharmacological evidence for GABA-A receptor involvement

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    M.A.K.F. Tatsuo

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of GABA-A receptors in the control of nociception was studied using the tail-flick test in rats. Non-hypnotic doses of the barbiturates phenobarbital (5-50 mg/kg, pentobarbital (17-33 mg/kg, and thiopental (7.5-30 mg/kg, of the benzodiazepine midazolam (10 mg/kg or of ethanol (0.4-1.6 g/kg administered by the systemic route reduced the latency for the tail-flick response, thus inducing a 'hyperalgesic' state in the animals. In contrast, non-convulsant doses of the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin (0.12-1.0 mg/kg administered systemically induced an increase in the latency for the tail-flick response, therefore characterizing an 'antinociceptive' state. Previous picrotoxin (0.12 mg/kg treatment abolished the hyperalgesic state induced by effective doses of the barbiturates, midazolam or ethanol. Since phenobarbital, midazolam and ethanol reproduced the described hyperalgesic effect of GABA-A-specific agonists (muscimol, THIP, which is specifically antagonized by the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin, our results suggest that GABA-A receptors are tonically involved in the modulation of nociception in the rat central nervous system

  8. Midazolam: uma nova alternativa para sedação em odontopediatria = Midazolam: a new alternative to sedation in pediatric dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duque, Cristiane

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Na prática clínica, existem muitas crianças imaturas e ansiosas ou pacientes com comprometimento físico e/ou mental que não cooperam durante o tratamento odontológico. A sedação pré-operatória é uma das alternativas que facilitam o manejo desses pacientes. O midazolam é um benzodiazepínico que pode ser indicado para crianças, como pré-medicação em procedimentos de curta duração. Isso porque apresenta propriedades hipnóticas e sedativas, além de ser absorvido e eliminado rapidamente pelo organismo. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo é avaliar, por meio de uma revisão de literatura, a efetividade do midazolam, administrado por via oral e intranasal, como agente sedativo para crianças não cooperadoras submetidas a tratamento odontológico

  9. Effect of non-sperm cells removal with single-layer colloidal centrifugation on myeloperoxidase concentration in post-thaw equine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthier, Jérôme; Teague, Sheila R; Franck, Thierry Y; de la Rebière, Geoffroy; Serteyn, Didier D; Brinsko, Steven P; Love, Charles C; Blanchard, Terry L; Varner, Dickson D; Deleuze, Stéfan C

    2013-12-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme contained in and released by neutrophils during degranulation or after lysis. Post-thaw semen contains MPO and its concentration is associated with decreased sperm motility. Recently, MPO concentration in post-thaw semen was shown to be associated with the presence of non-sperm cells (NSC). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single-layer colloidal centrifugation before cryopreservation on NSC and MPO concentrations in equine semen. The experimental design consisted of freezing semen with or without previous centrifugation through two concentrations of single-layer colloid media. Non-sperm cells and MPO concentrations were assessed in pellet and upper layer at each step of the procedure and MPO was detected in cells by immunocytochemistry. Single-layer colloid centrifugation decreased NSC and MPO concentrations in post-thaw semen. The MPO concentration was correlated with concentration of NSC in the upper layer of the supernatant. In post-thaw semen, with or without previous single-layer colloid centrifugation, MPO concentration was correlated with concentration of NSC. Overall, neutrophils were rarely observed and NSC were mainly epithelial cells or cellular debris, as demonstrated by MPO immunocytochemistry. At all steps of the semen processing and cryopreservation, MPO immunostaining was clearly identified only on NSC. In conclusion, our study shows that NSC present in fresh semen release MPO during freezing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of platinum precursor concentrations on chlorine sensing characteristics of platinum nanoparticles-loaded single walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Woo; Byun, Young Tae

    2018-03-01

    The correlation between platinum (Pt) functionalization and chlorine (Cl2) sensing capability in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was investigated. Utilizing a photoreduction technique via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, the Pt nanoparticles (NPs) with various diameters of 7-80 nm, which were controlled by Pt precursor concentrations, were successfully functionalized on the sidewalls of SWCNTs. The discrete Pt NP-loaded SWCNTs exhibited significantly enhanced response value (-(ΔR/R0) × 100 = 33.8%) for 1 ppm Cl2 at room temperature (25 °C) compared with that (no response) of pure SWCNTs. On the other hand, in case of continuous Pt NP-loaded SWCNTs, Cl2 sensing capabilities were significantly degraded. The Cl2 sensing capabilities of fabricated sensors tended to correlate with geometric configurations of the catalytic Pt NPs on the sidewalls of SWCNTs, due to differences in the electron pathway.

  11. Some cardiopulmonary effects of midazolam premedication in clenbuterol-treated bitches during surgical endoscopic examination of the uterus and ovariohysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Stegmann

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Midazolam was administered intravenously to 8 bitches in a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial before propofol induction of surgical anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane-in-oxygen during surgical endoscopic examination of the uterus and ovariohysterectomy. Clenbuterol was administered at the start of surgery to improve uterine muscle relaxation, and to facilitate endoscopic examination of the uterus. Ventilation was controlled. Induction of anaesthesia with propofol to obtain loss of the pedal reflex resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.05 decrease in minute volume and arterial oxygen partial pressure in the midazolam group. Apnoea also occurred in 50 % of dogs in the midazolam group. The dose for propofol in the midazolam group was 7.4 mg/kg compared to 9.5 mg/kg in the control. Minute volume was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in both groups during isoflurane maintenance, compared to the value after incremental propofol to obtain loss of the pedal reflex. Propofol induction resulted in a 25-26 % reduction in the mean arterial blood pressure in both groups, and the administration of clenbuterol at the start of surgery resulted in a transient, but statistically significant (P < 0.05, decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in the midazolam group during isoflurane anaesthesia. It is concluded that intravenous midazolam premedication did not adversely affect cardiovascular function during propofol induction, but intra-operative clenbuterol during isoflurane maintenance of anaesthesia may result in transient hypotension. Midazolam premedication may increase adverse respiratory effects when administered before propofol induction of anaesthesia.

  12. Cognitive properties of sedation agents: comparison of the effects of nitrous oxide and midazolam on memory and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J M; Neave, N; Moss, M C; Scholey, A B; Wesnes, K; Girdler, N M

    1999-11-27

    To compare the effects of nitrous oxide and midazolam on cognition and mood. A three-way, counterbalanced, cross-over study, using patients receiving conscious sedation for routine dental treatment. On each of three separate visits, patients performed a computerised test battery to determine baseline cognitive performance. Then, following administration of either midazolam, nitrous oxide, or no drug, patients re-performed the test battery. Finally, patients completed visual analogue scales assessing their subjective mood state. Relative to baseline performance, midazolam administration produced significantly slower reaction times compared with nitrous oxide and no-drug conditions. Furthermore, patients receiving midazolam were impaired in accuracy relative to the other conditions on many of the cognitive tasks, particularly those assessing the recall of information. Patient performance in nitrous oxide and control conditions did not significantly differ. These results could not be explained by differences in mood between the conditions, as subjective mood ratings during midazolam or nitrous oxide administration were very similar. It is important for clinicians to be aware that peri-operative recall of information is reduced in patients who have undergone midazolam sedation. This is an advantage for patients who are anxious, and do not wish to be aware of the operative treatment being performed. However, as the cognitive impairment is enduring, an adult escort and written post-operative instructions should be mandatory for midazolam sedation patients. In contrast, the use of nitrous oxide sedation does not significantly impair higher cognitive tasks and thus patients receiving nitrous oxide sedation can resume normal activities in the post-operative period.

  13. Assessment of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Obeticholic Acid and Caffeine, Midazolam, Warfarin, Dextromethorphan, Omeprazole, Rosuvastatin, and Digoxin in Phase 1 Studies in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey E; Eliot, Lise; Parkinson, Andrew; Karan, Sharon; MacConell, Leigh

    2017-09-01

    Obeticholic acid (OCA), a potent and selective farnesoid X receptor agonist, is indicated for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We investigated the potential drug-drug interaction effect of OCA on metabolic CYP450 enzymes and drug transporters. Five phase 1 single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence, inpatient studies were conducted in healthy adult subjects to evaluate the effect of oral daily doses of 10 or 25 mg OCA on single-dose plasma pharmacokinetics of specific probe substrates for enzymes CYP1A2 (caffeine, R-warfarin), CYP3A (midazolam, R-warfarin), CYP2C9 (S-warfarin), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan), CYP2C19 (omeprazole), and drug transporters, BCRP/OATP1B1/OATP1B3 (rosuvastatin), and P-gp (digoxin). OCA showed no substantial suppression/inhibition of S-warfarin, digoxin, and dextromethorphan and weak interactions with caffeine, omeprazole, rosuvastatin, and midazolam. The maximal pharmacodynamic responses (E max ) to warfarin-based INR, PT, and aPTT were reduced by 11%, 11%, and 1%, respectively, for the 10-mg dose group and by 7%, 7% and 0%, respectively, for the 25-mg dose group. Overall, drugs dosed in combination with OCA were well tolerated, and most adverse events were mild in severity. No clinically important trends were noted in laboratory evaluations, vital signs, or 12-lead ECGs. In these studies, OCA showed weak to no suppression/inhibition of metabolic enzymes and drug transporters at the highest recommended therapeutic dose in patients with PBC. On the basis on these analyses, monitoring and maintenance of target INR range are required during coadministration of OCA with drugs that are metabolized by CYP1A2 (R-warfarin). Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

  14. Propofol or midazolam infusion associated with subarachnoid anaesthesia in sheep submitted to bilateral tibial osteotomy

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    Marcos Paulo Antunes de Lima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Lima M.P.A., Comassetto F., Regalin D., Dallabrida A.L., Ronchi S.J. & Oleskovicz N. [Propofol or midazolam infusion associated with subarachnoid anaesthesia in sheep submitted to bilateral tibial osteotomy.] Infusão contínua de propofol ou midazolam associado à anestesia subaracnóidea em ovinos submetidos a osteotomia bilateral de tíbia. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(3:250-256, 2016. Departamento de Medicina Veteriná- ria, Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Av. Luís de Camões, 2090, Conta Dinheiro, Lages, SC 88520-000, Brasil. E-mail: noleskovicz@yahoo.com.br The sheep stands out for being a great experimental model in the orthopedic area. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the anesthetic maintenance by continuous infusion of propofol or midazolam associated with spinal anesthesia with morphine and ropivacaine in sheep underwent bilateral tibial osteotomy. Twelve healthy sheep, with an average weight of 30.5±2.7 kg were used. The animals were sedated with 0.3 mg.Kg-1 of morphine IM associated with 20 mcg.Kg-1 of detomidine IV. Then they were allocated into two groups: Midazolam group (GMID, which were induced with ketamine 5 mg.Kg-1 and midazolam 0.5 mg.Kg-1 IV, and anesthetic maintenance being performed by continuous infusion of 0 7 mg.Kg-1.h-1 of midazolam; Propofol group (GPRO, which were induced to anesthesia with 4 mg.Kg-1 propofol and maintained with its own infusion at a rate of 0.25 mg.Kg-1.min-1. The animals were intubated and maintained on spontaneous ventilation with 100% oxygen. Spinal anesthesia was performed with 0.5 mg.Kg-1 of 0.75% ropivacaine combined with 0.1 mg.Kg-1 of morphine, diluted with NaCl 0.9% solution to total volume of 1mL/7.5Kg. Significant respiratory depression after anesthesia induction was characterized by significantly increased levels of CO2 and reduced pH in both groups. A significant

  15. Single Sodium Pyruvate Ingestion Modifies Blood Acid-Base Status and Post-Exercise Lactate Concentration in Humans

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    Robert A. Olek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg−1 of body mass of a sodium pyruvate or placebo. The capillary blood samples were obtained at rest, 60 min after ingestion, and then three and 15 min after completing the workout protocol to analyze acid-base status and lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glucose concentrations. The pulmonary gas exchange, minute ventilation and the heart rate were measured during the exercise at a constant power output, corresponding to ~90% O2max. The blood pH, bicarbonate and the base excess were significantly higher after sodium pyruvate ingestion than in the placebo trial. The blood lactate concentration was not different after the ingestion, but the post-exercise was significantly higher in the pyruvate trial (12.9 ± 0.9 mM than in the placebo trial (10.6 ± 0.3 mM, p < 0.05 and remained elevated (nonsignificant after 15 min of recovery. The blood pyruvate, alanine and glucose concentrations, as well as the overall pulmonary gas exchange during the exercise were not affected by the pyruvate ingestion. In conclusion, the sodium pyruvate ingestion one hour before workout modified the blood acid-base status and the lactate production during the exercise.

  16. Efficacy and safety of non-intravenous midazolam for the treatment of status epilepticus in children: a Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan LIN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of non-intravenous midazolam for treating status epilepticus (SE in children.  Methods Taking midazolam, status epilepticus and children both in Chinese and English as search terms, retrieve in databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Data, assisted by manual searching and Google Scholar, in order to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs about non-intravenous midazolam for treating SE in children from January 2000 to January 2015. Jadad Scale was used to evaluate the quality of literatures. Meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software. Results There were a total of 258 records after preliminary searching, and 6 RCTs involving 766 episodes were finally included after excluding duplicate ones and those which did not meet the inclusion criteria. The results were as follows: 1 midazolam via intranasal administration was as effective as intravenous diazepam in achieving seizure control in children (RD = -0.070, 95%CI: -0.200—0.060, P = 0.290. However, non-intravenous (intranasal or buccal midazolam showed better effects on seizure control than rectal diazepam (RD = 0.170, 95% CI: 0.030—0.320; P = 0.020. 2 The mean time from arrival at hospital to cessation was not significantly different between intranasal midazolam and intravenous diazepam (SMD = -1.570, 95%CI: -3.280—0.140; P = 0.070. 3 There was no statistical difference between intranasal midazolam and intravenous diazepam for the time from giving drug to cessation (SMD = 0.240, 95%CI: -0.110—0.590; P = 0.170. 4 There was no statistical difference on the occurrence rate of adverse drug reactions between non-intravenous midazolam and intravenous or non-intravenous diazepam (RD = -0.010, 95% CI: -0.030—0.200; P = 0.500.  Conclusions Non-intravenous midazolam is safe and effective in the treatment for status epilepticus in children. However, the

  17. Neuroprotective effects of propofol, thiopental, etomidate, and midazolam in fetal rat brain in ischemia-reperfusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Ferhat; Hasturk, Askin Esen; Yaman, Mehmet; Arca, Turkan; Kilinc, Kamer; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Kaptanoglu, Erkan

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of propofol, thiopental, etomidate, and midazolam as anesthetic drugs in fetal rat brain in the ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model. Pregnant rats of day 19 were randomly allocated into eight groups. Fetal brain ischemia was induced by clamping the utero-ovarian artery bilaterally for 30 min and reperfusion was achieved by removing the clamps for 60 min. In the control group, fetal rat brains were obtained immediately after laparotomy. In the sham group, fetal rat brains were obtained 90 min after laparotomy. In the IR group, IR procedure was performed. No treatment was given in the IR group. One milliliter intralipid solution, 40 mg/kg propofol, 3 mg/kg thiopental, 0.1 mg/kg etomidate, and 3 mg/kg midazolam was administered intraperitoneally in the vehicle group, propofol group, thiopental group, etomidate group, and midazolam group, respectively, 20 min before IR procedure. At the end of the reperfusion period, the whole brains of the fetal rats were removed for evaluation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and for examination by electron microscopy. According to lipid peroxidation data, all the anesthetic drugs provide neuroprotection; however, ultrastructural findings and mitochondrial scoring confirms that only propofol and midazolam provides a strong neuroprotective effect. Propofol and midazolam may be used to protect fetal brain in case of acute fetal distress and hypoxic injury as a first choice anesthetic drug in cesarean delivery.

  18. The effect of midazolam on implicit and explicit memory in category exemplar production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jason; Passannante, Anthony; Hirshman, Elliot

    2004-03-01

    Transfer-appropriate processing theory (Roediger, Weldon, & Challis, 1989) proposes that dissociations between performance on explicit and implicit memory tests arise because these tests often rely on different types of information processing (e.g., perceptual processing vs conceptual processing). This perspective predicts that implicit and explicit memory tasks that rely primarily on conceptual processing should show comparable results, not dissociations. Numerous studies have demonstrated such similarities. It is, however, possible that these results arise from explicit memory contamination of performance on implicit memory tasks. To address this issue, an experiment was conducted in which participants were administered the sedative midazolam prior to study. Midazolam is known to create a temporary, but dense, period of anterograde amnesia. The effects of blocking stimulus materials by semantic category at study and generation at study were investigated on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. The results of this study demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of midazolam on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. Specifically, midazolam reduced the effect of blocking stimulus materials in category-cued recall, but not in category exemplar production. The differential effect of midazolam on explicit and implicit memory is at odds with transfer-appropriate processing theory and suggests that theories of memory must distinguish the roles of different types of conceptual processing on implicit and explicit memory tests.

  19. Systemic or Intra-Amygdala Injection of a Benzodiazepine (Midazolam) Impairs Extinction but Spares Re-Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Genevra; Harris, Justin A.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Rats were subjected to one or two cycles of fear conditioning and extinction, injected with a benzodiazepine, midazolam, before the first or second extinction, and tested for long-term inhibition of fear responses (freezing). In Experiment 1, inhibition of context-conditioned fear was spared when midazolam was injected before the second…

  20. Linezolid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates at a single Japanese center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Motoyasu; Nagata, Nobuhiko; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Koichi; Takata, Tohru; Tanihara, Shinichi; Kamimura, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether linezolid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep occurred in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), over a recent 5-year period at a single Japanese center. A total of 453 MRSA and 195 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates recovered from inpatients from April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2013 were analyzed. The MIC of linezolid was determined by automated Vitek-2 system. The modal MIC, MIC range, MIC50 and MIC90 (MICs required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms, respectively), geometric mean MIC and percentages of susceptible and resistant isolates were evaluated for each fiscal year. None of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to linezolid. Isolates with an MIC of >1 µg/mL were more common in the MSSA samples than in the MRSA samples (91.3% versus 38.2%, plinezolid geometric mean MIC increased by 0.403 µg/mL (from 1.178 in 2008 to 1.582 in 2012) in the MRSA isolates (p=0.006, r(2)=0.945 according to a linear regression analysis) over the 5-year period; however, no increase was observed in the MSSA isolates. The frequency of MRSA isolates with an MIC of 1 µg/mL decreased (from 76.3% in 2008 to 35.4% in 2012) and the isolates with MICs of >1 µg/mL increased over time (from 23.7% in 2008 to 64.6% in 2012). This report demonstrates the occurrence of linezolid MIC creep, as determined using the geometric mean MIC, in MRSA clinical isolates at a single Japanese center.

  1. Research on absolute measurement of 222Rn/220Rn concentrations based on a single small scintillation cell and delay-time method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbo; Zhao Xiuliang; Yu Hong; Xiao Yongjun; Wu Yongyan

    2009-01-01

    A single small scintillation with delay-time method is used to measure radon and thoron concentrations in their mixed atmosphere-of absolute measurement of radon and thoron concentrations was discussed. The conditions of using radon to test this method was described and a experiment was designed to prove it. Compare to the reference number, Its margin of error was -2.9%∼+3.4%, and the best time of the measurement of radon was 10-45 minutes. In conclusion, a single small scintillation cell could be used for absolute measurement radon and thoron concentrations. (authors)

  2. Development of a novel method for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, Eiji; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Asami, Mari; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-06-01

    A novel method, electronegative membrane-vortex (EMV) method, was developed for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample. Viruses and protozoa in a water sample were mixed with a cation solution and adsorbed on an electronegative membrane. Concentrated virus and protozoa samples were obtained as supernatant and pellet fractions, respectively, by vigorous vortex mixing of the membrane and centrifugation of the eluted material. The highest recovery efficiencies of model microbes from river water and tap water by this EMV method were obtained using a mixed cellulose ester membrane with a pore size of 0.45 μm (Millipore) as the electronegative membrane and MgCl(2) as the cation solution. The recovery was 27.7-86.5% for poliovirus, 25.7-68.3% for coliphage Qβ, 28.0-60.0% for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 35.0-53.0% for Giardia cysts. The EMV method detected successfully indigenous viruses and protozoa in wastewater and river water samples from the Kofu basin, Japan, showing an overall positive rate of 100% (43/43) for human adenovirus, 79% (34/43) for norovirus GI, 65% (28/43) for norovirus GII, 23% (10/43) for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 60% (26/43) for Giardia cysts. By direct DNA sequencing, a total of four genotypes (AI, AII, B, and G) of Giardia intestinalis were identified in the water samples, indicating that the river water was contaminated with feces from various mammals, including humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of intranasal midazolam administration with a dose of 0.5 mg/kg in behavior management of uncooperative children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Romina; Eshghi, AliReza; Bashardoost, Nasrollah; Kavyani, Naser

    2008-01-01

    Intranasal midazolam has been used to induce conscious sedation in children with negative and aggressive behavior The main goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of intranasal administration of midazolam (with a dose of 0.5 mg/kg) in behavior management of uncooperative children. Thirty healthy, difficult children of 3-5 years were evaluated. At the beginning of each session, ordinary techniques of behavior management to treat patients were applied. In cases of unsatisfactory responses, intranasal midazolam was immediately employed. To determine the efficacy of the drug, child behavior was evaluated before and after administration of midazolam using Houpt rating scale of general behavior. A statistically significant difference was demonstrated in the patients 'behavior before and after administration of intranasal midazolam. this drug is effective in sedation and reduction of the anxiety of children under treatment.

  4. Comparative study of hemodynamic changes caused by diazepam and midazolam during third molar surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Hécio Henrique Araújo; Barbalho, Jimmy Charles Melo; de Holanda Vasconcellos, Ricardo José; Landim, Fabricio Souza; da Costa Araújo, Fábio Andrey; de Souza Dias, Tasiana Guedes

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare hemodynamic changes using midazolam 7.5 mg and diazepam 10.0 mg during the surgical removal of symmetrically positioned third molars. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out involving 120 patients divided into three groups: Group 1 (diazepam and placebo), Group 2 (midazolam and placebo), and Group 3 (diazepam and midazolam). Each subject underwent two surgeries on separate occasions under local anesthesia. The following parameters were assessed at five different times (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4): systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (SBP, DBP, and MBP, respectively); heart rate (HR); oxygen saturation (SpO(2)); rate pressure product (RPP); and pressure rate quotient (PRQ). Statistically significant differences were found regarding heart rate at T2 and T3 (p third molar surgery.

  5. [Evaluation of N2O inhalation and oral midazolam conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry of children with intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-hua; Yang, Yan-zhong; Li, Xiao-feng

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of N2O inhalation and oral midazolam sedation on uncooperative patients with intellectual disability in pediatric dentistry. N2O inhalation (35%-50%) and oral midazolam conscious sedation (dosages range: 0.50-0.75 mg/kg) were applied to 67 uncooperative pediatric patients with intellectual disability in outpatient department. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group A (N2O inhalation conscious sedation) and group B(oral midazolam conscious sedation).Treatment results and safety were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test with SPSSl3.0 software package. The mean success rate was 70%. The success rate in group B (75%) was higher than group A (67%). The overall incidence of adverse reactions was 13%(9/67). The adverse reaction rate in group B (25%) was significantly higher than group A (5%, Ppediatric dental uncooperative patients with intellectual disability.

  6. Effects of specimen size and yttria concentration on mechanical properties of single crystalline yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia nanopillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Asle Zaeem, Mohsen

    2017-07-01

    The nanoscale plastic deformation of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (YSTZ) is highly dependent on the crystallographic orientations, i.e., dislocation is induced when the loading direction is 45° tilted to {111} and {101} slip planes, while tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation dominates the plastic deformation when loading direction is perpendicular to the slip planes. This study investigates the effects of specimen size and yttria concentration on the mechanical response of single crystalline YSTZ nanopillars. Through uniaxial compression test, the smaller-is-stronger phenomenon is revealed in nanopillars deformed through a dislocation motion mechanism. Serrated stacking faults are observed in the smallest nanopillar, while neat primary slip plane forms in the largest nanopillar. In contrast, the larger-is-stronger relation is observed in nanopillars in which deformation is mediated by tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation. It is noted that the ratio of transformed monoclinic phase to the remaining tetragonal phase is the highest in the smallest nanopillar. The strength of nanopillars is identified to decrease by increasing the amount of yttria due to the creation of more oxygen vacancies that act as weak points to facilitate dislocation motion and accelerate phase transformation.

  7. Concentrated Solutions of Single-Chain Nanoparticles: A Simple Model for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins under Crowding Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Angel J; Lo Verso, Federica; Arbe, Arantxa; Pomposo, José A; Colmenero, Juan

    2016-03-03

    By means of large-scale computer simulations and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we investigate solutions of single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs), covering the whole concentration range from infinite dilution to melt density. The analysis of the conformational properties of the SCNPs reveals that these synthetic nano-objects share basic ingredients with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), as topological polydispersity, generally sparse conformations, and locally compact domains. We investigate the role of the architecture of the SCNPs in their collapse behavior under macromolecular crowding. Unlike in the case of linear macromolecules, which experience the usual transition from self-avoiding to Gaussian random-walk conformations, crowding leads to collapsed conformations of SCNPs resembling those of crumpled globules. This behavior is already found at volume fractions (about 30%) that are characteristic of crowding in cellular environments. The simulation results are confirmed by the SANS experiments. Our results for SCNPs--a model system free of specific interactions--propose a general scenario for the effect of steric crowding on IDPs: collapse from sparse conformations at high dilution to crumpled globular conformations in cell environments.

  8. Evaluation of the Sedative Effects of Diazepam, Midazolam, and Xylazine After Intranasal Administration in Juvenile Ostriches ( Struthio camelus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mostafa; Azizi, Saeed; Vesal, Nasser; Dalir-Naghade, Bahram

    2016-09-01

    The sedative effects of diazepam, midazolam, and xylazine after intranasal administration were evaluated in 72 (36 male and 36 female) juvenile healthy ostriches ( Struthio camelus ), weighing 50-61 kg and aged 4-5 months. The birds were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 24), then each group was further subdivided to 4 subgroups (n = 6). For each drug, 4 different doses were chosen and the total calculated dose was equally administered into either naris of the individual bird. The appropriate dose of each drug to produce standing chemical restraint or sternal recumbency was evaluated based on the onset time, the duration of maximum effect, and the duration of sedation. Midazolam showed significantly shorter onset time (2.9 ± 1.2 minutes) compared with xylazine (4.4 ± 1 minute) and diazepam (4.3 ± 0.4 minutes). Longer duration of sedation was also achieved with midazolam compared with xylazine and diazepam. Moderate sedation was achieved with diazepam (0.8 mg/kg), midazolam (0.4 mg/kg), and xylazine (2 mg/kg) for standing chemical restraint, with the maximum duration effects of 7.0 ± 1.4, 17.7 ± 4.1, and 9.2 ± 2.5 minutes, respectively. Deep sedation was also achieved with midazolam (0.8 mg/kg) and xylazine (4 mg/kg), with sternal recumbency duration of 21.7 ± 4.9 and 13.5 ± 2.6 minutes, respectively. The results of the present study show that intranasal administration can be an effective route for delivery of sedatives in juvenile ostriches. Intranasal midazolam and xylazine could be suggested for standing chemical restraint or inducing sternal recumbency in juvenile ostriches.

  9. Oral Midazolam Premedication for Children Undergoing General Anaesthesia for Dental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad A. Sheta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the efficacy and safety of injectable midazolam administered orally in 3 different doses in children undergoing complete dental rehabilitation under GA. Subjects and Methods. 60 children aged 2–6 years were enrolled in the study. The children were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups and received orally 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 mg/kg of injectable midazolam mixed with apple juice 30 minutes before separation from parents. The following measurements were assessed: patient's acceptance of the medication, reaction to separation from parents, sedation scores, and recovery conditions. Results. More children were comfortable with parent separation in the group that received the 1.0 mg/kg dose (90% compared to the group that received the 0.75 mg/kg dose (75% and the group that received the 0.5 mg/kg dose (55%. The number of children who had desirable sedation was similar in the 0.75 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg dose groups. Twenty five percent of the children in the group that received the 0.5 mg/kg dose did not allow venepuncture before induction of GA, and induction of GA was poor for 20% of the children in this group. An increasing number of children scored excellent in terms of ease of venepuncture in 0.75 mg/kg dose group (10% and in the 1.0 mg/kg dose group (20% and in terms of induction of GA, 25% and 35%, respectively. Recovery of spontaneous ventilation and extubation was delayed by over 15 minutes in 2 children in the 1.0 mg/kg dose group. Conclusion. The dose of 0.75 mg/kg of injectable midazolam given orally as premedication is acceptable, effective, and safe.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF CAUDAL MIDAZOLAM AND CLONIDINE POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalinga Raju A.V.S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caudal epidural analgesia is one of the most popular regional techniques used in paediatric patients undergoing lower limb, anoperineal and abdominal surgical procedures for postoperative pain relief. The aim of postoperative pain relief is to provide subjective comfort and inhibit trauma-induced nociceptive impulses to blunt autonomic and reflex responses to pain and subsequently to enhance the restoration of function. Caudal epidural analgesia though practiced widely is of short duration even when used with long-acting local anaesthetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Children of either sex undergoing elective hernia or hydrocele surgery within in the age group of 2-8 years belonging to ASA I and II were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained from the parents before procedure. RESULTS The duration of analgesia in the study group was 10.14 ± 4.69 hrs. and 6.83 ± 0.79 hrs. in the clonidine group and midazolam group. Duration of analgesia in clonidine group was significantly longer when compared to with midazolam group with a p value of <0.05. Sedation Score- There was decrease in heart rate and mean arterial pressure from baseline, but these were under allowable limits of 20%. The patient had pain scores of less than 8 for first 6-8 hrs. The patients were well sedated and were easily arousable. CONCLUSION We conclude that in our study we found that clonidine 8 μg/kg provided good analgesia for a longer duration when compared with midazolam. Clonidine also provided good sedation with minimal haemodynamic variations. This is in agreement with studies conducted to know haemodynamic stability with higher doses of clonidine.

  11. Characterization of mucoadhesive nasal gels containing midazolam hydrochloride prepared from Linum usitatissimum L. mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamoshree Basu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery systems prepared from natural materials are gaining importance in the field of pharmaceutical technology. Mucilage isolated from Linum usitatissimum L. (LUM seeds was reported to be an effective natural mucoadhesive agent. The present study deals with a comparison of various characteristics of nasal gels containing midazolam hydrochloride (HCl prepared from mucoadhesive agent extracted from Linum usitatissimum L. seeds and synthetic polymers like HPMC and Carbopol 934P in terms of texture profile analysis, mucoadhesive strength, and in vivo drug absorption profiles. It was observed that gels formulated with the natural mucilage showed better results than the synthetic gels in all aspects like hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesive strength. The absolute bioavailability of midazolam hydrochloride from the natural gel was 97.55% whereas that of synthetic gels was 57.33% and 76.81% respectively.Sistemas de liberação nasal preparados com produtos naturais estão ganhando importância no campo da tecnologia farmacêutica. A mucilagem isolada de sementes de Linum usitatissimum L. (LUM mostrou-se agente mucoadesivo eficaz. O presente estudo trata da comparação de várias características de géis nasais contendo cloridrato de midazolam preparados com agente mucoadesivo extraído das sementes de Linum usitatissimum L. e com polímeros sintéticos, como HPMC e Carbopol 943P, com relação ao perfil de textura, força mucoadesiva e perfis de absorção do fármaco in vivo. Observou-se que os géis formulados com mucilagem natural apresentam melhores resultados do que os sintéticos em todos os aspectos, como dureza, adesão, coesão e força mucoadesiva. A biodisponibilidade absoluta do cloridrato de midazolam a partir do gel natural foi de 97,55%, enquanto que nos géis sintéticos foi de 57,33% e 76,81%, respectivamente.

  12. The effect of midazolam on neutrophil mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ghori, Kamran

    2010-06-01

    Neutrophil p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a key enzyme in the intracellular signalling pathway that is responsible for many neutrophil functions, which are important in neutrophil-endothelial interaction. The imidazole compounds are inhibitors of this enzyme system. The objectives of this in-vitro investigation were to examine the effect of midazolam on neutrophil p38 MAPK activation (phosphorylation) following in-vitro ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and the expression of adhesion molecule CD11b\\/CD18.

  13. Continuous intravenous anaesthesia with sufentanil and midazolam in medetomidine premedicated New Zealand White rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedenqvist Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaesthesia in rabbits is associated with a high mortality rate, compared to that in cats and dogs. Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA with drugs that provide cardiovascular stability and are rapidly metabolised could be of benefit for use in rabbits. The aim was to evaluate cardiorespiratory effects of TIVA with sufentanil-midazolam in eight New Zealand White rabbits. Subcutaneous premedication with medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg BW was followed by IV administration of a mixture of 2.5 μg/mL sufentanil and 0.45 mg/mL midazolam at a rate of 0.3 mL/kg BW/h for anaesthetic induction. Additionally, intravenous boluses of 0.1 mL of the mixture were administered every 20 s until the righting reflex was lost. Following endotracheal intubation, anaesthesia was maintained for 60 min with an infusion rate adjusted to supress the pedal withdrawal reflex. Air and oxygen (1:2 were delivered at 3 L/min. Physiological variables were recorded before induction and at predefined time points during and after anaesthesia. Results Righting and pedal withdrawal reflexes were lost within 3 and 5 min, respectively. Doses of sufentanil and midazolam were 0.48 μg/kg BW and 0.09 mg/kg BW for induction, and 0.72 μg/kg BW/h and 0.13 mg/kg BW/h for maintenance. Apnoea occurred in two rabbits. Induction of anaesthesia caused a significant increase in heart rate, cardiac output and arterial CO2 partial pressure and a decrease in mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate and pH. Mean time from stopping the infusion to endotracheal extubation was 5 min, and to return of the righting reflex 7 min. Anaesthesia was characterized by induction and recovery without excitation, with muscle relaxation, and absence of the pedal withdrawal reflex. Conclusions TIVA with sufentanil-midazolam provided smooth induction and recovery of anaesthesia in rabbits but with marked hypotension and respiratory depression, requiring mechanical ventilation. Further evaluation is needed

  14. Materials Chemistry Issues in the Development of a Single-Crystal Solar/Thermal Refractive Secondary Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Biering, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    A translucent crystal concentrates and transmits energy to a heat exchanger, which in turn heats a propellant gas, working gas of a dynamic power system, or a thermopile. Materials are the limiting issue in such a system. Central is the durability of the crystal, which must maintain the required chemical, physical/optical, and mechanical properties as it is heated and cooled. This report summarizes available data to date on the materials issues with this system. We focus on the current leading candidate materials, which are sapphire (Al2O3) for higher temperatures and silica (SiO2) for lower temperatures. We use data from thermochemical calculations; laboratory coupon tests with silica and sapphire; and system tests with sapphire. The required chemical properties include low-vapor pressure and interfacial stability with supporting structural materials. Optical properties such as transmittance and index of refraction must be maintained. Thermomechanical stability is a major challenge for a large, single-crystal ceramic and has been discussed in another report. In addition to the crystal, other materials in the proposed system include refractory metals (Nb, Ta, Mo, W, and Re), carbon (C), and high-temperature ceramic insulation. The major issue here is low levels of oxygen, which lead to volatile refractory metal oxides and rapid consumption of the refractory metal. Interfacial reactions between the ceramic crystal and refractory metal are also discussed. Finally, high-temperature ceramic insulating materials are also likely to be used in this system. Outgassing is a major issue for these materials. The products of outgassing are typically reactive with the refractory metals and must be minimized.

