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Sample records for single meteorological tower

  1. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10 m winds, pressure and solar radiation...

  2. Kaiseraugst nuclear power station: meteorological effects of the cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Considerations of water conservation persuaded the German Government in 1971 not to allow the use of the Aar and Rhine for direct cooling of nuclear power stations. The criticism is often made that the Kaiseraugst cooling towers were built without full consideration of the resulting meteorological effects. The criticism is considered unjustified because the Federal Cooling Tower Commission considered all the relevant aspects before making its recommendations in 1972. Test results and other considerations show that the effect of the kaiseraugst cooling towers on meteorological and climatic conditions is indeed minimal and details are given. (P.G.R.)

  3. Average wind statistics for SRP area meteorological towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A quality assured set of average wind Statistics for the seven SRP area meteorological towers has been calculated for the five-year period 1982--1986 at the request of DOE/SR. A Similar set of statistics was previously compiled for the years 1975-- 1979. The updated wind statistics will replace the old statistics as the meteorological input for calculating atmospheric radionuclide doses from stack releases, and will be used in the annual environmental report. This report details the methods used to average the wind statistics and to screen out bad measurements and presents wind roses generated by the averaged statistics

  4. WJBF TV tower meteorological database for the ERAD Code-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1996-07-01

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model (Boughton and DeLaurentis 1992) is a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating atmospheric transport and dispersion. The ERAD code is particularly adept at handling explosive releases into the atmosphere and is being used by the Materials and Accountability Department at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to provide risk estimates. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) was asked to provide meteorological data to be used for applying ERAD to some site facilities. The ERAD model requires a vertical profile of meteorological measurements. The 1993 data from the WJBF-TV tower has been processed and provided for this purpose. This document describes the steps taken to prepare and format the database

  5. LBA-ECO CD-04 Meteorological and Flux Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tower flux measurements of carbon dioxide,water vapor, heat, and meteorological variables were obtained at the Tapajos National Forest, km 83 site, Santarem, Para,...

  6. BOREAS TF-3 NSA-OBS Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofsy, Steven; Sutton, Doug; Goulden, Mike; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-3) team collected tower flux, surface meteorological, and soil temperature data at the BOREAS Northern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (NSA-OBS) site continuously from the March 1994 through October 1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  7. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  8. The Quality Control Algorithms Used in the Creation of NASA Kennedy Space Center Lightning Protection System Towers Meteorological Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John M.; Brenton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate database of meteorological data is essential for designing any aerospace vehicle and for preparing launch commit criteria. Meteorological instrumentation were recently placed on the three Lightning Protection System (LPS) towers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex 39B (LC-39B), which provide a unique meteorological dataset existing at the launch complex over an extensive altitude range. Data records of temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction are produced at 40, 78, 116, and 139 m at each tower. The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch (EV44) received an archive that consists of one-minute averaged measurements for the period of record of January 2011 - April 2015. However, before the received database could be used EV44 needed to remove any erroneous data from within the database through a comprehensive quality control (QC) process. The QC process applied to the LPS towers' meteorological data is similar to other QC processes developed by EV44, which were used in the creation of meteorological databases for other towers at KSC. The QC process utilized in this study has been modified specifically for use with the LPS tower database. The QC process first includes a check of each individual sensor. This check includes removing any unrealistic data and checking the temporal consistency of each variable. Next, data from all three sensors at each height are checked against each other, checked against climatology, and checked for sensors that erroneously report a constant value. Then, a vertical consistency check of each variable at each tower is completed. Last, the upwind sensor at each level is selected to minimize the influence of the towers and other structures at LC-39B on the measurements. The selection process for the upwind sensor implemented a study of tower-induced turbulence. This paper describes in detail the QC process, QC results, and the attributes of the LPS towers meteorological

  9. Modelling regional scale surface fluxes, meteorology and CO2 mixing ratios for the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolk, L.F.; Peters, W.; Meesters, A.G.C.A.; Groenendijk, M.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Dolman, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    We simulated meteorology and atmospheric CO2 transport over the Netherlands with the mesoscale model RAMS-Leaf3 coupled to the biospheric CO2 flux model 5PM. The results were compared with meteorological and CO2 observations, with emphasis on the tall tower of Cabauw. An analysis of the coupled

  10. BOREAS TF-10 NSA-Fen Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, J. Harry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Jelinski, Dennis E.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-10 team collected tower flux and meteorological data at two sites, a fen and a young jack pine forest, near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada, as part of BOREAS. A preliminary data set was assembled in August 1993 while field testing the instrument packages, and at both sites data were collected from 15-Aug to 31-Aug. The main experimental period was in 1994, when continuous data were collected from 08-Apr to 23-Sep at the fen site. A very limited experiment was run in the spring/ summer of 1995, when the fen site tower was operated from 08-Apr to 14-Jun in support of a hydrology experiment in an adjoining feeder basin. Upon examination of the 1994 data set, it became clear that the behavior of the heat, water, and carbon dioxide fluxes throughout the whole growing season was an important scientific question, and that the 1994 data record was not sufficiently long to capture the character of the seasonal behavior of the fluxes. Thus, the fen site was operated in 1996 in order to collect data from spring melt to autumn freeze-up. Data were collected from 29-Apr to 05-Nov at the fen site. All variables are presented as 30-minute averages. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  11. BOREAS TF-10 NSA-YJP Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Porometry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, J. Harry; Liblik, Laura; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-10 team collected tower flux and meteorological data at two sites, a fen and a young jack pine forest, near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada, as part of BOREAS. A preliminary data set was assembled in August 1993 while field testing the instrument packages, and at both sites data were collected from 15-Aug to 31-Aug. The main experimental period was in 1994, when continuous data were collected from the young jack pine site from 23-May to 20-Sep. Upon examination of the 1994 data set, it became clear that the behavior of the heat, water, and carbon dioxide fluxes throughout the whole growing season was an important scientific question, and that the 1994 data record was not sufficiently long to capture the character of the seasonal behavior of the fluxes. Thus, the young jack pine site was operated from 08-May to 07-Nov in 1996 in order to collect data from spring melt to autumn freeze-up. All variables are presented as 30-minute averages. Supporting data were also collected to describe the surface#s state and to provide the information, in association with the flux data, to build SVAT models. For the young jack pine site, these supporting data included stomatal conductance measurements. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  12. The Quality Control Algorithms Used in the Process of Creating the NASA Kennedy Space Center Lightning Protection System Towers Meteorological Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John M.; Brenton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and the results of the quality control (QC) process of the meteorological data from the Lightning Protection System (LPS) towers located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex 39B (LC-39B) are documented in this paper. Meteorological data are used to design a launch vehicle, determine operational constraints, and to apply defined constraints on day-of-launch (DOL). In order to properly accomplish these tasks, a representative climatological database of meteorological records is needed because the database needs to represent the climate the vehicle will encounter. Numerous meteorological measurement towers exist at KSC; however, the engineering tasks need measurements at specific heights, some of which can only be provided by a few towers. Other than the LPS towers, Tower 313 is the only tower that provides observations up to 150 m. This tower is located approximately 3.5 km from LC-39B. In addition, data need to be QC'ed to remove erroneous reports that could pollute the results of an engineering analysis, mislead the development of operational constraints, or provide a false image of the atmosphere at the tower's location.

  13. Meteorological effects of the mechanical-draft cooling towers of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical-draft cooling towers at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant dissipate about 2000 MW of heat. Downwash occurs about 40 percent of the time, when wind speeds exceed about 3 m/sec. An elevated cloud forms about 10 percent of the time. The length of the visible plume, which is typically 100 or 200 m, is satisfactorily modeled if it is assumed that the plumes from all the cells in a cooling-tower bank combine. The calculation of fog concentration is complicated by the fact that the moisture is not inert but is taking part in the energy exchanges of a thermodynamic system. Calculations of drift deposition agree fairly well with observations

  14. Legionnaires' disease from a cooling tower in a community outbreak in Lidköping, Sweden- epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigation supported by meteorological modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulleryd, Peter; Hugosson, Anna; Allestam, Görel; Bernander, Sverker; Claesson, Berndt E B; Eilertz, Ingrid; Hagaeus, Anne-Christine; Hjorth, Martin; Johansson, Agneta; de Jong, Birgitta; Lindqvist, Anna; Nolskog, Peter; Svensson, Nils

    2012-11-21

    An outbreak of Legionnaires' Disease took place in the Swedish town Lidköping on Lake Vänern in August 2004 and the number of pneumonia cases at the local hospital increased markedly. As soon as the first patients were diagnosed, health care providers were informed and an outbreak investigation was launched. Classical epidemiological investigation, diagnostic tests, environmental analyses, epidemiological typing and meteorological methods. Thirty-two cases were found. The median age was 62 years (range 36 - 88) and 22 (69%) were males. No common indoor exposure was found. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was found at two industries, each with two cooling towers. In one cooling tower exceptionally high concentrations, 1.2 × 109 cfu/L, were found. Smaller amounts were also found in the other tower of the first industry and in one tower of the second plant. Sero- and genotyping of isolated L. pneumophila serogroup 1 from three patients and epidemiologically suspected environmental strains supported the cooling tower with the high concentration as the source. In all, two L. pneumophila strains were isolated from three culture confirmed cases and both these strains were detected in the cooling tower, but one strain in another cooling tower as well. Meteorological modelling demonstrated probable spread from the most suspected cooling tower towards the town centre and the precise location of four cases that were stray visitors to Lidköping. Classical epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigation of an LD outbreak can be supported by meteorological modelling methods.The broad competence and cooperation capabilities in the investigation team from different authorities were of paramount importance in stopping this outbreak.

  15. Legionnaires’ disease from a cooling tower in a community outbreak in Lidköping, Sweden- epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigation supported by meteorological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background An outbreak of Legionnaires’ Disease took place in the Swedish town Lidköping on Lake Vänern in August 2004 and the number of pneumonia cases at the local hospital increased markedly. As soon as the first patients were diagnosed, health care providers were informed and an outbreak investigation was launched. Methods Classical epidemiological investigation, diagnostic tests, environmental analyses, epidemiological typing and meteorological methods. Results Thirty-two cases were found. The median age was 62 years (range 36 – 88) and 22 (69%) were males. No common indoor exposure was found. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was found at two industries, each with two cooling towers. In one cooling tower exceptionally high concentrations, 1.2 × 109 cfu/L, were found. Smaller amounts were also found in the other tower of the first industry and in one tower of the second plant. Sero- and genotyping of isolated L. pneumophila serogroup 1 from three patients and epidemiologically suspected environmental strains supported the cooling tower with the high concentration as the source. In all, two L. pneumophila strains were isolated from three culture confirmed cases and both these strains were detected in the cooling tower, but one strain in another cooling tower as well. Meteorological modelling demonstrated probable spread from the most suspected cooling tower towards the town centre and the precise location of four cases that were stray visitors to Lidköping. Conclusions Classical epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigation of an LD outbreak can be supported by meteorological modelling methods. The broad competence and cooperation capabilities in the investigation team from different authorities were of paramount importance in stopping this outbreak. PMID:23171054

  16. Legionnaires’ disease from a cooling tower in a community outbreak in Lidköping, Sweden- epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigation supported by meteorological modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulleryd Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An outbreak of Legionnaires’ Disease took place in the Swedish town Lidköping on Lake Vänern in August 2004 and the number of pneumonia cases at the local hospital increased markedly. As soon as the first patients were diagnosed, health care providers were informed and an outbreak investigation was launched. Methods Classical epidemiological investigation, diagnostic tests, environmental analyses, epidemiological typing and meteorological methods. Results Thirty-two cases were found. The median age was 62 years (range 36 – 88 and 22 (69% were males. No common indoor exposure was found. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was found at two industries, each with two cooling towers. In one cooling tower exceptionally high concentrations, 1.2 × 109 cfu/L, were found. Smaller amounts were also found in the other tower of the first industry and in one tower of the second plant. Sero- and genotyping of isolated L. pneumophila serogroup 1 from three patients and epidemiologically suspected environmental strains supported the cooling tower with the high concentration as the source. In all, two L. pneumophila strains were isolated from three culture confirmed cases and both these strains were detected in the cooling tower, but one strain in another cooling tower as well. Meteorological modelling demonstrated probable spread from the most suspected cooling tower towards the town centre and the precise location of four cases that were stray visitors to Lidköping. Conclusions Classical epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigation of an LD outbreak can be supported by meteorological modelling methods. The broad competence and cooperation capabilities in the investigation team from different authorities were of paramount importance in stopping this outbreak.

