Thermodynamic Metrics and Optimal Paths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sivak, David; Crooks, Gavin
2012-05-08
A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.
Random shortest path metrics with applications
Engels, Christian; Manthey, Bodo; Raghavendra Rao, B.V.; Brieden, A.; Görgülü, Z.-K.; Krug, T.; Kropat, E.; Meyer-Nieberg, S.; Mihelcic, G.; Pickl, S.W.
2012-01-01
We consider random metric instances for optimization problems obtained as follows: Every edge of a complete graph gets a weight drawn independently at random. And then the length of an edge is the length of a shortest path with respect to these weights that connects its two endpoints. We prove that
Metric Distance Ranking Technique for Fuzzy Critical Path Analysis ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, fuzzy critical path analysis of a project network is carried out. Metric distance ranking technique is used to order fuzzy numbers during the forward and backward pass computations to obtain the earliest start, earliest finish, latest start and latest finish times of the project's activities. A numerical example is ...
Conceptual Soundness, Metric Development, Benchmarking, and Targeting for PATH Subprogram Evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mosey. G.; Doris, E.; Coggeshall, C.; Antes, M.; Ruch, J.; Mortensen, J.
2009-01-01
The objective of this study is to evaluate the conceptual soundness of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) program's revised goals and establish and apply a framework to identify and recommend metrics that are the most useful for measuring PATH's progress. This report provides an evaluative review of PATH's revised goals, outlines a structured method for identifying and selecting metrics, proposes metrics and benchmarks for a sampling of individual PATH programs, and discusses other metrics that potentially could be developed that may add value to the evaluation process. The framework and individual program metrics can be used for ongoing management improvement efforts and to inform broader program-level metrics for government reporting requirements.
Reparametrization in the path integral over finite dimensional manifold with a time-dependent metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storchak, S.N.
1988-01-01
The path reparametrization procedure in the path integral is considered using the methods of stochastic processes for diffusion on finite dimensional manifold with a time-dependent metric. the reparametrization Jacobian has been obtained. The formulas of reparametrization for a symbolic presentation of the path integral have been derived
Energy-aware path selection metric for IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networking
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mhlanga, MM
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11s working group has commenced activities, which would lead to the development of a standard for wireless mesh networks (WMNs). The draft of 802.11s introduces a new path selection metric called airtime link metric. However...
Energy-aware path selection metric for IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networking
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mhlanga, MM
2009-08-01
Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11s working group has commenced activities, which would lead to the development of a standard for wireless mesh networks (WMNs). The draft of 802.11s introduces a new path selection metric called airtime link metric. However...
Using Metric Distance Ranking Method to Find Intuitionistic Fuzzy Critical Path
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Jayagowri
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Network analysis is a technique which determines the various sequences of activities concerning a project and the project completion time. The popular methods of this technique which is widely used are the critical path method and program evaluation and review techniques. The aim of this paper is to present an analytical method for measuring the criticality in an (Atanassov intuitionistic fuzzy project network. Vague parameters in the project network are represented by (Atanassov intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. A metric distance ranking method for (Atanassov intuitionistic fuzzy numbers to a critical path method is proposed. (Atanassov Intuitionistic fuzzy critical length of the project network is found without converting the (Atanassov intuitionistic fuzzy activity times to classical numbers. The fuzzified conversion of the problem has been discussed with the numerical example. We also apply four different ranking procedures and we compare it with metric distance ranking method. Comparison reveals that the proposed ranking method is better than other raking procedures.
Reducing Interconnect Complexity for Efficient Path Metric Memory Management in Viterbi Decoders
Shieh, Ming-Der; Wang, Tai-Ping; Wu, Chien-Ming
We present a systematic and efficient way of managing the path metric memory and simplifying its connection network to the add_compare_select unit (ACSU) for Viterbi decoder (VD) design. Using the derived equations for memory partition and add-compare-select (ACS) arrangement together with the extended in-place scheduling scheme proposed in this work, we can increase the memory bandwidth for conflict-free path metric accesses with hardwired interconnection between the path metric memory and ACSU. Compared with the existing work, the developed architecture possesses the following advantages: (1) Each partitioned memory bank can be treated as a local memory of a specific processing element, inside the ACSU, with hardwired interconnection, so that the interconnect complexity is reduced significantly. (2) The partitioned memory banks can be merged into only two pseudo-banks regardless of the number of adopted ACS processing elements. This not only greatly simplifies the design of address generation unit, but also makes smaller the physical size of required memory. (3) The implementation can be accomplished in a systematic way with regular and simple controlling circuitry. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed architecture and the benefit will be more apparent for convolutional codes with large memory order.
A Single Conjunction Risk Assessment Metric: the F-Value
Frigm, Ryan Clayton; Newman, Lauri K.
2009-01-01
The Conjunction Assessment Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center provides conjunction risk assessment for many NASA robotic missions. These risk assessments are based on several figures of merit, such as miss distance, probability of collision, and orbit determination solution quality. However, these individual metrics do not singly capture the overall risk associated with a conjunction, making it difficult for someone without this complete understanding to take action, such as an avoidance maneuver. The goal of this analysis is to introduce a single risk index metric that can easily convey the level of risk without all of the technical details. The proposed index is called the conjunction "F-value." This paper presents the concept of the F-value and the tuning of the metric for use in routine Conjunction Assessment operations.
Best practice for caching of single-path code
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schoeberl, Martin; Cilku, Bekim; Prokesch, Daniel
2017-01-01
Single-path code has some unique properties that make it interesting to explore different caching and prefetching alternatives for the stream of instructions. In this paper, we explore different cache organizations and how they perform with single-path code....
Best Practice for Caching of Single-Path Code
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schoeberl, Martin; Cilku, Bekim; Prokesch, Daniel
2017-01-01
Single-path code has some unique properties that make it interesting to explore different caching and prefetching alternatives for the stream of instructions. In this paper, we explore different cache organizations and how they perform with single-path code....
Computing the Stretch Factor of Paths, Trees, and Cycles in Weighted Fixed Orientation Metrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wulff-Nilsen, Christian
2008-01-01
Let G be a graph embedded in the L_1-plane. The stretch factor of G is the maximum over all pairs of distinct vertices p and q of G of the ratio L_1^G(p,q)/L_1(p,q), where L_1^G(p,q) is the L_1-distance in G between p and q. We show how to compute the stretch factor of an n-vertex path in O(n*(lo......(n*(log n)^2) worst-case time and O(n) space and we mention generalizations to trees and cycles, to general weighted fixed orientation metrics, and to higher dimensions....
Random Shortest Paths: Non-Euclidean Instances for Metric Optimization Problems
Bringmann, Karl; Engels, Christian; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra
Probabilistic analysis for metric optimization problems has mostly been conducted on random Euclidean instances, but little is known about metric instances drawn from distributions other than the Euclidean. This motivates our study of random metric instances for optimization problems obtained as
Random shortest paths: non-euclidean instances for metric optimization problems
Bringmann, Karl; Engels, Christian; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra; Chatterjee, K.; Sgall, J.
2013-01-01
Probabilistic analysis for metric optimization problems has mostly been conducted on random Euclidean instances, but little is known about metric instances drawn from distributions other than the Euclidean. This motivates our study of random metric instances for optimization problems obtained as
Transition paths in single-molecule force spectroscopy.
Cossio, Pilar; Hummer, Gerhard; Szabo, Attila
2018-03-28
In a typical single-molecule force spectroscopy experiment, the ends of the molecule of interest are connected by long polymer linkers to a pair of mesoscopic beads trapped in the focus of two laser beams. At constant force load, the total extension, i.e., the end-to-end distance of the molecule plus linkers, is measured as a function of time. In the simplest systems, the measured extension fluctuates about two values characteristic of folded and unfolded states, with occasional transitions between them. We have recently shown that molecular (un)folding rates can be recovered from such trajectories, with a small linker correction, as long as the characteristic time of the bead fluctuations is shorter than the residence time in the unfolded (folded) state. Here, we show that accurate measurements of the molecular transition path times require an even faster apparatus response. Transition paths, the trajectory segments in which the molecule (un)folds, are properly resolved only if the beads fluctuate more rapidly than the end-to-end distance of the molecule. Therefore, over a wide regime, the measured rates may be meaningful but not the transition path times. Analytic expressions for the measured mean transition path times are obtained for systems diffusing anisotropically on a two-dimensional free energy surface. The transition path times depend on the properties both of the molecule and of the pulling device.
Connection Setup Signaling Scheme with Flooding-Based Path Searching for Diverse-Metric Network
Kikuta, Ko; Ishii, Daisuke; Okamoto, Satoru; Oki, Eiji; Yamanaka, Naoaki
Connection setup on various computer networks is now achieved by GMPLS. This technology is based on the source-routing approach, which requires the source node to store metric information of the entire network prior to computing a route. Thus all metric information must be distributed to all network nodes and kept up-to-date. However, as metric information become more diverse and generalized, it is hard to update all information due to the huge update overhead. Emerging network services and applications require the network to support diverse metrics for achieving various communication qualities. Increasing the number of metrics supported by the network causes excessive processing of metric update messages. To reduce the number of metric update messages, another scheme is required. This paper proposes a connection setup scheme that uses flooding-based signaling rather than the distribution of metric information. The proposed scheme requires only flooding of signaling messages with requested metric information, no routing protocol is required. Evaluations confirm that the proposed scheme achieves connection establishment without excessive overhead. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme greatly reduces the number of control messages compared to the conventional scheme, while their blocking probabilities are comparable.
Creating Helical Tool Paths for Single Point Incremental Forming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skjødt, Martin; Hancock, Michael H.; Bay, Niels
2007-01-01
Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a relatively new sheet forming process. A sheet is clamped in a rig and formed incrementally using a rotating single point tool in the form of a rod with a spherical end. The process is often performed on a CNC milling machine and the tool movement...... is programed using CAM software intended for surface milling. Often the function called profile milling or contour milling is applied. Using this milling function the tool only has a continuous feed rate in two directions X and Y, which is the plane of the undeformed sheet. The feed in the vertical Z direction...... from the profile milling code and converts them into a helical tool path with continuous feed in all three directions. Using the helical tool path the scarring is removed, the part is otherwise unchanged and a major disadvantage of using milling software for SPIF is removed. The solution...
Using Metric Distance Ranking Method to Find Intuitionistic Fuzzy Critical Path
Jayagowri, P.; Geetharamani, G.
2015-01-01
Network analysis is a technique which determines the various sequences of activities concerning a project and the project completion time. The popular methods of this technique which is widely used are the critical path method and program evaluation and review techniques. The aim of this paper is to present an analytical method for measuring the criticality in an (Atanassov) intuitionistic fuzzy project network. Vague parameters in the project network are represented by (Atanassov) intuitioni...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingsong Li
2016-10-01
Full Text Available A robust sparse least-mean mixture-norm (LMMN algorithm is proposed, and its performance is appraised in the context of estimating a broadband multi-path wireless channel. The proposed algorithm is implemented via integrating a correntropy-induced metric (CIM penalty into the conventional LMMN algorithm to modify the basic cost function, which is denoted as the CIM-based LMMN (CIM-LMMN algorithm. The proposed CIM-LMMN algorithm is derived in detail within the kernel framework. The updating equation of CIM-LMMN can provide a zero attractor to attract the non-dominant channel coefficients to zeros, and it also gives a tradeoff between the sparsity and the estimation misalignment. Moreover, the channel estimation behavior is investigated over a broadband sparse multi-path wireless channel, and the simulation results are compared with the least mean square/fourth (LMS/F, least mean square (LMS, least mean fourth (LMF and the recently-developed sparse channel estimation algorithms. The channel estimation performance obtained from the designated sparse channel estimation demonstrates that the CIM-LMMN algorithm outperforms the recently-developed sparse LMMN algorithms and the relevant sparse channel estimation algorithms. From the results, we can see that our CIM-LMMN algorithm is robust and is superior to these mentioned algorithms in terms of both the convergence speed rate and the channel estimation misalignment for estimating a sparse channel.
Improving performance of single-path code through a time-predictable memory hierarchy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cilku, Bekim; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Prokesch, Daniel
2017-01-01
. The single-path code generation overcomes these problems by generating time-predictable code that has a single execution trace. However, the simplicity of this approach comes at the cost of longer execution times. This paper addresses performance improvements for single-path code. We propose a time......-predictable memory hierarchy with a prefetcher that exploits the predictability of execution traces in single-path code to speed up code execution. The new memory hierarchy reduces both the cache-miss penalty time and the cache-miss rate on the instruction cache. The benefit of the approach is demonstrated through...
Protein-fold recognition using an improved single-source K diverse shortest paths algorithm.
Lhota, John; Xie, Lei
2016-04-01
Protein structure prediction, when construed as a fold recognition problem, is one of the most important applications of similarity search in bioinformatics. A new protein-fold recognition method is reported which combines a single-source K diverse shortest path (SSKDSP) algorithm with Enrichment of Network Topological Similarity (ENTS) algorithm to search a graphic feature space generated using sequence similarity and structural similarity metrics. A modified, more efficient SSKDSP algorithm is developed to improve the performance of graph searching. The new implementation of the SSKDSP algorithm empirically requires 82% less memory and 61% less time than the current implementation, allowing for the analysis of larger, denser graphs. Furthermore, the statistical significance of fold ranking generated from SSKDSP is assessed using ENTS. The reported ENTS-SSKDSP algorithm outperforms original ENTS that uses random walk with restart for the graph search as well as other state-of-the-art protein structure prediction algorithms HHSearch and Sparks-X, as evaluated by a benchmark of 600 query proteins. The reported methods may easily be extended to other similarity search problems in bioinformatics and chemoinformatics. The SSKDSP software is available at http://compsci.hunter.cuny.edu/~leixie/sskdsp.html. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Heuristic methods for single link shared backup path protection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Zachariasen, Martin
2014-01-01
schemes are employed. In contrast to manual intervention, automatic protection schemes such as shared backup path protection (SBPP) can recover from failure quickly and efficiently. SBPP is a simple but efficient protection scheme that can be implemented in backbone networks with technology available...... today. In SBPP backup paths are planned in advance for every failure scenario in order to recover from failures quickly and efficiently. Planning SBPP is an NP-hard optimization problem, and previous work confirms that it is time-consuming to solve the problem in practice using exact methods.We present...... heuristic algorithms and lower bound methods for the SBPP planning problem. Experimental results show that the heuristic algorithms are able to find good quality solutions in minutes. A solution gap of less than 3.5 % was achieved for 5 of 7 benchmark instances (and a gap of less than 11 % for the remaining...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafa Espínola
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We study the existence of fixed points and convergence of iterates for asymptotic pointwise contractions in uniformly convex metric spaces. We also study the existence of fixed points for set-valued nonexpansive mappings in the same class of spaces. Our results do not assume convexity of the metric which makes a big difference when studying the existence of fixed points for set-valued mappings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Renmin; Wang, Liansan; Xu, Fan; Zhang, Yongdeng; Zhang, Mingshu; Liu, Zhiyong; Ren, Fei; Zhang, Fa
2015-01-01
The recent developments of far-field optical microscopy (single molecule imaging techniques) have overcome the diffraction barrier of light and improve image resolution by a factor of ten compared with conventional light microscopy. These techniques utilize the stochastic switching of probe molecules to overcome the diffraction limit and determine the precise localizations of molecules, which often requires a long image acquisition time. However, long acquisition times increase the risk of sample drift. In the case of high resolution microscopy, sample drift would decrease the image resolution. In this paper, we propose a novel metric based on the distance between molecules to solve the drift correction. The proposed metric directly uses the position information of molecules to estimate the frame drift. We also designed an algorithm to implement the metric for the general application of drift correction. There are two advantages of our method: First, because our method does not require space binning of positions of molecules but directly operates on the positions, it is more natural for single molecule imaging techniques. Second, our method can estimate drift with a small number of positions in each temporal bin, which may extend its potential application. The effectiveness of our method has been demonstrated by both simulated data and experiments on single molecular images
Creating Helical Tool Paths for Single Point Incremental Forming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skjødt, Martin; Hancock, Michael H.; Bay, Niels
2007-01-01
Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a relatively new sheet forming process. A sheet is clamped in a rig and formed incrementally using a rotating single point tool in the form of a rod with a spherical end. The process is often performed on a CNC milling machine and the tool movement...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morris, Tim R. [STAG Research Centre & Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2016-11-25
In single-metric approximations to the exact renormalization group (RG) for quantum gravity, it has been not been clear how to treat the large curvature domain beyond the point where the effective cutoff scale k is less than the lowest eigenvalue of the appropriate modified Laplacian. We explain why this puzzle arises from background dependence, resulting in Wilsonian RG concepts being inapplicable. We show that when properly formulated over an ensemble of backgrounds, the Wilsonian RG can be restored. This in turn implies that solutions should be smooth and well defined no matter how large the curvature is taken. Even for the standard single-metric type approximation schemes, this construction can be rigorously derived by imposing a modified Ward identity (mWI) corresponding to rescaling the background metric by a constant factor. However compatibility in this approximation requires the space-time dimension to be six. Solving the mWI and flow equation simultaneously, new variables are then derived that are independent of overall background scale.
Colombo, Carlo; Del Bimbo, Alberto; Pernici, Federico
2005-01-01
Image analysis and computer vision can be effectively employed to recover the three-dimensional structure of imaged objects, together with their surface properties. In this paper, we address the problem of metric reconstruction and texture acquisition from a single uncalibrated view of a surface of revolution (SOR). Geometric constraints induced in the image by the symmetry properties of the SOR structure are exploited to perform self-calibration of a natural camera, 3D metric reconstruction, and texture acquisition. By exploiting the analogy with the geometry of single axis motion, we demonstrate that the imaged apparent contour and the visible segments of two imaged cross sections in a single SOR view provide enough information for these tasks. Original contributions of the paper are: single view self-calibration and reconstruction based on planar rectification, previously developed for planar surfaces, has been extended to deal also with the SOR class of curved surfaces; self-calibration is obtained by estimating both camera focal length (one parameter) and principal point (two parameters) from three independent linear constraints for the SOR fixed entities; the invariant-based description of the SOR scaling function has been extended from affine to perspective projection. The solution proposed exploits both the geometric and topological properties of the transformation that relates the apparent contour to the SOR scaling function. Therefore, with this method, a metric localization of the SOR occluded parts can be made, so as to cope with them correctly. For the reconstruction of textured SORs, texture acquisition is performed without requiring the estimation of external camera calibration parameters, but only using internal camera parameters obtained from self-calibration.
Zhang, W; Soika, V; Meehan, J; Su, Z; Ge, W; Ng, H W; Perkins, R; Simonyan, V; Tong, W; Hong, H
2015-08-01
Although many quality control (QC) methods have been developed to improve the quality of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in SNV-calling, QC methods for use subsequent to single-nucleotide polymorphism-calling have not been reported. We developed five QC metrics to improve the quality of SNVs using the whole-genome-sequencing data of a monozygotic twin pair from the Korean Personal Genome Project. The QC metrics improved both repeatability between the monozygotic twin pair and reproducibility between SNV-calling pipelines. We demonstrated the QC metrics improve reproducibility of SNVs derived from not only whole-genome-sequencing data but also whole-exome-sequencing data. The QC metrics are calculated based on the reference genome used in the alignment without accessing the raw and intermediate data or knowing the SNV-calling details. Therefore, the QC metrics can be easily adopted in downstream association analysis.
Putri, Aulia Rizky
2015-01-01
One of important things in executing project construction is scheduling, which is required in order to predict the total duration of the project should be accomplished. The Critical Path Method is a vital tool for the planning and control of complex projects. The successful implementation of Critical Path Method requires the availability of a clear determined time duration for each activity. However, in the real world there is always uncertainty about determined time durations of activities i...
Gazan, Rozenn; Barré, Tangui; Perignon, Marlène; Maillot, Matthieu; Darmon, Nicole; Vieux, Florent
2018-01-01
The holistic approach required to assess diet sustainability is hindered by lack of comprehensive databases compiling relevant food metrics. Those metrics are generally scattered in different data sources with various levels of aggregation hampering their matching. The objective was to develop a general methodology to compile food metrics describing diet sustainability dimensions into a single database and to apply it to the French context. Each step of the methodology is detailed: indicators and food metrics identification and selection, food list definition, food matching and values assignment. For the French case, nutrient and contaminant content, bioavailability factors, distribution of dietary intakes, portion sizes, food prices, greenhouse gas emission, acidification and marine eutrophication estimates were allocated to 212 commonly consumed generic foods. This generic database compiling 279 metrics will allow the simultaneous evaluation of the four dimensions of diet sustainability, namely health, economic, social and environmental, dimensions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.
2016-01-01
Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…
A unique circular path of moving single bubble sonoluminescence in water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul; Mirheydari, Mona; Ebrahimi, Homa; Rezaee, Nastaran; Nikzad, Lida
2011-01-01
Based on a quasi-adiabatic model, the parameters of the bubble interior for a moving single bubble sonoluminescence (m-SBSL) in water are calculated. By using a complete form of the hydrodynamic force, a unique circular path for the m-SBSL in water is obtained. The effect of the ambient pressure variation on the bubble trajectory is also investigated. It is concluded that as the ambient pressure increases, the bubble moves along a circular path with a larger radius and all bubble parameters, such as gas pressure, interior temperature and light intensity, increase. A comparison is made between the parameters of the moving bubble in water and those in N-methylformamide. With fluid viscosity increasing, the circular path changes into an elliptic form and the light intensity increases. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Prograph Based Analysis of Single Source Shortest Path Problem with Few Distinct Positive Lengths
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Bhowmik
2011-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose an experimental study model S3P2 of a fast fully dynamic programming algorithm design technique in finite directed graphs with few distinct nonnegative real edge weights. The Bellman-Ford’s approach for shortest path problems has come out in various implementations. In this paper the approach once again is re-investigated with adjacency matrix selection in associate least running time. The model tests proposed algorithm against arbitrarily but positive valued weighted digraphs introducing notion of Prograph that speeds up finding the shortest path over previous implementations. Our experiments have established abstract results with the intention that the proposed algorithm can consistently dominate other existing algorithms for Single Source Shortest Path Problems. A comparison study is also shown among Dijkstra’s algorithm, Bellman-Ford algorithm, and our algorithm.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrari, Frank, E-mail: frank.ferrari@ulb.ac.be [Service de Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine, CP 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Klevtsov, Semyon, E-mail: semyon.klevtsov@ulb.ac.be [Service de Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine, CP 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Zelditch, Steve, E-mail: zelditch@math.northwestern.edu [Department of Mathematics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)
2013-04-01
The purpose of this article is to propose a new method to define and calculate path integrals over metrics on a Kaehler manifold. The main idea is to use finite dimensional spaces of Bergman metrics, as an approximation to the full space of Kaehler metrics. We use the theory of large deviations to decide when a sequence of probability measures on the spaces of Bergman metrics tends to a limit measure on the space of all Kaehler metrics. Several examples are considered.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Cavoli, P.
2016-01-01
This study concerns the domain of the microelectronics. It consists in the study of the impact of the 3D morphology of the energy deposit on the Single Event Effect (SEE) modeling, induced by atmospheric muons. Over a first phase, the approach has consisted in the modeling of the energy deposit induced by protons in nano-metric volumes. For that purpose the use of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4 has allowed us to simulate and stock in a database the tracks characteristics of the energy deposit induced by protons. Once the approach validated for the protons, simulations of the energy deposit induced by muons have been realized. A CCD camera has been used in order to measure the radiative atmospheric environment and to constrain the modeling of the energy deposit induced by muons. This study highlights and quantify the contribution of the radial distribution of the energy deposit induced by protons in nano-metric volumes for the SEE prediction. On the other hand, the study shows that the contribution of the radial distribution of the energy deposit induced by muons in nano-metric volumes has a negligible impact on the SEE modeling. It will be interesting to realize measurements of the energy deposit induced by muons in nano-metric technologies under particle accelerator. This will allow to bring experimental data still nonexistent necessary to the development of new physical models more accurate on the modeling of the energy deposit induced by muons. (author)
Optimal path planning for single and multiple aircraft using a reduced order formulation
Twigg, Shannon S.
High-flying unmanned reconnaissance and surveillance systems are now being used extensively in the United States military. Current development programs are producing demonstrations of next-generation unmanned flight systems that are designed to perform combat missions. Their use in first-strike combat operations will dictate operations in densely cluttered environments that include unknown obstacles and threats, and will require the use of terrain for masking. The demand for autonomy of operations in such environments dictates the need for advanced trajectory optimization capabilities. In addition, the ability to coordinate the movements of more than one aircraft in the same area is an emerging challenge. This thesis examines using an analytical reduced order formulation for trajectory generation for minimum time and terrain masking cases. First, pseudo-3D constant velocity equations of motion are used for path planning for a single vehicle. In addition, the inclusion of winds, moving targets and moving threats is considered. Then, this formulation is increased to using 3D equations of motion, both with a constant velocity and with a simplified varying velocity model. Next, the constant velocity equations of motion are expanded to include the simultaneous path planning of an unspecified number of vehicles, for both aircraft avoidance situations and formation flight cases.
Upgrade of a Scanning Confocal Microscope to a Single-Beam Path STED Microscope.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
André Klauss
Full Text Available By overcoming the diffraction limit in light microscopy, super-resolution techniques, such as stimulated emission depletion (STED microscopy, are experiencing an increasing impact on life sciences. High costs and technically demanding setups, however, may still hinder a wider distribution of this innovation in biomedical research laboratories. As far-field microscopy is the most widely employed microscopy modality in the life sciences, upgrading already existing systems seems to be an attractive option for achieving diffraction-unlimited fluorescence microscopy in a cost-effective manner. Here, we demonstrate the successful upgrade of a commercial time-resolved confocal fluorescence microscope to an easy-to-align STED microscope in the single-beam path layout, previously proposed as "easy-STED", achieving lateral resolution < λ/10 corresponding to a five-fold improvement over a confocal modality. For this purpose, both the excitation and depletion laser beams pass through a commercially available segmented phase plate that creates the STED-doughnut light distribution in the focal plane, while leaving the excitation beam unaltered when implemented into the joint beam path. Diffraction-unlimited imaging of 20 nm-sized fluorescent beads as reference were achieved with the wavelength combination of 635 nm excitation and 766 nm depletion. To evaluate the STED performance in biological systems, we compared the popular phalloidin-coupled fluorescent dyes Atto647N and Abberior STAR635 by labeling F-actin filaments in vitro as well as through immunofluorescence recordings of microtubules in a complex epithelial tissue. Here, we applied a recently proposed deconvolution approach and showed that images obtained from time-gated pulsed STED microscopy may benefit concerning the signal-to-background ratio, from the joint deconvolution of sub-images with different spatial information which were extracted from offline time gating.
Nicol, Sam; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Diffendorfer, James E.; Mattsson, Brady; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Semmens, Darius J.; Laura Lopez-Hoffman,; Norris, Ryan
2016-01-01
Mobile species with complex spatial dynamics can be difficult to manage because their population distributions vary across space and time, and because the consequences of managing particular habitats are uncertain when evaluated at the level of the entire population. Metrics to assess the importance of habitats and pathways connecting habitats in a network are necessary to guide a variety of management decisions. Given the many metrics developed for spatially structured models, it can be challenging to select the most appropriate one for a particular decision. To guide the management of spatially structured populations, we define three classes of metrics describing habitat and pathway quality based on their data requirements (graph-based, occupancy-based, and demographic-based metrics) and synopsize the ecological literature relating to these classes. Applying the first steps of a formal decision-making approach (problem framing, objectives, and management actions), we assess the utility of metrics for particular types of management decisions. Our framework can help managers with problem framing, choosing metrics of habitat and pathway quality, and to elucidate the data needs for a particular metric. Our goal is to help managers to narrow the range of suitable metrics for a management project, and aid in decision-making to make the best use of limited resources.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stavros I. Dimitriadis
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Structural brain networks estimated from diffusion MRI (dMRI via tractography have been widely studied in healthy controls and patients with neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, few studies have addressed the reliability of derived network metrics both node-specific and network-wide. Different network weighting strategies (NWS can be adopted to weight the strength of connection between two nodes yielding structural brain networks that are almost fully-weighted. Here, we scanned five healthy participants five times each, using a diffusion-weighted MRI protocol and computed edges between 90 regions of interest (ROI from the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL template. The edges were weighted according to nine different methods. We propose a linear combination of these nine NWS into a single graph using an appropriate diffusion distance metric. We refer to the resulting weighted graph as an Integrated Weighted Structural Brain Network (ISWBN. Additionally, we consider a topological filtering scheme that maximizes the information flow in the brain network under the constraint of the overall cost of the surviving connections. We compared each of the nine NWS and the ISWBN based on the improvement of: (a intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC of well-known network metrics, both node-wise and per network level; and (b the recognition accuracy of each subject compared to the remainder of the cohort, as an attempt to access the uniqueness of the structural brain network for each subject, after first applying our proposed topological filtering scheme. Based on a threshold where the network level ICC should be >0.90, our findings revealed that six out of nine NWS lead to unreliable results at the network level, while all nine NWS were unreliable at the node level. In comparison, our proposed ISWBN performed as well as the best performing individual NWS at the network level, and the ICC was higher compared to all individual NWS at the node
Pease, Brent S; Nielsen, Clayton K; Holzmueller, Eric J
2016-01-01
The use of camera traps as a tool for studying wildlife populations is commonplace. However, few have considered how the number of detections of wildlife differ depending upon the number of camera traps placed at cameras-sites, and how this impacts estimates of occupancy and community composition. During December 2015-February 2016, we deployed four camera traps per camera-site, separated into treatment groups of one, two, and four camera traps, in southern Illinois to compare whether estimates of wildlife community metrics and occupancy probabilities differed among survey methods. The overall number of species detected per camera-site was greatest with the four-camera survey method (Pcamera survey method detected 1.25 additional species per camera-site than the one-camera survey method, and was the only survey method to completely detect the ground-dwelling silvicolous community. The four-camera survey method recorded individual species at 3.57 additional camera-sites (P = 0.003) and nearly doubled the number of camera-sites where white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were detected compared to one- and two-camera survey methods. We also compared occupancy rates estimated by survey methods; as the number of cameras deployed per camera-site increased, occupancy estimates were closer to naïve estimates, detection probabilities increased, and standard errors of detection probabilities decreased. Additionally, each survey method resulted in differing top-ranked, species-specific occupancy models when habitat covariates were included. Underestimates of occurrence and misrepresented community metrics can have significant impacts on species of conservation concern, particularly in areas where habitat manipulation is likely. Having multiple camera traps per site revealed significant shortcomings with the common one-camera trap survey method. While we realize survey design is often constrained logistically, we suggest increasing effort to at least two camera traps
Sensor-Oriented Path Planning for Multiregion Surveillance with a Single Lightweight UAV SAR
Li, Jincheng; Chen, Jie; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng
2018-01-01
In the surveillance of interested regions by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), system performance relies greatly on the motion control strategy of the UAV and the operation characteristics of the onboard sensors. This paper investigates the 2D path planning problem for the lightweight UAV synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in an environment of multiple regions of interest (ROIs), the sizes of which are comparable to the radar swath width. Taking into account the special requirements of the SAR system on the motion of the platform, we model path planning for UAV SAR as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem (MOP). Based on the fact that the UAV route can be designed in the map image, an image-based path planner is proposed in this paper. First, the neighboring ROIs are merged by the morphological operation. Then, the parts of routes for data collection of the ROIs can be located according to the geometric features of the ROIs and the observation geometry of UAV SAR. Lastly, the route segments for ROIs surveillance are connected by a path planning algorithm named the sampling-based sparse A* search (SSAS) algorithm. Simulation experiments in real scenarios demonstrate that the proposed sensor-oriented path planner can improve the reconnaissance performance of lightweight UAV SAR greatly compared with the conventional zigzag path planner. PMID:29439447
Sensor-Oriented Path Planning for Multiregion Surveillance with a Single Lightweight UAV SAR.
Li, Jincheng; Chen, Jie; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng
2018-02-11
In the surveillance of interested regions by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), system performance relies greatly on the motion control strategy of the UAV and the operation characteristics of the onboard sensors. This paper investigates the 2D path planning problem for the lightweight UAV synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in an environment of multiple regions of interest (ROIs), the sizes of which are comparable to the radar swath width. Taking into account the special requirements of the SAR system on the motion of the platform, we model path planning for UAV SAR as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem (MOP). Based on the fact that the UAV route can be designed in the map image, an image-based path planner is proposed in this paper. First, the neighboring ROIs are merged by the morphological operation. Then, the parts of routes for data collection of the ROIs can be located according to the geometric features of the ROIs and the observation geometry of UAV SAR. Lastly, the route segments for ROIs surveillance are connected by a path planning algorithm named the sampling-based sparse A* search (SSAS) algorithm. Simulation experiments in real scenarios demonstrate that the proposed sensor-oriented path planner can improve the reconnaissance performance of lightweight UAV SAR greatly compared with the conventional zigzag path planner.
Strain Paths and Fractures in Rotational Symmetric Multi Stage Single Point Incremental Forming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skjødt, Martin; Silva, M.B.; Martins, P.A.F.
2008-01-01
A multi stage strategy, which allows forming of SPIF parts with vertical walls, is investigated with emphasis on strain paths and fracture strains. Whereas downwards movement of the tool pin results in deformation close to plane strain upwards moving tool results in biaxial strains. A good correl...
Donath, Lars; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver
2012-07-01
Center of pressure (COP) path length evaluation was commonly applied to measure postural sway and usually obtained from gold standard force plates. Thus, we comparatively investigated the feasible and less-expensive GKS® balance system (GKS) with the Kistler® force platform (KIS). 34 non-specifically trained but active adults (14 males, 20 females, age: 25.4±4.8 years; weight: 69.3±12.3 kg; height: 1.75±0.09 m, sports activity: 5.8±3.6 hours per week) were randomly tested on both devices during double and single limb stance with opened and closed eyes. Irrespective of the analysed time frame, repeated measures analyses of variances revealed higher path length readings for GKS compared to KIS for 30 s (F=6.8, p=0.01) and 10 s (F=21.2, p=0.001). Large effect sizes of the COP path length differences between GKS and KIS decreased from easy tasks (double limb, eyes open; d(30-s)=2.55, d(10-s)=2.04) to the most severe task (single limb, eyes closed; d(30-s)=0.02, d(10-s)=0.23). According to Bland and Altman, the limits of agreements indicated a high random variability component (between 29%, double limb, eyes open and 67%, single limb, eyes closed). The overall intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) across all four standing balance tasks were moderate for the 30 s- (0.57) as well as the 10 s-analysis (0.65). In conclusion, the COP path length displacements obtained from the GKS balance system seem to differ with a considerable random variability from Kistler force platform data. Thus, measurements of the evaluated devices should not be used interchangeably. Further methodological investigations regarding balance measures seem warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mao, Youxin; Chang, Shoude; Murdock, Erroll; Flueraru, Costel
2011-06-01
We report a novel (to the best of our knowledge) simultaneous 1310/1550 two-wavelength band swept laser source and dual-band common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Synchronized dual-wavelength tuning is performed by using two laser cavities and narrowband wavelength filters with a single dual-window polygonal scanner. Measured average output powers of 60 and 27 mW have been achieved for the 1310 and 1550 nm bands, respectively, while the two wavelengths were swept simultaneously from 1227 to 1387 nm for the 1310 nm band and from 1519 to 1581 nm for the 1550 nm band at an A-scan rate of 65 kHz. Broadband wavelength-division multiplexing is used for coupling two wavelengths into a common-path single-mode GRIN-lensed fiber probe to form dual-band common-path SS-OCT. Simultaneous OCT imaging at 1310 and 1550 nm is achieved. This technique allows for in vivo high-speed OCT imaging with potential application in functional (spectroscopic) investigations. © 2011 Optical Society of America
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, Frank; Klevtsov, Semyon; Zelditch, Steve
2013-01-01
The purpose of this article is to propose a new method to define and calculate path integrals over metrics on a Kähler manifold. The main idea is to use finite dimensional spaces of Bergman metrics, as an approximation to the full space of Kähler metrics. We use the theory of large deviations to decide when a sequence of probability measures on the spaces of Bergman metrics tends to a limit measure on the space of all Kähler metrics. Several examples are considered.
Modeling a Single SEP Event from Multiple Vantage Points Using the iPATH Model
Hu, Junxiang; Li, Gang; Fu, Shuai; Zank, Gary; Ao, Xianzhi
2018-02-01
Using the recently extended 2D improved Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (iPATH) model, we model an example gradual solar energetic particle event as observed at multiple locations. Protons and ions that are energized via the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism are followed at a 2D coronal mass ejection-driven shock where the shock geometry varies across the shock front. The subsequent transport of energetic particles, including cross-field diffusion, is modeled by a Monte Carlo code that is based on a stochastic differential equation method. Time intensity profiles and particle spectra at multiple locations and different radial distances, separated in longitudes, are presented. The results shown here are relevant to the upcoming Parker Solar Probe mission.
Nonlocality of a single photon: Paths to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.
2011-01-01
A single-photon incident on a beam splitter produces an entangled field state, and in principle could be used to violate a Bell inequality, but such an experiment (without postselection) is beyond the reach of current experiments. Here we consider the somewhat simpler task of demonstrating Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering with a single photon (also without postselection). We demonstrate that Alice's choice of measurement on her portion of the entangled state can affect Bob's portion of the entangled state in his laboratory, in a sense rigorously defined by us and Doherty [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)]. Previous work by Lvovsky and coworkers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047903 (2004)] has addressed this phenomenon (which they called remote preparation) experimentally using homodyne measurements on a single photon. Here we show that, unfortunately, their experimental parameters do not meet the bounds necessary for a rigorous demonstration of EPR steering with a single photon. However, we also show that modest improvements in the experimental parameters, and the addition of photon counting to the arsenal of Alice's measurements, would be sufficient to allow such a demonstration.
The Evaluation of Preprocessing Choices in Single-Subject BOLD fMRI Using NPAIRS Performance Metrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stephen, LaConte; Rottenberg, David; Strother, Stephen
2003-01-01
signal-to-noise and our reproducibility estimates as derived previously. Second, we submit our model complexity curves in the prediction versus reproducibility space as reflecting classic bias-variance tradeoffs. Among the particular analysis chains considered, we found little impact in performance...... metrics with alignment, some benefit with temporal detrending, and greatest improvement with spatial smoothing....
Probing the conductance superposition law in single-molecule circuits with parallel paths.
Vazquez, H; Skouta, R; Schneebeli, S; Kamenetska, M; Breslow, R; Venkataraman, L; Hybertsen, M S
2012-10-01
According to Kirchhoff's circuit laws, the net conductance of two parallel components in an electronic circuit is the sum of the individual conductances. However, when the circuit dimensions are comparable to the electronic phase coherence length, quantum interference effects play a critical role, as exemplified by the Aharonov-Bohm effect in metal rings. At the molecular scale, interference effects dramatically reduce the electron transfer rate through a meta-connected benzene ring when compared with a para-connected benzene ring. For longer conjugated and cross-conjugated molecules, destructive interference effects have been observed in the tunnelling conductance through molecular junctions. Here, we investigate the conductance superposition law for parallel components in single-molecule circuits, particularly the role of interference. We synthesize a series of molecular systems that contain either one backbone or two backbones in parallel, bonded together cofacially by a common linker on each end. Single-molecule conductance measurements and transport calculations based on density functional theory show that the conductance of a double-backbone molecular junction can be more than twice that of a single-backbone junction, providing clear evidence for constructive interference.
Metric Tensor Vs. Metric Extensor
Fernández, V. V.; Moya, A. M.; Rodrigues Jr, Waldyr A.