  15. Repeated anaesthesia with isoflurane and medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl in guinea pigs and its influence on physiological parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Schmitz

    Full Text Available Repeated anaesthesia may be required in experimental protocols and in daily veterinary practice, but anaesthesia is known to alter physiological parameters in GPs (Cavia porcellus, GPs. This study investigated the effects of repeated anaesthesia with either medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF or isoflurane (Iso on physiological parameters in the GP. Twelve GPs were repeatedly administered with MMF or Iso in two anaesthesia sets. One set consisted of six 40-min anaesthesias, performed over 3 weeks (2 per week; the anaesthetic used first was randomized. Prior to Iso anaesthesia, atropine was injected. MMF anaesthesia was antagonized with AFN (atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone. Abdominally implanted radio-telemetry devices recorded the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR and core body temperature continuously. Additionally, respiratory rate, blood glucose and body weight were assessed. An operable state could be achieved and maintained for 40 min in all GPs. During the surgical tolerance with MMF, the GPs showed a large MAP range between the individuals. In the MMF wake- up phase, the time was shortened until the righting reflex (RR returned and that occurred at lower MAP and HR values. Repeated Iso anaesthesia led to an increasing HR during induction (anaesthesias 2-6, non-surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 3-6 and surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 4, 6. Both anaesthetics may be used repeatedly, as repeating the anaesthesias resulted in only slightly different physiological parameters, compared to those seen with single anaesthesias. The regular atropine premedication induced HR increases and repeated MMF anaesthesia resulted in a metabolism increase which led to the faster return of RR. Nevertheless, Iso's anaesthesia effects of strong respiratory depression and severe hypotension remained. Based on this increased anaesthesia risk with Iso, MMF anaesthesia is preferable for repeated use in GPs.

  16. Computerized electrocardiogram in agoutis (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831 anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaemilia N. Diniz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: An electrocardiogram is a test that assesses heart electrical activity and is applied more frequently in the veterinary care of wild animals. The present study aimed to define the electrocardiogram pattern of agoutis (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831 anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam. Eighteen clinically healthy agoutis (D. prymnolopha were used from the Nucleus for Wild Animal Studies and Conservation (NEPAS of the Federal University of Piauí, Brazil. The animals were chemically restrained with 5% ketamine hydrochloride at a dose of 15mg/kg and midazolam at a dose of 1mg/kg by intramuscular injection. Electrocardiogram tests were carried out by a computerized method with the veterinary electrocardiogram [Acquisition Model for Computer (ECG - PC version Windows 95 Brazilian Electronic Technology (TEB consisting of an electronic circuit externally connected to a notebook computer with ECGPC-VET (TEB software installed on the hard disc. In analysing the EKG results, significant differences were observed for QRS complex duration, PR and QT intervals and for R wave millivoltage between the genders; but we observed a significant influence of weight despite the gender. In the present experiment, the anaesthetic protocol was shown to be well tolerated by the agoutis, and no arrhythmias occurred during the time the animals were monitored. The reference values obtained should be used to better understand the cardiac electrophysiology of the species and for its clinical and surgical management.

  17. Reported side effects of intravenous midazolam sedation when used in paediatric dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineni McIntosh, Arathi; Ashley, Paul Francis; Lourenço-Matharu, Liege

    2015-05-01

    Intravenous (IV) midazolam may be of value as an alternative paediatric dental sedation technique, but there is some apprehension concerning its routine use due to a lack of evidence regarding its safety and side effects. To review all available literature reporting the side effects of IV midazolam in children undergoing dental procedures. Both randomised controlled trials (RCT) and non-randomised studies were reviewed. Reported side effects were categorised as either significant or minor, and the percentage prevalence of significant or minor side effects per episode of treatment was calculated. Five RCTs were included, in which no significant side events were reported; however, minor side effects were recorded (n = 33, 19.5%), with paradoxical reaction being the most common (n = 11, 6.5%). Six non-randomised studies were included, in which no significant side effects were reported; however, minor side effects were reported (n = 118, 16.8%) with paradoxical reaction being the most common (n = 89, 12.7%). Although no significant side effects were recorded, of the minor side effects reported paradoxical reaction was the most common. Due to inconsistency in side effect reporting, the authors suggest the application of a standardised adverse event reporting tool for future studies of sedation in paediatric dentistry. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial of oral midazolam and hydroxyzine for pediatric dental sedation Sedação com midazolam e hidroxizina por via oral em Odontopediatria: ensaio clínico randomizado, controlado e cruzado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Rodrigues de Almeida Lima

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of oral midazolam in pediatric dentistry is controversial. This randomized, controlled, crossover, double blind clinical trial was conducted in order to study the effect of midazolam, used either alone or in association with hydroxyzine, during child dental treatment. Thirty seven dental sedation sessions were carried out on 11 ASA I uncooperative children less than five years-old. In each appointment children were randomly assigned to groups: P - placebo, M - midazolam (1.0 mg/kg, or MH - midazolam (0.75 mg/kg plus hydroxyzine (2.0 mg/kg. Vital signs (blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse and oxygen saturation and behavior parameters (consciousness, crying, movement, overall behavior were evaluated every 15 minutes. Friedman and Wilcoxon statistical tests were used to compare groups and different moments in the same group. Normal values of vital signs were usually registered. Heart rate increased in groups P and M as the session went on. Group M presented less crying and movement at the first 15 minutes of treatment. Group MH caused more drowsiness at the beginning of the session. Overall behavior was better in group M than in groups P or MH. Group M produced effective sedation in 77% of the cases, and group MH did so in 30.8%. It was concluded that midazolam was effective and safe, and its association with hydroxyzine did not lead to additional advantages in pediatric dental sedation.Há controvérsias quanto aos benefícios do midazolam na sedação de crianças durante a atenção odontológica. Conduziu-se um ensaio clínico controlado, cruzado e duplo-cego para comparar o efeito sedativo em Odontopediatria da administração oral do midazolam, associado ou não à hidroxizina. Trinta e sete sessões foram realizadas em 11 crianças menores de cinco anos, ASA I. Em cada atendimento, os pacientes receberam aleatoriamente o medicamento conforme os grupos: P - placebo, M - midazolam (1,0 mg/kg; MH - midazolam (0,75 mg

  19. Differential effects of midazolam and zolpidem on sleep-wake states and epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depoortere, H.; Francon, D.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Hypnotic drugs are known to possess antiepileptic activity. Therefore, the effects of the benzodiazepine hypnotic midazolam (10 mg/kg) and the novel imidazopyridine hypnotic zolpidem (10 mg/kg) on sleep-wake states and on the number of spike-wave discharges were evaluated in WAG/Rij rats. Rats of

  20. Oral clonidine vs midazolam in the prevention of sevoflurane-induced agitation in children. a prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tazeroualti, N.; de Groote, F.; de Hert, S.; de Villé, A.; Dierick, A.; van der Linden, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This randomized, double-blind study tested the hypothesis that, in comparison with midazolam, premedication with oral clonidine reduces the incidence of emergence agitation in preschool children anaesthetized with sevoflurane. METHODS: Sixty-eight ASA I-II children undergoing

  1. Intravenous Dexmedetomidine Provides Superior Patient Comfort and Tolerance Compared to Intravenous Midazolam in Patients Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Goneppanavar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dexmedetomidine, an α2 agonist, has demonstrated its effectiveness as a sedative during awake intubation, but its utility in fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB is not clear. We evaluated the effects of midazolam and dexmedetomidine on patient’s response to FOB. The patients received either midazolam, 0.02 mg/kg (group M, n=27, or dexmedetomidine, 1 µg/kg (group D, n=27. A composite score of five different parameters and a numerical rating scale (NRS for pain intensity and distress were used to assess patient response during FOB. Patients rated the quality of sedation and level of discomfort 24 h after the procedure. Ease of bronchoscopy, rescue medication requirement, and haemodynamic variables were noted. Ideal or acceptable composite score was observed in 15 and 26 patients, respectively, in group M (14.48 ± 3.65 and group D (9.41 ± 3.13, p<0.001. NRS showed that 11 patients in group M had severe pain and discomfort as compared to one patient with severe pain and two with severe discomfort in group D during the procedure, p<0.001. Rescue midazolam requirement was significantly higher in group M (p=0.023. We conclude that during FOB, under topical airway anaesthesia, IV dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg provides superior patient comfort and tolerance as compared to IV midazolam (0.02 mg/kg.

  2. An Evaluation of Oral Midazolam for Anxiety and Pain in First-Trimester Surgical Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Lisa L; Edelman, Alison B; Fu, Rongwei; Lambert, William E; Nichols, Mark D; Bednarek, Paula H; Miller, Kelsey; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the effect of oral midazolam on patient pain and anxiety perception during first-trimester surgical abortion. Between May and December 2013, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between 6 0/7 and 10 6/7 weeks of gestation received 10 mg oral midazolam or placebo 30-60 minutes before surgical abortion. All patients received ibuprofen and a paracervical block. We powered the study (power=80%; significance level=.025) to detect a 15-mm difference in our two a priori primary outcomes of pain and anxiety with uterine aspiration on a 100-mm visual analog scale. Secondary outcomes were pain and anxiety at additional time points, memory, satisfaction, side effects, and adverse events. Demographics were similar between groups (placebo=62, midazolam=62). Compared with those randomized to placebo, patients who received midazolam had significantly less anxiety preoperatively (room entry: 51.4 mm compared with 34.5 mm, Pabortions. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01830881. I.

  3. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  4. Short- and long-term temporal changes in soil concentrations of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) following single or multiple applications of sewage sludge to pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, S M; Kyle, C E; Ruffie, H; Calmettes, E; Osprey, M; Zhang, Z L; Hamilton, D; McKenzie, C

    2013-10-01

    Temporal changes in soil burdens of selected endocrine disrupting compounds were determined following application to pasture of either sewage sludge or inorganic fertilizer. Soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were not altered. Changes in concentrations of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and PBDEs 47 and 99 differed with season but concentrations remained elevated for more than three weeks after application, when grazing animals are normally excluded from pasture. It is concluded that single applications of sewage sludge can increase soil concentrations of some, but not all classes of EDCs, possibly to concentrations sufficient to exert biological effects when different chemicals act in combination, but patterns of change depend on season and soil temperature. Analysis of soil from pasture subjected to repeated sludge applications, over 13 years, provided preliminary evidence of greater increases in soil burdens of all of the EDC groups measured, including all of the PBDE congeners measured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictive value of serum HCG concentrations in pregnancies achieved after single fresh or vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Galia; Shavit, Tal; Esh-Broder, Efrat; Weon-Young, Son; Tulandi, Togas; Holzer, Hananel

    2017-09-01

    Possible differences between serum HCG levels in pregnancies achieved after transfer of a single fresh or a vitrified-warmed blastocyst were evaluated. Out of 1130 single blastocyst transfers resulting in positive HCG results, 789 were single fresh blastocyst transfers and 341 single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfers. The initial serum HCG levels of 869 clinical intrauterine pregnancies were evaluated, 638 after the transfer of a single fresh blastocysts and 231 after the transfer of a single vitrified-warmed blastocysts. The HCG levels from cycles resulting in a clinical intrauterine pregnancy were significantly higher after the transfer of a single vitrified-warmed blastocyst (383 ± 230 IU/l) versus a fresh transfer (334 ± 192 IU/l; P = 0.01). Threshold values for predicting a clinical pregnancy for a fresh blastocyst were 111 IU/l and for a vitrified-warmed blastocyst 137 IU/l. Our study shows that the overall beta-HCG levels are comparable after the transfer of a fresh or vitrified-warmed blastocyst, suggesting that vitrification most probably does not affect the ability of the embryos to produce beta-HCG. This study further shows that when clinicians counsel patients, they should take into account that higher HCG levels are needed after a vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer to predict a clinical intrauterine pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Crystal Growth of Ca3Nb(Ga1−xAlx3Si2O14 Piezoelectric Single Crystals with Various Al Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuui Yokota

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ca3Nb(Ga1−xAlx3Si2O14 (CNGAS single crystals with various Al concentrations were grown by a micro-pulling-down (µ-PD method and their crystal structures, chemical compositions, crystallinities were investigated. CNGAS crystals with x = 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 indicated a single phase of langasite-type structure without any secondary phases. In contrast, the crystals with x = 0.8 and 1 included some secondary phases in addition to the langasite-type phase. Lattice parameters, a- and c-axes lengths, of the langasite-type phase systematically decreased with an increase of Al concentration. The results of chemical composition analysis revealed that the actual Al concentrations in as-grown crystals were almost consistent with the nominal compositions. In addition, there was no large segregation of each cation along the growth direction.

  7. Comparison of Dexmedetomidine and Midazolam in Sedation for Percutaneous Drainage of Hepatic Hydatid Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavullu, Emine Nilgün; Aksoy, Esra; Abdullayev, Ruslan; Göğüş, Nermin; Dede, Doğan

    2013-12-01

    Hydatid cyst still continues to be a public health problem. The basic treatment for the disease is surgery, but ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage has become an important treatment alternative. Agents preferred for sedation during drainage performed under local anaesthesia must also preserve respiration and hemodynamic stability while providing adequate sedation. We compared the sedative properties of midazolam, which has a short duration of action, and a selective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, and the intraoperative complications. After approval by the clinical trials ethics committee, 40 patients with similar demographic data were randomized into two groups. All patients received 10 mg metoclopramide and 45.5 mg pheniramine before the procedure. Then, midazolam (0.07 mg kg(-1) IV bolus followed by 0.01 mg kg(-1) h(-1) infusion) was administered to Group 1, and dexmedetomidine (1 μg kg(-1) loading dose in 10 minutes, followed by 0.2 μg kg(-1) h(-1) continuous infusion) was administered to Group 2 for sedation. Just before the surgical procedure, all patients received IV propofol in a subhypnotic dose of 0.5 mg kg(-1); the dose was repeated if adequate sedation could not be achieved. Observer's assessment of alertness/sedation (OAA/S) scale and Bispectral index (BIS) were used to evaluate the sedation level during the procedure. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory rate (RR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (ETCO2) were monitored before and after induction and every 5 minutes thereafter. Propofol requirement was noted for each group. Sedation in the dexmedetomidine group was as effective and adequate as that observed in the midazolam group. BIS values were significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group, especially after 10 minutes and thereafter. RR, SpO2, and ETCO2 were similar in both groups, whereas clinically insignificant decreases in HR and MAP were observed in the

  8. Vitamin concentrations in human milk vary with time within feed, circadian rhythm, and single-dose supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance: Human milk is the subject of many nutrition studies but methods for representative sample collection are not established. Our recently improved, validated methods for analyzing micronutrients in human milk now enable systematic study of factors affecting their concentration. Objective...

  9. Addition of low-dose ketamine to midazolam and low-dose bupivacaine improves hemodynamics and postoperative analgesia during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sobhy Basuni

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Intrathecal low-dose ketamine combined with midazolam and low-dose bupivacaine stabilizes hemodynamics and prolongs postoperative analgesia without significant side-effects in parturients undergoing CS.

  10. Determination of blood leukocyte concentration with constant volume acquisition on a flow cytometer is comparable to individualized single platform testing with beads as internal reference standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susan; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Flow cytometers have a constant flow rate. This enables flow cytometers to measure leukocyte concentrations in a determined volume by acquiring data at a fixed rate over a fixed time and is called constant volume acquisition (CVA). The volume aspirated by a FACS Calibur flow cytometer in 4 min...... at a high rate has a median of 163 microl (IQR 156-170) with TruCount tubes. Leukocyte concentrations of 26 healthy volunteers were measured twice on up to four occasions with a Bürker-Türk chamber, by single platform technology (SPT) with TruCount tubes and on the same data set using CVA. Total leukocyte...... concentrations determined by CVA correlated better with measurements in a Bürker-Türk (BT) chamber than with SPT. Concentrations determined with CVA were 1.86% higher than with BT whereas SPT data were 5.35% higher than BT (pconcentrations

  11. Blood Bupivacaine Concentrations After a Combined Single-Shot Sciatic Block and a Continuous Femoral Nerve Block in Pediatric Patients: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Santhanam; De Oliveira, Gildasio S

    2017-05-01

    We evaluated blood bupivacaine concentrations in children having a single-shot sciatic and continuous femoral blocks after anterior cruciate ligament repair. Dried blood spot samples were analyzed for bupivacaine levels at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes and 4, 24, and 48 hours. The highest 99% upper confidence interval limit was 135 ng/mL at the 4-hour evaluation point. The 99% upper confidence interval was below potentially toxic levels (1500 ng/mL) across all sampling times. The risk of local anesthetic toxicity in pediatric patients receiving single-shot sciatic and continuous femoral nerve blocks is very low.

  12. Effective single chain antibody (scFv) concentrations in vivo via adenoviral vector mediated expression of secretory scFv

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, WO; Gomez-Navarro, J; Buchsbaum, DJ; Xiang, J; Casado, E; Barker, SD; Mahasreshti, PJ; Haisma, HJ; Barnes, MN; Siegal, GP; Alvarez, RD; Hemminki, A; Nettelbeck, DM; Curiel, DT

    Single chain antibodies (scFv) represent powerful interventional agents for the achievement of targeted therapeutics. The practical utility of these agents have been limited, however, by difficulties related to production of recombinant scFv and the achievement of effective and sustained levels of

  13. Intranasal sedation using ketamine and midazolam for pediatric dental treatment (NASO): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Heloisa Sousa; Miranda, Analya Rodrigues; Viana, Karolline Alves; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Paulo Sucasas; Daher, Anelise; Machado, Geovanna de Castro Morais; Sado-Filho, Joji; Vieira, Liliani Aires Candido; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Hosey, Marie Therese; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2017-04-11

    Uncooperative children may need to receive dental treatment under sedation, which is indicated when nonpharmacological behavior guidance is unsuccessful. There are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different sedative protocols for dental procedures; however, the evidence for superiority of one form over another is weak. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of intranasally administered ketamine plus midazolam for the dental treatment of children. We have designed a three-armed, parallel RCT to assess intranasal sedation using ketamine/midazolam in terms of the following measures: efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness. Two- to 6-year-old healthy children, referred for dental treatment in a dental sedation center in Brazil due to uncooperative behavior and requiring restorative dental procedures, will be recruited. Each child will be randomly assigned to one of the three groups: A - Intranasal administration of ketamine (4.0 mg/kg, maximum 100 mg) and midazolam (0.2 mg/kg, maximum 5.0 mg); B - Oral administration of ketamine (4.0 mg/kg, maximum 100 mg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg, maximum 20 mg); and C - Oral administration of midazolam (1.0 mg/kg, maximum 20 mg). The primary outcome is the child's behavior assessed through an observational scale using digital videos of the restorative dental treatment under sedation. The secondary outcomes are as follows: acceptance of sedative administration; memory of intraoperative events; the child's stress; adverse events; the child's pain during the procedure; the parent's, dentists', and child's perceptions of sedation; and economic analysis. Measures will be taken at baseline and drug administration and during and after the dental procedure. The necessary sample size was estimated to be 84 children after a blinded interim analysis of the first 30 cases. This study will provide data that can substantially add to science and pediatric dentistry as it examines the effect of sedative

  14. Complications of sevoflurane-fentanyl versus midazolam-fentanyl anesthesia in pediatric cleft lip and palate surgery: a randomized comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, M; Goranović, T; Knezević, P

    2010-01-01

    Careful choice of anesthetic agents in pediatric patients reduces the frequency of anesthesia-related complications. The frequency and type of intraoperative and postoperative complications of sevoflurane-fentanyl versus midazolam-fentanyl anesthesia were compared in 140 consecutive children (aged 3 months to 10 years) undergoing cleft lip and palate repair. Midazolam-fentanyl anesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.05 mg/kg), fentanyl (0.005 mg/kg) and vecuronium (0.1mg/kg), and maintained with the same agents according to the defined parametars. Sevoflurane-fentanyl anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane (5-8 vol% and 0.8-1 vol%, respectively) in an oxygen/air mixture and supplemented with fentanyl (0.005 mg/kg). Both groups were comparable in basic demographic data, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Difficult intubation occurred in 6 of 76 children (midazolam-fentanyl group) and 4 of 64 children (sevoflurane-fentanyl group) (P=0.754). Ventricular extrasystole and bronchospasm occurred in one patient each in the sevoflurane-fentanyl group. Postoperatively, emergence agitation was observed in the sevoflurane-fentanyl group (17 cases; Pchildren (midazolam-fentanyl group) and 3 children (sevoflurane-fentanyl group) (P=0.660). Midazolam-based anesthesia in children is safer than sevoflurane-based anesthesia regarding occurrence of emergence agitation. Copyright 2009 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Applicability of a Single Time Point Strategy for the Prediction of Area Under the Concentration Curve of Linezolid in Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R; Syed, Muzeeb

    2016-01-01

    concentration–time curve (AUC) and minimum plasma drug concentration (Cmin) versus AUC relationship was established by linear regression models. The predictions of the AUC values were performed using published mean/median Cmax or Cmin data and appropriate regression lines. The quotient of observed and predicted...

  16. Infusão contínua de propofol em gatos pré-medicados com cetamina-midazolam Continuous infusion of propofol after ketamine-midazolam premedication in cats

    OpenAIRE

    A.L. Selmi; J.P. Figueiredo; G.M. Mendes; L.M.S. Lavor; P.M.L. Machado

    2005-01-01

    Estudaram-se os efeitos anestésicos e cardiorrespiratórios produzidos pela infusão contínua de propofol em gatos pré-medicados com a associação cetamina-midazolam. Catorze gatos adultos foram igualmente distribuídos em dois grupos (TX1 e TX3) aos quais administraram-se, pela via intramuscular, cetamina (3,0mg/kg) e midazolam (0,3mg/kg). Decorridos cinco minutos procedeu-se a indução anestésica pela administração intravenosa de propofol (5,0mg/kg), imediatamente seguida pela infusão contínua d...

  17. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  18. The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone on blood glucose concentrations in the perioperative period: a randomized, placebo-controlled investigation in gynecologic surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glenn S; Szokol, Joseph W; Avram, Michael J; Greenberg, Steven B; Shear, Torin; Vender, Jeffery S; Gray, Jayla; Landry, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone therapy on perioperative blood glucose concentrations has not been well characterized. In this investigation, we examined the effect of 2 commonly used doses of dexamethasone (4 and 8 mg at induction of anesthesia) on blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration. Two hundred women patients were randomized to 1 of 6 groups: Early-control (saline); Early-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); Early-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone); Late-control (saline); Late-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); and Late-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone). Blood glucose concentrations were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after administration in the early groups and at baseline and 8 and 24 hours after administration in the late groups. The incidence of hyperglycemic events (the number of patients with at least 1 blood glucose concentration >180 mg/dL) was determined. Blood glucose concentrations increased significantly over time in all control and dexamethasone groups (from median baselines of 94 to 102 mg/dL to maximum medians ranging from 141 to 161.5 mg/dL, all P < 0.001). Blood glucose concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups receiving dexamethasone (either 4 or 8 mg) and those receiving saline at any measurement time. The incidence of hyperglycemic events did not differ in any of the early (21%-28%, P = 0.807) or late (13%-24%, P = 0.552) groups. Because blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration of single low-dose dexamethasone did not differ from those observed after saline administrations, these results suggest clinicians need not avoid using dexamethasone for nausea and vomiting prophylaxis out of concerns related to hyperglycemia.

  19. A study of the diffusion dynamics and concentration distribution of gold nanospheres (GNSs) without fluorescent labeling inside live cells using fluorescence single particle spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchao; Dong, Chaoqing; Ren, Jicun

    2018-03-15

    Colloidal gold nanospheres (GNSs) have become important nanomaterials in biomedical applications due to their special optical properties, good chemical stability, and biocompatibility. However, measuring the diffusion coefficients or concentration distribution of GNSs within live cells accurately without any extra fluorescent labeling in situ has still not been resolved. In this work, a single particle method is developed to study the concentration distribution of folic acid-modified GNSs (FA-GNSs) internalized via folate receptors, and investigates their diffusion dynamics within live cells using single particle fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). We optimized the experimental conditions and verified the feasibility of 30 nm GNSs without extra fluorescence labeling being used for single particle detection inside live cells. Then, the FCS characterization strategy was used to measure the concentration and diffusion coefficient distributions of GNSs inside live cells and the obtained results were basically in agreement with those obtained by TEM. The results demonstrate that our strategy is characterized as an in situ, nondestructive, rapid and dynamic method for the assay of live cells, and it may be widely used in the further design of GNP-based drug delivery and therapeutics.

  20. Measurement of the mechanical properties of single Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 cells in different osmotic concentrations using a robot-integrated microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Di; Sakuma, Shinya; Kera, Kota; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Arai, Fumihito

    2018-03-23

    Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 (Synechocystis) is a model microorganism and its mechanosensitive (MS) channels play important roles in its osmoadaptation mechanism. When the osmotic concentration of the culture environment changes, the inner pressure of the cell also changes due to the transportation of water through ion channels. Because the tension in the cell membrane relates to the inner pressure, we expect that the response of the MS channels to an osmotic concentration change could be evaluated by measuring their mechanical properties. Here, we propose a system for the measurement of the mechanical properties of a single Synechocystis cell. We developed a robot-integrated microfluidic chip combined with optical tweezers. The chip has an external actuated pushing probe and a force sensor probe. A single cell was located between the tip of both probes using the optical tweezers and was then deformed using the probes. As a result, we could measure the force and deformation and compare the Young's moduli of two groups: a group of wild type cells and a group of mutant (genetically modified) cells with a defect in the MS channels, at three different osmotic concentrations. The results showed that the Young's modulus of each group changed according to the osmotic concentration, while changes in cell size were too small to be detected. These results confirmed that the proposed evaluation method provides an understanding of the physiological function of MS channels for keeping the cell integrity of microorganisms when the cells are exposed to different external osmotic changes.

  1. Vitamin Concentrations in Human Milk Vary with Time within Feed, Circadian Rhythm, and Single-Dose Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Islam, M Munirul; Peerson, Janet M; Allen, Lindsay H

    2017-04-01

    Background: Human milk is the subject of many studies, but procedures for representative sample collection have not been established. Our improved methods for milk micronutrient analysis now enable systematic study of factors that affect its concentrations. Objective: We evaluated the effects of sample collection protocols, variations in circadian rhythms, subject variability, and acute maternal micronutrient supplementation on milk vitamin concentrations. Methods: In the BMQ (Breast-Milk-Quality) study, we recruited 18 healthy women (aged 18-26 y) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, at 2-4 mo of lactation for a 3-d supplementation study. On day 1, no supplements were given; on days 2 and 3, participants consumed ∼1 time and 2 times, respectively, the US-Canadian Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamins at breakfast (0800-0859). Milk was collected during every feeding from the same breast over 24 h. Milk expressed in the first 2 min (aliquot I) was collected separately from the remainder (aliquot II); a third aliquot (aliquot III) was saved by combining aliquots I and II. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, A, and E and fat were measured in each sample. Results: Significant but small differences (14-18%) between aliquots were found for all vitamins except for vitamins B-6 and B-12. Circadian variance was significant except for fat-adjusted vitamins A and E, with a higher contribution to total variance with supplementation. Between-subject variability accounted for most of the total variance. Afternoon and evening samples best reflected daily vitamin concentrations for all study days. Acute supplementation effects were found for thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and A at 2-4 h postdosing, with 0.1-6.17% passing into milk. Supplementation was reflected in fasting, 24-h postdose samples for riboflavin and vitamin B-6. Maximum amounts of dose-responding vitamins in 1 feeding ranged from 4.7% to 21.8% (day 2) and 8.2% to 35.0% (day 3) of Adequate Intake

  2. Measurements of plasma colloid osmotic pressure, total protein and sodium concentration during haemodialysis: can single-pool sodium modelling explain the results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenholz, P; Falkenhagen, D; Hähling, D; Sitarek, U; Förster, J; Nonnemann, M; Holtz, M; Ernst, B; Brown, G S; Klinkmann, H

    1990-01-01

    Considering the plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) as a possible parameter for the monitoring of dialysis treatment compatibility, a characteristic time course was found. The COP and the total protein concentration very often do not increase significantly during the first treatment hour in spite of ultrafiltration. An increase in the plasma sodium concentration, which was higher than expected, was found to be the reason for a plasma dilution effect. This can be explained by a transcapillary sodium transfer coefficient which is not infinitely high as assumed in single-pool sodium modelling. From a 2-pool model considering the plasma volume as a separate pool and including capillary filtration time courses for plasma sodium, total protein concentration and COP could be calculated, which was very similar to the measured curves.

  3. Serum and Urine Concentrations of Flunitrazepam and Metabolites, after a Single Oral Dose, by Immunoassay and GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, H.; Schwenzer, K.S.; Pearlman, R.; McNally, A.J.; Tsilimidos, M.; Salamone, S.J.; Brenneisen, R.; ElSohly, M.A.; Feng, S.; Brenneisen, R.

    2017-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of commercially available immunoassays to detect flunitrazepam (FNP) in plasma and urine samples and to compare the results with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The clinical study consisted of four individuals (two male and two female) who had taken a single 2-mg dose of FNP. Serum was collected over a 48-h period and urine was collected over a 72-h period. The serum and urine samples were analyzed by the COB...

  4. Propofol target-controlled infusion for sedated gastrointestinal endoscopy: A comparison of propofol alone versus propofol–fentanyl–midazolam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Dan Hsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy is the major technique for diagnosis of GI disease and treatment. Various sedation and analgesia regimens such as midazolam, fentanyl, and propofol can be used during GI endoscopy. The purpose of the study was to compare propofol alone and propofol combination with midazolam and fentanyl in moderate sedation for GI endoscopy. One hundred patients undergoing GI endoscopy were enrolled in this study. All patients received a propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI to maintain sedation during the procedure. Patients were randomly allocated into either Group P (propofol TCI alone or Group C (combination of propofol TCI plus midazolam and fentanyl. Dermographic data, anesthetic parameters (sedation regimen, blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation, procedure parameters (procedure time, colonoscopy, or panendoscopy, propofol consumption, and adverse events (hypoxia, hypotension, and bradycardia were all recorded. Postprocedural records included recovery time, postoperative adverse events (nausea, vomiting, dizziness, recall, and pain and satisfaction. The average propofol consumption was 251 ± 83 mg in Group P and 159 ± 73 mg in Group C (p < 0.001. The incidence of transient hypotension was higher in Group P (p = 0.009. The recovery time and discharge time were both shorter in Group C (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006 respectively. Overall, postprocedural adverse events were similar in both groups. The postanesthetic satisfaction was comparable in both groups. TCI of propofol combined with midazolam and fentanyl achieved sedation with fewer hypotension episodes and shorter recovery and discharge time than propofol TCI alone in patients undergoing GI endoscopy.

  5. Comparison of Oral and Intranasal Midazolam/Ketamine Sedation in 3‒6-year-old Uncooperative Dental Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. There are several known sedative drugs, with midazolam and ketamine being the most commonly used drugs in children. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intranasal and oral midazolam plus ketamine in children with high levels of dental anxiety. Materials and methods. A crossover double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 23 uncooperative children aged 3‒6 (negative or definitely negative by Frankel scale, who required at least two similar dental treatment visits. Cases were ran-domly given ketamine (10 mg/kg and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg through oral or intranasal routes in each visit. The sedative efficacy of the agents was assessed by an overall success rate judged by two independent pediatric dentists based on Houpt’s scale for sedation. Data analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon test and paired t-test. Results. Intranasal administration was more effective in reduction of crying and movement during dental procedures com-pared to oral sedation (P<0.05. Overall behavior control was scored higher in nasal compared to oral routes at the time of LA injection and after 15 minutes (P<0.05. The difference was found to be statistically significant at the start and during treatment. However, the difference was no longer significant after 30 minutes, with the vital signs remaining within physio-logical limits. Recovery time was longer in the intranasal group (P<0.001 with a more sleepy face (P=0.004. Conclusion. Intranasal midazolam/ketamine combination was more satisfactory and effective than the oral route when sedating uncooperative children.

  6. The influence of midazolam on heart rate arises from cardiac autonomic tones alterations in Burmese pythons, Python molurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ivã Guidini; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Braga, Victor Hugo da Silva; Florindo, Luiz Henrique

    2017-12-01

    The GABA A receptor agonist midazolam is a compound widely used as a tranquilizer and sedative in mammals and reptiles. It is already known that this benzodiazepine produces small to intermediate heart rate (HR) alterations in mammals, however, its influence on reptiles' HR remains unexplored. Thus, the present study sought to verify the effects of midazolam on HR and cardiac modulation in the snake Python molurus. To do so, the snakes' HR, cardiac autonomic tones, and HR variability were evaluated during four different experimental stages. The first stage consisted on the data acquisition of animals under untreated conditions, in which were then administered atropine (2.5mgkg -1 ; intraperitoneal), followed later by propranolol (3.5mgkg -1 ; intraperitoneal) (cardiac double autonomic blockade). The second stage focused on the data acquisition of animals under midazolam effect (1.0mgkg -1 ; intramuscular), which passed through the same autonomic blockade protocol of the first stage. The third and fourth stages consisted of the same protocol of stages one and two, respectively, with the exception that atropine and propranolol injections were reversed. By comparing the HR of animals that received midazolam (second and fourth stages) with those that did not (first and third stages), it could be observed that this benzodiazepine reduced the snakes' HR by ~60%. The calculated autonomic tones showed that such cardiac depression was elicited by an ~80% decrease in cardiac adrenergic tone and an ~620% increase in cardiac cholinergic tone - a finding that was further supported by the results of HR variability analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intrapartum tenofovir and emtricitabine reduces low-concentration drug resistance selected by single-dose nevirapine for perinatal HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Benjamin H; Ellis, Giovanina M; Chintu, Namwinga; Cantrell, Ronald A; Sinkala, Moses; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Warrier, Ranjit; Mbewe, Felistas; Nakamura, Kyle; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Frenkel, Lisa M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2009-11-01

    A single dose of tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) during labor significantly reduces peripartum nevirapine-associated viral drug resistance when measured by consensus HIV sequencing. It is unknown whether this effect extends to HIV subpopulations of or = 2% of the viral population, we used an oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) at codons 103, 106, 181, and 190 of HIV reverse transcriptase. To assess development of drug resistance mutations to our study intervention, OLA was also performed at codons 65 and 184. Among the 328 women included in the 2-week analysis, those receiving TDF/FTC were less likely to have NNRTI resistance by OLA (RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.77). A similar trend was observed among the 315 women included in the 6-week analysis (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.31-0.66). Only two (1%) specimens had detectable K65R by OLA. Both were at 6 weeks postpartum; one was detected in the intervention arm and one in the control arm (p = 0.96). M184V was not detected. The ability of single-dose TDF/FTC to protect against peripartum NVP-induced NNRTI resistance extends to minority populations. This efficacy is achieved without significant selection of TDF- or FTC-resistant viruses.

  8. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine following a single subcutaneous administration of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Zullian, Chiara; Lema, Pablo; Lavoie, Melissa; Dodelet-Devillers, Aurore; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of slow release buprenorphine in sheep. Twelve adult female sheep (6 Dorset and 6 Suffolk, 12 months of age) were used for this project and were divided into 2 experimental groups (n = 6/group comprising 3 Dorset and 3 Suffolk sheep). Sustained release (SR) buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously in the scapular region at a concentration of 0.1 mg/kg body weight (BW) for group 1 and of 0.05 mg/kg BW for group 2. Following b...