  17. High-mechanical-strength single-pulse draw tower gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Manfred W.; Chojetzki, Christoph; Mueller, Hans Rainer

    2004-11-01

    The inscription of fiber Bragg gratings during the drawing process is a very useful method to realize sensor arrays with high numbers of gratings and excellent mechanical strength and also type II gratings with high temperature stability. Results of single pulse grating arrays with numbers up to 100 and definite wavelengths and positions for sensor applications were achieved at 1550 nm and 830 nm using new photosensitive fibers developed in IPHT. Single pulse type I gratings at 1550 nm with more than 30% reflectivity were shown first time to our knowledge. The mechanical strength of this fiber with an Ormocer coating with those single pulse gratings is the same like standard telecom fibers. Weibull plots of fiber tests will be shown. At 830 nm we reached more than 10% reflectivity with single pulse writing during the fiber drawing in photosensitive fibers with less than 16 dB/km transmission loss. These gratings are useful for stress and vibration sensing applications. Type II gratings with reflectivity near 100% and smooth spectral shape and spectral width of about 1 nm are temperature stable up to 1200 K for short time. They are also realized in the fiber drawing process. These gratings are useful for temperature sensor applications.

  18. Numerical simulation of a cooling tower coupled with heat pump system associated with single house using TRNSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargui, R.; Sammouda, H.; Farhat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulate a cooling tower coupled with heat pump system and a single zone using TRNSYS. • We examine the temperature of water inside the cooling tower and inside the single zone. • We study the temporal evolution of the all parameters for 4500 h operation in winter in Tunisia. - Abstract: The industrial cooling towers in Tunisia meet difficulties due to the poor coordination between the utility and process sectors. In this study, we will consider especially the vapor recovery of the wastewater from the industrial activity in south Tunisia. By using the heat pump for high capacity, the problem for vapor from wastewater may be resolved. The coupling for the cooling tower and the heat pump system is investigated by TRNSYS software. The system of cooling tower is also associated with a single zone which is related to heat exchangers. An optimization model for the operation of a cooling water system was developed that accounts for a cooling tower, and a network of pipelines and heat exchangers for heating a single house. This work is based on numerical studies; the cooling tower performance, the single house, the heat pump and the heat exchanger that are simulated using TRNSYS model. The circulation of cooling water system is assured by a counter flow. The evaluations of the cooling tower geometry and performances are based on an adaptive version of Merkel’s method witch integrated in TRNSYS. The results of optimization using TRNSYS are validated by several theoretical and experimental studies

  19. Implementation of a micro-physical scheme for warm clouds in the meteorological model 'MERCURE': Application to cooling tower plumes and to orographic precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzereau, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    A two-moment semi-spectral warm micro-physical scheme has been implemented inside the meteorological model 'MERCURE'. A new formulation of the buoyancy flux () is proposed, which is coherent with the corrigendum of Mellor (1977) but differs from Bougeault (1981). The non-precipitating cloud microphysics is validated by comparing the numerical simulations of fifteen cases of cooling tower plumes with data from a measurement campaign in Bugey in 1980. Satisfactory results are obtained on the plumes shape, on the temperature and vertical velocity fields and on the droplets spectrums, although the liquid water contents tend to be overestimated. The precipitating cloud microphysics is tested by reproducing the academical cases of orographic precipitation of Chaumerliac et al. (1987) and Richard and Chaumerliac (1989). The simulations allow a check of the action of different micro-physical terms. (author) [fr

  20. A Single Tower Configuration of the Modular Gamma Box Counter System - 13392

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, K.; Nakazawa, D.; Francalangia, J.; Gonzalez, H. [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT, 06450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Canberra's Standard Gamma Box Counter System is designed to perform accurate quantitative assays of gamma emitting nuclides for a wide range of large containers including B-25 crates and ISO shipping containers. Using a modular building-block approach, the system offers tremendous flexibility for a variety of measurement situations with wide ranges of sample activities and throughput requirements, as well as the opportunity to modify the configuration for other applications at a later date. The typical configuration consists of two opposing towers each equipped with two high purity germanium detectors, and an automated container trolley. This paper presents a modified configuration, consisting of a single tower placed inside a measurement trailer with three detector assemblies, allowing for additional vertical segmentation as well as a viewing a container outside the trailer through the trailer wall. An automatic liquid nitrogen fill system is supplied for each of the detectors. The use of a forklift to move the container for horizontal segmentation is accommodated by creating an additional operational and calibration set-up in the NDA 2000 software to allow for the operator to rotate the container and assay the opposite side, achieving the same sensitivity as a comparable two-tower system. This Segmented Gamma Box Counter System retains the core technologies and design features of the standard configuration. The detector assemblies are shielded to minimize interference from environmental and plant background, and are collimated to provide segmentation of the container. The assembly positions can also be modified in height and distance from the container. The ISOCS calibration software provides for a flexible approach to providing the calibrations for a variety of measurement geometries. The NDA 2000 software provides seamless operation with the current configuration, handling the data acquisition and analysis. In this paper, an overview of this system is

  1. Potential weather modification caused by waste heat release from large dry cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical model of a cooling tower plume is employed to study the possible atmospheric effects of thermal plumes from natural draft dry cooling towers. Calculations are performed for both single and multiple towers, each of which can dissipate the waste heat from a nominal 1000 MWe power generating unit, and the results are compared with those for wet cooling towers associated with plants of the same generating capacity. Dry cooling tower plumes are found to have a higher potential for inducing convective clouds than wet cooling tower plumes, under most summertime meteorological conditions. This is due to the fact that both the sensible heat and momentum fluxes from a dry tower in summer are approximately one order of magnitude larger than those from a wet cooling tower

  2. Longitudinal Seismic Behavior of a Single-Tower Cable-Stayed Bridge Subjected to Near-Field Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cable-stayed bridges are quite sensitive to large amplitude oscillations from earthquakes and seismic damage was observed for Shipshaw Bridge and Chi-Lu Bridge during past earthquakes. In order to investigate seismic damage of cable-stayed bridges, a 1 : 20 scale model of a single-tower cable-stayed bridge with A-shaped tower was designed, constructed, and tested on shake tables at Tongji University, China. One typical near-field ground motion was used to excite the model from low to high intensity. Test result showed that severe structural damage occurred at the tower of the model including parallel concrete cracks from bottom to nearly half height of the tower, concrete spalling, and exposed bars at top tower 0.2 m above the section where two skewed legs intersect. Posttest analysis was conducted and compared with test results. It is revealed that the numerical model was able to simulate the seismic damage of the test model by modeling nonlinearity of different components for cable-stayed bridges, namely, the tower, bents, superstructure, cables, and bearings. Numerical analysis also revealed that cable relaxation, which was detected during the test, had limited influence on the overall seismic response of the bridge with maximum error of 12%.

  3. Effect of Concrete Creep on the displacement of single tower single cable plane Extradosed Cable-stayed Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing-xian; Ran, Zhi-hong

    2018-03-01

    Extradossed Cable-stayed Bridge is both cable-stayed Bridge and Continuous rigid frame bridge mechanics feature, Beam is the main force components, cable is supplement.This article combined with a single tower and single cable plane Extradossed cable-stayed bridge in Yunnan, use different creep calculation models and analysis deflection caused by creep effects. The results showing that deflection caused by creep effect is smaller than the same span continuous rigid frame bridge, the value is about 2cm. On the other hand the deflection is increasing with ambient humidity decreases, therefore in the dry environment the calculation model is relatively large in the pre-camber. In the choice of RC creep model is significant in the dry areas.

  4. Historical Single Image-Based Modeling: The Case of Gobierna Tower, Zamora (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Garcia-Gago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical perspective images have been proved to be very useful to properly provide a dimensional analysis of buildings façades or even to generate a pseudo-3D reconstruction based on rectified images of the whole structure. In this paper, the case of Gobierna Tower (Zamora, Spain is analyzed from a historical single image-based modeling approach. In particular, a bottom-up approach, which takes advantage from the perspective of the image, the existence of the three vanishing points and the usual geometric constraints (i.e., planarity, orthogonality, and parallelism is applied for the dimensional analysis of a destroyed historical building. Results were compared with ground truth measurements existing in a historical topographical surveying obtaining deviations of about 1%.

  5. Characterization and source apportionment of organic aerosol at 260 m on a meteorological tower in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Qingqing; Zhao, Xiujuan; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Du, Wei; Zhao, Jian; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André S. H.; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Sun, Yele

    2018-03-01

    Despite extensive efforts toward the characterization of submicron aerosols at ground level in the megacity of Beijing, our understanding of aerosol sources and processes at high altitudes remains low. Here we conducted a 3-month real-time measurement of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species at a height of 260 m from 10 October 2014 to 18 January 2015 using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor. Our results showed a significant change in aerosol composition from the non-heating period (NHP) to the heating period (HP). Organics and chloride showed clear increases during HP due to coal combustion emissions, while nitrate showed substantial decreases from 28 to 15-18 %. We also found that NR-PM1 species in the heating season can have average mass differences of 30-44 % under similar emission sources yet different meteorological conditions. Multi-linear engine 2 (ME-2) using three primary organic aerosol (OA) factors as constraints, i.e., fossil-fuel-related OA (FFOA) dominantly from coal combustion emissions, cooking OA (COA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA) resolved from ground high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer measurements, was applied to OA mass spectra of ACSM. Two types of secondary OA (SOA) that were well correlated with nitrate and chloride-CO, respectively, were identified. SOA played a dominant role in OA during all periods at 260 m although the contributions were decreased from 72 % during NHP to 58-64 % during HP. The SOA composition also changed significantly from NHP to HP. While the contribution of oxygenated OA (OOA) was decreased from 56-63 to 32-40 %, less oxidized OOA (LO-OOA) showed a large increase from 9-16 to 24-26 %. COA contributed a considerable fraction of OA at high altitude, and the contribution was relatively similar across different periods (10-13 %). In contrast, FFOA showed a large increase during HP due to the influences of coal combustion emissions. We also observed very different OA composition between ground level

  6. Evaluation of Tower Shadowing on Anemometer Measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, David Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of tower shadowing from the meteorology towers at LANL during 2014. This study is in response to the Department of Energy Meteorological Coordinating Council visit in 2015 that recommended an evaluation of any biases in the wind data introduced by the tower and boom alignment at all meteorology towers.

  7. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity and dire...

  8. Meteorological tower data for the Yucca Alluvial (YA) site and Yucca Ridge (YR) site: Final data report, July 1983-October 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, H.W.; Freeman, D.L.; Boro, K.; Egami, R.T.

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of the NNWSI meteorological data collection program was to support environmental evaluations of site suitability for a nuclear waste repository. This is the last of a series of data summaries for the NNWSI Alluvial and Ridge Sites in southern Nevada. 3 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Measurements at cooling tower plumes. Part 3. Three-dimensional measurements at cooling tower plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortak, H.