2002-01-01
In this paper we give a comparison between the formulation of the concept of metric for a real vector space of finite dimension in terms of \\emph{tensors} and \\emph{extensors}. A nice property of metric extensors is that they have inverses which are also themselves metric extensors. This property is not shared by metric tensors because tensors do \\emph{not} have inverses. We relate the definition of determinant of a metric extensor with the classical determinant of the corresponding matrix as...
Wang, Liangbing; Zhang, Wenbo; Wang, Shenpeng; Gao, Zehua; Luo, Zhiheng; Wang, Xu; Zeng, Rui; Li, Aowen; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Menglin; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Zhang, Wenhua; Ma, Chao; Si, Rui; Zeng, Jie
2016-12-22
Rh-based heterogeneous catalysts generally have limited selectivity relative to their homogeneous counterparts in hydroformylation reactions despite of the convenience of catalyst separation in heterogeneous catalysis. Here, we develop CoO-supported Rh single-atom catalysts (Rh/CoO) with remarkable activity and selectivity towards propene hydroformylation. By increasing Rh mass loading, isolated Rh atoms switch to aggregated clusters of different atomicity. During the hydroformylation, Rh/CoO achieves the optimal selectivity of 94.4% for butyraldehyde and the highest turnover frequency number of 2,065 h -1 among the obtained atomic-scale Rh-based catalysts. Mechanistic studies reveal that a structural reconstruction of Rh single atoms in Rh/CoO occurs during the catalytic process, facilitating the adsorption and activation of reactants. In kinetic view, linear products are determined as the dominating products by analysing reaction paths deriving from the two most stable co-adsorbed configurations. As a bridge of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, single-atom catalysts can be potentially applied in other industrial reactions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sung, Lung-Yu; Lu, Chia-Jung
2014-01-01
This study introduced a quantitative method that can be used to measure the concentration of analytes directly from a single-beam spectrum of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR). The peak shapes of the analytes in a single-beam spectrum were gradually canceled (i.e., “titrated”) by dividing an aliquot of a standard transmittance spectrum with a known concentration, and the sum of the squared differential synthetic spectrum was calculated as an indicator for the end point of this titration. The quantity of a standard transmittance spectrum that is needed to reach the end point can be used to calculate the concentrations of the analytes. A NIST traceable gas standard containing six known compounds was used to compare the quantitative accuracy of both this titration method and that of a classic least square (CLS) using a closed-cell FTIR spectrum. The continuous FTIR analysis of industrial exhausting stack showed that concentration trends were consistent between the CLS and titration methods. The titration method allowed the quantification to be performed without the need of a clean single-beam background spectrum, which was beneficial for the field measurement of OP-FTIR. Persistent constituents of the atmosphere, such as NH 3 , CH 4 and CO, were successfully quantified using the single-beam titration method with OP-FTIR data that is normally inaccurate when using the CLS method due to the lack of a suitable background spectrum. Also, the synthetic spectrum at the titration end point contained virtually no peaks of analytes, but it did contain the remaining information needed to provide an alternative means of obtaining an ideal single-beam background for OP-FTIR. - Highlights: • Establish single beam titration quantification method for OP-FTIR. • Define the indicator for the end-point of spectrum titration. • An ideal background spectrum can be obtained using single beam titration. • Compare the quantification between titration
Huang, Ya; Ferguson, Neil S.
2018-04-01
The study implements a classic signal analysis technique, typically applied to structural dynamics, to examine the nonlinear characteristics seen in the apparent mass of a recumbent person during whole-body horizontal random vibration. The nonlinearity in the present context refers to the amount of 'output' that is not correlated or coherent to the 'input', usually indicated by values of the coherence function that are less than unity. The analysis is based on the longitudinal horizontal inline and vertical cross-axis apparent mass of twelve human subjects exposed to 0.25-20 Hz random acceleration vibration at 0.125 and 1.0 ms-2 r.m.s. The conditioned reverse path frequency response functions (FRF) reveal that the uncorrelated 'linear' relationship between physical input (acceleration) and outputs (inline and cross-axis forces) has much greater variation around the primary resonance frequency between 0.5 and 5 Hz. By reversing the input and outputs of the physical system, it is possible to assemble additional mathematical inputs from the physical output forces and mathematical constructs (e.g. square root of inline force). Depending on the specific construct, this can improve the summed multiple coherence at frequencies where the response magnitude is low. In the present case this is between 6 and 20 Hz. The statistical measures of the response force time histories of each of the twelve subjects indicate that there are potential anatomical 'end-stops' for the sprung mass in the inline axis. No previous study has applied this reverse path multi-input-single-output approach to human vibration kinematic and kinetic data before. The implementation demonstrated in the present study will allow new and existing data to be examined using this different analytical tool.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steenbakkers, Rudi J A; Schieber, Jay D; Tzoumanekas, Christos; Li, Ying; Liu, Wing Kam; Kröger, Martin
2014-01-01
We present a method to map the full equilibrium distribution of the primitive-path (PP) length, obtained from multi-chain simulations of polymer melts, onto a single-chain mean-field ‘target’ model. Most previous works used the Doi–Edwards tube model as a target. However, the average number of monomers per PP segment, obtained from multi-chain PP networks, has consistently shown a discrepancy of a factor of two with respect to tube-model estimates. Part of the problem is that the tube model neglects fluctuations in the lengths of PP segments, the number of entanglements per chain and the distribution of monomers among PP segments, while all these fluctuations are observed in multi-chain simulations. Here we use a recently proposed slip-link model, which includes fluctuations in all these variables as well as in the spatial positions of the entanglements. This turns out to be essential to obtain qualitative and quantitative agreement with the equilibrium PP-length distribution obtained from multi-chain simulations. By fitting this distribution, we are able to determine two of the three parameters of the model, which govern its equilibrium properties. This mapping is executed for four different linear polymers and for different molecular weights. The two parameters are found to depend on chemistry, but not on molecular weight. The model predicts a constant plateau modulus minus a correction inversely proportional to molecular weight. The value for well-entangled chains, with the parameters determined ab initio, lies in the range of experimental data for the materials investigated. (paper)
Steenbakkers, Rudi J. A.; Tzoumanekas, Christos; Li, Ying; Liu, Wing Kam; Kröger, Martin; Schieber, Jay D.
2014-01-01
We present a method to map the full equilibrium distribution of the primitive-path (PP) length, obtained from multi-chain simulations of polymer melts, onto a single-chain mean-field ‘target’ model. Most previous works used the Doi-Edwards tube model as a target. However, the average number of monomers per PP segment, obtained from multi-chain PP networks, has consistently shown a discrepancy of a factor of two with respect to tube-model estimates. Part of the problem is that the tube model neglects fluctuations in the lengths of PP segments, the number of entanglements per chain and the distribution of monomers among PP segments, while all these fluctuations are observed in multi-chain simulations. Here we use a recently proposed slip-link model, which includes fluctuations in all these variables as well as in the spatial positions of the entanglements. This turns out to be essential to obtain qualitative and quantitative agreement with the equilibrium PP-length distribution obtained from multi-chain simulations. By fitting this distribution, we are able to determine two of the three parameters of the model, which govern its equilibrium properties. This mapping is executed for four different linear polymers and for different molecular weights. The two parameters are found to depend on chemistry, but not on molecular weight. The model predicts a constant plateau modulus minus a correction inversely proportional to molecular weight. The value for well-entangled chains, with the parameters determined ab initio, lies in the range of experimental data for the materials investigated.
Bellet, Aurelien; Sebban, Marc
2015-01-01
Similarity between objects plays an important role in both human cognitive processes and artificial systems for recognition and categorization. How to appropriately measure such similarities for a given task is crucial to the performance of many machine learning, pattern recognition and data mining methods. This book is devoted to metric learning, a set of techniques to automatically learn similarity and distance functions from data that has attracted a lot of interest in machine learning and related fields in the past ten years. In this book, we provide a thorough review of the metric learnin
Understanding Traditional Research Impact Metrics.
Butler, Joseph S; Sebastian, Arjun S; Kaye, I David; Wagner, Scott C; Morrissey, Patrick B; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R
2017-05-01
Traditionally, the success of a researcher has been judged by the number of publications he or she has published in peer-review, indexed, high impact journals. However, to quantify the impact of research in the wider scientific community, a number of traditional metrics have been used, including Impact Factor, SCImago Journal Rank, Eigenfactor Score, and Article Influence Score. This article attempts to provide a broad overview of the main traditional impact metrics that have been used to assess scholarly output and research impact. We determine that there is no perfect all-encompassing metric to measure research impact, and, in the modern era, no single traditional metric is capable of accommodating all facets of research impact. Academics and researchers should be aware of the advantages and limitations of traditional metrics and should be judicious when selecting any metrics for an objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harper, A.F.A.; Digby, R.B.; Thong, S.P.; Lacey, F.
1978-04-01
In April 1978 a meeting of senior metrication officers convened by the Commonwealth Science Council of the Commonwealth Secretariat, was held in London. The participants were drawn from Australia, Bangladesh, Britain, Canada, Ghana, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Trinidad and Tobago. Among other things, the meeting resolved to develop a set of guidelines to assist countries to change to SI and to compile such guidelines in the form of a working manual
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tanaka, Takafumi; Pulverer, Klaus; Häbel, Ulrich
2017-01-01
transport network testbed and demonstrate an XT-aware traffic engineering scenario. With the help of a software-defined network (SDN) controller, the modulation format and optical path route are adaptively changed based on the monitored XT values by using programmable devices such as a real-time transponder...
Abramson, Richard G.; Su, Pei-Fang; Shyr, Yu
2012-01-01
Quantitative imaging has emerged as a leading priority on the imaging research agenda, yet clinical radiology has traditionally maintained a skeptical attitude toward numerical measurement in diagnostic interpretation. To gauge the extent to which quantitative reporting has been incorporated into routine clinical radiology practice, and to offer preliminary baseline data against which the evolution of quantitative imaging can be measured, we obtained all clinical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports from two randomly selected weekdays in 2011 at a single mixed academic-community practice and evaluated those reports for the presence of quantitative descriptors. We found that 44% of all reports contained at least one “quantitative metric” (QM), defined as any numerical descriptor of a physical property other than quantity, but only 2% of reports contained an “advanced quantitative metric” (AQM), defined as a numerical parameter reporting on lesion function or composition, excluding simple size and distance measurements. Possible reasons for the slow translation of AQMs into routine clinical radiology reporting include perceptions that the primary clinical question may be qualitative in nature or that a qualitative answer may be sufficient; concern that quantitative approaches may obscure important qualitative information, may not be adequately validated, or may not allow sufficient expression of uncertainty; the feeling that “gestalt” interpretation may be superior to quantitative paradigms; and practical workflow limitations. We suggest that quantitative imaging techniques will evolve primarily as dedicated instruments for answering specific clinical questions requiring precise and standardized interpretation. Validation in real-world settings, ease of use, and reimbursement economics will all play a role in determining the rate of translation of AQMs into broad practice. PMID:22795791
Tully, D.; Jacobs, B.
2010-08-01
This study focused on a population of female engineering students, probing the influences of their secondary school experience on their choice to pursue an engineering course of study at university. The motivating question is: Do unique opportunities exist in an all-female secondary school mathematics classroom, which impact a young woman's self-perception of her mathematics ability as well as promote a positive path towards an engineering-based university major? Using both qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments, this study examined a sample of Australian engineering students enrolled at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). Demographic statistics show that 40% of UTS' female engineering student population attended a single-gender secondary school, indicating a potential influence of school type (single-gender) on engineering enrolment patterns. Female students were primarily motivated to pursue a post secondary engineering path because of a self-belief that they are good at mathematics. In contrast, male students were more influenced by positive male role models of family members who are practising engineers. In measures of self- perception of mathematical skill and ability, female students from single-gender schools outscored their male engineering counterparts. Additionally, female students seem to benefit from verbal encouragement, contextualisation, same gender problem-solving groups and same gender classroom dynamics.
Petersen, Maja Borup Kjær; Azad, Ajuna; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Hess, Katja; Hansson, Mattias; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Honoré, Christian
2017-10-10
The production of insulin-producing β cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro represents a promising strategy for a cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. To explore the cellular heterogeneity and temporal progression of endocrine progenitors and their progeny, we performed single-cell qPCR on more than 500 cells across several stages of in vitro differentiation of hESCs and compared them with human islets. We reveal distinct subpopulations along the endocrine differentiation path and an early lineage bifurcation toward either polyhormonal cells or β-like cells. We uncover several similarities and differences with mouse development and reveal that cells can take multiple paths to the same differentiation state, a principle that could be relevant to other systems. Notably, activation of the key β-cell transcription factor NKX6.1 can be initiated before or after endocrine commitment. The single-cell temporal resolution we provide can be used to improve the production of functional β cells. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nikolić, Slobodan; Zivković, Vladimir; Babić, Dragan; Juković, Fehim
2012-03-01
The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the anatomical site of a gunshot entrance wound and the direction of the bullet path between right- and left-handed subjects who committed a suicide by a single gunshot injury to the head. The retrospective autopsy study was performed for a 10-year period, and it included selected cases of single suicidal gunshot head injury, committed by handguns. We considered only contact or near-contact wounds. The sample included 479 deceased, with average age 47.1 ± 19.1 years (range, 12-89 years): 432 males and 47 females, with 317 right-handed, 25 left-handed, and 137 subjects with unknown dominant hand. In our observed sample, most cases involved the right temple as the site of entrance gunshot wound (about 67%), followed by the mouth (16%), forehead (7%), left temple (6%), submental (2%), and parietal region (1%). The left temple, right temple, and forehead were the sites of the gunshot entrance wounds, which were the best predictors of the handedness of the deceased (Spearman ρ = 0.149, P = 0.006). Our study showed that the direction of the bullet intracranial path in cases of suicide was even a more potent predictor of the handedness of the deceased (Spearman ρ = 0.263, P = 0.000; Wald = 149.503, P = 0.000).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Tatsuya; Abe, Yuji; Kasai, Seiya; Hasegawa, Hideki; Hashizume, Tamotsu
2006-01-01
A new single electron (SE) binary-decision diagram (BDD) node device having a single quantum dot connected to three nanowire branches through tunnel barriers was fabricated using etched AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires and nanometer-sized Schottky wrap gates (WPGs), and their operation was characterized experimentally, for the hexagonal BDD quantum circuit. Fabricated devices showed clear and steep single electron pass switching by applying only an input voltage signal, which was completely different from switching properties in the previous SE BDD node devices composed of two single electron switches. As the possible switching mechanism, the correlation between the probabilities of tunnelling thorough a single quantum dot in exit branches was discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantinos Cornelis Apostolakis
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Amidst an ongoing debate surrounding the traditional dichotomy of whether video games are good or bad for children, in this paper we present Path of Trust, a novel, prosocial game that aims at helping children understand the importance of teamwork and learn how and when to express trustworthiness. We have created a colorful, non-violent digital game, in which children aged 7-10 can be exposed to prosocial content and develop specific prosocial attitudes, such as cooperation and trustworthiness, driven by the fact that video games with prosocial content can be used to improve social interactions. The game was designed to maintain an attractive and engaging nature, which is usually associated with games that are often vilified within social circles in terms of being packed with tons of action and violence. We conducted two separate studies to test our game’s modeling of prosocial behavior, which demonstrate the potential of the game as a tool for teaching important prosocial behavior to children.
Daenzer, Calder
2011-01-01
We incorporate metric data into the framework of Tannaka-Krein duality. Thus, for any group with left invariant metric, we produce a dual metric on its category of unitary representations. We characterize the conditions under which a "double-dual" metric on the group may be recovered from the metric on representations, and provide conditions under which a metric agrees with its double-dual. We also consider some applications to T-duality and quantum Gromov-Hausdorff distance.
Chekalin, Sergey; Kompanets, Victor; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Dormidonov, Alexander; Kandidov, Valerii
2017-10-01
A colour-centre structure formed in a LiF crystal under filamentation of a femtosecond mid-IR laser pulse with a power slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A single-cycle light bullet was recorded for the first time by observation of strictly periodic oscillations for the density of the color centers induced in an isotropic LiF crystal under filamentation of a laser beam with a wavelength tuned in the range from 2600 to 3900 nm, which is due to the periodic change in the light field amplitude in the light bullet formed under filamentation under propagation in dispersive medium. The light bullet path length was not more than one millimeter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chekalin Sergey
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A colour-centre structure formed in a LiF crystal under filamentation of a femtosecond mid-IR laser pulse with a power slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A single-cycle light bullet was recorded for the first time by observation of strictly periodic oscillations for the density of the color centers induced in an isotropic LiF crystal under filamentation of a laser beam with a wavelength tuned in the range from 2600 to 3900 nm, which is due to the periodic change in the light field amplitude in the light bullet formed under filamentation under propagation in dispersive medium. The light bullet path length was not more than one millimeter.
Crane, Matthew M; Kaeberlein, Matt
2018-04-01
Aging is a fundamental aspect of life, yet also one of the most confounding. In individual cells, aging results in a progressive decline which affects all organelles and reduces a cell's ability to maintain homeostasis. Because of the interconnected nature of cellular systems, the failure of even a single organelle can have cascading effects. We are just beginning to understand the dramatic physiological changes that occur during aging. Because most aging research has focused on population dynamics, or differences between wild-type and mutant populations, single-cell behavior has been largely overlooked. An open question is whether aging cells are defined by predictable sequences of physiological changes, or whether they proceed along divergent aging trajectories defined by whichever system begins to fail first. Can aging be best characterized by a cell-cycle like model with stereotyped states all cells progress through, or a Waddington landscape with divergent trajectories? Here we present work on understanding the changing physiological states of aging cells, why it will impact systems and synthetic biologists, and how the systems community can contribute significantly to the study of aging.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enqvist, Kari [Physics Department, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki Institute of Physics, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Koivisto, Tomi [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Rigopoulos, Gerasimos, E-mail: kari.enqvist@helsinki.fi, E-mail: T.S.Koivisto@astro.uio.no, E-mail: rigopoulos@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)
2012-05-01
We consider inflation within the context of what is arguably the simplest non-metric extension of Einstein gravity. There non-metricity is described by a single graviscalar field with a non-minimal kinetic coupling to the inflaton field Ψ, parameterized by a single parameter γ. There is a simple equivalent description in terms of a massless field and an inflaton with a modified potential. We discuss the implications of non-metricity for chaotic inflation and find that it significantly alters the inflaton dynamics for field values Ψ∼>M{sub P}/γ, dramatically changing the qualitative behaviour in this regime. In the equivalent single-field description this is described as a cuspy potential that forms of barrier beyond which the inflation becomes a ghost field. This imposes an upper bound on the possible number of e-folds. For the simplest chaotic inflation models, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio receive small corrections dependent on the non-metricity parameter. We also argue that significant post-inflationary non-metricity may be generated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caspar Clark
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The dielectric thin-ﬁlm coating on high-power optical components is often the weakest region and will fail at elevated optical ﬂuences. A comparison of single-layer coatings of ZrO2, LiF, Ta2O5, SiN, and SiO2 along with anti-reﬂection (AR coatings optimized at 1064 nm comprised of ZrO2 and Ta2O5 was made, and the results of photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI and a laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT are presented here. The coatings were grown by radio frequency (RF sputtering, pulsed direct-current (DC sputtering, ion-assisted electron beam evaporation (IAD, and thermal evaporation. Test regimes for LIDT used pulse durations of 9.6 ns at 100 Hz for 1000-on-1 and 1-on-1 regimes at 1064 nm for single-layer and AR coatings, and 20 ns at 20 Hz for a 200-on-1 regime to compare the //ZrO2/SiO2 AR coating.
Campbell, R. H.; Kolstad, R. B.; Holle, D. F.; Miller, T. J.; Krause, P.; Horton, K.; Macke, T.
1983-01-01
Path Pascal is high-level experimental programming language based on PASCAL, which incorporates extensions for systems and real-time programming. Pascal is extended to treat real-time concurrent systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madjid Mirzavaziri
2010-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notion of an ℱ-metric, as a function valued distance mapping, on a set X and we investigate the theory of ℱ-metrics paces. We show that every metric space may be viewed as an F-metric space and every ℱ-metric space (X,δ can be regarded as a topological space (X,τδ. In addition, we prove that the category of the so-called extended F-metric spaces properly contains the category of metric spaces. We also introduce the concept of an `ℱ-metric space as a completion of an ℱ-metric space and, as an application to topology, we prove that each normal topological space is `ℱ-metrizable.
Enhancing Authentication Models Characteristic Metrics via ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this work, we derive the universal characteristic metrics set for authentication models based on security, usability and design issues. We then compute the probability of the occurrence of each characteristic metrics in some single factor and multifactor authentication models in order to determine the effectiveness of these ...
Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang
2015-09-15
Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions.
Daenzer, Calder
2013-08-01
We incorporate metric data into the framework of Tannaka-Krein duality. Thus, for any group with left invariant metric, we produce a dual metric on its category of unitary representations. We characterize the conditions under which a "double-dual" metric on the group may be recovered from the metric on representations, and provide conditions under which a metric agrees with its double-dual. We also explore a diverse class of possible applications of the theory, including applications to T-duality and to quantum Gromov-Hausdorff distance.
MPLS/VPN traffic engineering: SLA metrics
Cherkaoui, Omar; MacGibbon, Brenda; Blais, Michel; Serhrouchni, Ahmed
2001-07-01
Traffic engineering must be concerned with a broad definition of service that includes network availability, reliability and stability, as well as traditional traffic data on loss, throughput, delay and jitter. MPLS and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) significantly contribute to security and Quality of Service (QoS) within communication networks, but there remains a need for metric measurement and evaluation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology which gives a measure for LSP ( Lfew abel Switching Paths) metrics in VPN MPLS networks. We propose here a statistical method for the evaluation of those metrics. Statistical methodology is very important in this type of study since there is a large amount of data to consider. We use the notions of sample surveys, self-similar processes, linear regression, additive models and bootstrapping. The results obtained allows us to estimate the different metrics for such SLAs.
Heuristic search in robot configuration space using variable metric
Verwer, Ben J. H.
1987-01-01
A method to generate obstacle free trajectories for both mobile robots and linked robots is proposed. The approach generates the shortest paths in a configuration space. The metric in the configuration space can be adjusted to obtain a tradeoff between safety and velocity by imposing extra costs on paths near obstacles.
Intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jin Han
2004-01-01
Using the idea of intuitionistic fuzzy set due to Atanassov [Intuitionistic fuzzy sets. in: V. Sgurev (Ed.), VII ITKR's Session, Sofia June, 1983; Fuzzy Sets Syst. 20 (1986) 87], we define the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces as a natural generalization of fuzzy metric spaces due to George and Veeramani [Fuzzy Sets Syst. 64 (1994) 395] and prove some known results of metric spaces including Baire's theorem and the Uniform limit theorem for intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces
Zhang, Lei; Hoede, C.
2002-01-01
In this paper the concept of utterance path is investigated. In the theory of knowledge graphs sentences are represented by socalled sentence graphs. The sentence graph of a sentence can be obtained by structural parsing of the sentence. Here we study the problem of determining rules for uttering
Abrams, Gene; Siles Molina, Mercedes
2017-01-01
This book offers a comprehensive introduction by three of the leading experts in the field, collecting fundamental results and open problems in a single volume. Since Leavitt path algebras were first defined in 2005, interest in these algebras has grown substantially, with ring theorists as well as researchers working in graph C*-algebras, group theory and symbolic dynamics attracted to the topic. Providing a historical perspective on the subject, the authors review existing arguments, establish new results, and outline the major themes and ring-theoretic concepts, such as the ideal structure, Z-grading and the close link between Leavitt path algebras and graph C*-algebras. The book also presents key lines of current research, including the Algebraic Kirchberg Phillips Question, various additional classification questions, and connections to noncommutative algebraic geometry. Leavitt Path Algebras will appeal to graduate students and researchers working in the field and related areas, such as C*-algebras and...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karnøe, Peter; Garud, Raghu
2012-01-01
This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts. Competenc......This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts....... Competencies emerged through processes and mechanisms such as co-creation that implicated multiple learning processes. The process was not an orderly linear one as emergent contingencies influenced the learning processes. An implication is that public policy to catalyse clusters cannot be based...
Software Metrics Capability Evaluation Guide
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Budlong, Faye
1995-01-01
...: disseminating information regarding the U.S. Air Force Policy on software metrics, providing metrics information to the public through CrossTalk, conducting customer workshops in software metrics, guiding metrics technology adoption programs...
Prentice, Julia C; Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D
2016-04-01
Increasingly, performance metrics are seen as key components for accurately measuring and improving health care value. Disappointment in the ability of chosen metrics to meet these goals is exemplified in a recent Institute of Medicine report that argues for a consensus-building process to determine a simplified set of reliable metrics. Overall health care goals should be defined and then metrics to measure these goals should be considered. If appropriate data for the identified goals are not available, they should be developed. We use examples from our work in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) on validating waiting time and mental health metrics to highlight other key issues for metric selection and implementation. First, we focus on the need for specification and predictive validation of metrics. Second, we discuss strategies to maintain the fidelity of the data used in performance metrics over time. These strategies include using appropriate incentives and data sources, using composite metrics, and ongoing monitoring. Finally, we discuss the VA's leadership in developing performance metrics through a planned upgrade in its electronic medical record system to collect more comprehensive VHA and non-VHA data, increasing the ability to comprehensively measure outcomes.
Chistyakov, Vyacheslav
2015-01-01
Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...
Metric diffusion along foliations
Walczak, Szymon M
2017-01-01
Up-to-date research in metric diffusion along compact foliations is presented in this book. Beginning with fundamentals from the optimal transportation theory and the theory of foliations; this book moves on to cover Wasserstein distance, Kantorovich Duality Theorem, and the metrization of the weak topology by the Wasserstein distance. Metric diffusion is defined, the topology of the metric space is studied and the limits of diffused metrics along compact foliations are discussed. Essentials on foliations, holonomy, heat diffusion, and compact foliations are detailed and vital technical lemmas are proved to aide understanding. Graduate students and researchers in geometry, topology and dynamics of foliations and laminations will find this supplement useful as it presents facts about the metric diffusion along non-compact foliation and provides a full description of the limit for metrics diffused along foliation with at least one compact leaf on the two dimensions.
Software Metrics: Measuring Haskell
Ryder, Chris; Thompson, Simon
2005-01-01
Software metrics have been used in software engineering as a mechanism for assessing code quality and for targeting software development activities, such as testing or refactoring, at areas of a program that will most benefit from them. Haskell has many tools for software engineering, such as testing, debugging and refactoring tools, but software metrics have mostly been neglected. The work presented in this paper identifies a collection of software metrics for use with Haskell programs. Thes...
-Metric Space: A Generalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farshid Khojasteh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce the notion of -metric as a generalization of a metric by replacing the triangle inequality with a more generalized inequality. We investigate the topology of the spaces induced by a -metric and present some essential properties of it. Further, we give characterization of well-known fixed point theorems, such as the Banach and Caristi types in the context of such spaces.
Adaptive Metric Dimensionality Reduction
Gottlieb, Lee-Ad; Kontorovich, Aryeh; Krauthgamer, Robert
2013-01-01
We study adaptive data-dependent dimensionality reduction in the context of supervised learning in general metric spaces. Our main statistical contribution is a generalization bound for Lipschitz functions in metric spaces that are doubling, or nearly doubling. On the algorithmic front, we describe an analogue of PCA for metric spaces: namely an efficient procedure that approximates the data's intrinsic dimension, which is often much lower than the ambient dimension. Our approach thus leverag...
Garces, I. J. L.; Rosario, J. B.
2017-10-01
For an ordered subset W = {w 1, w 2, …, wk } of vertices in a connected graph G and a vertex v of G, the metric representation of v with respect to W is the k-vector r(v|W) = (d(v, w 1), d(v, w 2), …, d(v, wk )), where d(v, wi ) is the distance of the vertices v and wi in G. The set W is called a resolving set of G if r(u|W) = r(v|W) implies u = v. The metric dimension of G, denoted by β(G), is the minimum cardinality of a resolving set of G, and a resolving set of G with cardinality equal to its metric dimension is called a metric basis of G. A set T of vectors is called a positive lattice set if all the coordinates in each vector of T are positive integers. A positive lattice set T consisting of n k-vectors is called a metric graphic set if there exists a simple connected graph G of order n + k with β(G) = k such that T = {r(ui |S) : ui ∈ V (G)\\S, 1 ≤ i ≤ n} for some metric basis S = {s 1, s 2, …, sk } of G. If such G exists, then we say G is a metric graphic realization of T. In this paper, we introduce the concept of metric graphic sets anchored on the concept of metric dimension and provide some characterizations. We also give necessary and sufficient conditions for any positive lattice set consisting of 2 k-vectors to be a metric graphic set. We provide an upper bound for the sum of all the coordinates of any metric graphic set and enumerate some properties of positive lattice sets consisting of n 2-vectors that are not metric graphic sets.
Prognostic Performance Metrics
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter presents several performance metrics for offline evaluation of prognostics algorithms. A brief overview of different methods employed for performance...
Topics in Metric Approximation
Leeb, William Edward
This thesis develops effective approximations of certain metrics that occur frequently in pure and applied mathematics. We show that distances that often arise in applications, such as the Earth Mover's Distance between two probability measures, can be approximated by easily computed formulas for a wide variety of ground distances. We develop simple and easily computed characterizations both of norms measuring a function's regularity -- such as the Lipschitz norm -- and of their duals. We are particularly concerned with the tensor product of metric spaces, where the natural notion of regularity is not the Lipschitz condition but the mixed Lipschitz condition. A theme that runs throughout this thesis is that snowflake metrics (metrics raised to a power less than 1) are often better-behaved than ordinary metrics. For example, we show that snowflake metrics on finite spaces can be approximated by the average of tree metrics with a distortion bounded by intrinsic geometric characteristics of the space and not the number of points. Many of the metrics for which we characterize the Lipschitz space and its dual are snowflake metrics. We also present applications of the characterization of certain regularity norms to the problem of recovering a matrix that has been corrupted by noise. We are able to achieve an optimal rate of recovery for certain families of matrices by exploiting the relationship between mixed-variable regularity conditions and the decay of a function's coefficients in a certain orthonormal basis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kihong Kim
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Various kinds of metrics used for the quantitative evaluation of scholarly journals are reviewed. The impact factor and related metrics including the immediacy index and the aggregate impact factor, which are provided by the Journal Citation Reports, are explained in detail. The Eigenfactor score and the article influence score are also reviewed. In addition, journal metrics such as CiteScore, Source Normalized Impact per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank, h-index, and g-index are discussed. Limitations and problems that these metrics have are pointed out. We should be cautious to rely on those quantitative measures too much when we evaluate journals or researchers.
Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah; Özyürek, Taha
2017-11-01
It was aimed to compare the cyclic fatigue resistances of ProGlider (PG), One G (OG), and HyFlex EDM (HEDM) nickel titanium glide path files in single- and double-curved artificial canals. 40 PG (16/0.02), 40 OG (14/0.03), and 40 HEDM (10/0.05) single-file glide path files were used in the present study. Sixty files were subjected to cyclic fatigue test by using double-curved canals and 60 files by using single-curved canal ( n = 20). The number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was calculated and the length of the fractured fragment (FL) was determined by a digital micro-caliper. Twelve pieces of fractured files were examined with scanning electron microscope to determine fracture types of the files ( n = 2). The NCF and the FL data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test using SPSS 21 software ( p < 0.05). In all of the groups, NCF values were significantly lower in double-curved canals when compared to single-curved canals ( p < 0.05). For both of single- and double-curved canals, NCF values of HEDM group in apical and coronal curvatures were found to be significantly higher than NCF values of PG and OG groups ( p < 0.05). In both of single- and double-curved canals, NCF value of PG group was found significantly higher than OG group ( p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, HEDM glide path files were found to have the highest cyclic fatigue resistance in both of single- and double-curved canals.
Zhang, Lei; Hoede, C.
2002-01-01
In this paper the concept of utterance path is investigated. In the theory of knowledge graphs sentences are represented by socalled sentence graphs. The sentence graph of a sentence can be obtained by structural parsing of the sentence. Here we study the problem of determining rules for uttering the sentence graph. Given a sentence graph there are usually several ways how such a graph can be brought under words, i.e. can be uttered. The sentences arising from these ways of uttering consist o...
Lonnemann, G; Floege, J; Kliem, V; Brunkhorst, R; Koch, K M
2000-08-01
In the treatment of acute renal failure in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) are increasingly used because of excellent volume control in the presence of improved cardiovascular stability. Patients with MODS, however, are frequently catabolic and have a high urea generation rate requiring either cost-intensive high-volume CRRT or additional intermittent haemodialysis to provide adequate clearance of small-molecular waste products. We tested the closed-loop batch haemodialysis system (called Genius((R))) for the treatment of acute renal failure in patients with MODS in the intensive care unit. Blood flow and countercurrent dialysate flow were reduced to 70 ml/min. Thus the 75 l dialysate tank of the Genius((R)) system lasts for 18 h of extended single-path high-flux haemodialysis (18 h-HFD) using polysulphous F60 S((R)) dialysers. Blood pressure, body temperature, and venous blood temperature in the extracorporeal circuit (no heating of the dialysate), ultrafiltration rate, serum urea levels, dialyser urea clearance, and total urea removal were monitored. In addition we tested the bacteriological quality of the spent dialysate at the end of 18-h treatments. Twenty patients with acute renal failure and MODS were investigated. Averaged dialyser urea clearance was 59.8 ml/min (equal to 3.6 l/h or 64.8 l/day). Total removal of urea was 14.1+/-6.5 g/day keeping serum levels of urea below 13 mmol/l. Mean arterial pressure remained stable during the 18-h treatments with a mean ultrafiltration rate of 120 ml/h. The temperature in the venous blood tubing dropped by 5+/-0.5 degrees C during the 18-h treatment (0.28 degrees C/h) in the presence of unchanged core temperature in the patients. There was no bacterial growth in 2.5 l of spent dialysate (dialysis using the Genius((R)) system combines the benefits of CRRT (good cardiovascular stability, sterile dialysate) with the advantages of intermittent
Evaluating and Estimating the WCET Criticality Metric
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jordan, Alexander
2014-01-01
Static analysis tools that are used for worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis of real-time software just provide partial information on an analyzed program. Only the longest-executing path, which currently determines the WCET bound is indicated to the programmer. This limited view can prevent...... a programmer (or compiler) from targeting optimizations the right way. A possible resort is to use a metric that targets WCET and which can be efficiently computed for all code parts of a program. Similar to dynamic profiling techniques, which execute code with input that is typically expected...... to estimate the Criticality metric, by relaxing the precision of WCET analysis. Through this, we can reduce analysis time by orders of magnitude, while only introducing minor error. To evaluate our estimation approach and share our garnered experience using the metric, we evaluate real-time programs, which...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radu MARSANU
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Metrics and indicators used for the evaluation of the IT projects management have the advantage of providing rigorous details about the required effort and the boundaries of the IT deliverables. There are some disadvantages, as well, due to the fact the input data contains errors and the value of metrics depends on the quality of data used in models.
Radu MARSANU
2010-01-01
Metrics and indicators used for the evaluation of the IT projects management have the advantage of providing rigorous details about the required effort and the boundaries of the IT deliverables. There are some disadvantages, as well, due to the fact the input data contains errors and the value of metrics depends on the quality of data used in models.
Computational visual distinctness metric
Martínez-Baena, J.; Toet, A.; Fdez-Vidal, X.R.; Garrido, A.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, R.
1998-01-01
A new computational visual distinctness metric based on principles of the early human visual system is presented. The metric is applied to quantify (1) the visual distinctness of targets in complex natural scenes and (2) the perceptual differences between compressed and uncompressed images. The new
Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology
Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James
2006-01-01
Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…
Metrics for Probabilistic Geometries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tosi, Alessandra; Hauberg, Søren; Vellido, Alfredo
2014-01-01
We investigate the geometrical structure of probabilistic generative dimensionality reduction models using the tools of Riemannian geometry. We explicitly define a distribution over the natural metric given by the models. We provide the necessary algorithms to compute expected metric tensors where...
Privacy Metrics and Boundaries
L-F. Pau (Louis-François)
2005-01-01
textabstractThis paper aims at defining a set of privacy metrics (quantitative and qualitative) in the case of the relation between a privacy protector ,and an information gatherer .The aims with such metrics are: -to allow to assess and compare different user scenarios and their differences; for
Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.
Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of cosmetology students, this instructional package on cosmetology is part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology, measurement terms, and tools currently in use. Each of the…
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Olson, Teresa; Lee, Harry; Sanders, Johnnie
2002-01-01
... (sometimes referred to as confidence) state. The TPM can also be used as a measure of algorithm performance to compare against the Trackability Metric. The Trackability Metric was developed by AMCOM to determine how "trackable" a set of data should be. The TPM will be described and results presented.
Metrics for Secretarial, Stenography.
Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.
Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of secretarial, stenography students, this instructional package is one of three for the business and office occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…
Gibbons, Gary W.; Volkov, Mikhail S.
2017-05-01
We study solutions obtained via applying dualities and complexifications to the vacuum Weyl metrics generated by massive rods and by point masses. Rescaling them and extending to complex parameter values yields axially symmetric vacuum solutions containing singularities along circles that can be viewed as singular matter sources. These solutions have wormhole topology with several asymptotic regions interconnected by throats and their sources can be viewed as thin rings of negative tension encircling the throats. For a particular value of the ring tension the geometry becomes exactly flat although the topology remains non-trivial, so that the rings literally produce holes in flat space. To create a single ring wormhole of one metre radius one needs a negative energy equivalent to the mass of Jupiter. Further duality transformations dress the rings with the scalar field, either conventional or phantom. This gives rise to large classes of static, axially symmetric solutions, presumably including all previously known solutions for a gravity-coupled massless scalar field, as for example the spherically symmetric Bronnikov-Ellis wormholes with phantom scalar. The multi-wormholes contain infinite struts everywhere at the symmetry axes, apart from solutions with locally flat geometry.
The Metric Lens : Visualizing Metrics and Structure on Software Diagrams
Byelas, Heorhiy; Telea, Alexandru; Hassan, AE; Zaidman, A; DiPenta, M
2008-01-01
We present the metric lens, a new visualization of method-level code metrics atop UML class diagrams, which allows performing metric-metric and metric-structure correlations on large diagrams. Me demonstrate air interactive visualization tool in which users can quickly specify a wide palette of
Probabilistic Analysis of Facility Location on Random Shortest Path Metrics
Klootwijk, Stefan; Manthey, Bodo
The facility location problem is an NP-hard optimization problem. Therefore, approximation algorithms are often used to solve large instances. Probabilistic analysis is a widely used tool to analyze such algorithms. Most research on probabilistic analysis of NP-hard optimization problems involving
A Random Riemannian Metric for Probabilistic Shortest-Path Tractography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hauberg, Søren; Schober, Michael; Liptrot, Matthew George
2015-01-01
of the diffusion tensor as a “random Riemannian metric”, where a geodesic is a distribution over tracts. We approximate this distribution with a Gaussian process and present a probabilistic numerics algorithm for computing the geodesic distribution. We demonstrate SPT improvements on data from the Human Connectome...
Drude-Schwarzschild Metric and the Electrical Conductivity of Metals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silva P. R.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Starting from a string with a length equal to the electron mean free path and having a unit cell equal to the Compton length of the electron, we construct a Schwarzschild-like metric. We found that this metric has a surface horizon with radius equal to the electron mean free path and its Bekenstein-like entropy is proportional to the number of squared unit cells contained in this spherical surface. The Hawking temperature is inversely proportional to the perimeter of the maximum circle of this sphere. Also, interesting analogies on some features of the particle physics are examined.