  9. [Clinical evaluation of midazolam intravenous sedation under bispectral index monitoring on romoval of anterior supernumerary teeth in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ming; Wang, En-bo; Liu, Yu; Cui, Nian-hui; Ding, Bei; Zhang, Wei

    2012-02-18

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of midazolam intravenous sedation plus local anaesthesia on romoval of children's anterior supernumerary teeth in dental clinic. A total of 41 ASA I children with anterior supernumerary teeth aged 6 to 14 were selected for removal surgery, anaesthesia was done by moderate sedation by midazolam intravenous titration plus local anaesthesia. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), pulse oxygen saturation rate (SpO(2)), bispectral index (BIS) and Ramsay sedation score (RSS) at different time points were recorded (5 min after patient is in operation room, at local anaesthesia injection, at incision, 10 min after incision and at the end of operation). After operation, the overall efficacy of sedation by Houpt rating scale was evaluated by surgeon, anaesthesiologist and anaesthetic nurse. Among the 41 children, 29 were male, 12 were female, mean age (9.76 ± 2.46) years old; The average operation time was (23.83 ± 9.98) min, total dose of midazolam was (2.96 ± 0.92) mg with a dosage rate being (0.084 ± 0.016) mg/kg. There was a positive correlation between age and total dose (r=0.69, Psupernumerary teeth when BIS value is above 75.

  10. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole in alpacas (Lama pacos after single intravenous and oral dosing of FBZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakritz J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Lakritz,1 Daniel Linden,2 David E Anderson,3 Terri A Specht4 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Agriculture and Engineering Technologies, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 4Four Star Veterinary Service, Chickasaw, OH, USA Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole (OFZ after intravenous (iv and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min, and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg. The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after iv administration was 5.9±3.8 hours (range: 0.8–20 hours. After oral administration, the FBZ terminal phase half-life was 23±5 hours (range: 9–37 hours and the systemic bioavailability of FBZ was 16%±6% (range: 1%–41%. Peak FBZ concentrations after oral administration were 0.13±0.05 µg/mL (range: 0.05–0.28 µg/mL at 10 hours (range: 8–12 hours. Peak plasma OFZ concentrations after oral dosing with FBZ (5 mg/kg were 0.14±0.05 µg/mL (0.05–0.3 µg/mL at 24±7 hours (range: 12–48 hours. FBZ clearance is lower in comparison to that of other species. Systemic availability of FBZ after oral administration is low after oral dosing. Metabolites of FBZ produced by alpacas are similar to those observed in other species. Keywords: bioavailability, benzimidazoles, camelid, pharmacokinetics

  11. Síndrome de abstinência associada à interrupção da infusão de fentanil e midazolam em pediatria Withdrawal syndrome associated with cessation of fentanyl and midazolam in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Bicudo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a ocorrência de síndrome de abstinência em crianças internadas em UCI Pediátrica em uso de fentanil e midazolam. MÉTODOS: Avaliadas 36 crianças internadas na UCI Pediátrica do Hospital São Paulo - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, no período de março a setembro de 1997, com idade variando de 5 dias a 22 meses (22 masc : 14 fem que fizeram uso de fentanil e midazolam por mais de 24 horas. Utilizado o Escore Neonatal de Abstinência adaptado por Finnegan que determina a ocorrência de síndrome de abstinência em crianças menores de 2 anos. Escore maior ou igual a 8 é considerado como síndrome de abstinência. Correlacionados a síndrome de abstinência com a dose total acumulada, velocidade de infusão, dose diária e tempo de utilização do fentanil e do midazolam. RESULTADOS: Determinada síndrome de abstinência em 18 (50% das 36 crianças. Aplicado o teste estatístico de Mann Whitney para comparar os grupos com e sem síndrome de abstinência. Dose total acumulada de fentanil (5732.7 ± 5114.91 vs. 624.2 ± 591.2mcg, pPURPOSE: To determine the incidence of abstinence syndrome in children interned in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU in fentanyl use and midazolam METHODS: Evaluation of 36 children interned in PICU of the Hospital São Paulo - Federal University of São Paulo, in the period from March to September 1997, with age varying from 5 days to 22 months (22 masc: 14 fem who used fentanyl use and midazolam for more than 24 hours. Used the Escore Neonatal of Abstinence adapted by Finnegan determines the occurrence of abstinence syndrome in was used to children 2 years old or less. Sustain larger or equal for 8 is considered as abstinence syndrome. Correlated the abstinence syndrome with the accumulated total dose, infusion velocity, daily dose and time of use of the fentanyl and midazolam. RESULTS: Certain abstinence syndrome in 18 (50% of the 36 children. Applied Mann Whitney's statistical

  12. The characterization of the concentration of the single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous dispersion by UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Ren, Lingling; Li, Luming; Tao, Xingfu; Shi, Yunhua; Zheng, Yudong

    2013-11-07

    Current and future applications of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) depend on the dispersion of the SWCNTs in aqueous solution and their quantitation. The concentration of SWCNTs is an important indicator to evaluate the dispersibility of the surfactant-dispersed SWCNTs suspension. Due to the complexity of the SWCNTs suspension, it is necessary to determine both the total concentration of the dispersed SWCNTs and the concentration of individually dispersed SWCNTs in aqueous suspensions, and these were evaluated through the absorbance and the resonance ratios of UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra, respectively. However, there is no specific and reliable position assigned for either calculation of the absorbance or the resonance ratio of the UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectrum. In this paper, different ranges of wavelengths for these two parameters were studied. From this, we concluded that the wavelength range between 300 nm and 600 nm should be the most suitable for evaluation of the total concentration of dispersed SWCNTs in the suspension; also, wavelengths below 800 nm should be most suitable for evaluation of the concentration of individually dispersed SWCNTs in the suspension. Moreover, these wavelength ranges are verified by accurate dilution experiments.

  13. Assessing Single Particle Soot Photometer and Integrating Sphere/Integrating Sandwich Spectrophotometer measurement techniques for quantifying black carbon concentration in snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Schwarz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the performance of the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2 and the Integrating Sphere/Integrating Sandwich Spectrophotometer (ISSW in quantifying the concentration of refractory black carbon (BC in snow samples. We find that the SP2 can be used to measure BC mass concentration in snow with substantially larger uncertainty (60% than for atmospheric sampling (<30%. Achieving this level of accuracy requires careful assessment of nebulizer performance and SP2 calibration with consideration of the fact that BC in snow can exist in larger sizes than typically observed in the atmosphere. Once these issues are addressed, the SP2 is able to measure the size distribution and mass concentration of BC in the snow. Laboratory comparison of the SP2 and the ISSW revealed significant biases in the estimate of BC concentration from the ISSW when test samples contained dust or non-absorbing particulates. These results suggest that current estimates of BC mass concentration in snow or ice formed from fallen snow using either the SP2 or the ISSW may be associated with significant underestimates of uncertainty.

  14. The effects of diazepam or midazolam on the dose of propofol required to induce anaesthesia in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rebecca; Borer-Weir, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Assess effects of benzodiazepine administration on the propofol dose required to induce anaesthesia in healthy cats, investigate differences between midazolam and diazepam, and determine an optimal benzodiazepine dose for co-induction. Prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ninety client-owned cats (ASA I and II) with a median (interquartile range) body mass of 4.0 (3.4-4.9) kg. All cats received 0.01 mg kg(-1) acepromazine and 0.2 mg kg(-1) methadone intravenously (IV). Fifteen minutes later, sedation was scored on a scale of 1-5, with 5 indicating greatest sedation. Propofol, 2 mg kg(-1) , administered IV, was followed by either midazolam or diazepam at 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 or 0.5 mg kg(-1) or saline 0.1 mL kg(-1) . Further propofol was administered until endotracheal intubation was possible. Patient signalment, sedation score, propofol dosage and adverse reactions were recorded. Midazolam and diazepam (all doses) significantly reduced the propofol dose required compared with saline (p diazepam in propofol dose reduction (p = 0.488). All individual doses of midazolam reduced propofol requirement compared with saline (0.2 mg kg(-1) , p = 0.028; 0.3 mg kg(-1) , p = 0.006; 0.4 mg kg(-1) , p Diazepam 0.2 mg kg(-1) did not reduce the propofol dose compared with saline (p = 0.087), but the remaining doses did (0.3 mg kg(-1) , p = 0.001; 0.4 mg kg(-1) , p = 0.032; 0.5 mg kg(-1) , p = 0.041). Cats with sedation scores of 3 required less propofol than cats with scores of 2 (p = 0.008). There was no difference between groups in adverse events. Midazolam (0.2-0.5 mg kg(-1) ) and diazepam (0.3-0.5 mg kg(-1) ) administered IV after 2 mg kg(-1) propofol significantly reduced the propofol dose required for tracheal intubation. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  15. Breathing patterns and levels of consciousness in children during administration of nitrous oxide after oral midazolam premedication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, R S; Kottra, J A; Berkowitz, R J; Ward, D S

    1997-12-01

    The combination of midazolam and nitrous oxide is commonly used to achieve sedation and analgesia during pediatric oral procedures, yet there are few, if any, data that illustrate the ventilatory effects of N2O in children, especially when used in combination with additional central nervous system (CNS) depressants. It was hypothesized that the addition of N2O inhalation to oral midazolam premedication would enhance the sedative effects of the midazolam and add analgesia without causing significant respiratory depression. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis. Thirty-four healthy children about to undergo restorative dental treatment under general anesthesia were premedicated with oral midazolam, 0.7 mg/kg, and were then exposed to 40% N2O for 15 minutes after a 5-minute control period. The effect of adding N2O on SpO2, respiratory rate, PETCO2, VT, and VT/TI was examined and the levels of consciousness (conscious vs deep sedation) before and during N2O inhalation were determined. During the course of the study, no child developed hypoxemia (SpO2 children who did not develop hypoventilation (defined as PETCO2 > 45 mm Hg) during the control period did so after initiation of N2O. Overall, there were no significant differences in SpO2, PETCO2, VT, or VT/TI between the control and study periods. However, respiratory rates were significantly higher in the first 10 minutes of N2O inhalation when compared with the control period. Before starting N2O administration, 14 children were not clinically sedated, 19 children met the criteria for conscious sedation, and one child met the criteria for deep sedation. At the end of 15 minutes of N2O inhalation, 12 children were not clinically sedated, 17 children met the definition of conscious sedation, three were deeply sedated, and one child had no response to IV insertion, implying a state of general anesthesia. There were no differences in sedation scores between the control and study periods (P = .6). Overall

  16. A single reflection approach to HCPV: Very high concentration ratio and wide acceptance angles using low cost materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardis, Davide

    2012-10-01

    The Italian engineering company Becar (Beghelli SpA group) presents its latest HCPV module currently sold under the brand name "Life Tree". The module is characterized by an efficiency of 26% that is in line with systems having higher complexity. The high efficiency and flexibility of the system are reached thanks to the single reflection scheme of the optical system. The module characterized by high acceptance angles comprises a metalized plastic primary reflector and a secondary optical element. The latter being a crucial technical feature of the Becar's system. This secondary optic element has been developed and manufactured by the German group Evonik Industries, which markets the product under the trade name SAVOSIL(TM). This technology, compared to other optics available in the market, offer high transparency in the whole solar spectrum and it is manufactured with an innovative sol-gel process that guarantees a precision in the micron range, at a fraction of the other approaches cost . Those two important features boost the light harvesting power of the Beghelli's systems. The article shows also the results of extensive in-field tests carried out to confirm reliability, performance and easy maintenance of the system.

  17. Significance of higher drug concentration in erythrocytes of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum and treated orally with mefloquine at single doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi; Xue, Jian; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Hao-Bing; Xiao, Shu-Hua

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to understand the pharmacokinetic feature of mefloquine measured by erythrocytes and plasma in Schistosoma japonicum (S. j.)-infected mice and non-infected mice after oral administration of the drug at single doses. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to measure the plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of mefloquine at varying intervals posttreatment. Our results demonstrated that in non-infected mice treated orally with mefloquine at an ineffective dose of 50 mg/kg or effective dose of 200 mg/kg for 2-72 h, the erythrocyte-to-plasma ratios of mefloquine were 5.8-11.2 or 2-14.2. On the other hand, in S. j.-infected mice treated with the same single doses of the drug, the erythrocyte and plasma drug concentration ratios were 3.1-4.6 or 2.9-8.5, manifesting that either in infected mice or in non-infected mice that received oral mefloquine resulted in higher concentration of mefloquine in erythrocytes than that in plasma. Unexpectedly, under oral administration of mefloquine at a higher single dose of 200 mg/kg, the pharmacokinetic parameter C max values for plasma from S. j.-infected and non-infected mice were 1.6 ± 0.3 and 2.0 ± 0.4 μg/mL, respectively, which were below the determined in vitro LC50 (50 % lethal concentration) value of 4.93 μg/mL. Therefore, the plasma concentration of mefloquine may display a little effect against schistosomes during the treatment. Although the values of T 1/2 and AUC0-∞ for erythrocytes were significantly longer and higher in infected mice than those of corresponding non-infect mice that received the same single mefloqine dose of 50 mg/kg, the C max value was only 2.6 ± 0.4 μg/mL lower than the determined in vitro LC50, which may explain why this low single dose is ineffective against schistosomes in vivo. After administration of higher mefloquine dose of 200 mg/kg, the C max value for erythrocytes in infected mice was 30 % (7.4 ± 0

  18. Spectral filtering modulation method for estimation of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation based on a single fluorescence emission spectrum in tissue phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2009-10-01

    Hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue are important biomarkers that are useful in both research and clinical diagnostics of a wide variety of diseases such as cancer. The authors aim to develop simple ratiometric method based on the spectral filtering modulation (SFM) of fluorescence spectra to estimate the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue using only a single fluorescence emission spectrum, which will eliminate the need of diffuse reflectance measurements and prolonged data processing as required by most current methods, thus enabling rapid clinical measurements. The proposed method consists of two steps. In the first step, the total hemoglobin concentration is determined by comparing a ratio of fluorescence intensities at two emission wavelengths to a calibration curve. The second step is to estimate oxygen saturation by comparing a double ratio that involves three emission wavelengths to another calibration curve that is a function of oxygen saturation for known total hemoglobin concentration. Theoretical derivation shows that the ratio in the first step is linearly proportional to the total hemoglobin concentrations and the double ratio in the second step is related to both total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygenation for the chosen fiber-optic probe geometry. Experiments on synthetic fluorescent tissue phantoms, which included hemoglobin with both constant and varying oxygenation as the absorber, polystyrene spheres as scatterers, and flavin adenine dinucleotide as the fluorophore, were carried out to validate the theoretical prediction. Tissue phantom experiments confirm that the ratio in the first step is linearly proportional to the total hemoglobin concentration and the double ratio in the second step is related to both total hemoglobin concentrations and hemoglobin oxygenation. Furthermore, the relations between the two ratios and the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygenation are insensitive

  19. Midazolam activates caspase, MAPKs and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways, and inhibits cell cycle and Akt pathway, to induce apoptosis in TM3 mouse Leydig progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang FC

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fu-Chi Kang,1,* Shu-Chun Wang,2,* Ming-Min Chang,2 Bo-Syong Pan,3 Kar-Lok Wong,4 Ka-Shun Cheng,4,5 Edmund Cheung So,4,6 Bu-Miin Huang2,7 1Department of Anesthesia, Chi Mei Medical Center, Chiali, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Anesthesia, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Department of Anesthesiology, The Qingdao University Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong, China; 6Department of Anesthesia, An Nan Hospital, China Medical University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 7Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Midazolam (MDZ has powerful hypnosis, amnesia, anti-anxiety and anticonvulsant effects. Studies have shown that prenatally developmental toxicity of diazepam can be observed in many organs/tissues. However, it remains elusive in male reproductive system.Materials and methods: TM3 mouse Leydig progenitor cell line was used to determine whether MDZ has any unfavorable effects.Results: Midazolam significantly decreased cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners in TM3 cells. In flow cytometry analysis, midazolam significantly increased subG1 phase cell numbers, and annexin V/PI double staining assay further confirmed that MDZ induced apoptosis in TM3 cells. Moreover, MDZ significantly induced the expression of caspase-8 and -3 proteins and the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK1/2 and p38. Besides, MDZ didn’t activate Akt pathway in TM3 cells. Furthermore, the expressions of p-EIF2α, ATF4, ATF3 and CHOP were induced by midazolam, suggesting that midazolam could induce apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress

  20. Emergency transfusion of patients with unknown blood type with blood group O Rhesus D positive red blood cell concentrates: a prospective, single-centre, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleng, Kathleen; Jenichen, Gregor; Denker, Kathrin; Selleng, Sixten; Müllejans, Bernd; Greinacher, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Emergency patients with unknown blood type usually receive O Rhesus D negative (RhD-) red blood cell concentrates until their blood group is determined to prevent RhD+ related adverse transfusion reactions. As 85% of individuals are RhD+, this consumption of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates contributes to shortages of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates, sometimes forcing transfusion of known RhD- patients with RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. Here we report the outcome of this transfusion policy transfusing all emergency patients with unknown blood type with O RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. In this prospective single-centre observational study done between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, we assessed all consecutive RhD- patients at the University Medicine Greifswald who received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates (emergency patients with unknown blood type; and RhD- patients receiving RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages). No patients were excluded. The primary endpoint was anti-D allo-immunisation at 2 months follow-up or later. Patients were followed up and tested for immunisation against red blood cell antigens using the direct antiglobulin test and an antibody screen every 3-5 days for 4 weeks or until death, or hospital discharge. Surviving patients were screened for development of anti-D antibodies for up to 12 months (at the predefined timepoints 2, 3, 6, and 12 months) after RhD+ red blood cell transfusion. 437 emergency patients, of whom 85 (20%) were RhD-, received 2836 RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. The overall risk of inducing anti-D antibodies (in all 437 recipients) was 17 (4%, 95% CI 2·44-6·14) of 437 (assuming all patients lost to follow-up developed anti-D allo-immunisation). During this period, 110 known RhD- patients received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages. Of these, 29 (26%; 95% CI 19·0-35·3) developed anti-D allo-immunisation (assuming all

  1. Concentrations of levofloxacin (HR 355) in the respiratory tract following a single oral dose in patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J M; Honeybourne, D; Jevons, G; Brenwald, N P; Cunningham, B; Wise, R

    1997-10-01

    Concentrations of levofloxacin were measured in bronchial biopsies, alveolar macrophages (AM), epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and serum following a single oral dose. Concentrations were measured by a microbiological assay method. A total of 35 patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy were studied. Mean serum, AM, ELF and biopsy concentrations were as follows. 0.5 h: 4.73 mg/L, 19.1 mg/L, 4.74 mg/L and 4.3 mg/kg; 1 h: 6.6 mg/L, 32.5 mg/L, 10.8 mg/L and 8.3 mg/kg; 2 h: 4.9 mg/L, 41.9 mg/L, 9.0 mg/L and 6.5 mg/kg; 4 h: 4.1 mg/L, 27.7 mg/L, 10.9 mg/L and 6.0 mg/kg; and 6-8 h: 4.0 mg/L, 38.4 mg/L, 9.6 mg/L and 4.0 mg/kg respectively. Mean serum and AM concentrations at 12-24 h were 1.2 and 13.9 mg/L respectively (concentrations in biopsy and ELF were only measurable in three of the six patients). These concentrations exceed the MIC90s of the common respiratory pathogens, Haemophilus influenzae (0.015 mg/L), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.06 mg/L) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (1 mg/L) and suggest that levofloxacin should be efficacious in the treatment of community- and hospital-acquired respiratory infection.

  2. Concentrations of moxifloxacin in serum and pulmonary compartments following a single 400 mg oral dose in patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, A; Honeybourne, D; Andrews, J; Jevons, G; Wise, R

    1999-12-01

    The concentrations of moxifloxacin achieved after a single 400 mg dose were measured in serum, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), alveolar macrophages (AM) and bronchial mucosa (BM). Concentrations were determined using a microbiological assay. Nineteen patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy were studied. Mean serum, ELF, AM and BM concentrations at 2.2, 12 and 24 h were as follows: 2.2 h: 3.2 mg/L, 20.7 mg/L, 56.7 mg/L, 5.4 mg/kg; 12 h: 1.1 mg/L, 5.9 mg/L, 54.1 mg/L, 2.0 mg/kg; 24 h: 0.5 mg/L, 3.6 mg/L, 35.9 mg/L, 1.1 mg/kg, respectively. These concentrations exceed the MIC(90)s for common respiratory pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.25 mg/L), Haemophilus influenzae (0.03 mg/L), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.12 mg/L), Chlamydia pneumoniae (0.12 mg/L) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (0. 12 mg/L) and indicate that moxifloxacin should be effective in the treatment of community-acquired, lower respiratory tract infections.

  3. Midazolam intranasal para la sedación preanestésica pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín L. de la Lastra Rodríguez

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available El ingreso hospitalario y un tratamiento quirúrgico pueden crear en los niños temor, ansiedad y trastornos emocionales al abandonar la atmósfera de seguridad y confianza del hogar y estar en el ambiente desconocido del hospital. La medicación preanestésica logra la reducción de la ansiedad y disminuye su respuesta. En el presente trabajo se utilizó con este fin el midazolam al 0,5 % (dormicum en dosis de 0,2 a 0,3 mg por kg de peso corporal administrado por vía intranasal, con la finalidad de observar las ventajas de este método en 30 niños menores de 5 años de edad. Se logró una sedación rápida y de corta duración y no se observó ninguna complicación.

  4. Reducing risk of overdose with midazolam injection in adults: an evaluation of change in clinical practice to improve patient safety in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Chris; Matthew, Linda; Marsh, Rachel; Patel, Bhavesh; Mansaray, Mariama; Lamont, Tara

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to evaluate potential reductions in risk associated with midazolam injection, a sedating medication, following a UK National Patient Safety Alert. This alert, 'Reducing risk of overdose with midazolam injection in adults', was sent to all National Health Service organizations as a Rapid Response Report detailing actions services should take to minimize risks. To evaluate any potential changes arising from this alert, a number of data sources were explored including reported incidents to a national reporting system for health care error, clinician survey and audit data, pharmaceutical purchasing patterns and feedback from National Health Service managers. Prior to the Rapid Response Report, 498 incidents were received by the National Patient Safety Agency including three deaths. Post-implementation of the Rapid Response Report (June 2009), no incidents resulting in death or severe harm had been received. All organizations reported having completed the Rapid Response Report actions. Purchase and use of risk-prone, high-strength sedating midazolam by health care organizations decreased significantly as did the increased use of safer, lower strength doses (as recommended in the Rapid Response Report). Organizations can achieve safer medication practices, better knowledge, awareness and implementation of national safer practice recommendations. Risks from inadvertent overdose of midazolam injection were reduced post-implementation of national recommendations. Ongoing monitoring of this particular adverse event will be required with a sustained patient safety message to health services to maintain awareness of the issue and reduction in the number of midazolam-related errors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A study of single nucleotide polymorphism of leptin gene effect on serum copper, zinc and iron concentrations in Czech Pied bulls

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    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is secreted mainly in adipose tissue. Due to the associations between plasma leptin concentrations and body fat, leptin could be used as an indicator for the in vivo evaluation of carcass composition in breeding programs. Previous studies showed relation between leptin concentrations and some trace elements, suggesting that they might be mediators of leptin production. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism of the leptin gene on concentration of trace elements in the serum of 58 Czech Pied bulls. Three experimental groups of bulls were formed depending on different leptin genotypes: group CC (n = 28, group CT (n = 21 and group TT (n = 9. In all groups, the age (at a mean age of 240 days and the body weight (mean 291 ± 11 kg difference among the chosen animals was non-significant. Blood samples of all bulls in experimental groups were collected from vena jugularis externa between 8.00 and 9.30 h. Concentrations of copper, zinc and iron in the serum of animals were measured. Significantly lower (P TT group (13.21 ± 1.81 µmol·l-1 compared to CC (20.09 ± 1.11 µmol·l-1 and CT group (19.67 ± 1.45 µmol·l-1. In case of copper and iron concentrations in serum of animals, no differences were recorded between the tested groups. This is the first study of its kind in Czech Pied cattle. Based on our results, we may assume that zinc plays some role in the metabolism of adipose tissue, havings an effect on beef quality.

  6. Survey of Properties of Key Single and Mixture Halide Salts for Potential Application as High Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Systems

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    Chao-Jen Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high energy efficiency in a concentrated solar thermal power plant, more and more high concentration ratio to solar radiation are applied to collect high temperature thermal energy in modern solar power technologies. This incurs the need of a heat transfer fluid being able to work at more and more high temperatures to carry the heat from solar concentrators to a power plant. To develop the third generation heat transfer fluids targeting at a high working temperature at least 800 ℃, a research team from University of Arizona, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Arizona State University proposed to use eutectic halide salts mixtures in order to obtain the desired properties of low melting point, low vapor pressure, great stability at temperatures at least 800 ℃, low corrosion, and favorable thermal and transport properties. In this paper, a survey of the available thermal and transport properties of single and eutectic mixture of several key halide salts is conducted, providing information of great significance to researchers for heat transfer fluid development.

  7. Cardiovascular responses, arterial oxygen saturation and plasma catecholamine concentration during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy using conscious sedation with midazolam or propofol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei-Lim, V. L.; Kalkman, C. J.; Bartelsman, J. F.; Res, J. C.; van Wezel, H. B.

    1998-01-01

    Hypoventilation as a consequence of deep intravenous sedation is the most frequently reported cause of cardiac arrest during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Haemodynamic stress can contribute to myocardial ischaemia; therefore, this study was designed to observe prospectively the

  8. Effect of Intranasal Sedation Using Ketamine and Midazolam on Behavior of 3-6 Year-Old Uncooperative Children in Dental Office: A Clinical Trial

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    Majid Mehran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of intranasal ketamine and midazolam on behavior of 3-6 year-old children during dental treatments.  Materials and Methods: In this randomized cross-over clinical trial, 17 uncooperative children requiring at least two dental treatments were selected and randomly received ketamine (0.5mg/kg or midazolam (0.2mg/kg prior to treatment. The other medication was used in the next visit. The children’s behavioral pattern was determined according to the Houpt's scale regarding sleep, movement, crying and overall behavior. Physiological parameters were also measured at different time intervals. The data were subjected to Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and two-way repeated measures ANOVA.Results: The frequency of crying decreased significantly following ketamine administration compared to midazolam (P=0.002; movement of children decreased with fewer incidence of treatment interruption (P=0.001 while their sleepiness increased (P=0.003. Despite higher success of sedation with ketamine compared to midazolam, no significant differences were found between the two regarding patients’ overall behavior (P>0.05. The patients had higher heart rate and blood pressure with ketamine; however, no significant difference was found regarding respiratory rate and oxygen saturation (P>0.05.  Conclusions: Ketamine (0.5mg/kg led to fewer movements, less crying and more sleepiness compared to midazolam (0.2mg/kg. No significant differences were found between the two drugs regarding children’s overall behavior and sedation efficiency. Both drugs demonstrated positive efficacy for sedation of children during dental treatments.Keywords: Conscious Sedation; Ketamine; Midazolam; Administration, Intranasal

  9. Pre-hospital midazolam for benzodiazepine-treated seizures before and after the Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial: A national observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtull-Leber, Eytan; Silbergleit, Robert; Meurer, William J

    2017-01-01

    Implementation of evidence-based treatment for pre-hospital status epilepticus can improve outcomes. We hypothesized that publication of a pivotal pre-hospital clinical trial (RAMPART), demonstrating superiority of intramuscular midazolam over intravenous lorazepam, altered the national utilization rates of midazolam for pre-hospital benzodiazepine-treated seizures, while upholding its safety and efficacy outside the trial setting. This is a retrospective, observational cohort study of pre-hospital patient encounters throughout the United States in the National Emergency Medicine Services Information System database, from January 2010 through December 2014. We compared the rates and odds of midazolam use as first-line treatment among all adult and pediatric benzodiazepine-treated seizures before and after RAMPART publication (February 2012). Secondary analyses were conducted for rates of airway interventions and rescue therapy, as proxies for safety and efficacy of seizure termination. 156,539 benzodiazepine-treated seizures were identified. Midazolam use increased from 26.1% in January 2010 to 61.7% in December 2014 (difference +35.6%, 95% CI, 32.7%-38.4%). The annual rate of midazolam adoption increased significantly from 5.9% per year to 8.9% per year after the publication of RAMPART (difference +3.0% per year; 95%CI, 1.6%-4.5% per year; adjusted OR 1.24; 95%CI, 1.17-1.32). Overall frequency of rescue therapy and airway interventions changed little after the publication of RAMPART. These data are consistent with effective, ongoing, but incomplete clinical translation of the RAMPART results. The effects of the trial, however, cannot be isolated. The study was limited by broad inclusion of all benzodiazepine-treated seizures as well as a lack of information on route of drug of administration. The safety and effectiveness of midazolam for benzodiazepine-treated seizures in prehospital clinical practice appear consistent with trial data, which should encourage

  10. Conscious sedation procedures using intravenous midazolam for dental care in patients with different cognitive profiles: a prospective study of effectiveness and safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Collado

    Full Text Available The use of midazolam for dental care in patients with intellectual disability is poorly documented. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of conscious sedation procedures using intravenous midazolam in adults and children with intellectual disability (ID compared to dentally anxious patients (DA. Ninety-eight patients with ID and 44 patients with DA programmed for intravenous midazolam participated in the study over 187 and 133 sessions, respectively. Evaluation criteria were success of dental treatment, cooperation level (modified Venham scale, and occurrence of adverse effects. The mean intravenous dose administered was 8.8±4.9 mg and 9.8±4.1 mg in ID and DA sessions respectively (t-test, NS. 50% N₂O/O₂ was administered during cannulation in 51% of ID sessions and 61% of DA sessions (NS, Fisher exact test. Oral or rectal midazolam premedication was administered for cannulation in 31% of ID sessions and 3% of DA sessions (p<0,001, Fisher exact test. Dental treatment was successful in 9 out of 10 sessions for both groups. Minor adverse effects occurred in 16.6% and 6.8% of ID and DA sessions respectively (p = 0.01, Fisher exact test. Patients with ID were more often very disturbed during cannulation (25.4% ID vs. 3.9% DA sessions and were less often relaxed after induction (58.9% ID vs. 90.3% DA and during dental treatment (39.5% ID vs. 59.7% DA (p<0.001, Fisher exact test than patients with DA. When midazolam sedation was repeated, cooperation improved for both groups. Conscious sedation procedures using intravenous midazolam, with or without premedication and/or inhalation sedation (50% N₂O/O₂, were shown to be safe and effective in patients with intellectual disability when administered by dentists.

  11. Physiological and biochemical variables in captive tigers (Panthera tigris) immobilised with dexmedetomidine and ketamine or dexmedetomidine, midazolam and ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Price, S C; Lascola, K M; Schaeffer, D J

    2015-12-05

    Physiological and biochemical variables in captive tigers (Panthera tigris) immobilised with dexmedetomidine and ketamine or dexmedetomidine, midazolam and ketamine were evaluated. Thirty tigers received either dexmedetomidine (0.025 mg/kg) and ketamine (3 mg/kg) (group DK) or dexmedetomidine (0.0125 mg/kg), midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) and ketamine (3 mg/kg) (group DMK). Heart rate, SPO2 and blood pressure were measured at five-minute intervals. Arterial pH, PO2, PCO2, glucose, K+ and arterial and venous lactate were measured at 15 and 45 minutes after immobilisation. A generalised linear mixed model was used for statistical comparison. There was no difference within or between groups at any time point for any measured variable. Measured PO2 was 73.2±17.5 mm Hg and SPO2 was 88.9±10.8 per cent. Systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressures were 170.5±48.4, 138.9±41.8 and 121.8±37.2 mm Hg, respectively. Venous lactate was higher than arterial lactate within groups at each time point. Seizure-like behaviour was observed in 25 per cent of tigers in group DK but not in group DMK. The addition of midazolam into a protocol for immobilisation of tigers did not result in a difference in any of the measured variables but may have prevented the development of seizure-like behaviour. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Effect of netupitant, a highly selective NK₁ receptor antagonist, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, erythromycin, and dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzarotti, Corinna; Rossi, Giorgia

    2013-10-01

    Netupitant is a new highly selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist being studied for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy. In vitro studies suggest that netupitant inhibits the cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4). Because netupitant may be used with a variety of drugs, which may be substrates of CYP3A4, two studies were designed to establish the potential risk for drug-drug interaction with three different CYP3A4 substrates: midazolam, erythromycin, and dexamethasone. Both trials were three-period crossover studies performed in healthy subjects. In the first study, 20 subjects received netupitant and either midazolam or erythromycin. In the second study, 25 subjects received netupitant and dexamethasone. Serial blood samples were collected over the course of the two studies and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for all analytes. Netupitant, by inhibiting the CYP3A4, increased the C max and AUCinf of midazolam by 40 and 144 %, respectively, and the C max and AUCinf of erythromycin by 30 %. Netupitant was shown to increase the exposure to dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner with the mean increase in AUC and C max by 72 and 11 %, respectively, on day 1 and by 138 and 75 %, respectively, on day 4 when co-administered with 300 mg of netupitant. The results of these studies suggest that netupitant is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and therefore, co-administration with drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 may require dose adjustments. Treatments were well tolerated in both studies.

  13. Effects of pentobarbital, isoflurane, or medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol anesthesia on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood chemistry in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Oshima, Yutaka; Hashizume, Naoki; Nakai, Makoto; Ajimi, Shozo; Imatanaka, Nobuya

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is commonly examined for pulmonary toxicity in animal studies. Two common means of anesthesia before euthanasia and bronchoalveolar lavage in rats are intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital and inhalation of isoflurane. Medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol is an alternative anesthesia to pentobarbital for animal welfare; however, the effect of this combination on BALF and blood chemistry is unknown. Here, we compared the effects of anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital or one of two combinations of medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol (dose, 0.375-2.0-2.5 or 0.15-2.0-2.5 mg/kg) or by inhalation of isoflurane on BALF and blood chemistry in rats with or without pulmonary inflammation. In BALF, we determined total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, total cell count and neutrophil count. In serum, we conducted a general chemistry screen. After anesthesia with pentobarbital or isoflurane, there were no significant differences between any of the BALF or blood chemistry parameters with or without inflammation. After anesthesia with either of the combinations of medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol, lactate dehydrogenase, total cell count, neutrophil count, and almost all of the blood chemistry parameters were comparable with those observed after pentobarbital or isoflurane; however, BALF albumin and serum glucose were significantly increased in rats without inflammation. After the combination of low-dose medetomidine in rats with inflammation, BALF parameters were comparable with those observed after pentobarbital or isoflurane. Our results show that, of the anesthetics examined, inhalation of isoflurane is the most appropriate means of anesthesia when examining BALF or serum for toxicity studies in rats.

  14. Studies on the concentration dependence of specific rotation of Alpha lactose monohydrate (α-LM) aqueous solutions and growth of α-LM single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodhini, K.; Divya Bharathi, R.; Srinivasan, K.

    2018-02-01

    Lactose is an optically active substance. As it is one of the reducing sugars, exhibits mutarotation in solution when it dissolves in any solvent. In solution, lactose exists in two isomeric forms, alpha-Lactose (α-L) and beta-lactose (β-L) through the mutarotation reaction. Mutarotation produces a dynamic equilibrium between two isomers in a solution and kinetics of this process determines the growth rate of alpha lactose monohydrate (α-LM) crystals. Since no data were available on the specific rotation of aqueous α-LM solutions at different concentrations at 33 °C, the initial experiments were carried out on the specific rotation of aqueous α-LM solutions at different concentrations at 33 °C. The specific rotations of the solutions were decreased with increasing time through the mutarotation reaction. The initial and final (equilibrium) specific rotations of the solutions were determined by using automatic digital polarimeter. The compositions of α and β-L in all prepared solutions were calculated from initial and final optical rotations by the method of Sharp and Doob. The composition of α-L decreased whereas, the composition of β-L increased in solutions with increasing concentration of α-LM at 33 °C. Experimental results revealed that this method could be easily and safely employed to study the dependence of specific rotation of solutions on their concentration. The effect of β-lactose on the morphology of nucleated α-LM single crystals has been studied at different experimental conditions.