    An extended field experiment is described in which cooling tower plumes were studied by means of three-dimensional in situ measurements. The goal was to obtain input data for numerical models of cooling tower plumes. Of special interest were data for testing or developing assumptions for sub-grid parametrizations. Utilizing modern systems for high-resolution aerology and small aircraft, four measuring campaigns were conducted: two campaigns (1974) at the cooling towers of the RWE power station Neurath and also two (1975) at the single cooling tower of the RWE power station Meppen. Because of the broad spectrum of weather situations it can be assumed that the results are representative with regard to the interrelationship between structure of cooling tower plume and large-scale meteorological situation. A large number of flights with a powered glider crossing the plumes on orthogonal tracks was performed. All flights showed that the plume could be identified up to large downwind distances by discontinuous jumps of temperature and vapor pressure. Therefore, a definite geometry of the plume could always be defined. In all cross sections a vertical circulation could be observed. At the boundary, which could be defined by the mentioned jumps of temperature and vapor pressure, a maximum of downward vertical motion could be observed in most cases. Entrainment along the boundary of a cross section seems to be very small, except at the lower part of the plume. There, the mass entrainment is maximum and is responsible for plume rise as well as for enlargement of the cross section. The visible part of the plume (cloud) was only a small fraction of the whole plume. High-resolution aerology is necessary in order to explain the structure and behavior of such plumes. This is especially the case in investigations regarding the dynamic break-through of temperature inversions. Such cases were observed frequently under various meteorological conditions and are described

  10. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  11. Induced draught circular cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Induced draught atmospheric cooling towers are described, to wit those in which the circulation is by power fans. This technique with fans grouped together in the centre enables a single tower to be used and provides an excellent integration of the steam wreath into the atmosphere. This type of cooling tower has been chosen for fitting out two 900 MW units of the Chinon power station in France [fr

  12. Characterization and source apportionment of organic aerosol at 260 m on a meteorological tower in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive efforts toward the characterization of submicron aerosols at ground level in the megacity of Beijing, our understanding of aerosol sources and processes at high altitudes remains low. Here we conducted a 3-month real-time measurement of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 species at a height of 260 m from 10 October 2014 to 18 January 2015 using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor. Our results showed a significant change in aerosol composition from the non-heating period (NHP to the heating period (HP. Organics and chloride showed clear increases during HP due to coal combustion emissions, while nitrate showed substantial decreases from 28 to 15–18 %. We also found that NR-PM1 species in the heating season can have average mass differences of 30–44 % under similar emission sources yet different meteorological conditions. Multi-linear engine 2 (ME-2 using three primary organic aerosol (OA factors as constraints, i.e., fossil-fuel-related OA (FFOA dominantly from coal combustion emissions, cooking OA (COA, and biomass burning OA (BBOA resolved from ground high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer measurements, was applied to OA mass spectra of ACSM. Two types of secondary OA (SOA that were well correlated with nitrate and chloride–CO, respectively, were identified. SOA played a dominant role in OA during all periods at 260 m although the contributions were decreased from 72 % during NHP to 58–64 % during HP. The SOA composition also changed significantly from NHP to HP. While the contribution of oxygenated OA (OOA was decreased from 56–63 to 32–40 %, less oxidized OOA (LO-OOA showed a large increase from 9–16 to 24–26 %. COA contributed a considerable fraction of OA at high altitude, and the contribution was relatively similar across different periods (10–13 %. In contrast, FFOA showed a large increase during HP due to the influences of coal combustion emissions. We also

  13. Operative meteorological data base in Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Hallberg, B.; Nordlinder, S.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes how data collected during a field measurement campaign were analysed and compiled to create a data base for operative use. The data base gives information about the wind and the atmospheric stability at five locations around the Forsmark nuclear power plant. In the measurement campaign, sodar systems and a 100 m high tower at Forsmark were used. Temperature, wind speed and wind direction were measured by sensors on the tower, while wind speed and direction, and the standard deviation of the vertical wind, were monitored by the sodar systems. This gave meteorological data from several heights. At Forsmark, the temperature difference and the wind speed from the tower were used to determine the atmospheric stability. At the sodar locations, the stability was deduced by employing a scheme which considered the season, the time of day, the wind direction and the wind speed. To create the operative data base, the wind speeds and wind directions, respectively, from two locations at the time were correlated. A code for graphical and numerical presentation of the data from the data base was developed. A special system of warnings was included, featuring notification about phenomena such as sea breeze, warnings about large variation in the wind conditions within the area, and warnings for situations in which the meteorological conditions make the results from the atmospheric dispersion calculations uncertain. This feature was implemented to alert the user to the fact that ordinary dispersion and dose calculations, using meteorological data from a single point, might give erroneous results. The operative data base and the presentation code were integrated with the dispersion and dose calculation code AIRPAC/EMMA, which is to be used in case of increased releases from nuclear power plants. The possibility to use the data from the operative data base in the dispersion calculations was investigated. It was found that a modification of AIRPAC/EMMA, in such a

  14. Tower counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  15. Measurements on cooling tower plumes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortak, H.

    1975-11-01

    In this paper an extended field experiment is described in which cooling tower plumes were investigated by means of three-dimensional in situ measurements. The goal of this program was to obtain input data for numerical models of cooling tower plumes. Data for testing or developing assumptions for sub-grid parametrizations were of special interest. Utilizing modern systems for high-resolution aerology and small aircraft, four measuring campaigns were conducted: two campaigns (1974) at the cooling towers of the RWE power station at Neurath and also two (1975) at the single cooling tower of the RWE power station at Meppen. Because of the broad spectrum of weather situations, it can be assumed that the results are representative with regard to the interrelationship between the structure of cooling tower plumes and the large-scale meteorological situation. A large number of flights with a powered glider ASK 16 (more than 100 flight hours) crossing the plumes on orthogonal tracks was performed. All flights showed that the plume could be identified up to large downwind distances by discontinuous jumps of temperature and vapour pressure. Therefore a definite geometry of the plume could always be defined. In all cross sections a vertical circulation could be observed. At the plumes boundaries, which could be defined by the mentioned jumps of temperature and vapour pressure, a maximum of downward vertical motion was observed in most cases. Entrainment along the boundary of a cross section seems to be very small, except at the lower part of the plume. There, the mass entrainment is maximum and is responsible for plume rise as well as for enlargement of the cross section. The visible part of the plume (cloud) was only a small fraction of the whole plume. The discontinuities of temperature and vapour pressure show that the plume fills the space below the visible plume down to the ground. However, all effects decrease rapidly towards the ground. It turned out that high

  16. Cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbaeck, P; Heneby, H

    1976-01-22

    Cooling towers to be transported on road vehicles as a unit are not allowed to exceed certain dimensions. In order to improve the efficiency of such a cooling tower (of cross-flow design and box-type body) with given dimensions, it is proposed to arrange at least one of the scrubbing bodies displaceable within a module or box. Then it can be moved out of the casing into working position, thereby increasing the front surface available for the inlet of air (and with it the efficiency) by nearly a factor of two.

  17. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1975-01-01

    The need for the use of cooling systems in power plant engineering is dealt with from the point of view of a non-polluting form of energy production. The various cooling system concepts up to the modern natural-draught cooling towers are illustrated by examples. (TK/AK) [de

  18. 76 FR 36983 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... other land cover but still remain visible to pilots. The Helicopter Association International... more power than red lights. While solar lights may be a possible option, the FAA has not studied solar...

  19. Assessment of cooling tower impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This guideline describes the state of the art of the meteorological impact of wet cooling towers that are about 80 m to 170 m high, and have a waste heat power in the range of 1000 MW and 2500 MW. The physical processes occurring in the lowest layer of the atmosphere and their impact in the dispersion of cooling tower emissions are represented. On the basis of these facts, the impact on weather or climate in the vicinity of a high wet cooling tower is estimated. Thereby the results of the latest investigations (observations, measurements, and modeling) on the different locations of plants as well as their different power and construction types are taken into consideration. (orig.) [de

  20. Virtual Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayne, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems

  1. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korik, L.; Burger, R.

    1992-01-01

    What is the effect of 0.6C (1F) temperature rise across turbines, compressors, or evaporators? Enthalpy charts indicate for every 0.6C (1F) hotter water off the cooling tower will require an additional 2 1/2% more energy cost. Therefore, running 2.2C (4F) warmer due to substandard cooling towers could result in a 10% penalty for overcoming high heads and temperatures. If it costs $1,250,000.00 a year to operate the system, $125,000.00 is the energy penalty for hotter water. This paper investigates extra fuel costs involved in maintaining design electric production with cooling water 0.6C (1F) to 3C (5.5F) hotter than design. If design KWH cannot be maintained, paper will calculate dollar loss of saleable electricity. The presentation will conclude with examining the main causes of deficient cold water production. State-of-the-art upgrading and methodology available to retrofit existing cooling towers to optimize lower cooling water temperatures will be discussed

  2. Validation of the Dynamic Wake Meander model with focus on tower loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T. J.; Larsen, G. C.; Pedersen, M. M.; Enevoldsen, K.; Madsen, H. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a comparison between measured and simulated tower loads for the Danish offshore wind farm Nysted 2. Previously, only limited full scale experimental data containing tower load measurements have been published, and in many cases the measurements include only a limited range of wind speeds. In general, tower loads in wake conditions are very challenging to predict correctly in simulations. The Nysted project offers an improved insight to this field as six wind turbines located in the Nysted II wind farm have been instrumented to measure tower top and tower bottom moments. All recorded structural data have been organized in a database, which in addition contains relevant wind turbine SCADA data as well as relevant meteorological data - e.g. wind speed and wind direction - from an offshore mast located in the immediate vicinity of the wind farm. The database contains data from a period extending over a time span of more than 3 years. Based on the recorded data basic mechanisms driving the increased loading experienced by wind turbines operating in offshore wind farm conditions have been identified, characterized and modeled. The modeling is based on the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) approach in combination with the state-of-the-art aeroelastic model HAWC2, and has previously as well as in this study shown good agreement with the measurements. The conclusions from the study have several parts. In general the tower bending and yaw loads show a good agreement between measurements and simulations. However, there are situations that are still difficult to match. One is tower loads of single-wake operation near rated ambient wind speed for single wake situations for spacing’s around 7-8D. A specific target of the study was to investigate whether the largest tower fatigue loads are associated with a certain downstream distance. This has been identified in both simulations and measurements, though a rather flat optimum is seen in the measurements.

  3. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  4. Plant Vogtle cooling tower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Steen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Intensive ground-based field studies of plumes from two large, natural-draft cooling towers were conducted in support of the MTI modeling effort. Panchromatic imagery, IR imagery, meteorological data, internal tower temperatures and plant power data were collected during the field studies. These data were used to evaluate plume simulations, plume radioactive transfer calculations and plume volume estimation algorithms used for power estimation. Results from six field studies indicate that a 3-D atmospheric model at sufficient spatial resolution can effectively simulate a cooling tower plume if the plume is of sufficient size and the ambient meteorology is known and steady. Small plumes and gusty wind conditions degrade the agreement between the simulated and observed plumes. Thermal radiance calculations based on the simulated plumes produced maximum IR temperatures (near tower exit) which were in good agreement with measured IR temperatures for the larger plumes. For the smaller plumes, the calculated IR temperature was lower than the measured temperature by several degrees. Variations in maximum IR plume temperature with decreasing power (one reactor was undergoing a shutdown process), were clearly observed in the IR imagery and seen in the simulations. These temperature changes agreed with those calculated from an overall tower energy and momentum balance. Plume volume estimates based on camcorder images at three look angles were typically 20--30 percent larger than the plume volumes derived from the simulations, although one estimate was twice the simulated volume. Volume overestimation is expected and will have to be accounted for to some degree if plume volume is to be a useful diagnostic quantity in power estimation. Volume estimation with MTI imagery will require a large, stable plume and two looks in the visible bands (5m GSD) along with a solar shadow

  5. Construction of cable-stayed prestressed concrete bridge, having Japan`s first independent single slanted tower; Nippon hatsu no keisha shuto wo motsu PC shachokyo no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Y.; Naito, H. [Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, H.; Mikami, T.

    1994-08-01

    In the Hachinoe Harbor, Aomori prefecture, a man-made island (Hachinoe Port Island) is being constructed by reclamation. When proceeding this undertaking plan, a construction of the Hachinoe Harbor Port Island connection bridge, which connects the man-made island with the existing harbor district, was made an urgent necessity. This connecting bridge is a bridge with a total length of 256.56m, and is constituted of two span continuous PC slanted bridge and three span continuous PC box girder bridge. This slanted bridge has become an asymmetrical structure due to several conditions coming from a plan, and moreover it has the first structural shape as a road bridge in Japan, of which main tower is 15{degree} slanted independent single tower type, there are more problems for the work execution compared with other normal slanted bridges. In addition, because it is situated in an extremely cruel environment like in the cold region and in the marine environment, a sufficient consideration is required for its design and work execution in order to insure a durability. In this report, an outline of work execution content about PC slanted bridge part currently under a construction zealously aiming at a completion in the end of the fiscal year 1994 is introduced. 2 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. The meteorological data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouharrour, S.; Thomas, P.