General perceptual contrast metric
Liberg, Anna; Hasler, David
2003-06-01
A combined achromatic and chromatic contrast metric for digital images and video is presented in this paper. Our work is aimed at tuning any parametric rendering algorithm in an automated way by computing how much details an observer perceives in a rendered scene. The contrast metric is based on contrast analysis in spatial domain of image sub-bands constructed by pyramidal decomposition of the image. The proposed contrast metric is the sum of the perceptual contrast of every pixel in the image at different detail levels corresponding to different viewing distances. The novel metric shows high correlation with subjective experiments. Important applications involve optimal parameter set of any image rendering and contrast enhancement technique or auto exposure of an image capturing device.
Schweizer, B
2005-01-01
Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Olson, Teresa; Lee, Harry; Sanders, Johnnie
2002-01-01
.... We have developed the Tracker Performance Metric (TPM) specifically for this purpose. It was designed to measure the output performance, on a frame-by-frame basis, using its output position and quality...
Carver, Gary P.
1994-05-01
The federal agencies are working with industry to ease adoption of the metric system. The goal is to help U.S. industry compete more successfully in the global marketplace, increase exports, and create new jobs. The strategy is to use federal procurement, financial assistance, and other business-related activities to encourage voluntary conversion. Based upon the positive experiences of firms and industries that have converted, federal agencies have concluded that metric use will yield long-term benefits that are beyond any one-time costs or inconveniences. It may be time for additional steps to move the Nation out of its dual-system comfort zone and continue to progress toward metrication. This report includes 'Metric Highlights in U.S. History'.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Many software and IT projects fail in completing theirs objectives because different causes of which the management of the projects has a high weight. In order to have successfully projects, lessons learned have to be used, historical data to be collected and metrics and indicators have to be computed and used to compare them with past projects and avoid failure to happen. This paper presents some metrics that can be used for the IT project management.
Paul POCATILU
2007-01-01
Many software and IT projects fail in completing theirs objectives because different causes of which the management of the projects has a high weight. In order to have successfully projects, lessons learned have to be used, historical data to be collected and metrics and indicators have to be computed and used to compare them with past projects and avoid failure to happen. This paper presents some metrics that can be used for the IT project management.
Mass Customization Measurements Metrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn
2014-01-01
A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....
2016-03-02
estimation [13, 2], and manifold learning [19]. Such unsupervised methods do not have the benefit of human input on the distance metric, and overly rely...to be defined that is related to the task at hand. Many supervised and semi- supervised distance metric learning approaches have been developed [17... Unsupervised PCA seeks to identify a set of axes that best explain the variance contained in the data. LDA takes a supervised approach, minimiz- ing the intra
A generalization of Vaidya's radiation metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gleiser, R.J.; Kozameh, C.N.
1981-01-01
In this paper it is shown that if Vaidya's radiation metric is considered from the point of view of kinetic theory in general relativity, the corresponding phase space distribution function can be generalized in a particular way. The new family of spherically symmetric radiation metrics obtained contains Vaidya's as a limiting situation. The Einstein field equations are solved in a ''comoving'' coordinate system. Two arbitrary functions of a single variable are introduced in the process of solving these equations. Particular examples considered are a stationary solution, a nonvacuum solution depending on a single parameter, and several limiting situations. (author)
Derivation of quantum Chernoff metric with perturbation expansion method
Zhong, Wei; Ma, Jian; Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Guang
2014-09-01
We investigate a measure of distinguishability defined by the quantum Chernoff bound, which naturally induces the quantum Chernoff metric over a manifold of quantum states. Based on a quantum statistical model, we alternatively derive this metric by means of perturbation expansion. Moreover, we show that the quantum Chernoff metric coincides with the infinitesimal form of the quantum Hellinger distance, and reduces to the variant version of the quantum Fisher information for the single-parameter case. We also give the exact form of the quantum Chernoff metric for a qubit system containing a single parameter.
A Method of Forming the Optimal Set of Disjoint Path in Computer Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
As'ad Mahmoud As'ad ALNASER
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This work provides a short analysis of algorithms of multipath routing. The modified algorithm of formation of the maximum set of not crossed paths taking into account their metrics is offered. Optimization of paths is carried out due to their reconfiguration with adjacent deadlock path. Reconfigurations are realized within the subgraphs including only peaks of the main and an adjacent deadlock path. It allows to reduce the field of formation of an optimum path and time complexity of its formation.
Inducing Weinhold's metric from Euclidean and Riemannian metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andresen, B.; Berry, R.S.; Ihrig, E.; Salamon, P.
1987-01-01
We show that Weinhold's metric cannot be introduced on the equation of state surface from a Euclidean metric in the ambient space of all extensive state variables, whereas it can be induced if the ambient space is assumed only to have a Riemannian metric. This metric, however, is not unique. (orig.)
Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig
2017-01-01
This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.
Deep Transfer Metric Learning.
Junlin Hu; Jiwen Lu; Yap-Peng Tan; Jie Zhou
2016-12-01
Conventional metric learning methods usually assume that the training and test samples are captured in similar scenarios so that their distributions are assumed to be the same. This assumption does not hold in many real visual recognition applications, especially when samples are captured across different data sets. In this paper, we propose a new deep transfer metric learning (DTML) method to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations for cross-domain visual recognition by transferring discriminative knowledge from the labeled source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Specifically, our DTML learns a deep metric network by maximizing the inter-class variations and minimizing the intra-class variations, and minimizing the distribution divergence between the source domain and the target domain at the top layer of the network. To better exploit the discriminative information from the source domain, we further develop a deeply supervised transfer metric learning (DSTML) method by including an additional objective on DTML, where the output of both the hidden layers and the top layer are optimized jointly. To preserve the local manifold of input data points in the metric space, we present two new methods, DTML with autoencoder regularization and DSTML with autoencoder regularization. Experimental results on face verification, person re-identification, and handwritten digit recognition validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott
2012-03-01
Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyril Tintarev
2007-05-01
Full Text Available The paper studies energy functionals on quasimetric spaces, defined by quadratic measure-valued Lagrangeans. This general model of medium, known as metric fractals, includes nested fractals and sub-Riemannian manifolds. In particular, the quadratic form of the Lagrangean satisfies Sobolev inequalities with the critical exponent determined by the (quasimetric homogeneous dimension, which is also involved in the asymptotic distribution of the form's eigenvalues. This paper verifies that the axioms of the metric fractal are preserved by space products, leading thus to examples of non-differentiable media of arbitrary intrinsic dimension.
The Noncommutative Ward Metric
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Maceda
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We analyze the moduli-space metric in the static nonabelian charge-two sector of the Moyal-deformed CP^1 sigma model in 1+2 dimensions. After carefully reviewing the commutative results of Ward and Ruback, the noncommutative Kähler potential is expanded in powers of dimensionless moduli. In two special cases we sum the perturbative series to analytic expressions. For any nonzero value of the noncommutativity parameter, the logarithmic singularity of the commutative metric is expelled from the origin of the moduli space and possibly altogether.
Adaptive metric kernel regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan
2000-01-01
Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...
Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan
1998-01-01
Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression...... by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...
Mehic, M.; Fazio, P.; Voznak, M.; Partila, P.; Komosny, D.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.
2016-05-01
A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate without a fixed backbone or centralized infrastructure. Due to the frequent mobility of nodes, routes connecting two distant nodes may change. Therefore, it is not possible to establish a priori fixed paths for message delivery through the network. Because of its importance, routing is the most studied problem in mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, if the Quality of Service (QoS) is demanded, one must guarantee the QoS not only over a single hop but over an entire wireless multi-hop path which may not be a trivial task. In turns, this requires the propagation of QoS information within the network. The key to the support of QoS reporting is QoS routing, which provides path QoS information at each source. To support QoS for real-time traffic one needs to know not only minimum delay on the path to the destination but also the bandwidth available on it. Therefore, throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead are traditional performance metrics used to evaluate the performance of routing protocol. To obtain additional information about the link, most of quality-link metrics are based on calculation of the lost probabilities of links by broadcasting probe packets. In this paper, we address the problem of including multiple routing metrics in existing routing packets that are broadcasted through the network. We evaluate the efficiency of such approach with modified version of DSDV routing protocols in ns-3 simulator.
The PathOlogist: an automated tool for pathway-centric analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schaefer Carl F
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The PathOlogist is a new tool designed to transform large sets of gene expression data into quantitative descriptors of pathway-level behavior. The tool aims to provide a robust alternative to the search for single-gene-to-phenotype associations by accounting for the complexity of molecular interactions. Results Molecular abundance data is used to calculate two metrics - 'activity' and 'consistency' - for each pathway in a set of more than 500 canonical molecular pathways (source: Pathway Interaction Database, http://pid.nci.nih.gov. The tool then allows a detailed exploration of these metrics through integrated visualization of pathway components and structure, hierarchical clustering of pathways and samples, and statistical analyses designed to detect associations between pathway behavior and clinical features. Conclusions The PathOlogist provides a straightforward means to identify the functional processes, rather than individual molecules, that are altered in disease. The statistical power and biologic significance of this approach are made easily accessible to laboratory researchers and informatics analysts alike. Here we show as an example, how the PathOlogist can be used to establish pathway signatures that robustly differentiate breast cancer cell lines based on response to treatment.
Engineering performance metrics
Delozier, R.; Snyder, N.
1993-03-01
Implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to engineering work required the development of a system of metrics which would serve as a meaningful management tool for evaluating effectiveness in accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. A team effort was chartered with the goal of developing a system of engineering performance metrics which would measure customer satisfaction, quality, cost effectiveness, and timeliness. The approach to developing this system involved normal systems design phases including, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation, and integration. The lessons teamed from this effort will be explored in this paper. These lessons learned may provide a starting point for other large engineering organizations seeking to institute a performance measurement system accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. To facilitate this effort, a team was chartered to assist in the development of the metrics system. This team, consisting of customers and Engineering staff members, was utilized to ensure that the needs and views of the customers were considered in the development of performance measurements. The development of a system of metrics is no different than the development of any type of system. It includes the steps of defining performance measurement requirements, measurement process conceptual design, performance measurement and reporting system detailed design, and system implementation and integration.
Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James
2006-01-01
Reducing the arbitrariness of a metric is distinct from the pursuit of validity, rational zero points, data transformations, standardization, and the types of statistical procedures one uses to analyze interval-level versus ordinal-level data. A variety of theoretical, methodological, and statistical tools can assist researchers who wish to make…
Universal hypermultiplet metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ketov, Sergei V.
2001-01-01
Some instanton corrections to the universal hypermultiplet moduli space metric of the type IIA string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau threefold arise due to multiple wrapping of BPS membranes and five-branes around certain cycles of Calabi-Yau. The classical universal hypermultipet metric is locally equivalent to the Bergmann metric of the symmetric quaternionic space SU(2,1)/U(2), whereas its generic quaternionic deformations are governed by the integrable SU(∞) Toda equation. We calculate the exact (non-perturbative) UH metrics in the special cases of (i) the D-instantons (the wrapped D2-branes) in the absence of five-branes, and (ii) the five-brane instantons with vanishing charges, in the absence of D-instantons. The solutions of the first type preserve the U(1)xU(1) classical symmetry, while they can be interpreted as the gravitational dressing of the hyper-Kaehler D-instanton solutions. The solutions of the second type preserve the non-abelian SU(2) classical symmetry, while they can be interpreted as the gradient flows in the universal hypermultiplet moduli space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor
2014-01-01
Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations
Software Quality Assurance Metrics
McRae, Kalindra A.
2004-01-01
Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.
coincidentally commuting mappings in D-metric spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. C. Dhage
2003-01-01
pairs of a single-valued and a multivalued coincidentally commuting mappings in D-metric spaces satisfying a certain generalized contraction condition. Our result generalizes more than a dozen known fixed-point theorems in D-metric spaces including those of Dhage (2000 and Rhoades (1996.
Multi-AGV path planning with double-path constraints by using an improved genetic algorithm.
Han, Zengliang; Wang, Dongqing; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Zhiyong
2017-01-01
This paper investigates an improved genetic algorithm on multiple automated guided vehicle (multi-AGV) path planning. The innovations embody in two aspects. First, three-exchange crossover heuristic operators are used to produce more optimal offsprings for getting more information than with the traditional two-exchange crossover heuristic operators in the improved genetic algorithm. Second, double-path constraints of both minimizing the total path distance of all AGVs and minimizing single path distances of each AGV are exerted, gaining the optimal shortest total path distance. The simulation results show that the total path distance of all AGVs and the longest single AGV path distance are shortened by using the improved genetic algorithm.
Multi-AGV path planning with double-path constraints by using an improved genetic algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zengliang Han
Full Text Available This paper investigates an improved genetic algorithm on multiple automated guided vehicle (multi-AGV path planning. The innovations embody in two aspects. First, three-exchange crossover heuristic operators are used to produce more optimal offsprings for getting more information than with the traditional two-exchange crossover heuristic operators in the improved genetic algorithm. Second, double-path constraints of both minimizing the total path distance of all AGVs and minimizing single path distances of each AGV are exerted, gaining the optimal shortest total path distance. The simulation results show that the total path distance of all AGVs and the longest single AGV path distance are shortened by using the improved genetic algorithm.
Feynman's path integrals and Bohm's particle paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tumulka, Roderich
2005-01-01
Both Bohmian mechanics, a version of quantum mechanics with trajectories, and Feynman's path integral formalism have something to do with particle paths in space and time. The question thus arises how the two ideas relate to each other. In short, the answer is, path integrals provide a re-formulation of Schroedinger's equation, which is half of the defining equations of Bohmian mechanics. I try to give a clear and concise description of the various aspects of the situation. (letters and comments)
Path coupling and aggregate path coupling
Kovchegov, Yevgeniy
2018-01-01
This book describes and characterizes an extension to the classical path coupling method applied to statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, the aggregate path coupling method is used to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The book shows how the parameter regions for rapid mixing for several classes of statistical mechanical models are derived using the aggregate path coupling method.
Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Ramirez, Francisco C
2013-04-01
Endoscopy has evolved in the past 4 decades to become an important tool in the diagnosis and management of many digestive diseases. Greater focus on endoscopic quality has highlighted the need to ensure competency among endoscopists. A joint task force of the American College of Gastroenterology and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy has proposed several quality metrics to establish competence and help define areas of continuous quality improvement. These metrics represent quality in endoscopy pertinent to pre-, intra-, and postprocedural periods. Quality in endoscopy is a dynamic and multidimensional process that requires continuous monitoring of several indicators and benchmarking with local and national standards. Institutions and practices should have a process in place for credentialing endoscopists and for the assessment of competence regarding individual endoscopic procedures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov
2014-09-01
Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Todd Carpenter
2015-07-01
Full Text Available An important and timely plenary session at the 2015 UKSG Conference and Exhibition focused on the role of metrics in research assessment. The two excellent speakers had slightly divergent views.Todd Carpenter from NISO (National Information Standards Organization argued that altmetrics aren’t alt anymore and that downloads and other forms of digital interaction, including social media reference, reference tracking, personal library saving, and secondary linking activity now provide mainstream approaches to the assessment of scholarly impact. James Wilsdon is professor of science and democracy in the Science Policy Research Unit at the University of Sussex and is chair of the Independent Review of the Role of Metrics in Research Assessment commissioned by the Higher Education Funding Council in England (HEFCE. The outcome of this review will inform the work of HEFCE and the other UK higher education funding bodies as they prepare for the future of the Research Excellence Framework. He is more circumspect arguing that metrics cannot and should not be used as a substitute for informed judgement. This article provides a summary of both presentations.
Nonmotor regions encode path-related information during movements.
Breault, Macauley S; Sacre, Pierre; Johnson, Jacob J; Kerr, Matthew; Johnson, Matthew D; Bulacio, Juan; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Sarma, Sridevi V; Gale, John T
2017-07-01
Sensorimotor control and the involvement of motor brain regions has been extensively studied, but the role nonmotor brain regions play during movements has been overlooked. This is particularly due to the difficulty of recording from multiple regions in the brain during motor control. In this study, we utilize stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recording techniques to explore the role nonmotor brain areas have on the way we move. Nine humans were implanted with SEEG depth electrodes for clinical purposes, which rendered access to local field potential (LFP) activity in deep and peripheral nonmotor structures. Participants performed fast and slow arm reaching movements using a robotic manipulandum. In this study, we explored whether neural activity in a given nonmotor brain structure correlated to movement path metrics including: path length, path deviation, and path speed. Statistical analysis revealed correlations between averaged neural activity in middle temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus and our path metrics both within and across the subjects. Furthermore, we split trials across subjects into two groups: one group consisted of trials with high values of each path metric and the other with low values. We then found significant differences in LFP power in specific frequency bands (e.g. beta) during movement between each group. These results suggest that nonmotor regions may dynamically encode path-related information during movement.
Symmetries of the dual metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baleanu, D.
1998-01-01
The geometric duality between the metric g μν and a Killing tensor K μν is studied. The conditions were found when the symmetries of the metric g μν and the dual metric K μν are the same. Dual spinning space was constructed without introduction of torsion. The general results are applied to the case of Kerr-Newmann metric
Monochromatic metrics are generalized Berwald
Bartelmeß, Nina; Matveev, Vladimir S.
2017-01-01
We show that monochromatic Finsler metrics, i.e., Finsler metrics such that each two tangent spaces are isomorphic as normed spaces, are generalized Berwald metrics, i.e., there exists an affine connection, possibly with torsion, that preserves the Finsler function
Spacetime Metrics from Gauge Potentials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ettore Minguzzi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available I present an approach to gravity in which the spacetime metric is constructed from a non-Abelian gauge potential with values in the Lie algebra of the group U(2 (or the Lie algebra of quaternions. If the curvature of this potential vanishes, the metric reduces to a canonical curved background form reminiscent of the Friedmann S3 cosmological metric.
A computational imaging target specific detectivity metric
Preece, Bradley L.; Nehmetallah, George
2017-05-01
Due to the large quantity of low-cost, high-speed computational processing available today, computational imaging (CI) systems are expected to have a major role for next generation multifunctional cameras. The purpose of this work is to quantify the performance of theses CI systems in a standardized manner. Due to the diversity of CI system designs that are available today or proposed in the near future, significant challenges in modeling and calculating a standardized detection signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to measure the performance of these systems. In this paper, we developed a path forward for a standardized detectivity metric for CI systems. The detectivity metric is designed to evaluate the performance of a CI system searching for a specific known target or signal of interest, and is defined as the optimal linear matched filter SNR, similar to the Hotelling SNR, calculated in computational space with special considerations for standardization. Therefore, the detectivity metric is designed to be flexible, in order to handle various types of CI systems and specific targets, while keeping the complexity and assumptions of the systems to a minimum.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. E. Podol'skii
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the implementing Bellman-Ford and Lee algorithms to find the shortest graph path on a computer system with multiple instruction stream and single data stream (MISD. The MISD computer is a computer that executes commands of arithmetic-logical processing (on the CPU and commands of structures processing (on the structures processor in parallel on a single data stream. Transformation of sequential programs into the MISD programs is a labor intensity process because it requires a stream of the arithmetic-logical processing to be manually separated from that of the structures processing. Algorithms based on the processing of data structures (e.g., algorithms on graphs show high performance on a MISD computer. Bellman-Ford and Lee algorithms for finding the shortest path on a graph are representatives of these algorithms. They are applied to robotics for automatic planning of the robot movement in-situ. Modification of Bellman-Ford and Lee algorithms for finding the shortest graph path in coprocessor MISD mode and the parallel MISD modification of these algorithms were first obtained in this article. Thus, this article continues a series of studies on the transformation of sequential algorithms into MISD ones (Dijkstra and Ford-Fulkerson 's algorithms and has a pronouncedly applied nature. The article also presents the analysis results of Bellman-Ford and Lee algorithms in MISD mode. The paper formulates the basic trends of a technique for parallelization of algorithms into arithmetic-logical processing stream and structures processing stream. Among the key areas for future research, development of the mathematical approach to provide a subsequently formalized and automated process of parallelizing sequential algorithms between the CPU and structures processor is highlighted. Among the mathematical models that can be used in future studies there are graph models of algorithms (e.g., dependency graph of a program. Due to the high
A Unification of G-Metric, Partial Metric, and b-Metric Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nawab Hussain
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Using the concepts of G-metric, partial metric, and b-metric spaces, we define a new concept of generalized partial b-metric space. Topological and structural properties of the new space are investigated and certain fixed point theorems for contractive mappings in such spaces are obtained. Some examples are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1981-01-01
This standard gives guidance for application of the modernized metric system in the United States. The International System of Units, developed and maintained by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (abbreviated CGPM from the official French name Conference Generale des Poids et Measures) is intended as a basis for worldwide standardization of measurement units. The name International System of Units and the international abbreviation SI 2 were adopted by the 11th CGPM in 1960. SI is a complete, coherent system that is being universally adopted
New validation metrics for models with multiple correlated responses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Wei; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Zhen; Lu, Zhenzhou; Liu, Yu
2014-01-01
Validating models with correlated multivariate outputs involves the comparison of multiple stochastic quantities. Considering both uncertainty and correlations among multiple responses from model and physical observations imposes challenges. Existing marginal comparison methods and the hypothesis testing-based methods either ignore correlations among responses or only reach Boolean conclusions (yes or no) without accounting for the amount of discrepancy between a model and the underlying reality. A new validation metric is needed to quantitatively characterize the overall agreement of multiple responses considering correlations among responses and uncertainty in both model predictions and physical observations. In this paper, by extending the concept of “area metric” and the “u-pooling method” developed for validating a single response, we propose new model validation metrics for validating correlated multiple responses using the multivariate probability integral transformation (PIT). One new metric is the PIT area metric for validating multi-responses at a single validation site. The other is the t-pooling metric that allows for pooling observations of multiple responses observed at multiple validation sites to assess the global predictive capability. The proposed metrics have many favorable properties that are well suited for validation assessment of models with correlated responses. The two metrics are examined and compared with the direct area metric and the marginal u-pooling method respectively through numerical case studies and an engineering example to illustrate their validity and potential benefits
Completion of a Dislocated Metric Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Sumati Kumari
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We provide a construction for the completion of a dislocated metric space (abbreviated d-metric space; we also prove that the completion of the metric associated with a d-metric coincides with the metric associated with the completion of the d-metric.
Fransson, Boel A; Chen, Chi-Ya; Noyes, Julie A; Ragle, Claude A
2016-11-01
To determine the construct and concurrent validity of instrument motion metrics for laparoscopic skills assessment in virtual reality and augmented reality simulators. Evaluation study. Veterinarian students (novice, n = 14) and veterinarians (experienced, n = 11) with no or variable laparoscopic experience. Participants' minimally invasive surgery (MIS) experience was determined by hospital records of MIS procedures performed in the Teaching Hospital. Basic laparoscopic skills were assessed by 5 tasks using a physical box trainer. Each participant completed 2 tasks for assessments in each type of simulator (virtual reality: bowel handling and cutting; augmented reality: object positioning and a pericardial window model). Motion metrics such as instrument path length, angle or drift, and economy of motion of each simulator were recorded. None of the motion metrics in a virtual reality simulator showed correlation with experience, or to the basic laparoscopic skills score. All metrics in augmented reality were significantly correlated with experience (time, instrument path, and economy of movement), except for the hand dominance metric. The basic laparoscopic skills score was correlated to all performance metrics in augmented reality. The augmented reality motion metrics differed between American College of Veterinary Surgeons diplomates and residents, whereas basic laparoscopic skills score and virtual reality metrics did not. Our results provide construct validity and concurrent validity for motion analysis metrics for an augmented reality system, whereas a virtual reality system was validated only for the time score. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Validation of network communicability metrics for the analysis of brain structural networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer Andreotti
Full Text Available Computational network analysis provides new methods to analyze the brain's structural organization based on diffusion imaging tractography data. Networks are characterized by global and local metrics that have recently given promising insights into diagnosis and the further understanding of psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Most of these metrics are based on the idea that information in a network flows along the shortest paths. In contrast to this notion, communicability is a broader measure of connectivity which assumes that information could flow along all possible paths between two nodes. In our work, the features of network metrics related to communicability were explored for the first time in the healthy structural brain network. In addition, the sensitivity of such metrics was analysed using simulated lesions to specific nodes and network connections. Results showed advantages of communicability over conventional metrics in detecting densely connected nodes as well as subsets of nodes vulnerable to lesions. In addition, communicability centrality was shown to be widely affected by the lesions and the changes were negatively correlated with the distance from lesion site. In summary, our analysis suggests that communicability metrics that may provide an insight into the integrative properties of the structural brain network and that these metrics may be useful for the analysis of brain networks in the presence of lesions. Nevertheless, the interpretation of communicability is not straightforward; hence these metrics should be used as a supplement to the more standard connectivity network metrics.
Tomographic reconstruction of quantum metrics
Laudato, Marco; Marmo, Giuseppe; Mele, Fabio M.; Ventriglia, Franco; Vitale, Patrizia
2018-02-01
In the framework of quantum information geometry we investigate the relationship between monotone metric tensors uniquely defined on the space of quantum tomograms, once the tomographic scheme is chosen, and monotone quantum metrics on the space of quantum states, classified by operator monotone functions, according to the Petz classification theorem. We show that different metrics can be related through a change in the tomographic map and prove that there exists a bijective relation between monotone quantum metrics associated with different operator monotone functions. Such a bijective relation is uniquely defined in terms of solutions of a first order second degree differential equation for the parameters of the involved tomographic maps. We first exhibit an example of a non-linear tomographic map that connects a monotone metric with a new one, which is not monotone. Then we provide a second example where two monotone metrics are uniquely related through their tomographic parameters.
Metric adjusted skew information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Frank
2008-01-01
establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state......) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...
Reuse metrics and measurement: A framework
Reifer, Donald J.
1990-01-01
The lessons learned and experience gleaned are described by those who have started to implement the reuse metrics and measurement framework used in controlling the development of common avionics and software for its affiliated aircraft programs. The framework was developed to permit the measurement of the long term cost/benefits resulting from the creation and use of Reusable Software Objects (RSOs). The framework also monitors the efficiency and effectiveness of the Software Reuse Library (SRL). The metrics and measurement framework is defined which was established to allow some determinations and findings to be made relative to software reuse. Seven criteria are discussed which were used to guide the establishment of the proposed reuse framework. Object recapture and creation metrics are explained along with their normalized use in effort, productivity, and quality determination. A single and multiple reuse instance version of a popular cost model is presented which uses these metrics and the measurement scheme proposed to predict the software effort and duration under various reuse assumptions. Studies in using this model to predict actuals taken from the RCI data base of over 1000 completed projects is discussed.
Assessing Software Quality Through Visualised Cohesion Metrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy Shih
2001-05-01
Full Text Available Cohesion is one of the most important factors for software quality as well as maintainability, reliability and reusability. Module cohesion is defined as a quality attribute that seeks for measuring the singleness of the purpose of a module. The module of poor quality can be a serious obstacle to the system quality. In order to design a good software quality, software managers and engineers need to introduce cohesion metrics to measure and produce desirable software. A highly cohesion software is thought to be a desirable constructing. In this paper, we propose a function-oriented cohesion metrics based on the analysis of live variables, live span and the visualization of processing element dependency graph. We give six typical cohesion examples to be measured as our experiments and justification. Therefore, a well-defined, well-normalized, well-visualized and well-experimented cohesion metrics is proposed to indicate and thus enhance software cohesion strength. Furthermore, this cohesion metrics can be easily incorporated with software CASE tool to help software engineers to improve software quality.
Random metric spaces and universality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vershik, A M
2004-01-01
The notion of random metric space is defined, and it is proved that such a space is isometric to the Urysohn universal metric space with probability one. The main technique is the study of universal and random distance matrices; properties of metric (in particular, universal) spaces are related to properties of distance matrices. Examples of other categories in which randomness and universality coincide (graphs, and so on) are given
The metric system: An introduction
Lumley, Susan M.
On 13 Jul. 1992, Deputy Director Duane Sewell restated the Laboratory's policy on conversion to the metric system which was established in 1974. Sewell's memo announced the Laboratory's intention to continue metric conversion on a reasonable and cost effective basis. Copies of the 1974 and 1992 Administrative Memos are contained in the Appendix. There are three primary reasons behind the Laboratory's conversion to the metric system. First, Public Law 100-418, passed in 1988, states that by the end of fiscal year 1992 the Federal Government must begin using metric units in grants, procurements, and other business transactions. Second, on 25 Jul. 1991, President George Bush signed Executive Order 12770 which urged Federal agencies to expedite conversion to metric units. Third, the contract between the University of California and the Department of Energy calls for the Laboratory to convert to the metric system. Thus, conversion to the metric system is a legal requirement and a contractual mandate with the University of California. Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770 are discussed in more detail later in this section, but first they examine the reasons behind the nation's conversion to the metric system. The second part of this report is on applying the metric system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isabel Garrido
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The class of metric spaces (X,d known as small-determined spaces, introduced by Garrido and Jaramillo, are properly defined by means of some type of real-valued Lipschitz functions on X. On the other hand, B-simple metric spaces introduced by Hejcman are defined in terms of some kind of bornologies of bounded subsets of X. In this note we present a common framework where both classes of metric spaces can be studied which allows us to see not only the relationships between them but also to obtain new internal characterizations of these metric properties.
Metric-adjusted skew information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank
2010-01-01
We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....
Memristor-based memory: The sneak paths problem and solutions
Zidan, Mohammed A.
2012-10-29
In this paper, we investigate the read operation of memristor-based memories. We analyze the sneak paths problem and provide a noise margin metric to compare the various solutions proposed in the literature. We also analyze the power consumption associated with these solutions. Moreover, we study the effect of the aspect ratio of the memory array on the sneak paths. Finally, we introduce a new technique for solving the sneak paths problem by gating the memory cell using a three-terminal memistor device.
Software metrics: Software quality metrics for distributed systems. [reliability engineering
Post, J. V.
1981-01-01
Software quality metrics was extended to cover distributed computer systems. Emphasis is placed on studying embedded computer systems and on viewing them within a system life cycle. The hierarchy of quality factors, criteria, and metrics was maintained. New software quality factors were added, including survivability, expandability, and evolvability.
Path-integral measure for topological field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cugliandolo, L.F.; Lozano, G.; Schaposnik, F.A.
1990-01-01
We discuss how the dependence of the path-integral measure on the metric affects the properties of topological quantum field theories. We show that the choice of an invariant measure (under general coordinate transformations) preserves the topological character of these theories. We also discuss how topological invariants should be computed within this approach. (orig.)
On Indistinguishability Operators, Fuzzy Metrics and Modular Metrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan-José Miñana
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The notion of indistinguishability operator was introduced by Trillas, E. in 1982, with the aim of fuzzifying the crisp notion of equivalence relation. Such operators allow for measuring the similarity between objects when there is a limitation on the accuracy of the performed measurement or a certain degree of similarity can be only determined between the objects being compared. Since Trillas introduced such kind of operators, many authors have studied their properties and applications. In particular, an intensive research line is focused on the metric behavior of indistinguishability operators. Specifically, the existence of a duality between metrics and indistinguishability operators has been explored. In this direction, a technique to generate metrics from indistinguishability operators, and vice versa, has been developed by several authors in the literature. Nowadays, such a measurement of similarity is provided by the so-called fuzzy metrics when the degree of similarity between objects is measured relative to a parameter. The main purpose of this paper is to extend the notion of indistinguishability operator in such a way that the measurements of similarity are relative to a parameter and, thus, classical indistinguishability operators and fuzzy metrics can be retrieved as a particular case. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the new operators and metrics. Concretely, we prove the existence of a duality between them and the so-called modular metrics, which provide a dissimilarity measurement between objects relative to a parameter. The new duality relationship allows us, on the one hand, to introduce a technique for generating the new indistinguishability operators from modular metrics and vice versa and, on the other hand, to derive, as a consequence, a technique for generating fuzzy metrics from modular metrics and vice versa. Furthermore, we yield examples that illustrate the new results.
Applications of Temporal Graph Metrics to Real-World Networks
Tang, John; Leontiadis, Ilias; Scellato, Salvatore; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Latora, Vito
Real world networks exhibit rich temporal information: friends are added and removed over time in online social networks; the seasons dictate the predator-prey relationship in food webs; and the propagation of a virus depends on the network of human contacts throughout the day. Recent studies have demonstrated that static network analysis is perhaps unsuitable in the study of real world network since static paths ignore time order, which, in turn, results in static shortest paths overestimating available links and underestimating their true corresponding lengths. Temporal extensions to centrality and efficiency metrics based on temporal shortest paths have also been proposed. Firstly, we analyse the roles of key individuals of a corporate network ranked according to temporal centrality within the context of a bankruptcy scandal; secondly, we present how such temporal metrics can be used to study the robustness of temporal networks in presence of random errors and intelligent attacks; thirdly, we study containment schemes for mobile phone malware which can spread via short range radio, similar to biological viruses; finally, we study how the temporal network structure of human interactions can be exploited to effectively immunise human populations. Through these applications we demonstrate that temporal metrics provide a more accurate and effective analysis of real-world networks compared to their static counterparts.
Metric representation of DNA sequences.
Wu, Z B
2000-07-01
A metric representation of DNA sequences is borrowed from symbolic dynamics. In view of this method, the pattern seen in the chaos game representation of DNA sequences is explained as the suppression of certain nucleotide strings in the DNA sequences. Frequencies of short nucleotide strings and suppression of the shortest ones in the DNA sequences can be determined by using the metric representation.
Extending cosmology: the metric approach
Mendoza, S.
2012-01-01
Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach
Metrics for Stage Lighting Technology.
Cooper, Gloria S., Ed; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.
Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of stage lighting technology students, this instructional package is one of five for the arts and humanities occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…
Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, A D
2000-01-01
The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces
Metrics for image segmentation
Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise
1998-07-01
An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.
Multi-Dimensional Path Queries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bækgaard, Lars
1998-01-01
that connects a pair of paths. A path expression is a function that maps a set of path sets into a path set. Path sets can be joined, filtering conditions can restrict the set of qualifying paths, and aggregation functions can be applied to path elements. In particular, the aggregation function SET can be used...... to create nested path structures. We present an SQL-like query language that is based on path expressions and we show how to use it to express multi-dimensional path queries that are suited for advanced data analysis in decision support environments like data warehousing environments...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokhorov, L.V.
1982-01-01
The properties of path integrals associated with the allowance for nonstandard terms reflecting the operator nature of the canonical variables are considered. Rules for treating such terms (''equivalence rules'') are formulated. Problems with a boundary, the behavior of path integrals under canonical transformations, and the problem of quantization of dynamical systems with constraints are considered in the framework of the method
METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.
Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
2015-01-01
To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o
Candelas, Philip; de la Ossa, Xenia; McOrist, Jock
2017-12-01
Heterotic vacua of string theory are realised, at large radius, by a compact threefold with vanishing first Chern class together with a choice of stable holomorphic vector bundle. These form a wide class of potentially realistic four-dimensional vacua of string theory. Despite all their phenomenological promise, there is little understanding of the metric on the moduli space of these. What is sought is the analogue of special geometry for these vacua. The metric on the moduli space is important in phenomenology as it normalises D-terms and Yukawa couplings. It is also of interest in mathematics, since it generalises the metric, first found by Kobayashi, on the space of gauge field connections, to a more general context. Here we construct this metric, correct to first order in {α^{\\backprime}}, in two ways: first by postulating a metric that is invariant under background gauge transformations of the gauge field, and also by dimensionally reducing heterotic supergravity. These methods agree and the resulting metric is Kähler, as is required by supersymmetry. Checking the metric is Kähler is intricate and the anomaly cancellation equation for the H field plays an essential role. The Kähler potential nevertheless takes a remarkably simple form: it is the Kähler potential of special geometry with the Kähler form replaced by the {α^{\\backprime}}-corrected hermitian form.
Some Metric Properties of Planar Gaussian Free Field
Goswami, Subhajit
In this thesis we study the properties of some metrics arising from two-dimensional Gaussian free field (GFF), namely the Liouville first-passage percolation (Liouville FPP), the Liouville graph distance and an effective resistance metric. In Chapter 1, we define these metrics as well as discuss the motivations for studying them. Roughly speaking, Liouville FPP is the shortest path metric in a planar domain D where the length of a path P is given by ∫Pe gammah(z)|dz| where h is the GFF on D and gamma > 0. In Chapter 2, we present an upper bound on the expected Liouville FPP distance between two typical points for small values of gamma (the near-Euclidean regime). A similar upper bound is derived in Chapter 3 for the Liouville graph distance which is, roughly, the minimal number of Euclidean balls with comparable Liouville quantum gravity (LQG) measure whose union contains a continuous path between two endpoints. Our bounds seem to be in disagreement with Watabiki's prediction (1993) on the random metric of Liouville quantum gravity in this regime. The contents of these two chapters are based on a joint work with Jian Ding. In Chapter 4, we derive some asymptotic estimates for effective resistances on a random network which is defined as follows. Given any gamma > 0 and for eta = {etav}v∈Z2 denoting a sample of the two-dimensional discrete Gaussian free field on Z2 pinned at the origin, we equip the edge ( u, v) with conductance egamma(etau + eta v). The metric structure of effective resistance plays a crucial role in our proof of the main result in Chapter 4. The primary motivation behind this metric is to understand the random walk on Z 2 where the edge (u, v) has weight egamma(etau + etav). Using the estimates from Chapter 4 we show in Chapter 5 that for almost every eta, this random walk is recurrent and that, with probability tending to 1 as T → infinity, the return probability at time 2T decays as T-1+o(1). In addition, we prove a version of subdiffusive
de Alfaro, Luca; Majumdar, Rupak; Raman, Viswanath; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette
We consider two-player games played over finite state spaces for an infinite number of rounds. At each state, the players simultaneously choose moves; the moves determine a successor state. It is often advantageous for players to choose probability distributions over moves, rather than single moves.
Inter-patient distance metrics using SNOMED CT defining relationships.
Melton, Genevieve B; Parsons, Simon; Morrison, Frances P; Rothschild, Adam S; Markatou, Marianthi; Hripcsak, George
2006-12-01
Patient-based similarity metrics are important case-based reasoning tools which may assist with research and patient care applications. Ontology and information content principles may be potentially helpful tools for similarity metric development. Patient cases from 1989 through 2003 from the Columbia University Medical Center data repository were converted to SNOMED CT concepts. Five metrics were implemented: (1) percent disagreement with data as an unstructured "bag of findings," (2) average links between concepts, (3) links weighted by information content with descendants, (4) links weighted by information content with term prevalence, and (5) path distance using descendants weighted by information content with descendants. Three physicians served as gold standard for 30 cases. Expert inter-rater reliability was 0.91, with rank correlations between 0.61 and 0.81, representing upper-bound performance. Expert performance compared to metrics resulted in correlations of 0.27, 0.29, 0.30, 0.30, and 0.30, respectively. Using SNOMED axis Clinical Findings alone increased correlation to 0.37. Ontology principles and information content provide useful information for similarity metrics but currently fall short of expert performance.
Radiometric sensitivity contrast metrics for spectral remote sensors
Silny, John F.; Zellinger, Louis
2017-08-01
The calculation, interpretation, and implications of radiometric sensitivity metrics for Earth-observing multispectral and hyperspectral imaging sensors are discussed. The most commonly used sensor performance metric is signal-to-noise ratio, from which additional noise equivalent quantities can be computed, including noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR), noise equivalent delta reflectance (NEΔρ), noise equivalent delta emittance (NEΔɛ), and noise equivalent delta temperature (NEΔT). For hyperspectral sensors, these metrics are typically calculated from an at-aperture radiance (typically generated by MODTRAN) that includes both target radiance and nontarget (atmosphere and background) radiance. Unfortunately, these calculations treat the entire at-aperture radiance as the desired signal, even when the target radiance is only a fraction of the total (such as when sensing through a long or optically dense atmospheric path). To overcome this limitation, an augmented set of metrics based on a contrast signal-to-noise ratio, including their noise equivalent counterparts (CNESR, CNEΔρ, CNEΔɛ, and CNEΔT), is developed. These contrast metrics better quantify sensor performance in an operational environment that includes remote sensing through the atmosphere.