  15. Comparison of haloperidol and midazolam in restless management of patients referred to the Emergency Department: A double-blinded, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Esmailian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restless and violent behaviors are common in Emergency Departments (EDs, which need therapeutic interventions in most of the times. The first-generation anti-psychotic drugs are one of the most applicable therapeutic agents in the management of such patients, but their use has some limitations. Some studies suggest midazolam as an alternative medicine. Therefore, this study was performed with the aim of comparison of the efficacy and safety of haloperidol and midazolam in the restless management of referring patients to EDs. Materials and Methods: The present double-blinded trial was done on patients needed sedation and referred to the ED of Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. The patients were categorized into two random groups of haloperidol (5 mg and midazolam receivers (2.5 mg for those weighing 50 kg, as intramuscular administration. The time to achieve sedation, need for rescue dose, need to resedation within the first 60 min, and adverse effects of drugs were compared among the groups. Results: Forty-eight patients were entered to the study. The mean age in the haloperidol and midazolam groups was 44.8 ± 4.1 years and 45.5 ± 4.7 years, respectively (P = 0.91. The mean time of sedation in the haloperidol and midazolam groups was 5.6 ± 0.3 min and 5.2 ± 0.1 min, respectively (P = 0.31. The mean time of full consciousness after sedation was 36.2 ± 4.5 min and 38.2 ± 3.4 min in the haloperidol and midazolam groups, respectively (P = 0.72. On average, time to arousal in the midazolam group was 10.33 min more than the haloperidol group, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that administration of midazolam and haloperidol have similar efficacy in the treatment of restless symptoms with the same recovery time from drug effects for referring patients to the ED. In addition, none of the adverse effects were observed in this study.

  16. Practice variability and efficacy of clonazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam in status epilepticus: A multicenter comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vincent; Lee, Jong Woo; Drislane, Frank W; Westover, M Brandon; Novy, Jan; Dworetzky, Barbara A; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2015-08-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZD) are recommended as first-line treatment for status epilepticus (SE), with lorazepam (LZP) and midazolam (MDZ) being the most widely used drugs and part of current treatment guidelines. Clonazepam (CLZ) is also utilized in many countries; however, there is no systematic comparison of these agents for treatment of SE to date. We identified all patients treated with CLZ, LZP, or MDZ as a first-line agent from a prospectively collected observational cohort of adult patients treated for SE in four tertiary care centers. Relative efficacies of CLZ, LZP, and MDZ were compared by assessing the risk of developing refractory SE and the number of antiseizure drugs (ASDs) required to control SE. Among 177 patients, 72 patients (40.62%) received CLZ, 82 patients (46.33%) LZP, and 23 (12.99%) MDZ; groups were similar in demographics and SE characteristics. Loading dose was considered insufficient in the majority of cases for LZP, with a similar rate (84%, 95%, and 87.5%) in the centers involved, and CLZ was used as recommended in 52% of patients. After adjustment for relevant variables, LZP was associated with an increased risk of refractoriness as compared to CLZ (odds ratio [OR] 6.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66-15.5) and with an increased number of ASDs needed for SE control (OR 4.35, 95% CI 1.8-10.49). CLZ seems to be an effective alternative to LZP and MDZ. LZP is frequently underdosed in this setting. These findings are highly relevant, since they may impact daily practice. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Concentration-dependent optical properties of TGA stabilized CdTe Quantum dots synthesized via the single injection hydrothermal method in the ambient environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai Kumar, B.; Mahesh, H. M.

    2017-04-01

    Thioglycolic acid (TGA) stabilized aqueous CdTe Quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using a facile, cost efficient Single Injection Hydrothermal (SIH) method. The complete preparation of precursors and growth of QDs was carried out in the ambient environment without inter gas protection. The Cadmium and Tellurium precursors were prepared from cadmium nitrate and elemental tellurium powder with sodium borohydride as reducing agent respectively. A systematic investigation was carried out in order to study the effect of 0.04M and 0.08M TGA concentration on ease synthesis, stability and size-tunable optical absorbance, bandgap, photoluminescence (PL) and Quantum yield (QY) of CdTe QDs. The Structure of QDs was verified by XRD and optical properties by absorbance and PL spectra. Experimental results revealed that the 0.08M TGA QDs possess good chemical and optical stability with high luminescence and decent QY, ready to use in optoelectronics, photovoltaic and biological application.

  18. Randomised clinical trial on the effect of a single oral administration of l-tryptophan, at three dose rates, on reaction speed, plasma concentration and haemolysis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Glenys K; Li, Xiuhua; Zhang, Dagong; Sillence, Martin N

    2016-07-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is marketed as a calmative for horses despite reservations about its efficacy. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of oral TRP administration on the reaction speed of horses. Sixty mature horses were used in a two stage randomised, blind, cross-over study, receiving a placebo and an oral dose of TRP (30, 60 or 120 mg/kg body weight), before undergoing a reaction speed test. Blood samples were taken up to 96 h after TRP administration, to identify signs of acute haemolytic anaemia. Plasma TRP concentrations were increased (P reaction speed of horses when startled. There was no evidence of alterations in clinical pathology parameters in 432 blood samples. While the safety of these doses of TRP can be confirmed, there was no evidence to suggest that a single dose of TRP is an effective calmative for horses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the vitamin D pathway associating with circulating concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and non-skeletal health outcomes: Review of genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, David A; Walton, Robert T; Griffiths, Christopher J; Martineau, Adrian R

    2016-11-01

    Polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in vitamin D metabolism and transport are recognised to influence vitamin D status. Syntheses of genetic association studies linking these variants to non-skeletal health outcomes are lacking. We therefore conducted a literature review to identify reports of statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 11 vitamin D pathway genes (DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP3A4, CYP27A1, DBP, LRP2, CUB, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, VDR and RXRA) and non-bone health outcomes and circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH] 2 D). A total of 120 genetic association studies reported positive associations, of which 44 investigated determinants of circulating 25(OH)D and/or 1,25(OH) 2 D concentrations, and 76 investigated determinants of non-skeletal health outcomes. Statistically significant associations were reported for a total of 55 SNP in the 11 genes investigated. There was limited overlap between genetic determinants of vitamin D status and those associated with non-skeletal health outcomes: polymorphisms in DBP, CYP2R1 and DHCR7 were the most frequent to be reported to associate with circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D, while polymorphisms in VDR were most commonly reported to associate with non-skeletal health outcomes, among which infectious and autoimmune diseases were the most represented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on diesel spray combustion using a single-nozzle injector in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2013-09-02

    This work investigates the effects of ambient conditions on diesel spray combustion in an optically accessible, constant volume chamber using a single-nozzle fuel injector. The ambient O2 concentration was varied between five discrete values from 10% to 21% and three different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K). These conditions simulate different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and ambient temperatures in diesel engines. Both conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were observed under these conditions. A transient analysis and a quasi-steady state analysis are employed in this article. The transient analysis focuses on the flame development from beginning to the end, illustrating how the flame structure changes during this process; the quasi-steady state analysis focuses on the stable flame structure. The transient analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging of both OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL). In addition, three different images were acquired using an ICCD camera, corresponding to OH* chemiluminescence, narrow-band flame emission at 430 nm (Band A) and at 470 nm (Band B), and were used to investigate the quasi-steady state combustion process. From the transient analysis, it was found that the NL signal becomes stronger and confined to narrow regions when the temperature and O2 concentration increase during the development of flame. The OH* intensity is much lower for the 10% ambient O2 and 800 K conditions compared to the higher temperatures and O2 levels. This implies the occurrence of LTC under these conditions. Results from the quasi-steady combustion stage indicate that high-temperature reactions effectively oxidize the soot in the downstream locations where only OH* signal is observed. In addition, an area was calculated for each spectral region, and results show that the area of Band A and Band B emissions in these images is larger than the area of OH* emissions at the lower O2

  1. Infusão contínua de propofol em gatos pré-medicados com cetamina-midazolam Continuous infusion of propofol after ketamine-midazolam premedication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Selmi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos anestésicos e cardiorrespiratórios produzidos pela infusão contínua de propofol em gatos pré-medicados com a associação cetamina-midazolam. Catorze gatos adultos foram igualmente distribuídos em dois grupos (TX1 e TX3 aos quais administraram-se, pela via intramuscular, cetamina (3,0mg/kg e midazolam (0,3mg/kg. Decorridos cinco minutos procedeu-se a indução anestésica pela administração intravenosa de propofol (5,0mg/kg, imediatamente seguida pela infusão contínua do agente hipnótico nas doses de 0,1 ou 0,3mg/kg/min, aos animais de TX1 e TX3, respectivamente. Foram mensuradas as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, temperatura retal, saturação de oxihemoglobina, concentração exalada de dióxido de carbono e pressão arterial. Em TX3 observou-se manutenção de adequado plano anestésico, enquanto que os animais do TX1 apresentaram-se sedados. Houve decréscimo acentuado da freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial e elevação da concentração de dióxido de carbono exalado no TX3. Conclui-se que o emprego de propofol na dose de infusão de 0,3mg/kg/min em gatos pré-medicados com cetamina-midazolam produz anestesia satisfatória, bradicardia, depressão da função respiratória e pressão arterial.Anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of two different infusion rates of propofol were studied in cats premedicated with ketamine-midazolam. Fourteen cats were assigned to one of the two groups (TX1 or TX3. Ketamine (3.0mg/kg and midazolam (0.3mg/kg were administered intramuscularly. After 5 minutes, anesthesia was induced by propofol (5.0mg/kg and maintained by a continuous infusion of propofol (0.1 and 0.3mg/kg/min, TX1 and TX3, respectively. Heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, oxygen hemoglobin saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide and arterial pressure were recorded. Adequate anesthesia was observed in TX3, while animals in TX1 were only lightly sedated. A greater decrease in heart

  2. Previously published midazolam-alfentanil response surface model cannot predict patient response well in gastrointestinal endoscopy sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jing-Yang; Ting, Chien-Kun; Huang, Yu-Ying; Tsou, Mei-Yung

    2016-03-01

    A response surface model is a mathematical model used to predict multiple-drug pharmacodynamic interactions. With the use of a previously published volunteer model, we tested the accuracy of the midazolam-alfentanil response surface model during gastrointestinal endoscopy. We enrolled 35 adult patients scheduled for combined endoscopic procedures. Patients were sedated with intravenous midazolam and alfentanil, and monitored with real-time auditory evoked potential. Sedation Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scores were recorded by an independent observer every 2 minutes. Patients with OAA/S scores of ≥ 4 were designated as "awake". Pharmacokinetic profiles were calculated using the TIVA trainer. The published response surface model was modified to make estimations more reasonable. Patient response (OAA/S score ≥ 4 or response during gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure sedation. Accuracy in predicting an OAA/S score of response ranged from 0.04% to 2.94% at the time of arousal (OAA/S score ≥ 4) and from 0.24% to 15.55% when the patient was asleep (OAA/S score response of patients undergoing sedated gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. Future model parameter adjustments are required. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  3. Axillary nerve block in comparison with intravenous midazolam/fentanyl for painless reduction of upper extremity fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Alimohammadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The painful nature of fractures has made it inevitable to use various anesthetic techniques to reduce or immobilize fractured parts. In the present study, axillary nerve block was compared with intravenous midazolam/fentanyl to induce anesthesia for Painless Reduction of Upper Extremity Fractures. The subjects in the present clinical trial consisted of 60 patients with upper extremity fractures. They were randomly divided into two equal groups of intravenous sedation (IVS with midazolam/fentanyl and axillary nerve block (ANB. Rate of anesthesia induction, recovery time, and pain intensities at baseline, during the procedure and at the end of the procedure were recorded in both groups. Data was analyzed and compared between the two groups with SPSS 18 statistical software using appropriate tests. Demographic data, vital signs and means of pain intensities at the beginning of the procedure were equal in the two groups. In the IVS group, the overall duration of the procedure was shorter with more rapid onset of anesthesia (P<0.05. In contrast, the recovery time was much shorter in the ANB group (P<0.001. No life or organ threatening complications were observed in the two groups. Axillary nerve block can be considered an appropriate substitute for intravenous sedation in painful procedures of the upper extremity.

  4. Efficacy and acceptabilty of oral-transmucosal midazolam as a conscious sedation agent in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, A; Chawla, S H; Goyal, A; Gauba, K; Bhardwaj, N

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of oral-transmucosal route of administration of midazolam in young potentially un-cooperative children. A sample of 40 children up to 4 years of age with ASA I status were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 20 each. The children in experimental group received 0.5-mg/kg-body weight midazolam mixed in strawberry syrup via the oral-transmucosal route and those in control group were given the same syrup diluted with normal saline. A class II amalgam restoration was performed and routine behavior management techniques were employed in both groups. It was found that the number of procedures successfully completed and sedation produced 15 minutes after test solution administration was significantly greater in the experimental group compared to the control group. The total treatment time was also much lesser in the experimental group children. There was no significant difference in the acceptability of the test solutions in the children of the two groups.

  5. Simultaneous determination of midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam in human plasma by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenkui; Luo, Suyi; Smith, Harold T; Tse, Francis L S

    2007-08-01

    A sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam in human plasma has been developed and validated with a dynamic range of 0.1-250 ng/mL. The analysis was based on semi-automated liquid-liquid extraction followed by evaporation of the extraction solvent, reconstitution and chromatography on a reversed-phase C(18) column. The mobile phase consists of 5 mm ammonium acetate and methanol and runs in gradient at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min with column temperature of approximately 20 degrees C. The entire column effluent was transferred into the LC-MS/MS interface operated in positive electrospray ionization mode. The chromatographic run time was 4.3 min per injection, with retention times for midazolam, 1'-hydroxymidazolaml and the internal standard, triazolam, of 2.5, 2.3 and 2.1 min, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD %) and accuracy (bias %) of the quality control samples were <15.0% and within +/-13%, respectively. The current method has been applied to a clinical drug-drug interaction study in human. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects in cats of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine on stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antagonistic effects of a fixed dose of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP), both alone and in various combinations, on key stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic changes induced by medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and ketamine (KET) in healthy cats. Seven cats were used consistently in eight investigation groups. Cats were administered a mixture of 0.05 mg/kg MED and 0.5 mg/kg MID followed 10 mins later by 10 mg/kg KET intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after KET injection, the cats were intravenously injected with either a physiological saline solution at 0.1 ml/kg (control) or one of the seven variations of experimental drugs, alone or in combination: ATI, FLU, 4AP, ATI + FLU, FLU + 4AP, ATI + 4AP and ATI + FLU + 4AP. Blood samples were collected 10 times during the 24 h test period. Plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and non-esterified fatty acid levels were measured. The administration of MED + MID + KET resulted in hyperglycaemia and decreases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. FLU or 4AP alone or FLU + 4AP did not effectively antagonise the effects induced by MED + MID + KET but enhanced the hyperglycaemia. ATI alone was effective in antagonising these effects. Compared with non-ATI regimens, combinations with ATI were more effective in antagonising the effects induced by MED + MID + KET; however, ATI + FLU + 4AP caused large increases in cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. ATI, both alone and in combination, is effective in antagonising the neurohormonal and metabolic effects of MED + MID + KET in cats. However, ATI + FLU + 4AP is not suitable because of large stress-related hormonal responses. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  7. Systemic or Intra-Amygdala Infusion of the Benzodiazepine, Midazolam, Impairs Learning, but Facilitates Re-Learning to Inhibit Fear Responses in Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Genevra; Harris, Justin A.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments used rats to study the effect of a systemic or intra-amygdala infusion of the benzodiazepine, midazolam, on learning and re-learning to inhibit context conditioned fear (freezing) responses. Rats were subjected to two context-conditioning episodes followed by extinction under drug or vehicle, or to two cycles of context…

  8. Ketamine alone or combined with midazolam or dexmedetomidine does not affect anxiety-like behaviours and memory in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ana; Valentim, Ana; Venâncio, Carlos; Pereira, Mariana; Melo, Pedro; Summavielle, Teresa; Antunes, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Ketamine administration has been associated with controversial behavioural impairments and psychotic episodes. Even though ketamine alone and in combination with midazolam or dexmedetomidine are frequently used in laboratory animals, the side-effects of such protocols are not well known. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effects of ketamine alone and in combination with midazolam or dexmedetomidine on emotional reactivity, as well as the effects on learning and memory in adult rats at least 48 h after anaesthesia. The evaluation of the potential influence of 100 mg/kg ketamine administered alone and in combination with midazolam (5 mg/kg), or dexmedetomidine (0.25 mg/kg) on spatial learning and recognition memory was studied in adult Wistar rats using the radial maze as well as object recognition and location tests. The influence of these combinations on emotional reactivity was investigated using the new exploration test and the elevated plus maze. Results showed that ketamine alone or in combination with midazolam or dexmedetomidine affected neither spatial and recognition memory, nor emotional reactivity. These results reinforce the safe clinical use of ketamine and its combinations in rats in a research context since the administration of these anaesthetic combinations did not produce significant changes with regard to spatial and recognition memory or emotional reactivity. Furthermore, these results indicate that the quality of scientific data produced in adult rat neurobehavioural research is not jeopardized by the use of these anaesthetic protocols.

  9. Perioperative effects of oral midazolam premedication in children undergoing skin laser treatment. A double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoroghi, Mehrdad; Arbabi, Shahriyar; Farahbakhsh, Farshid; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Abbasi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the efficacy of oral midazolam with two different dosages in orange juice on perioperative hemodynamics and behavioral changes in children who underwent skin laser treatment in an academic educational Hospital. Methods: Ninety children, candidates for skin laser

  10. Determination of the maximum tolerated dose of intranasal sufentanil and midazolam in Chinese: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y; Shao, L; Tian, M; Zhang, Y; Liu, F

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD, the dose of causing 10% respiratory depression) of intranasal sufentanil (SUF) and midazolam (MID) for sedation during gastroscopy by continual reassessment method (CRM). Patients (18-65 years old) scheduled for gastroscopy were recruited in this study. Subjects received intranasal SUF and MID for sedation. The dose of MID (5 mg) was fixed, while the dose of SUF was increased progressively (six incremental doses ranging from 0-0.60 μg/kg, n = 3 for each dose). The first cohort received a conservative, predetermined dose of 5 mg MID and 0 μg/kg SUF, subsequent cohorts received doses of SUF that were determined by the responses of all previous patients using Bayesian-based software. The dose allocated to the next cohort is the one with an updated posterior response probability closest to 10%. Thirty Chinese patients scheduled for gastroscopy were included. Probability of respiratory depression at each dose was as follows: 5 mg MID + 0 μg/kg SUF, 0.4%; 5 mg MID + 0.1 μg/kg SUF, 0.8%; 5 mg MID + 0.2 μg/kg SUF, 1.8%; 5 mg MID + 0.3 μg/kg SUF, 3.7%; 5 mg MID + 0.4 μg/kg SUF, 9.9%; 5 mg MID + 0.5 μg/kg SUF, 17.8%; 5 mg MID + 0.6 μg/kg SUF, 36.0%. The MTD of intranasal MID and SUF for sedation during gastroscopy causing 10% respiratory depression is 5 mg MID + 0.4 μg/kg SUF, based on CRM. © 2018 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The role of a low-dose ketamine-midazolam regimen in the management of severe painful crisis in patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfic, Qutaiba A; Faris, Ali S; Kausalya, Rajini

    2014-02-01

    Acute pain is one of the main causes of hospital admission in sickle cell disease, with variable intensity and unpredictable onset and duration. We studied the role of a low-dose intravenous (IV) ketamine-midazolam combination in the management of severe painful sickle cell crisis. A retrospective analysis was performed with data from nine adult patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit with severe painful sickle cell crises not responding to high doses of IV morphine and other adjuvant analgesics. A ketamine-midazolam regimen was added to the ongoing opioids as an initial bolus of ketamine 0.25mg/kg, followed by infusion of 0.2-0.25mg/kg/h. A midazolam bolus of 1mg followed by infusion of 0.5-1mg/h was added to reduce ketamine emergence reactions. Reduction in morphine daily requirements and improvement in pain scores were the determinants of ketamine-midazolam effect. The t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Nine patients were assessed, with mean age of 27±11 years. Morphine requirement was significantly lower after adding the IV ketamine-midazolam regimen. The mean±SD IV morphine requirement (milligram/day) in the pre-ketamine day (D0) was 145.6±16.5, and it was 112±12.2 on Day 1 (D1) of ketamine treatment (P=0.007). The Numeric Rating Scale scores on D0 ranged from eight to ten (mean 9.1), but improved to range from five to seven (mean 5.7) on D1. There was a significant improvement in pain scores after adding ketamine-midazolam regimen (P=0.01). Low-dose ketamine-midazolam IV infusion might be effective in reducing pain and opioid requirements in patients with sickle cell disease with severe painful crisis. Further controlled studies are required to prove this effect. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Análise comparativa dos efeitos do diazepam, midazolam, propofol e etomidato na contratilidade miocárdica e no fluxo coronariano: estudo em corações isolados de ratos Effects of diazepam, midazolam, propofol and etomidate in myocardial contractility and coronary blood flow: comparative analysis in isolated rat's hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Geraldo Sobral de Medeiros

    2004-06-01

    stable at 90 cm H2O and temperature at 37.0+0.5 °C. With the exception of the Group I (control, they were submitted to single one-minute infusions of diazepam (50 micrograms - Group II; midazolam (25 micrograms - Group III; propofol (25 and 50 micrograms - Group IV and etomidate (25 micrograms - Group V. The drugs were diluted in 0.1 mL of K-H solution and the CBF rate and the perfusion pressure controlled during their infusion.The heart rate (beats per minute, myocardial tension (grams and coronary blood flow (millimeters per minute were measure at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. The myocardial contractility was obtained by calculating the first derived tension/time (dT/dt max, at each time interval. RESULTS: The heart rate showed variations in Groups I, III and IV. A variation in the myocardial tension was seen in all groups except Group I and alterations in the CBF were seen in all groups, except in Group IV during the experiment. The myocardial contractility decreased in all groups, except for Group I. CONCLUSION: The assayed drugs diminished the myocardial contractility (p<0.05; the variations of the coronary blood flow were not directly correlated to those that occurred with the myocardial contractility.

  13. Concentrations of garenoxacin in plasma, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid following a single oral 600 mg dose in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Honeybourne, D; Jevons, G; Boyce, M; Wise, R; Bello, A; Gajjar, D

    2003-03-01

    A microbiological assay was used to measure concentrations of garenoxacin (BMS-284756) in plasma, bronchial mucosa (BM), alveolar macrophages (AM) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF), following a single 600 mg oral dose. Twenty-four healthy subjects were allocated into four nominal time intervals after the dose, 2.5-3.5, 4.5-5.5, 10.5-11.5 and 23.5-24.5 h. Mean concentrations in plasma, BM, AM and ELF, respectively, for the four nominal time windows were for 2.5-3.5 h 10.0 mg/L (S.D. 2.8), 7.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.3), 106.1 mg/L (S.D. 60.3) and 9.2 mg/L (S.D. 3.6); 4.5-5.5 h 8.7 mg/L (S.D. 2.2), 6.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.9), 158.6 mg/L (S.D. 137.4) and 14.3 mg/L (S.D. 8.2); 10.5-11.5 h 6.1 mg/L (S.D. 1.9), 4.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.4), 76.0 mg/L (S.D. 47.7) and 7.9 mg/L (S.D. 4.6); and 23.5-24.5 h 2.1 mg/L (S.D. 0.5), 1.7 mg/kg (S.D. 0.7), 30.7 mg/L (S.D. 12.9) and 3.3 mg/L (S.D. 2.3). Concentrations at all sites exceeded MIC(90)s for the common respiratory pathogens Haemophilus influenzae (0.03 mg/L), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.015 mg/L) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.06 mg/L). These data suggest that garenoxacin should be effective in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  14. Understanding the risks associated with the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS): high variability of active ingredients concentration, mislabelled preparations, multiple psychoactive substances in single products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-08-17

    New psychoactive substances (NPS), are now a large group of substances of abuse not yet completely controlled by international drug conventions, which may pose a public health threat. Anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, seizures, hyperthermia and cardiotoxicity are some of the common adverse effects associated with these compounds. In this paper, three case reports taken from the archive of processed cases of the authors' laboratory are presented and discussed to stress the risks of possible adverse consequences for NPS users: in particular, (i) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual consumed dose, due to variability of active ingredients concentration in consumed products, (ii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual active ingredients present in consumed products, as opposed to those claimed by the manufacturer, and (iii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual pharmacological and toxicological effects related to the simultaneous consumption of different psychoactive ingredients contained in single products, whose interactions are mostly unknown. Each of them individually provide a source of concern for possible serious health related consequences. However, they should be considered in conjunction with each others, with the worldwide availability of NPS through the web and also with the incessantly growing business derived from the manipulation and synthesis of new substances. The resulting scenario is that of a cultural challenge which demands a global approach from different fields of knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulated performance of a single pixel PIN spectrometer SCXM equipped with a concentrator optics in Solar coronal X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alha, L.; Huovelin, J.; Nevalainen, J.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we present simulated solar coronal X-ray observations to verify the sensitivity of a new hypothetical instrument design. These simulations are folded through this X-ray spectrometer having a moderate size circular field of view (FoV) of 1.6°. This SCXM (Solar Coronal X-ray Mapper) is designed to compose of a single pixel silicon PIN detector equipped with a single reflection double frustum X-ray optics. A moderate FoV would enable a morphological study of the expanded X-ray emission from the solar corona during a high activity of the Sun. The main scientific task of SCXM would be the mapping of the coronal X-ray emission, i.e. to resolve the radial distribution of the X-ray surface brightness around the Sun. These kinds of off-limb observations would help to interpret the coronal plasma diagnostics as a function of the elongation angle.Direct solar full disc observations could be also performed with SCXM. In this work we have applied real solar coronal X-ray data obtained by the SMART-1 XSM (X-ray Solar Monitor) [3] to simulate on-solar observations at different flux levels to derive full disc sensitivity and performance of SCXM.A challenging attempt for SCXM would also be to distinguish the X-ray spectrum of the decaying axions around the Sun. These axions are assumed to be created as side products of fusion reactions in the core of the Sun. These axions are predicted to be gravitationally trapped to orbit the Sun forming a halo-like X-ray emitting object. No signature of an axion X-ray emission around the Sun has been observed to this day.This simple X-ray spectrometer with an optical concentrator would be an inexpensive instrument with low mass and telemetry budgets compared with more accurate X-ray instruments of imaging capability. Hence SCXM would be an advanced choice as an auxiliary instrument for solar coronal X-ray observations.

  16. Detection and Quantification of Silver Nanoparticles at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Using Asymmetric Flow Field??Flow Fractionation Online with Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aquatic environments could potentially cause adverse impacts on ecosystems and human health. However, current understanding of the environmental fate and transport of AgNPs is still limited because their properties in complex environmental samples cannot be accurately determined. In this study, the feasibility of using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) connected online with single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICPMS) to detect and quantify AgNPs at environmentally relevant concentrations was investigated. The AF4 channel had a thickness of 350 00b5m and its accumulation wall was a 10 kDa regenerated cellulose membrane. A 0.02 % FL-70 surfactant solution was used as an AF4 carrier. With 1.2 mL/min AF4 cross flow rate, 1.5 mL/min AF4 channel flow rate, and 5 ms spICPMS dwell time, the AF4??spICPMS can detect and quantify 40 ?? 80 nm AgNPs, as well as Ag-SiO2 nanoparticles (51.0 nm diameter Ag core and 21.6 nm SiO2 shell), with good recovery within 30 min. This system was not only effective in differentiating and quantifying different types of AgNPs with similar hydrodynamic diameters, such as in mixtures containing Ag-SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles and 40 ?? 80 nm AgNPs, but also suitable for differentiating between 40 nm AgNPs and elevated dissolved Ag content. The study results indicate that AF4??spICPMS is capable of detecting and quantifying AgNPs and other engineered

  17. Midazolam and propofol used alone or sequentially for long-term sedation in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients: a prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongfang; Jin, Xiaodong; Kang, Yan; Liang, Guopeng; Liu, Tingting; Deng, Ni

    2014-06-16

    Midazolam and propofol used alone for long-term sedation are associated with adverse effects. Sequential use may reduce the adverse effects, and lead to faster recovery, earlier extubation and lower costs. This study evaluates the effects, safety, and cost of midazolam, propofol, and their sequential use for long-term sedation in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. A total of 135 patients who required mechanical ventilation for >3 days were randomly assigned to receive midazolam (group M), propofol (group P), or sequential use of both (group M-P). In group M-P, midazolam was switched to propofol until the patients passed the spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) safety screen. The primary endpoints included recovery time, extubation time and mechanical ventilation time. The secondary endpoints were pharmaceutical cost, total cost of ICU stay, and recollection to mechanical ventilation-related events. The incidence of agitation following cessation of sedation in group M-P was lower than group M (19.4% versus 48.7%, P = 0.01). The mean percentage of adequate sedation and duration of sedation were similar in the three groups. The recovery time, extubation time and mechanical ventilation time of group M were 58.0 (interquartile range (IQR), 39.0) hours, 45.0 (IQR, 24.5) hours, and 192.0 (IQR, 124.0) hours, respectively; these were significantly longer than the other groups, while they were similar between the other two groups. In the treatment-received analysis, ICU duration was longer in group M than group M-P (P = 0.016). Using an intention-to-treat analysis and a treatment-received analysis, respectively, the pharmaceutical cost of group M-P was lower than group P (P memory of the uncomfortable events was lower than in group M (11.7% versus 25.0%, P memory was similar (P >0.05). The incidence of hypotension in group M-P was lower than group (P = 0.01). Sequential use of midazolam and propofol was a safe and effective sedation protocol, with higher clinical

  18. Anestesia epidural com associação medetomidina e lidocaína, em gatos pré-medicados com acepromazina e midazolam

    OpenAIRE

    D.A.S.D. Lima; A.P. Souza; V.L. Santana; A.L. Araújo; W.C. Lima; R.S. Mendes; P.I. Nóbrega Neto

    2011-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos anestésicos promovidos pela associação medetomidina e lidocaína por via epidural, em gatos pré-tratados com acepromazina e midazolam. Foram utilizados 10 gatos adultos, machos e fêmeas, hígidos e com média de peso de 2,5±0,6kg, distribuídos em dois grupos (GM e GL) de igual número (n=5). Administraram-se, como medicação pré-anestésica, acepromazina, 0,2mg/kg, e midazolam, 0,5mg/kg, via intramuscular, e 20 minutos depois, nos animais do GM, por via epidural, lidocaína, ...

  19. Effects of Vacancy Concentration and Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Single-Crystal γ-TiAl Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruicheng, Feng; Hui, Cao; Haiyan, Li; Zhiyuan, Rui; Changfeng, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to analyze tensile strength and elastic modulus under different temperatures and vacancy concentrations. The effects of temperature and vacancy concentration on the mechanical properties of γ-TiAl alloy are investigated. The results show that the ultimate stress, ultimate strain and elastic modulus decrease nonlinearly with increasing temperature and vacancy concentration. As the temperature increases, the plastic of material is reinforced. The influence of temperature on strength and elastic modulus is larger than that of vacancy concentration. The evolution process of vacancy could be observed clearly. Furthermore, vacancies with different concentrations develop into voids first as a function of external forces or other factors, micro cracks evolve from those voids, those micro cracks then converge to a macro crack, and fracture will finally occur. The vacancy evolution process cannot be observed clearly owing to the thermal motion of atoms at high temperature. In addition, potential energy is affected by both temperature and vacancy concentration.

  20. A pré-medicação com midazolam antes de secção cesariana não tem efeitos adversos no neonato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Can Senel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Como todos os pacientes cirúrgicos, pacientes obstétricas também sentem estresse e ansieda de operatórios. Isso pode ser prevenido se forem passadas à paciente informações detalhadas sobre sua operação e se forem administrados medicamentos farmacológicos pré-operatórios. Devido aos efeitos depressivos dos sedativos nos neonatos, os medicamentos farmacológicos são omitidos, especialmente em pacientes obstétricas. A literatura contém poucos estudos concernentes ao uso de midazolam no pré-operatório em pacientes de secção cesariana (C/S. Nosso objetivo nesse estudo foi ajudar nossas pacientes passando por cirurgia C/S. Um grupo agendado para C/S eletiva recebeu midazolam 0,025 mg kg−1 por via intraveno sa; o outro grupo recebeu salina. A ansiedade materna foi avaliada com o uso dos escores da Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS (Escala de Ansiedade e Informação Pré-operatória de Amsterdam, e os neonatos foram avaliados por Apgar e pelo instrumento Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS (Escore Neurológico e de Capacidade Adaptativa do Neonato. Em conclusão, os pacientes pré-medicados com midazolam 0,025 mg kg−1 medicação tiveram escores de ansiedade significativamente baixos, sem qualquer efeito adverso nos neonatos. Portanto, midazolam pode, com segurança, ser utilizado como agente de pré-medicação na cirurgia C/S.

  1. ICU sedation with haloperidol-propofol infusion versus midazolam-propofol infusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A prospective, double-blind randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Etezadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combinations of hypnotics with or without opiates are commonly used in agitated patients. We hypothesized that combination of haloperidol-propofol in comparison with midazolam-propofol would lower consumption of propofol and lead to better hemodynamic and respiratory profile during sedation of agitated patients. Among 108 patients admitted in our ICU, 60 patients were agitated according to Ramsay Sedation Score (RSS and randomly divided into two groups. Morphine sulfate (0.05 mg/kg was administered to all patients for relief of postoperative pain. In one group, sedative infusion was started with 1 mg/h of haloperidol plus 25 μg/kg/min of propofol after bolus injection of 2 mg haloperidol. In the other group, midazolam1 mg/h and propofol 25 μg/kg/min were infused after a bolus injection of 2 mg midazolam. Propofol infusion was adjusted to keep bi-spectral index between 61-80 and the RSS between 3-5. Hourly propofol consumption was recorded during 24 h of sedation and compared statistically. We also compared SpO 2 , arterial blood gas variables, hemodynamic parameters and episodes of respiratory depression (SpO 2 ≤85% requiring respiratory support between the groups. Haloperidol, when added to propofol infusion, decreased its consumption at all the measured times (P = 0.001. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic variables between two groups, but the episodes of respiratory depression was significantly higher in propofol-midazolam group (P = 0.02. We conclude that haloperidol-propofol infusion decreases propofol requirements in the agitated patients. Besides, this combination showed a better profile in terms of occurrence of respiratory depression.

  2. Effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on anxiety levels of 3-4 years old children during a Class II restorative procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Kapur, Aditi; Chawla, H. S.; Gauba, K.; Goyal, A.; Bhardwaj, N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on changes in anxiety levels of precooperative children during a Class II amalgam restorative procedure. Methodology: A sample of 40 healthy, American Society of Anesthesiologists I, children aged 3-4 years having at least one carious primary mandibular molar requiring a Class II amalgam restoration with no previous dental history were randomly divided into experimental and ...

  3. A randomised, double-blind controlled trial of intranasal midazolam for the palliation of dyspnoea in patients with life-limiting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Janet; Randall, Clare; Pinkerton, Eve; Flatley, Christopher; Gibbons, Kristen; Allan, Simon

    2016-07-01

    Anxiety is a major component of breathlessness and is often palliated with benzodiazepines. Midazolam is a short-acting water-soluble benzodiazepine with a rapid onset of action and short half-life. Intranasal midazolam had been shown to be of marked clinical benefit in an uncontrolled pilot study for the control of dyspnoea. A blinded randomised controlled study was therefore undertaken across four Australasian palliative care services. All participants received six numbered study nasal spray (SNS) bottles, three of which contained midazolam and three placebo. They were instructed to use one SNS bottle on each day they were breathless, for 6 days within 2 weeks. Dyspnoea scores were recorded before and at set time intervals following the first use of each SNS bottle. Across all SNS bottles, the maximum change of 2.1 on an 11-point numerical rating scale was seen at 60 min. There was no difference in dyspnoea score between the two arms. Approximately 50 % of participants in each arm had a positive response (i.e. ≥2 point change in dyspnoea score from baseline). Anxiety scores at baseline were low. The most common adverse event was local nasal reactions. Intranasal midazolam had no clinical benefit over intranasal placebo for the control of dyspnoea. The low level of anxiety at baseline and dose of active drug delivered may have been important factors. Many participants found the SNS bottles to be a challenging mode of drug delivery. This study confirms the importance of placebo-controlled trials for defining best clinical practise.