    1975-07-01

    The 200 m meteorological tower of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center has been equipped with 45 instruments measuring the meteorological parameters near the ground level. Frequent inquiry of the instruments implies data acquisition with on-line data reduction. This task is fulfilled by some peripheral units controlled by a PDP-8/I. This report presents details of the hardware configuration and a short description of the software configuration of the meteorological data acquisition system. The report also serves as an instruction for maintenance and repair work to be carried out at the system. (orig.) [de

  7. Cooling tower drift: comprehensive case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Ulanski, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive experiment to study drift from mechanical drift cooling towers was conducted during June 1978 at the PG and E Pittsburg Power Plant. The data from this study will be used for validation of drift deposition models. Preliminary results show the effects of tower geometry and orientation with respect to the wind and to single- or two-tower operation. The effect of decreasing relative humidity during a test run can also be seen

  8. Motivational Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  9. Tower Mesonetwork Climatology and Interactive Display Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2004-01-01

    Forecasters at the 45th Weather Squadron and Spaceflight Meteorology Group use data from the tower network over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to evaluate Launch Commit Criteria, and issue and verify forecasts for ground operations. Systematic biases in these parameters could adversely affect an analysis, forecast, or verification. Also, substantial geographical variations in temperature and wind speed can occur under specific wind directions. To address these concerns, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a climatology of temperatures and winds from the tower network, and identified the geographical variation and significant tower biases. The mesoclimate is largely driven by the complex land-water interfaces across KSC/CCAFS. Towers with close proximity to water typically had much warmer nocturnal temperatures and higher wind speeds throughout the year. The strongest nocturnal wind speeds occurred from October to March whereas the strongest mean daytime wind speeds occurred from February to May. These results of this project can be viewed by forecasters through an interactive graphical user interface developed by the AMU. The web-based interface includes graphical and map displays of mean, standard deviation, bias, and data availability for any combination of towers, variables, months, hours, and wind directions.

  10. Development of adequate meteorological monitoring standards for safety analysis of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, E.; Lewis, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    The aim of this report is to identify what constitutes adequate meteorological information for airborne dispersion calculations in case of releases from nuclear facilities during 'normal operation', 'design postulated accidents', and 'emergency situations'. The models used for estimating downwind dispersion are reviewed, including short-range simple terrain, short-range complex terrain and medium to long range models with emphasis on Lagrangian models. The meteorogolical input parameters required for running these models are identified. The methods by which these parameters may be obtained from raw meteorological data are then considered. Emphasis is placed on well-tried and recommended methods rather than those which are currently being developed and lack long-term field tests. The meteorological data required to calculate the parameters that are in turn input to dispersion calculation methods can be obtained mainly from tower measurements. Recommended tower height is 50 m, with two levels of instruments (10 and 50 m) for wind speed, wind direction and temperature. Data for precipitation and solar radiation, that may be required under certain conditions and for special calculations, may be estimated from nearby representative weather stations (if available). For simple terrain, a single tower is sufficient. For complex terrain, such as coastal regions, two towers are desirable for accurate characterization of the turbulence regime in the vicinity of a release site. The report provides the necessary accuracy specifications for instruments required for the meteorological measurements. Data monitoring and recording, maintenance, quality control and assurance are also discussed. Error propagation analyses are recommended to determine the full implications of instrument accuracies on the accuracy of dispersion model predictions. 82 refs

  11. Meteorological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multi-year summaries of one or more meteorological elements at a station or in a state. Primarily includes Form 1078, a United States Weather Bureau form designed...

  12. Meteorology Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  13. Aerosol optical properties derived from the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign, and implications for a single-channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth in spring from Meteorological Imager (MI on-board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol model optimized for northeast Asia is updated with the inversion data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON-northeast (NE Asia campaign which was conducted during spring from March to May 2012. This updated aerosol model was then applied to a single visible channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD from a Meteorological Imager (MI on-board the geostationary meteorological satellite, Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS. This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate AOD from a single visible channel measurement. For the single-channel retrieval, sensitivity tests showed that perturbations by 4 % (0.926 ± 0.04 in the assumed single scattering albedo (SSA can result in the retrieval error in AOD by over 20 %. Since the measured reflectance at the top of the atmosphere depends on both AOD and SSA, the overestimation of assumed SSA in the aerosol model leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET inversion data sets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed aerosol optical properties (AOPs were categorized by SSAs at 675 nm of 0.92 ± 0.035 for spring (March, April, and May. After the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign in 2012, the SSA during spring showed a slight increase to 0.93 ± 0.035. In terms of the volume size distribution, the mode radius of coarse particles was increased from 2.08 ± 0.40 to 2.14 ± 0.40. While the original aerosol model consists of volume size distribution and refractive indices obtained before 2011, the new model is constructed by using a total data set after the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. The large volume of data in high spatial resolution from this intensive campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the new AOD data sets retrieved from a single-channel algorithm, which uses a precalculated look-up table (LUT with the new aerosol model

  14. Aerosol Optical Properties Derived from the DRAGON-NE Asia Campaign, and Implications for a Single-Channel Algorithm to Retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth in Spring from Meteorological Imager (MI) On-Board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Hong, H.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Song, C.; Lee, S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    An aerosol model optimized for northeast Asia is updated with the inversion data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-northeast (NE) Asia campaign which was conducted during spring from March to May 2012. This updated aerosol model was then applied to a single visible channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from a Meteorological Imager (MI) on-board the geostationary meteorological satellite, Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate AOD from a single visible channel measurement. For the single-channel retrieval, sensitivity tests showed that perturbations by 4 % (0.926 +/- 0.04) in the assumed single scattering albedo (SSA) can result in the retrieval error in AOD by over 20 %. Since the measured reflectance at the top of the atmosphere depends on both AOD and SSA, the overestimation of assumed SSA in the aerosol model leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) inversion data sets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were categorized by SSAs at 675 nm of 0.92 +/- 0.035 for spring (March, April, and May). After the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign in 2012, the SSA during spring showed a slight increase to 0.93 +/- 0.035. In terms of the volume size distribution, the mode radius of coarse particles was increased from 2.08 +/- 0.40 to 2.14 +/- 0.40. While the original aerosol model consists of volume size distribution and refractive indices obtained before 2011, the new model is constructed by using a total data set after the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. The large volume of data in high spatial resolution from this intensive campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the new AOD data sets retrieved from a single-channel algorithm, which uses a precalculated look-up table (LUT) with the new aerosol model, show

  15. Noise from cooling towers of power parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, J.; Moore, F.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study is presented of the noise pollution problem for large power parks proposed for the future. Such parks might have an area of about 75 sq. miles, and a generating capacity up to 48000 MW. A comparative analysis has been done for natural and mechanical-draft wet towers as the major sources of acoustic power. Noise radiation from single isolated towers as well as from a dispersed array of towers has been considered for both types of cooling systems. Major noise attenuation effects considered are due to the atmospheric absorption and A-weighting. Conditions of 60F and 70 percent relative humidity in a still atmosphere have been assumed

  16. Cooling tower calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonkova, J.

    1988-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs

  17. Drop Tower Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  18. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  19. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  20. Composite wind turbine towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed experiments conducted to optimized the advanced composite materials such as fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) used to fabricate wind turbine towers. FRP materials are used in tubular steel, lattice, guyed, and reinforced concrete towers. The towers and turbine blades are transported in segments and assembled on-site, sometimes in offshore or remote locations.The FRP composites are used to build towers with a high strength-to-weight ratio as well as to provide resistance to chemical attacks and corrosion. Use of the materials has resulted in towers that do not require heavy installation equipment. Experimental programs were conducted to verify the structural behaviour of the tower structure's individual-scaled cells as well as to evaluate the performance of multi-cell assemblies. Joint assembly designs were optimized, and a filament winding machine was used to conduct the experimental study and to test individual cells. Failure mode analyses were conducted to determine local buckling and shear rupture. Tension, compression, and shear properties of the FRP materials were tested experimentally, and data from the test were then used to develop finite element models of the composite towers as well as to obtain load deflection curves and tip oscillation data. A case study of a 750 kW wind turbine in Churchill, Manitoba was used to test the design. tabs., figs.

  1. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance

  2. Variations of starting conditions contribution to cooling tower plume predictions; Uticaj promene polaznih uslova na predvidjanje rasprostiranja perjanica rashladnih tornjeva nuklearne elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehauc, A; Zaric, Z [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1977-07-01

    The paper deals with quantitative contribution of variations of starting conditions to cooling tower plume predictions. The starting conditions are: plume velocity and temperature and concentration of water drops in the plume at the cooling tower outlet. For the same thermal discharge and meteorological conditions, starting conditions are given by characteristics of cooling towers. (author)

  3. Estimating rice yield related traits and quantitative trait loci analysis under different nitrogen treatments using a simple tower-based field phenotyping system with modified single-lens reflex cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Hiroki; Ogawa, Satoshi; Valencia, Milton Orlando; Mohri, Hiroki; Urano, Yutaka; Hosoi, Fumiki; Shimizu, Yo; Chavez, Alba Lucia; Ishitani, Manabu; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Omasa, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Application of field based high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP) methods for monitoring plant performance in real field conditions has a high potential to accelerate the breeding process. In this paper, we discuss the use of a simple tower based remote sensing platform using modified single-lens reflex cameras for phenotyping yield traits in rice under different nitrogen (N) treatments over three years. This tower based phenotyping platform has the advantages of simplicity, ease and stability in terms of introduction, maintenance and continual operation under field conditions. Out of six phenological stages of rice analyzed, the flowering stage was the most useful in the estimation of yield performance under field conditions. We found a high correlation between several vegetation indices (simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), transformed vegetation index (TVI), corrected transformed vegetation index (CTVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI)) and multiple yield traits (panicle number, grain weight and shoot biomass) across a three trials. Among all of the indices studied, SR exhibited the best performance in regards to the estimation of grain weight (R2 = 0.80). Under our tower-based field phenotyping system (TBFPS), we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield related traits using a mapping population of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and a single nucleotide polymorphism data set. Our findings suggest the TBFPS can be useful for the estimation of yield performance during early crop development. This can be a major opportunity for rice breeders whom desire high throughput phenotypic selection for yield performance traits.

  4. Ejection Tower Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ejection Tower Facility's mission is to test and evaluate new ejection seat technology being researched and developed for future defense forces. The captive and...

  5. The WACMOS-ET project – Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Michel, D.

    2015-10-20

    The WACMOS-ET project has compiled a forcing data set covering the period 2005–2007 that aims to maximize the exploitation of European Earth Observations data sets for evapotranspiration (ET) estimation. The data set was used to run 4 established ET algorithms: the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL), the Penman–Monteith algorithm from the MODIS evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). In addition, in-situ meteorological data from 24 FLUXNET towers was used to force the models, with results from both forcing sets compared to tower-based flux observations. Model performance was assessed across several time scales using both sub-daily and daily forcings. The PT-JPL model and GLEAM provide the best performance for both satellite- and tower-based forcing as well as for the considered temporal resolutions. Simulations using the PM-MOD were mostly underestimated, while the SEBS performance was characterized by a systematic overestimation. In general, all four algorithms produce the best results in wet and moderately wet climate regimes. In dry regimes, the correlation and the absolute agreement to the reference tower ET observations were consistently lower. While ET derived with in situ forcing data agrees best with the tower measurements (R2 = 0.67), the agreement of the satellite-based ET estimates is only marginally lower (R2 = 0.58). Results also show similar model performance at daily and sub-daily (3-hourly) resolutions. Overall, our validation experiments against in situ measurements indicate that there is no single best-performing algorithm across all biome and forcing types. An extension of the evaluation to a larger selection of 85 towers (model inputs re-sampled to a common grid to facilitate global estimates) confirmed the original findings.

  6. Evaluation of meteorological parameters over a coniferous forest in a single-column chemistry-climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, L.N.; Klemm, O.; Rappenglück, B.; Valverde-Canossa, J.

    2006-01-01

    The simulated micrometerology by a single-column chemistry-climate model (SCM) has been evaluated by comparison with BEWA2000 field campaign measurements over a coniferous forest, July-August 2001. This comparison indicates the limitations in the representation of the SCM's micrometeorological

  7. Data from an instrumented navigational light tower off the Savanah River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; Dicks, A.S.; Blanton, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    An oceanographic and meteorological instrumentation system operating on the Savannah Navigational Light Tower is providing synoptic information on ocean temperatures, currents, tides, and meteorological conditions. The Savannah Navigational Light Tower, an unmanned U.S. Coast Guard tower, is located about nine miles off Savannah Beach, Georgia, in about 16 m of water. The tower is currently instrumented to measure and record water temperatures from six depths, water velocities at two depts, tides, air temperature, barometric pressure, and wind speed and velocity at two heights. The outputs are currently being recorded every 10 minutes. These data aid in the interpretation of the processes governing pollutant transport in the Savannah River marine region and support other DOE funded programs in the southeastern United States. This past year, computer programs were written and are being tested for processing the raw data from the tower and for performing correlative analysis of the data

  8. Wind-induced response of CN-Tower: comparison of model and full scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monbaliu, J.; Ruigrok, C.; Isyumov, N.