Colonoscopy quality: metrics and implementation.
Calderwood, Audrey H; Jacobson, Brian C
2013-09-01
Colonoscopy is an excellent area for quality improvement because it is high volume, has significant associated risk and expense, and there is evidence that variability in its performance affects outcomes. The best end point for validation of quality metrics in colonoscopy is colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, but a more readily accessible metric is the adenoma detection rate. Fourteen quality metrics were proposed in 2006, and these are described in this article. Implementation of quality improvement initiatives involves rapid assessments and changes on an iterative basis, and can be done at the individual, group, or facility level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daylight metrics and energy savings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor
2009-12-31
The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.
Next-Generation Metrics: Responsible Metrics & Evaluation for Open Science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilsdon, J.; Bar-Ilan, J.; Peters, I.; Wouters, P.
2016-07-01
Metrics evoke a mixed reaction from the research community. A commitment to using data to inform decisions makes some enthusiastic about the prospect of granular, real-time analysis o of research and its wider impacts. Yet we only have to look at the blunt use of metrics such as journal impact factors, h-indices and grant income targets, to be reminded of the pitfalls. Some of the most precious qualities of academic culture resist simple quantification, and individual indicators often struggle to do justice to the richness and plurality of research. Too often, poorly designed evaluation criteria are “dominating minds, distorting behaviour and determining careers (Lawrence, 2007).” Metrics hold real power: they are constitutive of values, identities and livelihoods. How to exercise that power to more positive ends has been the focus of several recent and complementary initiatives, including the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA1), the Leiden Manifesto2 and The Metric Tide3 (a UK government review of the role of metrics in research management and assessment). Building on these initiatives, the European Commission, under its new Open Science Policy Platform4, is now looking to develop a framework for responsible metrics for research management and evaluation, which can be incorporated into the successor framework to Horizon 2020. (Author)
Simons, Jacob V., Jr.
2017-01-01
The critical path method/program evaluation and review technique method of project scheduling is based on the importance of managing a project's critical path(s). Although a critical path is the longest path through a network, its location in large projects is facilitated by the computation of activity slack. However, logical fallacies in…
Two dimensional simplicial paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piso, M.I.
1994-07-01
Paths on the R 3 real Euclidean manifold are defined as 2-dimensional simplicial strips which are orbits of the action of a discrete one-parameter group. It is proven that there exists at least one embedding of R 3 in the free Z-module generated by S 2 (x 0 ). The speed is defined as the simplicial derivative of the path. If mass is attached to the simplex, the free Lagrangian is proportional to the width of the path. In the continuum limit, the relativistic form of the Lagrangian is recovered. (author). 7 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeWitt-Morette, C.
1983-01-01
Much is expected of path integration as a quantization procedure. Much more is possible if one recognizes that path integration is at the crossroad of stochastic and differential calculus and uses the full power of both stochastic and differential calculus in setting up and computing path integrals. In contrast to differential calculus, stochastic calculus has only comparatively recently become an instrument of thought. It has nevertheless already been used in a variety of challenging problems, for instance in the quantization problem. The author presents some applications of the stochastic scheme. (Auth.)
Management Infrastructure and Metrics Definition
Loomis , Charles
2010-01-01
This document describes the project management bodies, the software develop- ment process, and the tools to support them. It also contains a description of the metrics that will be collected over the lifetime of the project to gauge progress.
Hyperbolic geometry for colour metrics.
Farup, Ivar
2014-05-19
It is well established from both colour difference and colour order perpectives that the colour space cannot be Euclidean. In spite of this, most colour spaces still in use today are Euclidean, and the best Euclidean colour metrics are performing comparably to state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics. In this paper, it is shown that a transformation from Euclidean to hyperbolic geometry (i.e., constant negative curvature) for the chromatic plane can significantly improve the performance of Euclidean colour metrics to the point where they are statistically significantly better than state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics on standard data sets. The resulting hyperbolic geometry nicely models both qualitatively and quantitatively the hue super-importance phenomenon observed in colour order systems.
Using TRACI for Sustainability Metrics
TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, has been developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, and product and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sustainable products, processes,...
Zimmerman, Marianna
1975-01-01
Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)
Experiential space is hardly metric
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal; Lukavský, Jiří
2008-01-01
Roč. 2008, č. 37 (2008), s. 58-58 ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception. 24.08-28.08.2008, Utrecht] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1676 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : visual space perception * metric and non-metric perceptual judgments * ecological validity Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Phantom metrics with Killing spinors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W.A. Sabra
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We study metric solutions of Einstein–anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1-dimensional space–time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.
Implementing metrics for process improvement
McAuley, Angela
1993-01-01
There is increasing interest in the use of metrics to control the software development process, to demonstrate productivity and value, and to identify areas for process improvement. Research work completed to date is based on the implementation of metrics in a 'standard' software development environment, and follows either a top-down or bottom-up approach. With the advent of further European unity, many companies are producing localised products, ie products which are translated and adapted t...
Path planning in changeable environments
Nieuwenhuisen, D.
2007-01-01
This thesis addresses path planning in changeable environments. In contrast to traditional path planning that deals with static environments, in changeable environments objects are allowed to change their configurations over time. In many cases, path planning algorithms must facilitate quick
On Advice Complexity of the k-server Problem under Sparse Metrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gupta, S.; Kamali, S.; López-Ortiz, A.
2013-01-01
We consider the k-Server problem under the advice model of computation when the underlying metric space is sparse. On one side, we introduce Θ (1)-competitive algorithms for a wide range of sparse graphs, which require advice of (almost) linear size. Namely, we show that for graphs of size N...... for the 2-server problem on a path metric of size N ≥ 5. Through another lower bound argument, we show that at least n/2 (log α - 1.22) bits of advice is required to obtain an optimal solution for metric spaces of treewidth α, where 4 ≤ α
Symmetries of Taub-NUT dual metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baleanu, D.; Codoban, S.
1998-01-01
Recently geometric duality was analyzed for a metric which admits Killing tensors. An interesting example arises when the manifold has Killing-Yano tensors. The symmetries of the dual metrics in the case of Taub-NUT metric are investigated. Generic and non-generic symmetries of dual Taub-NUT metric are analyzed
Requirement Metrics for Risk Identification
Hammer, Theodore; Huffman, Lenore; Wilson, William; Rosenberg, Linda; Hyatt, Lawrence
1996-01-01
The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is part of the Office of Mission Assurance of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SATC's mission is to assist National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects to improve the quality of software which they acquire or develop. The SATC's efforts are currently focused on the development and use of metric methodologies and tools that identify and assess risks associated with software performance and scheduled delivery. This starts at the requirements phase, where the SATC, in conjunction with software projects at GSFC and other NASA centers is working to identify tools and metric methodologies to assist project managers in identifying and mitigating risks. This paper discusses requirement metrics currently being used at NASA in a collaborative effort between the SATC and the Quality Assurance Office at GSFC to utilize the information available through the application of requirements management tools.
Moduli spaces of riemannian metrics
Tuschmann, Wilderich
2015-01-01
This book studies certain spaces of Riemannian metrics on both compact and non-compact manifolds. These spaces are defined by various sign-based curvature conditions, with special attention paid to positive scalar curvature and non-negative sectional curvature, though we also consider positive Ricci and non-positive sectional curvature. If we form the quotient of such a space of metrics under the action of the diffeomorphism group (or possibly a subgroup) we obtain a moduli space. Understanding the topology of both the original space of metrics and the corresponding moduli space form the central theme of this book. For example, what can be said about the connectedness or the various homotopy groups of such spaces? We explore the major results in the area, but provide sufficient background so that a non-expert with a grounding in Riemannian geometry can access this growing area of research.
Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.
2009-01-01
analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...
The uniqueness of the Fisher metric as information metric
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Le, Hong-Van
2017-01-01
Roč. 69, č. 4 (2017), s. 879-896 ISSN 0020-3157 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Chentsov’s theorem * mixed topology * monotonicity of the Fish er metric Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.049, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10463-016-0562-0
The uniqueness of the Fisher metric as information metric
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Le, Hong-Van
2017-01-01
Roč. 69, č. 4 (2017), s. 879-896 ISSN 0020-3157 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Chentsov’s theorem * mixed topology * monotonicity of the Fisher metric Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.049, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10463-016-0562-0
Probability measures on metric spaces
Parthasarathy, K R
2005-01-01
In this book, the author gives a cohesive account of the theory of probability measures on complete metric spaces (which is viewed as an alternative approach to the general theory of stochastic processes). After a general description of the basics of topology on the set of measures, the author discusses regularity, tightness, and perfectness of measures, properties of sampling distributions, and metrizability and compactness theorems. Next, he describes arithmetic properties of probability measures on metric groups and locally compact abelian groups. Covered in detail are notions such as decom
Invariant metrics for Hamiltonian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangarajan, G.; Dragt, A.J.; Neri, F.
1991-05-01
In this paper, invariant metrics are constructed for Hamiltonian systems. These metrics give rise to norms on the space of homeogeneous polynomials of phase-space variables. For an accelerator lattice described by a Hamiltonian, these norms characterize the nonlinear content of the lattice. Therefore, the performance of the lattice can be improved by minimizing the norm as a function of parameters describing the beam-line elements in the lattice. A four-fold increase in the dynamic aperture of a model FODO cell is obtained using this procedure. 7 refs
Technical Privacy Metrics: a Systematic Survey
Wagner, Isabel; Eckhoff, David
2015-01-01
The goal of privacy metrics is to measure the degree of privacy enjoyed by users in a system and the amount of protection offered by privacy-enhancing technologies. In this way, privacy metrics contribute to improving user privacy in the digital world. The diversity and complexity of privacy metrics in the literature makes an informed choice of metrics challenging. As a result, redundant new metrics are proposed frequently, and privacy studies are often incomparable. In this survey we allevia...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bessem Samet
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In 2005, Mustafa and Sims (2006 introduced and studied a new class of generalized metric spaces, which are called G-metric spaces, as a generalization of metric spaces. We establish some useful propositions to show that many fixed point theorems on (nonsymmetric G-metric spaces given recently by many authors follow directly from well-known theorems on metric spaces. Our technique can be easily extended to other results as shown in application.
Temporal variability of daily personal magnetic field exposure metrics in pregnant women.
Lewis, Ryan C; Evenson, Kelly R; Savitz, David A; Meeker, John D
2015-01-01
Recent epidemiology studies of power-frequency magnetic fields and reproductive health have characterized exposures using data collected from personal exposure monitors over a single day, possibly resulting in exposure misclassification due to temporal variability in daily personal magnetic field exposure metrics, but relevant data in adults are limited. We assessed the temporal variability of daily central tendency (time-weighted average, median) and peak (upper percentiles, maximum) personal magnetic field exposure metrics over 7 consecutive days in 100 pregnant women. When exposure was modeled as a continuous variable, central tendency metrics had substantial reliability, whereas peak metrics had fair (maximum) to moderate (upper percentiles) reliability. The predictive ability of a single-day metric to accurately classify participants into exposure categories based on a weeklong metric depended on the selected exposure threshold, with sensitivity decreasing with increasing exposure threshold. Consistent with the continuous measures analysis, sensitivity was higher for central tendency metrics than for peak metrics. If there is interest in peak metrics, more than 1 day of measurement is needed over the window of disease susceptibility to minimize measurement error, but 1 day may be sufficient for central tendency metrics.
Generally covariant Hamilton-Jacobi equation and rotated liquid sphere metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdil'din, M.M.; Abdulgafarov, M.K.; Abishev, M.E.
2005-01-01
In the work Lense-Thirring problem on corrected Fock's first approximation metrics by Hamilton-Jacobi method considered. Generally covariant Hamilton-Jacobi equation had been sold by separation of variable method. Path equation of probe particle motion in rotated liquid sphere field is obtained. (author)
Algorithms for Planar Graphs and Graphs in Metric Spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wulff-Nilsen, Christian
preprocessing time, an O(n log n) time algorithm for the replacement paths problem, and a min st-cut oracle with nearlinear preprocessing time. We also give improved time bounds for computing various graph invariants such as diameter and girth. In the second part, we consider stretch factor problems...... a graph with new edges while minimizing stretch factor. The third and final part of the thesis deals with the Steiner tree problem in the plane equipped with a weighted fixed orientation metric. Here, we give an improved theoretical analysis of the strength of pruning techniques applied by many Steiner...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey
2009-01-01
an induction principle that combines the comfort of structural induction with the expressive strength of transfinite induction. Using lexicographic path induction, we give a consistency proof of Martin-Löf’s intuitionistic theory of inductive definitions. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic follows directly...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Juhasz
2017-03-01
Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm
Socio-technical security metrics
Gollmann, D.; Herley, C.; Koenig, V.; Pieters, W.; Sasse, M.A.
2015-01-01
Report from Dagstuhl seminar 14491. This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14491 “Socio-Technical Security Metrics”. In the domain of safety, metrics inform many decisions, from the height of new dikes to the design of nuclear plants. We can state, for example, that
Separable metrics and radiating stars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the junction condition relating the pressure to heat flux at the boundary of an accelerating and expanding spherically symmetric radiating star. We transform the junction condition to an ordinary differential equation by making a separability assumption on the metric functions in the space–time variables.
Warped products and Einstein metrics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Seongtag [Department of Mathematics Education, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)
2006-05-19
Warped product construction is an important method to produce a new metric with a base manifold and a fibre. We construct compact base manifolds with a positive scalar curvature which do not admit any non-trivial Einstein warped product, and noncompact complete base manifolds which do not admit any non-trivial Ricci-flat Einstein warped product. (letter to the editor)
M. Deza; M. Laurent (Monique)
1997-01-01
htmlabstractCuts and metrics are well-known objects that arise - independently, but with many deep and fascinating connections - in diverse fields: in graph theory, combinatorial optimization, geometry of numbers, combinatorial matrix theory, statistical physics, VLSI design etc. This book offers a
Linear and Branching System Metrics
J., Hilston; de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; M.Z., Kwiatkowska; Telek, M.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette
We extend the classical system relations of trace inclusion, trace equivalence, simulation, and bisimulation to a quantitative setting in which propositions are interpreted not as boolean values, but as elements of arbitrary metric spaces. Trace inclusion and equivalence give rise to asymmetrical
Axiomatic Testing of Structure Metrics
van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.
1994-01-01
In this paper, axiomatic testing of software metrics is described. The testing is based on representation axioms from the measurement theory. In a case study, the axioms are given for the formal relational structure and the empirical relational structure. Two approaches of axiomatic testing are
Axiomatic Testing of Structure Metrics
van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.
In this paper, axiomatic testing of software metrics will be described. The testing is based on representation axioms from the measurement theory. In a case study, the axioms are given for the formal relational structure and the empirical relational structure. Two approaches of axiomatic testing are
Separable metrics and radiating stars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-12-14
Dec 14, 2016 ... Abstract. We study the junction condition relating the pressure to heat flux at the boundary of an accelerating and expanding spherically symmetric radiating star. We transform the junction condition to an ordinary differ- ential equation by making a separability assumption on the metric functions in the ...
Lipschitz Metrics for a Class of Nonlinear Wave Equations
Bressan, Alberto; Chen, Geng
2017-12-01
The nonlinear wave equation {u_{tt}-c(u)(c(u)u_x)_x=0} determines a flow of conservative solutions taking values in the space {H^1(R)}. However, this flow is not continuous with respect to the natural H 1 distance. The aim of this paper is to construct a new metric which renders the flow uniformly Lipschitz continuous on bounded subsets of {H^1(R)}. For this purpose, H 1 is given the structure of a Finsler manifold, where the norm of tangent vectors is defined in terms of an optimal transportation problem. For paths of piecewise smooth solutions, one can carefully estimate how the weighted length grows in time. By the generic regularity result proved in [7], these piecewise regular paths are dense and can be used to construct a geodesic distance with the desired Lipschitz property.
Important LiDAR metrics for discriminating forest tree species in Central Europe
Shi, Yifang; Wang, Tiejun; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Heurich, Marco
2018-03-01
Numerous airborne LiDAR-derived metrics have been proposed for classifying tree species. Yet an in-depth ecological and biological understanding of the significance of these metrics for tree species mapping remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of 37 frequently used LiDAR metrics derived under leaf-on and leaf-off conditions, respectively, for discriminating six different tree species in a natural forest in Germany. We firstly assessed the correlation between these metrics. Then we applied a Random Forest algorithm to classify the tree species and evaluated the importance of the LiDAR metrics. Finally, we identified the most important LiDAR metrics and tested their robustness and transferability. Our results indicated that about 60% of LiDAR metrics were highly correlated to each other (|r| > 0.7). There was no statistically significant difference in tree species mapping accuracy between the use of leaf-on and leaf-off LiDAR metrics. However, combining leaf-on and leaf-off LiDAR metrics significantly increased the overall accuracy from 58.2% (leaf-on) and 62.0% (leaf-off) to 66.5% as well as the kappa coefficient from 0.47 (leaf-on) and 0.51 (leaf-off) to 0.58. Radiometric features, especially intensity related metrics, provided more consistent and significant contributions than geometric features for tree species discrimination. Specifically, the mean intensity of first-or-single returns as well as the mean value of echo width were identified as the most robust LiDAR metrics for tree species discrimination. These results indicate that metrics derived from airborne LiDAR data, especially radiometric metrics, can aid in discriminating tree species in a mixed temperate forest, and represent candidate metrics for tree species classification and monitoring in Central Europe.
Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A
2015-11-01
Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts
Fisher metric, geometric entanglement, and spin networks
Chirco, Goffredo; Mele, Fabio M.; Oriti, Daniele; Vitale, Patrizia
2018-02-01
Starting from recent results on the geometric formulation of quantum mechanics, we propose a new information geometric characterization of entanglement for spin network states in the context of quantum gravity. For the simple case of a single-link fixed graph (Wilson line), we detail the construction of a Riemannian Fisher metric tensor and a symplectic structure on the graph Hilbert space, showing how these encode the whole information about separability and entanglement. In particular, the Fisher metric defines an entanglement monotone which provides a notion of distance among states in the Hilbert space. In the maximally entangled gauge-invariant case, the entanglement monotone is proportional to a power of the area of the surface dual to the link thus supporting a connection between entanglement and the (simplicial) geometric properties of spin network states. We further extend such analysis to the study of nonlocal correlations between two nonadjacent regions of a generic spin network graph characterized by the bipartite unfolding of an intertwiner state. Our analysis confirms the interpretation of spin network bonds as a result of entanglement and to regard the same spin network graph as an information graph, whose connectivity encodes, both at the local and nonlocal level, the quantum correlations among its parts. This gives a further connection between entanglement and geometry.
Probabilistic shortest path tractography in DTI using Gaussian Process ODE solvers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schober, Michael; Kasenburg, Niklas; Feragen, Aasa
2014-01-01
between regions of interest and contribute a Gaussian Process tractography algorithm which allows for both quantification and visualization of its posterior uncertainty. We use the uncertainty both in visualization of individual tracts as well as in heat maps of tract locations. Finally, we provide...... a quantitative evaluation of different metrics and algorithms showing that the adjoint metric [8] combined with our algorithm produces paths which agree most often with experts....
Family of boundary overlap metrics for the evaluation of medical image segmentation.
Yeghiazaryan, Varduhi; Voiculescu, Irina
2018-01-01
All medical image segmentation algorithms need to be validated and compared, yet no evaluation framework is widely accepted within the imaging community. None of the evaluation metrics that are popular in the literature are consistent in the way they rank segmentation results: they tend to be sensitive to one or another type of segmentation error (size, location, and shape) but no single metric covers all error types. We introduce a family of metrics, with hybrid characteristics. These metrics quantify the similarity or difference of segmented regions by considering their average overlap in fixed-size neighborhoods of points on the boundaries of those regions. Our metrics are more sensitive to combinations of segmentation error types than other metrics in the existing literature. We compare the metric performance on collections of segmentation results sourced from carefully compiled two-dimensional synthetic data and three-dimensional medical images. We show that our metrics: (1) penalize errors successfully, especially those around region boundaries; (2) give a low similarity score when existing metrics disagree, thus avoiding overly inflated scores; and (3) score segmentation results over a wider range of values. We analyze a representative metric from this family and the effect of its free parameter on error sensitivity and running time.
Path selection and bandwidth allocation in MPLS networks: a nonlinear programming approach
Burns, J. E.; Ott, Teunis J.; de Kock, Johan M.; Krzesinski, Anthony E.
2001-07-01
Multi-protocol Label Switching extends the IPv4 destination-based routing protocols to provide new and scalable routing capabilities in connectionless networks using relatively simple packet forwarding mechanisms. MPLS networks carry traffic on virtual connections called label switched paths. This paper considers path selection and bandwidth allocation in MPLS networks in order to optimize the network quality of service. The optimization is based upon the minimization of a non-linear objective function which under light load simplifies to OSPF routing with link metrics equal to the link propagation delays. The behavior under heavy load depends on the choice of certain parameters: It can essentially be made to minimize maximal expected utilization, or to maximize minimal expected weighted slacks (both over all links). Under certain circumstances it can be made to minimize the probability that a link has an instantaneous offered load larger than its transmission capacity. We present a model of an MPLS network and an algorithm to find and capacitate optimal LSPs. The algorithm is an improvement of the well-known flow deviation non-linear programming method. The algorithm is applied to compute optimal LSPs for several test networks carrying a single traffic class.
Group covariance and metrical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, L.
1983-01-01
The a priori introduction of a Lie group of transformations into a physical theory has often proved to be useful; it usually serves to describe special simplified conditions before a general theory can be worked out. Newton's assumptions of absolute space and time are examples where the Euclidian group and translation group have been introduced. These groups were extended to the Galilei group and modified in the special theory of relativity to the Poincare group to describe physics under the given conditions covariantly in the simplest way. The criticism of the a priori character leads to the formulation of the general theory of relativity. The general metric theory does not really give preference to a particular invariance group - even the principle of equivalence can be adapted to a whole family of groups. The physical laws covariantly inserted into the metric space are however adapted to the Poincare group. 8 references
Fuzzy polynucleotide spaces and metrics.
Nieto, Juan J; Torres, A; Georgiou, D N; Karakasidis, T E
2006-04-01
The study of genetic sequences is of great importance in biology and medicine. Mathematics is playing an important role in the study of genetic sequences and, generally, in bioinformatics. In this paper, we extend the work concerning the Fuzzy Polynucleotide Space (FPS) introduced in Torres, A., Nieto, J.J., 2003. The fuzzy polynucleotide Space: Basic properties. Bioinformatics 19(5); 587-592 and Nieto, J.J., Torres, A., Vazquez-Trasande, M.M. 2003. A metric space to study differences between polynucleotides. Appl. Math. Lett. 27:1289-1294: by studying distances between nucleotides and some complete genomes using several metrics. We also present new results concerning the notions of similarity, difference and equality between polynucleotides. The results are encouraging since they demonstrate how the notions of distance and similarity between polynucleotides in the FPS can be employed in the analysis of genetic material.
Quality Metrics in Inpatient Neurology.
Dhand, Amar
2015-12-01
Quality of care in the context of inpatient neurology is the standard of performance by neurologists and the hospital system as measured against ideal models of care. There are growing regulatory pressures to define health care value through concrete quantifiable metrics linked to reimbursement. Theoretical models of quality acknowledge its multimodal character with quantitative and qualitative dimensions. For example, the Donabedian model distils quality as a phenomenon of three interconnected domains, structure-process-outcome, with each domain mutually influential. The actual measurement of quality may be implicit, as in peer review in morbidity and mortality rounds, or explicit, in which criteria are prespecified and systemized before assessment. As a practical contribution, in this article a set of candidate quality indicators for inpatient neurology based on an updated review of treatment guidelines is proposed. These quality indicators may serve as an initial blueprint for explicit quality metrics long overdue for inpatient neurology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Toktarbay, S.; Quevedo, H.
2014-10-01
We present a stationary generalization of the static $q-$metric, the simplest generalization of the Schwarzschild solution that contains a quadrupole parameter. It possesses three independent parameters that are related to the mass, quadrupole moment and angular momentum. We investigate the geometric and physical properties of this exact solution of Einstein's vacuum equations, and show that it can be used to describe the exterior gravitational field of rotating, axially symmetric, compact objects.
Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.
Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia
2017-09-01
Today digital sources supply a historically unprecedented component of human sensorimotor data, the consumption of which is correlated with poorly understood maladies such as Internet addiction disorder and Internet gaming disorder. Because both natural and digital sensorimotor data share common mathematical descriptions, one can quantify our informational sensorimotor needs using the signal processing metrics of entropy, noise, dimensionality, continuity, latency, and bandwidth. Such metrics describe in neutral terms the informational diet human brains require to self-calibrate, allowing individuals to maintain trusting relationships. With these metrics, we define the trust humans experience using the mathematical language of computational models, that is, as a primitive statistical algorithm processing finely grained sensorimotor data from neuromechanical interaction. This definition of neuromechanical trust implies that artificial sensorimotor inputs and interactions that attract low-level attention through frequent discontinuities and enhanced coherence will decalibrate a brain's representation of its world over the long term by violating the implicit statistical contract for which self-calibration evolved. Our hypersimplified mathematical understanding of human sensorimotor processing as multiscale, continuous-time vibratory interaction allows equally broad-brush descriptions of failure modes and solutions. For example, we model addiction in general as the result of homeostatic regulation gone awry in novel environments (sign reversal) and digital dependency as a sub-case in which the decalibration caused by digital sensorimotor data spurs yet more consumption of them. We predict that institutions can use these sensorimotor metrics to quantify media richness to improve employee well-being; that dyads and family-size groups will bond and heal best through low-latency, high-resolution multisensory interaction such as shared meals and reciprocated touch; and
Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cowlin, Shannon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Munoz, David [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
2014-12-01
A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.
Measuring Sustainability: Deriving Metrics From Objectives (Presentation)
The definition of 'sustain', to keep in existence, provides some insight into the metrics that are required to measure sustainability and adequately respond to assure sustainability. Keeping something in existence implies temporal and spatial contexts and requires metrics that g...
Framework for Information Age Assessment Metrics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Augustine, Thomas H; Broyles, James W
2004-01-01
... all of these metrics. Specifically this paper discusses an Information Age Framework for Assessment Metrics and relates its elements to the fundamental facets of a C4ISR enterprise architecture...
Energy consumption of ProTaper Next X1 after glide path with PathFiles and ProGlider.
Berutti, Elio; Alovisi, Mario; Pastorelli, Michele Angelo; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Scotti, Nicola; Pasqualini, Damiano
2014-12-01
Instrument failure caused by excessive torsional stress can be controlled by creating a manual or mechanical glide path. The ProGlider single-file system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) was recently introduced to perform a mechanical glide path. This study was designed to compare the effect of a glide path performed with PathFiles (Dentsply Maillefer) and ProGlider on torque, time, and pecking motion required for ProTaper Next X1 (Dentsply Maillefer) to reach the full working length in simulated root canals. Forty Endo Training Blocks (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. Twenty were prepared with a mechanical glide path using PathFiles 1 and 2 (the PathFile group), and 20 were prepared with a mechanical glide path using a ProGlider single file (the ProGlider group). All samples were shaped with ProTaper Next X1 driven by an endodontic motor connected to a digital wattmeter. The required torque for root canal instrumentation was analyzed by evaluating the electrical power consumption of the endodontic engine. Electric power consumption (mW/h), elapsed time (seconds), and number of pecking motions required to reach the full working length with ProTaper Next X1 were calculated. Differences among groups were analyzed with the parametric Student t test for independent data (P path and preliminary middle and coronal preflaring. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Metric Learning to Enhance Hyperspectral Image Segmentation
Thompson, David R.; Castano, Rebecca; Bue, Brian; Gilmore, Martha S.
2013-01-01
Unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation can reveal spatial trends that show the physical structure of the scene to an analyst. They highlight borders and reveal areas of homogeneity and change. Segmentations are independently helpful for object recognition, and assist with automated production of symbolic maps. Additionally, a good segmentation can dramatically reduce the number of effective spectra in an image, enabling analyses that would otherwise be computationally prohibitive. Specifically, using an over-segmentation of the image instead of individual pixels can reduce noise and potentially improve the results of statistical post-analysis. In this innovation, a metric learning approach is presented to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. The prototype demonstrations attempt a superpixel segmentation in which the image is conservatively over-segmented; that is, the single surface features may be split into multiple segments, but each individual segment, or superpixel, is ensured to have homogenous mineralogy.
Almost contact metric 3-submersions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bill Watson
1984-01-01
Full Text Available An almost contact metric 3-submersion is a Riemannian submersion, π from an almost contact metric manifold (M4m+3,(φi,ξi,ηii=13,g onto an almost quaternionic manifold (N4n,(Jii=13,h which commutes with the structure tensors of type (1,1;i.e., π*φi=Jiπ*, for i=1,2,3. For various restrictions on ∇φi, (e.g., M is 3-Sasakian, we show corresponding limitations on the second fundamental form of the fibres and on the complete integrability of the horizontal distribution. Concommitantly, relations are derived between the Betti numbers of a compact total space and the base space. For instance, if M is 3-quasi-Saskian (dΦ=0, then b1(N≤b1(M. The respective φi-holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvature tensors are studied and several unexpected results are obtained. As an example, if X and Y are orthogonal horizontal vector fields on the 3-contact (a relatively weak structure total space of such a submersion, then the respective holomorphic bisectional curvatures satisfy: Bφi(X,Y=B′J′i(X*,Y*−2. Applications to the real differential geometry of Yarg-Milis field equations are indicated based on the fact that a principal SU(2-bundle over a compactified realized space-time can be given the structure of an almost contact metric 3-submersion.
Two-Basket Approach and Emission Metrics
Tanaka, K.; Schmale, J.; von Schneidemesser, E.
2013-12-01
Cutting the emissions of Short-Lived Climate-Forcing Air Pollutants (SLCPs) gains increasing global attention as a mitigation policy option because of direct benefits for climate and co-benefits such as improvements in air quality. Including SLCPs as target components to abate within a single basket (e.g. the Kyoto Protocol) would, however, face issues with regard to: i) additional assumptions that are required to compare SLCP emissions and CO2 emissions within a basket in terms of climatic effects, especially because of the difference in lifetimes, ii) the accountability of non-climatic effects in the emission trading between SLCPs and CO2. The idea of a two-basket approach was originally proposed as a climatic analogue to the Montreal Protocol dealing with ozone depleting substances (Jackson 2009; Daniel et al. 2012; Smith et al. 2013). In a two-basket approach, emissions are allowed to be traded within a basket but not across the baskets. While this approach potentially ensures scientifically supported emission trading (e.g. (Smith et al. 2013)), this approach leaves open the important issue of how to determine the relative weight between two baskets. Determining the weight cannot be answered by science alone, as the question involves a value judgment as stressed in metric studies (e.g. (Tanaka et al. 2010; Tanaka et al. 2013)). We discuss emission metrics in the context of a two-basket approach and present policy implications of such an approach. In a two-basket approach, the weight between two baskets needs to be determined a priori or exogenously. Here, an opportunity arises to present synergetic policy options targeted at mitigating climate change and air pollution simultaneously. In other words, this could be a strategy to encourage policymakers to consider cross-cutting issues. Under a two-basket climate policy, policymakers would be exposed to questions such as: - What type of damages caused by climate change does one choose to avoid? - To what extent
Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marie Ng
2014-09-01
Full Text Available A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.
Object-Oriented Metrics Which Predict Maintainability
Li, Wei; Henry, Sallie M.
1993-01-01
Software metrics have been studied in the procedural paradigm as a quantitative means of assessing the software development process as well as the quality of software products. Several studies have validated that various metrics are useful indicators of maintenance effort in the procedural paradigm. However, software metrics have rarely been studied in the object oriented paradigm. Very few metrics have been proposed to measure object oriented systems, and the proposed ones have not been v...
A proposal of knowledge engineering metrics
Britos, Paola Verónica; García Martínez, Ramón; Hauge, Ødwin
2005-01-01
Metrics used on development of expert systems is not a well investigated problem area. This article suggests some metrics to be used to measure the maturity of the conceptualization process and the complexity of the decision process in the problem domain. We propose some further work to be done with these metrics. Applying those metrics makes new and interesting problems, concerning the structure of knowledge to surface.
Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Bjørn
This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle R...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....
Crowdsourcing metrics of digital collections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tuula Pääkkönen
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In the National Library of Finland (NLF there are millions of digitized newspaper and journal pages, which are openly available via the public website http://digi.kansalliskirjasto.fi. To serve users better, last year the front end was completely overhauled with its main aim in crowdsourcing features, e.g., by giving end-users the opportunity to create digital clippings and a personal scrapbook from the digital collections. But how can you know whether crowdsourcing has had an impact? How much crowdsourcing functionalities have been used so far? Did crowdsourcing work? In this paper the statistics and metrics of a recent crowdsourcing effort are analysed across the different digitized material types (newspapers, journals, ephemera. The subjects, categories and keywords given by the users are analysed to see which topics are the most appealing. Some notable public uses of the crowdsourced article clippings are highlighted. These metrics give us indications on how the end-users, based on their own interests, are investigating and using the digital collections. Therefore, the suggested metrics illustrate the versatility of the information needs of the users, varying from citizen science to research purposes. By analysing the user patterns, we can respond to the new needs of the users by making minor changes to accommodate the most active participants, while still making the service more approachable for those who are trying out the functionalities for the first time. Participation in the clippings and annotations can enrich the materials in unexpected ways and can possibly pave the way for opportunities of using crowdsourcing more also in research contexts. This creates more opportunities for the goals of open science since source data becomes available, making it possible for researchers to reach out to the general public for help. In the long term, utilizing, for example, text mining methods can allow these different end-user segments to
Quality metrics for sensor images
Ahumada, AL
1993-01-01
Methods are needed for evaluating the quality of augmented visual displays (AVID). Computational quality metrics will help summarize, interpolate, and extrapolate the results of human performance tests with displays. The FLM Vision group at NASA Ames has been developing computational models of visual processing and using them to develop computational metrics for similar problems. For example, display modeling systems use metrics for comparing proposed displays, halftoning optimizing methods use metrics to evaluate the difference between the halftone and the original, and image compression methods minimize the predicted visibility of compression artifacts. The visual discrimination models take as input two arbitrary images A and B and compute an estimate of the probability that a human observer will report that A is different from B. If A is an image that one desires to display and B is the actual displayed image, such an estimate can be regarded as an image quality metric reflecting how well B approximates A. There are additional complexities associated with the problem of evaluating the quality of radar and IR enhanced displays for AVID tasks. One important problem is the question of whether intruding obstacles are detectable in such displays. Although the discrimination model can handle detection situations by making B the original image A plus the intrusion, this detection model makes the inappropriate assumption that the observer knows where the intrusion will be. Effects of signal uncertainty need to be added to our models. A pilot needs to make decisions rapidly. The models need to predict not just the probability of a correct decision, but the probability of a correct decision by the time the decision needs to be made. That is, the models need to predict latency as well as accuracy. Luce and Green have generated models for auditory detection latencies. Similar models are needed for visual detection. Most image quality models are designed for static imagery
Validation in the Software Metric Development Process
van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.
In this paper the validation of software metrics will be examined. Two approaches will be combined: representational measurement theory and a validation network scheme. The development process of a software metric will be described, together with validities for the three phases of the metric
Modeling and analysis of metrics databases
Paul, Raymond A.
1999-01-01
The main objective of this research is to propose a comprehensive framework for quality and risk management in software development process based on analysis and modeling of software metrics data. Existing software metrics work has focused mainly on the type of metrics tobe collected ...
Invariant Matsumoto metrics on homogeneous spaces
Salimi Moghaddam, H.R.
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider invariant Matsumoto metrics which are induced by invariant Riemannian metrics and invariant vector fields on homogeneous spaces, and then we give the flag curvature formula of them. Also we study the special cases of naturally reductive spaces and bi-invariant metrics. We end the article by giving some examples of geodesically complete Matsumoto spaces.
Context-dependent ATC complexity metric
Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Borst, C.
2015-01-01
Several studies have investigated Air Traffic Control (ATC) complexity metrics in a search for a metric that could best capture workload. These studies have shown how daunting the search for a universal workload metric (one that could be applied in different contexts: sectors, traffic patterns,
Towards a catalog format for software metrics
Bouwers, E.; Visser, J.; Van Deursen, A.
2014-01-01
In the past two decades both the industry and the research community have proposed hundreds of metrics to track software projects, evaluate quality or estimate effort. Unfortunately, it is not always clear which metric works best in a particular context. Even worse, for some metrics there is little
A Common Metric for Integrating Research Findings.
Haladyna, Tom
The choice of a common metric for the meta-analysis (quantitative synthesis) of correlational and experimental research studies is presented and justified. First, a background for the problem of identifying a common metric is presented. Second, the percentage of accounted variance (PAV) is described as the metric of choice, and reasons are given…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tobias Oelbaum
2008-10-01
Full Text Available In this contribution a reduced reference video quality metric for AVC/H.264 is proposed that needs only a very low overhead (not more than two bytes per sequence. This reduced reference metric uses well established algorithms to measure objective features of the video such as 'blur' or 'blocking'. Those measurements are then combined into a single measurement for the overall video quality. The weights of the single features and the combination of those are determined using methods provided by multivariate data analysis. The proposed metric is verified using a data set of AVC/H.264 encoded videos and the corresponding results of a carefully designed and conducted subjective evaluation. Results show that the proposed reduced reference metric not only outperforms standard PSNR but also two well known full reference metrics.
Azarnoush, Hamed; Alzhrani, Gmaan; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Alotaibi, Fahad; Gelinas-Phaneuf, Nicholas; Pazos, Valérie; Choudhury, Nusrat; Fares, Jawad; DiRaddo, Robert; Del Maestro, Rolando F
2015-05-01
Virtual reality simulator technology together with novel metrics could advance our understanding of expert neurosurgical performance and modify and improve resident training and assessment. This pilot study introduces innovative metrics that can be measured by the state-of-the-art simulator to assess performance. Such metrics cannot be measured in an operating room and have not been used previously to assess performance. Three sets of performance metrics were assessed utilizing the NeuroTouch platform in six scenarios with simulated brain tumors having different visual and tactile characteristics. Tier 1 metrics included percentage of brain tumor resected and volume of simulated "normal" brain tissue removed. Tier 2 metrics included instrument tip path length, time taken to resect the brain tumor, pedal activation frequency, and sum of applied forces. Tier 3 metrics included sum of forces applied to different tumor regions and the force bandwidth derived from the force histogram. The results outlined are from a novice resident in the second year of training and an expert neurosurgeon. The three tiers of metrics obtained from the NeuroTouch simulator do encompass the wide variability of technical performance observed during novice/expert resections of simulated brain tumors and can be employed to quantify the safety, quality, and efficiency of technical performance during simulated brain tumor resection. Tier 3 metrics derived from force pyramids and force histograms may be particularly useful in assessing simulated brain tumor resections. Our pilot study demonstrates that the safety, quality, and efficiency of novice and expert operators can be measured using metrics derived from the NeuroTouch platform, helping to understand how specific operator performance is dependent on both psychomotor ability and cognitive input during multiple virtual reality brain tumor resections.
Path planning in dynamic environments
Berg, J.P. van den
2007-01-01
Path planning plays an important role in various fields of application, such as CAD design, computer games and virtual environments, molecular biology, and robotics. In its most general form, the path planning problem is formulated as finding a collision-free path for a moving entity between a start
Some Equivalences between Cone b-Metric Spaces and b-Metric Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poom Kumam
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a b-metric on the cone b-metric space and then prove some equivalences between them. As applications, we show that fixed point theorems on cone b-metric spaces can be obtained from fixed point theorems on b-metric spaces.