  4. Short- and long-term follow-up of intensive care unit patients after sedation with isoflurane and midazolam--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackey, Peter V; Martling, Claes-Roland; Carlswärd, Christine; Sundin, Orjan; Radell, Peter J

    2008-03-01

    To compare memories from the intensive care unit (ICU) and short- and long-term psychological morbidity in patients after sedation with intravenous midazolam or inhaled isoflurane. Prospective long-term follow-up after randomized controlled trial. General ICU at Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm. Forty patients in need of sedation during ventilator treatment. Patients were randomized to receive isoflurane or midazolam for goal-directed sedation until extubation or for a maximum of 96 hrs. For short-term follow-up, doctors', nurses', and physiotherapists' notes from the 4 days following exposure to the study drugs were reviewed for words indicating adequate or pathologic cognitive and psychological recovery. For long-term follow-up, all 6-month survivors received questionnaires including the ICU Memory Tool (ICU-MT), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Impact of Event Scale (IES), and Well-Being Index. Additionally, several screening questions for previous posttraumatic stress symptoms were included. In the short term follow-up, no significant differences were found between groups. In the long-term follow-up, a trend toward fewer hallucinations/delusions after isoflurane sedation than after midazolam (two of ten isoflurane patients vs. five of seven midazolam patients) was found (p = .06). None of the five solely isoflurane-sedated patients reported hallucinations/delusions from the ICU. There was no difference in groups in long-term psychological morbidity as measured with HADS and IES. Memories of negative feelings in the ICU (ICU-MT) were associated with high HADS and IES scores (Fisher's exact test, p = .02 and p = .01, respectively). Sedation of ICU patients with isoflurane may result in fewer delusional memories or hallucinations from the ICU compared with more commonly used intravenous sedation. Memories of negative feelings from the ICU were associated with symptoms of depression or anxiety or symptoms indicating posttraumatic stress

  5. Optimal and safe standard doses of midazolam and propofol to achieve patient and doctor satisfaction with dental treatment: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Mutsumi; Nishimura, Akiko; Gotoh, Kinuko; Oka, Shuichirou; Iijima, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidences of morbidity and mortality caused by pharmacosedation for dental treatment have not yet reached zero. Adverse events are related to inappropriate respiratory management, mostly originating from an overdose of sedatives. Since sedation is utilized for the satisfaction of both the dentist and the patient, the optimal dose should be minimized to prevent adverse events. We attempted to define the optimal doses of midazolam and propofol required to achieve high levels of patient and dentist satisfaction. Methods One thousand dental patients, including those undergoing third molar extractions, were enrolled in this study. A dose of 1 mg of midazolam was administered at 1-minute intervals until adequate sedation was achieved. Propofol was then infused continuously to maintain the sedation level. Both the patients and the dentists were subsequently interviewed and asked to complete a questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors that contributed to patient and dentist satisfaction. Results The peak midazolam dose resulting in the highest percentage of patient satisfaction was 3 mg. Both a lower dose and a higher dose reduced patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction increased with an increasing dosage of propofol up until 4 mg/kg/hr, reaching a peak of 78.6%. The peak midazolam dose resulting in the highest percentage of dentist satisfaction (78.8%) was 2 mg. Incremental propofol doses reduced dentist satisfaction, in contrast to their effect on patient satisfaction. The strongest independent predictors of patient satisfaction and dentist satisfaction were no intraoperative memory (OR, 5.073; 95% CI, 3.532–7.287; Psedation is relatively light, memory loss and an absence of unintentional patient movements can be expected without adverse events. PMID:28182732

  6. Effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on anxiety levels of 3-4 years old children during a Class II restorative procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Aditi; Chawla, H S; Gauba, K; Goyal, A; Bhardwaj, N

    2014-07-01

    A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on changes in anxiety levels of precooperative children during a Class II amalgam restorative procedure. A sample of 40 healthy, American Society of Anesthesiologists I, children aged 3-4 years having at least one carious primary mandibular molar requiring a Class II amalgam restoration with no previous dental history were randomly divided into experimental and control groups comprising of 20 children each. The children in the experimental group (Group I) received 0.5 mg/kg body weight of midazolam mixed in strawberry syrup and those in the control group (Group II) received the same syrup mixed in saline, 15 min prior to the restorative procedure. Routine nonpharmacological behavior management techniques were used in both groups. The anxiety levels were recorded using Venham's anxiety scale at the start and end of each procedural step. There was a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in the anxiety levels of children in the experimental group on entry into the operatory compared with the control group. Introduction of each fear evoking stimuli showed a somewhat similar increase in anxiety levels in the two groups. In spite of a similar trend, the anxiety levels remained much lower in Group I than in Group II. Midazolam in conjunction with behavior management is more helpful in relaxing the child initially than behavior management alone, thus increasing the chances of successful and easy accomplishment of further treatment steps.

  7. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-07-07

    We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants' homes. We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Synthesis Alq3and effect of concentration iton optical and electrical performance of Organic Light Emitting Diodes withtwo single-layer mixture and multilayer structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Jafari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, organic light emitting diode with the two structures of ITO / PEDOT: PSS /PVK/Alq3/PBD/Al and ITO/PEDOT: PSS/PVK: Alq3: PBD/Alwith different concentrations were fabricated. The effects of concentration of Alq3 complex on the characteristics of diodes, which were made, were studied. Layers with the same weight percentages PVK, PBD and different wt. %Alq3 by spin coating on PEDOT: PSS layer was deposited. Current - voltage characteristic curve - and luminescence (El were studied. Experimental results showed that by increasing the concentration of the Alq3complexin both structure, luminescence increased and the operating voltage is reduced.

  9. Comparison of alfaxalone, ketamine and thiopental for anaesthetic induction and recovery in Thoroughbred horses premedicated with medetomidine and midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakuno, A; Aoki, M; Kushiro, A; Mae, N; Kodaira, K; Maeda, T; Yamazaki, Y; Ohta, M

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on clinical use of the new injectable anaesthetic agent alfaxalone in Thoroughbred horses. To compare anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary responses between alfaxalone, ketamine and thiopental in Thoroughbred horses premedicated with medetomidine and midazolam. Randomised blinded experimental cross-over study. Six Thoroughbred horses were anaesthetised 3 times with alfaxalone 1 mg/kg bwt, ketamine 2.5 mg/kg bwt or thiopental 4 mg/kg bwt after premedication with medetomidine 6 μg/kg bwt and midazolam 20 μg/kg bwt. Qualities of anaesthetic induction and recovery were scored on a scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent). Induction time and recovery time were recorded. Cardiopulmonary values (heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressures, and arterial blood gases) were recorded throughout anaesthesia. Data were analysed with nonparametric methods. The anaesthetic induction (P = 0.2) and recovery (P = 0.1) quality scores (median, range) were not different amongst protocols and were 4.0, 3-5; 5.0, 4-5; 4.5, 3-5; and 4.5, 3-5; 3.5, 2-5; 4.0, 2-5 for alfaxalone, ketamine and thiopental, respectively. Induction time for ketamine (67, 53-89 s) was significantly longer than that for alfaxalone (49, 40-51 s, P = 0.01) and thiopental (48, 43-50 s, P = 0.01). Time to standing for alfaxalone (44, 40-63 min, P = 0.01) and thiopental (39, 30-58 min, P = 0.01) was significantly longer than that for ketamine (25, 18-26 min). Cardiovascular values were maintained within the clinically acceptable level throughout anaesthesia. Respiratory rate significantly decreased during anaesthesia for all 3 drugs; however, spontaneous breathing did not disappear, and PaCO 2 values were maintained at approximately 50 mmHg. All 3 drugs showed similar effects in relation to anaesthetic induction and recovery qualities and cardiopulmonary responses. However, alfaxalone and thiopental prolonged recovery time

  10. Evaluation of butorphanol, medetomidine and midazolam as a reversible narcotic combination in free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Sandra; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Steenkamp, Johan; Shikwambana, Purvance; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of the combination butorphanol, medetomidine and midazolam (BMM) and its reversibility in lions. Prospective clinical trial. Thirty free-ranging lions, 10 male and 20 female, weighing 81-210 kg. Lions were immobilised with butorphanol mean 0.31 ± SD 0.034 mg kg(-1), medetomidine 0.052 ± 0.006 mg kg(-1), midazolam 0.21 ± 0.024 mg kg(-1) and hyaluronidase 1250 IU administered intramuscularly with a dart gun. Upon recumbency, physiological parameters and anaesthetic depth were monitored 10-15 minutes after darting (T1) and repeated every 10 minutes for a further 30 minutes (T2, T3, T4). Arterial blood gas analyses were performed at T1 and T4. At the end of the procedure, 45-60 minutes after initial darting, immobilisation was reversed with naltrexone 0.68 ± 0.082 mg kg(-1), atipamezole 0.26 ± 0.031 mg kg(-1), and flumazenil 0.0032 ± 0.0007 mg kg(-1) administered intravenously and subcutaneously. The BMM combination rapidly induced immobilisation and lateral recumbency was reached within 7.25 ± 2.3 minutes. Median induction score [scored 1 (excellent) to 4 (poor)] was 1.4 (range 1-2). Cardio-respiratory parameters were stable. Heart rate varied from 32 to 72 beats per minute, respiratory rate from 14 to 32 breaths minute(-1) and rectal temperature from 36.6 to 40.3 °C. No sudden arousals were observed. Arterial blood gas analyses revealed a mean pH of 7.33, PaCO(2) of 33 mmHg and PaO(2) of 87 mmHg. Mild to moderate hypoxemia was seen in four lions. Recovery was smooth and lions were walking within 4.4 ± 4.25 minutes. Median recovery score [scored 1 (excellent) to 4 (poor)] was 1.3 (range 1-2). The drug combination proved to be effective in immobilising free-ranging healthy lions of both sexes with minimal cardio-respiratory changes. © 2010 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2010 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  11. Evaluation of a combination of low-dose ketamine and low-dose midazolam in terminal dyspnea-attenuation of "double-effect"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Kanti Dam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Of all symptoms in palliative medicine those concerning respiration are most excruciating and difficult to treat. Reticence about the use of morphine for palliation of dyspnea is common, especially in nonmalignant diseases, as there is a fear of causing respiratory depression, particularly where Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD exists. This factor is also compounded by the lack of availability of morphine in parts of developing countries. Ketamine has excellent anesthetic and analgesic effects in addition to being easily available. It produces bronchodilatation and does not produce respiratory or cardiovascular depression. The author seeks to evaluate the role of low-dose (0.2 mg/kg ketamine and midazolam (0.02 mg/kg in the attenuation of terminal dyspnea. Methods: Sixteen patients with terminal dyspnea, admitted to the Critical Care Unit (CCU with cancer and other noncancer diagnoses were recruited. The subjective component of dyspnea was assessed using the Graphic Rating Scale (GRS, which has values from 0 - 10, 10 being maximum dyspnea. Each patient received a low-dose of ketamine and midazolam for relief of dyspnea. All the patients received low-flow (2 L/min. oxygen therapy via nasal cannula. Immediately after admission, all the patients were reassured and nursed in a decubitus position of their choice. The GRS was recorded at the point of admission, 10 minutes after starting oxygen therapy, and ten minutes after administration of low-dose ketamine and midazolam. Hemodynamic parameters were also recorded at these three points. Result: All the patients who enrolled in our study had significant dyspnea at admission, as was evident from the GRS scores of 8.250 (SD 0.91, respiratory rate of 28.56 (SD 5.0, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP of 102.7 (SD 14.63, pulse rate of 115.62 (SD 23.3, and SpO2 of 92.43 (SD 2.38. All the patients benefited from the combination of ketamine and midazolam, as evidenced by the statistically

  12. Antagonism of the Ethanol-Like Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Ethanol, Pentobarbital, and Midazolam in Cynomolgus Monkeys Reveals Involvement of Specific GABAA Receptor SubtypesS⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laura S. M.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol were studied by comparing the potency of ethyl-8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazol(1,5-a)benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (Ro15-4513) and ethyl 8-fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazol(1,5-a)-benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (flumazenil, Ro15-1788) to antagonize ethanol, pentobarbital (PB), and midazolam substitution for ethanol. Ro15-4513 has high affinity for receptors containing α4/6 and α5 subunits and lower affinity for α1, α2, and α3 subunits. Flumazenil is nonselective for GABAA receptors containing α1, α2, α3, and α5 subunits and has low affinity for α4/6-containing receptors. Male (n = 9) and female (n = 8) cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were trained to discriminate ethanol (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg i.g., 30-min pretreatment) from water. Ethanol, PB, and midazolam dose-dependently substituted for ethanol (80% ethanol-appropriate responding). Ro15-4513 (0.003–0.56 mg/kg i.m., 5-min pretreatment) shifted the ethanol, PB, and midazolam dose-response functions rightward in a vast majority of monkeys tested (15/15, 16/17, and 11/12, respectively). In contrast, flumazenil (0.30–10.0 mg/kg i.m., 5-min pretreatment) shifted the ethanol, PB, and midazolam dose-response functions rightward in 9 of 16, 12 of 16, and 7 of 9 monkeys tested, respectively. In the monkeys showing antagonism with both Ro15-4513 and flumazenil, ethanol and PB substitution were antagonized more potently by Ro15-4513 than by flumazenil, whereas midazolam substitution was antagonized with similar potency. There were no sex or training dose differences, with the exception that flumazenil failed to antagonize ethanol substitution in males trained to discriminate 2.0 g/kg ethanol. GABAA receptors with high affinity for Ro15-4513 (i.e., containing α4/6 and α5 subunits) may be particularly important mediators of the multiple discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol

  13. Pre-anesthetic Anxiety Level in Children with Congenital Heart Disease: Comparison between Maternal Presence during Anesthetic Induction and Midazolam Premedication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna F Soenarto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available General anesthesia was needed by children with congenital heart disease (CHD who underwent cardiaccatheterization procedure and surgery. Pre-anesthetic anxiety in children with CHD can cause significantproblems during induction of anesthesia which leads to negative postoperative outcomes. This studycompared the role of maternal presence during anesthesia induction with midazolam premedication onpre-anesthetic anxiety level in children with CHD. Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital on April toSeptember 2014. Forty-five CHD patients aged 2-5 years old who underwent cardiac invasive procedurewere divided into P group (received midazolam premedication and M group (had maternal presence duringanesthesia induction. Modified Yale Pre-anxiety Scale (MYPAS was used for measuring anxiety level ineach patient during preoperative visit, on the time patient entered the procedure room and during induction ofanesthesia. There was no significant difference of MYPAS scores between the two groups in all measurementtimes. The MYPAS score results were non-anxious (median score 23.4 and the highest was at induction ofanesthesia. Inter-rater agreement test between 2 observers was good (k>0.5. In conclusion, there was nosignificant difference between the effect of maternal presence during induction of anesthesia and midazolampremedication on pre-anesthetic anxiety level in children with CHD. Keywords: pre-anesthetic anxiety, congenital heart disease, maternal presence, midazolam.   Peran Kehadiran Ibu selama Induksi Anestesia dengan PremedikasiMidazolam terhadap Tingkat Kecemasan Pra-anestesia Anak denganPenyakit Jantung Bawan Abstrak Pembiusan umum diperlukan oleh pasien dengan penyakit jantung bawaan (PJB pada saat kateterisasiatau pembedahan jantung. Kecemasan pra-anestesia dapat menimbulkan masalah saat induksi anestesiayang berdampak negatif pascapembedahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan efek premedikasimidazolam dan kehadiran ibu selama

  14. The concentrations of clinafloxacin in alveolar macrophages, epithelial lining fluid, bronchial mucosa and serum after administration of single 200 mg oral doses to patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybourne, D; Andrews, J M; Cunningham, B; Jevons, G; Wise, R

    1999-01-01

    The concentrations of clinafloxacin were measured in serum, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid after single 200 mg oral doses of clinafloxacin had been administered to 15 subjects who were undergoing bronchoscopy. Concentrations were measured using a microbiological assay method. Mean concentrations in serum, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid at a mean of 1.27 h post-dose were 1.54, 2.65, 15.60 and 2.71 mg/L respectively. These site concentrations exceeded the MIC90 for common respiratory pathogens and indicate that clinafloxacin is likely to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of respiratory tract infections.

  15. Midazolam por via oral como medicação pré-anestésica em crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral: estudo comparativo das variações do índice bispectral Midazolam por vía oral como medicación preanestésica en niños y adolescentes con parálisis cerebral: estudio comparativo de las variaciones del índice bispectral Oral midazolam as pre-anesthetic medication in children and teenagers with cerebral palsy: a comparative study on the variations of the bispectral index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O midazolam é um derivado benzodiazepínico com ação hipnótica e muito utilizado como medicação pré-anestésica em anestesia pediátrica. As crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC também se beneficiam do uso do midazolam, mas seus efeitos são ainda desconhecidos sobre esse grupo de pacientes que apresentam uma série de particularidades, com alterações inclusive no local de ação do midazolam. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a ação do midazolam utilizado como medicação pré-anestésica sobre o índice bispectral (EEG-BIS dos pacientes com paralisia cerebral. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados dois grupos de pacientes: um com diagnóstico de PC e outro sem doença do sistema nervoso central (SNC e periférico. Foram registrados valores de EEG-BIS na enfermaria na véspera da operação e no dia da operação, 40 minutos depois da administração de 0,6 mg.kg-1 de midazolam via oral. Foram excluídos pacientes com história de reação paradoxal ao midazolam e pacientes do grupo-controle que estivessem em uso de outra medicação. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 77 pacientes de ambos os sexos, entre 4 e 18 anos de idade. Não houve diferença entre os valores de EEG-BIS basal entre os grupos estudados. Após o uso do midazolam houve diminuição dos valores do EEG-BIS nos dois grupos estudados, com diferença estatística significativa em cada grupo. Na comparação entre grupos não houve diferença estatística. CONCLUSÕES: O midazolam administrado como medicação pré-anestésica na dose de 0,6 mg.kg-1 diminui os valores basais do EEG-BIS sem caracterizar hipnose e sem diferença estatística nos grupos estudados.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El midazolam es un derivado benzodiazepínico con acción hipnótica y muy utilizado como medicación preanestésica en anestesia pediátrica. Los niños con parálisis cerebral (PC también se benefician del uso del midazolam, pero sus efectos todavía se desconocen sobre ese

  16. Facilitating influence of stress on the consolidation of fear memory induced by a weak training: reversal by midazolam pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Noelia Martina; Martijena, Irene Delia; Molina, Víctor Alejandro

    2011-11-20

    It is well known that an emotionally arousing experience usually results in a robust and persistent memory trace. The present study explored the potential mechanisms involved in the influence of stress on the consolidation of a contextual fear memory in animals subjected to a weak fear training protocol, and whether pretreatment with intra-basolateral amygdala or systemic administration of midazolam (MDZ) prevents the potential stress-induced influence on fear memory formation. A previous restraint session facilitated fear retention, this effect was not due to a sensitized effect of restraint on the footshock experience. MDZ, both systemically or intra-basolateral amygdala infusion prior to the restraint, attenuated the stress-induced promoting influence on fear memory formation. In addition, stress exposure activated the ERK1/2 pathway in basolateral amygdala (BLA) after the weak training procedure but not after the immediate footshock protocol. Similar to our behavioral findings, MDZ attenuated stress-induced elevation of phospho-ERK2 (p-ERK2) in BLA following the acquisition session. Given that the activation of ERK1/2 pathway is essential for associative learning, we propose that stress-induced facilitation of p-ERK2 in BLA is an important mechanism for the promoting influence of stress on the consolidation of contextual fear memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone Marrow Concentrate and Bovine Bone Mineral for Sinus Floor Augmentation : A Controlled, Randomized, Single-Blinded Clinical and Histological Trial-Per-Protocol Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerbier, Sebastian; Rickert, Daniela; Gutwald, Ralf; Nagursky, Heiner; Oshima, Toshiyuki; Xavier, Samuel P.; Christmann, Johannes; Kurz, Patrick; Menne, Dieter; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Wagner, Wilfried; Koch, Felix P.

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of substituting autogenous bone (AB) by bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC). Both AB and BMAC were tested in combination with a bovine bone mineral (BBM) for their ability of new bone formation (NBF) in a multicentric, randomized,

  18. The influence of exercise and dehydration on the urine concentrations of salbutamol after inhaled administration of 1600 µg salbutamol as a single dose in relation to doping analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christoffer Bjerre; Backer, Vibeke; Kalsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of exercise and dehydration on the urine concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation of that maximal permitted (1600 µg) on the 2015 World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list. Thirteen healthy males participated in the study. Urine concentrations...... of salbutamol were measured during three conditions: exercise (EX), exercise+dehydration (EXD), and rest (R). Exercise consisted of 75 min cycling at 60% of VO2max and a 20-km time-trial. Fluid intake was 2300, 270, and 1100 mL during EX, EXD, and R, respectively. Urine samples of salbutamol were collected 0.......0±0.7 ng/mL) than EX(3.8±0.8 ng/mL) and EXD(3.6±0.8 ng/mL). AUC was lower for R (14.1±2.8 ng/mL·∙h) than EX (16.9±2.9 ng/mL·∙h)(Pdehydration affect urine concentrations of salbutamol and increase the risk of Adverse Analytical Findings...

  19. Correlation between CT attenuation value and iodine concentration in vitro: discrepancy between gemstone spectral imaging on single-source dual-energy CT and traditional polychromatic x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Le; Liu, Bin; Wu, Xing-wang

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relation between CT attenuation value and iodine concentration in vitro, using gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) with single-source dual-energy CT and traditional polychromatic X-ray imaging (TPXI), respectively. A polypropylene phantom with eight test tubes in which iodine concentrations of solution were 0.4, 0.7, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 mg/mL underwent GSI and traditional polychromatic X-ray scans (80, 100, 120 and 140 kV(p)), using single-source dual-energy spectral CT (Discovery CT750HD; GE Healthcare Technologies, Milwaukee, WI, USA) at the same tube speed of 0.8 s/rotation. All spectral imaging data were analysed with GSI viewer to obtain monochromatic images (50–140 keV, interval of 10 keV). Computed tomography attenuation values of iodine solution were measured with the same size of regions of interest and at the exact same level for both monochromatic and polychromatic images. The relation between CT attenuation value and iodine concentration was examined. A linear correlation was found between CT attenuation value and iodine concentration for both monochromatic and polychromatic images. Moreover, the fitting coefficients for CT attenuation values and iodine concentrations were closer to one with GSI (r 2 = 0.99824–0.99996) than that with TPXI (r 2 = 0.99640–0.99736). Owing to the better correlation coefficients between CT attenuation value and iodine concentration, GSI may be a preferred method for quantitative measurement compared with TPXI.

  20. Iron concentration in breast milk normalised within one week of a single high-dose infusion of iron isomaltoside in randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Charlotte; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Nørgaard, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    at a mean daily dose of 70.5mg. We included 65 women with sufficient breast milk three days after inclusion - 30 from the intravenous iron group and 35 from the oral iron group - and collected breast milk and maternal blood samples three days and one week after allocation. RESULTS: The mean (± standard...... deviation) iron concentration in breast milk in the intravenous and oral groups were 0.72 ± 0.27 mg/L and 0.40 ± 0.18 mg/L at three days (p

  1. Perioperative effects of oral midazolam premedication in children undergoing skin laser treatment: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial Efeitos peroperatórios da premedicação oral de midazolam em crianças submetidas a tratamento de pele por laser: estudo duplo-cego randomizado e controlado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Shoroghi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate and compare the efficacy of oral midazolam with two different dosages in orange juice on perioperative hemodynamics and behavioral changes in children who underwent skin laser treatment in an academic educational Hospital. METHODS: Ninety children, candidates for skin laser treatment were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups of 30 each: the placebo group received 0.1 ml/kg orange flavored juice, group 2 and 3 receiving 0.5 and 1 mg/kg of injectable midazolam mixed with an equal volume of orange juice, respectively. The main outcome measures included the mask acceptance, patients' behavioral scales and postoperative events. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in heart rate, respiratory rate, and systolic blood pressure among the three groups. However, arterial oxygen saturation was significantly reduced in those given 1 mg.kg-1 midazolam. The median scores of anxiety, separation from parent, preparing an intravenous line, acceptance of the oxygen mask, good sedation, crying reduction and consciousness level were better in midazolam group. Postoperative agitation and re-crying were also more frequent in placebo receivers. Those given 1 mg.kg-1 midazolam were significantly more optimal for sedation, crying, consciousness, preparing an intravenous line, and postoperative re-crying compared with 0.5 mg.kg-1 midazolam receivers. CONCLUSION: As a preanaesthetic medication, the 1 mg.kg-1 dose of orally given midazolam especially in a volume of orange juice and can optimize the children's behavior during skin laser treatment with no serious adverse effects, enhancing their parents' satisfactions about the sedative protocol.OBJETIVO:Investigar e comparar a eficácia do uso oral de midazolam com duas diferentes doses de suco de laranja na hemodinâmica peropeatória e mudanças de desempenho em crianças submetidas tratamento de pele por laser em Hospital educacional e acadêmico. MÉTODOS:Noventa crianças candidatas a

  2. Estudo comparativo não randomizado do midazolam versus thiopental em crianças com estado de mal epiléptico refratário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÖHR JUNIOR ALFREDO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliamos o uso do midazolam em relação ao thiopental em crianças com estado de mal epiléptico refratário(EMER. Foram estudadas 50 crianças com EMER, internadas em UTI-pediátrica, composto pelos: Grupo Midazolam(A (n=24 prospectivo, e o Grupo Thiopental(B (n=26 histórico. Benzodiazepina e difenil-hidantoina e outros anticonvulsivantes foram previamente utilizadas nos dois grupos. Não havendo o controle das convulsões, no Grupo A os pacientes receberam uma dose de 200 mig/kg midazolam intravenoso em bolo, seguindo-se a infusão intravenosa contínua na razão de 0,25 a 15 mig/kg/min. No grupo B foi administrado thiopental, uma dose em bolo intravenosa de 1 mg/kg,, seguida de infusão intravenosa contínua na razão de 10-120 mig/kg/min. Em relação ao tempo de controle das crises e sua eficácia, não houve significância estatística para os dois grupos. No Grupo A houve significativamente menos complicações durante o tratamento: menos cianose (p=0,00006 e menos crianças necessitaram de ventilação assistida (p<0,00001. No Grupo A, 12,5% dos pacientes, na pós-terapia imediata, apresentaram alterações psíquicas, como agitação, confusão mental, alucinação visual.

  3. Comparison of oral midazolam with oral tramadol, triclofos and zolpidem in the sedation of pediatric dental patients: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bhatnagar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: oral sedation is the simplest and most convenient sedation method for managing uncooperative child patients because it is easy to administer and there is no need for nasal hood or injection. Oral midazolam is the most commonly used preanesthetic medication for children. When given in amounts between 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg of body weight, oral midazolam has been found to be an effective sedative agent for pediatric outpatients. Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic indicated for moderate to severe pain. Chloral hydrate is one of the sedatives most commonly used, has excellent absorption, fast induction, and exert minimal effects on respiration. zolpidem is the most commonly prescribed hypnotic due to its clinical efficacy, safety, and ability to be well tolerated with patients. Materials and Methods: 60 anxious and fearful children who reported to the department were treated under conscious sedation for the accomplishment of dental treatment. Patients were randomly assigned to four groups. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal Wallis Test and decision criterion was to reject the null hypothesis if the P-value is less than 0.05. Results: it was observed that there is a statistically significant difference in median scores recorded for the level of sedation between the different groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: this study concluded that midazolam is the best drug for producing conscious sedation followed by tramadol and triclofos. Zolpidem was not able to produce a sufficient level of sedation and it cannot be supported as a sedative agent at the present dosage.

  4. Effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on anxiety levels of 3-4 years old children during a Class II restorative procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Kapur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on changes in anxiety levels of precooperative children during a Class II amalgam restorative procedure. Methodology: A sample of 40 healthy, American Society of Anesthesiologists I, children aged 3-4 years having at least one carious primary mandibular molar requiring a Class II amalgam restoration with no previous dental history were randomly divided into experimental and control groups comprising of 20 children each. The children in the experimental group (Group I received 0.5 mg/kg body weight of midazolam mixed in strawberry syrup and those in the control group (Group II received the same syrup mixed in saline, 15 min prior to the restorative procedure. Routine nonpharmacological behavior management techniques were used in both groups. The anxiety levels were recorded using Venham′s anxiety scale at the start and end of each procedural step. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the anxiety levels of children in the experimental group on entry into the operatory compared with the control group. Introduction of each fear evoking stimuli showed a somewhat similar increase in anxiety levels in the two groups. In spite of a similar trend, the anxiety levels remained much lower in Group I than in Group II. Conclusion: Midazolam in conjunction with behavior management is more helpful in relaxing the child initially than behavior management alone, thus increasing the chances of successful and easy accomplishment of further treatment steps.

  5. Comparative evaluation of dexmedetomidine and midazolam-ketamine combination as sedative agents in pediatric dentistry: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Parul Uppal; Thakur, Seema; Singhal, Parul; Chauhan, Deepak; Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Sood, Ritu; Malhotra, Yagyeshwar

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological methods have been used as an adjunct to enhance child cooperativeness and facilitate dental treatment. Purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of sedation by intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral combination drug midazolam-ketamine in a group of children with uncooperative behavior requiring dental treatment. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study that included patients 3-9 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists-I status. About 36 children presenting early childhood caries were randomly assigned to one of three groups studied: Group MK received intranasal saline and oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) with ketamine (5 mg/kg) mixed in mango juice; Group DX received intranasal dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg) and oral mango juice; and Group C received intranasal saline and oral mango juice. Patients' heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded before, during, and at the end of the procedure. Patients' behavior, sedation status, and wake up behavior were evaluated with modified observer assessment of alertness and sedation scale. Ease of treatment completion was evaluated according to Houpt scale. Hemodynamic changes were statistically insignificant in Group MK and Group DX. About 75% patients in Group MK were successfully sedated as compared to 53.9% Group DX and none of the patients in Group C. Ease of treatment completion was better with Group MK as compared to Group DX and least with Group C. Around 50% patients in Group MK had postoperative complications. Oral midazolam-ketamine combination and intranasal dexmedetomidine evaluated in the present study can be used safely and effectively in uncooperative pediatric dental patients for producing conscious sedation.

  6. Sedative Effects of Intranasal Midazolam Administration in Wild Caught Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) Parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Débora P H; de Araújo, Nayone L L C; Raposo, Ana Cláudia S; Filho, Emanoel F Martins; Vieira, João Victor R; Oriá, Arianne P

    2017-09-01

    Safe and effective sedation protocols are important for chemical restraint of birds in clinical and diagnostic procedures, such as clinical evaluations, radiographic positioning, and blood collection. These protocols may reduce stress and ease the management of wild-caught birds, which are susceptible to injury or death when exposed to stressful situations. We compare the sedative effect of intranasal midazolam in wild-caught blue-fronted (Amazona aestiva) and orange-winged (Amazona amazonica) Amazon parrots. Ten adult parrots of each species (n = 20), of unknown sex, weighing 0.337 ± 0.04 (blue-fronted) and 0.390 ± 0.03 kg (orange-winged), kg were used. Midazolam (2 mg/kg) was administered intranasally and the total volume of the drug was divided equally between the 2 nostrils. Onset time and total sedation time were assessed. Satisfactory sedation for clinical evaluation was induced in all birds. Onset time and total sedation times were similar in both species: 5.36 ± 1.16 and 25.40 ± 5.72 minutes, respectively, for blue-fronted Amazons and 5.09 ± 0.89 and 27.10 ± 3.73 minutes, respectively, for orange-winged Amazons. A total of 15 animals showed absence of vocalization, with moderate muscle relaxation and wing movement upon handling, and 2 animals presented with lateral recumbence, with intense muscle relaxation and no wing movement, requiring no restraint. Three blue-fronted Amazons had no effective sedation. Intranasally administered midazolam at a dose of 2 mg/kg effectively promoted sedative effects with a short latency time and fast recovery in wild-caught parrots.

  7. Effect of intranasal dexmedetomidine or oral midazolam premedication on sevoflurane EC50 for successful laryngeal mask airway placement in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savla, Jyothi R; Ghai, Babita; Bansal, Dipika; Wig, Jyotsna

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of oral midazolam (OM) or intranasal dexmedetomidine (IND) on the EC50 of sevoflurane for successful laryngeal mask airway placement in children. We hypothesize that premedication with either agent might reduce the sevoflurane EC50 for laryngeal mask airway placement in children to a similar extent. Fifty-two American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I children (aged 1-6 years) scheduled for general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway were randomized to one of the three groups: group M received 0.5 mg · kg(-1) OM with honey and intranasal saline, group D received 2 μg · kg(-1) IND along with oral honey, and group P received oral honey and intranasal saline at least 30 min prior to induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with incremental sevoflurane up to 8% in 100% O2 . A predetermined target endtidal sevoflurane (ETsevo ) concentration (2% in the first child of all three groups) was sustained for 10 min before the attempt of laryngeal mask airway insertion by adjusting dial concentration. No intravenous anesthetic or neuromuscular blockade was used. ETsevo was increased/decreased (step size 0.2%) using Dixon's and Massey's up and down method in next patient depending upon previous patient's response. Placement of the laryngeal mask airway without movement, coughing, biting, or bucking was considered as successful. EC50 of sevoflurane was calculated as the average of the crossover midpoints in each group, which was further confirmed by probit analysis. The EC50 of sevoflurane for laryngeal mask airway placement after OM (1.66 ± 0.31) and IND (1.57 ± 0.14) premedications was significantly lower than the placebo group (2.00 ± 0.17, P mask airway insertion in children by 17% and 21%, respectively. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ação do anticonvulsivante isolado e associado ao midazolam como medicação pré-anestésica sobre o índice bispectral (BIS em pacientes com paralisa cerebral Acción del antiepiléptico aislado y asociado al midazolam como medicación preanestésica sobre el índice bispectral (BIS en pacientes con parálisis cerebral Effect of isolated anticonvulsant drug use and associated to midazolam as pre-anesthetic medication on the bispectral index (BIS in patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os pacientes com paralisia cerebral (PC frequentemente usam fármacos para tratamento de doenças concomitantes, como convulsões. O midazolam é o hipnótico mais utilizado como medicação pré-anestésica e suas interações medicamentosas nos pacientes com PC são desconhecidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o midazolam como medicação pré-anestésica no BIS dos pacientes com PC em uso crônico de anticonvulsivantes. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados três grupos de pacientes: PC sem uso de anticonvulsivantes, PC em uso de anticonvulsivante e outro grupo sem doença e sem uso de medicações (Grupo Controle. Na véspera da cirurgia, com os pacientes despertos e em decúbito dorsal, foi colocado o monitor do BIS e foram registrados os valores basais do BIS. No dia seguinte, 40 minutos antes da cirurgia, os pacientes receberam 0,6 mg.kg-1 de midazolam por via oral. Antes do início da anestesia, foi realizado o mesmo procedimento para registro do BIS, após o uso do midazolam. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 107 pacientes - 39 pacientes do Grupo Controle e 68 com diagnóstico de PC. Desses, 17 faziam uso de anticonvulsivante. Com relação ao valor médio de BIS após o uso do midazolam, não houve diferença entres os pacientes do Grupo Controle e do Grupo PC que não tomavam anticonvulsivante, enquanto entre os pacientes que faziam uso de anticonvulsivantes houve diferença (p = 0,003. A possibilidade de diminuição do BIS após o uso do midazolam aumenta de acordo com o número de anticonvulsivantes usados pelo paciente. CONCLUSÕES: O uso crônico de anticonvulsivante associado ao midazolam via oral como medicação pré-anestésica pode levar à diminuição dos valores de BIS, configurando níveis profundos de hipnose.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Los pacientes con parálisis cerebral (PC, a menudo usan fármacos para el tratamiento de enfermedades concomitantes, como las convulsiones. El midazolam es el hipnótico m

  9. Efecto de la asociación de dexmedetomidina y midazolam sobre la concentración alveolar mínima de halotano e isoflurano en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Rioja García, Eva

    2004-01-01

    La dexmedetomidina, un agonista de los receptores adrenérgicos a2, y el midazolam, una benzodiacepina, presentan una interacción sinérgica en los efectos sedante y analgésico. El propósito del presente estudio consistió en evaluar la interacción existente entre estos dos fármacos en el efecto de reducción de la concentración alveolar mínima (CAM) de halotano y de isoflurano. Para ello se utilizaron un total de 56 ratas Wistar que fueron distribuidas de manera aleatoria en 8 grupos (N=7 ó 8), ...