    1985-01-01

    The approximately 555-m high CN Communications Tower in Toronto has now been operational for nearly a decade. The action of wind on this tower was extensively tested at the Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory during the design of the tower. This study provided information on the overall wind loads and responses of the structure, the action of wind on various components, and its effects on the tower performance including transmission quality. A program of monitoring and recording the wind induced response and various meteorological data was started in 1977. This paper presents some results of that program and makes comparisons with wind tunnel model data. (author)

  9. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done with DAS (data aquisition system) updating. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. Wireless data transmission to MIPS (Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where enviromental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. The meteorological data as the result of this project had been used to report `Environmental Impact Assessment of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor` and {sup S}ite Selection of Meteorological Tower and Environment Impact Assessment of the Cooling Tower of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor{sup .} (Author).

  10. BOREAS TF-06 SSA-YA Surface Energy Flux and Meteorological Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains meteorology data collected at the SSA-YA tower flux site by the TF6 group. These data were reported at 10 minute intervals. The flux and ancillary...

  11. Transporting method for adsorbing tower and the adsorbing tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Nobuhiro.

    1996-01-01

    A cylindrical plastic bag is disposed to the upper surface of an adsorbing tower so as to surround a suspending piece. One opening of the bag is sealed, and other opening is secured in a sealed state to a bag holding portion disposed to glove box at a gate for the adsorbing tower box. The adsorbing tower is transported into the glove box, and after the completion of the operation of the adsorbing tower, the adsorbing tower is taken out in a state that the bag is restricted and sealed at a portion below the adsorbing tower. The bag may be made of a vinyl plastic, the bag holding portion may be a short-cylindrical protrusion, and may have an O-ring groove at the outer surface. Even if the adsorbing tower is heavy, the adsorbing tower can be carried out easily in a state where it is sealed gas tightly. (N.H.)

  12. Cooling towers: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1981-02-01

    This bibliography cites 300 selected references containing information on various aspects of large cooling tower technology, including design, construction, operation, performance, economics, and environmental effects. The towers considered include natural-draft and mechanical-draft types employing wet, dry, or combination wet-dry cooling. A few references deal with alternative cooling methods, principally ponds or spray canals. The citations were compiled for the DOE Energy Information Data Base (EDB) covering the period January to December 1980. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators

  13. TacTower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Jürgensen, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Learning from the multiplayer interaction in sports, we describe our project TacTower; a flexible system for professional elite handball players to train game perception and kinesthetic em- pathy. The design is founded in ideas of Collective Interaction and qualities that is inherent in sport...

  14. Cell Towers and Songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Michelle; Mesa, Jennifer; Milton, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how our common addiction to cell phones was used to launch a discussion about their use, impacts on the environment, and connections to issues of civic concern. By encouraging middle school science students to adopt the perspectives of special-interest groups debating communication tower restrictions designed to protect…

  15. Talking Towers, Making Withs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, J. L.

    The notion of a linguistic "register" is useful in posing questions about how the ways language is used differ from one kind of human activity to another. This paper analyzes a videotaped segment of male grade 4/5 students (n=3) who are talking as they work to build a tower from plastic drinking straws and pins. Discussion of the…

  16. A drilling rig tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, A.A.; Barashkov, V.A.; Bulgakov, E.S.; Kuldoshin, I.P.; Lebedev, A.I.; Papin, N.M.; Rebrik, B.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.

    1981-05-23

    Presentation is made of a drilling rig tower, comprising a gantry, a support shaft with a bracing strut and drawings out, and turn buckles. In order to increase the reliability of the tower in operation, to decrease the over all dimensions in a transport position, and to decrease the amount of time taken to transfer the tower from an operational position into a transportable one, and vice versa, the tower is equipped with a rotary frame made in the form of a triangular prism, whose lateral edges are connected by hinges: the first one with the lower part of the support shaft, the second with the gantry, and the third one to the upper part of the support shaft by means of the drawings out. The large boundary of the rotary frame is connected by a hinge to the support shaft by means of a bracing strut, which is equipped with a slide block connected to it by a hinge, and the rotary frame has a guide for the slide block reinforced to it on the large boundary. Besides this, the lateral edge of the rotary frame is connected to the gantry by means of turn buckles.

  17. TacTower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Jürgensen, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Learning from the multiplayer interaction in sports, we describe our project TacTower; a flexible system for professional elite handball players to train game perception and kinesthetic em- pathy. The design is founded in ideas of Collective Interaction and qualities that is inherent in sport...... and is based on consid- erations about paralanguage, kinesthetic emphatic interaction, physical positioning of players and collaborative interaction....

  18. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  19. Cedar Hill Tower Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A meteorological data system was designed, assembled, and installed to obtain, on a continuous basis, wind and temperature information at 12 levels on a television...

  20. Airline meteorological requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Pappas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of airline meteorological/flight planning is presented. The effects of variations in meteorological parameters upon flight and operational costs are reviewed. Flight path planning through the use of meteorological information is briefly discussed.

  1. Formation of secondary inorganic aerosols by power plant emissions exhausted through cooling towers in Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinneburg, Detlef; Renner, Eberhard; Wolke, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The fraction of ambient PM10 that is due to the formation of secondary inorganic particulate sulfate and nitrate from the emissions of two large, brown-coal-fired power stations in Saxony (East Germany) is examined. The power stations are equipped with natural-draft cooling towers. The flue gases are directly piped into the cooling towers, thereby receiving an additionally intensified uplift. The exhausted gas-steam mixture contains the gases CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2, the directly emitted primary particles, and additionally, an excess of 'free' sulfate ions in water solution, which, after the desulfurization steps, remain non-neutralized by cations. The precursor gases NO2 and SO2 are capable of forming nitric and sulfuric acid by several pathways. The acids can be neutralized by ammonia and generate secondary particulate matter by heterogeneous condensation on preexisting particles. The simulations are performed by a nested and multi-scale application of the online-coupled model system LM-MUSCAT. The Local Model (LM; recently renamed as COSMO) of the German Weather Service performs the meteorological processes, while the Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport Model (MUSCAT) includes the transport, the gas phase chemistry, as well as the aerosol chemistry (thermodynamic ammonium-sulfate-nitrate-water system). The highest horizontal resolution in the inner region of Saxony is 0.7 km. One summer and one winter episode, each realizing 5 weeks of the year 2002, are simulated twice, with the cooling tower emissions switched on and off, respectively. This procedure serves to identify the direct and indirect influences of the single plumes on the formation and distribution of the secondary inorganic aerosols. Surface traces of the individual tower plumes can be located and distinguished, especially in the well-mixed boundary layer in daytime. At night, the plumes are decoupled from the surface. In no case does the resulting contribution of the cooling tower emissions to PM10

  2. Solar tower enhanced natural draft dry cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiqiang; Xu, Yan; Acosta-Iborra, Alberto; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants are located in desert areas where the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) value is very high. Since water resource is scarcely available, mechanical draft cooing technology is commonly used, with power consumption of mechanical fans being approximately 2% of the total power generated. Today, there is only one solar power plant (Khi Solar One in South Africa) uses a condenser installed in a Natural Draft Cooling (NDC) tower that avoids the windage loss of water occurring in wet cooling towers. Although, Khi Solar One is a cavity receiver power tower, the receivers can be hung onto the NDC tower. This paper looks at a novel integration of a NDC tower into an external molten salt receiver of a solar power plant, which is one of a largest commercial molten salt tower in China, with 100MWe power capacity. In this configuration study, the NDC tower surrounds the concrete tower of the receiver concentrically. In this way, the receiver concrete tower is the central support of the NDC tower, which consists of cable networks that are fixed to the concrete tower and suspended at a certain height over the floor. The cable networks support the shell of the NDC tower. To perform a preliminary analysis of the behavior of this novel configuration, two cases of numerical simulation in three dimensional (3D) models have been solved using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code, ANSYS Fluent 6.3. The results show that the integration of the NDC tower into an external central receiver tower is feasible. Additionally, the total heat transfer rate is not reduced but slightly increases when the molten salt receiver is in operation because of the additional natural draft induced by the high temperature of the receiver.

  3. A Meso-Climatology Study of the High-Resolution Tower Network Over the Florida Spaceport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2004-01-01

    Forecasters at the US Air Force 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) use wind and temperature data from the tower network over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to evaluate Launch Commit Criteria and to issue and verify temperature and wind advisories, watches, and warnings for ground operations. The Spaceflight Meteorology Group at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX also uses these data when issuing forecasts for shuttle landings at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. Systematic biases in these parameters at any of the towers could adversely affect an analysis, forecast, or verification for all of these operations. In addition, substantial geographical variations in temperature and wind speed can occur under specific wind directions. Therefore, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU), operated by ENSCO Inc., was tasked to develop a monthly and hourly climatology of temperatures and winds from the tower network, and identify the geographical variation, tower biases, and the magnitude of those biases. This paper presents a sub-set of results from a nine-year climatology of the KSC/CCAFS tower network, highlighting the geographical variations based on location, month, times of day, and specific wind direction regime. Section 2 provides a description of the tower mesonetwork and instrumentation characteristics. Section 3 presents the methodology used to construct the tower climatology including QC methods and data processing. The results of the tower climatology are presented in Section 4 and Section 5 summarizes the paper.

  4. Good Towers of Function Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we will give an overview of known and new techniques on how one can obtain explicit equations for candidates of good towers of function fields. The techniques are founded in modular theory (both the classical modular theory and the Drinfeld modular theory). In the classical modular...... setup, optimal towers can be obtained, while in the Drinfeld modular setup, good towers over any non-prime field may be found. We illustrate the theory with several examples, thus explaining some known towers as well as giving new examples of good explicitly defined towers of function fields....

  5. Improve crossflow cooling tower operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports how various crossflow cooling tower elements can be upgraded. A typical retrofit example is presented. In the past decade, cooling tower technology has progressed. If a cooling tower is over ten years old, chances are the heat transfer media and mechanical equipment were designed over 30 to 40 years ago. When a chemical plant expansion is projected or a facility desires to upgrade its equipment for greater output and energy efficiency, the cooling tower is usually neglected until someone discovers that the limiting factor of production is the quality of cold water returning from the cooling tower

  6. TacTowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Martin; Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    The interactive training equipment, TacTower, is aimed at supporting multiple elite athletes, such as handball players in training their micro-tactical skills in close-contact situations. It focuses on psychomotor abilities and trains the skills involved in reading the opponents’ actions and anti...... for the elite athletic community, as this domain holds interesting challenges while also inspiring relevant, new forms of interaction design for other domains....

  7. A system for real-time environmental assessment using an operational meteorological data base for dispersion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Hallberg, B.; Nordlinder, S.; Salomonsson, S.

    1990-01-01

    A method for assessing the meteorological conditions on a local scale, about 20 km, around a specific site was developed, and applied to the area around the Forsmark nuclear power plant, situated on the coast about 100 km north of Stockholm. Meteorological data were collected, for an one-year period, from sensors in a tower and from a Sodar system at Forsmark. In addition, two Sodar systems were placed at several locations around the power plant, out to a distance of approximately 20 km. By statistical compiling, an operational data base was established, consisting of classes of wind speed, wind direction and atmospheric stability. The data from the remote sites were related to those from Forsmark. This gave the possibility to determine the variation of the meteorological conditions in time and space, using data from a single location only. The main objective of the Forsmark project was to identify and indicate situations in which the conditions for dispersion were difficult to model accurately when using measurements taken from a conventional tower, without knowledge of the influence of local mesoscale disturbances. Such could be e.g. sea breeze, large horizontal or vertical wind shear, terrain-induced flow patterns etc. The use of an operational data base, as described above, in connection with real-time dispersion models, such as AIRPAC/EMMA, will improve the performance of such models, as well as consequence analyses, in case of accidental releases from nuclear power plants or other industrial plants

  8. Cooling tower and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.; Ederhof, A.; Gosdowski, J.; Harms, A.; Ide, G.; Klotz, B.; Kowalczyk, R.; Necker, P.; Tesche, W.