Integrating path dependency and path creation in a general understanding of path constitution
Meyer, Uli; Schubert, Cornelius
2007-01-01
Path dependency as it is described by Arthur and David portrays technological developments as historically embedded, emergent processes. In contrast, Garud and Karnøe's notion of path creation emphasises the role of strategic change and deliberate action for the development of new technologies. In this article, we integrate both concepts into a general understanding of path processes which accounts for emergent as well as deliberate modes of path constitution. In addition, we distinguish betw...
Two Generations of Path Dependence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Mogens Ove
Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences - primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...... or economic processes have multiple possible paths of outcomes, rather than a unique path of equilibria. The selection among outcomes may depend on contingent choices or events - outcomes of path-dependent processes require a very relevant study - a perception of history....
Mehhtz, Peter
2005-01-01
JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Middleton
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The hillside’s tidal waves of yellow-green Break downward into full-grown stalks of wheat In which a peasant, shouldering his hoe Passes along a snaking narrow path -- A teeming place through which his hard thighs press And where his head just barely stays above The swaying grain, drunken in abundance, Farm buildings almost floating on the swells Beyond which sea gulls gliding white in air Fly down on out of sight to salty fields, Taking the channel fish off Normandy, A surfeit fit for Eden i...
Wolfowitz,Paul
2006-01-01
Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World Bank, discussed Singapore's remarkable progress along the road from poverty to prosperity which has also been discovered by many other countries in East Asia and around the world. He spoke of how each country must find its own path for people to pursue the same dreams of the chance to go to school, the security of a good job, and the ability to provide a better future for their children. Throughout the world, and importantly in the developing world, ther...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamie Waters
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokhorov, L.V.
1982-01-01
Problems related to consideration of operator nonpermutability in Hamiltonian path integral (HPI) are considered in the review. Integrals are investigated using trajectories in configuration space (nonrelativistic quantum mechanics). Problems related to trajectory integrals in HPI phase space are discussed: the problem of operator nonpermutability consideration (extra terms problem) and corresponding equivalence rules; ambiguity of HPI usual recording; transition to curvilinear coordinates. Problem of quantization of dynamical systems with couplings has been studied. As in the case of canonical transformations, quantization of the systems with couplings of the first kind requires the consideration of extra terms
Angles between Curves in Metric Measure Spaces
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Han Bang-Xian
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to study the angle between two curves in the framework of metric (and metric measure spaces. More precisely, we give a new notion of angle between two curves in a metric space. Such a notion has a natural interplay with optimal transportation and is particularly well suited for metric measure spaces satisfying the curvature-dimension condition. Indeed one of the main results is the validity of the cosine formula on RCD*(K, N metric measure spaces. As a consequence, the new introduced notions are compatible with the corresponding classical ones for Riemannian manifolds, Ricci limit spaces and Alexandrov spaces.
On characterizations of quasi-metric completeness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dag, H.; Romaguera, S.; Tirado, P.
2017-07-01
Hu proved in [4] that a metric space (X, d) is complete if and only if for any closed subspace C of (X, d), every Banach contraction on C has fixed point. Since then several authors have investigated the problem of characterizing the metric completeness by means of fixed point theorems. Recently this problem has been studied in the more general context of quasi-metric spaces for different notions of completeness. Here we present a characterization of a kind of completeness for quasi-metric spaces by means of a quasi-metric versions of Hu’s theorem. (Author)
Web metrics for library and information professionals
Stuart, David
2014-01-01
This is a practical guide to using web metrics to measure impact and demonstrate value. The web provides an opportunity to collect a host of different metrics, from those associated with social media accounts and websites to more traditional research outputs. This book is a clear guide for library and information professionals as to what web metrics are available and how to assess and use them to make informed decisions and demonstrate value. As individuals and organizations increasingly use the web in addition to traditional publishing avenues and formats, this book provides the tools to unlock web metrics and evaluate the impact of this content. The key topics covered include: bibliometrics, webometrics and web metrics; data collection tools; evaluating impact on the web; evaluating social media impact; investigating relationships between actors; exploring traditional publications in a new environment; web metrics and the web of data; the future of web metrics and the library and information professional.Th...
Information Distances versus Entropy Metric
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Hu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Information distance has become an important tool in a wide variety of applications. Various types of information distance have been made over the years. These information distance measures are different from entropy metric, as the former is based on Kolmogorov complexity and the latter on Shannon entropy. However, for any computable probability distributions, up to a constant, the expected value of Kolmogorov complexity equals the Shannon entropy. We study the similar relationship between entropy and information distance. We also study the relationship between entropy and the normalized versions of information distances.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens
2015-01-01
The space of colours is a fascinating space. It is a real vector space, but no matter what inner product you put on the space the resulting Euclidean distance does not correspond to human perception of difference between colours. In 1942 MacAdam performed the first experiments on colour matching...... and found the MacAdam ellipses which are often interpreted as defining the metric tensor at their centres. An important question is whether it is possible to define colour coordinates such that the Euclidean distance in these coordinates correspond to human perception. Using cubic splines to represent...
Adaptive Optics Metrics & QC Scheme
Girard, Julien H.
2017-09-01
"There are many Adaptive Optics (AO) fed instruments on Paranal and more to come. To monitor their performances and assess the quality of the scientific data, we have developed a scheme and a set of tools and metrics adapted to each flavour of AO and each data product. Our decisions to repeat observations or not depends heavily on this immediate quality control "zero" (QC0). Atmospheric parameters monitoring can also help predict performances . At the end of the chain, the user must be able to find the data that correspond to his/her needs. In Particular, we address the special case of SPHERE."
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connolly, T.J.; Hansen, U.; Jaek, W.; Beckurts, K.H.
1979-01-01
In examing the world nuclear energy paths, the following assumptions were adopted: the world economy will grow somewhat more slowly than in the past, leading to reductions in electricity demand growth rates; national and international political impediments to the deployment of nuclear power will gradually disappear over the next few years; further development of nuclear power will proceed steadily, without serious interruption but with realistic lead times for the introduction of advanced technologies. Given these assumptions, this paper attempts a study of possible world nuclear energy developments, disaggregated on a regional and national basis. The scenario technique was used and a few alternative fuel-cycle scenarios were developed. Each is an internally consistent model of technically and economically feasible paths to the further development of nuclear power in an aggregate of individual countries and regions of the world. The main purpose of this modeling exercise was to gain some insight into the probable international locations of reactors and other nuclear facilities, the future requirements for uranium and for fuel-cycle services, and the problems of spent-fuel storage and waste management. The study also presents an assessment of the role that nuclear power might actually play in meeting future world energy demand
MinePath: Mining for Phenotype Differential Sub-paths in Molecular Pathways
Koumakis, Lefteris; Kartsaki, Evgenia; Chatzimina, Maria; Zervakis, Michalis; Vassou, Despoina; Marias, Kostas; Moustakis, Vassilis; Potamias, George
2016-01-01
Pathway analysis methodologies couple traditional gene expression analysis with knowledge encoded in established molecular pathway networks, offering a promising approach towards the biological interpretation of phenotype differentiating genes. Early pathway analysis methodologies, named as gene set analysis (GSA), view pathways just as plain lists of genes without taking into account either the underlying pathway network topology or the involved gene regulatory relations. These approaches, even if they achieve computational efficiency and simplicity, consider pathways that involve the same genes as equivalent in terms of their gene enrichment characteristics. Most recent pathway analysis approaches take into account the underlying gene regulatory relations by examining their consistency with gene expression profiles and computing a score for each profile. Even with this approach, assessing and scoring single-relations limits the ability to reveal key gene regulation mechanisms hidden in longer pathway sub-paths. We introduce MinePath, a pathway analysis methodology that addresses and overcomes the aforementioned problems. MinePath facilitates the decomposition of pathways into their constituent sub-paths. Decomposition leads to the transformation of single-relations to complex regulation sub-paths. Regulation sub-paths are then matched with gene expression sample profiles in order to evaluate their functional status and to assess phenotype differential power. Assessment of differential power supports the identification of the most discriminant profiles. In addition, MinePath assess the significance of the pathways as a whole, ranking them by their p-values. Comparison results with state-of-the-art pathway analysis systems are indicative for the soundness and reliability of the MinePath approach. In contrast with many pathway analysis tools, MinePath is a web-based system (www.minepath.org) offering dynamic and rich pathway visualization functionality, with the
Metrics for building performance assurance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koles, G.; Hitchcock, R.; Sherman, M.
1996-07-01
This report documents part of the work performed in phase I of a Laboratory Directors Research and Development (LDRD) funded project entitled Building Performance Assurances (BPA). The focus of the BPA effort is to transform the way buildings are built and operated in order to improve building performance by facilitating or providing tools, infrastructure, and information. The efforts described herein focus on the development of metrics with which to evaluate building performance and for which information and optimization tools need to be developed. The classes of building performance metrics reviewed are (1) Building Services (2) First Costs, (3) Operating Costs, (4) Maintenance Costs, and (5) Energy and Environmental Factors. The first category defines the direct benefits associated with buildings; the next three are different kinds of costs associated with providing those benefits; the last category includes concerns that are broader than direct costs and benefits to the building owner and building occupants. The level of detail of the various issues reflect the current state of knowledge in those scientific areas and the ability of the to determine that state of knowledge, rather than directly reflecting the importance of these issues; it intentionally does not specifically focus on energy issues. The report describes work in progress and is intended as a resource and can be used to indicate the areas needing more investigation. Other reports on BPA activities are also available.
Fechnerian metrics in unidimensional and multidimensional stimulus spaces.
Dzhafarov, E N; Colonius, H
1999-06-01
A new theory is proposed for subjective (Fechnerian) distances among stimuli in a continuous stimulus space of arbitrary dimensionality. Each stimulus in such a space is associated with a psychometric function that determines probabilities with which it is discriminated from other stimuli, and a certain measure of its discriminability from its infinitesimally close neighboring stimuli is computed from the shape of this psychometric function in the vicinity of its minimum. This measure of discriminability can be integrated along any path connecting any two points in the stimulus space, yielding the psychometric length of this path. The Fechnerian distance between two stimuli is defined as the infimum of the psychometric lengths of all paths connecting the two stimuli. For a broad class of models defining the dichotomy of response bias versus discriminability, the Fechnerian distances are invariant under response bias changes. In the case in which physically multidimensional stimuli are discriminated along some unidimensional subjective attribute, a systematic construction of the Fechnerian metric leads to a resolution of the long-standing controversy related to the numbers of just-noticeable differences between isosensitivity curves. It is argued that for unidimensional stimulus continua, the proposed theory is close to the intended meaning of Fechner's original theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiago Simas
Full Text Available The human functional connectome is a graphical representation, consisting of nodes connected by edges, of the inter-relationships of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD time-series measured by MRI from regions encompassing the cerebral cortices and, often, the cerebellum. Semi-metric analysis of the weighted, undirected connectome distinguishes an edge as either direct (metric, such that there is no alternative path that is accumulatively stronger, or indirect (semi-metric, where one or more alternative paths exist that have greater strength than the direct edge. The sensitivity and specificity of this method of analysis is illustrated by two case-control analyses with independent, matched groups of adolescents with autism spectrum conditions (ASC and major depressive disorder (MDD.Significance differences in the global percentage of semi-metric edges was observed in both groups, with increases in ASC and decreases in MDD relative to controls. Furthermore, MDD was associated with regional differences in left frontal and temporal lobes, the right limbic system and cerebellum. In contrast, ASC had a broadly increased percentage of semi-metric edges with a more generalised distribution of effects and some areas of reduction. In summary, MDD was characterised by localised, large reductions in the percentage of semi-metric edges, whilst ASC is characterised by more generalised, subtle increases. These differences were corroborated in greater detail by inspection of the semi-metric backbone for each group; that is, the sub-graph of semi-metric edges present in >90% of participants, and by nodal degree differences in the semi-metric connectome.These encouraging results, in what we believe is the first application of semi-metric analysis to neuroimaging data, raise confidence in the methodology as potentially capable of detection and characterisation of a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders.
Local adjacency metric dimension of sun graph and stacked book graph
Yulisda Badri, Alifiah; Darmaji
2018-03-01
A graph is a mathematical system consisting of a non-empty set of nodes and a set of empty sides. One of the topics to be studied in graph theory is the metric dimension. Application in the metric dimension is the navigation robot system on a path. Robot moves from one vertex to another vertex in the field by minimizing the errors that occur in translating the instructions (code) obtained from the vertices of that location. To move the robot must give different instructions (code). In order for the robot to move efficiently, the robot must be fast to translate the code of the nodes of the location it passes. so that the location vertex has a minimum distance. However, if the robot must move with the vertex location on a very large field, so the robot can not detect because the distance is too far.[6] In this case, the robot can determine its position by utilizing location vertices based on adjacency. The problem is to find the minimum cardinality of the required location vertex, and where to put, so that the robot can determine its location. The solution to this problem is the dimension of adjacency metric and adjacency metric bases. Rodrguez-Velzquez and Fernau combine the adjacency metric dimensions with local metric dimensions, thus becoming the local adjacency metric dimension. In the local adjacency metric dimension each vertex in the graph may have the same adjacency representation as the terms of the vertices. To obtain the local metric dimension of values in the graph of the Sun and the stacked book graph is used the construction method by considering the representation of each adjacent vertex of the graph.
Genetic basis of a cognitive complexity metric.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narelle K Hansell
Full Text Available Relational complexity (RC is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap with intelligence (IQ, reasoning, and working memory in a twin and sibling sample aged 15-29 years (N = 787. Further, in an exploratory search for genetic loci contributing to RC, we examined associated genetic markers and genes in our Discovery sample and selected loci for replication in four independent samples (ALSPAC, LBC1936, NTR, NCNG, followed by meta-analysis (N>6500 at the single marker level. Twin modelling showed RC is highly heritable (67%, has considerable genetic overlap with IQ (59%, and is a major component of genetic covariation between reasoning and working memory (72%. At the molecular level, we found preliminary support for four single-marker loci (one in the gene DGKB, and at a gene-based level for the NPS gene, having influence on cognition. These results indicate that genetic sources influencing relational processing are a key component of the genetic architecture of broader cognitive abilities. Further, they suggest a genetic cascade, whereby genetic factors influencing capacity limitation in relational processing have a flow-on effect to more complex cognitive traits, including reasoning and working memory, and ultimately, IQ.
Quality metrics for detailed clinical models.
Ahn, SunJu; Huff, Stanley M; Kim, Yoon; Kalra, Dipak
2013-05-01
To develop quality metrics for detailed clinical models (DCMs) and test their validity. Based on existing quality criteria which did not include formal metrics, we developed quality metrics by applying the ISO/IEC 9126 software quality evaluation model. The face and content validity of the initial quality metrics were assessed by 9 international experts. Content validity was defined as agreement by over 70% of the panelists. For eliciting opinions and achieving consensus of the panelists, a two round Delphi survey was conducted. Valid quality metrics were considered reliable if agreement between two evaluators' assessments of two example DCMs was over 0.60 in terms of the kappa coefficient. After reliability and validity were tested, the final DCM quality metrics were selected. According to the results of the reliability test, the degree of agreement was high (a kappa coefficient of 0.73). Based on the results of the reliability test, 8 quality evaluation domains and 29 quality metrics were finalized as DCM quality metrics. Quality metrics were validated by a panel of international DCM experts. Therefore, we expect that the metrics, which constitute essential qualitative and quantitative quality requirements for DCMs, can be used to support rational decision-making by DCM developers and clinical users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
End Point Results in Metric Spaces Endowed with a Graph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Binayak S. Choudhury
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce the notion of end point of multivalued mappings in the setting of metric space endowed with a graph and prove some existence results in this context. The mappings are assumed to satisfy certain generalized multivalued almost G-contractive type inequalities. Further, the consequences of the corresponding results in the cases of single-valued mappings are also discussed with examples.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Jian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The world has entered the information age, all kinds of information technologies such as cloud technology, big data technology are in rapid development, and the “Internet plus” appeared. The main purpose of “Internet plus” is to provide an opportunity for the further development of the enterprise, the enterprise technology, business and other aspects of factors combine. For enterprises, grasp the “Internet plus” the impact of the market economy will undoubtedly pave the way for the future development of enterprises. This paper will be on the innovation path of the enterprise management “Internet plus” era tied you study, hope to be able to put forward some opinions and suggestions.
Paths of interactive cracks in creep conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Nowak
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The paper contains plane strain analysis of uniformly stretched plate working in creep condition. The plate contains initial defects in forms of central and/or edge cracks working in mode I. These cracks are modelled by attributing critical value of damage parameter to preset points and therefore resulting in stresses set to zero (material does not support any loading. The Continuum Damage Mechanics constitutive equations are used to describe the creep crack growth problem and Finite Element Method Abaqus system is applied to solve corresponding boundary and initial value problem. Analysis of different initial cracks configuration has been performed. The crack path is defined by points in which damage parameter equals to critical one. Time to failure of the plate with single initial crack is achieved when the crack path spans its width. This time is calculated and compared to the time to failure of initially uncracked structure. For the plate with multiple cracks the paths starting from different cracks can develop independently until they merge and/or span the plate width. In each case the damage field is analysed and the direction of crack path development is determined. The analysis of crack propagation allows for determination of a distance between initial cracks for which the interaction between them is negligible. It is demonstrated that Continuum Damage Mechanics approach allows not only to model the development of initially existing cracks but also initiation of new, cross-spanning cracks and their kinking and branching.
Some instructive examples of Mayer's interference in path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiziev, P.P.
1984-01-01
A new technique of path integral evaluation by a discretization procedure is proposed. It is based on the requirement, found previously, to single out the set of classical trajectories over which the summation is performed. The notion of Mayer's interference is introduced and illustrated by a number of simple examples. The choice of the set of paths is shown to induce a corresponding quantization procedure and this line is followed to demonstrate its connection with the symmetries of the problem. The possibility of extracting information on the space of quantum states from path integrals has been reviewed. A class of paths has been found; the summation over these paths within the framework of the suggested approach produces the well known results for the motion in a homogeneous field and for the harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mignemi, S.; Štrajn, R.
2016-01-01
The definition of path integrals in one- and two-dimensional Snyder space is discussed in detail both in the traditional setting and in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. - Highlights: • The definition of the path integral in Snyder space is discussed using phase space methods. • The same result is obtained in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. • The path integral formulation of the two-dimensional Snyder harmonic oscillator is outlined.
Interactive cutting path analysis programs
Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.
1975-01-01
The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mignemi, S., E-mail: smignemi@unica.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Štrajn, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)
2016-04-29
The definition of path integrals in one- and two-dimensional Snyder space is discussed in detail both in the traditional setting and in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. - Highlights: • The definition of the path integral in Snyder space is discussed using phase space methods. • The same result is obtained in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. • The path integral formulation of the two-dimensional Snyder harmonic oscillator is outlined.
Fast similarity search for learned metrics.
Kulis, Brian; Jain, Prateek; Grauman, Kristen
2009-12-01
We introduce a method that enables scalable similarity search for learned metrics. Given pairwise similarity and dissimilarity constraints between some examples, we learn a Mahalanobis distance function that captures the examples' underlying relationships well. To allow sublinear time similarity search under the learned metric, we show how to encode the learned metric parameterization into randomized locality-sensitive hash functions. We further formulate an indirect solution that enables metric learning and hashing for vector spaces whose high dimensionality makes it infeasible to learn an explicit transformation over the feature dimensions. We demonstrate the approach applied to a variety of image data sets, as well as a systems data set. The learned metrics improve accuracy relative to commonly used metric baselines, while our hashing construction enables efficient indexing with learned distances and very large databases.
Costs of Emission Metrics in the Context of Climate Stabilizations
Tanaka, Katsumasa; Johansson, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian; Fuglestvedt, Jan
2014-05-01
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls for stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system (Article 2) and stipulates that policies and measures should cover all relevant sources, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases (Article 3.3). An emission metric to evaluate emissions of non-CO2 gases on a common scale of CO2 is critical for climate policymaking and also essential in a single basket approach to GHG emission abatement to achieve climate stabilization (for example, at 2°C warming target as recognized in the Cancún Agreements). While the Global Warming Potential (GWP) is by far the most common metric used in climate policies (e.g. Kyoto Protocol), alternative metrics are proposed to overcome deficiencies in the GWP. Those include the Cost-Effective Temperature Potential (CETP), Forcing Equivalent Index (FEI), Global Cost Potential (GCP), Global Damage Potential (GDP), Global Temperature change Potential (GTP), Mean Global Temperature change Potential (MGTP), Peak Commitment Temperature (PCT), Regional Temperature change Potential (RTP), Sustained Emission Temperature (SET), and TEMperature Proxy index (TEMP). A number of studies provide estimates of such metrics for different gases under a variety of assumptions and approaches. It has been demonstrated that emission metrics take a large range of values when compared in the context of climate stabilization, depending largely on the metric structure and the treatment of the time dimension. On the contrary, the differences in stabilization costs arising from the choice of metrics are shown to be disproportionally small in both cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit frameworks (i.e. a few to several percent higher costs relative to those based on optimal price ratios). However, only a limited set of metrics has been a subject of cost estimation and such calculations
Metric approach to quantum constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brody, Dorje C; Hughston, Lane P; Gustavsson, Anna C T
2009-01-01
A framework for deriving equations of motion for constrained quantum systems is introduced and a procedure for its implementation is outlined. In special cases, the proposed new method, which takes advantage of the fact that the space of pure states in quantum mechanics has both a symplectic structure and a metric structure, reduces to a quantum analogue of the Dirac theory of constraints in classical mechanics. Explicit examples involving spin-1/2 particles are worked out in detail: in the first example, our approach coincides with a quantum version of the Dirac formalism, while the second example illustrates how a situation that cannot be treated by Dirac's approach can nevertheless be dealt with in the present scheme.
Designing Industrial Networks Using Ecological Food Web Metrics.
Layton, Astrid; Bras, Bert; Weissburg, Marc
2016-10-18
Biologically Inspired Design (biomimicry) and Industrial Ecology both look to natural systems to enhance the sustainability and performance of engineered products, systems and industries. Bioinspired design (BID) traditionally has focused on a unit operation and single product level. In contrast, this paper describes how principles of network organization derived from analysis of ecosystem properties can be applied to industrial system networks. Specifically, this paper examines the applicability of particular food web matrix properties as design rules for economically and biologically sustainable industrial networks, using an optimization model developed for a carpet recycling network. Carpet recycling network designs based on traditional cost and emissions based optimization are compared to designs obtained using optimizations based solely on ecological food web metrics. The analysis suggests that networks optimized using food web metrics also were superior from a traditional cost and emissions perspective; correlations between optimization using ecological metrics and traditional optimization ranged generally from 0.70 to 0.96, with flow-based metrics being superior to structural parameters. Four structural food parameters provided correlations nearly the same as that obtained using all structural parameters, but individual structural parameters provided much less satisfactory correlations. The analysis indicates that bioinspired design principles from ecosystems can lead to both environmentally and economically sustainable industrial resource networks, and represent guidelines for designing sustainable industry networks.
Mean shift trackers with cross-bin metrics.
Leichter, Ido
2012-04-01
Cross-bin metrics have been shown to be more suitable than bin-by-bin metrics for measuring the distance between histograms in various applications. In particular, a visual tracker that minimizes the earth mover's distance (EMD) between the candidate and reference feature histograms has recently been proposed. This tracker was shown to be more robust than the Mean Shift tracker, which employs a bin-by-bin metric. In each frame, the former tracker iteratively shifts the candidate location by one pixel in the direction opposite to the EMD's gradient until no improvement is made. This optimization process involves the clustering of the candidate feature density in feature space, as well as the computation of the EMD between the candidate and reference feature histograms after each shift of the candidate location. In this paper, alternative trackers that employ cross-bin metrics as well, but that are based on Mean Shift (MS) iterations, are derived. The proposed trackers are simpler and faster due to 1) the use of MS-based optimization, which is not restricted to single pixel shifts, 2) abstention from any clustering of feature densities, and 3) abstention from EMD computations in multidimensional spaces.
Metrics Are Needed for Collaborative Software Development
Mojgan Mohtashami; Cyril S. Ku; Thomas J. Marlowe
2011-01-01
There is a need for metrics for inter-organizational collaborative software development projects, encompassing management and technical concerns. In particular, metrics are needed that are aimed at the collaborative aspect itself, such as readiness for collaboration, the quality and/or the costs and benefits of collaboration in a specific ongoing project. We suggest questions and directions for such metrics, spanning the full lifespan of a collaborative project, from considering the suitabili...
A Metric Observer for Induction Motors Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Benbouzid
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with metric observer application for induction motors. Firstly, assuming that stator currents and speed are measured, a metric observer is designed to estimate the rotor fluxes. Secondly, assuming that only stator currents are measured, another metric observer is derived to estimate rotor fluxes and speed. The proposed observer validity is checked throughout simulations on a 4 kW induction motor drive.
The definitive guide to IT service metrics
McWhirter, Kurt
2012-01-01
Used just as they are, the metrics in this book will bring many benefits to both the IT department and the business as a whole. Details of the attributes of each metric are given, enabling you to make the right choices for your business. You may prefer and are encouraged to design and create your own metrics to bring even more value to your business - this book will show you how to do this, too.
Chaotic inflation with metric and matter perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldman, H.A.; Brandenberger, R.H.
1989-01-01
A perturbative scheme to analyze the evolution of both metric and scalar field perturbations in an expanding universe is developed. The scheme is applied to study chaotic inflation with initial metric and scalar field perturbations present. It is shown that initial gravitational perturbations with wavelength smaller than the Hubble radius rapidly decay. The metric simultaneously picks up small perturbations determined by the matter inhomogeneities. Both are frozen in once the wavelength exceeds the Hubble radius. (orig.)
Development and Analysis of Psychomotor Skills Metrics for Procedural Skills Decay.
Parthiban, Chembian; Ray, Rebecca; Rutherford, Drew; Zinn, Mike; Pugh, Carla
2016-01-01
In this paper we develop and analyze the metrics associated with a force production task involving a stationary target with the help of advanced VR and Force Dimension Omega 6 haptic device. We study the effects of force magnitude and direction on the various metrics namely path length, movement smoothness, velocity and acceleration patterns, reaction time and overall error in achieving the target. Data was collected from 47 participants who were residents. Results show a positive correlation between the maximum force applied and the deflection error, velocity while reducing the path length and increasing smoothness with a force of higher magnitude showing the stabilizing characteristics of higher magnitude forces. This approach paves a way to assess and model procedural skills decay.
Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design
Etzkorn, Lethe
2003-01-01
The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.
About the possibility of a generalized metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Ladik, J.
1991-10-01
The metric (the structure of the space-time) may be dependent on the properties of the object measuring it. The case of size dependence of the metric was examined. For this dependence the simplest possible form of the metric tensor has been constructed which fulfils the following requirements: there be two extremal characteristic scales; the metric be unique and the usual between them; the change be sudden in the neighbourhood of these scales; the size of the human body appear as a parameter (postulated on the basis of some philosophical arguments). Estimates have been made for the two extremal length scales according to existing observations. (author) 19 refs
Bounds for phylogenetic network space metrics.
Francis, Andrew; Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang
2018-04-01
Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for representation of reticulate evolution. Recently, a space of unrooted phylogenetic networks was introduced, where such a network is a connected graph in which every vertex has degree 1 or 3 and whose leaf-set is a fixed set X of taxa. This space, denoted [Formula: see text], is defined in terms of two operations on networks-the nearest neighbor interchange and triangle operations-which can be used to transform any network with leaf set X into any other network with that leaf set. In particular, it gives rise to a metric d on [Formula: see text] which is given by the smallest number of operations required to transform one network in [Formula: see text] into another in [Formula: see text]. The metric generalizes the well-known NNI-metric on phylogenetic trees which has been intensively studied in the literature. In this paper, we derive a bound for the metric d as well as a related metric [Formula: see text] which arises when restricting d to the subset of [Formula: see text] consisting of all networks with [Formula: see text] vertices, [Formula: see text]. We also introduce two new metrics on networks-the SPR and TBR metrics-which generalize the metrics on phylogenetic trees with the same name and give bounds for these new metrics. We expect our results to eventually have applications to the development and understanding of network search algorithms.
Kerr-Schild metrics revisited. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gergely, L.A.; Perjes, Z.
1993-04-01
The particular way Kerr-Schild metrics incorporate a congruence of null curves in space-time is a sure source of fascination. The Kerr-Schild pencil of metrics g ab +Δl a l b is investigated in the generic case when it maps an arbitrary vacuum space-time with metric g ab to a vacuum space-time. The theorem is proved that this generic case does not contain the shear-free subclass as a smooth limit. It is shown that one of the Kota-Perjes metrics is a solution in the shearing class. (R.P.) 15 refs
ROUTING BASE CONGESTION CONTROL METRICS IN MANETS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandeep Dalal
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Mobile adhoc network is self-configurable and adaptive. Due to node mobility we cannot predict load on the network which leads to congestion, one of the widely researched area in manets. A lot of congestion control techniques and metrics have been proposed to overcome it before its occurrence or after it has occurred. In this survey we identify the currently used congestion control metrics. Through this survey we also propose a congestion control metric RFR(resource free ratio which considers three most important parameters to provide congestion free route discovery. Further we show the results of node selection based on fuzzy logic calculations using the proposed metric.
Comparing Evaluation Metrics for Sentence Boundary Detection
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Liu, Yang; Shriberg, Elizabeth
2007-01-01
.... This paper compares alternative evaluation metrics including the NIST error rate, classification error rate per word boundary, precision and recall, ROC curves, DET curves, precision-recall curves...
Calculating Graph Algorithms for Dominance and Shortest Path
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sergey, Ilya; Midtgaard, Jan; Clarke, Dave
2012-01-01
We calculate two iterative, polynomial-time graph algorithms from the literature: a dominance algorithm and an algorithm for the single-source shortest path problem. Both algorithms are calculated directly from the definition of the properties by fixed-point fusion of (1) a least fixed point...... expressing all finite paths through a directed graph and (2) Galois connections that capture dominance and path length. The approach illustrates that reasoning in the style of fixed-point calculus extends gracefully to the domain of graph algorithms. We thereby bridge common practice from the school...
Murata, Tomonari; Tamura, Shinsuke; Kawai, Masayuki
BFA (Backtrack Free path planning Algorithm) has been implemented for calculating paths of manipulators behaving in 3-dimensional work spaces. In the implementation, a method to avoid collisions between links also has been proposed. This paper also discusses an approach to extending BFA for path plannings of cooperating multi manipulators. In the approach, multiple manipulators are considered as a single composite one with many links. Simulation results demonstrated that BFA enabled the efficient generation of paths both for single and multi manipulators. The algorithm is backtrack free and resolution complete. Computation volume of the algorithm is proportional to the total number of links and does not change with environments where manipulators behave.
UAV Path Planning using MILP with Experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anders Albert
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the problem of tracking icebergs using multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. Our solutions use combinatorial optimization for UAV path planning by formulating a mixed integer linear programing (MILP optimization problem. To demonstrate the approach, we present both a simulation and a practical experiment. The simulation demonstrates the possibilities of the MILP algorithm by constructing a case where three UAVs help a boat make a safe passage through an area with icebergs. Furthermore, we compare the performance of three against a single UAV. In the practical experiment, we take the first step towards full-scale experiments. We run the algorithm on a ground station and use it to set the path for a UAV tracking five simulated icebergs.
Non-common path aberration correction in an adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope.
Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo
2014-09-01
The correction of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) between the imaging and wavefront sensing channel in a confocal scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscope is demonstrated. NCPA correction is achieved by maximizing an image sharpness metric while the confocal detection aperture is temporarily removed, effectively minimizing the monochromatic aberrations in the illumination path of the imaging channel. Comparison of NCPA estimated using zonal and modal orthogonal wavefront corrector bases provided wavefronts that differ by ~λ/20 in root-mean-squared (~λ/30 standard deviation). Sequential insertion of a cylindrical lens in the illumination and light collection paths of the imaging channel was used to compare image resolution after changing the wavefront correction to maximize image sharpness and intensity metrics. Finally, the NCPA correction was incorporated into the closed-loop adaptive optics control by biasing the wavefront sensor signals without reducing its bandwidth.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiromi Yamamoto
2005-12-01
Full Text Available The uses of fossil fuels cause not only the resources exhaustion but also the environmental problems such as global warming. The purposes of this study are to evaluate paths toward sustainable energy systems and roles of each renewable. In order to realize the purposes, the authors developed the global land use and energy model that figured the global energy supply systems in the future considering the cost minimization. Using the model, the authors conducted a simulation in C30R scenario, which is a kind of strict CO2 emission limit scenarios and reduced CO2 emissions by 30% compared with Kyoto protocol forever scenario, and obtained the following results. In C30R scenario bioenergy will supply 33% of all the primary energy consumption. However, wind and photovoltaic will supply 1.8% and 1.4% of all the primary energy consumption, respectively, because of the limits of power grid stability. The results imply that the strict limits of CO2 emissions are not sufficient to achieve the complete renewable energy systems. In order to use wind and photovoltaic as major energy resources, we need not only to reduce the plant costs but also to develop unconventional renewable technologies.
Path integrals as discrete sums
Bitar, Khalil; Khuri, N. N.; Ren, H. C.
1991-08-01
We present a new formulation of Feynman's path integral, based on Voronin's theorems on the universality of the Riemann zeta function. The result is a discrete sum over ``paths,'' each given by a zeta function. A new measure which leads to the correct quantum mechanics is explicitly given.
On Minc's sheltered middle path
Repovš, Dušan; Rosicki, Witold; Virk, Žiga; Zastrow, Andreas
2012-01-01
This paper shows that a construction, which was introduced by Piotr Minc in connection with a problem that came from Helly type theorems and that allows to replace three PL-arcs with a "sheltered middle path", can in the case of general (non-PL) paths result in the topologist's sine curve.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exner, P.; Kolerov, G.I.
1980-01-01
A Hilbert space of paths, the elements of which are determined by trigonometric series, was proposed and used recently by Truman. This space is shown to consist precisely of all absolutely continuous paths ending in the origin with square-integrable derivatives
A coverage metric to evaluate tests for continuous-time dynamic systems
Skruch, Paweł
2011-06-01
We present a test quality measure that allows for quantifying the completeness of black-box tests for continuous-time dynamic systems. The measure is based on a state space model of the system under test. The metric has been called the state space coverage. The classical coverage metrics, such as statement, branch, and path coverage, are not appropriate for dynamic systems because such systems are defined by differential equations and usually have an infinite number of states. The objective of the paper is to develop a necessary foundation for the metric as well as to present guidance on its application to software systems that incorporate dynamic behavior. The purpose of the proposed solution is to better assure the test engineer that a given test set is sufficient and to indicate where additional testing is required. An application example is presented to illustrate theoretical analysis and mathematical formulation.
Distance in Metric Trees and Banach Spaces
Alansari, Monairah
This thesis contains results on metric trees and Banach spaces. There is a common thread which is about distance function. In case of metric trees, special metrics such as radial and river metrics will yield characterization theorems. In the case of Banach spaces we consider the distance from a point in the Banach space to its subspace and by putting conditions on subspaces we obtain results for the speed of convergence of the error of best approximation. We first introduce the concept of metric trees and study some of its properties and provide a new representation of metric trees by using a special set of metric rays, which we called it "crossing point sets". We have captured the four-point condition from these set and shown an equivalence between the metric trees with radial and river metrics, and the crossing point set. As an application of our characterization of metric trees via crossing point sets, we were able to index Brownian motions by a metric tree. Second part of this thesis contains results on the error of best approximation in the context of Banach spaces. The error of the best approximation to x via S is denoted by rho(x,S) defined as follows: rho(x, S) = inf d(x, y) for all y∈S. Note that the well known Weierstrass approximation theorem states that every continuous function defined on a closed interval [a,b] can be uniformly approximated by a polynomial function. Note that the Weierstrass approximation theorem gives no information about the speed of convergence for rho(f, Yn). However, Bernstein Lethargy Theorem (BLT) is about the speed of convergence for rho(f, Y n). We consider a condition on subspaces in order to improve bounds given in the Bernstein's Lethargy Theorem (BLT) for Banach spaces.
Simple emission metrics for climate impacts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Aamaas
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In the context of climate change, emissions of different species (e.g., carbon dioxide and methane are not directly comparable since they have different radiative efficiencies and lifetimes. Since comparisons via detailed climate models are computationally expensive and complex, emission metrics were developed to allow a simple and straightforward comparison of the estimated climate impacts of emissions of different species. Emission metrics are not unique and variety of different emission metrics has been proposed, with key choices being the climate impacts and time horizon to use for comparisons. In this paper, we present analytical expressions and describe how to calculate common emission metrics for different species. We include the climate metrics radiative forcing, integrated radiative forcing, temperature change and integrated temperature change in both absolute form and normalised to a reference gas. We consider pulse emissions, sustained emissions and emission scenarios. The species are separated into three types: CO2 which has a complex decay over time, species with a simple exponential decay, and ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOC which indirectly effect climate via various chemical interactions. We also discuss deriving Impulse Response Functions, radiative efficiency, regional dependencies, consistency within and between metrics and uncertainties. We perform various applications to highlight key applications of emission metrics, which show that emissions of CO2 are important regardless of what metric and time horizon is used, but that the importance of short lived climate forcers varies greatly depending on the metric choices made. Further, the ranking of countries by emissions changes very little with different metrics despite large differences in metric values, except for the shortest time horizons (GWP20.
Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani
2014-11-01
When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of image quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system has not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become a more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. First, the most important image quality and speed-related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and, also, novel speed metrics are identified. Second, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones on the market. The measurements are done toward application programming interface of different operating systems. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The paper defines a solution to combine different image quality and speed metrics to a single benchmarking score. A proposal of the combined benchmarking metric is evaluated using measurements of 25 mobile phone cameras on the market. The paper is a continuation of a previous benchmarking work expanded with visual noise measurement and updates of the latest mobile phone versions.
On the relation of the generalized Schwarzschild metric and Tallman metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharshekeev, O.Sh.
1977-01-01
Relation of the Schwarzschild generalized metric (the Schwarzschild metric with regard for the four-dimension tensor of curvation) with the Tollman metric is considered. It is shown, that the Schwarzschild problem solution in the Tollman metric is quite correct as well. The obtained solutions meet the following requirements: conformity principle is carried out, transformation functional determinant is final everywhere, excluding the centre, where a singular point is to be
Optimizing of Passive Optical Network Deployment Using Algorithm with Metrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomas Pehnelt
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Various approaches and methods are used for designing of optimum deployment of Passive Optical Networks (PON according to selected optimization criteria, such as optimal trenching distance, endpoint attenuation and overall installed fibre length. This article describes the ideas and possibilities for an algorithm with the application of graph algorithms for finding the shortest path from Optical Line Termination to Optical Network Terminal unit. This algorithm uses a combination of different methods for generating of an optimal metric, thus creating the optimized tree topology mainly focused on summary trenching distance. Furthermore, it deals with algorithms for finding an optimal placement of optical splitter with the help of K-Means clustering method and hierarchical clustering technique. The results of the proposed algorithm are compared with existing methods.
Discrete causal theory emergent spacetime and the causal metric hypothesis
Dribus, Benjamin F
2017-01-01
This book evaluates and suggests potentially critical improvements to causal set theory, one of the best-motivated approaches to the outstanding problems of fundamental physics. Spacetime structure is of central importance to physics beyond general relativity and the standard model. The causal metric hypothesis treats causal relations as the basis of this structure. The book develops the consequences of this hypothesis under the assumption of a fundamental scale, with smooth spacetime geometry viewed as emergent. This approach resembles causal set theory, but differs in important ways; for example, the relative viewpoint, emphasizing relations between pairs of events, and relationships between pairs of histories, is central. The book culminates in a dynamical law for quantum spacetime, derived via generalized path summation.