  10. Intranasal Midazolam versus Rectal Diazepam for the Management of Canine Status Epilepticus: A Multicenter Randomized Parallel-Group Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, M; Bhatti, S F M; Van Ham, L; Platt, S; Jeffery, N D; Tipold, A; Siedenburg, J; Volk, H A; Hasegawa, D; Gallucci, A; Gandini, G; Musteata, M; Ives, E; Vanhaesebrouck, A E

    2017-07-01

    Intranasal administration of benzodiazepines has shown superiority over rectal administration for terminating emergency epileptic seizures in human trials. No such clinical trials have been performed in dogs. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intranasal midazolam (IN-MDZ), via a mucosal atomization device, as a first-line management option for canine status epilepticus and compare it to rectal administration of diazepam (R-DZP) for controlling status epilepticus before intravenous access is available. Client-owned dogs with idiopathic or structural epilepsy manifesting status epilepticus within a hospital environment were used. Dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with IN-MDZ (n = 20) or R-DZP (n = 15). Randomized parallel-group clinical trial. Seizure cessation time and adverse effects were recorded. For each dog, treatment was considered successful if the seizure ceased within 5 minutes and did not recur within 10 minutes after administration. The 95% confidence interval was used to detect the true population of dogs that were successfully treated. The Fisher's 2-tailed exact test was used to compare the 2 groups, and the results were considered statistically significant if P < .05. IN-MDZ and R-DZP terminated status epilepticus in 70% (14/20) and 20% (3/15) of cases, respectively (P = .0059). All dogs showed sedation and ataxia. IN-MDZ is a quick, safe and effective first-line medication for controlling status epilepticus in dogs and appears superior to R-DZP. IN-MDZ might be a valuable treatment option when intravenous access is not available and for treatment of status epilepticus in dogs at home. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. A single exposure to a sublethal pediocin concentration initiates a resistance-associated temporal cell envelope and general stress response in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause the potentially fatal food-borne disease listeriosis, and the use of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria to control L. monocytogenes holds great promise. However, development of bacteriocin resistance is a potential challenge and the purpose of this study...... was to determine if exposure to sublethal concentrations of pediocin-containing Lactobacillus plantarum WHE 92 supernatant could prime L. monocytogenes for resistance. By transcriptomic analysis, we found two, 55 and 539 genes differentially expressed after 10, 60 and 180 min of exposure to L. plantarum WHE 92...... supernatant as compared to control exposures. We observed temporal expression changes in genes regulated by the two component system LisRK and the alternative sigma factors SigB and SigL. Additionally, several genes involved in bacteriocin resistance were induced. ΔlisR, ΔsigB and ΔsigL mutants were all more...

  12. Minimal dose of milk protein concentrate to enhance the anabolic signalling response to a single bout of resistance exercise; a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Zeng, Nina; D'Souza, Randall F; Mitchell, Sarah M; Aasen, Kirsten; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2017-01-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to induce muscle hypertrophy. Supplemental protein intake is known to enhance gains in muscle mass through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which initiates protein translation. While the optimal dose of high quality protein to promote post exercise anabolism in young or older men has been investigated, little is known about the minimum doses of protein required to potentiate the resistance exercise activation of anabolic signalling in middle aged men. Twenty healthy men (46.3 ± 5.7 years, BMI: 23.9 ± 6.6 kg/m 2 ) completed a single bout of unilateral resistance exercise consisting of 4 sets of leg extension and press at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Participants were randomised to consume either formulated milk product containing 9 g milk protein (FMP) or an isoenergetic carbohydrate placebo (CHO) immediately post exercise, in a double blind fashion. A single muscle biopsy was collected at pre-exercise baseline and then bilateral biopsies were collected 90 and 240 min after beverage consumption. P70S6K Thr389 phosphorylation was increased with exercise irrespective of group, P70S6K Thr421/Ser424 was increased with exercise only in the FMP group at 240 min. Likewise, rpS6 Ser235/236 phosphorylation was increased with exercise irrespective of group, rpS6 Ser240/244 increased to a greater extent following exercise in the FMP group. mRNA expression of the amino acid transporter, LAT1/ SLC7A5 increased with both exercise and beverage consumption irrespective of group. PAT1/ SLC36A1 , CAT1/ SLC7A1 and SNAT2/ SLC38A2 mRNA increased only after exercise regardless of group. Nine grams of milk protein is sufficient to augment some measures of downstream mTORC1 signalling after resistance exercise but does not potentiate exercise induced increases in amino acid transporter expression. Formulated products containing nine grams of milk protein would be expected stimulate muscle

  13. Effect of Sludge Concentration and Crude Glycerol Matrix as a Substrate on the Production of Single-Cell Oil by Oleaginous Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SKY7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Ram

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess crude glycerol produced by the booming biodiesel industry and wastewater sludge solid waste has become a severe problem, and alternate routes of use and valorization of these waste byproducts are needed. The use of cheaply available wastewater sludge solids in fermentation media is very much desirable to reduce the cost of production. The strains of Yarrowia lipolytica can assimilate a wide array of waste substrates, such as crude glycerol, waste cooking oil, starch wastewater, and cellulosic. This study optimized the concentration of wastewater sludge solids (5–35 g/L to be used with crude glycerol in fermentation media to produce microbial oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. The results indicated that 20 g/L of sludge solids with 40 g/L of crude glycerol resulted in highest lipid content of 29.35% in 96 h. Further, assuming wet extraction of lipids, it was found that at least 11.2% or higher lipid content is required for this process to have an overall positive net solid waste reduction. Insignificant inhibition was observed by the crude glycerol used in this study as compared to pure glycerol, which proves it to be an adequate source of carbon substrate for lipid production.

  14. Vertical variability of aerosol single-scattering albedo and equivalent black carbon concentration based on in-situ and remote sensing techniques during the iAREA campaigns in Ny-Ålesund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, K. M.; Ritter, C.; Lisok, J.; Makuch, P.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Cappelletti, D.; Mazzola, M.; Chilinski, M. T.

    2017-09-01

    This work presents a methodology for obtaining vertical profiles of aerosol single scattering properties based on a combination of different measurement techniques. The presented data were obtained under the iAREA (Impact of absorbing aerosols on radiative forcing in the European Arctic) campaigns conducted in Ny-Ålesund (Spitsbergen) during the spring seasons of 2015-2017. The retrieval uses in-situ observations of black carbon concentration and absorption coefficient measured by a micro-aethalometer AE-51 mounted onboard a tethered balloon, as well as remote sensing data obtained from sun photometer and lidar measurements. From a combination of the balloon-borne in-situ and the lidar data, we derived profiles of single scattering albedo (SSA) as well as absorption, extinction, and aerosol number concentration. Results have been obtained in an altitude range from about 400 m up to 1600 m a.s.l. and for cases with increased aerosol load during the Arctic haze seasons of 2015 and 2016. The main results consist of the observation of increasing values of equivalent black carbon (EBC) and absorption coefficient with altitude, and the opposite trend for aerosol concentration for particles larger than 0.3 μm. SSA was retrieved with the use of lidar Raman and Klett algorithms for both 532 and 880 nm wavelengths. In most profiles, SSA shows relatively high temporal and altitude variability. Vertical variability of SSA computed from both methods is consistent; however, some discrepancy is related to Raman retrieval uncertainty and absorption coefficient estimation from AE-51. Typically, very low EBC concentration in Ny-Ålesund leads to large error in the absorbing coefficient. However, SSA uncertainty for both Raman and Klett algorithms seems to be reasonable, e.g. SSA of 0.98 and 0.95 relate to an error of ±0.01 and ± 0.025, respectively.

  15. Electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: evaluation of sedation safety with midazolam by means of EtCO₂ and IPI algorithm analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Paolo; Mantovan, Roberto

    2013-11-30

    For several years, the electrical external cardioversion (ECV) has entered into clinical practice without assistance of anesthesiology team. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sedation with midazolam in patients undergoing electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) by means of the evaluation of capnometry and pulmonary integrated index (IPI) using the Oridion Capnostream 20. We studied 45 consecutive patients (pts) who underwent ECV of AF sedated with midazolam at mean dose of 5mg bolus followed by another 5mg in 2 minutes (min). Maximum dosage was 11 mg (average 8 ± 2 mg). After cardioversion we infused Anexate 0.5mg bolus followed by 0.5mg in 30 min. All pts were monitored with blood pressure, O2 saturation, cardiac frequency and capnometers. EtCO2 value at baseline was 37.14 ± 2.7, 35.02 ± 1.7 after induction of sedation and 36.59 ± 1.2 after awaking (pIPI index was 9.58 ± 0.5 at basal 8.09 ± 0.63 at induction time and 9.02 ± 0.5 after awaking (pIPI index. © 2013.

  16. Propofol and midazolam inhibit conscious memory processes very soon after encoding: an event-related potential study of familiarity and recollection in volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselis, Robert A; Pryor, Kane O; Reinsel, Ruth A; Li, Yuelin; Mehta, Meghana; Johnson, Ray

    2009-02-01

    Intravenous drugs active via gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors to produce memory impairment during conscious sedation. Memory function was assessed using event-related potentials (ERPs) while drug was present. The continuous recognition task measured recognition of photographs from working (6 s) and long-term (27 s) memory while ERPs were recorded from Cz (familiarity recognition) and Pz electrodes (recollection recognition). Volunteer participants received sequential doses of one of placebo (n = 11), 0.45 and 0.9 microg/ml propofol (n = 10), 20 and 40 ng/ml midazolam (n = 12), 1.5 and 3 microg/ml thiopental (n = 11), or 0.25 and 0.4 ng/ml dexmedetomidine (n = 11). End-of-day yes/no recognition 225 min after the end of drug infusion tested memory retention of pictures encoded on the continuous recognition tasks. Active drugs increased reaction times and impaired memory on the continuous recognition task equally, except for a greater effect of midazolam (P memory for familiarity (P = 0.03) and possibly for recollection processes (P = 0.12). Propofol shifted ERP amplitudes to smaller voltages (P memory but not working memory. ERP measures of memory revealed different pathways to end-of-day memory loss as early as 27 s after encoding.

  17. Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate improves thrombin generation and prothrombin time in patients with bleeding complications related to rivaroxaban: a single-center pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Bettina; Goerke, Stephanie; Beer, Ronny; Helbok, Raimund; Fries, Dietmar; Bachler, Mirjam

    2018-01-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) pose a great challenge for physicians in life-threatening bleeding events. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of reversing the DOAC rivaroxaban using four-factor PCC (prothrombin complex concentrate), a non-specific reversing agent. Patients with life-threatening bleeding events during rivaroxaban treatment were included and administered 25 U kg -1 of PCC. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to as well as after PCC treatment at predefined time intervals. The primary endpoint was defined as the difference in thrombin generation (TG) parameters ETP (endogenous thrombin potential) and C max (peak thrombin generation) prior to and ten minutes subsequent to PCC treatment. Thirteen patients, of whom the majority suffered from intra-cranial haemorrhage (ICH) or subdural haemorrhage (SDH), were included and administered PCC. The results show that the ETP (TG) significantly ( p  = 0.001) improved by 68% and C max (TG) by 54% (p = 0.001) during PCC treatment. In addition, the Quick value (prothrombin time: Quick PT ) significantly improved by 28% and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was decreased by 7% ten minutes after PCC administration. C max was reduced at baseline, but not ETP, aPTT or Quick PT . Lag time until initiation (TG, t lag ), thromboelastometry clotting time (CT EXTEM ) and time to peak (TG, t max ) correlated best with measured rivaroxaban levels and were out of normal ranges at baseline, but did not improve after PCC administration. In 77% of the patients bleeding (ICH/SDH-progression) ceased following PCC administration. During the study three participants passed away due to other complications not related to PCC treatment. The possibility of thrombosis formation was also evaluated seven days after administering PCC and no thromboses were found. This study shows that use of PCC improved ETP, C max, Quick PT and aPTT. However, of these parameters, only C max was reduced at the

  18. Prehospital Agitation and Sedation Trial (PhAST): A Randomized Control Trial of Intramuscular Haloperidol versus Intramuscular Midazolam for the Sedation of the Agitated or Violent Patient in the Prehospital Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Derek L; Jacobs, Dorian

    2015-10-01

    Violent patients in the prehospital environment pose a threat to health care workers tasked with managing their medical conditions. While research has focused on methods to control the agitated patient in the emergency department (ED), there is a paucity of data looking at the optimal approach to subdue these patients safely in the prehospital setting. Hypothesis This study evaluated the efficacy of two different intramuscular medications, midazolam and haloperidol, to determine their efficacy in sedating agitated patients in the prehospital setting. This was a prospective, randomized, observational trial wherein agitated patients were administered intramuscular haloperidol or intramuscular midazolam to control agitation. Agitation was quantified by the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS). Paramedics recorded the RASS and vital signs every five minutes during transport and again upon arrival to the ED. The primary outcome was mean time to achieve a RASS less than +1. Secondary outcomes included mean time for patients to return to baseline mental status and adverse events. Five patients were enrolled in each study group. In the haloperidol group, the mean time to achieve a RASS score of less than +1 was 24.8 minutes (95% CI, 8-49 minutes), and the mean time for the return of a normal mental status was 84 minutes (95% CI, 0-202 minutes). Two patients required additional prehospital doses for adequate sedation. There were no adverse events recorded in the patients administered haloperidol. In the midazolam group, the mean time to achieve a RASS score of less than +1 was 13.5 minutes (95% CI, 8-19 minutes) and the mean time for the return of normal mental status was 105 minutes (95% CI, 0-178 minutes). One patient required additional sedation in the ED. There were no adverse events recorded among the patients administered midazolam. Midazolam and haloperidol administered intramuscularly appear equally effective for sedating an agitated patient in the

  19. A novel self-micro-emulsifying delivery system (SMEDS) formulation significantly improves the fasting absorption of EPA and DHA from a single dose of an omega-3 ethyl ester concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Nyheim, Hilde; Haram, Else Marie; Moritz, Joseph M; Hustvedt, Svein Olaf

    2017-10-16

    Absorption of EPA and DHA from Omega-3-acid ethyl ester (EE) concentrate supplements occurs most efficiently when taken in context of a fatty meal; adequate fat intake is required to release bile salts that emulsify and pancreatic enzymes that digest omega-3-containing lipids in the intestine. Current guidelines recommend reduction in fat intake and therefore there is a need to optimize the absorption of Omega-3 in those consuming low-fat or no-fat meals. To this end, BASF has developed an Absorption Acceleration Technology, a novel self-micro-emulsifying delivery system (SMEDS) formulation of highly concentrated Omega-3-acid EE which enables rapid emulsification and microdroplet formation upon entering the aqueous environment of the gut therefore enhances the absorption. Two separate single dose, crossover studies were conducted to determine the relative bioavailability of omega-3-acid EE concentrate, either as a novel SMEDS formulation (PRF-021) or as control, in healthy fasted male and female adults at two dose levels (Study 1 "low dose": 630 mg EPA + DHA in PRF-021 vs. 840 mg EPA + DHA in control; Study 2 "high dose": 1680 mg EPA + DHA in PRF-021 vs. 3360 mg EPA + DHA in control). Blood samples were collected immediately before supplementation and at defined time intervals for 48 h. Plasma concentration of total EPA and DHA were determined for pharmacokinetic analysis, area under the curve (AUC) and maximum observed concentration (C max ) was determined. Total EPA plus DHA absorption from SMEDS formulation PRF-021 were 6.4 and 11.5 times higher compared to control in low- and high-dose studies respectively, determined as the ratio of baseline corrected, dose normalized AUC 0-24h of PRF-021 over that of control. EPA and DHA individually showed differing levels of enhancement: the AUC 0-24h ratio for EPA was 23.8 and 25.7 in low and high dose studies, respectively, and the AUC 0-24h ratio for DHA was 3.6 and 5.6 in low and high dose studies

  20. Rapid tranquilization for agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms: a randomized trial of olanzapine, ziprasidone, haloperidol plus promethazine, haloperidol plus midazolam and haloperidol alone Tranquilização rápida para pacientes agitados nos serviços de emergência psiquiátrica: um ensaio clínico randomisado de olanzapina, ziprasidona, haloperidol mais prometazina, haloperidol mais midazolam e haloperidol em monoterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Baldaçara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of intramuscular olanzapine, ziprasidone, haloperidol plus promethazine, haloperidol plus midazolam and haloperidol alone as the first medication(s used to treat patients with agitation and aggressive behavior. METHOD: One hundred fifty patients with agitation caused by psychotic or bipolar disorder were randomly assigned under double-blind conditions to receive olanzapine, ziprasidone, haloperidol plus midazolam, haloperidol plus promethazine or haloperidol alone. The Overt Agitation Severity Scale, Overt Aggression Scale and Ramsay Sedation Scale were applied within 12 hours after the first dosage. RESULTS: All medications produced a calming effect within one hour of administration, but only olanzapine and haloperidol reduced agitation by less than 10 points, and only olanzapine reduced aggression by less than four points in the first hour. After twelve hours, only patients treated with haloperidol plus midazolam had high levels of agitation and aggression and also more side effects. Ziprasidone, olanzapine and haloperidol alone had more stable results for agitation control, while ziprasidone, haloperidol plus promethazine and olanzapine had stable results for aggression control. CONCLUSION: Olanzapine, ziprasidone, haloperidol plus promethazine, haloperidol plus midazolam and haloperidol were effective in controlling agitation and aggression caused by mental illness over 12 hours. Although all the drugs had advantages and disadvantages, haloperidol plus midazolam was associated with the worst results in all the observed parameters.OBJETIVO: Comparar a eficácia da olanzapina, ziprasidona, haloperidol associado ao midazolam, haloperidol associado à prometazina e haloperidol isoladamente por via intramuscular como primeira escolha no tratamento de pacientes em agitação e agressividade. MÉTODO: Cento e cinquenta pacientes com agitação psicomotora por transtorno psicótico ou transtorno bipolar foram

  1. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  2. Concentrations in plasma, epithelial lining fluid, alveolar macrophages and bronchial mucosa after a single intravenous dose of 1.6 mg/kg of iclaprim (AR-100) in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Honeybourne, D; Ashby, J; Jevons, G; Fraise, A; Fry, P; Warrington, S; Hawser, S; Wise, R

    2007-09-01

    A validated microbiological assay was used to measure concentrations of iclaprim (AR-100) in plasma, bronchial mucosa (BM), alveolar macrophages (AM) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) after a single 1.6 mg/kg intravenous 60 min iv infusion of iclaprim. Male volunteers were randomly allocated to three nominal sampling time intervals 1-2 h (Group A), 3-4 h (Group B) and 5.5-7.0 h (Group C) after the start of the drug infusion. Mean iclaprim concentrations in plasma, BM, AM and ELF, respectively, were for Group A 0.59 mg/L (SD 0.18), 0.51 mg/kg (SD 0.17), 24.51 mg/L (SD 21.22) and 12.61 mg/L (SD 7.33); Group B 0.24 mg/L (SD 0.05), 0.35 mg/kg (SD 0.17), 7.16 mg/L (SD 1.91) and 6.38 mg/L (SD 5.17); and Group C 0.14 mg/L (SD 0.05), no detectable level in BM, 5.28 mg/L (SD 2.30) and 2.66 mg/L (SD 2.08). Iclaprim concentrations in ELF and AM exceeded the MIC(90) for penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 0.06 mg/L), penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (MIC90 2 mg/L), penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (MIC90 4 mg/L) for 7, 7 and 4 h, respectively, and Chlamydia pneumoniae (MIC90 0.5 mg/L) for 7 h. Mean iclaprim concentrations in ELF exceeded the MIC90 for Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90 4 mg/L) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90 8 mg/L) for up to 4 and 2 h, respectively; in AM the MIC90 was exceeded for up to 7 h. Furthermore, the MIC90 for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of 0.12 mg/L was exceeded at all sites for up to 7 h. These data suggest that iclaprim reaches lung concentrations that should be effective in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

  3. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  4. Effects of single and combined cell treatments based on low pH and high concentrations of ethanol on the growth and fermentation of Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; da Silva, Jéssica Carolina Gomes; Reis, Vanda Renata; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina

    2013-09-01

    The alcoholic fermentation in Brazil displays some peculiarities because the yeast used is recycled in a non-aseptic process. After centrifugation, the cells are treated with acid to control the bacterial growth. However, it is difficult to manage the indigenous yeasts without affecting the main culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work evaluated how the cell treatment could be modified to combat contaminant yeasts based on the differential sensitivities to low pH and high concentrations of ethanol displayed by an industrial strain of S. cerevisiae and three strains of Dekkera bruxellensis, which are common contaminant yeasts in Brazilian fermentation processes. The tests were initially performed in rich medium with a low pH or a high concentration of ethanol to analyse the yeast growth profile. Then, the single and combined effects of low pH and ethanol concentration on the yeast cell viability were evaluated under non-proliferative conditions. The effects on the fermentation parameters were also verified. S. cerevisiae grew best when not subjected to the stresses, but this yeast and D. bruxellensis had similar growth kinetics when exposed to a low pH or increased ethanol concentrations. However, the combined treatments of low pH (2.0) and ethanol (11 or 13 %) resulted in a decrease of D. bruxellensis cell viability almost three times higher than of S. cerevisiae, which was only slightly affected by all cell treatments. The initial viability of the treated cells was restored within 8 h of growth in sugar cane juice, with the exception of the combined treatment for D. bruxellensis. The ethanol-based cell treatment, in despite of slowing the fermentation, could decrease and maintain D. bruxellensis population under control while S. cerevisiae was taking over the fermentation along six fermentative cycles. These results indicate that it may be possible to control the growth of D. bruxellensis without major effects on S. cerevisiae. The cells could be treated

  5. A dose titration study into the effects of diazepam or midazolam on the propofol dose requirements for induction of general anaesthesia in client owned dogs, premedicated with methadone and acepromazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rebecca; Borer-Weir, Kate

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effect of a benzodiazepine co-induction on propofol dose requirement for induction of anaesthesia in healthy dogs, to describe any differences between midazolam and diazepam and to determine an optimal benzodiazepine dose for co-induction. Prospective, randomised, blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. Ninety client owned dogs (ASA I-III, median body mass 21.5kg (IQR 10-33)) presented for anaesthesia for a variety of procedures. Dogs were randomised to receive saline 0.1 mL kg(-1) , midazolam or diazepam at 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 or 0.5 mg kg(-1) . All dogs received 0.01 mg kg(-1) acepromazine and 0.2 mg kg(-1) methadone intravenously (IV). Fifteen minutes later, sedation was assessed and scored prior to anaesthetic induction. Propofol, 1 mg kg(-1) , was administered IV, followed by the treatment drug. Further propofol was administered until endotracheal intubation was possible. Recorded data included patient signalment, sedation score, propofol dosage and any adverse reactions. Midazolam (all groups combined) significantly reduced propofol dose requirement compared to saline (p diazepam (p = 0.008). Midazolam (0.4 mg kg(-1) ) significantly reduced propofol dose requirement (p = 0.014) compared to saline, however other doses failed to reach statistical significance. Diazepam did not significantly reduce propofol dose requirement compared to saline (p = 0.089). Dogs weighing 40 kg (p = 0.008). Dogs which were profoundly sedated required less propofol than those which were mildly sedated (p diazepam did not have significant propofol dose sparing effects. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  6. Continuous infusion in adult females dogs submitted to ovariohysterectomy with midazolam-xylazine and/or medetomidine pre-treated with methotrimeprazine and buprenorphine Infusão continua em cães fêmeas submetidas à ovariohisterectomia com midazolam/cetamina/xilazina e/ou medetomidina pré-tratadas com levomepromazina e buprenorfina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando do Carmo Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare, by continuous infusion of ketamine or medetomidine combined to methotrimeprazine and buprenorphine, ketamine and midazolam, the degree of hypnosis, myorelaxation, anesthetic quality and surgical feasibility through evaluation of possible parametric alterations and recovery quality. METHODS: 20 healthy adult females dogs, aged 3 to 5 years, body weight between 7 and 15 kg, were assigned randomly and homogenously to 2 groups of 10 animals each (n=10, group 1 (G1 and group 2 (G2, respectively. Animals of G1 were subjected to a pre-treatment with intravenous 1.0 mg/kg methotrimeprazine and or 3ì/kg. After 15 minutes, a 5.0 mg/kg ketamine and 0.2 mg/kg midazolam were intravenously injected. Immediately after induction, an anesthetic combination of 0.4 mg/kg/h midazolam, 20 mg/kg/h ketamine and 1.0 mg/kg/h xylazine, was continuously and intravenously administered for 30 minutes. The same techniques were used in G2 except for the substitution of xylazine for 30ìg/kg/h medetomidine. RESULTS: In G1 there was a 1st and 2nd degree atrioventricular heart block, a longer recovery period and lower quality. In G2 a 1st degree atrioventricular heart block occurred but isolated and ephemeral. CONCLUSIONS: The continuous infusion method, besides reducing drugs utilization, prevented collateral effects allowing a more tranquil recovery with no excitations, both protocols permitted the surgical procedure (ovary-hysterectomy bringing about a reduction in hypnosis and an accentuated myorelaxation. Xylazine and medetomidine showed a similar pharmacodynamic behavior but with different clinical aspects. The electrocardiographic alterations observed in G2 and in a lower degree in G1 must be well studied. Describers: dogs, ketamine, methotrimeprazine, medetomidine, midazolam and xylazine.OBJETIVO: Comparar através de infusão contínua de xilazina ou medetomidina associada à metotrimeprazina e buprenorfina, cetamina e midazolam, o grau de hipnose

  7. The interaction of hyperthermophilic TATA-box binding protein with single-stranded DNA is entropically favorable and exhibits a large negative heat capacity change at high salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatoishi, Satoru; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Kudou, Motonori; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2009-09-01

    We have investigated the thermodynamics of the interaction between the TATA-box-binding protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhoTBP) and its target DNA (TATA-1). The interaction between PhoTBP and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is entropically favorable and enthalpically unfavorable. The thermodynamic parameters for TATA-1 duplex formation in the presence of PhoTBP, that is, ternary PhoTBP-dsDNA complexation, are similar to those for TATA-1 duplex formation, which is enthalpically favorable. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that the interaction between PhoTBP and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) of TATA-1 is entropy driven and has a large negative heat capacity change (-1.19 kcal mol(-1) K(-1)) at high salt concentration (800 mM NaCl). These results suggest that the favorable entropic effect corresponding to the interaction between PhoTBP and dsDNA is due not to ternary complexation but to the interaction between PhoTBP and ssDNA. This report is the first to describe the thermodynamics of the interaction between TBP and ssDNA.

  8. A 5-day method for determination of soluble silicon concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer materials using a sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dennis; Rodrigues, Hugh; Kinsey, Charles; Korndörfer, Gaspar; Pereira, Hamilton; Buck, Guilherme; Datnoff, Lawrence; Miranda, Stephen; Provance-Bowley, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A 5-day method for determining the soluble silicon (Si) concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer products was developed using a sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)-ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis at 660 nm. The 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method can be applied to quantify the plant-available Si in solid fertilizer products at levels ranging from 0.2 to 8.4% Si with an LOD of 0.06%, and LOQ of 0.20%. This Si extraction method for fertilizers correlates well with plant uptake of Si (r2 = 0.96 for a range of solid fertilizers) and is applicable to solid Si fertilizer products including blended products and beneficial substances. Fertilizer materials can be processed as received using commercially available laboratory chemicals and materials at ambient laboratory temperatures. The single-laboratory validation of the 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method has been approved by The Association of American Plant Food Control Officials for testing nonliquid Si fertilizer products.

  9. Parametria da associação do midazolam ou diazepam em cães pré-tratados pela atropina e tratados pela dexmedetomidina e quetamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatschbach Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Em Anestesiologia Veterinária, busca-se continuamente a contenção farmacológica para estabelecer tratamentos, cruentos ou não, permitindo manipulações seguras e duradouras, dispensando a anestesia geral sem alterar, sobremaneira, os parâmetros fisiológicos. Visou-se empregar a dexmedetomidina em associação com a quetamina e o midazolam ou diazepam. A técnica anestésica foi aplicada em 30 cães hígidos, machos ou fêmeas, com pesos de 10 a 15kg e idades de 2 a 4 anos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos (GI, GII, GIII. O grupo I recebeu um pré-tratamento de atropina (0,044mg kg-1 SC, e após 15 minutos, a dexmedetomidina (3mg kg-1 IV, em dose única, aplicada durante dois minutos e uma dose de manutenção de dexmedetomidina (3mg kg h-1 juntamente com a quetamina (2mg kgh-1, completando-se para 20ml de solução fisiológica para infusão contínua, perfazendo uma hora de aplicação. O grupo II recebeu o mesmo tratamento de GI, entretanto, recebeu juntamente com a dexmedetomidina, o midazolam (0,2mg kg-1 IV durante os dois minutos e outra dose, de 0,2mg kg h-1 junto com a dose de manutenção da dexmedetomidina e quetamina. O grupo III recebeu o mesmo tratamento de GII só que ao invés do midazolam, foi usado o diazepam (0,5mg kg-1 IV como dose de indução e 0,5mg kg h-1 junto com a dose de manutenção. Foi avaliado o efeito das benzodiazepinas frente à associação anestésica, além dos parâmetros respiratórios, oxicapnométricos, índice bispectral e período de recuperação. Após o término da colheita, a avaliação estatística foi efetuada por meio de Análise de Perfil. A partir dos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a associação dos benzodiazepínicos promoveu sinergismo na sedação e miorrelaxamento, além de estabilidade cardiorrespiratória após pré-tratamento com atropina, sendo de grande valia como contenção farmacológica.

  10. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  11. Haemodynamic changes to a midazolam-fentanyl-rocuronium protocol for pre-hospital anaesthesia following return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M; Groombridge, C J; Lyon, R

    2017-05-01

    Following the return of spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, neurological dysfunction, airway or ventilatory compromise can impede transport to early percutaneous coronary intervention, necessitating pre-hospital or emergency department anaesthesia to facilitate this procedure. There are no published reports of the ideal induction agents in these patients. We sought to describe haemodynamic changes associated with induction of anaesthesia using a midazolam (0.1 mg.kg -1 ), fentanyl (2 μg.kg -1 ) and rocuronium (1 mg.kg -1 ) regimen developed using expert opinion, and adherence to the protocol by our pre-hospital teams. We performed a retrospective review of haemodynamic data recorded during induction of anaesthesia in patients following return of spontaneous circulation, over a 30-month period. We analysed the changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate using a repeated-measures design, as well as the rate of new hypotension or hypertension. Sixty-four patients had four consecutive measurements for analysis (one pre-induction and three post-induction). Systolic blood pressure at all three post-induction measurements was significantly lower than the pre-induction value. Heart rate did not differ between any time-points. New episodes of hypotension (systolic pressure < 90 mmHg) occurred in four (6%) patients at the first measurement post-induction (95%CI 2-15%) and 10 (16%) at the third measurement (95%CI 8-27%). Three patients (5%; 95%CI 1-13%) had a hypertensive response. The median (IQR[range]) dose of midazolam given at induction was 0.04 (0.03-0.05 [0.01 to 0.10]) mg.kg -1 . Adherence to recommended fentanyl and rocuronium doses was high. Overall, systolic blood pressure was reduced following induction of anaesthesia, and systolic pressures < 90 mmHg occurred more often at measurements made later (up to 9 min) after induction. Changes in heart rate, and new hypertension were uncommon. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of

  12. Comparison of oral dexmedetomidine and midazolam for premedication and emergence delirium in children after dental procedures under general anesthesia: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keles S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sultan Keles,1 Ozlem Kocaturk2 1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey Background: Premedication is the most common way to minimize distress in children entering the operating room and to facilitate the smooth induction of anesthesia and is accomplished using various sedative drugs before the children are being transferred to the operating room. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of oral dexmedetomidine (DEX and oral midazolam (MID on preoperative cooperation and emergence delirium (ED among children who underwent dental procedures at our hospital between 2016 and 2017.Patients and methods: The medical records of 52 children, who were American Society of Anesthesiologists I, aged between 3 and 7 years, and who underwent full-mouth dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia (GA, were evaluated. Twenty-six patients were given 2 µg/kg of DEX, while another 26 patients were given 0.5 mg/kg of MID in apple juice as premedication agents. The patients’ scores on the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS, Parental Separation Anxiety Scale (PSAS, Mask Acceptance Scale, Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale (PAEDS, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded from patients’ files. The level of sedation of children had been observed just before premedication and at 15, 30, and 45 min after premedication. The data were analyzed using a chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Student’s t-test, and analysis of variance in SPSS.Results: The Mask Acceptance Scale and PSAS scores and RSS scores at 15, 30, and 45 min after premedication were not statistically different (p>0.05 in both groups, whereas the PAEDS scores were significantly lower in the DEX group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Oral DEX provided satisfactory sedation levels, ease of parental

  13. Computer designed solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliman, O.; Daut, I.; Lim, C.S.; Isa, M.; Adzman, M.R. [Kolej Univ. Kejuruteraan Utara Malaysia, Perlis (Malaysia). School of Electrical System Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A new method of sun tracking has been proposed and demonstrated at the University of Technology Malaysia. The heliostat not only tracks the sun but also concentrates all of the sun images from its mirrors into a single image at a stationary target. Because of this, the target image can be made small enough so that a relatively small concentrator or receiver is required to collect the solar energy. A single cylinder, beta type Stirling engine has been built to work with this heliostat as a whole system. This paper discussed the computer designed optical concentrator, that was providing efficient solar energy transfer to a Stirling engine. The paper discussed the development of a prototype optical concentrator. The computer-simulated characteristics of the receiver as well as the experimental data of its performance were presented. It was concluded that coupling with a non-imaging focusing heliostat, the prototype optical concentrator was successful in running a small scale Stirling engine. The contribution of the optical concentrator to heliostat application was encouraging. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  14. Comparative bioavailability of ferrous succinate tablet formulations without correction for baseline circadian changes in iron concentration in healthy Chinese male subjects: a single-dose, randomized, 2-period crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guo-Ying; Li, Ke-Xin; Jin, Peng-Fei; Yue, Xiang-Yang; Yang, Chen; Hu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Ferrous succinate is used for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Determining the bioavailability of iron products is a challenge, because iron is naturally present in the blood and some tissues. Therefore, bioequivalence evaluation of ferrous formulations can be affected by the presence of endogenous iron species. Little information regarding the pharmacokinetics of ferrous supplements is available in the healthy Chinese population. The aim of the study was to assess the comparative bioavailability of 200-mg of a test (ferrous succinate,100 mg × 2, Hunan Huana Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Hunan, China) and reference (Sulifei, 100 mg × 2, Nanjing Jinling Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nanjing, China) formulation in healthy Chinese male subjects. The study was conducted to meet Chinese State Food and Drug Administration regulatory requirements for approval of a generic formulation of ferrous succinate. This study utilized a single-dose randomized, 2-period, crossover design with alternate assignment of subjects to treatment (a single 200-mg [100 mg × 2]) or reference formulation groups. Both groups underwent a 4-day diet equilibration before 2 days of treatment and, finally, a 4-day washout period for the bioequivalence study. Blood samples were collected at 8:00 am on every diet equilibration day, 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 hours after drug administration. Iron concentrations were determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Subjects in both groups were given a standardized diet, with known amounts of iron and calories. The formulations were assumed to be bioequivalent if the 90% CI ratios for C(max) were within 70% to 143% and AUC(0-last) were within 80% to 125%-criteria established by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration. Tolerability was monitored throughout the study by assessing clinical parameters (vital signs, chemistry laboratory) and subject reports. Twenty healthy Han Chinese male subjects (mean age, 26

  15. KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE AND KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE-MIDAZOLAM ANESTHESIA IN CAPTIVE CHEETAHS (ACINONYX JUBATUS)-COMPARISON OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND KIDNEY BLOOD FLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagegaard, Julia; Hørlyck, Arne; Hydeskov, Helle B; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2017-06-01

    Six clinically healthy captive cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) were anesthetized twice using two different drug combinations to investigate if blood pressure and kidney blood flow are affected by medetomidine dosage. Protocol KM (2.0 mg/kg ketamine and 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine) was compared with protocol KMM (2.0 mg/kg ketamine, 0.02 mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.1 mg/kg midazolam). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), body temperature, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (ETCO 2 ), and anesthetic depth were monitored every 10 min. Noninvasive mean (MAP), systolic (SAP), and diastolic (DAP) arterial blood pressure were measured, and Duplex Doppler ultrasonography was performed on the kidneys. The mean arterial resistive index (RI) was determined and the pulse pressure index (PPI) was calculated, as indicators for kidney blood flow. There were no significant differences in induction and recovery times. MAP was significantly higher with KM than KMM at 35 min, and in both protocols decreased significantly after atipamezole administration. DAP was significantly higher at 25 and 35 min in animals anesthetized with KM; it also decreased significantly with both protocols after atipamezole administration. The PPI was significantly lower throughout the procedure with KM, and with both protocols increased significantly after atipamezole administration. Both the higher blood pressure and the reduced PPI with KM were likely a direct effect of the higher medetomidine dosage, and these findings indicate that lower medetomidine dosages might reduce hypertension and lead to a better PPI in cheetah immobilization.