    The influence of a cooling tower on the environment, or rather the influence of the environment on the cooling tower stands presently -along with the cooling water supply - in the middle of much discussion. The literature on these questions can hardly be overlooked by the experts concerned, especially not by the power station designers and operators. The document 'Cooling Tower and Environment' is intented to give a general idea of the important publications in this field, and to inform of the present state of technology. In this, the explanations on every section make it easier to get to know the specific subject area. In addition to older standard literature, this publication contains the best-known literature of recent years up to spring 1975, including some articles written in English. Further English literature has been collected by the ZAED (KFK) and is available at the VGB-Geschaefsstelle. Furthermore, The Bundesumweltamt compiles the literature on the subject of 'Environmental protection'. On top of that, further documentation centres are listed at the end of this text. (orig.) [de

  9. Environmental impact of cooling towers of large nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nester, K.

    1975-01-01

    The computer program for the calculation of the rise of cooling tower plumes (3-dimensional) was extented. In addition to the distributions of the vertical velocity, the temperatures and the specific humidity, it yields now the distribution of the rain droplets in the plume, too. The treatment of the cloud physics was based on the theory of Kessler (E. Kessler, Meteorological Monographs, 10 (1969) No. 32). (orig.) [de

  10. Influence of the Meteorology Mast on a Cup Anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin O. L.; Pedersen, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The actuator disc model is applied on lattice-type meteorological masts to estimate the influence of the tower on the accuracy of the measured wind speed. Combining the results with corrections for the boom, on which the anemometer is mounted, good agreement is found for measurements made on the ...

  11. Cooling towers: denvironmental studies (citations from the engineering index data base). Report for 1970-August 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundemann, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts from worldwide research on thermal, meteorological, and ecological effects associated with cooling towers used primarily by fossil fuel and nuclear power plants are cited. Citations cover plume behavior studies, including measurement of airborne particulate concentration, and characterization and management of drift as well as noise pollution and salt deposition effects on vegetation. A few abstracts pertain to environmental effects from cooling towers used in wastewater treatment

  12. Performance of water distribution systems in a pilot cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognotti, L.; Giacomelli, A.; Zanelli, S.; Bellagamba, B.; Lotti, G.; Mattachini, F.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the water distribution system of a Pilot cooling tower of 160 m 3 /hr The performances of different industrial water distributors have been evaluated by changing the operative conditions of the pilot tower. In particular, the efficiency and the uniformity of the water distribution have been investigated and compared with the results obtained in a small-scale loop, in which the single nozzles were tested. Measurements in both systems, pilot tower and small scale loop, included the geometric characteristics of the jet umbrella by ensemble photography, the wetted zone by measuring the specific flowrate, the drop-size distribution and liquid concentration by high-speed photography. The results show that correlations exist between the nozzle behaviour in single and pilot tower configuration. The uniformity of water distribution in the pilot tower is strongly related to the nozzle installation pattern and to the operative conditions. Coalescence plays an important role on the drop size distribution in the pilot-tower. Comments upon the influence of these parameters on tower behaviour are also included

  13. Hospital-acquired legionellosis originating from a cooling tower during a period of thermal inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Pleischl, Stefan; Lück, Christian; Marklein, Günter; Fischnaller, Edith; Martin, Sybille; Simon, Arne; Exner, Martin

    2008-07-01

    A case of hospital-acquired legionellosis occurred in a 75-year-old male patient who underwent surgery due to malignant melanoma. Legionellosis was proven by culture of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Being a chronic smoker the patient used to visit the sickroom balcony that was located about 90 m to the west of a hospital cooling tower. Routine cooling tower water samples drawn during the presumed incubation period revealed 1.0x10(4) CFU/100 ml (L. pneumophila serogroup 1). One of three isolates from the cooling tower water matched the patient's isolate by monoclonal antibody (mab)- and genotyping (sequence-based typing). Horizontal transport of cooling tower aerosols probably was favoured by meteorological conditions with thermal inversion. The case report stresses the importance of routine maintenance and microbiological control of hospital cooling towers.

  14. Cooling Tower Losses in Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Cooling towers are a very important part of many chemical plants. The primary task of a cooling tower is to reject heat into the atmosphere. They represent a relatively inexpensive and dependable means of removing low-grade heat from cooling water. The make-up water source is used to replenish water lost to evaporation. Hot water from heat exchangers is sent to the cooling tower. The water exits the cooling tower and is sent back to the exchangers or to other units for further cooling.

  15. EDF's ageing management program for cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roure, T.; Crolet, Y.

    2015-01-01

    EDF operates a large fleet of cooling towers for its thermal and nuclear plants. Proactive maintenance strategies require ranking the towers according to the risk of failure and the observed damage. The ranking includes monitoring data such as: foundation settlements, material properties, quantified crack patterns, shell deformation, meteorological data, and corrosion. The numerical tool suite includes a finite element analysis of each tower under thermal and mechanical loadings and a corrosion predicting tool, based on carbonation. The first module computes the behavior of cooling towers under five types of loading: soil differential settlement, self-weight, moisture transport, temperature and wind. By comparison with the ultimate resisting capacity of the reinforced concrete cross section, a risk index map is produced for each tower. This risk index is used to rank the cooling towers and then to identify which structures should be monitored more closely or reinforced - if needed - first in the case of an extended operating life. The second module aims to anticipate the corrosion depth of reinforcement steel of the towers in the future. Examination of the existing carbonation is currently done for each structure and evolution of the carbonation depth is computed so as to predict with reasonable assurance when carbonation reaches the rebars. A prediction of the eventual cross-section loss of rebars is then made for long term analysis (i.e. up to 60 years of operating life). When corrosion is predicted the first module takes into account this loss and computes the behavior of the predicted corrosion damaged structure under the same loadings. (authors)

  16. Probabilistic Capacity Assessment of Lattice Transmission Towers under Strong Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Serving as one key component of the most important lifeline infrastructure system, transmission towers are vulnerable to multiple nature hazards including strong wind and could pose severe threats to the power system security with possible blackouts under extreme weather conditions, such as hurricanes, derechoes, or winter storms. For the security and resiliency of the power system, it is important to ensure the structural safety with enough capacity for all possible failure modes, such as structural stability. The study is to develop a probabilistic capacity assessment approach for transmission towers under strong wind loads. Due to the complicated structural details of lattice transmission towers, wind tunnel experiments are carried out to understand the complex interactions of wind and the lattice sections of transmission tower and drag coefficients and the dynamic amplification factor for different panels of the transmission tower are obtained. The wind profile is generated and the wind time histories are simulated as a summation of time-varying mean and fluctuating components. The capacity curve for the transmission towers is obtained from the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA method. To consider the stochastic nature of wind field, probabilistic capacity curves are generated by implementing IDA analysis for different wind yaw angles and different randomly generated wind speed time histories. After building the limit state functions based on the maximum allowable drift to height ratio, the probabilities of failure are obtained based on the meteorological data at a given site. As the transmission tower serves as the key nodes for the power network, the probabilistic capacity curves can be incorporated into the performance based design of the power transmission network.

  17. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  18. Meteorological experiments for emergency preparedness. part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, I.L.B.; Nicolli, D.

    1993-12-01

    Since the preliminary studies for the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) siting, by an American consultant company, it was verified that the micro scale and mesoscale meteorological conditions in the region show a unique complex pattern, so that no similar nuclear installation site could be found for reference. Therefore, it was recommended to install onsite a correspondingly complex meteorological data acquisition system which comprises a 100-meter tower with instruments at three different levels and three 15-meter satellite towers on the hills around. In this report, are described the equipment and instruments sent by the IAEA to CNEN as well as the procedures and particular computer programming developed by the staff. It is also reported on the bureaucratic problems and meager budget allocation for the Project which delayed the installation of the two meteorological stations and hindered the implementation of the Project. The equipment for the atmospheric boundary layer sounding were used for the first time in September 1993, when CNEN provided some resource for the purchase of gas and batteries. The first atmospheric sounding campaign showed the occurrence of strong night winds and intense thermal inversion at the higher level of the boundary layer, until now unknown by the Brazilian meteorologists. By way of this report, the staff of meteorologists tries to show the status of Project BRA/09/031 and the know-how gained with it. (author)

  19. Meteorological Parameters and the Onset of Chest Pain in Subjects with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: an Eight-Year, Single-Center Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Zhi Jia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of weather on the occurrence of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in Chinese subjects. Methods: Weather and climate data, as well as the occurrence of STEMI, were monitored at 2 am, 8 am, 2 pm, and 8 pm between 2003 and 2010. Generalized additive Poisson models were utilized to plot the numbers of patients with STEMI within 6 hour intervals against climatological variations, after accounting for the effects of the hour and season. Results: The inclusion of meteorological conditions, including observed atmospheric pressure (hPa, hectopascal variations during the previous three hours and temperature (°C, degrees Celsius, significantly affected the occurrence of STEMI, as measured every six hours. Compared with the 50th percentile of atmospheric pressure variations, the RRs (95% CI for the first percentile, 10th percentile, 25th percentile, 75th percentile, 90th percentile, and 99th percentile of atmospheric pressure variation over lag 0 were 1.66 (1.36∼2.03, 1.47 (1.30∼1.67, 1.22 (1.12∼1.33, 1.16 (1.07∼1.25, 1.27 (1.13∼1.43, and 1.16 (0.92∼1.46, respectively. Compared to the 50th percentile of temperature, the RRs (95% CI for the first percentile, 10th percentile, 25th percentile, 75th percentile, 90th percentile, and 99th percentile of temperature over lag 0 were 0.58 (0.40∼0.83, 0.60 (0.46∼0.78, 0.69 (0.57∼0.83, 1.33 (1.14∼1.56, 1.39 (1.13∼1.71, and 1.17 (0.84∼1.63, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the eight-year, single-center study, significant relationships were observed among the occurrence of STEMI and atmospheric pressure variations during the previous three hours and temperature after account for long-term time trends.

  20. Technical procedures for implementation of meteorology/air quality site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report describes The Technical Procedures that will be used to monitor air quality and meteorology. Topics include: high-volume filter handling; operation, maintenance, and calibration of the 10-M meteorological and air quality system; processing data from the 10-M meteorological tower; processing data from the 60-M meteorological tower; processing total suspended particulate filters and data from the high-volume air samplers; operation maintenance, and calibration of the 60-M meteorological and air quality system; and auditing the air quality system. 4 refs., 6 figs

  1. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  2. You're a What?: Tower Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilorio, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the role and functions of a tower technician. A tower technician climbs up the face of telecommunications towers to remove, install, test, maintain, and repair a variety of equipment--from antennas to light bulbs. Tower technicians also build shelters and radiofrequency shields for electronic equipment, lay…

  3. 45-FOOT HIGH DROP TOWER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Drop Tower is used to simulate and measure the impact shocks that are exerted on parachute loads when they hit the ground. It is also used for HSL static lift to...

  4. The Design of Akhmat Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Sara; Stochetti, Alejandro; Cerone, Marc

    2018-03-01

    Akhmat Tower is a 435m supertall building designed by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture. It is currently under construction in the city of Grozny, in the Chechen Republic, in the North Caucasus region of Russia. The design of the tower was done during a collaborative process by a multi-disciplinary architectural and engineering team, based primarily in the United States and Russia. During this process, the designers considered many factors including, most primarily, the cultural and historical context, the structural requirements given the high seismicity of the region, and the client's programmatic needs. The resulting crystalline-shaped tower is both an aesthetic statement and a performative architectural solution which will be a new landmark for Chechnya. "The Design of Akhmat Tower" describes in detail the design process including structural considerations, exterior wall design, building program, interior design, the tuned mass damper, and the use of building information modeling.

  5. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  6. Studies of column supported towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, D.; Costaz, J.-L.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of a research and development programme into the civil engineering of cooling towers launched in 1978 by Electricite de France, very high cooling towers were built at Golfech and Chooz, in France, using column supports. This paper discusses the evolution of this new type of support from classical diagonal supports, presents some of the results of design calculations and survey measurements taken during construction of the shell and analyses the behaviour of the structure. (author)

  7. Meteorological safeguarding of nuclear power plant operation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, J.; Skulec, S.

    1976-01-01

    A meteorological tower 200 m high has to be built for meteorological control of the operation of the A-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. This meteorological station will measure the physical properties of the lower layers of the atmosphere, carry out experimental verifications of the models of air pollution, investigate the effects of waste heat and waste water from the nuclear power plant on the microclimate, provide the theoretical processing of measured data with the aim of selecting the most favourable model for conditions prevailing in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, perform basic research of the physical properties of the ground and boundary layers of the atmosphere and the coordination of state-wide plans in the field of securing the operation of nuclear power plants with regard to meteorology. (Z.M.)