Probabilistic Connections for Bidirectional Path Tracing
Popov, Stefan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Durand, Fredo; Drettakis, George
2015-01-01
International audience; Bidirectional Path Tracing Probabilistic Connections for Bidirectional Path Tracing Figure 1: Our Probabilistic Connections for Bidirectional Path Tracing approach importance samples connections to an eye sub-path, and greatly reduces variance, by considering and reusing multiple light sub-paths at once. Our approach (right) achieves much higher quality than bidirectional path-tracing on the left for the same computation time (~8.4 min).. Abstract Bidirectional path tr...
Path Similarity Analysis: A Method for Quantifying Macromolecular Pathways.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sean L Seyler
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes and various sophisticated computational algorithms have been proposed to enhance sampling of these macromolecular transition paths. Because such paths are curves in a high-dimensional space, it has been difficult to quantitatively compare multiple paths, a necessary prerequisite to, for instance, assess the quality of different algorithms. We introduce a method named Path Similarity Analysis (PSA that enables us to quantify the similarity between two arbitrary paths and extract the atomic-scale determinants responsible for their differences. PSA utilizes the full information available in 3N-dimensional configuration space trajectories by employing the Hausdorff or Fréchet metrics (adopted from computational geometry to quantify the degree of similarity between piecewise-linear curves. It thus completely avoids relying on projections into low dimensional spaces, as used in traditional approaches. To elucidate the principles of PSA, we quantified the effect of path roughness induced by thermal fluctuations using a toy model system. Using, as an example, the closed-to-open transitions of the enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK in its substrate-free form, we compared a range of protein transition path-generating algorithms. Molecular dynamics-based dynamic importance sampling (DIMS MD and targeted MD (TMD and the purely geometric FRODA (Framework Rigidity Optimized Dynamics Algorithm were tested along with seven other methods publicly available on servers, including several based on the popular elastic network model (ENM. PSA with clustering revealed that paths produced by a given method are more similar to each other than to those from another method and, for instance, that the ENM-based methods produced relatively similar paths. PSA applied to ensembles of DIMS MD and FRODA trajectories of the conformational transition of diphtheria toxin, a particularly challenging example
Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions
Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.
2014-01-01
In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.
Optimal Transportation and Curvature of Metric Spaces
Eskin, Thomas
2013-01-01
In this thesis we study the notion of non-negative Ricci curvature for compact metric measure spaces introduced by Lott and Villani in their article (2009): Ricci curvature for metric measure spaces via optimal transport. We also define and prove the required prerequisites concerning length spaces, convex analysis, measure theory, and optimal transportation.
Quantitative metric theory of continued fractions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2 (log log n). 1. 2 +ǫ) almost everywhere with respect to the Lebesgue measure. Keywords. Continued fractions; ergodic averages; metric theory of numbers. Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary: 11K50; Secondary: 28D99. 1. Introduction. In this paper, we use a quantitative L2-ergodic theorem to study the metrical ...
Metric solution of a spinning mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, H.
1982-01-01
Studies on a particular class of asymptotically flat and stationary metric solutions called the Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato class are reviewed about its derivation and properties. For a further study, an almost complete list of the papers worked on the Tomimatsu-Sato metrics is given. (Auth.)
Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen
1998-01-01
We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...
Gravitational Metric Tensor Exterior to Rotating Homogeneous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The covariant and contravariant metric tensors exterior to a homogeneous spherical body rotating uniformly about a common φ axis with constant angular velocity ω is constructed. The constructed metric tensors in this gravitational field have seven non-zero distinct components.The Lagrangian for this gravitational field is ...
Invariant metric for nonlinear symplectic maps
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we construct an invariant metric in the space of homogeneous polynomials of a given degree (≥ 3). The homogeneous polynomials specify a nonlinear symplectic map which in turn represents a Hamiltonian system. By minimizing the norm constructed out of this metric as a function of system parameters, we ...
On Information Metrics for Spatial Coding.
Souza, Bryan C; Pavão, Rodrigo; Belchior, Hindiael; Tort, Adriano B L
2018-04-01
The hippocampal formation is involved in navigation, and its neuronal activity exhibits a variety of spatial correlates (e.g., place cells, grid cells). The quantification of the information encoded by spikes has been standard procedure to identify which cells have spatial correlates. For place cells, most of the established metrics derive from Shannon's mutual information (Shannon, 1948), and convey information rate in bits/s or bits/spike (Skaggs et al., 1993, 1996). Despite their widespread use, the performance of these metrics in relation to the original mutual information metric has never been investigated. In this work, using simulated and real data, we find that the current information metrics correlate less with the accuracy of spatial decoding than the original mutual information metric. We also find that the top informative cells may differ among metrics, and show a surrogate-based normalization that yields comparable spatial information estimates. Since different information metrics may identify different neuronal populations, we discuss current and alternative definitions of spatially informative cells, which affect the metric choice. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fixed point theory in metric type spaces
Agarwal, Ravi P; O’Regan, Donal; Roldán-López-de-Hierro, Antonio Francisco
2015-01-01
Written by a team of leading experts in the field, this volume presents a self-contained account of the theory, techniques and results in metric type spaces (in particular in G-metric spaces); that is, the text approaches this important area of fixed point analysis beginning from the basic ideas of metric space topology. The text is structured so that it leads the reader from preliminaries and historical notes on metric spaces (in particular G-metric spaces) and on mappings, to Banach type contraction theorems in metric type spaces, fixed point theory in partially ordered G-metric spaces, fixed point theory for expansive mappings in metric type spaces, generalizations, present results and techniques in a very general abstract setting and framework. Fixed point theory is one of the major research areas in nonlinear analysis. This is partly due to the fact that in many real world problems fixed point theory is the basic mathematical tool used to establish the existence of solutions to problems which arise natur...
Software Power Metric Model: An Implementation | Akwukwuma ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... and the execution time (TIME) in each case was recorded. We then obtain the application functions point count. Our result shows that the proposed metric is computable, consistent in its use of unit, and is programming language independent. Keywords: Software attributes, Software power, measurement, Software metric, ...
Validation of Metrics for Collaborative Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion IVAN
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describe the new concepts of collaborative systems metrics validation. The paper define the quality characteristics of collaborative systems. There are proposed a metric to estimate the quality level of collaborative systems. There are performed measurements of collaborative systems quality using a specially designed software.
Fuzzy Set Field and Fuzzy Metric
Gebray, Gebru; Reddy, B. Krishna
2014-01-01
The notation of fuzzy set field is introduced. A fuzzy metric is redefined on fuzzy set field and on arbitrary fuzzy set in a field. The metric redefined is between fuzzy points and constitutes both fuzziness and crisp property of vector. In addition, a fuzzy magnitude of a fuzzy point in a field is defined.
The metrics of science and technology
Geisler, Eliezer
2000-01-01
Dr. Geisler's far-reaching, unique book provides an encyclopedic compilation of the key metrics to measure and evaluate the impact of science and technology on academia, industry, and government. Focusing on such items as economic measures, patents, peer review, and other criteria, and supported by an extensive review of the literature, Dr. Geisler gives a thorough analysis of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in metric design, and in the use of the specific metrics he cites. His book has already received prepublication attention, and will prove especially valuable for academics in technology management, engineering, and science policy; industrial R&D executives and policymakers; government science and technology policymakers; and scientists and managers in government research and technology institutions. Geisler maintains that the application of metrics to evaluate science and technology at all levels illustrates the variety of tools we currently possess. Each metric has its own unique strengths and...
Some Properties of Metric Polytope Constraints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Bondarenko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The integrality recognition problem is considered on the sequence Mn,k of the nested Boolean quadric polytope relaxations, including the rooted semimetric Mn and the metric Mn,3 polytopes. Constraints of the metric polytope cut off all faces of the rooted semimetric polytope, containing only fractional vertices, that allows to solve the problem of integrality recognition on Mn in polynomial time. To solve the problem of integrality recognition on the metric polytope, we consider the possibility of cutting off all fractional faces of Mn,3 by some relaxation Mn,k. We represent the coordinates of the metric polytope in a homogeneous form by a three-dimensional block matrix. We show that to answer the question of the metric polytope fractional faces cutting off, it is sufficient to consider only constraints of the triangle inequalities form.
Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonopoulos, Chrissi A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clements, Samuel L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorrissen, Willy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ruiz, Kathleen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, David L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gardner, Chris [APQC, Houston, TX (United States); Varney, Jeff [APQC, Houston, TX (United States)
2014-07-01
A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.
Metrics for border management systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duggan, Ruth Ann
2009-07-01
There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.
Similarity metrics for surgical process models.
Neumuth, Thomas; Loebe, Frank; Jannin, Pierre
2012-01-01
The objective of this work is to introduce a set of similarity metrics for comparing surgical process models (SPMs). SPMs are progression models of surgical interventions that support quantitative analyses of surgical activities, supporting systems engineering or process optimization. Five different similarity metrics are presented and proven. These metrics deal with several dimensions of process compliance in surgery, including granularity, content, time, order, and frequency of surgical activities. The metrics were experimentally validated using 20 clinical data sets each for cataract interventions, craniotomy interventions, and supratentorial tumor resections. The clinical data sets were controllably modified in simulations, which were iterated ten times, resulting in a total of 600 simulated data sets. The simulated data sets were subsequently compared to the original data sets to empirically assess the predictive validity of the metrics. We show that the results of the metrics for the surgical process models correlate significantly (pmetrics meet predictive validity. The clinical use of the metrics was exemplarily, as demonstrated by assessment of the learning curves of observers during surgical process model acquisition. Measuring similarity between surgical processes is a complex task. However, metrics for computing the similarity between surgical process models are needed in many uses in the field of medical engineering. These metrics are essential whenever two SPMs need to be compared, such as during the evaluation of technical systems, the education of observers, or the determination of surgical strategies. These metrics are key figures that provide a solid base for medical decisions, such as during validation of sensor systems for use in operating rooms in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Path Following in the Exact Penalty Method of Convex Programming.
Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth
2015-07-01
Classical penalty methods solve a sequence of unconstrained problems that put greater and greater stress on meeting the constraints. In the limit as the penalty constant tends to ∞, one recovers the constrained solution. In the exact penalty method, squared penalties are replaced by absolute value penalties, and the solution is recovered for a finite value of the penalty constant. In practice, the kinks in the penalty and the unknown magnitude of the penalty constant prevent wide application of the exact penalty method in nonlinear programming. In this article, we examine a strategy of path following consistent with the exact penalty method. Instead of performing optimization at a single penalty constant, we trace the solution as a continuous function of the penalty constant. Thus, path following starts at the unconstrained solution and follows the solution path as the penalty constant increases. In the process, the solution path hits, slides along, and exits from the various constraints. For quadratic programming, the solution path is piecewise linear and takes large jumps from constraint to constraint. For a general convex program, the solution path is piecewise smooth, and path following operates by numerically solving an ordinary differential equation segment by segment. Our diverse applications to a) projection onto a convex set, b) nonnegative least squares, c) quadratically constrained quadratic programming, d) geometric programming, and e) semidefinite programming illustrate the mechanics and potential of path following. The final detour to image denoising demonstrates the relevance of path following to regularized estimation in inverse problems. In regularized estimation, one follows the solution path as the penalty constant decreases from a large value.
Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S
2015-07-01
PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Families of quasi-pseudo-metrics generated by probabilistic quasi-pseudo-metric spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariusz T. Grabiec
2008-03-01
Full Text Available This paper contains a study of families of quasi-pseudo-metrics (the concept of a quasi-pseudo-metric was introduced by Wilson (1931 , Albert (1941 and Kelly (1963 generated by probabilistic quasi-pseudo-metric-spaces which are generalization of probabilistic metric space (PM-space shortly [2, 3, 4, 6]. The idea of PM-spaces was introduced by Menger (1942, 1951, Schweizer and Sklar (1983 and Serstnev (1965. Families of pseudo-metrics generated by PM-spaces and those generalizing PM-spaces have been described by Stevens (1968 and Nishiure (1970.
Path integrals and quantum processes
Swanson, Marc S
1992-01-01
In a clearly written and systematic presentation, Path Integrals and Quantum Processes covers all concepts necessary to understand the path integral approach to calculating transition elements, partition functions, and source functionals. The book, which assumes only a familiarity with quantum mechanics, is ideal for use as a supplemental textbook in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory courses. Graduate and post-graduate students who are unfamiliar with the path integral will also benefit from this contemporary text. Exercise sets are interspersed throughout the text to facilitate self-
Fighter agility metrics. M.S. Thesis
Liefer, Randall K.
1990-01-01
Fighter flying qualities and combat capabilities are currently measured and compared in terms relating to vehicle energy, angular rates and sustained acceleration. Criteria based on these measurable quantities have evolved over the past several decades and are routinely used to design aircraft structures, aerodynamics, propulsion and control systems. While these criteria, or metrics, have the advantage of being well understood, easily verified and repeatable during test, they tend to measure the steady state capability of the aircraft and not its ability to transition quickly from one state to another. Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A complete set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available.
SAPHIRE 8 Quality Assurance Software Metrics Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurt G. Vedros
2011-08-01
The purpose of this review of software metrics is to examine the quality of the metrics gathered in the 2010 IV&V and to set an outline for results of updated metrics runs to be performed. We find from the review that the maintenance of accepted quality standards presented in the SAPHIRE 8 initial Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of April, 2010 is most easily achieved by continuing to utilize the tools used in that effort while adding a metric of bug tracking and resolution. Recommendations from the final IV&V were to continue periodic measurable metrics such as McCabe's complexity measure to ensure quality is maintained. The four software tools used to measure quality in the IV&V were CodeHealer, Coverage Validator, Memory Validator, Performance Validator, and Thread Validator. These are evaluated based on their capabilities. We attempted to run their latest revisions with the newer Delphi 2010 based SAPHIRE 8 code that has been developed and was successful with all of the Validator series of tools on small tests. Another recommendation from the IV&V was to incorporate a bug tracking and resolution metric. To improve our capability of producing this metric, we integrated our current web reporting system with the SpiraTest test management software purchased earlier this year to track requirements traceability.
An Underwater Color Image Quality Evaluation Metric.
Yang, Miao; Sowmya, Arcot
2015-12-01
Quality evaluation of underwater images is a key goal of underwater video image retrieval and intelligent processing. To date, no metric has been proposed for underwater color image quality evaluation (UCIQE). The special absorption and scattering characteristics of the water medium do not allow direct application of natural color image quality metrics especially to different underwater environments. In this paper, subjective testing for underwater image quality has been organized. The statistical distribution of the underwater image pixels in the CIELab color space related to subjective evaluation indicates the sharpness and colorful factors correlate well with subjective image quality perception. Based on these, a new UCIQE metric, which is a linear combination of chroma, saturation, and contrast, is proposed to quantify the non-uniform color cast, blurring, and low-contrast that characterize underwater engineering and monitoring images. Experiments are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed UCIQE metric and its capability to measure the underwater image enhancement results. They show that the proposed metric has comparable performance to the leading natural color image quality metrics and the underwater grayscale image quality metrics available in the literature, and can predict with higher accuracy the relative amount of degradation with similar image content in underwater environments. Importantly, UCIQE is a simple and fast solution for real-time underwater video processing. The effectiveness of the presented measure is also demonstrated by subjective evaluation. The results show better correlation between the UCIQE and the subjective mean opinion score.
Optimal Lyapunov metrics of expansive homeomorphisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dovbysh, S A
2006-01-01
We sharpen the following results of Reddy, Sakai and Fried: any expansive homeomorphism of a metrizable compactum admits a Lyapunov metric compatible with the topology, and if we also assume the existence of a local product structure (that is, if the homeomorphism is an A*-homeomorphism in the terminology of Alekseev and Yakobson, or possesses hyperbolic canonical coordinates in the terminology of Bowen, or together with the metric compactum constitutes a Smale space in the terminology by Ruelle), then we also obtain the validity of Ruelle's technical axiom on the Lipschitz property of the homeomorphism, its inverse, and the local product structure. It is shown that any expansive homeomorphism admits a Lyapunov metric such that the homeomorphism on local stable (resp. unstable) 'manifolds' is approximately representable on a small scale as a contraction (resp. expansion) with constant coefficient λ s (resp. λ u -1 ) in this metric. For A*-homeomorphisms, we prove that the desired metric can be approximately represented on a small scale as the direct sum of metrics corresponding to the canonical coordinates determined by the local product structure and that local 'manifolds' are 'flat' in some sense. It is also proved that the lower bounds for the contraction constants λ s and expansion constants λ u of A*-homeomorphisms are attained simultaneously for some metric that satisfies all the conditions described
Robust Transfer Metric Learning for Image Classification.
Ding, Zhengming; Fu, Yun
2017-02-01
Metric learning has attracted increasing attention due to its critical role in image analysis and classification. Conventional metric learning always assumes that the training and test data are sampled from the same or similar distribution. However, to build an effective distance metric, we need abundant supervised knowledge (i.e., side/label information), which is generally inaccessible in practice, because of the expensive labeling cost. In this paper, we develop a robust transfer metric learning (RTML) framework to effectively assist the unlabeled target learning by transferring the knowledge from the well-labeled source domain. Specifically, RTML exploits knowledge transfer to mitigate the domain shift in two directions, i.e., sample space and feature space. In the sample space, domain-wise and class-wise adaption schemes are adopted to bridge the gap of marginal and conditional distribution disparities across two domains. In the feature space, our metric is built in a marginalized denoising fashion and low-rank constraint, which make it more robust to tackle noisy data in reality. Furthermore, we design an explicit rank constraint regularizer to replace the rank minimization NP-hard problem to guide the low-rank metric learning. Experimental results on several standard benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed RTML by comparing it with the state-of-the-art transfer learning and metric learning algorithms.
Characterising risk - aggregated metrics: radiation and noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Passchier, W.
1998-01-01
The characterisation of risk is an important phase in the risk assessment - risk management process. From the multitude of risk attributes a few have to be selected to obtain a risk characteristic or profile that is useful for risk management decisions and implementation of protective measures. One way to reduce the number of attributes is aggregation. In the field of radiation protection such an aggregated metric is firmly established: effective dose. For protection against environmental noise the Health Council of the Netherlands recently proposed a set of aggregated metrics for noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. The presentation will discuss similarities and differences between these two metrics and practical limitations. The effective dose has proven its usefulness in designing radiation protection measures, which are related to the level of risk associated with the radiation practice in question, given that implicit judgements on radiation induced health effects are accepted. However, as the metric does not take into account the nature of radiation practice, it is less useful in policy discussions on the benefits and harm of radiation practices. With respect to the noise exposure metric, only one effect is targeted (annoyance), and the differences between sources are explicitly taken into account. This should make the metric useful in policy discussions with respect to physical planning and siting problems. The metric proposed has only significance on a population level, and can not be used as a predictor for individual risk. (author)
Innovation paths in wind power
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lema, Rasmus; Nordensvärd, Johan; Urban, Frauke
Denmark and Germany both make substantial investments in low carbon innovation, not least in the wind power sector. These investments in wind energy are driven by the twin objectives of reducing carbon emissions and building up international competitive advantage. Support for wind power dates back...... paths: government policies, demand conditions, geography, value chains, and the strategies undertaken by firms. It demonstrates that the innovation paths common to both countries have roots in a confluence of determining factors which are mainly due to social and political priorities, preferences...... Denmark and Germany have common national causes, while company-specific strategies also influence the innovation paths in significant ways. This raises important questions about the national specificity of innovation paths in wind power development. Finally, the paper briefly addresses the increasing...
An Introduction to Path Analysis
Wolfe, Lee M.
1977-01-01
The analytical procedure of path analysis is described in terms of its use in nonexperimental settings in the social sciences. The description assumes a moderate statistical background on the part of the reader. (JKS)
Game Refinement Relations and Metrics
de Alfaro, Luca; Scott, D.S.; Pierce, B.J.; Majumdar, Rupak; Plotkin, G.J.; Raman, Viswanath; Vardi, M.Y.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Adámek, J.
We consider two-player games played over finite state spaces for an infinite number of rounds. At each state, the players simultaneously choose moves; the moves determine a successor state. It is often advantageous for players to choose probability distributions over moves, rather than single moves.
Some illustrative examples of Mayer's interference in the path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fizichev, P.P.
1983-01-01
A new technique is proposed for evaluation of path integrals by means of a discretization procedure. It is based on the previously established necessity to single out the set of classical trajectories along which the summation is performed. The notion of Mayer interference is introduced and is illustrated on a number of simple examples. It is shown that the choice of the set of paths induced a corresponding quantization prosymmetries of the problem. The possibility is shown of extracting information about the space of quantum states from the path integral. A class of paths is established the summation over which in the framework of the suggested approach leads to the well-known results for the motion is a homogeneous field and for the harmonic oscillator
Critical crack path assessments in failure investigations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert D. Caligiuri
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a case study in which identification of the controlling crack path was critical to identifying the root cause of the failure. The case involves the rupture of a 30-inch (0.76 m natural gas pipeline in 2010 that tragically led to the destruction of a number of homes and the loss of life. The segment of the pipeline that ruptured was installed in 1956. The longitudinal seam of the segment that ruptured was supposed to have been fabricated by double submerged arc welding. Unfortunately, portions of the segment only received a single submerged arc weld on the outside, leaving unwelded areas on the inside diameter. Post-failure examination of the segment revealed that the rupture originated at one of these unwelded areas. Examination also revealed three additional crack paths or zones emanating from the unwelded area: a zone of ductile tearing, a zone of fatigue, and a zone of cleavage fracture, in that sequence. Initial investigators ignored the ductile tear, assumed the critical crack path was the fatigue component, and (incorrectly concluded that the root cause of the incident was the failure of the operator to hydrotest the segment after it was installed in 1956. However, as discussed in this paper, the critical path or mechanism was the ductile tear. Furthermore, it was determined that the ductile tear was created during the hydrotest at installation by a mechanism known as pressure reversal. Thus the correct root cause of the rupture was the hydrotest the operator subjected the segment to at installation, helping to increase the awareness of operators and regulators about the potential problems associated with hydrotesting.
Paths into Professional School: A Research Note
Helfrich, Margaret L.
1975-01-01
The literature of occupations and professions implies that there may be different paths into given work activities. Four different paths into dental school are described and illustrated, and different conditions are associated with each path. (Author/BP)
Path-based Queries on Trajectory Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Pelekis, Nikos; Theodoridis, Yannis
2014-01-01
In traffic research, management, and planning a number of path-based analyses are heavily used, e.g., for computing turn-times, evaluating green waves, or studying traffic flow. These analyses require retrieving the trajectories that follow the full path being analyzed. Existing path queries cannot...... sufficiently support such path-based analyses because they retrieve all trajectories that touch any edge in the path. In this paper, we define and formalize the strict path query. This is a novel query type tailored to support path-based analysis, where trajectories must follow all edges in the path...... a specific path by only retrieving data from the first and last edge in the path. To correctly answer strict path queries existing network-constrained trajectory indexes must retrieve data from all edges in the path. An extensive performance study of NETTRA using a very large real-world trajectory data set...
Development of PATH Gaming Methodology
1988-06-30
In open games, on the other hand , the teams are allowed to interact directly (either verbally or in writing) without the control team restricting the...real world this loss is not serious. A path game can consist of as few as one team to as many as four. A color coding scheme is used as a short hand ... Strenghts ---------------------------------- 74 6.4 Weaknesses --------------------------------- 76 7 Extended Path Games ----------------------------- 78
Formal language constrained path problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.
1997-07-08
In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.
Metrics Are Needed for Collaborative Software Development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mojgan Mohtashami
2011-10-01
Full Text Available There is a need for metrics for inter-organizational collaborative software development projects, encompassing management and technical concerns. In particular, metrics are needed that are aimed at the collaborative aspect itself, such as readiness for collaboration, the quality and/or the costs and benefits of collaboration in a specific ongoing project. We suggest questions and directions for such metrics, spanning the full lifespan of a collaborative project, from considering the suitability of collaboration through evaluating ongoing projects to final evaluation of the collaboration.
On metrics and super-Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodgkin, L.
1987-01-01
It is shown that any super-Riemann surface M admits a large space of metrics (in a rather basic sense); while if M is of compact genus g type, g>1, M admits a unique metric whose lift to the universal cover is superconformally equivalent to the standard (Baranov-Shvarts) metric on the super-half plane. This explains the relation between the different methods of calculation of the upper Teichmueller space by the author (using arbitrary superconformal transformations) and Crane and Rabin (using only isometries). (orig.)
Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.
If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....
Applying Sigma Metrics to Reduce Outliers.
Litten, Joseph
2017-03-01
Sigma metrics can be used to predict assay quality, allowing easy comparison of instrument quality and predicting which tests will require minimal quality control (QC) rules to monitor the performance of the method. A Six Sigma QC program can result in fewer controls and fewer QC failures for methods with a sigma metric of 5 or better. The higher the number of methods with a sigma metric of 5 or better, the lower the costs for reagents, supplies, and control material required to monitor the performance of the methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Metric learning for DNA microarray data analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Masao; Seto, Masao
2009-01-01
In many microarray studies, gene set selection is an important preliminary step for subsequent main task such as tumor classification, cancer subtype identification, etc. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using metric learning as an alternative to gene set selection. We develop a simple metric learning algorithm aiming to use it for microarray data analysis. Exploiting a property of the algorithm, we introduce a novel approach for extending the metric learning to be adaptive. We apply the algorithm to previously studied microarray data on malignant lymphoma subtype identification.
Software metrics a rigorous and practical approach
Fenton, Norman
2014-01-01
A Framework for Managing, Measuring, and Predicting Attributes of Software Development Products and ProcessesReflecting the immense progress in the development and use of software metrics in the past decades, Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to software metrics. Like its popular predecessors, this third edition discusses important issues, explains essential concepts, and offers new approaches for tackling long-standing problems.New to the Third EditionThis edition contains new material relevant
Visual environment recognition for robot path planning using template matched filters
Orozco-Rosas, Ulises; Picos, Kenia; Díaz-Ramírez, Víctor H.; Montiel, Oscar; Sepúlveda, Roberto
2017-08-01
A visual approach in environment recognition for robot navigation is proposed. This work includes a template matching filtering technique to detect obstacles and feasible paths using a single camera to sense a cluttered environment. In this problem statement, a robot can move from the start to the goal by choosing a single path between multiple possible ways. In order to generate an efficient and safe path for mobile robot navigation, the proposal employs a pseudo-bacterial potential field algorithm to derive optimal potential field functions using evolutionary computation. Simulation results are evaluated in synthetic and real scenes in terms of accuracy of environment recognition and efficiency of path planning computation.
Progressive Minimal Path Method for Segmentation of 2D and 3D Line Structures.
Liao, Wei; Worz, Stefan; Kang, Chang-Ki; Cho, Zang-Hee; Rohr, Karl
2018-03-01
We propose a novel minimal path method for the segmentation of 2D and 3D line structures. Minimal path methods perform propagation of a wavefront emanating from a start point at a speed derived from image features, followed by path extraction using backtracing. Usually, the computation of the speed and the propagation of the wave are two separate steps, and point features are used to compute a static speed. We introduce a new continuous minimal path method which steers the wave propagation progressively using dynamic speed based on path features. We present three instances of our method, using an appearance feature of the path, a geometric feature based on the curvature of the path, and a joint appearance and geometric feature based on the tangent of the wavefront. These features have not been used in previous continuous minimal path methods. We compute the features dynamically during the wave propagation, and also efficiently using a fast numerical scheme and a low-dimensional parameter space. Our method does not suffer from discretization or metrication errors. We performed qualitative and quantitative evaluations using 2D and 3D images from different application areas.
Learnometrics: Metrics for Learning Objects (Learnometrics: metrieken voor leerobjecten)
Ochoa, Xavier
2008-01-01
- Introduction - Quantitative Analysis of the Publication of Learning Objects - Quantiative Analysis of the Reuse of Learning Objects - Metadata Quality Metrics for Learning Objects - Relevance Ranking Metrics for Learning Objects - Metrics Service Architecture and Use Cases - Conclusions
Search for continuous gravitational waves: Metric of the multidetector F-statistic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prix, Reinhard
2007-01-01
We develop a general formalism for the parameter-space metric of the multidetector F-statistic, which is a matched-filtering detection statistic for continuous gravitational waves. We find that there exists a whole family of F-statistic metrics, parametrized by the (unknown) amplitude parameters of the gravitational wave. The multidetector metric is shown to be expressible in terms of noise-weighted averages of single-detector contributions, which implies that the number of templates required to cover the parameter space does not scale with the number of detectors. Contrary to using a longer observation time, combining detectors of similar sensitivity is therefore the computationally cheapest way to improve the sensitivity of coherent wide-parameter searches for continuous gravitational waves. We explicitly compute the F-statistic metric family for signals from isolated spinning neutron stars, and we numerically evaluate the quality of different metric approximations in a Monte Carlo study. The metric predictions are tested against the measured mismatches and we identify regimes in which the local metric is no longer a good description of the parameter-space structure
Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gutierrez Marisa
2015-11-01
Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.
Einstein metrics on tangent bundles of spheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dancer, Andrew S [Jesus College, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3DW (United Kingdom); Strachan, Ian A B [Department of Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)
2002-09-21
We give an elementary treatment of the existence of complete Kaehler-Einstein metrics with nonpositive Einstein constant and underlying manifold diffeomorphic to the tangent bundle of the (n+1)-sphere.
Medicare Contracting - Redacted Benchmark Metric Reports
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has compiled aggregate national benchmark cost and workload metrics using data submitted to CMS by the AB MACs and the...
Metric Guidelines Inservice and/or Preservice
Granito, Dolores
1978-01-01
Guidelines are given for designing teacher training for going metric. The guidelines were developed from existing guidelines, journal articles, a survey of colleges, and the detailed reactions of a panel. (MN)
Variational principles for amenable metric mean dimensions
Chen, Ercai; Dou, Dou; Zheng, Dongmei
2017-01-01
In this paper, we prove variational principles between metric mean dimension and rate distortion function for countable discrete amenable group actions which extend recently results by Lindenstrauss and Tsukamoto.
Science and Technology Metrics and Other Thoughts
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Harman, Wayne; Staton, Robin
2006-01-01
This report explores the subject of science and technology metrics and other topics to begin to provide Navy managers, as well as scientists and engineers, additional tools and concepts with which to...
Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, C.
2011-08-01
Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.
Metrics, Media and Advertisers: Discussing Relationship
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Aurelio de Souza Rodrigues
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This study investigates how Brazilian advertisers are adapting to new media and its attention metrics. In-depth interviews were conducted with advertisers in 2009 and 2011. In 2009, new media and its metrics were celebrated as innovations that would increase advertising campaigns overall efficiency. In 2011, this perception has changed: New media’s profusion of metrics, once seen as an advantage, started to compromise its ease of use and adoption. Among its findings, this study argues that there is an opportunity for media groups willing to shift from a product-focused strategy towards a customer-centric one, through the creation of new, simple and integrative metrics.
Flight Crew State Monitoring Metrics, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — eSky will develop specific crew state metrics based on the timeliness, tempo and accuracy of pilot inputs required by the H-mode Flight Control System (HFCS)....
Performance metrics used by freight transport providers.
2008-09-30
The newly-established National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) has allocated $300,000 in funding to a project entitled Performance Metrics for Freight Transportation (NCFRP 03). The project is scheduled for completion in September ...
New quality metrics for digital image resizing
Kim, Hongseok; Kumara, Soundar
2007-09-01
Digital image rescaling by interpolation has been intensively researched over past decades, and still getting constant attention from many applications such as medical diagnosis, super-resolution, image blow-up, nano-manufacturing, etc. However, there are no consented metrics to objectively assess and compare the quality of resized images. Some existing measures such as peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) or mean-squared error (MSE), widely used in image restoration area, do not always coincide with the opinions from viewers. Enlarged digital images generally suffer from two major artifacts: blurring, zigzagging, and those undesirable effects especially around edges significantly degrade the overall perceptual image quality. We propose two new image quality metrics to measure the degree of the two major defects, and compare several existing interpolation methods using the proposed metrics. We also evaluate the validity of image quality metrics by comparing rank correlations.
Supplier selection using different metric functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omosigho S.E.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important component of supply chain management in today’s global competitive environment. Hence, the evaluation and selection of suppliers have received considerable attention in the literature. Many attributes of suppliers, other than cost, are considered in the evaluation and selection process. Therefore, the process of evaluation and selection of suppliers is a multi-criteria decision making process. The methodology adopted to solve the supplier selection problem is intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution. Generally, TOPSIS is based on the concept of minimum distance from the positive ideal solution and maximum distance from the negative ideal solution. We examine the deficiencies of using only one metric function in TOPSIS and propose the use of spherical metric function in addition to the commonly used metric functions. For empirical supplier selection problems, more than one metric function should be used.
Environmental metrics for community health improvement.
Jakubowski, Benjamin; Frumkin, Howard
2010-07-01
Environmental factors greatly affect human health. Accordingly, environmental metrics are a key part of the community health information base. We review environmental metrics relevant to community health, including measurements of contaminants in environmental media, such as air, water, and food; measurements of contaminants in people (biomonitoring); measurements of features of the built environment that affect health; and measurements of "upstream" environmental conditions relevant to health. We offer a set of metrics (including unhealthy exposures, such as pollutants, and health-promoting assets, such as parks and green space) selected on the basis of relevance to health outcomes, magnitude of associated health outcomes, corroboration in the peer-reviewed literature, and data availability, especially at the community level, and we recommend ways to use these metrics most effectively.
It's All Relative: A Validation of Radiation Quality Comparison Metrics
Chappell, Lori J.; Milder, Caitlin M.; Elgart, S. Robin; Semones, Edward J.
2017-01-01
The difference between high-LET and low-LET radiation is quantified by a measure called relative biological effectiveness (RBE). RBE is defined as the ratio of the dose of a reference radiation to that of a test radiation to achieve the same effect level, and thus, is described either as an iso-effector dose-to-dose ratio. A single dose point is not sufficient to calculate an RBE value; therefore, studies with only one dose point usually calculate an effect-to-effect ratio. While not formally used in radiation protection, these iso-dose values may still be informative. Shuryak, et al 2017 investigated the use of an iso-dose metric termed "radiation effects ratio" (RER) and used both RBE and RER to estimate high-LET risks. To apply RBE or RER to risk prediction, the selected metric must be uniquely defined. That is, the calculated value must be consistent within a model given a constant set of constraints and assumptions, regardless of how effects are defined using statistical transformations from raw endpoint data. We first test the RBE and the RER to determine whether they are uniquely defined using transformations applied to raw data. Then, we test whether both metrics can predict heavy ion response data after simulated effect size scaling between human populations or when converting animal to human endpoints.
New Gromov-Inspired Metrics on Phylogenetic Tree Space.
Liebscher, Volkmar
2018-03-01
We present a new class of metrics for unrooted phylogenetic X-trees inspired by the Gromov-Hausdorff distance for (compact) metric spaces. These metrics can be efficiently computed by linear or quadratic programming. They are robust under NNI operations, too. The local behaviour of the metrics shows that they are different from any previously introduced metrics. The performance of the metrics is briefly analysed on random weighted and unweighted trees as well as random caterpillars.
Target Scattering Metrics: Model-Model and Model Data comparisons
2017-12-13
be suitable for input to classification schemes. The investigated metrics are then applied to model-data comparisons. INTRODUCTION Metrics for...stainless steel replica of artillery shell Table 7. Targets used in the TIER simulations for the metrics study. C. Four Potential Metrics: Four...Four metrics were investigated. The metric, based on 2D cross-correlation, is typically used in classification algorithms. Model-model comparisons
Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Metrics
Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Shine, K. P.; Berntsen, T.; Cook, J.; Lee, D. S.; Stenke, A.; Skeie, R. B.; Velders, G. J. M.; Waitz, I. A.
2010-12-01
The transport sector emits a wide variety of gases and aerosols, with distinctly different characteristics which influence climate directly and indirectly via chemical and physical processes. Tools that allow these emissions to be placed on some kind of common scale in terms of their impact on climate have a number of possible uses such as: in agreements and emission trading schemes; when considering potential trade-offs between changes in emissions resulting from technological or operational developments; and/or for comparing the impact of different environmental impacts of transport activities. Many of the non-CO 2 emissions from the transport sector are short-lived substances, not currently covered by the Kyoto Protocol. There are formidable difficulties in developing metrics and these are particularly acute for such short-lived species. One difficulty concerns the choice of an appropriate structure for the metric (which may depend on, for example, the design of any climate policy it is intended to serve) and the associated value judgements on the appropriate time periods to consider; these choices affect the perception of the relative importance of short- and long-lived species. A second difficulty is the quantification of input parameters (due to underlying uncertainty in atmospheric processes). In addition, for some transport-related emissions, the values of metrics (unlike the gases included in the Kyoto Protocol) depend on where and when the emissions are introduced into the atmosphere - both the regional distribution and, for aircraft, the distribution as a function of altitude, are important. In this assessment of such metrics, we present Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) as these have traditionally been used in the implementation of climate policy. We also present Global Temperature Change Potentials (GTPs) as an alternative metric, as this, or a similar metric may be more appropriate for use in some circumstances. We use radiative forcings and lifetimes
Static and Dynamic Software Quality Metric Tools
Mayo, Kevin A.; Wake, Steven A.; Henry, Sallie M.
1990-01-01
The ability to detect and predict poor software quality is of major importance to software engineers, managers, and quality assurance organizations. Poor software quality leads to increased development costs and expensive maintenance. With so much attention on exacerbated budgetary constraints, a viable alternative is necessary. Software quality metrics are designed for this purpose. Metrics measure aspects of code or PDL representations, and can be collected and used throughout the life ...
Effective dimension in some general metric spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elvira Mayordomo
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We introduce the concept of effective dimension for a general metric space. Effective dimension was defined by Lutz in (Lutz 2003 for Cantor space and has also been extended to Euclidean space. Our extension to other metric spaces is based on a supergale characterization of Hausdorff dimension. We present here the concept of constructive dimension and its characterization in terms of Kolmogorov complexity. Further research directions are indicated.
GRC GSFC TDRSS Waveform Metrics Report
Mortensen, Dale J.
2013-01-01
The report presents software metrics and porting metrics for the GGT Waveform. The porting was from a ground-based COTS SDR, the SDR-3000, to the CoNNeCT JPL SDR. The report does not address any of the Operating Environment (OE) software development, nor the original TDRSS waveform development at GSFC for the COTS SDR. With regard to STRS, the report presents compliance data and lessons learned.
Autonomous Exploration Using an Information Gain Metric
2016-03-01
navigation goals, serving to drive an autonomous system. By continually moving to these navigation goals and taking measurements, the system works to...ARL-TR-7638 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Autonomous Exploration Using an Information Gain Metric by Nicholas C Fung...Laboratory Autonomous Exploration Using an Information Gain Metric by Nicholas C Fung, Jason M Gregory, and John G Rogers Computational and
A Laplacian on Metric Measure Spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby
2006-01-01
We introduce a Laplacian on a class of metric measure spaces via a direct pointwise mean value definition. Fundamental properties of this Laplacian, such as its symmetry as an operator on functions satisfying a Neumann or Dirichlet condition, are established.......We introduce a Laplacian on a class of metric measure spaces via a direct pointwise mean value definition. Fundamental properties of this Laplacian, such as its symmetry as an operator on functions satisfying a Neumann or Dirichlet condition, are established....