  16. Cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine or midazolam in combination with ketamine or tiletamine / zolazepam for the immobilisation of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Stegmann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus scheduled for either general health examination or dental surgery were immobilised with combinations of medetomidine-ketamine (K/DET, n = 19, midazolam-ketamine (K/MID, n = 4 or medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam (Z/DET, n=5. Induction time and arterial blood pressure was not statistically significantly (P > 0.05 different between treatment groups. Transient seizures were observed in the K/DET treated animals during induction. Hypertension was present in all groups during anaesthesia with mean(+SD systolic pressure of 30.7+5.0 kPa for the K/DET group, 27.7+ 2.7 kPa for the K/MID group, and 33.1+4.6 kPa for the Z/DET group. Heart rate was statistically significantly (P < 0.05 lower in the K/DET group (69 + 13.2 beats/min compared to the K/MID group (97 + 22.6 beats/min, and ventilation rate was statistically significantly (P < 0.05 lower in the K/MID group (15 + 0.0 breaths/min compared with the K/DET group (21+4.6. A metabolic acidosis and hypoxia were observed during anaesthesia when breathing air. Oxygen (O2 administration resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.05 increase in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (hypercapnoea, arterial partial pressure of O2, and % oxyhaemoglobin saturation.

  17. A comparison of the effect of two doses of oral melatonin with oral midazolam and placebo on pre-operative anxiety, cognition and psychomotor function in children: A randomised double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Melatonin (MT, a naturally occurring pituitary hormone has a sleep promoting effect. There are very few studies on pre-operative oral MT (0.2-0.5 mg/kg in children. We planned a study to assess the efficacy of oral MT in two doses and compare it with oral midazolam and placebo for pre-operative anxiolysis, sedation, maintenance of cognition and psychomotor skills, parental separation behaviour and venepuncture compliance. Methods: This prospective double-blind randomised study was conducted after ethical committee approval on 100 children aged 5-15 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective surgery at our hospital from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Mentally disordered children were excluded from the study. They were randomised into four groups of 25 each (A, B, C, D to receive either oral MT 0.5 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg or oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg or placebo 45-60 min, respectively, before induction. The child′s anxiety, cognition and psychomotor function before and after pre-medication, behaviour during the parental separation and venepuncture were appropriately scored. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance for intergroup and Wilcoxon matched pairs tests for intragroup comparisons of data were applied. Results: The four groups were comparable regarding mean age, weight and sex. The anxiety score reductions in the three groups when compared to placebo were statistically significant. Children receiving MT 0.75 mg/kg had maximum anxiolysis and venepuncture compliance (P < 0.05. Cognition was decreased with maximum sedation, successful parental separation and psychomotor impairment in the midazolam group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Oral MT (0.5 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg in children decreases pre-operative anxiety without impairing cognitive and psychomotor functions, the 0.75 mg/kg dose being most effective.

  18. Efeitos sedativos da associação de Cetamina e Midazolam administrados pela via intranasal ou intramuscular em papagaio (Amazona aestiva e Amazona vinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda H. Bitencourt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A falta de protocolos de sedação seguros para uso em papagaios na literatura demonstra a necessidade de conhecer os anestésicos que são eficazes nestes animais. Devido a pouca massa muscular desta espécie, notou-se a necessidade de estudar outra via de administração, menos invasiva e dolorosa ao animal, como a via intranasal. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos sedativos e a viabilidade da administração intranasal, em comparação à via intramuscular, de 15mg/kg de Cetamina e 1mg/kg de Midazolam. Foram utilizados 14 papagaios das espécies Amazona aestiva e Amazona vinacea, de ambos os sexos, adultos, peso médio de 388,5±29,1g. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: intramuscular (IM, n=7 e intranasal (IN, n=7. No grupo intramuscular, a administração dos anestésicos foi realizada nos músculos peitorais, utilizando seringas de insulina e no grupo intranasal, com auxílio de uma micropipeta. Avaliou-se o período de latência, tempo de duração, qualidade de sedação, e o tempo de recuperação total. A média para o período de latência no grupo IM foi de 6,13±2,02 minutos e no grupo IN de 4,84±2,37 minutos. Já para o tempo de duração da sedação no grupo IM a média foi de 35,81±29,56 e no grupo IN de 24,52±14,83 minutos. Ambas as vias promoveram sedação adequada, pois a média do escore da qualidade de sedação obtida pelo grupo IM foi 2±1,5 e pelo grupo IN 1,28±1,1. O tempo de recuperação total no grupo IM foi de 27,04±11,69 e no grupo IN de 17,67±11,64 minutos. Apesar do grupo IN ter apresentado os menores tempos de período de latência, duração e de recuperação total e ter obtido melhor escore na qualidade de sedação, não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicam que a administração de 15 mg/kg de cetamina e 1mg/kg de midazolam pela via intranasal ou intramuscular em papagaios (Amazona aestiva e

  19. Anestesia epidural com associação medetomidina e lidocaína, em gatos pré-medicados com acepromazina e midazolam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.S.D. Lima

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos anestésicos promovidos pela associação medetomidina e lidocaína por via epidural, em gatos pré-tratados com acepromazina e midazolam. Foram utilizados 10 gatos adultos, machos e fêmeas, hígidos e com média de peso de 2,5±0,6kg, distribuídos em dois grupos (GM e GL de igual número (n=5. Administraram-se, como medicação pré-anestésica, acepromazina, 0,2mg/kg, e midazolam, 0,5mg/kg, via intramuscular, e 20 minutos depois, nos animais do GM, por via epidural, lidocaína, 4,4mg/kg, associada à medetomidina, 0,02mg/kg. Os gatos do GL receberam lidocaína, 4,4mg/kg, associada à solução de NaCl a 0,9%. As avaliações ocorreram antes da pré-anestesia (MPA, 20 minutos após a MPA e antes da anestesia epidural, e aos 10, 20, 30 e 40 minutos após a anestesia epidural, respectivamente, T-20, T0, T10, T20, T30 e T40. Foram avaliados: frequência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (FR, temperatura do corpo, saturação de oxiemoglobina, analgesia, miorrelaxamento e período de recuperação. No GM, a FC diminuiu em T20, T30 e T40 em relação ao T-20 e T10 e foi mais baixa que a FC do GL em T20, T30 e T40, respectivamente, 86, 91 e 88 bat/min e 194, 205 e 177 bat/min. A FR variou entre o T-20 e os outros momentos de avaliação nos animais do GL. Nas variáveis eletrocardiográficas, houve diferenças entre T20, T30 e T40 e T-20 e T0, valores de 235, 238 e 240ms e 156 e 161ms, respectivamente, somente no GM. Este grupo diferiu do GL nas avaliações em T20, T30 e T40, valores de 147, 132 e 150ms para os gatos do GL. Oitenta por cento dos gatos tiveram analgesia intensa, e em todos os animais ocorreu relaxamento da mandíbula e da língua. O tempo de recuperação foi de 40 e 15min no GM e no GL, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que a associação lidocaína com medetomidina promoveu plano anestésico estável com grau de anestesia e recuperação anestésica de boa qualidade.

  20. Avaliação dos valores de troponina I, eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma em felinos sedados com cetamina e midazolam, suplementados ou não com oxigênio

    OpenAIRE

    Tocheto,R.; Padilha,V.S.; Cardoso,H.M.; Bitencourt,E.H.; Volpato,J.; Andrade,J.N.B.; Oleskovicz,N.

    2015-01-01

    Lesões no miocárdio, causadas por baixa perfusão e oxigenação cardíaca, podem ser ocasionadas por fármacos anestésicos, como a cetamina. Essas lesões podem ser identificadas por meio de biomarcadores específicos e, dentre estes, destaca-se a troponina I. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações cardiovasculares com base nos valores de troponina I (TnI), eletrocardiograma (ECG) e ecocardiograma em gatos sedados com cetamina e midazolam, suplementados ou não com oxigênio. Utilizaram-se...

  1. Activation of ERK2 in basolateral amygdala underlies the promoting influence of stress on fear memory and anxiety: influence of midazolam pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, N M; Espejo, P J; Martijena, I D; Molina, V A

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to emotionally arousing experiences elicits a robust and persistent memory and enhances anxiety. The amygdala complex plays a key role in stress-induced emotional processing and in the fear memory formation. It is well known that ERK activation in the amygdala is a prerequisite for fear memory consolidation. Moreover, stress elevates p-ERK2 levels in several areas of the brain stress circuitry. Therefore, given that the ERK1/2 cascade is activated following stress and that the role of this cascade is critical in the formation of fear memory, the present study investigated the potential involvement of p-ERK2 in amygdala subnuclei in the promoting influence of stress on fear memory formation and on anxiety-like behavior. A robust and persistent ERK2 activation was noted in the Basolateral amygdala (BLA), which was evident at 5min after restraint and lasted at least one day after the stressful experience. Midazolam, a short-acting benzodiazepine ligand, administered prior to stress prevented the increase in the p-ERK2 level in the BLA. Pretreatment with intra-BLA infusion of U0126 (MEK inhibitor), but not into the adjacent central nucleus of the amygdala, attenuated the stress-induced promoting influence on fear memory formation. Finally, U0126 intra-BLA infusion prevented the enhancement of anxiety-like behavior in stressed animals. These findings suggest that the selective ERK2 activation in BLA following stress exposure is an important mechanism for the occurrence of the promoting influence of stress on fear memory and on anxiety-like behavior. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

  2. Comparative evaluation of dexmedetomidine and midazolam-ketamine combination as sedative agents in pediatric dentistry: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Uppal Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacological methods have been used as an adjunct to enhance child cooperativeness and facilitate dental treatment. Objective: Purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of sedation by intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral combination drug midazolam–ketamine in a group of children with uncooperative behavior requiring dental treatment. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study that included patients 3–9 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists-I status. About 36 children presenting early childhood caries were randomly assigned to one of three groups studied: Group MK received intranasal saline and oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg with ketamine (5 mg/kg mixed in mango juice; Group DX received intranasal dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg and oral mango juice; and Group C received intranasal saline and oral mango juice. Patients' heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded before, during, and at the end of the procedure. Patients' behavior, sedation status, and wake up behavior were evaluated with modified observer assessment of alertness and sedation scale. Ease of treatment completion was evaluated according to Houpt scale. Results: Hemodynamic changes were statistically insignificant in Group MK and Group DX. About 75% patients in Group MK were successfully sedated as compared to 53.9% Group DX and none of the patients in Group C. Ease of treatment completion was better with Group MK as compared to Group DX and least with Group C. Around 50% patients in Group MK had postoperative complications. Conclusion: Oral midazolam–ketamine combination and intranasal dexmedetomidine evaluated in the present study can be used safely and effectively in uncooperative pediatric dental patients for producing conscious sedation.

  3. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of Nd-doped Lu.sub.3./sub.Al.sub.5./sub.O.sub.12./sub. single crystals with different Nd concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sugiyama, M.; Fujimoto, Y.; Yanagida, T.; Yokota, Y.; Pejchal, Jan; Furuya, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2011), s. 905-908 ISSN 0925- 3467 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : LuAG * single crystal * scintillator * Nd 3+ Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.023, year: 2011

  4. The effect of reuterin on the lag time of single cells of Listeria innocua grown on a solid agar surface at different pH and NaCl concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Metris, A.; Baranyi, J.

    2007-01-01

    The lag time of single cells of Listeria innocua grown on the surface of Brain Heart Infusion Agar was studied by microscopy and image analysis. An experimental set-up that enabled relocation of the cells on the agar surface was developed and used to collect data from 50 to 100 individual cells...

  5. A comparison of prophylactic use of meperidine, meperidine plus dexamethasone, and ketamine plus midazolam for preventing of shivering during spinal anesthesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhpour, Ali; Jafari, Alireza; Hashemi, Masoud; Hosseini, Behnam; Razavi, Sajad; Mohseni, Gholamreza; Vosoughian, Maryam; Behnaz, Faranak; Amin Nejad, Reza; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Soltani, Fereshteh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of combination of meperidine and dexamethasone with that of placebo, meperidine alone, and the combination of ketamine and midazolam in preventing shivering during spinal anesthesia. This is a prospective, placebo-controlled study. The setting is at an operating room of a university-based teaching hospital. Two hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients undergoing orthopedic and urologic surgery under spinal anesthesia were included. Subarachnoid anesthesia was performed by using 15mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. Patients were randomly allocated to receive saline (placebo, group C), meperidine 0.4mg/kg (group Me), ketamine 0.25mg/kg plus midazolam 37.5μg/kg (group KMi), and meperidine 0.2mg/kg plus dexamethasone 0.1mg/kg (group MeD). All drugs were given as an intravenous bolus immediately after intrathecal injection. During surgery and stay in the recovery room, shivering score, blood pressure, and some other adverse effects were recorded at 5-minute intervals. Axillary and tympanic temperatures were recorded at 15-minute intervals during the perioperative period. The incidence of shivering after 30minutes of spinal anesthesia in groups C, Me, KMi, and MeD was 64%, 20%, 20%, and 4%, respectively, which was significantly higher in group C compared with other groups (Pshivering resulting from spinal anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. THE CONTROL OF CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of companies have developed in the last 40 years, as an effect of open borders within the European Union. The question from the point of view of competition is if setting up a new group or entity may have the same restrictive effects of an agreement. In addition, that may lead to monopoly or oligopoly, which prevents effective competition. Concentrations are situations when one or more companies acquire control of other companies, changing the structure of the companies involved and of the market. The most important forms of concentrations of undertakings are the holding by a company of the capital of another company or of other companies, the total or partial acquisitions by a company of the assets of other companies and the merger of two or more companies which are legally independent into a new company. Sometimes, where the concentration in an industry exceeds certain limits it can lead to monopoly or oligopoly structures, which restrict competition and jeopardise consumers' interests. The legal basis for EU merger control is Council Regulation (EC No 139/2004. The regulation prohibits mergers and acquisitions which would significantly reduce competition in the Single Market, if they would create dominant companies and are likely to raise prices for consumers.

  7. Development and single-laboratory validation of a new gas chromatographic multi-pesticide method of analysis of commercial emulsifiable concentrate formulations containing alachlor, chlorpyrifos methyl, fenthion and trifluralin as active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasali, Helen; Balayannis, George; Hourdakis, Adamantia; Ambrus, Arpad

    2006-10-06

    A multi-pesticide (MP) method was developed and single-laboratory validated for the quality control of commercial pesticide products containing alachlor, chlorpyrifos methyl, fenthion and trifluralin as active ingredients (a.i.). A capillary gas chromatographic system with flame ionization detection (FID) and a programmable temperature vaporising split injector was used. The performance characteristics (specificity, linearity, precision and repeatability) of the method satisfied international acceptability criteria.

  8. Chemical restraint of captive Kinkajous Potos flavus (Schreber, 1774 (Carnivora: Procyonidae using a ketamine, xylazine and midazolam combination and reversal with yohimbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lescano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the anaesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of drug combinations used for the chemical immobilization of Kinkajous (Potos flavus is scarce.  This study assessed the effects of ketamine (2.5mg/kg, xylazine (1mg/kg and midazolam (0.5mg/kg combination in P. flavus.  Five clinically healthy adult Kinkajous of both sexes were included.  Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure and body temperature were recorded at five-minute intervals for 25 minutes.  Then, animals received 0.125mg/kg of yohimbine by intramuscular injection.  Anaesthetic depth was assessed based on stimulus response and muscle tone.  Induction, immobilization, and recovery periods were recorded and qualitatively assessed based on the absence of adverse effects.  The durations of the induction, immobilization, and recovery periods were 9.42±1.73, 33.33±2.16, and 31.37±5.82 minutes.  All periods showed good quality and adequate anaesthetic depth was achieved.  Mean heart and respiratory rates were 99±20 beats/minute and 44±9 breaths/minute.  Both parameters decreased over the duration of the anaesthesia but they did not reach levels suggesting either bradycardia or bradypnea.  Mean body temperature was 37.1±1.5 0C and it also showed a decreasing trend over the duration of the anaesthesia.  Mean oxygen saturation was 92±6% and it showed a mildly increasing trend over the duration of the anesthesia.  Mean blood pressure was 129±23 mmHg and mild to moderate hypertension was observed.  No mortality occurred and no adverse effects were observed in any of the individuals during the three months following immobilization.  The assessed anaesthetic combination effectively immobilized the P. flavus individuals, provided good quality and acceptable duration of both induction and recovery periods.  It should, however, not be used in Kinkajous with either known hypertension record or pre-existing target organ disease (e

  9. Urine bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli isolates exhibiting different resistance phenotypes/genotypes in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model simulating urine concentrations obtained after oral administration of a 400-milligram single dose of cefditoren-pivoxil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, David; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Alou, Luis; Giménez, María-José; Torrico, Martha; González, Natalia; Cafini, Fabio; Relaño, María-Teresa; Coronel, Pilar; Prieto, José

    2008-03-01

    Activity of simulated cefditoren urinary concentrations was determined against seven Escherichia coli isolates. Bactericidal activity was obtained from 4 to 24 h against TEM-1 (penicillinase production/hyperproduction), TEM-34 (IRT-6), and TEM-116 (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL]) and from 6 to 8 h against SHV/TEM-116 (ESBL) but never against SHV/TEM-1 (ESBL). Extension of bactericidal activity depended on the resistance genotype/phenotype tested.

  10. Mycotoxins’ Activity at Toxic and Sub-Toxic Concentrations: Differential Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Single and Combined Administration of Sterigmatocystin, Ochratoxin A and Citrinin on the Hepatocellular Cancer Cell Line Hep3B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolia Αnninou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Food safety organizations indicate the likelihood of constant human and animal exposure to mycotoxin mixtures as a possible negative public health impact. Risk assessment demonstrates that certain mycotoxins of Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. are toxic and hold a significant genotoxic efficacy at nanomolar concentrations. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential cytogenetic effects of sterigmatocystin (STER, ochratoxin A (OTA and citrinin (CTN alone or in combination, at pM to μΜ concentrations, on the human hepatocellular cancer cell line Hep3B. MTT reduction, mitotic divisions, cell cycle delays and sister chromatid exchange rates (SCE were determined as endpoints of metabolic activity, cytotoxicity, cytostaticity, and genotoxicity, respectively. All mycotoxin treatments induce SCE rates from 10−12 M, while their cytotoxic and cytostatic potential varies. In PRI and MI assays, but not at MTT, STER alone or in combination with OTA + CTN appeared cytostatic and cytotoxic, even at 10−12 M, while CTN alone and all other combinations displayed substantial cellular survival inhibition in doses ≥ 10−8 M. Co-administration of STER + OTA or STER + CTN in concentrations ≤ 10−1 M, increased the MI and MTT activity, while it did not affect the PRI. Mycotoxin co-treatments revealed in general similar-to-additive or antagonistic genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. Our results for the first time describe that STER alone or in combination with OTA and/or CTN share a cytotoxic and cytogenetic potential even at picoMolar concentrations on human hepatoma cells in vitro.

  11. Carbon Concentration of Austenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ławrynowicz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to examine the influence of temperature and times of austempering process on the maximum extend towhich the bainite reaction can proceed and the carbon content in retained austenite. It should be noted that a small percentage change in theaustenite carbon content can have a significant effect on the subsequent austempering reaction changing the volume fraction of the phasespresent and hence, the resulting mechanical properties. Specimens were prepared from an unalloyed ductile cast iron, austenitised at 950oCfor 60 minutes and austempered by the conventional single-step austempering process at four temperatures between BS and MS, eg., 250,300, 350 and 400oC. The samples were austempered at these temperatures for 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes and finally quenched toambient temperature. Volume fractions of retained austenite and carbon concentration in the residual austenite have been observed byusing X-ray diffraction. Additionally, carbon concentration in the residual austenite was calculated using volume fraction data of austeniteand a model developed by Bhadeshia based on the McLellan and Dunn quasi-chemical thermodynamic model. The comparison ofexperimental data with the T0, T0' and Ae3' phase boundaries suggests the likely mechanism of bainite reaction in cast iron is displacive rather than diffusional. The carbon concentration in retained austenite demonstrates that at the end of bainite reaction the microstructure must consist of not only ausferrite but additionally precipitated carbides.

  12. Concentrator cell status and projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, D.E.

    1984-08-01

    Over the last few years much work has been directed at improving conventional single crystal silicon cells for concentrator application. Although 20% efficient concentrator cells have been fabricated, the current thinking indicates that conventional silicon devices are approaching theoretical maximums. The primary emphasis of today's Federal program for concentrating photovoltaics is directed at advanced high efficiency devices. Advanced device approaches that are being pursued include patterned diffusion silicon designs with practical efficiency limits greater than 25%, optimized conventional GaAs devices with efficiency limits near 28%, and multiple-junction structures with efficiency limits over 35%. Progress in each of these areas are reviewed.

  13. Preliminary recommendations on the design of the characterization program for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks: A system analysis. Volume 2, Closure-related analyte priorities, concentration thresholds, and detection limit goals based on public health concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.W.; Peffers, M.S.; Hwang, S.T.

    1991-11-01

    The work described in this volume was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide preliminary recommendations on data quality objectives (DQOs) to support the Waste Characterization Plan (WCP) and closure decisions for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs). The WCP describes the first of a two-phase characterization program that will obtain information to assess and implement disposal options for SSTs. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the current operating contractor on the Hanford Site. The preliminary DQOs contained in this volume deal with the analysis of SST wastes in support of the WCP and final closure decisions. These DQOs include information on significant contributors and detection limit goals (DLGs) for SST analytes based on public health risk.

  14. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans Effects of tiletamine/zolazepam or S(+ ketamine/midazolam/tramadol for chemical contention in red howler monkeys (Allouatta guariba clamitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Spolti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6, os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil® na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6, que receberam cetamina S(+, midazolam e tramadol (Cemtra ®, lote piloto 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda., Cravinhos, SP-Brasil, constituído por 100mg/ml de cetamina S+, 20mg/ml de tramadol e 10mg/ml de midazolam na dose de 1ml da associação para cada 10kg de peso corporal, correspondendo às doses de 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg e 2mg/kg, respectivamente. Anteriormente a administração dos fármacos (M0 foram avaliadas: frequência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, temperatura retal (TR, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SpO2, presença de salivação, grau de miorrelaxamento e sedação, índice Bispectral (BIS e Sinal de Qualidade do BIS (SQI, resposta ao pinçamento interdigital e tempos de latência, deambulação e de recuperação total (TRT. Os parâmetros foram reavaliados em M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 e M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos após a administração dos fármacos. No TZ os animais foram mais responsivos ao pinçamento interdigital ao longo dos tempos. Os animais do CEMTRA apresentaram maior grau de miorrelaxamento e de sedação. A f do CEMTRA foi menor após a administração do tratamento em todos os momentos em relação ao M0. Entre grupos a f do CEMTRA foi menor em relação ao TZ em M2 e M4. Os tempos totais de sedação e de recuperação foram de 48±4 e 150,1±42,1 min para o CEMTRA e de 38±7 e 73,1±20,6 para o TZ. Conclui-se que ambas as formulações são seguras para contenção química de

  15. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+)/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans)

    OpenAIRE

    Spolti,Pâmela; Moraes,Aury N. de; Tamanho,Renato B.; Gehrcke,Martielo I.; Souza Júnior,Júlio C.; Oleskovicz,Nilson

    2013-01-01

    Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6), os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil®) na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6), que receberam cetamina S(+), midazolam e tramadol ...

  16. Fructosamine concentrations in hyperglycemic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T A; Rand, J S; Ryan, E

    1995-03-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to establish a reference range for fructosamine in cats using a commercial fructosamine kit; 2) to demonstrate that the fructosamine concentration is not increased by transient hyperglycemia of 90 min duration, simulating hyperglycemia of acute stress; and 3) to determine what percentage of blood samples submitted to a commercial laboratory from 95 sick cats had evidence of persistent hyperglycemia based on an elevated fructosamine concentration. Reference intervals for the serum fructosamine concentration were established in healthy, normoglycemic cats using a second generation kit designed for the measurement of the fructosamine concentration in humans. Transient hyperglycemia of 90 min duration was induced by IV glucose injection in healthy cats. Multisourced blood samples that were submitted to a commercial veterinary laboratory either as fluoride oxalated plasma or serum were used to determine the percentage of hyperglycemic cats having persistent hyperglycemia. The reference interval for the serum fructosamine concentration was 249 to 406 mumol/L. Transient hyperglycemia of 90 min duration did not increase the fructosamine concentration and there was no correlation between fructosamine and blood glucose. In contrast, the fructosamine concentration was correlated with the glucose concentration in sick hyper- and normoglycemic cats. It is concluded that the fructosamine concentration is a useful marker for the detection of persistent hyperglycemia and its differentiation from transient stress hyperglycemia. Fructosamine determinations should be considered when blood glucose is 12 to 20 mmol/L and only a single blood sample is available for analysis.

  17. Developmental aspects of midazolam metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.N. de Wildt (Saskia)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractFrom fetal life through adolescence, dramatic changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics occur as a consequence of organ maturation and changes in body composition associated with normal development. Accordingly, effective and safe drug therapy in preterm infants, neonates,

  18. Changes in the biogenic amine content of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens of rats submitted to single and repeated sessions of the elevated plus-maze test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that exposure to a variety of stressful experiences enhances fearful reactions when behavior is tested in current animal models of anxiety. Until now, no study has examined the neurochemical changes during the test and retest sessions of rats submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM. The present study uses a new approach (HPLC by looking at the changes in dopamine and serotonin levels in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens in animals upon single or double exposure to the EPM (one-trial tolerance. The study involved two experiments: i saline or midazolam (0.5 mg/kg before the first trial, and ii saline or midazolam before the second trial. For the biochemical analysis a control group injected with saline and not tested in the EPM was included. Stressful stimuli in the EPM were able to elicit one-trial tolerance to midazolam on re-exposure (61.01%. Significant decreases in serotonin contents occurred in the prefrontal cortex (38.74%, amygdala (78.96%, dorsal hippocampus (70.33%, and nucleus accumbens (73.58% of the animals tested in the EPM (P < 0.05 in all cases in relation to controls not exposed to the EPM. A significant decrease in dopamine content was also observed in the amygdala (54.74%, P < 0.05. These changes were maintained across trials. There was no change in the turnover rates of these monoamines. We suggest that exposure to the EPM causes reduced monoaminergic neurotransmission activity in limbic structures, which appears to underlie the "one-trial tolerance" phenomenon.

  19. Efeitos hemodinâmicos da combinação de dexmedetomidina-fentanil versus midazolam-fentanil em crianças submetidas à cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea Efectos hemodinámicos de la combinación de dexmedetomidina-fentanil versus midazolam-fentanil en ninõs sometidos a la cirugía cardíaca con circulación extracorpórea Hemodynamic effects of the combination of dexmedetomidine-fentanyl versus midazolam-fentanyl in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrson Guilherme Klamt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia da infusão combinada de dexmedetomidina e fentanil na resposta hemodinâmica durante cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea (CEC em crianças. MÉTODO: Trinta e duas crianças com idade entre 1 mês e 10 anos, agendadas para cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea, foram distribuídas de modo aleatório em dois grupos: o Grupo MDZ recebeu midazolam 0,2 mg.kg-1.h-1, enquanto o Grupo DEX recebeu dexmedetomidina 1 µg.kg-1.h-1 durante uma hora e, em seguida, o ritmo de infusão foi reduzido à metade em ambos os grupos. Ambos os grupos receberam fentanil 10 µg.kg-1, midazolam 0,2 mg.h-1 e vecurônio 0,2 mg.kg-1 para indução da anestesia. As mesmas doses de fentanil com vecurônio da indução foram infundidas durante a primeira hora após a indução e, em seguida, reduzidas à metade. As infusões foram iniciadas imediatamente após a indução e mantidas até o final da cirurgia. O isoflurano foi administrado por curto tempo para controle da resposta hiperdinâmica à incisão e esternotomia. RESULTADOS: Em ambos os grupos, a pressão arterial sistólica e a frequência cardíaca reduziram de modo significativo após uma hora de infusão anestésica, porém o aumento da pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica e da frequência cardíaca à incisão da pele foram significantemente menores no Grupo DEX. Um número significativamente menor de pacientes demandaram suplementação com isoflurano no Grupo DEX. Após a CEC, os pacientes de ambos os grupos tiveram respostas hemodinâmicas similares. CONCLUSÕES: A infusão sem bolus de dexmedetomidina parece ser um adjuvante efetivo do fentanil na promoção de sedação e controle das respostas hemodinâmicas durante cirurgia para cardiopatias congênitas em crianças.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la eficacia de la infusión combinada de dexmedetomidina y fentanil en la respuesta hedominámica durante la cirugía card

  20. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  1. Effects of laparoscopy on the cardiorespiratory system of brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira anesthetized with ketamine/ xylazine/ midazolam combination and isoflurane Efeitos da laparoscopia sobre o sistema cardiorrespiratório de veados-catingueiro (Mazama gouazoubira anestesiados com a associação cetamina/xilazina/midazolam e isofluorano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Salles Munerato

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopy is not widely used as a tool to perform assisted reproduction techniques in South American cervids; thus, scarce information in literature is available regarding its effects and appropriate anesthetic protocols to perform it. This study evaluated the effect of laparoscopy on heart rate (HR, respiration rate (RR, saturation of oxyhemoglobin (SpO2 and rectal temperature (RT of six female brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira anesthetized with ketamine (5mg/kg, xylazine (0.3mg/kg, midazolam (0.5mg/kg combination i.v. and isoflurane. Twelve laparoscopies were performed and each animal was used twice with a 40-day interval. After anesthetized, the animals were placed in dorsal recumbency to perform laparoscopy procedure using abdominal CO2 insufflations (14.2 ± 2.39mmHg; M ± SE. The main events of the laparoscopy procedure were divided into three periods: animal without (P1 and with abdominal insufflation (P2 and abdominal insufflation with the hips raised at 45º (P3. As a control, the animals were anesthetized again 40 days after the last laparoscopy, and were maintained in a dorsal recumbency for the same average duration of the previous anesthesia and no laparoscopy procedure was conducted. The period of anesthesia for the controls was also divided into P1, P2, and P3 considering the average duration of these periods in previous laparoscopies performed. Data were analyzed through the (ANOVA variance analysis followed by Tukey test and values at PA laparoscopia ainda é pouco utilizada como ferramenta para técnicas de reprodução assistida em cervídeos sul-americanos, não havendo informações sobre seus efeitos e protocolos anestésicos seguros para sua realização. Objetivaramse avaliar as possíveis alterações na freqüência cardíaca (FC, respiratória (FR, saturação de oxihemoglobina (SpO2 e temperatura retal (TR durante a laparoscopia para visualização dos órgãos reprodutivos de seis fêmeas de veado

  2. Avaliação dos valores de troponina I, eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma em felinos sedados com cetamina e midazolam, suplementados ou não com oxigênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tocheto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lesões no miocárdio, causadas por baixa perfusão e oxigenação cardíaca, podem ser ocasionadas por fármacos anestésicos, como a cetamina. Essas lesões podem ser identificadas por meio de biomarcadores específicos e, dentre estes, destaca-se a troponina I. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações cardiovasculares com base nos valores de troponina I (TnI, eletrocardiograma (ECG e ecocardiograma em gatos sedados com cetamina e midazolam, suplementados ou não com oxigênio. Utilizaram-se 12 gatos machos, hígidos, nos quais se avaliaram os valores de troponina I, eletro e ecocardiografia, frequência cardíaca (FC e pressão arterial sistólica (PAS no momento basal (M0. Na sequência, os animais foram sedados com a associação de 10mg.kg-1 de cetamina e 0,5mg.kg-1 de midazolam pela via intramuscular. Decorridos aproximadamente 10 minutos, os animais foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: com e sem suplementação de oxigênio via máscara facial (GCO e GSO, respectivamente, sendo submetidos novamente aos exames citados. Foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas, para dosagem de TnI em seis, 12 e 24 horas após a administração dos agentes anestésicos. Não foram observadas alterações significativas na FC, na PAS e no ECG após a administração dos tratamentos em ambos os grupos. Os valores médios de TnI elevaram-se significativamente em T6 quando comparados ao basal em ambos os grupos, com médias de 0,507±0,335ng/mL no GSO e 0,777±0,505ng/mL no GCO. Na ecocardiografia, o débito cardíaco (DC reduziu em M1 em ambos os grupos, quando comparados aos valores basais, sendo M0 0,472±0,115 e M1 0,234±0,08 no GSO e M0 0,356±0,095 e M1 0,222±0,09 no GCO, expressos em L/min. Conclui-se que a administração de cetamina e midazolam em gatos hígidos não promove alterações eletrocardiográficas, aumenta os valores de troponina I, com pico de seis horas após a administração, reduz o débito cardíaco, e que a

  3. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Maltese Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bugeja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the levels of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in tap water samples of forty localities from around the Maltese Islands together with their corresponding service supply reservoirs. The heavy metal concentrations obtained indicated that concentrations of the elements were generally below the maximum allowed concentration established by the Maltese legislation. In terms of the Maltese and EU water quality regulations, 17.5% of the localities sampled yielded water that failed the acceptance criteria for a single metal in drinking water. Higher concentrations of some metals were observed in samples obtained at the end of the distribution network, when compared to the concentrations at the source. The observed changes in metal concentrations between the localities’ samples and the corresponding supply reservoirs were significant. The higher metal concentrations obtained in the samples from the localities can be attributed to leaching in the distribution network.