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory Meteorology Monitoring Program: 2016 Data Completeness/ Quality Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, David Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-15

    This report summarizes data completeness by tower and by instrument for 2016 and compares that data with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 2015 standards. This report is designed to make data users aware of data completeness and any data quality issues. LANL meteorology monitoring goals include 95% completeness for all measurements. The ANSI 2015 standard requires 90% completeness for all measurements. This report documents instrument/tower issues as they impact data completeness.

  9. Automated data system for emergency meteorological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) releases small amounts of radioactive nuclides to the atmosphere as a consequence of the production of radioisotopes. The potential for larger accidental releases to the atmosphere also exists, although the probability for most accidents is low. To provide for emergency meteorological response to accidental releases and to conduct research on the transport and diffusion of radioactive nuclides in the routine releases, a series of high-quality meteorological sensors have been located on towers in and about SRP. These towers are equipped with instrumentation to detect and record temperature and wind turbulence. Signals from the meterological sensors are brought by land-line to the SRL Weather Center-Analysis Laboratory (WC-AL). At the WC-AL, a Weather Information and Display (WIND) system has been installed. The WIND system consists of a minicomputer with graphical displays in the WC-AL and also in the emergency operating center (EOC) of SRP. In addition, data are available to the system from standard weat []er teletype services, which provide both routine surface weather observations and routine upper air wind and temperature observations for the southeastern United States. Should there be an accidental release to the atmosphere, available recorded data and computer codes would allow the calculation and display of the location, time, and downwind concentration of the atmospheric release. These data are made available to decision makers in near real-time to permit rapid decisive action to limit the consequences of such accidental releases. (auth)

  10. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program

  11. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  12. Lectures in Micro Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    This report contains the notes from my lectures on Micro scale meteorology at the Geophysics Department of the Niels Bohr Institute of Copenhagen University. In the period 1993-2012, I was responsible for this course at the University. At the start of the course, I decided that the text books...... available in meteorology at that time did not include enough of the special flavor of micro meteorology that characterized the work of the meteorology group at Risø (presently of the Institute of wind energy of the Danish Technical University). This work was focused on Boundary layer flows and turbulence...

  13. Industrial cooling tower design and operation in the moderate-continental climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of producers offer a wide choice of various types of industrial cooling towers. Usually, a proper choice of pre-fabricated cooling tower satisfies end-user needs. However, if there are specific end-user requirements, it is necessary to design cooling tower according to those requirements. For the adhesive factory located in southern region of Serbia, 350 kW mechanical draught wet cooling tower was designed and built. Dimensioning of the cooling tower was done according to parameters of the ambient air, higher than the standard recommendations given in the literature. In this paper, the reasons for deviation from recommendations are given. The analysis of the cooling tower operation based on real meteorological parameters for 2015 is also shown in this paper. According to this analysis, cooling tower provides required water temperature in any season, and gives opportunity for energy savings in winter, with opportunity for heat capacity enlargement if production capacity is raised as it is planned in the factory.

  14. Physical quantities related to measurement campaigns for cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegel, W.

    1975-12-01

    The nomenclature in reports on the measurement campaigns for cooling towers will be adapted as far as possible to the already existing VDI report on this subject. On the other hand, the appropriate standards will also be accounted for. In order to facilitate a decision in individual cases in a first table the meteorologically or generally interesting quantities of the VDI reports are compared with the German, international, and WMO standards and - if necessary - also commented. A second table contains the air humidity parameters standardized by WMO including brief definitions. (orig/HP) [de

  15. The meteorological measurement system of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilger, H.

    1976-08-01

    The system mainly serves to record the parameters which are important for the diffusion of offgas plume. The system includes 47 instruments in total which are used to measure the wind velocity, the wind direction, the wind vector, the temperature, the dew point, the solar and heat radiation, the precipitations and the atmospheric pressure, most of them mounted at the 200 m high meteorological tower. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  17. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  18. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  19. The Design of Akhmat Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beardsley Sara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Akhmat Tower is a 435m supertall building designed by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture. It is currently under construction in the city of Grozny, in the Chechen Republic, in the North Caucasus region of Russia. The design of the tower was done during a collaborative process by a multi-disciplinary architectural and engineering team, based primarily in the United States and Russia. During this process, the designers considered many factors including, most primarily, the cultural and historical context, the structural requirements given the high seismicity of the region, and the client’s programmatic needs. The resulting crystalline-shaped tower is both an aesthetic statement and a performative architectural solution which will be a new landmark for Chechnya. “The Design of Akhmat Tower” describes in detail the design process including structural considerations, exterior wall design, building program, interior design, the tuned mass damper, and the use of building information modeling.

  20. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1985, Part -2, Annex 2c, Reconstruction of the measuring device on the meteorology tower; Deo 2 - Zastita od zracenja kod reaktora RA u 1985. godini - Prilog 2c - Rekonstrukcija merne instalacije na meteoroloskom stubu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, Z; Stevanovic, M; Kovacevic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1985-12-01

    Original meteorology measuring instrumentation dates from 1960-1961. In order to enable more efficient measurements it was indispensable to reconstruct measuring devices completely. Description of the reconstruction works and specification is included in this report. [Serbo-Croat] Prvobitna instrumentacija namenjena meteoroloskim merenjima datira iz perioda 1960-1961. Sa ciljem da se merenja usavrse bilo je neophodno rekonstruisati celokupnu mernu opremu. Opis rekonstrukcije i specifikacija opreme sadrzani su u ovom izvestaju.

  1. Round Earthen Towers in Zhangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    The round earthen towers inZhangzhou,Fujifan Province,have long been famous a-round the world.Built of rammedearth,each tower consists uf four tofive stories and Is nearly 100 metersin diameter and 17 to 18meters high.Scatteredaround the mountains,valleys and plains insouthwestern Fujian,thetowers look very muchlike round castles.SomeChinese and foreign ar-chitercts,historians andfolk-custom researcherscall them“flyng sau-cers”from outer spaceor“mushrooms”fromearth.They represent,indeed,a unique archi-tectural style in theworld.

  2. Cooling towers in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1977-01-01

    The cooling tower as a large technical construction is one of the most original industrial buildings. It sticks out as an outlandish element in our building landscape, a giant which cannot be compared with the traditional forms of technical buildings. If it is constructed as a reinforced-concrete hyperboloid, its shape goes beyond all limits of building construction. Judgment of these highly individual constructions is only possible by applying a novel standard breaking completely with tradition. This new scale of height and dimension in industrial construction, and in particular the modern cooling tower, requires painstaking care and design and adaptation to the landscape around it. (orig.) [de

  3. Windfarms and telecommunications towers (Scotland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Hector; Kellett-Bowman, Elaine; Harris, David

    1996-01-01

    A debate in the United Kingdom House of Commons on the environmental impact of windfarms and telecommunications towers in Scotland is reported. Concern was expressed over the adverse visual impact of such structures in rural areas which are often of considerable natural beauty. Counter arguments were based on the positive effects of new technology. The need to reconcile environmental protection with technological innovation was expressed. A Government spokesman described the comprehensive planning policy framework which has been put in place to secure sound planning decisions on renewable energy developments and the conditions on amenity protection in the regulations governing the erection of telecommunications towers. (UK)

  4. Dynamic analysis of cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittnar, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Natural draught cooling towers are shell structures subjected to random vibrations due to wind turbulence and earthquake. The need of big power plant units has initiated the design of very large cooling towers. The random response of such structures may be analysed using a spectral approach and assuming a linear behaviour of the structure. As the modal superposition method is the most suitable procedure for this purpose it is necessary to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes with adequate accuracy. (orig./GL)

  5. Windfarms and telecommunications towers (Scotland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, Hector; Kellett-Bowman, Elaine; Harris, David [and others

    1996-10-30

    A debate in the United Kingdom House of Commons on the environmental impact of windfarms and telecommunications towers in Scotland is reported. Concern was expressed over the adverse visual impact of such structures in rural areas which are often of considerable natural beauty. Counter arguments were based on the positive effects of new technology. The need to reconcile environmental protection with technological innovation was expressed. A Government spokesman described the comprehensive planning policy framework which has been put in place to secure sound planning decisions on renewable energy developments and the conditions on amenity protection in the regulations governing the erection of telecommunications towers. (UK)

  6. Observed rise of visible plumes from hyperbolic natural draft cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, P T [Smith-Singer Meteorologists, Inc., Amityville, NY; Seymour, D E; Butler, M J; Kramer, M L; Smith, M E; Frankenberg, T T

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of natural draft cooling tower plumes and related meteorological variables have been measured from aircraft near three major plants of the American Electric Power System. The rise of those plumes which persisted long enough to reach a stabilized height depended primarily upon the height of the capping inversion aloft. All such plumes rose to elevations of 425 m or more above grade. No significant relationships between plume rise and wind speed, plant load, or ambient temperature were found. We conclude that simple temperature humidity soundings in the vicinity of the towers would serve as effective predictors of plume rise and persistence.

  7. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Single Level Meteorology, Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXSLV or tavgU_2d_slv_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional atmospheric single-level diagnostics that is time averaged...

  8. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Single Level Meteorology, Time Average 1-hourly (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXSLV or tavg1_2d_slv_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional atmospheric single-level diagnostics that is time averaged...

  9. New student-designed research and demonstration drop tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Donald; Weislogel, Mark

    A new drop tower has been designed and constructed at Portland State University. The ap-proach incorporates innovative features to increase throughput and microgravity quality in a highly public facility. Push button operation with full wireless CCTV coverage and passive magnetic deceleration provides quiet, safe operation from a single control station with low re-cycle time. A two-stage coaxial release mechanism decouples the payload from the drag shield to minimize disturbances to the experiment during release. This is especially important for fluids experiments that are highly sensitive to initial conditions. Performance of the new tower is presented including release, free fall, and deceleration accelerometer data. The two second tower is used for research and educational outreach. The research efforts focus on capillary flows and phenomena relevant to spacecraft fluid systems. The outreach efforts utilize partnerships with local primary, secondary and post-secondary institutions to promote the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

  10. A modular restoration tower for electric power line transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolazzi, L.C.; Pereira, J.C.; Leonel, C.E.L.; Rocha, G.B.; Bianchezzi, V.; Mendes, F. [Universidade Federal Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: lauro@grante.ufsc.br, jcarlos@grante.ufsc.br; Luz, R.L. [ELETROSUL Centrais Eletricas S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], Email: rluz@eletrosul.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The main target of this R and D project is to develop an restoration tower for electric energy lines transmission. Whereas these towers should present the main features like transport facility, easiest assembling associated with a low cost of manufacture, it was applied the single-column tower concepts supported by stays, modularized, framed and articulated at the base. The concepts used for this development was a design methodology. From the different definition situations of load, numerical models have been developed focusing the design to the best of structural element arrangements of its modules. Then, tests were performed in laboratory to determine the module structural performance for different work load situations. These tests served to identify inconsistencies in the numerical models and proposed adjustments in its design to improve its performance on the strength and stability. (author)

  11. A modular interpretation of various cubic towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound.......In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound....