Engineering Design Handbook. Metric Conversion Guide
1976-07-01
metre /second (m3/ s ) WORK (SEE ENERGY) 5-40 OARCOM-P 706-470 TABLE 5-3 EXPERIMENTALLY DETERMINED CONSTANTS Avogadro constant, N. Bohr...result of international economic and political situations, the metric question was not seriously considered until the 1950’ s . Then, the opening of... Law 90-472 authorizing the Department of Commerce to conduct the United States Metric Study was passed by Congress. 1975: The Deputy Secretary of
Area Regge calculus and discontinuous metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wainwright, Chris; Williams, Ruth M
2004-01-01
Taking the triangle areas as independent variables in the theory of Regge calculus can lead to ambiguities in the edge lengths, which can be interpreted as discontinuities in the metric. We construct solutions to area Regge calculus using a triangulated lattice and find that on a spacelike or timelike hypersurface no such discontinuity can arise. On a null hypersurface however, we can have such a situation and the resulting metric can be interpreted as a so-called refractive wave
Some observations on a fuzzy metric space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gregori, V.
2017-07-01
Let $(X,d)$ be a metric space. In this paper we provide some observations about the fuzzy metric space in the sense of Kramosil and Michalek $(Y,N,/wedge)$, where $Y$ is the set of non-negative real numbers $[0,/infty[$ and $N(x,y,t)=1$ if $d(x,y)/leq t$ and $N(x,y,t)=0$ if $d(x,y)/geq t$. (Author)
Node self-connections in network metrics.
Saura, Santiago
2018-02-01
Zamborain-Mason et al. (Ecol. Lett., 20, 2017, 815-831) state that they have newly proposed network metrics that account for node self-connections. Network metrics incorporating node self-connections, also referred to as intranode (intrapatch) connectivity, were however already proposed before and have been widely used in a variety of conservation planning applications. © 2017 The Author. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Relaxed metrics and indistinguishability operators: the relationship
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, J.
2017-07-01
In 1982, the notion of indistinguishability operator was introduced by E. Trillas in order to fuzzify the crisp notion of equivalence relation (/cite{Trillas}). In the study of such a class of operators, an outstanding property must be pointed out. Concretely, there exists a duality relationship between indistinguishability operators and metrics. The aforesaid relationship was deeply studied by several authors that introduced a few techniques to generate metrics from indistinguishability operators and vice-versa (see, for instance, /cite{BaetsMesiar,BaetsMesiar2}). In the last years a new generalization of the metric notion has been introduced in the literature with the purpose of developing mathematical tools for quantitative models in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence (/cite{BKMatthews,Ma}). The aforementioned generalized metrics are known as relaxed metrics. The main target of this talk is to present a study of the duality relationship between indistinguishability operators and relaxed metrics in such a way that the aforementioned classical techniques to generate both concepts, one from the other, can be extended to the new framework. (Author)
Peano compactifications and property S metric spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. F. Dickman
1980-01-01
Full Text Available Let (X,d denote a locally connected, connected separable metric space. We say the X is S-metrizable provided there is a topologically equivalent metric ρ on X such that (X,ρ has Property S, i.e. for any ϵ>0, X is the union of finitely many connected sets of ρ-diameter less than ϵ. It is well-known that S-metrizable spaces are locally connected and that if ρ is a Property S metric for X, then the usual metric completion (X˜,ρ˜ of (X,ρ is a compact, locally connected, connected metric space, i.e. (X˜,ρ˜ is a Peano compactification of (X,ρ. There are easily constructed examples of locally connected connected metric spaces which fail to be S-metrizable, however the author does not know of a non-S-metrizable space (X,d which has a Peano compactification. In this paper we conjecture that: If (P,ρ a Peano compactification of (X,ρ|X, X must be S-metrizable. Several (new necessary and sufficient for a space to be S-metrizable are given, together with an example of non-S-metrizable space which fails to have a Peano compactification.
Almost convex metrics and Peano compactifications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. F. Dickman
1982-01-01
Full Text Available Let (X,d denote a locally connected, connected separable metric space. We say the X is S-metrizable provided there is a topologically equivalent metric ρ on X such that (X,ρ has Property S, i.e., for any ϵ>0, X is the union of finitely many connected sets of ρ-diameter less than ϵ. It is well-known that S-metrizable spaces are locally connected and that if ρ is a Property S metric for X, then the usual metric completion (X˜,ρ˜ of (X,ρ is a compact, locally connected, connected metric space; i.e., (X˜,ρ˜ is a Peano compactification of (X,ρ. In an earlier paper, the author conjectured that if a space (X,d has a Peano compactification, then it must be S-metrizable. In this paper, that conjecture is shown to be false; however, the connected spaces which have Peano compactificatons are shown to be exactly those having a totally bounded, almost convex metric. Several related results are given.
Metrics for Offline Evaluation of Prognostic Performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sankalita Saha
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Prognostic performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years.Currently, prognostics concepts lack standard definitions and suffer from ambiguous and inconsistent interpretations. This lack of standards is in part due to the varied end-user requirements for different applications, time scales, available information, domain dynamics, etc. to name a few. The research community has used a variety of metrics largely based on convenience and their respective requirements. Very little attention has been focused on establishing a standardized approach to compare different efforts. This paper presents several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics that were recently introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. These metrics have the capability of incorporating probabilistic uncertainty estimates from prognostic algorithms. In addition to quantitative assessment they also offer a comprehensive visual perspective that can be used in designing the prognostic system. Several methods are suggested to customize these metrics for different applications. Guidelines are provided to help choose one method over another based on distribution characteristics. Various issues faced by prognostics and its performance evaluation are discussed followed by a formal notational framework to help standardize subsequent developments.
48 CFR 611.002-70 - Metric system implementation.
2010-10-01
... of measurement sensitive processes and systems to the metric system. Soft metric means the result of... with security, operations, economic, technical, logistical, training and safety requirements. (3) The...
Distance metric learning using random forest for cytometry data.
Pouyan, M Baran; Birjandtalab, J; Nourani, M
2016-08-01
Visualization and clustering of single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) data are analytic techniques to identify different cell types. Most of such techniques, such as Euclidean norm, lose their effectiveness when the data dimension increases due to the curse of dimensionality. In this paper, we propose a new cell distance (called CytoRFD) that works based on Random Forest (RF) concept. The experimental results show that the proposed distance can achieve a much higher quality and effectiveness in large data analysis than traditional metrics specially for CyTOF data.
Baby universe metric equivalent to an interior black-hole metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.
1991-01-01
It is shown that the maximally extended metric corresponding to a large wormhole is the unique possible wormhole metric whose baby universe sector is conformally equivalent ot the maximal inextendible Kruskal metric corresponding to the interior region of a Schwarzschild black hole whose gravitational radius is half the wormhole neck radius. The physical implications of this result in the black hole evaporation process are discussed. (orig.)
Shortest Paths in Multiplex Networks.
Ghariblou, Saeed; Salehi, Mostafa; Magnani, Matteo; Jalili, Mahdi
2017-05-12
The shortest path problem is one of the most fundamental networks optimization problems. Nowadays, individuals interact in extraordinarily numerous ways through their offline and online life (e.g., co-authorship, co-workership, or retweet relation in Twitter). These interactions have two key features. First, they have a heterogeneous nature, and second, they have different strengths that are weighted based on their degree of intimacy, trustworthiness, service exchange or influence among individuals. These networks are known as multiplex networks. To our knowledge, none of the previous shortest path definitions on social interactions have properly reflected these features. In this work, we introduce a new distance measure in multiplex networks based on the concept of Pareto efficiency taking both heterogeneity and weighted nature of relations into account. We then model the problem of finding the whole set of paths as a form of multiple objective decision making and propose an exact algorithm for that. The method is evaluated on five real-world datasets to test the impact of considering weights and multiplexity in the resulting shortest paths. As an application to find the most influential nodes, we redefine the concept of betweenness centrality based on the proposed shortest paths and evaluate it on a real-world dataset from two-layer trade relation among countries between years 2000 and 2015.
Transport Mean Free Path for Magneto-Transverse Light Diffusion
Lacoste, D.; van Tiggelen, B. A.
1998-01-01
We derive an expression for the transport mean free path $\\ell^*_\\perp$ associated with magneto-transverse light diffusion for a random collection of Faraday-active Mie scatterers. This expression relates the magneto-transverse diffusion in multiple scattering directly to the magneto-transverse scattering of a single scatterer.
Sensory feedback in a bump attractor model of path integration.
Poll, Daniel B; Nguyen, Khanh; Kilpatrick, Zachary P
2016-04-01
Mammalian spatial navigation systems utilize several different sensory information channels. This information is converted into a neural code that represents the animal's current position in space by engaging place cell, grid cell, and head direction cell networks. In particular, sensory landmark (allothetic) cues can be utilized in concert with an animal's knowledge of its own velocity (idiothetic) cues to generate a more accurate representation of position than path integration provides on its own (Battaglia et al. The Journal of Neuroscience 24(19):4541-4550 (2004)). We develop a computational model that merges path integration with feedback from external sensory cues that provide a reliable representation of spatial position along an annular track. Starting with a continuous bump attractor model, we explore the impact of synaptic spatial asymmetry and heterogeneity, which disrupt the position code of the path integration process. We use asymptotic analysis to reduce the bump attractor model to a single scalar equation whose potential represents the impact of asymmetry and heterogeneity. Such imperfections cause errors to build up when the network performs path integration, but these errors can be corrected by an external control signal representing the effects of sensory cues. We demonstrate that there is an optimal strength and decay rate of the control signal when cues appear either periodically or randomly. A similar analysis is performed when errors in path integration arise from dynamic noise fluctuations. Again, there is an optimal strength and decay of discrete control that minimizes the path integration error.
An Ionospheric Metric Study Using Operational Models
Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Thompson, D. C.; Scherliess, L.; Harris, T. J.
2006-12-01
One of the outstanding challenges in upgrading ionospheric operational models is quantifying their improvement. This challenge is not necessarily an absolute accuracy one, but rather answering the question, "Is the newest operational model an improvement over its predecessor under operational scenarios?" There are few documented cases where ionospheric models are compared either with each other or against "ground truth". For example a CEDAR workshop team, PRIMO, spent almost a decade carrying out a models comparison with ionosonde and incoherent scatter radar measurements from the Millstone Hill, Massachusetts location [Anderson et al.,1998]. The result of this study was that all models were different and specific conditions could be found when each was the "best" model. Similarly, a National Space Weather Metrics ionospheric challenge was held and results were presented at a National Space Weather meeting. The results were again found to be open to interpretation, and issues with the value of the specific metrics were raised (Fuller-Rowell, private communication, 2003). Hence, unlike the tropospheric weather community, who have established metrics and exercised them on new models over many decades to quantify improvement, the ionospheric community has not yet settled on a metric of both scientific and operational value. We report on a study in which metrics were used to compare various forms of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Ionospheric Forecast Model (IFM), and the Utah State University Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements Model (USU-GAIM) models. The ground truth for this study was a group of 11 ionosonde data sets taken between 20 March and 19 April 2004. The metric parameter was the ionosphere's critical frequency. The metric was referenced to the IRI. Hence, the study addressed the specific question what improvement does IFM and USU-GAIM have over IRI. Both strengths (improvements) and weaknesses of these models are discussed
The dynamics of metric-affine gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Liberati, Stefano
2011-01-01
Highlights: → The role and the dynamics of the connection in metric-affine theories is explored. → The most general second order action does not lead to a dynamical connection. → Including higher order invariants excites new degrees of freedom in the connection. → f(R) actions are also discussed and shown to be a non- representative class. - Abstract: Metric-affine theories of gravity provide an interesting alternative to general relativity: in such an approach, the metric and the affine (not necessarily symmetric) connection are independent quantities. Furthermore, the action should include covariant derivatives of the matter fields, with the covariant derivative naturally defined using the independent connection. As a result, in metric-affine theories a direct coupling involving matter and connection is also present. The role and the dynamics of the connection in such theories is explored. We employ power counting in order to construct the action and search for the minimal requirements it should satisfy for the connection to be dynamical. We find that for the most general action containing lower order invariants of the curvature and the torsion the independent connection does not carry any dynamics. It actually reduces to the role of an auxiliary field and can be completely eliminated algebraically in favour of the metric and the matter field, introducing extra interactions with respect to general relativity. However, we also show that including higher order terms in the action radically changes this picture and excites new degrees of freedom in the connection, making it (or parts of it) dynamical. Constructing actions that constitute exceptions to this rule requires significant fine tuned and/or extra a priori constraints on the connection. We also consider f(R) actions as a particular example in order to show that they constitute a distinct class of metric-affine theories with special properties, and as such they cannot be used as representative toy
Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louko, J
2005-01-01
Jean Zinn-Justin's textbook Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics aims to familiarize the reader with the path integral as a calculational tool in quantum mechanics and field theory. The emphasis is on quantum statistical mechanics, starting with the partition function Tr exp(-β H) and proceeding through the diffusion equation to barrier penetration problems and their semiclassical limit. The 'real time' path integral is defined via analytic continuation and used for the path-integral representation of the nonrelativistic S-matrix and its perturbative expansion. Holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals are introduced and applied to nonrelativistic quantum field theory. There is also a brief discussion of path integrals in phase space. The introduction includes a brief historical review of path integrals, supported by a bibliography with some 40 entries. As emphasized in the introduction, mathematical rigour is not a central issue in the book. This allows the text to present the calculational techniques in a very readable manner: much of the text consists of worked-out examples, such as the quartic anharmonic oscillator in the barrier penetration chapter. At the end of each chapter there are exercises, some of which are of elementary coursework type, but the majority are more in the style of extended examples. Most of the exercises indeed include the solution or a sketch thereof. The book assumes minimal previous knowledge of quantum mechanics, and some basic quantum mechanical notation is collected in an appendix. The material has a large overlap with selected chapters in the author's thousand-page textbook Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena (2002 Oxford: Clarendon). The stand-alone scope of the present work has, however, allowed a more focussed organization of this material, especially in the chapters on, respectively, holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals. In my view the book accomplishes its aim admirably and is eminently usable as a textbook
A Neighborhood Wealth Metric for Use in Health Studies
Moudon, Anne Vernez; Cook, Andrea J.; Ulmer, Jared; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Drewnowski, Adam
2011-01-01
Background Measures of neighborhood deprivation used in health research are typically based on conventional area-based SES. Purpose The aim of this study is to examine new data and measures of SES for use in health research. Specifically, assessed property values are introduced as a new individual-level metric of wealth and tested for their ability to substitute for conventional area-based SES as measures of neighborhood deprivation. Methods The analysis was conducted in 2010 using data from 1922 participants in the 2008– 2009 survey of the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS). It compared the relative strength of the association between the individual-level neighborhood wealth metric (assessed property values) and area-level SES measures (including education, income, and percentage above poverty as single variables, and as the composite Singh index) on the binary outcome fair/poor general health status. Analyses were adjusted for gender, categoric age, race, employment status, home ownership, and household income. Results The neighborhood wealth measure was more predictive of fair/poor health status than area-level SES measures, calculated either as single variables or as indices (lower DIC measures for all models). The odds of having a fair/poor health status decreased by 0.85 [0.77, 0.93] per $50,000 increase in neighborhood property values after adjusting for individual-level SES measures. Conclusions The proposed individual-level metric of neighborhood wealth, if replicated in other areas, could replace area-based SES measures, thus simplifying analyses of contextual effects on health. PMID:21665069
Biomechanical metrics of aesthetic perception in dance.
Bronner, Shaw; Shippen, James
2015-12-01
The brain may be tuned to evaluate aesthetic perception through perceptual chunking when we observe the grace of the dancer. We modelled biomechanical metrics to explain biological determinants of aesthetic perception in dance. Eighteen expert (EXP) and intermediate (INT) dancers performed développé arabesque in three conditions: (1) slow tempo, (2) slow tempo with relevé, and (3) fast tempo. To compare biomechanical metrics of kinematic data, we calculated intra-excursion variability, principal component analysis (PCA), and dimensionless jerk for the gesture limb. Observers, all trained dancers, viewed motion capture stick figures of the trials and ranked each for aesthetic (1) proficiency and (2) movement smoothness. Statistical analyses included group by condition repeated-measures ANOVA for metric data; Mann-Whitney U rank and Friedman's rank tests for nonparametric rank data; Spearman's rho correlations to compare aesthetic rankings and metrics; and linear regression to examine which metric best quantified observers' aesthetic rankings, p dance movements revealed differences between groups and condition, p brain combines sensory motor elements into integrated units of behaviour. In this representation, the chunk of information which is remembered, and to which the observer reacts, is the elemental mode shape of the motion rather than physical displacements. This suggests that reduction in redundant information to a simplistic dimensionality is related to the experienced observer's aesthetic perception.
Pragmatic Metrics for Monitoring Science Data Centers
Moses, J. F.; Behnke, J.
2003-12-01
Science data metrics and their analysis are critical components to the end-to-end data and service flow for science data centers. The Earth Science Data and Information System Project has collected records of EOS science data archive, processing and distribution metrics from NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers since 1996. The ESDIS Science Operations Office and the DAAC data centers have cooperated to develop a DAAC metrics reporting capability called the EOSDIS Data Gathering and Reporting Systems (EDGRS). This poster illustrates EDGRS processes and metrics data applications. EDGRS currently accesses detailed archive and distribution metrics from nine DAAC sites and transfers results to a centralized collection system on a routine basis. After automated quality checks the records are immediately made available through a web-based Graphic User Interface. Users can obtain standard graphs and prepare custom queries to generate specific reports for monitoring science data processing progress. Applications are illustrated that explore methods for performing data availability studies and performance analyses. Improvements are planned to support granule-level science data accounting and characterization of product distribution.
Future of the PCI Readmission Metric.
Wasfy, Jason H; Yeh, Robert W
2016-03-01
Between 2013 and 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the National Cardiovascular Data Registry publically reported risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a pilot project. A key strength of this public reporting effort included risk adjustment with clinical rather than administrative data. Furthermore, because readmission after PCI is common, expensive, and preventable, this metric has substantial potential to improve quality and value in American cardiology care. Despite this, concerns about the metric exist. For example, few PCI readmissions are caused by procedural complications, limiting the extent to which improved procedural technique can reduce readmissions. Also, similar to other readmission measures, PCI readmission is associated with socioeconomic status and race. Accordingly, the metric may unfairly penalize hospitals that care for underserved patients. Perhaps in the context of these limitations, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has not yet included PCI readmission among metrics that determine Medicare financial penalties. Nevertheless, provider organizations may still wish to focus on this metric to improve value for cardiology patients. PCI readmission is associated with low-risk chest discomfort and patient anxiety. Therefore, patient education, improved triage mechanisms, and improved care coordination offer opportunities to minimize PCI readmissions. Because PCI readmission is common and costly, reducing PCI readmission offers provider organizations a compelling target to improve the quality of care, and also performance in contracts involve shared financial risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Exploring model-based target discrimination metrics
Witus, Gary; Weathersby, Marshall
2004-08-01
Visual target discrimination has occurred when the observer can say "I see a target THERE!" and can designate the target location. Target discrimination occurs when a perceived shape is sufficiently similar one or more of the instances the observer has been trained on. Marr defined vision as "knowing what is where by seeing." Knowing "what" requires prior knowledge. Target discrimination requires model-based visual processing. Model-based signature metrics attempt to answer the question "to what extent does the target in the image resemble a training image?" Model-based signature metrics attempt to represent the effects of high-level top-down visual cognition, in addition to low-level bottom-up effects. Recent advances in realistic 3D target rendering and computer-vision object recognition have made model-based signature metrics more practical. The human visual system almost certainly does NOT use the same processing algorithms as computer vision object recognition, but some processing elements and the overall effects are similar. It remains to be determined whether model-based metrics explain the variance in human performance. The purpose of this paper is to explain and illustrate the model-based approach to signature metrics.
NASA education briefs for the classroom. Metrics in space
1982-01-01
The use of metric measurement in space is summarized for classroom use. Advantages of the metric system over the English measurement system are described. Some common metric units are defined, as are special units for astronomical study. International system unit prefixes and a conversion table of metric/English units are presented. Questions and activities for the classroom are recommended.
Codes in W*-Metric Spaces: Theory and Examples
Bumgardner, Christopher J.
2011-01-01
We introduce a "W*"-metric space, which is a particular approach to non-commutative metric spaces where a "quantum metric" is defined on a von Neumann algebra. We generalize the notion of a quantum code and quantum error correction to the setting of finite dimensional "W*"-metric spaces, which includes codes and error correction for classical…
On Convergence of Fixed Points in Fuzzy Metric Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghong Shen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We mainly focus on the convergence of the sequence of fixed points for some different sequences of contraction mappings or fuzzy metrics in fuzzy metric spaces. Our results provide a novel research direction for fixed point theory in fuzzy metric spaces as well as a substantial extension of several important results from classical metric spaces.
Tunable n-path notch filters for blocker suppression: modeling and verification
Ghaffari, A.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram
2013-01-01
N-path switched-RC circuits can realize filters with very high linearity and compression point while they are tunable by a clock frequency. In this paper, both differential and single-ended N-path notch filters are modeled and analyzed. Closed-form equations provide design equations for the main
Rainbow paths with prescribed ends
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alishahi, Meysam; Taherkhani, Ali; Thomassen, Carsten
2011-01-01
It was conjectured in [S. Akbari, F. Khaghanpoor, and S. Moazzeni. Colorful paths in vertex coloring of graphs. Preprint] that, if G is a connected graph distinct from C-7, then there is a chi(G)-coloring of G in which every vertex v is an element of V(G) is an initial vertex of a path P with chi......(G) vertices whose colors are different. In[S. Akbari, V. Liaghat, and A. Nikzad. Colorful paths in vertex coloring of graphs. Electron. J. Combin. 18(1):P17, 9pp, 2011] this was proved with left perpendicular chi(G)/2right perpendicular vertices instead of chi(G) vertices. We strengthen this to chi(G) - 1...... finite, and has finite chromatic number, then the k-coloring exists for every k >= chi(G). In fact, the k-coloring can be chosen such that every vertex is a starting vertex of an infinite path such that the color increases by 1 (mod k) along each edge. The method is based on the circular chromatic number...
Rotational error in path integration: encoding and execution errors in angle reproduction.
Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Warren, William H
2017-06-01
Path integration is fundamental to human navigation. When a navigator leaves home on a complex outbound path, they are able to keep track of their approximate position and orientation and return to their starting location on a direct homebound path. However, there are several sources of error during path integration. Previous research has focused almost exclusively on encoding error-the error in registering the outbound path in memory. Here, we also consider execution error-the error in the response, such as turning and walking a homebound trajectory. In two experiments conducted in ambulatory virtual environments, we examined the contribution of execution error to the rotational component of path integration using angle reproduction tasks. In the reproduction tasks, participants rotated once and then rotated again to face the original direction, either reproducing the initial turn or turning through the supplementary angle. One outstanding difficulty in disentangling encoding and execution error during a typical angle reproduction task is that as the encoding angle increases, so does the required response angle. In Experiment 1, we dissociated these two variables by asking participants to report each encoding angle using two different responses: by turning to walk on a path parallel to the initial facing direction in the same (reproduction) or opposite (supplementary angle) direction. In Experiment 2, participants reported the encoding angle by turning both rightward and leftward onto a path parallel to the initial facing direction, over a larger range of angles. The results suggest that execution error, not encoding error, is the predominant source of error in angular path integration. These findings also imply that the path integrator uses an intrinsic (action-scaled) rather than an extrinsic (objective) metric.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vandewouw, Marlee M.; Aleman, Dionne M.; Jaffray, David A.
2016-01-01
Purpose: Continuous dose delivery in radiation therapy treatments has been shown to decrease total treatment time while improving the dose conformity and distribution homogeneity over the conventional step-and-shoot approach. The authors develop an inverse treatment planning method for Gamma Knife® Perfexion™ that continuously delivers dose along a path in the target. Methods: The authors’ method is comprised of two steps: find a path within the target, then solve a mixed integer optimization model to find the optimal collimator configurations and durations along the selected path. Robotic path-finding techniques, specifically, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) using an extended Kalman filter, are used to obtain a path that travels sufficiently close to selected isocentre locations. SLAM is novelly extended to explore a 3D, discrete environment, which is the target discretized into voxels. Further novel extensions are incorporated into the steering mechanism to account for target geometry. Results: The SLAM method was tested on seven clinical cases and compared to clinical, Hamiltonian path continuous delivery, and inverse step-and-shoot treatment plans. The SLAM approach improved dose metrics compared to the clinical plans and Hamiltonian path continuous delivery plans. Beam-on times improved over clinical plans, and had mixed performance compared to Hamiltonian path continuous plans. The SLAM method is also shown to be robust to path selection inaccuracies, isocentre selection, and dose distribution. Conclusions: The SLAM method for continuous delivery provides decreased total treatment time and increased treatment quality compared to both clinical and inverse step-and-shoot plans, and outperforms existing path methods in treatment quality. It also accounts for uncertainty in treatment planning by accommodating inaccuracies.
Rainbow Rindler metric and Unruh effect
Yadav, Gaurav; Komal, Baby; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2017-11-01
The energy of a particle moving on a space-time, in principle, can affect the background metric. The modifications to it depend on the ratio of energy of the particle and the Planck energy, known as rainbow gravity. Here, we find the explicit expressions for the coordinate transformations from rainbow Minkowski space-time to accelerated frame. The corresponding metric is also obtained which we call as rainbow Rindler metric. So far we are aware of that no body has done it in a concrete manner. Here, this is found from the first principle and hence all the parameters are properly identified. The advantage of this is that the calculated Unruh temperature is compatible with the Hawking temperature of the rainbow black hole horizon, obtained earlier. Since the accelerated frame has several importance in revealing various properties of gravity, we believe that the present result will not only fill that gap, but also help to explore different aspects of rainbow gravity paradigm.
SOCIAL METRICS APPLIED TO SMART TOURISM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Cervantes
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We present a strategy to make productive use of semantically-related social data, from a user-centered semantic network, in order to help users (tourists and citizens in general to discover cultural heritage, points of interest and available services in a smart city. This data can be used to personalize recommendations in a smart tourism application. Our approach is based on flow centrality metrics typically used in social network analysis: flow betweenness, flow closeness and eccentricity. These metrics are useful to discover relevant nodes within the network yielding nodes that can be interpreted as suggestions (venues or services to users. We describe the semantic network built on graph model, as well as social metrics algorithms used to produce recommendations. We also present challenges and results from a prototypical implementation applied to the case study of the City of Puebla, Mexico.
The conformal metric structure of Geometrothermodynamics
Bravetti, Alessandro; Lopez-Monsalvo, Cesar S.; Nettel, Francisco; Quevedo, Hernando
2013-03-01
We present a thorough analysis on the invariance of the most widely used metrics in the Geometrothermodynamics programme. We centre our attention in the invariance of the curvature of the space of equilibrium states under a change of fundamental representation. Assuming that the systems under consideration can be described by a fundamental relation which is a homogeneous function of a definite order, we demonstrate that such invariance is only compatible with total Legendre transformations in the present form of the programme. We give the explicit form of a metric which is invariant under total Legendre transformations and whose induced metric produces a curvature which is independent of the fundamental representation. Finally, we study a generic system with two degrees of freedom and whose fundamental relation is homogeneous of order one.
Steiner trees for fixed orientation metrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brazil, Marcus; Zachariasen, Martin
2009-01-01
We consider the problem of constructing Steiner minimum trees for a metric defined by a polygonal unit circle (corresponding to s = 2 weighted legal orientations in the plane). A linear-time algorithm to enumerate all angle configurations for degree three Steiner points is given. We provide...... a simple proof that the angle configuration for a Steiner point extends to all Steiner points in a full Steiner minimum tree, such that at most six orientations suffice for edges in a full Steiner minimum tree. We show that the concept of canonical forms originally introduced for the uniform orientation...... metric generalises to the fixed orientation metric. Finally, we give an O(s n) time algorithm to compute a Steiner minimum tree for a given full Steiner topology with n terminal leaves....
A bi-metric theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, N.
1975-01-01
The bi-metric theory of gravitation proposed previously is simplified in that the auxiliary conditions are discarded, the two metric tensors being tied together only by means of the boundary conditions. Some of the properties of the field of a particle are investigated; there is no black hole, and it appears that no gravitational collapse can take place. Although the proposed theory and general relativity are at present observationally indistinguishable, some differences are pointed out which may some day be susceptible of observation. An alternative bi-metric theory is considered which gives for the precession of the perihelion 5/6 of the value given by general relativity; it seems less satisfactory than the present theory from the aesthetic point of view. (author)
Metric Learning for Hyperspectral Image Segmentation
Bue, Brian D.; Thompson, David R.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Castano, Rebecca
2011-01-01
We present a metric learning approach to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. Unsupervised spatial segmentation can assist both user visualization and automatic recognition of surface features. Analysts can use spatially-continuous segments to decrease noise levels and/or localize feature boundaries. However, existing segmentation methods use tasks-agnostic measures of similarity. Here we learn task-specific similarity measures from training data, improving segment fidelity to classes of interest. Multiclass Linear Discriminate Analysis produces a linear transform that optimally separates a labeled set of training classes. The defines a distance metric that generalized to a new scenes, enabling graph-based segmentation that emphasizes key spectral features. We describe tests based on data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) in which learned metrics improve segment homogeneity with respect to mineralogical classes.
Social Metrics Applied to Smart Tourism
Cervantes, O.; Gutiérrez, E.; Gutiérrez, F.; Sánchez, J. A.
2016-09-01
We present a strategy to make productive use of semantically-related social data, from a user-centered semantic network, in order to help users (tourists and citizens in general) to discover cultural heritage, points of interest and available services in a smart city. This data can be used to personalize recommendations in a smart tourism application. Our approach is based on flow centrality metrics typically used in social network analysis: flow betweenness, flow closeness and eccentricity. These metrics are useful to discover relevant nodes within the network yielding nodes that can be interpreted as suggestions (venues or services) to users. We describe the semantic network built on graph model, as well as social metrics algorithms used to produce recommendations. We also present challenges and results from a prototypical implementation applied to the case study of the City of Puebla, Mexico.
Metrical and dynamical aspects in complex analysis
2017-01-01
The central theme of this reference book is the metric geometry of complex analysis in several variables. Bridging a gap in the current literature, the text focuses on the fine behavior of the Kobayashi metric of complex manifolds and its relationships to dynamical systems, hyperbolicity in the sense of Gromov and operator theory, all very active areas of research. The modern points of view expressed in these notes, collected here for the first time, will be of interest to academics working in the fields of several complex variables and metric geometry. The different topics are treated coherently and include expository presentations of the relevant tools, techniques and objects, which will be particularly useful for graduate and PhD students specializing in the area.
Entropic sampling in the path integral Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorontsov-Velyaminov, P N; Lyubartsev, A P
2003-01-01
We have extended the entropic sampling Monte Carlo method to the case of path integral representation of a quantum system. A two-dimensional density of states is introduced into path integral form of the quantum canonical partition function. Entropic sampling technique within the algorithm suggested recently by Wang and Landau (Wang F and Landau D P 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 2050) is then applied to calculate the corresponding entropy distribution. A three-dimensional quantum oscillator is considered as an example. Canonical distributions for a wide range of temperatures are obtained in a single simulation run, and exact data for the energy are reproduced
Robustness Metrics: Consolidating the multiple approaches to quantify Robustness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Göhler, Simon Moritz; Eifler, Tobias; Howard, Thomas J.
2016-01-01
determined to be conceptually different from one another. The metrics were classified by their meaning and interpretation based on the types of information necessary to calculate the metrics. Four different classes were identified: 1) Sensitivity robustness metrics; 2) Size of feasible design space......, this ambiguity can have significant influence on the strategies used to combat variability, the way it is quantified and ultimately, the quality of the final design. In this contribution the literature for robustness metrics was systematically reviewed. From the 108 relevant publications found, 38 metrics were...... robustness metrics; 3) Functional expectancy and dispersion robustness metrics; and 4) Probability of conformance robustness metrics. The goal was to give a comprehensive overview of robustness metrics and guidance to scholars and practitioners to understand the different types of robustness metrics...
Jin, Shouguang; Mase, Kenichi
In this paper, we propose a novel Hidden-terminal and Exposed-terminal Interference aware routing metric (HEI-ETT) for Multi-Radio and Multi-Rate wireless mesh networks in which each stationary mesh node is equipped with multi-radio interfaces that relays traffic to the extend networks by using multi-hop transmissions. We have two main design goals for HEI-ETT. First, we will characterize interferences as Hidden-terminal Interference and Exposed-terminal Interference regardless of inter- or intra-flow interference and should take into account both interference effects while computing the path metric. Second, an efficient transmission rate adaptation should be employed in HEI-ETT to enhance the network throughput. We incorporated our metric in well known Optimized Link State Routing protocol version 2 (OLSRv2) which is one of the two standard routing protocols for MANETs and evaluated the performance of our metric by simulation. The results show that our metric outperforms existing metrics such as ETX, ETT and WCETT.
A consistent conceptual framework for applying climate metrics in technology life cycle assessment
Mallapragada, Dharik; Mignone, Bryan K.
2017-07-01
Comparing the potential climate impacts of different technologies is challenging for several reasons, including the fact that any given technology may be associated with emissions of multiple greenhouse gases when evaluated on a life cycle basis. In general, analysts must decide how to aggregate the climatic effects of different technologies, taking into account differences in the properties of the gases (differences in atmospheric lifetimes and instantaneous radiative efficiencies) as well as different technology characteristics (differences in emission factors and technology lifetimes). Available metrics proposed in the literature have incorporated these features in different ways and have arrived at different conclusions. In this paper, we develop a general framework for classifying metrics based on whether they measure: (a) cumulative or end point impacts, (b) impacts over a fixed time horizon or up to a fixed end year, and (c) impacts from a single emissions pulse or from a stream of pulses over multiple years. We then use the comparison between compressed natural gas and gasoline-fueled vehicles to illustrate how the choice of metric can affect conclusions about technologies. Finally, we consider tradeoffs involved in selecting a metric, show how the choice of metric depends on the framework that is assumed for climate change mitigation, and suggest which subset of metrics are likely to be most analytically self-consistent.
Separability and Killing tensors in Kerr-Taub-NUT-de Sitter metrics in higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chong, Z.-W.; Gibbons, G.W.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.
2005-01-01
A generalisation of the four-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter metrics to include a NUT charge is well known, and is included within a class of metrics obtained by Plebanski. In this Letter, we study a related class of Kerr-Taub-NUT-de Sitter metrics in arbitrary dimensions D>=6, which contain three non-trivial continuous parameters, namely the mass, the NUT charge, and a (single) angular momentum. We demonstrate the separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and wave equations, we construct a closely-related rank-2 Stackel-Killing tensor, and we show how the metrics can be written in a double Kerr-Schild form. Our results encompass the case of the Kerr-de Sitter metrics in arbitrary dimension, with all but one rotation parameter vanishing. Finally, we consider the real Euclidean-signature continuations of the metrics, and show how in a limit they give rise to certain recently-obtained complete non-singular compact Einstein manifolds
Learning Global-Local Distance Metrics for Signature-Based Biometric Cryptosystems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George S. Eskander Ekladious
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Biometric traits, such as fingerprints, faces and signatures have been employed in bio-cryptosystems to secure cryptographic keys within digital security schemes. Reliable implementations of these systems employ error correction codes formulated as simple distance thresholds, although they may not effectively model the complex variability of behavioral biometrics like signatures. In this paper, a Global-Local Distance Metric (GLDM framework is proposed to learn cost-effective distance metrics, which reduce within-class variability and augment between-class variability, so that simple error correction thresholds of bio-cryptosystems provide high classification accuracy. First, a large number of samples from a development dataset are used to train a global distance metric that differentiates within-class from between-class samples of the population. Then, once user-specific samples are available for enrollment, the global metric is tuned to a local user-specific one. Proof-of-concept experiments on two reference offline signature databases confirm the viability of the proposed approach. Distance metrics are produced based on concise signature representations consisting of about 20 features and a single prototype. A signature-based bio-cryptosystem is designed using the produced metrics and has shown average classification error rates of about 7% and 17% for the PUCPR and the GPDS-300 databases, respectively. This level of performance is comparable to that obtained with complex state-of-the-art classifiers.
On metric divergences of probability measures
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vajda, Igor
2009-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 6 (2009), s. 885-900 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/07/1131 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Metric divergences * Hellinger divergence * Le Cam divergence * Jensen-Shannon divergence * Total variation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/vajda-on metric divergences of probability measures.pdf
Federal Procurement Metrication Appropriateness and Methods.
1982-09-18
8217D-R123 243 FEDERAL PROCUREMENT NETRICATION AiPPROPRIATENESS AND- i/i METHODS(U) SCIENCE MANAGEMENT CORP UASHINGTON DC M A COELLA 18 SEP 82 NRC-358i... Science Management Corporation FEDERAL PROCUREMENT METRICATION APPROPRIATENESS AND METHODS (FINAL REPORT) DTICSEL.C T ED fDISMhIUTION STATEMENT A LM...reflect the views of the U.S. Metric Board. Acce5Sion For NTTS GRA&I DTTC ’ri% Q is Diet Special Science Management CoRoration 1120 Connecticut Avenue
Jacobi-Maupertuis metric and Kepler equation
Chanda, Sumanto; Gibbons, Gary William; Guha, Partha
This paper studies the application of the Jacobi-Eisenhart lift, Jacobi metric and Maupertuis transformation to the Kepler system. We start by reviewing fundamentals and the Jacobi metric. Then we study various ways to apply the lift to Kepler-related systems: first as conformal description and Bohlin transformation of Hooke’s oscillator, second in contact geometry and third in Houri’s transformation [T. Houri, Liouville integrability of Hamiltonian systems and spacetime symmetry (2016), www.geocities.jp/football_physician/publication.html], coupled with Milnor’s construction [J. Milnor, On the geometry of the Kepler problem, Am. Math. Mon. 90 (1983) 353-365] with eccentric anomaly.
What Metrics Accurately Reflect Surgical Quality?
Ibrahim, Andrew M; Dimick, Justin B
2018-01-29
Surgeons are increasingly under pressure to measure and improve their quality. While there is broad consensus that we ought to track surgical quality, there is far less agreement about which metrics matter most. This article reviews the important statistical concepts of case mix and chance as they apply to understanding the observed wide variation in surgical quality. We then discuss the benefits and drawbacks of current measurement strategies through the framework of structure, process, and outcomes approaches. Finally, we describe emerging new metrics, such as video evaluation and network optimization, that are likely to take on an increasingly important role in the future of measuring surgical quality.
On the Plane Geometry with Generalized Absolute Value Metric
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Bayar
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Metric spaces are among the most important widely studied topics in mathematics. In recent years, Mathematicians began to investigate using other metrics different from Euclidean metric. These metrics also find their place computer age in addition to their importance in geometry. In this paper, we consider the plane geometry with the generalized absolute value metric and define trigonometric functions and norm and then give a plane tiling example for engineers underlying Schwarz's inequality in this plane.
Computing the stretch factor and maximum detour of paths, trees, and cycles in the normed space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wulff-Nilsen, Christian; Grüne, Ansgar; Klein, Rolf
2012-01-01
The stretch factor and maximum detour of a graph G embedded in a metric space measure how well G approximates the minimum complete graph containing G and the metric space, respectively. In this paper we show that computing the stretch factor of a rectilinear path in L 1 plane has a lower bound of Ω......(n log n) in the algebraic computation tree model and describe a worst-case O(σn log 2 n) time algorithm for computing the stretch factor or maximum detour of a path embedded in the plane with a weighted fixed orientation metric defined by σ vectors and a worst-case O(n log d n) time algorithm to d...... generalize the algorithms to compute the stretch factor or maximum detour of trees and cycles in O(σn log d+1 n) time. We also obtain an optimal O(n) time algorithm for computing the maximum detour of a monotone rectilinear path in L 1 plane....