  4. Air Data - Concentration Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.

  5. Urine concentration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003608.htm Urine concentration test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to ...

  6. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  7. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  8. Single-centre comparison of a novel single-step balloon inflation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subject. Single-centre comparison of a novel single-step balloon inflation device and Amplatz sheath dilatation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy – a pilot study. Outcome measures. Single procedure success rates, retreatment rates, hospital stay, haemoglobin concentration, calculi volume, calculi configuration, patient ...

  9. Concentrators using fluorescent substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashibara, M.; Tsukamoto, M. (Hitachi Seisakusho K.K., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    In luminescent concentrators - plates of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or other transparent material with a fluorescent compound dispersed within them - incident light is trapped and concentrated by internal reflection, and shifted to a longer wavelength, as it interacts with fluorescent particles. Experience with the use of luminescent concentrators for electricity generation in conjunction with solar cells, in solar heaters, in amplifiers for light intensity, in long-wave converters and in display panels is discussed. Solar energy conversion efficiencies of 4-5% have been obtained in generating systems combining concentrators containing Fluorol 555 or Rhodamin 6G with GaAs solar cells. (author).

  10. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Spolti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6, os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil® na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6, que receberam cetamina S(+, midazolam e tramadol (Cemtra ®, lote piloto 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda., Cravinhos, SP-Brasil, constituído por 100mg/ml de cetamina S+, 20mg/ml de tramadol e 10mg/ml de midazolam na dose de 1ml da associação para cada 10kg de peso corporal, correspondendo às doses de 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg e 2mg/kg, respectivamente. Anteriormente a administração dos fármacos (M0 foram avaliadas: frequência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, temperatura retal (TR, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SpO2, presença de salivação, grau de miorrelaxamento e sedação, índice Bispectral (BIS e Sinal de Qualidade do BIS (SQI, resposta ao pinçamento interdigital e tempos de latência, deambulação e de recuperação total (TRT. Os parâmetros foram reavaliados em M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 e M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos após a administração dos fármacos. No TZ os animais foram mais responsivos ao pinçamento interdigital ao longo dos tempos. Os animais do CEMTRA apresentaram maior grau de miorrelaxamento e de sedação. A f do CEMTRA foi menor após a administração do tratamento em todos os momentos em relação ao M0. Entre grupos a f do CEMTRA foi menor em relação ao TZ em M2 e M4. Os tempos totais de sedação e de recuperação foram de 48±4 e 150,1±42,1 min para o CEMTRA e de 38±7 e 73,1±20,6 para o TZ. Conclui-se que ambas as formulações são seguras para contenção química de

  11. Influência da medicação pré-anestésica com midazolam e clonidina no nível de hipnose após indução anestésica com propofol e alfentanil em crianças: monitorização pelo índice bispectral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Marisa Ganem

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A medicação pré-anestésica (MPA é adjuvante da anestesia e diminui tanto a necessidade de concentrações elevadas de anestésicos como a ansiedade perioperatória, produzindo amnésia e contribuindo para estabilidade hemodinâmica. Dentre as drogas administradas na MPA de crianças, encontram-se o midazolam e a clonidina. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar se a MPA com midazolam e clonidina exerce influência no nível de hipnose, avaliado pelo BIS, em crianças após indução anestésica com propofol e alfentanil. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 30 pacientes, com idades entre 2 e 12 anos, estado físico ASA I, submetidos a cirurgias eletivas, que foram distribuídos em 3 grupos: G1 - sem MPA, G2 - midazolam (0,5 mg.kg-1 e G3 - clonidina (4 µg.kg-1, por via oral, 60 minutos antes da cirurgia. Todos os pacientes receberam alfentanil (30 µg.kg-1, propofol (3 mg.kg-1 e atracúrio (0,5 mg.kg-1. Avaliou-se o valor derivado do BIS antes da indução da anestesia (M1 e após a intubação (M2. O método estatístico utilizado foi a análise de variância para idade, peso e altura, e análise de perfil para o BIS, sendo o valor de p < 0,05 considerado significativo. RESULTADOS: Quando se comparou o mesmo momento (M1 ou M2 entre os três grupos, não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Quando se compararam os dois momentos de um mesmo grupo, M1 foi maior que M2 nos três grupos. CONCLUSÕES: A medicação pré-anestésica com midazolam e clonidina não influenciou o nível de hipnose em crianças induzidas com propofol e alfentanil.

  12. Strategies to Support Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Annette Haines provides a comprehensive overview of concentration across the planes. She first lays the foundation for thinking about student engagement: It must be understood that concentration is found through the interest of the child, which is guided by the sensitive periods. When we understand the child's development in this way, we can offer…

  13. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Formoterol concentrations in blood and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Kasper; Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We examined urinary and serum concentrations of formoterol in asthmatic and healthy individuals after a single dose of 18 μg inhaled formoterol and after repeated inhaled doses in healthy individuals. Results were evaluated using the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) 2012 threshold for formoterol....

  15. Cutting feedwater oxygen concentrations by catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Designed to reduce oxygen concentrations in water storage and makeup systems from fully aerated conditions of 8000ppb to 10ppb in a single pass, the Westinghouse catalytic oxygen removal system (CORS) is a proven alternative to other methods of deoxygenation. (author)

  16. Associação de cetamina S(+ e midazolam pelo método convencional de cálculo e pela extrapolação alométrica em bugios-ruivo (Alouatta guariba clamitans: resposta clínica e cardiorrespiratória S(+ ketamine and midazolam association by the conventional method of calculation and allometric extrapolation in red howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans: clinical and cardiopulmonary response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Aurora Braun Chagas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o protocolo de contenção química com cetamina S(+ e midazolam em bugios-ruivos, comparando o cálculo de doses pelo método convencional e o método de extrapolação alométrica. Foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios (Alouatta guariba clamitans hígidos, com peso médio de 4,84±0,97kg, de ambos os sexos. Após jejum alimentar de 12 horas e hídrico de seis horas, realizou-se contenção física manual e aferiram-se os seguintes parâmetros: frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (f, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, temperatura retal (TR, pressão arterial sistólica não invasiva (PANI e valores de hemogasometria arterial. Posteriormente, os animais foram alocados em dois grupos: GC (Grupo Convencional, n=06, os quais receberam cetamina S(+ (5mg kg-1 e midazolam (0,5mg kg-1, pela via intramuscular, com doses calculadas pelo método convencional; e GA (Grupo Alometria, n=06, os quais receberam o mesmo protocolo, pela mesma via, utilizando-se as doses calculadas pelo método de extrapolação alométrica. Os parâmetros descritos foram mensurados novamente nos seguintes momentos: M5, M10, M20 e M30 (cinco, 10, 20 e 30 minutos após a administração dos fármacos, respectivamente. Também foram avaliados: qualidade de miorrelaxamento, reflexo podal e caudal, pinçamento interdigital, tempo para indução de decúbito, tempo hábil de sedação, qualidade de sedação, e tempo e qualidade de recuperação. O GA apresentou menor tempo para indução ao decúbito, maior grau e tempo de sedação, bem como redução significativa da FC e PANI de M5 até M30, quando comparado ao GC. Conclui-se que o grupo no qual o cálculo de dose foi realizado por meio da alometria (GA apresentou melhor grau de relaxamento muscular e sedação, sem produzir depressão cardiorrespiratória significativa.The aim of this study was to evaluate a protocol of chemical restraint comparing the conventional method of

  17. Blood lead concentrations age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A; Henderson, Charles R; Lanphear, Bruce P; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Parsons, Patrick J; Canfield, Richard L

    2008-02-01

    Few studies provide data directly relevant to the question of whether blood lead concentrations affect children's cognitive function. We examined the association between blood lead concentrations assessed throughout early childhood and children's IQ at 6 years of age. Children were followed from 6 months to 6 years of age, with determination of blood lead concentrations at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. At 6 years of age, intelligence was assessed in 194 children using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. We used general linear and semiparametic models to estimate and test the association between blood lead concentration and IQ. After adjustment for maternal IQ, HOME scale scores, and other potential confounding factors, lifetime average blood lead concentration (mean = 7.2 microg/dL; median = 6.2 microg/dL) was inversely associated with Full-Scale IQ (p = 0.006) and Performance IQ scores (p = 0.002). Compared with children who had lifetime average blood lead concentrations IQ (91.3 vs. 86.4, p = 0.03). Nonlinear modeling of the peak blood lead concentration revealed an inverse association (p = 0.003) between peak blood lead levels and Full-Scale IQ down to 2.1 microg/dL, the lowest observed peak blood lead concentration in our study. Evidence from this cohort indicates that children's intellectual functioning at 6 years of age is impaired by blood lead concentrations well below 10 microg/dL, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of an elevated blood lead level.

  18. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  19. Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Methods for concentrating hydrogen peroxide solutions have been described. The methods utilize a polymeric membrane separating a hydrogen peroxide solution from a sweep gas or permeate. The membrane is selective to the permeability of water over the permeability of hydrogen peroxide, thereby facilitating the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide solution through the transport of water through the membrane to the permeate. By utilizing methods in accordance with the invention, hydrogen peroxide solutions of up to 85% by volume or higher may be generated at a point of use without storing substantial quantities of the highly concentrated solutions and without requiring temperatures that would produce explosive mixtures of hydrogen peroxide vapors.

  20. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  1. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniuk, J. R.; Wang, J.; Root, T. W.; Scott, C. T.; Klingenberg, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained using torque rheometry agree with those obtained using other rheometric methods, but torque rheometry can be used at much larger solids concentration (weight fractions of insoluble solids greater than 0.2). Yield stresses decrease with severity of hydrolysis, decrease when water-soluble polymers are added (for nonhydrolyzed biomass), and increase with particle length. Experimental results are qualitatively consistent with those obtained from particle-level simulations.

  2. Concentrations of Indicator Organisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — It is a compilation of organism concentrations of 16 sampling events conducted between July 2015 and February 2016. It also includes statistical analysis such as...

  3. CMAQ predicted concentration files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — model predicted concentrations. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Muñiz-Unamunzaga, M., R. Borge, G. Sarwar, B. Gantt, D. de la Paz, C....

  4. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  5. Pollutant concentrations in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, O.; Kiviranta, H.; Karjalainen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Unborn children are exposed to environmental pollutants via the placenta, and there is a causal relationship between maternal intake of pollutants and fetal exposure. Placental examination is an effective way for acquiring data for estimating fetal exposure. We analyzed the concentrations of 104...... congeners of persistent organic pollutants, seven organotin compounds, five heavy metals, and methylmercury in 130 randomly selected placentas. Additionally, we examined similarities between pollutant concentrations by analyzing correlations between their placental concentrations. Our results yield new...... information for conducting contaminant risk assessments for the prenatal period. Out of the 117 individual persistent organic pollutants or metals assayed, 46 could be detected in more than half of the placentas. Moreover, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was found in all placentas. The data...

  6. Hydrogen Peroxide Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.

    2007-01-01

    A relatively simple and economical process and apparatus for concentrating hydrogen peroxide from aqueous solution at the point of use have been invented. The heart of the apparatus is a vessel comprising an outer shell containing tubular membranes made of a polymer that is significantly more permeable by water than by hydrogen peroxide. The aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide to be concentrated is fed through the interstitial spaces between the tubular membranes. An initially dry sweep gas is pumped through the interiors of the tubular membranes. Water diffuses through the membranes and is carried away as water vapor mixed into the sweep gas. Because of the removal of water, the hydrogen peroxide solution flowing from the vessel at the outlet end is more concentrated than that fed into the vessel at the inlet end. The sweep gas can be air, nitrogen, or any other gas that can be conveniently supplied in dry form and does not react chemically with hydrogen peroxide.

  7. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  8. Refractive Secondary Concentrators for Solar Thermal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Macosko, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing technologies that utilize solar energy for various space applications including electrical power conversion, thermal propulsion, and furnaces. Common to all of these applications is the need for highly efficient, solar concentration systems. An effort is underway to develop the innovative single crystal refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. The refractive secondary offers very high throughput efficiencies (greater than 90%), and when used in combination with advanced primary concentrators, enables very high concentration ratios (10,0(X) to 1) and very high temperatures (greater than 2000 K). Presented is an overview of the refractive secondary concentrator development effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center, including optical design and analysis techniques, thermal modeling capabilities, crystal materials characterization testing, optical coatings evaluation, and component testing. Also presented is a discussion of potential future activity and technical issues yet to be resolved. Much of the work performed to date has been in support of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Thermal Propulsion Program. The many benefits of a refractive secondary concentrator that enable efficient, high temperature thermal propulsion system designs, apply equally well to other solar applications including furnaces and power generation systems such as solar dynamics, concentrated thermal photovoltaics, and thermionics.

  9. Vacancy Concentration in Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1977-01-01

    Based on the diffusion constant for self-diffusion in ice, which is believed to take place by a vacancy mechanism, we estimate the relative vacancy concentration near the melting point to be at least ∼ 10−6, i.e. much higher than previous estimates of about 10−10.......Based on the diffusion constant for self-diffusion in ice, which is believed to take place by a vacancy mechanism, we estimate the relative vacancy concentration near the melting point to be at least ∼ 10−6, i.e. much higher than previous estimates of about 10−10....

  10. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  11. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...

  12. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have described...

  13. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  14. Growth features of ammonium hydrogen d-tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ammonium hydrogen d-tartrate (d-AHT) single crystals were grown in silica gel. The growth fea- tures of these crystals with variation of parameters like specific gravity of the gel, gel pH, acid concentrations, concentration of the feed solution and gel age were studied in detail. Keywords. d-AHT single crystals; growth features ...

  15. Effective viscous flow properties for fiber suspensions under concentrated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The effective longitudinal and transverse shear viscosities are derived for an aligned fiber suspension. The solutions are valid under very concentrated conditions for a hexagonal arrangement of the single size fibers. The results compliment the classical dilute suspension forms at the other extreme of concentration. Empirical forms are constructed to cover the full range of volume fraction of the fiber phase. Also, single size spherical particle suspensions are given a similar treatment to that of the fiber case

  16. Concentric and eccentric time-under-tension during strengthening exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal Rathleff, Michael; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Total, single repetition and contraction-phase specific (concentric and eccentric) time-under-tension (TUT) are important exercise-descriptors, as they are linked to the physiological and clinical response in exercise and rehabilitation.......Total, single repetition and contraction-phase specific (concentric and eccentric) time-under-tension (TUT) are important exercise-descriptors, as they are linked to the physiological and clinical response in exercise and rehabilitation....

  17. Tritium concentration monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shono, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    A device for measuring the concentration of tritium in gaseous wastes in a power plant and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is reduced in the size and improved in performance. The device of the present invention pressurizes a sampling gas and cools it to a dew point. Water content in the sampling gas cooled to the dew point is condensated and recovered to a fine tube-like water content recovering container. The concentration of the recovered condensates is measured by a tritium density analyzer. With such procedures, since the specimen is pressurized, the dew point can be elevated. Accordingly, the size of the cooling device can be decreased, enabling to contribute to the reduction of the size of the entire device. Further, since the water content recovering device is formed as a fine tube, the area of contact between the specimen gas and the liquid condensated water can be reduced. Accordingly, evaporation of the liquid condensates can be prevented. (I.S.)

  18. Chlorination of zirconyte concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chlorination experiments with zirconyte concentrate were carried out in order to study the effects of temperature, percentage of reducing agent and porosity on the gasification of ZrO 2 for 10 and 20 minutes of reaction. Factorial analysis was applied and the results indicated that temperature and percentage of reducing agent were the two only variables effecting the ZrO 2 gasification. (author) [pt

  19. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  20. Censored correlated cytokine concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Benn, Christine Stabell; Jørgensen, Mathias J

    2013-01-01

    Interest in cytokines as markers for the function of the immune system is increasing. Methods quantifying cytokine concentrations are often subject to detection limits, which lead to non-detectable observations and censored distributions. When distributions are skewed, geometric mean ratios (GMRs...... stacking method that uses clustered variance-covariance estimation allowing homogeneous (Stackc) or inhomogeneous (Stackh) variances. We compare it with direct estimation of the bivariate Tobit likelihood function (Bitobit) and multiple imputation. We assess sensitivity to inhomogeneity and non...

  1. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-03-09

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly is developed for CPV system. • Single set of concentrator, concentrates sunlight on 4 MJCs with 1° acceptance angle. • The system performance is analyzed through experiment and ray tracing simulation. • Mini two axis solar tracker, with high tracking accuracy, is developed and tested. • Electrical rating analysis accurately estimates CPV system performance in any region. - Abstract: Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region.

  3. An entanglement concentration protocol for cluster states using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The purpose of this paper is a proposal on entanglement concentration protocol for cluster states. The protocol uses CNOT gate operation and is assisted with a single qubit. Moreover, the local and non-local operations are performed by a single party. We also make a comparative numerical study of the residual ...

  4. An entanglement concentration protocol for cluster states using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is a proposal on entanglement concentration protocol forcluster states. The protocol uses CNOT gate operation and is assisted with a single qubit. Moreover, the local and non-local operations are performed by a single party. We also make a comparative numerical study of the residual ...

  5. Avaliação algimétrica por estímulo nociceptivo térmico e pressórico em cães pré-tratados com levomepromazina, midazolam e quetamina associados ou não ao butorfanol ou buprenorfina The algimetry evaluation for thermic and pressoric nociceptive stimulus in pre treated dogs with methotrimeprazine, midazolam and ketamine associated or not with butorphanol or buprenorphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leguthe Rosa

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar a dor em cães sob anestesia dissociativa através de estímulo térmico e pressórico e o período hábil de dois analgésicos opióides. MÉTODOS: Empregaram-se 30 cães alocados em três grupos (n=10, onde os animais de GI receberam levomepromazina e midazolam associado na mesma seringa à quetamina. Os animais de GII receberam o mesmo tratamento de GI porém associado ao butorfanol e por fim os animais de GIII receberam o mesmo tratamento de GI associando-se a buprenorfina. Procedeu se a avaliação paramétrica rotineira, empregando-se, entretanto, a termoalgimetria mensurada em °C em média de 52°C e a pressoalgimetria em kg. RESULTADOS: Na termoalgimetria houve diferença significativa em GI nos momentos M0 e M1,e em M4 e M5. Em GII houve diferença em M0, M1, M5 e M6. Em GIII houve diferença entre momentos M0 e M1. Na pressoalgimetria houveram diferenças em GI em diferentes momentos: M0, M2 e M3. Em GII observaram-se diferenças em todos os momentos. Em GIII observaram-se diferenças em M0 e M9. Ocorreram diferenças entre os grupos, sendo o M2 de GII menor que GI e GIII. Já em M4 e M5 de GIII demonstrou-se maior que GI e GII. E na avaliação dos períodos observou-se um período de latência significativamente maior em GI, porém com período hábil e de recuperação menor em relação à GII e GIII. Já a recuperação do tônus postural foi maior em GIII seguido de GII e finalmente de GI. CONCLUSÃO: O método empregado para mensuração do estímulo álgico foi eficiente, observando-se um período hábil analgésico de 3 horas para o butorfanol e de 6 horas para a buprenorfina.PURPOSE: This study aimed at quantifies the pain in dogs under dissociative anesthesia, across thermal and pressoric stimulus and quantify the reasonable period between two different opioids analgesics. METHODS: In this study, 30 dogs were used and, divided into three groups of 10 animals each, in which the animals of GI received

  6. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  7. Single photon from a single trapped atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingjan, J.; Jones, M.P.A.; Beugnon, J.; Darquiee, B.; Bergamini, S.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum treatment of the interaction between atoms and light usually begins with the simplest model system: a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light wave. Here we demonstrate an elegant experimental realization of this system using an optically trapped single rubidium atom illuminated by resonant light pulses. We observe Rabi oscillations, and show that this system can be used as a highly efficient triggered source of single photons with a well-defined polarisation. In contrast to other sources based on neutral atoms and trapped ions, no optical cavity is required. We achieved a flux of single photons of about 10 4 s -1 at the detector, and observe complete antibunching. This source has potential applications for distributed atom-atom entanglement using single photons. (author)

  8. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  9. Vapor concentration monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayly, John G.; Booth, Ronald J.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

  10. Uranium concentration in fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, J.; Uyeda, C.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it is known that fossil bones tend to accumulate uranium. The uranium concentration, C u in fossils has been measured so far by γ ray spectroscopy or by fission track method. The authors applied secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, to detect the uranium in fossil samples. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of semi-quantitative analyses of uranium in fossils, and to study the correlation between C u and the age of fossil bones. The further purpose of this work is to apply SIMS to measure the distribution of C u in fossil teeth

  11. Boric acid concentration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kysela, J.; Mickal, V.; Racek, J.

    1978-01-01

    Boric acid concentration was measured by thermal neutron absorption in the study of the boric acid sorption and desorption curves on an anion exchange resin. Ra-Be 18.5 GBq and Am-Be 111 GBq sources and water as a moderator were used. The SNM 12 cylindrical corona detector with 10 B placed in the middle of the measuring cell was used for neutron flux measurement. The HP 9600 E computer system was used for measured data collection and evaluation. (Ha)

  12. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  13. Concentric needle single fiber electromyography: normative jitter values on voluntary activated Extensor Digitorum Communis Eletromiografia de fibra única com agulha concêntrica: valores normativos do jitter no estudo por contração voluntária do músculo Extensor Digitorum Communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG is the most sensitive clinical neurophysiological test for neuromuscular junction disorders, particularly myasthenia gravis. Normal values for jitter obtained with SFEMG electrode have been published, but there are few publications for concentric needle electrode (CNE. The aim of this study was to discuss the possibilities to analyse the jitter in CNE recordings and to get normal values of jitter for voluntary activated Extensor Digitorum Communis using disposable CNE. Fifty normal subjects were studied, 16 male and 34 female with a mean age of 37.1±10.3 years (19-55. The jitter values of action potentials pairs of isolated muscular fibers were expressed as the mean consecutive difference (MCD after 20 analysed potential pairs. The mean MCD (n=50 obtained was 24.2±2.8 µs (range of mean values in each subject was 18-31. Upper 95% confidence limit is 29.8 µs. The mean jitter of all potential pairs (n=1000 obtained was 24.07±7.30 µs (range 9-57. A practical upper limit for individual data is set to 46 µs. The mean interpotential interval (MIPI was 779±177 µs (range of individual mean values was 530-1412; there were no potentials with impulse blocking. The present study confirms that CNE is suitable for jitter analysis although certain precautions must be mentioned. Our findings of jitter values with CNE were similar to some other few reports in literature.Eletromiografia de fibra única (SFEMG é o método eletrofisiológico mais sensível para diagnóstico das desordens de junção neuromuscular, particularmente miastenia gravis. Jitter obtido por meio de eletrodo de SFEMG já foi padronizado, porém há poucas publicações com uso de eletrodo de agulha concêntrica (CNE. O objetivo deste estudo é discutir as possibilidades de analisar o jitter por registro com CNE e obter valores normativos para o músculo Extensor Digitorum Communis por ativação muscular mínima. Foram estudados 50 indiv

  14. Tracking integration in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally moving optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-05-09

    In this work the concept of tracking-integrated concentrating photovoltaics is studied and its capabilities are quantitatively analyzed. The design strategy desists from ideal concentration performance to reduce the external mechanical solar tracking effort in favor of a compact installation, possibly resulting in lower overall cost. The proposed optical design is based on an extended Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) algorithm and uses two laterally moving plano-convex lenses to achieve high concentration over a wide angular range of ±24°. It achieves 500× concentration, outperforming its conventional concentrating photovoltaic counterparts on a polar aligned single axis tracker.

  15. Dual temperature concentration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    In a dual temperature isotope exchange system--exemplified by exchange of deuterium and protium between water and hydrogen sulfide gas in hot and cold towers, in which the feed stream (water) containing the desired isotope is passed through a pair of towers maintained at different temperatures wherein it effects isotope exchange with countercurrently circulated auxiliary fluid (H 2 S) and is impoverished in said isotope and then disposed of, e.g. discharged to waste,--the flow of isotope enriched auxiliary fluid between said towers (hot H 2 S saturated with water vapor) is divided and a part thereof is adjusted in its temperature (to cold tower conditions) and then passed to the auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower, while the remainder of the divided flow of such enriched auxiliary fluid is passed through a subsequent isotope concentration treatment to produce a product more highly enriched in the desired isotope and wherein it is also adjusted in its temperature and is impoverished in said isotope during said subsequent treatment before it is delivered to the said auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower. Certain provisions are made for returning to the hot tower liquid carried as vapor by the remainder of the divided flow to the subsequent isotope concentration treatment, for recovering sensible and latent heat, and for reducing passage of auxiliary fluid to waste

  16. The luminescent concentrator illuminated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slooff, L.H.; Kinderman, R.; Burgers, A.R.; Van Roosmalen, J.A.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Buechtemann, A.; Danz, R. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research, Geiselbergstr. 69, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Meyer, T.B. [Solaronix SA, Rue de l' Ouriette 129, CH-1170 Aubonne (Switzerland); Chatten, A.J.; Farell, D.; Barnham, K.W.J. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    Luminescent concentrator (LC) plates with different dyes were combined with standard multicrystalline silicon solar cells. External quantum efficiency measurements were performed, showing an increase in electrical current of the silicon cell (under AM1.5, 1 sun conditions, at normal incidence) compared to a bare cell. The influence of dye concentration and plate dimensions are addressed. The best results show a 1.7 times increase in the current from the LC/silicon cell compared to the silicon cell alone. This corresponds to an increase in power conversion efficiency of the silicon cell from 15 to 25%. To broaden the absorption spectrum of the LC, a second dye was incorporated in the LC plates. This results in a relative increase of 5-8% with respect to the one dye LC, giving a maximum power conversion efficiency of 26% on cell area. Using an extended ray-tracing model transmission, reflection and external quantum efficiency spectra were simulated and compared with measured spectra. The simulations deliver the luminescent quantum efficiencies of the two dyes as well as the background absorption by the polymer host. It is found that the quantum efficiency of the red emitting dye is 87%, which is one of the major loss factors in the measured LC. Using ray-tracing simulations it can be predicted that increasing the quantum efficiency to 95% would reduce this loss by almost 30%.

  17. Luminescent solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Tosun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC is a device that has luminescent molecules embedding or topping polymeric or glass waveguide to generate electricity from sunlight with a photovoltaic cell attachment. LSCs can be employed both in small and large scale projects, independent on the direction or angle of the surface with respect to the sun, promising more freedom for integration in urban environments compared to the traditional PV systems. The aim of the SEB&C PDEng project is to investigate the applicability of this innovative technology in the built environment and to bridge the gap of knowledge linking societal, design and technological aspects. The final goal is to exhibit potential application concepts of LSC developed by co-creative methods at SPARK campus which is a hub for open innovation in built environment. Necessity of a paradigm shift towards sustainable and smart cities came into being due to the significant increase in energy demand of the buildings. The challenge is to increase renewable sources in the energy mix while designing aesthetic environments. Thus, building integrated renewable energy technologies represent a great opportunity to help overcome this current challenge. Smart energy, energy efficiency and use of renewable sources are key aspects to be considered nowadays and many innovative technologies need further exploitation to be commercially viable, such as luminescent solar concentrator.

  18. Compared performance of fresnel-based concentrators at array level

    OpenAIRE

    Mohedano del Pozo, Raúl; Cvetkovic, Aleksandra; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Chaves, Julio; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Buljan, Marina

    2010-01-01

    At module level (one single solar cell), the Fresnel-Köhler (FK) concentrator comprises a perfect irradiance uniformity along with quite high concentration-acceptance angle product and loose manufacturing tolerances. At the same time, it maintains the efficiency/simplicity of other Fresnel-based concentrators. All these facts, along with the pill-box shape of its transmission curve, permit an enhanced performance of this device, compared to its competitors, at array level, because the system ...

  19. Multijunction solar cells for conversion of concentrated sunlight to electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Geisz, John

    2010-04-26

    Solar-cell efficiencies have exceeded 40% in recent years. The keys to achieving these high efficiencies include: 1) use of multiple materials that span the solar spectrum, 2) growth of these materials with near-perfect quality by using epitaxial growth on single-crystal substrates, and 3) use of concentration. Growth of near-perfect semiconductor materials is possible when the lattice constants of the materials are matched or nearly matched to that of a single-crystal substrate. Multiple material combinations have now demonstrated efficiencies exceeding 40%, motivating incorporation of these cells into concentrator systems for electricity generation. The use of concentration confers several key advantages.

  20. Concentration solar thermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, F.

    2011-01-01

    As the production of electricity by concentration solar power (CSP) installations is said to be a source of energy for the future, the author discusses past experiments (notably the French Thermis project), and the different techniques which are currently being used. He indicates the regions which appear to be the most appropriate for this technique. He presents the three main techniques: parabolic cylinder, tower, and Stirling cycle installations. He discusses the issue of intermittency. He proposes an assessment of prices and of their evolution, and indicates the investments made in different installations (in Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal). He comments the case of hybrid installations (sun and gas), evokes the Desertec project proposed by the German industry which comprises a set of hybrid installations. He notices that there is no significant technological evolution for this process

  1. Stress concentration at notches

    CERN Document Server

    Savruk, Mykhaylo P

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles solutions of linear theory of elasticity problems for isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches. It contains an overview of established and recent achievements, and presents the authors’ original solutions in the field considered with extensive discussion. The volume demonstrates through numerous, useful examples the effectiveness of singular integral equations for obtaining exact solutions of boundary problems of the theory of elasticity for bodies with cracks and notches. Incorporating analytical and numerical solutions of the problems of stress concentrations in solid bodies with crack-like defects, this volume is ideal for scientists and PhD students dealing with the problems of theory of elasticity and fracture mechanics. Stands as a modern and extensive compendium of solutions to the problems of linear theory of elasticity of isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches; Adopts a highly reader-friendly layout of tables, charts, approximation ...

  2. Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Lee A.; Loomis, James; Bhatia, Bikram; Bierman, David M.; Wang, Evelyn N.; Chen, Gang

    2015-12-09

    Solar energy is a bountiful renewable energy resource: the energy in the sunlight that reaches Earth in an hour exceeds the energy consumed by all of humanity in a year.(1) While the phrase “solar energy conversion” probably brings photovoltaic (PV) cells to mind first, PV is not the only option for generating electricity from sunlight. Another promising technology for solar energy conversion is solar–thermal conversion, commonly referred to as concentrating solar power (CSP).(2) The first utility-scale CSP plants were constructed in the 1980s, but in the two decades that followed, CSP saw little expansion.(3, 4) More recent years, however, have seen a CSP renaissance due to unprecedented growth in the adoption of CSP.(3, 5) Photographs of two operating CSP plants, a parabolic trough collector plant and a central receiver (or “power tower”), are shown here.

  3. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  4. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  5. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, padults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust

  6. Holographic lenses for building integrated concentrating photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemisana, Daniel; Collados, Ma Victoria; Quintanilla, Manuel; Atencia, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A holographic solar concentrator has been designed, constructed and characterised. • The system configuration is suitable for building integration. • The holographic lens diffracts in the bandwidth to which the cell is more sensitive. • The system prevents the cell overheating. • The use of the holographic element increases the electrical efficiency of the system. - Abstract: A volume transmission phase holographic element was designed and constructed to perform as a building integrated photovoltaic concentrator. The holographic lens diffracts light in the spectral bandwidth to which the cell presents the highest sensitivity with a concentration factor of 3.6X. In this way, the cell is protected from overheating because the infrared for which the solar cell is not sensitive is not concentrated. In addition, based on the asymmetric angular selectivity of the volume hologram and based on the linear concentration, only single-axis tracking is needed. The use of the holographic element increases the efficiency of the PV cell by 3% and the fill factor by 8%

  7. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  8. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  9. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallick, Tapas K

    2015-07-31

    Man's harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies' wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies' thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  10. Single-molecule theory of enzymatic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Tal; Reuveni, Shlomi; Urbakh, Michael

    2018-02-22

    The classical theory of enzymatic inhibition takes a deterministic, bulk based approach to quantitatively describe how inhibitors affect the progression of enzymatic reactions. Catalysis at the single-enzyme level is, however, inherently stochastic which could lead to strong deviations from classical predictions. To explore this, we take the single-enzyme perspective and rebuild the theory of enzymatic inhibition from the bottom up. We find that accounting for multi-conformational enzyme structure and intrinsic randomness should strongly change our view on the uncompetitive and mixed modes of inhibition. There, stochastic fluctuations at the single-enzyme level could make inhibitors act as activators; and we state-in terms of experimentally measurable quantities-a mathematical condition for the emergence of this surprising phenomenon. Our findings could explain why certain molecules that inhibit enzymatic activity when substrate concentrations are high, elicit a non-monotonic dose response when substrate concentrations are low.

  11. Point-focus spectral splitting solar concentrator for multiple cells concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragliano, Carlo; Chiesa, Matteo; Stefancich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and experimentally validate a low-cost design of a spectral splitting concentrator for the efficient conversion of solar energy. The optical device consists of a dispersive prismatic lens made of polycarbonate designed to simultaneously concentrate solar light and split it into its spectral components. With respect to our previous implementation, this device concentrates light along two axes and generates a light pattern compatible with the dimensions of a set of concentrating photovoltaic cells, while providing a higher concentration ratio. The mathematical framework and the constructive approach used for the design are presented and the device performance is simulated using ray-tracing software. We obtain spectral separation in the visible range within a 3 × 1 cm 2 area and a maximum concentration of 210× for a single wavelength. The device is fabricated by injection molding and its performance is experimentally investigated. We measure an optical transmissivity above 90% in the range 400–800 nm and we observe a spectral distribution in good accordance with simulations. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of the device for cost effective high efficiency concentrated photovoltaic systems. (paper)

  12. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-14

    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides of the membrane, little is known about membrane resistance when the membrane is placed between solutions of different concentrations, such as in a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack. Ionic resistance measurements obtained using Selemion CMV and AMV that separated sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate solutions of different concentrations were greater than those measured using only the high-concentration solution. Measured RED stack resistances showed good agreement with resistances calculated using an equivalent series resistance model, where the membranes accounted for 46% of the total stack resistance. The high area resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling and optimizing membranes used in RED systems.

  13. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule spectroscopy. (SMS), confocal microscopy,. FCS, sm-FRET, FLIM. 1 High-resolution spectrum re- fers to a spectrum consisting of very sharp lines. The sharp lines clearly display transitions to ...

  14. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE. February 2015. GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule ..... Resonance Energy. Transfer (FRET) is an elegant technique to measure the distance between a donor and an acceptor molecule. FRET refers to the.

  15. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct. Keywords. Nonlocality; single particle; hidden variables. PACS Nos 03.67.Ba; 03.65.Ta; 32.80.Lg; 07.79.Fc. 1. Introduction. Quantum nonlocality [2] for single particle is a subject of debate since the origin.

  16. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  17. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  18. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  19. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  20. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  1. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  2. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different...... structures and properties have been proposed in the literature. The main aim of this paper is to provide a review of these PLLs. To this end, the single-phase PLLs are first classified into two major categories: 1) power-based PLLs (pPLLs), and 2) quadrature signal generation-based PLLs (QSG......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....