Motion of charged particle in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. A Jacobi-metric approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Praloy; Sk, Ripon; Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)
2017-11-15
The present work discusses motion of neutral and charged particles in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. The constant energy paths are derived in a variational principle framework using the Jacobi metric which is parameterized by conserved particle energy. Of particular interest is the case of particle charge and Reissner-Nordstroem black hole charge being of same sign, since this leads to a clash of opposing forces - gravitational (attractive) and Coulomb (repulsive). Our paper aims to complement the recent work of Pugliese et al. (Eur Phys J C 77:206. arXiv:1304.2940, 2017; Phys Rev D 88:024042. arXiv:1303.6250, 2013). The energy dependent Gaussian curvature (induced by the Jacobi metric) plays an important role in classifying the trajectories. (orig.)
Enzymatic reaction paths as determined by transition path sampling
Masterson, Jean Emily
Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of enhancing the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude as compared to solution chemistry. Since the catalytic power of enzymes routinely exceeds that of the best artificial catalysts available, there is much interest in understanding the complete nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymatic reactions. Two specific questions pertaining to the source of enzymatic rate enhancements are investigated in this work. The first is the issue of how fast protein motions of an enzyme contribute to chemical barrier crossing. Our group has previously identified sub-picosecond protein motions, termed promoting vibrations (PVs), that dynamically modulate chemical transformation in several enzymes. In the case of human heart lactate dehydrogenase (hhLDH), prior studies have shown that a specific axis of residues undergoes a compressional fluctuation towards the active site, decreasing a hydride and a proton donor--acceptor distance on a sub-picosecond timescale to promote particle transfer. To more thoroughly understand the contribution of this dynamic motion to the enzymatic reaction coordinate of hhLDH, we conducted transition path sampling (TPS) using four versions of the enzymatic system: a wild type enzyme with natural isotopic abundance; a heavy enzyme where all the carbons, nitrogens, and non-exchangeable hydrogens were replaced with heavy isotopes; and two versions of the enzyme with mutations in the axis of PV residues. We generated four separate ensembles of reaction paths and analyzed each in terms of the reaction mechanism, time of barrier crossing, dynamics of the PV, and residues involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate. We found that heavy isotopic substitution of hhLDH altered the sub-picosecond dynamics of the PV, changed the favored reaction mechanism, dramatically increased the time of barrier crossing, but did not have an effect on the specific residues involved in the PV. In the mutant systems
Institutional care paths: Development, implementation, and evaluation.
Leonard, Mandy C; Bauer, Seth R; Ahrens, Christine; Reddy, Anita; Katzan, Irene
2017-09-15
The Cleveland Clinic experience with care paths, including their creation and implementation, challenges overcome during development and testing, and outcomes of selected care path evaluations, is described. Care paths are tools to assist healthcare professionals in practicing evidence-based medicine. The Cleveland Clinic health system has implemented or is developing approximately 100 care paths, including care paths designed to optimize management of sepsis and septic shock and to promote timely use of i.v. tissue plasminogen activator and correct dosing of antithrombotics and statins in patients with stroke. Key steps in successful care path initiatives include (1) identifying key stakeholders, (2) achieving stakeholder consensus on a standardized approach to disease or condition management, (3) cultivating provider awareness of care paths, (4) incorporating care path tools into the electronic health record and workflow processes, and (5) securing the resources to develop, implement, and maintain care paths. Electronic health records facilitate the use of and adherence to care paths. After care path implementation, revisions are typically needed due to unexpected issues not initially identified and to optimize care path features and support resources for clinical practice. Ongoing evaluation is required to determine whether an implemented care path is producing the intended patient and quality performance outcomes. Care paths provide a standardized approach to treatment or prevention of a disease or condition, reducing unnecessary variability and expense while promoting optimal, cost-effective patient care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Metrics for comparing climate impacts of short- and long-lived climate forcing agents
Fuglestvedt, J.; Berntsen, T.
2013-12-01
Human activities emit a wide variety of gases and aerosols, with different characteristics that influence both air quality and climate. The emissions affect climate both directly and indirectly and operate on both short and long timescales. Tools that allow these emissions to be placed on a common scale in terms of climate impact, i.e. metrics, have a number of applications (e.g. agreements and emission trading schemes, when considering potential trade-offs between changes in emissions). The Kyoto Protocol compares greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using the Global Warming Potential (GWP) over a 100 year time-horizon. The IPCC First Assessment Report states the GWP was presented to illustrate the difficulties in comparing GHGs. There have been many critiques of the GWP and several alternative emission metrics have been proposed, but there has been little focus on understanding the linkages between, and interpretations of, different emission metrics. Furthermore, the capability to compare components with very different lifetimes and temporal behaviour needs consideration. The temperature based metrics (e.g. the Global Temperature change Potential (GTP)) require a model for the temperature response, and additional uncertainty is thus introduced. Short-lived forcers may also give more spatially heterogeneous responses, and the possibilities to capture these spatial variations by using other indicators than global mean RF or temperature change in metrics will be discussed. The ultimate choice of emission metric(s) and time-horizon(s) should, however, depend on the objectives of climate policy. Alternatives to the current 'multi-gas and single-basket' approach will also be explored and discussed (e.g. how a two-target approach may be implemented using a two-basket approach). One example is measures to reduce near-term rate of warming and long-term stabilization which can be implemented through two separate targets and two baskets with separate set of metrics for each
Direct Entry Minimal Path UAV Loitering Path Planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jay P. Wilhelm
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs performing Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR typically fly over Areas of Interest (AOIs to collect sensor data of the ground from the air. If needed, the traditional method of extending sensor collection time is to loiter or turn circularly around the center of an AOI. Current Autopilot systems on small UAVs can be limited in their feature set and typically follow a waypoint chain system that allows for loitering, but requires that the center of the AOI to be traversed which may produce unwanted turns outside of the AOI before entering the loiter. An investigation was performed to compare the current loitering techniques against two novel smart loitering methods. The first method investigated, Tangential Loitering Path Planner (TLPP, utilized paths tangential to the AOIs to enter and exit efficiently, eliminating unnecessary turns outside of the AOI. The second method, Least Distance Loitering Path Planner (LDLPP, utilized four unique flight maneuvers that reduce transit distances while eliminating unnecessary turns outside of the AOI present in the TLPP method. Simulation results concluded that the Smart Loitering Methods provide better AOI coverage during six mission scenarios. It was also determined that the LDLPP method spends less time in transit between AOIs. The reduction in required transit time could be used for surveying additional AOIs.
Localized Multi-Model Extremes Metrics for the Fourth National Climate Assessment
Thompson, T. R.; Kunkel, K.; Stevens, L. E.; Easterling, D. R.; Biard, J.; Sun, L.
2017-12-01
We have performed localized analysis of scenario-based datasets for the Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4). These datasets include CMIP5-based Localized Constructed Analogs (LOCA) downscaled simulations at daily temporal resolution and 1/16th-degree spatial resolution. Over 45 temperature and precipitation extremes metrics have been processed using LOCA data, including threshold, percentile, and degree-days calculations. The localized analysis calculates trends in the temperature and precipitation extremes metrics for relatively small regions such as counties, metropolitan areas, climate zones, administrative areas, or economic zones. For NCA4, we are currently addressing metropolitan areas as defined by U.S. Census Bureau Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Such localized analysis provides essential information for adaptation planning at scales relevant to local planning agencies and businesses. Nearly 30 such regions have been analyzed to date. Each locale is defined by a closed polygon that is used to extract LOCA-based extremes metrics specific to the area. For each metric, single-model data at each LOCA grid location are first averaged over several 30-year historical and future periods. Then, for each metric, the spatial average across the region is calculated using model weights based on both model independence and reproducibility of current climate conditions. The range of single-model results is also captured on the same localized basis, and then combined with the weighted ensemble average for each region and each metric. For example, Boston-area cooling degree days and maximum daily temperature is shown below for RCP8.5 (red) and RCP4.5 (blue) scenarios. We also discuss inter-regional comparison of these metrics, as well as their relevance to risk analysis for adaptation planning.
McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason
2016-01-01
Existing methods for evaluating EVA suit performance and mobility have historically concentrated on isolated joint range of motion and torque. However, these techniques do little to evaluate how well a suited crewmember can actually perform during an EVA. An alternative method of characterizing suited mobility through measurement of metabolic cost to the wearer has been evaluated at Johnson Space Center over the past several years. The most recent study involved six test subjects completing multiple trials of various functional tasks in each of three different space suits; the results indicated it was often possible to discern between different suit designs on the basis of metabolic cost alone. However, other variables may have an effect on real-world suited performance; namely, completion time of the task, the gravity field in which the task is completed, etc. While previous results have analyzed completion time, metabolic cost, and metabolic cost normalized to system mass individually, it is desirable to develop a single metric comprising these (and potentially other) performance metrics. This paper outlines the background upon which this single-score metric is determined to be feasible, and initial efforts to develop such a metric. Forward work includes variable coefficient determination and verification of the metric through repeated testing.
Path counting on simple graphs: from escape to localization
Nechaev, S. K.; Tamm, M. V.; Valba, O. V.
2017-05-01
We study the asymptotic behavior of the number of paths of length N on several classes of infinite graphs with a single special vertex. This vertex can work as an ‘entropic trap’ for the path, i.e. under certain conditions the dominant part of long paths becomes localized in the vicinity of the special point instead of spreading to infinity. We study the conditions for such localization on decorated star graphs, regular trees and regular hyperbolic graphs as a function of the functionality of the special vertex. In all cases the localization occurs for large enough functionality. The particular value of the transition point depends on the large-scale topology of the graph. The emergence of localization is supported by analysis of the spectra of the adjacency matrices of corresponding finite graphs.
Extended charge banking model of dual path shocks for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.
Dosdall, Derek J; Sweeney, James D
2008-08-01
Single path defibrillation shock methods have been improved through the use of the Charge Banking Model of defibrillation, which predicts the response of the heart to shocks as a simple resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit. While dual path defibrillation configurations have significantly reduced defibrillation thresholds, improvements to dual path defibrillation techniques have been limited to experimental observations without a practical model to aid in improving dual path defibrillation techniques. The Charge Banking Model has been extended into a new Extended Charge Banking Model of defibrillation that represents small sections of the heart as separate RC circuits, uses a weighting factor based on published defibrillation shock field gradient measures, and implements a critical mass criteria to predict the relative efficacy of single and dual path defibrillation shocks. The new model reproduced the results from several published experimental protocols that demonstrated the relative efficacy of dual path defibrillation shocks. The model predicts that time between phases or pulses of dual path defibrillation shock configurations should be minimized to maximize shock efficacy. Through this approach the Extended Charge Banking Model predictions may be used to improve dual path and multi-pulse defibrillation techniques, which have been shown experimentally to lower defibrillation thresholds substantially. The new model may be a useful tool to help in further improving dual path and multiple pulse defibrillation techniques by predicting optimal pulse durations and shock timing parameters.
Metrics and Evaluation Models for Accessible Television
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Dongxiao; Looms, Peter Olaf
2014-01-01
to compare. Using case studies from three emerging economies (Argentina, Brazil and China) as well as industrialized nations including Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom and the USA), this paper examines the situation facing television accessibility. Having identified and discussed existing metrics...
Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report
Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar
2013-01-01
This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.
All You Need to Know About Metric
American Metric Journal, 1974
1974-01-01
Information found necessary for South Africa's citizens to learn during their recent conversion to the metric system is presented. Twelve terms and prefixes are suggested that satisfy practically all ordinary needs. Tables are given for the most commonly used measures, with relationships between different units indicated. (LS)
Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...
Calabi–Yau metrics and string compactification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael R. Douglas
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Yau proved an existence theorem for Ricci-flat Kähler metrics in the 1970s, but we still have no closed form expressions for them. Nevertheless there are several ways to get approximate expressions, both numerical and analytical. We survey some of this work and explain how it can be used to obtain physical predictions from superstring theory.
Invariant metric for nonlinear symplectic maps
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a function of system parameters, we demonstrate that the performance of a nonlinear Hamiltonian system is enhanced. Keywords. Invariant metric; symplectic maps; performance optimization. PACS Nos 05.45. ...... [7] A Nijenhuis and H S Wilf, Computational algorithms for computers and calculators (Academic. Press, New ...
Business model metrics : An open repository
Heikkila, M.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.; Heikkila, J.; Solaimani, S.; Janssen, W.
2015-01-01
Development of successful business models has become a necessity in turbulent business environments, but compared to research on business modeling tools, attention to the role of metrics in designing business models in literature is limited. Building on existing approaches to business models and
Metrical musings on Littlewood and friends
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haynes, A.; Jensen, Jonas Lindstrøm; Kristensen, Simon
We prove a metrical result on a family of conjectures related to the Littlewood conjecture, namely the original Littlewood conjecture, the mixed Littlewood conjecture of de Mathan and Teulié and a hybrid between a conjecture of Cassels and the Littlewood conjecture. It is shown that the set of nu...
Click Model-Based Information Retrieval Metrics
Chuklin, A.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.
2013-01-01
In recent years many models have been proposed that are aimed at predicting clicks of web search users. In addition, some information retrieval evaluation metrics have been built on top of a user model. In this paper we bring these two directions together and propose a common approach to converting
Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...
A Paradigm for Security Metrics in Counterinsurgency
2011-06-10
The rest go on with their old measurements and expect me to fit them. — George Bernard Shaw, Playwright The history of COIN security metrics...at an estimated 263,000 in 1962.87 The book Souvenirs de la Bataille d’Alger written by Saadi Yacef in 1962 inspired the movie Battle of Algiers
Contraction theorems in fuzzy metric space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farnoosh, R.; Aghajani, A.; Azhdari, P.
2009-01-01
In this paper, the results on fuzzy contractive mapping proposed by Dorel Mihet will be proved for B-contraction and C-contraction in the case of George and Veeramani fuzzy metric space. The existence of fixed point with weaker conditions will be proved; that is, instead of the convergence of subsequence, p-convergence of subsequence is used.
Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, C.
2012-10-01
This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.
Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, C.
2012-12-01
This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.
A new universal colour image fidelity metric
Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.
2003-01-01
We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated colour space. The resulting colour image fidelity metric quantifies the distortion of a processed colour image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new colour image
Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...
Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data Assets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yiu, Man Lung; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.
2012-01-01
This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example...
A Lagrangian-dependent metric space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Tahir, A.
1989-08-01
A generalized Lagrangian-dependent metric of the static isotropic spacetime is derived. Its behaviour should be governed by imposing physical constraints allowing to avert the pathological features of gravity at the strong field domain. This would restrict the choice of the Lagrangian form. (author). 10 refs
Product fixed points in ordered metric spaces
Turinici, Mihai
2011-01-01
All product fixed point results in ordered metric spaces based on linear contractive conditions are but a vectorial form of the fixed point statement due to Nieto and Rodriguez-Lopez [Order, 22 (2005), 223-239], under the lines in Matkowski [Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. (Ser. Sci. Math. Astronom. Phys.), 21 (1973), 323-324].
Quantitative properties of the Schwarzschild metric
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Křížek, Michal; Křížek, Filip
2018-01-01
Roč. 2018, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-10 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : exterior and interior Schwarzschild metric * proper radius * coordinate radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics http://astro.shu-bg.net/pasb/index_files/Papers/2018/SCHWARZ8.pdf
Visualizing energy landscapes with metric disconnectivity graphs.
Smeeton, Lewis C; Oakley, Mark T; Johnston, Roy L
2014-07-30
The visualization of multidimensional energy landscapes is important, providing insight into the kinetics and thermodynamics of a system, as well the range of structures a system can adopt. It is, however, highly nontrivial, with the number of dimensions required for a faithful reproduction of the landscape far higher than can be represented in two or three dimensions. Metric disconnectivity graphs provide a possible solution, incorporating the landscape connectivity information present in disconnectivity graphs with structural information in the form of a metric. In this study, we present a new software package, PyConnect, which is capable of producing both disconnectivity graphs and metric disconnectivity graphs in two or three dimensions. We present as a test case the analysis of the 69-bead BLN coarse-grained model protein and show that, by choosing appropriate order parameters, metric disconnectivity graphs can resolve correlations between structural features on the energy landscape with the landscapes energetic and kinetic properties. Copyright © 2014 The Authors Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A possible molecular metric for biological evolvability
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2012-06-25
Jun 25, 2012 ... Proteins manifest themselves as phenotypic traits, retained or lost in living systems via evolutionary pressures. Simply ... the first such metric by utilizing the recently discovered stoichiometric margin of life for all known naturally occurring ... tures), at the molecular level, are still debated under the context.
DIGITAL MARKETING: SUCCESS METRICS, FUTURE TRENDS
Preeti Kaushik
2017-01-01
Abstract – Business Marketing is one of the prospective which has been tremendously affected by digital world in last few years. Digital marketing refers to doing advertising through digital channels. This paper provides detailed study of metrics to measure success of digital marketing platform and glimpse of future of technologies by 2020.
Description of the Sandia Validation Metrics Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TRUCANO, TIMOTHY G.; EASTERLING, ROBERT G.; DOWDING, KEVIN J.; PAEZ, THOMAS L.; URBINA, ANGEL; ROMERO, VICENTE J.; RUTHERFORD, BRIAN M.; HILLS, RICHARD GUY
2001-01-01
This report describes the underlying principles and goals of the Sandia ASCI Verification and Validation Program Validation Metrics Project. It also gives a technical description of two case studies, one in structural dynamics and the other in thermomechanics, that serve to focus the technical work of the project in Fiscal Year 2001
Inferring feature relevances from metric learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schulz, Alexander; Mokbel, Bassam; Biehl, Michael
2015-01-01
Powerful metric learning algorithms have been proposed in the last years which do not only greatly enhance the accuracy of distance-based classifiers and nearest neighbor database retrieval, but which also enable the interpretability of these operations by assigning explicit relevance weights to ...
Path modeling and process control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar; Rodionova, O.; Pomerantsev, A.
2007-01-01
and having three or more stages. The methods are applied to a process control of a multi-stage production process having 25 variables and one output variable. When moving along the process, variables change their roles. It is shown how the methods of path modeling can be applied to estimate variables......Many production processes are carried out in stages. At the end of each stage, the production engineer can analyze the intermediate results and correct process parameters (variables) of the next stage. Both analysis of the process and correction to process parameters at next stage should...... be performed regarding the foreseeable output property y, and with respect to an admissible range of correcting actions for the parameters of the next stage. In this paper the basic principles of path modeling is presented. The mathematics is presented for processes having only one stage, having two stages...
Extremal limits of the C metric: Nariai, Bertotti-Robinson, and anti-Nariai C metrics
Dias, Óscar J.; Lemos, José P.
2003-11-01
In two previous papers we have analyzed the C metric in a background with a cosmological constant Λ, namely, the de Sitter (dS) C metric (Λ>0), and the anti de Sitter (AdS) C metric (Λmetric in flat spacetime (Λ=0). These exact solutions describe a pair of accelerated black holes in the flat or cosmological constant background, with the acceleration A being provided by a strut in between that pushes away the two black holes or, alternatively, by strings hanging from infinity that pull them in. In this paper we analyze the extremal limits of the C metric in a background with a generic cosmological constant Λ>0, Λ=0, and ΛSchwarzschild solution by taking an appropriate limit, where the black hole event horizon approaches the cosmological horizon. Similarly, one can generate the Bertotti-Robinson metric from the Reissner-Nordström metric by taking the limit of the Cauchy horizon going into the event horizon of the black hole, as well as the anti-Nariai metric by taking an appropriate solution and limit. Using these methods we generate the C-metric counterparts of the Nariai, Bertotti-Robinson, and anti-Nariai solutions, among others. These C-metric counterparts are conformal to the product of two two-dimensional manifolds of constant curvature, the conformal factor depending on the angular coordinate. In addition, the C-metric extremal solutions have a conical singularity at least at one of the poles of their angular surfaces. We give a physical interpretation to these solutions, e.g., in the Nariai C metric (with topology dS2×S˜2) to each point in the deformed two-sphere S˜˜2 corresponds a dS2 spacetime, except for one point which corresponds to a dS2 spacetime with an infinite straight strut or string. There are other important new features that appear. One expects that the solutions found in this paper are unstable and decay into a slightly nonextreme black hole pair accelerated by a strut or by strings. Moreover, the Euclidean version of these
Alimov, A. R.
2017-07-01
In a broad class of finite-dimensional Banach spaces, we show that a closed set with lower semicontinuous metric projection is a strict sun, admits a continuous selection of the metric projection operator onto it, has contractible intersections with balls, and its (nonempty) intersection with any closed ball is a retract of this ball. For sets with continuous metric projection, a number of new results relating the solarity of such sets to the stability of the operator of best approximation are obtained. Bibliography 25 titles.
Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE).
Kozicki, Bartłomiej; Takara, Hidehiko; Tsukishima, Yukio; Yoshimatsu, Toshihide; Yonenaga, Kazushige; Jinno, Masahiko
2010-10-11
We describe experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE) architecture. We employ optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation format and bandwidth-variable optical cross-connects (OXC) to generate, transmit and receive optical paths with bandwidths of up to 1 Tb/s. We experimentally demonstrate elastic optical path setup and spectrally-efficient transmission of multiple channels with bit rates ranging from 40 to 140 Gb/s between six nodes of a mesh network. We show dynamic bandwidth scalability for optical paths with bit rates of 40 to 440 Gb/s. Moreover, we demonstrate multihop transmission of a 1 Tb/s optical path over 400 km of standard single-mode fiber (SMF). Finally, we investigate the filtering properties and the required guard band width for spectrally-efficient allocation of optical paths in SLICE.
Calculating Least Risk Paths in 3d Indoor Space
Vanclooster, A.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Fack, V.; Van de Weghe, N.
2013-08-01
Over the last couple of years, research on indoor environments has gained a fresh impetus; more specifically applications that support navigation and wayfinding have become one of the booming industries. Indoor navigation research currently covers the technological aspect of indoor positioning and the modelling of indoor space. The algorithmic development to support navigation has so far been left mostly untouched, as most applications mainly rely on adapting Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to an indoor network. However, alternative algorithms for outdoor navigation have been proposed adding a more cognitive notion to the calculated paths and as such adhering to the natural wayfinding behaviour (e.g. simplest paths, least risk paths). These algorithms are currently restricted to outdoor applications. The need for indoor cognitive algorithms is highlighted by a more challenged navigation and orientation due to the specific indoor structure (e.g. fragmentation, less visibility, confined areas…). As such, the clarity and easiness of route instructions is of paramount importance when distributing indoor routes. A shortest or fastest path indoors not necessarily aligns with the cognitive mapping of the building. Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend those richer cognitive algorithms to three-dimensional indoor environments. More specifically for this paper, we will focus on the application of the least risk path algorithm of Grum (2005) to an indoor space. The algorithm as proposed by Grum (2005) is duplicated and tested in a complex multi-storey building. The results of several least risk path calculations are compared to the shortest paths in indoor environments in terms of total length, improvement in route description complexity and number of turns. Several scenarios are tested in this comparison: paths covering a single floor, paths crossing several building wings and/or floors. Adjustments to the algorithm are proposed to be more aligned to the
Smooth paths of conditional expectations
Andruchow, Esteban; Larotonda, Gabriel
2010-01-01
Let A be a von Neumann algebra with a finite trace $\\tau$, represented in $H=L^2(A,\\tau)$, and let $B_t\\subset A$ be sub-algebras, for $t$ in an interval $I$. Let $E_t:A\\to B_t$ be the unique $\\tau$-preserving conditional expectation. We say that the path $t\\mapsto E_t$ is smooth if for every $a\\in A$ and $v \\in H$, the map $$ I\
Career path for operations personnel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asher, J.A.
1985-01-01
This paper explains how selected personnel can now obtain a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics with a Nuclear Power Operations option. The program went into effect the Fall of 1984. Another program was worked out in 1982 whereby students attending the Nuclear Operators Training Program could obtain an Associates of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering Technology at the end of two years of study. This paper presents tables and charts which describe these programs and outline the career path for operators
Path selection during wormhole growth
Yang, Y.; Hakim, S. S.; Bruns, S.; Uesugi, K.; Dalby, K. N.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Sørensen, H. O.
2017-01-01
Growth of wormholes in porous media can lead to self-organization of flow networks with an overwhelming geometric complexity. Despite decades of study, the mechanism by which a dominant wormhole develops its path during growth remains elusive. Here we show that the trajectory of a growing wormhole can be predicted by identifying the flowpath with a so-called minimum cumulative surface. Our theoretical analysis indicates that the cumulative surface determines the position of the dissolution fr...
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.
Path integrals in curvilinear coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokhorov, L.V.
1984-01-01
Integration limits are studied for presenting the path integral curvilinear coordinates. For spherical (and topoloqically equivalent) coordinates it is shown that in formulas involving classical action in the exponent integration over all variables should be carried out within infinite limits. Another peculiarity is associated with appearance of the operator q which provides a complete definition of the wave functions out of the physical region. arguments are given upporting the validity of the cited statament in the general case
Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chetouani, L
2005-01-01
By treating path integrals the author, in this book, places at the disposal of the reader a modern tool for the comprehension of standard quantum mechanics. Thus the most important applications, such as the tunnel effect, the diffusion matrix, etc, are presented from an original point of view on the action S of classical mechanics while having it play a central role in quantum mechanics. What also emerges is that the path integral describes these applications more richly than are described traditionally by differential equations, and consequently explains them more fully. The book is certainly of high quality in all aspects: original in presentation, rigorous in the demonstrations, judicious in the choice of exercises and, finally, modern, for example in the treatment of the tunnel effect by the method of instantons. Moreover, the correspondence that exists between classical and quantum mechanics is well underlined. I thus highly recommend this book (the French version being already available) to those who wish to familiarize themselves with formulation by path integrals. They will find, in addition, interesting topics suitable for exploring further. (book review)
Nonperturbative path integral expansion II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiser, H.J.
1976-05-01
The Feynman path integral representation of the 2-point function for a self-interacting Bose field is investigated using an expansion ('Path Integral Expansion', PIE) of the exponential of the kinetic term of the Lagrangian. This leads to a series - illustrated by a graph scheme - involving successively a coupling of more and more points of the lattice space commonly employed in the evaluation of path integrals. The values of the individual PIE graphs depend of course on the lattice constant. Two methods - Pade approximation and Borel-type extrapolation - are proposed to extract information about the continuum limit from a finite-order PIE. A more flexible PIE is possible by expanding besides the kinetic term a suitably chosen part of the interaction term too. In particular, if the co-expanded part is a mass term the calculation becomes only slightly more complicated than in the original formulation and the appearance of the graph scheme is unchanged. A significant reduction of the number of graphs and an improvement of the convergence of the PIE can be achieved by performing certain sums over an infinity of graph elements. (author)
Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edwards, C.
1998-06-30
This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.
Librarians and Scientists: Combining Forces for Better Metrics
Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, Sherry
2015-08-01
Traditionally, observatory bibliographies mainly rely on two parameters derived from the carefully compiled lists of publications associated, in a well-defined way, with the observatories contribution to the advancement of science: numbers of articles and numbers of citations - in addition to the bibliographic metadata relating to those articles. The information that can be extracted from metrics based on these parameters is limited. This is a realization that is not just typical to astronomy and astrophysics, but one that is felt across many disciplines.Relating articles with very specific datasets allows us to join those datasets' metadata with the bibliographic metadata which opens a much richer field of information to mine for knowledge concerning the performance, not only of the observatory as a whole, but also its parts: instruments, types of observations, length of observations, etc. We have experimented extensively with such new metrics in the Chandra Data Archive in the Chandra X-ray Center at SAO.The linking of articles with individual datasets requires a level of scientific expertise that is usually not in the, otherwise extensive, skill set of the librarians, but is something that is crucial on the road to more informative bibliographic metrics.This talk is a plea for librarians and research scientists to join forces to make this happen. The added benefit of such a collaboration is a powerful research tool for navigating data and literature through a single interface.This work has been supported by NASA under contract NAS 8-03060 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for operation of the Chandra X-ray Center. It depends critically on the services provided by the ADS, which is funded by NASA Grant NNX12AG54G.
Humans do not switch between path knowledge and landmarks when learning a new environment.
Foo, Patrick; Duchon, Andrew; Warren, William H; Tarr, Michael J
2007-05-01
Using a metric shortcut paradigm, we have found that like honeybees (Dyer in Animal Behaviour 41:239-246, 1991), humans do not seem to build a metric "cognitive map" from path integration. Instead, observers take novel shortcuts based on visual landmarks whenever they are available and reliable (Foo, Warren, Duchon, & Tarr in Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition 31(2):195-215, 2005). In the present experiment we examine whether humans, like ants (Wolf & Wehner in Journal of Experimental Biology 203:857-868, 2000), first use survey-type path knowledge, built up from path integration, and then subsequently shift to reliance on landmarks. In our study participants walked in an immersive virtual environment while head position and orientation were recorded. During training, participants learned two legs of a triangle with feedback: paths from Home to Red and Home to Blue. A configuration of colored posts surrounded the Red location. To test reliance on landmarks, these posts were covertly translated, rotated, or left unchanged during six probe trials. These probe trials were interspersed during the training procedure to measure changes over learning. Dependence on visual landmarks was immediate and sustained during training, and no significant learning effects were observed other than a decrease in hesitation time. Our results suggest that while humans have at least two distinct navigational strategies available to them, unlike ants, a computationally-simpler landmark strategy dominates during novel shortcut navigation.
Critical Path-Based Thread Placement for NUMA Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su, Chun-Yi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Li, Dong [ORNL; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios [FORTH-ICS; Grove, Matthew [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Cameron, Kirk W. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); de Supinski, Bronis R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)
2012-01-01
Multicore multiprocessors use Non Uniform Memory Architecture (NUMA) to improve their scalability. However,NUMA introduces performance penalties due to remote memory accesses. Without efficiently managing data layout and thread mapping to cores, scientific applications, even if they are optimized for NUMA, may suffer performance loss. In this paper, we present an algorithm that optimizes the placement of OpenMP threads on NUMA processors. By collecting information from hardware counters and defining new metrics to capture the effects of thread placement, the algorithm reduces NUMA performance penalty by minimizing the critical path of OpenMP parallel regions and by avoiding local memory resource contention. We evaluate our algorithm with NPB benchmarks and achieve performance improvement between 8.13% and 25.68%, compared to the OS default scheduling.
Elastic path controller for assistive devices.
Long, B; Rebsamen, B; Burdet, E; Yu, H; Teo, C L
2005-01-01
Robotic assistive devices that constrain motion along pre-defined paths are useful in reducing maneuvering efforts by human. This paper introduces an Elastic Path Controller (EPC) that adds "elasticity" to the path following and enables dynamic modification of the paths. This permits the users to compensate for changes in the environment such as introduction of new obstacles or for errors in position sensing. The experiments performed on a Scooter cobot show that users can learn to use this novel tool to modify and design guiding paths in a relatively simple way. The operators use the EPC by pushing/pulling against the guided paths to produce the desired deformations. Then, by just dropping the forces and trusting the path controller, they will be brought back to the guided paths.
Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles
Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan
2010-01-01
An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...
Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.
1993-01-01
Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.
Kern, Lisa M; Dhopeshwarkar, Rina; Barrón, Yolanda; Wilcox, Adam; Pincus, Harold; Kaushal, Rainu
2009-07-01
Electronic health records (EHRs), in combination with health information exchange, are being promoted in the United States as a strategy for improving quality of care. No single metric set exists for measuring the effectiveness of these interventions. A set of quality metrics was sought that could be retrieved electronically and would be sensitive to the changes in quality that EHRs with health information exchange may contribute to ambulatory care. A literature search identified quality metric sets for ambulatory care. Two rounds of quantitative rating of individual metrics were conducted. Metrics were developed de novo to capture additional expected effects of EHRs with health information exchange. A 36-member national expert panel validated the rating process and final metric set. Seventeen metric sets containing 1,064 individual metrics were identified; 510 metrics met inclusion criteria. Two rounds of rating narrowed these to 59 metrics and then to 18. The final 18 consisted of metrics for asthma, cardiovascular disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, medication and allergy documentation, mental health, osteoporosis, and prevention. Fourteen metrics were developed de novo to address test ordering, medication management, referrals, follow-up after discharge, and revisits. The novel set of 32 metrics is proposed as suitable for electronic reporting to capture the potential quality effects of EHRs with health information exchange. This metric set may have broad utility as health information technology becomes increasingly common with funding from the federal stimulus package and other sources. This work may also stimulate discussion on improving how data are entered and extracted from clinically rich, electronic sources, with the goal of more accurately measuring and improving care.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imen Chaari
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This article presents the results of the 2-year iroboapp research project that aims at devising path planning algorithms for large grid maps with much faster execution times while tolerating very small slacks with respect to the optimal path. We investigated both exact and heuristic methods. We contributed with the design, analysis, evaluation, implementation and experimentation of several algorithms for grid map path planning for both exact and heuristic methods. We also designed an innovative algorithm called relaxed A-star that has linear complexity with relaxed constraints, which provides near-optimal solutions with an extremely reduced execution time as compared to A-star. We evaluated the performance of the different algorithms and concluded that relaxed A-star is the best path planner as it provides a good trade-off among all the metrics, but we noticed that heuristic methods have good features that can be exploited to improve the solution of the relaxed exact method. This led us to design new hybrid algorithms that combine our relaxed A-star with heuristic methods which improve the solution quality of relaxed A-star at the cost of slightly higher execution time, while remaining much faster than A* for large-scale problems. Finally, we demonstrate how to integrate the relaxed A-star algorithm in the robot operating system as a global path planner and show that it outperforms its default path planner with an execution time 38% faster on average.
Distance comparisons in virtual reality: effects of path, context, and age
van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Baalbergen, Heleen; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Postma, Albert; Braspenning, Merel; van der Kuil, Milan N. A.
2015-01-01
In this large scale, individual differences study (N = 521), the effects of cardinal axes of an environment and the path taken between locations on distance comparisons were assessed. The main goal was to identify if and to what extent previous findings in simple 2D tasks can be generalized to a more dynamic, three-dimensional virtual reality environment. Moreover, effects of age and gender were assessed. After memorizing the locations of six objects in a circular environment, participants were asked to judge the distance between objects they encountered. Results indicate that categorization (based on the cardinal axes) was present, as distances within one quadrant were judged as being closer together, even when no visual indication of the cardinal axes was given. Moreover, strong effects of the path taken between object locations were found; objects that were near on the path taken were perceived as being closer together than objects that were further apart on this path, regardless of the metric distance between the objects. Males outperformed females in distance comparison, but did not differ in the extent of the categorization and path effects. Age also affected performance; the categorization and path effects were highly similar across the age range tested, but the general ability to estimate distances does show a clear pattern increase during development and decrease with aging. PMID:26321968
Path Integral Formulation of Anomalous Diffusion Processes
Friedrich, Rudolf; Eule, Stephan
2011-01-01
We present the path integral formulation of a broad class of generalized diffusion processes. Employing the path integral we derive exact expressions for the path probability densities and joint probability distributions for the class of processes under consideration. We show that Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRWs) are included in our framework. A closed expression for the path probability distribution of CTRWs is found in terms of their waiting time distribution as the solution of a Dyson ...
Information metric on instanton moduli spaces in nonlinear σ models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yahikozawa, Shigeaki
2004-01-01
We study the information metric on instanton moduli spaces in two-dimensional nonlinear σ models. In the CP 1 model, the information metric on the moduli space of one instanton with the topological charge Q=k(k≥1) is a three-dimensional hyperbolic metric, which corresponds to Euclidean anti-de Sitter space-time metric in three dimensions, and the overall scale factor of the information metric is 4k 2 /3; this means that the sectional curvature is -3/4k 2 . We also calculate the information metric in the CP 2 model
Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals
Dittrich, Walter
2016-01-01
Graduate students who want to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find here both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name a few. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate the perturbation theory, canonical transformations, the action principle and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. This new edition has been revised and enlarged with chapters on quantum electrodynamics, high energy physics, Green’s functions and strong interaction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duan, Qi; Al-Shaer, Ehab; Chatterjee, Samrat; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Oehmen, Christopher S.
2018-04-01
The Infrastructure Distributed Denial of Service (IDDoS) attacks continue to be one of the most devastating challenges facing cyber systems. The new generation of IDDoS attacks exploit the inherent weakness of cyber infrastructure including deterministic nature of routes, skew distribution of flows, and Internet ossification to discover the network critical links and launch highly stealthy flooding attacks that are not observable at the victim end. In this paper, first, we propose a new metric to quantitatively measure the potential susceptibility of any arbitrary target server or domain to stealthy IDDoS attacks, and es- timate the impact of such susceptibility on enterprises. Second, we develop a proactive route mutation technique to minimize the susceptibility to these attacks by dynamically changing the flow paths periodically to invalidate the adversary knowledge about the network and avoid targeted critical links. Our proposed approach actively changes these network paths while satisfying security and qualify of service requirements. We present an integrated approach of proactive route mutation that combines both infrastructure-based mutation that is based on reconfiguration of switches and routers, and middle-box approach that uses an overlay of end-point proxies to construct a virtual network path free of critical links to reach a destination. We implemented the proactive path mutation technique on a Software Defined Network using the OpendDaylight controller to demonstrate a feasible deployment of this approach. Our evaluation validates the correctness, effectiveness, and scalability of the proposed approaches.
Partial Path Column Generation for the ESPPRC
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn
This talk introduces a decomposition of the Elementary Shortest Path Problem with Resource Constraints(ESPPRC), where the path is combined by smaller sub paths. We show computational result by comparing different approaches for the decomposition and compare the best of these with existing algorit...
Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael
2017-01-01
We are investigating the application of classical reliability performance metrics combined with standard single event upset (SEU) analysis data. We expect to relate SEU behavior to system performance requirements. Our proposed methodology will provide better prediction of SEU responses in harsh radiation environments with confidence metrics. single event upset (SEU), single event effect (SEE), field programmable gate array devises (FPGAs)
Evaluation of Subjective and Objective Performance Metrics for Haptically Controlled Robotic Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cong Dung Pham
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper studies in detail how different evaluation methods perform when it comes to describing the performance of haptically controlled mobile manipulators. Particularly, we investigate how well subjective metrics perform compared to objective metrics. To find the best metrics to describe the performance of a control scheme is challenging when human operators are involved; how the user perceives the performance of the controller does not necessarily correspond to the directly measurable metrics normally used in controller evaluation. It is therefore important to study whether there is any correspondence between how the user perceives the performance of a controller, and how it performs in terms of directly measurable metrics such as the time used to perform a task, number of errors, accuracy, and so on. To perform these tests we choose a system that consists of a mobile manipulator that is controlled by an operator through a haptic device. This is a good system for studying different performance metrics as the performance can be determined by subjective metrics based on feedback from the users, and also as objective and directly measurable metrics. The system consists of a robotic arm which provides for interaction and manipulation, which is mounted on a mobile base which extends the workspace of the arm. The operator thus needs to perform both interaction and locomotion using a single haptic device. While the position of the on-board camera is determined by the base motion, the principal control objective is the motion of the manipulator arm. This calls for intelligent control allocation between the base and the manipulator arm in order to obtain intuitive control of both the camera and the arm. We implement three different approaches to the control allocation problem, i.e., whether the vehicle or manipulator arm actuation is applied to generate the desired motion. The performance of the different control schemes is evaluated, and our
Specification-based software sizing: An empirical investigation of function metrics
Jeffery, Ross; Stathis, John
1993-01-01
For some time the software industry has espoused the need for improved specification-based software size metrics. This paper reports on a study of nineteen recently developed systems in a variety of application domains. The systems were developed by a single software services corporation using a variety of languages. The study investigated several metric characteristics. It shows that: earlier research into inter-item correlation within the overall function count is partially supported; a priori function counts, in themself, do not explain the majority of the effort variation in software development in the organization studied; documentation quality is critical to accurate function identification; and rater error is substantial in manual function counting. The implication of these findings for organizations using function based metrics are explored.