  12. Cooling towers for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboseau, J.

    1987-01-01

    After a brief recall on cooling towers testing and construction, this paper presents four examples of very large French nuclear power plant cooling towers, and one of an Australian thermal power plant [fr

  13. A method to estimate the ageing of a cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnel, Nathalie; Courtois, Alexis; Ilie, Petre-Lazar

    2006-09-01

    This paper deals with cooling towers ageing. Our contribution is a method to determine which part of on site measured strain we are able to predict by means of simulations. As a result, we map a gap indicator on the structure. Calculations have been performed in three configurations. Comparing the values obtained in the three cases helps to determine which researches are worth to be done. Indeed, gap indicator reveals that: - THM can not be considered as the main and only ageing mechanism, so long as tower older than 10 years are examined. At least creep has to be taken into account too; - Gap indicator is sensitive to initial hydration conditions. Drying process before bringing into service should be estimated properly, taking into account the different construction steps; - Comparing different thermal conditions reveals that meteorological conditions have a significant influence on results. So, it will be interesting to differentiate the sunny and the shaded part of the tower when the measurements are done; - A large part of the values obtained can be explicated by construction defects. A study on this particular problematic seems to be essential. The four items mentioned must be considered as perspectives to improve the present method of simulations. (authors)

  14. Dynamic interaction effects in cooling tower groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental determination of the dynamic response of reinforced concrete cooling towers, taking into consideration group effects, are described. The results for an individual tower are thoroughly examined. A complete analysis is then performed for the critical wind orientations, for each tower in a six towers group. It's shown that ignoring group effects in the analysis may lead to a significant underestimation of the structural response. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Dwelling towers of Czech castles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durdík, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2009), s. 139-150 ISSN 1875-2896. [Meeting of Europa Nostra Scientific Council /44./. Kilkenny, 27.09.2008-02.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : castle * castellology * dwelling tower * donjon * keep * medieval archaeology * architecture * Bohemia * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  16. Mobile Tower Radiation Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Slman Hussein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clean environment is one of the most necessarily needs for Human life. So what about mobile effect and its towers pollution? It's effect on public health? Effect of huge groan of mobile networks. In counting of these dangers that will harm us from mobile towers in the far run, was the reasons for writing this research, came this study to look at the mobile towers and mobile effects possible health harm for the purpose of diagnosis of these effects and to suggest ways that can be used to avoid or minimize the risks.  Faraday Cage, is the solution suggested here, also there are many other solutions for this problem, a Faraday cage is a metallic enclosure that stops the entry or escape of an EM field. Also, two experiments are accomplished, first one showing the effect of Faraday cage on preventing the EMR from mobile cellphone, and the second  experiment gives the effect of Faraday cage on preventing the EMR from mobile tower EMR on human health listed in the research, that have been done by using conducting shell (grid design according the EM wavelength used by three company's mobile working in Iraq, the result show good isolations.

  17. US Marine Meteorological Journals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This series consists of volumes entitled 'Meteorological Journal' (a regulation Navy-issue publication) which were to be completed by masters of merchant vessels...

  18. Meteorology and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The science of meteorology is useful in providing information that will be of assistance in the choice of favorable plant locations and in the evaluation of significant relations between meteorology and the design, construction, and operation of plant and facilities, especially those from which radioactive or toxic products could be released to the atmosphere. Under a continuing contract with the Atomic Energy Commission, the Weather Bureau has carried out this study. Some of the meteorological techniques that are available are summarized, and their applications to the possible atmospheric pollution deriving from the use of atomic energy are described. Methods and suggestions for the collection, analysis, and use of meteorological data are presented. Separate abstracts are included of 12 chapters in this publication for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  19. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  20. Climate and meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations

  1. Climate and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  2. Atmospheric emissions from power plant cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheletti, W.

    2006-01-01

    Power plant recirculated cooling systems (cooling towers) are not typically thought of as potential sources of air pollution. However, atmospheric emissions can be important considerations that may influence cooling tower design and operation. This paper discusses relevant U.S. environmental regulations for potential atmospheric pollutants from power plant cooling towers, and various methods for estimating and controlling these emissions. (orig.)

  3. Cooling tower modification for intermittent operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, W.S.

    1975-03-01

    One of the cooling towers at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is being operated intermittently. The cooling tower has been modified to restrict air flow and to keep the tower from drying out. The modifications are relatively inexpensive, simple to operate, and have proved effective. (U.S.)

  4. Dry cross-flow cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fordyce, H E

    1975-01-23

    The invention deals with dry cooling towers in particular a circular cooling tower of the mechanical-draught construction whose operating characteristics should be independent of the wind direction. The recycling of the hot air should be as low as possible without necessitating high fan or natural-draught shafts, so that the costs of the tower can be brought down to a minimum.

  5. LBA-ECO CD-10 Temperature Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a single text file which reports temperature measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower Site. This site is in...

  6. LBA-ECO CD-10 Temperature Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains a single text file which reports temperature measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower Site. This...

  7. Origin and prevention of infection with Legionella pneumophila through cooling towers and evaporative cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Roebbecke, R.

    1994-01-01

    Evaporative cooling towers and industrial ventilator cooling towers have repeatedly been described as the origin of Legionnaires' disease. This article describes the design and function of cooling towers and evaporative cooling towers, sums up knowledge on the colonization of such systems with Legionella pneumophila, and describes conditions permitting the transmission of Legionella. Furthermore, design, maintenance, cleaning and disinfection measures are indicated which are believed to reduce the risk of infection through industrial and evaporative cooling towers. (orig.) [de

  8. The WACMOS-ET project – Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Michel, D.; Jimé nez, C.; Miralles, Diego G.; Jung, M.; Hirschi, M.; Ershadi, Ali; Martens, B.; McCabe, Matthew; Fisher, J. B.; Mu, Q.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Wood, E. F.; Ferná ndez-Prieto, D.

    2016-01-01

    The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy – EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project has compiled a forcing data set covering the period 2005–2007 that aims to maximize the exploitation of European Earth Observations data sets for evapotranspiration (ET) estimation. The data set was used to run four established ET algorithms: the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL), the Penman–Monteith algorithm from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). In addition, in situ meteorological data from 24 FLUXNET towers were used to force the models, with results from both forcing sets compared to tower-based flux observations. Model performance was assessed on several timescales using both sub-daily and daily forcings. The PT-JPL model and GLEAM provide the best performance for both satellite- and tower-based forcing as well as for the considered temporal resolutions. Simulations using the PM-MOD were mostly underestimated, while the SEBS performance was characterized by a systematic overestimation. In general, all four algorithms produce the best results in wet and moderately wet climate regimes. In dry regimes, the correlation and the absolute agreement with the reference tower ET observations were consistently lower. While ET derived with in situ forcing data agrees best with the tower measurements (R2  =  0.67), the agreement of the satellite-based ET estimates is only marginally lower (R2  =  0.58). Results also show similar model performance at daily and sub-daily (3-hourly) resolutions. Overall, our validation experiments against in situ measurements indicate that there is no single best-performing algorithm across all biome and forcing types. An extension of the evaluation to a larger selection of 85 towers (model inputs resampled to a

  9. The WACMOS-ET project – Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Michel, D.

    2016-02-23

    The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy – EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project has compiled a forcing data set covering the period 2005–2007 that aims to maximize the exploitation of European Earth Observations data sets for evapotranspiration (ET) estimation. The data set was used to run four established ET algorithms: the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL), the Penman–Monteith algorithm from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). In addition, in situ meteorological data from 24 FLUXNET towers were used to force the models, with results from both forcing sets compared to tower-based flux observations. Model performance was assessed on several timescales using both sub-daily and daily forcings. The PT-JPL model and GLEAM provide the best performance for both satellite- and tower-based forcing as well as for the considered temporal resolutions. Simulations using the PM-MOD were mostly underestimated, while the SEBS performance was characterized by a systematic overestimation. In general, all four algorithms produce the best results in wet and moderately wet climate regimes. In dry regimes, the correlation and the absolute agreement with the reference tower ET observations were consistently lower. While ET derived with in situ forcing data agrees best with the tower measurements (R2  =  0.67), the agreement of the satellite-based ET estimates is only marginally lower (R2  =  0.58). Results also show similar model performance at daily and sub-daily (3-hourly) resolutions. Overall, our validation experiments against in situ measurements indicate that there is no single best-performing algorithm across all biome and forcing types. An extension of the evaluation to a larger selection of 85 towers (model inputs resampled to a

  10. A Method for Evaluation of Model-Generated Vertical Profiles of Meteorological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    evaluated WRF output for the boundary layer over Svalbard in the Arctic in terms of height above ground compared to tower and tethered balloon ...Valparaiso, Chile; 2011. Dutsch ML. Evaluation of the WRF model based on observations made by controlled meteorological balloons in the atmospheric

  11. Real time quality control of meteorological data used in SRP's emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.

    1980-05-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory's WIND minicomputer system allows quick and accurate assessment of an accidental release at the Savannah River Plant using data from eight meteorological towers. The accuracy of the assessment is largely determined by the accuracy of the meteorological data; therefore quality control is important in an emergency response system. Real-time quality control of this data will be added to the WIND system to automatically identify inaccurate data. Currently, the system averages the measurements from the towers to minimize the influence of inaccurate data being used in calculations. The computer code used in the real-time quality control has been previously used to identify inaccurate measurements from the archived tower data

  12. Meteorology Products - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC › Meteorology Products FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info Meteorology Products Global

  13. Integration of Small Solar tower Systems into Distributed Power Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-paks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leadings to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begum. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostat configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs.

  14. Integration of Small Solar Tower Systems Into Distributed Power Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S.

    1999-01-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-parks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leading to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begun. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostats configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs

  15. Hybrid Tower, Designing Soft Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders

    2015-01-01

    and constraint solvers and more rigorous Finite Element methods supporting respectively design analysis and form finding and performance evaluation and verification. The second investigation describes the inter-scalar feedback loops between design at the macro scale (overall structural behaviour), meso scale...... (membrane reinforcement strategy) and micro scale (design of bespoke textile membrane). The paper concludes with a post construction analysis. Comparing structural and environmental data, the predicted and the actual performance of tower are evaluated and discussed....

  16. Fire analog: a comparison between fire plumes and energy center cooling tower plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1977-10-01

    Thermal plumes or convection columns associated with large fires are compared to thermal plumes from cooling towers and proposed energy centers to evaluate the fire analog concept. Energy release rates of mass fires are generally larger than for single or small groups of cooling towers but are comparable to proposed large energy centers. However, significant physical differences exist between cooling tower plumes and fire plumes. Cooling tower plumes are generally dominated by ambient wind, stability and turbulence conditions. Fire plumes, depending on burning rates and other factors, can transform into convective columns which may cause the fire behavior to become more violent. This transformation can cause strong inflow winds and updrafts, turbulence and concentrated vortices. Intense convective columns may interact with ambient winds to create significant downwind effects such as wakes and Karman vortex streets. These characteristics have not been observed with cooling tower plumes to date. The differences in physical characteristics between cooling tower and fire plumes makes the fire analog concept very questionable even though the approximate energy requirements appear to be satisfied in case of large energy centers. Additional research is suggested in studying the upper-level plume characteristics of small experimental fires so this information can be correlated with similar data from cooling towers. Numerical simulation of fires and proposed multiple cooling tower systems could also provide comparative data.

  17. Collapse and pull - down analysis of high voltage electricity transmission towers subjected to cyclonic wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ammar; Arthur, Craig; Edwards, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Bulk electricity transmission lines are linear assets that can be very exposed to wind effects, particularly where they traverse steep topography or open coastal terrain in cyclonic regions. Interconnected nature of the lattice type towers and conductors also, present complex vulnerabilities. These relate to the direction of wind attack to the conductors and the cascading failure mechanisms in which the failure of a single tower has cascading effects on neighbouring towers. Such behaviour is exacerbated by the finely tuned nature of tower design which serves to minimize cost and reserve strength at design wind speeds. There is a clear need to better quantify the interdependent vulnerabilities of these critical infrastructure assets in the context of the severe wind hazard. This paper presents a novel methodology developed for the Critical Infrastructure Protection Modelling and Analysis (CIPMA) capability for assessing local wind speeds and the likelihood of tower failure for a range of transmission tower and conductor types. CIPMA is a program managed by the Federal Attorney-General's Department and Geoscience Australia is leading the technical development. The methodology then involves the development of heuristically derived vulnerability models that are consistent with Australian industry experience and full-scale static tower testing results, considering isolated tower loss along with three interdependent failure mechanisms to give overall likelihoods of failure.

  18. Sicilian Castles and Coastal Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Scott

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While much attention has been paid to the development of castles as the hallmark architectural symbol of the Middle Ages, less attention has been given to the changes in European defensive strategies that occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries. It was at this time when the modern nations of Europe began to take form, as sea-based trade between distant nations took precedence over land-based trade routes. This paper examines how this transformation manifested in the defensive structures of Sicily, Italy, where the hilltop castles of the Middle Ages gradually gave way to a more cohesive network of coastal towers around the island. Putting this transition in its historical context, presenting an anthropological model from which to view this transition, and using geospatial methods to track these changes, the results of this study indicate that as defensive towers began to dominate the Sicilian coast around the 16th century, their command over the environment was no greater than that of the feudal castles which were still in use. Yet, unlike the castles of feudal lords, these towers represented an island-wide system of defense and the beginning of an adherence to a more centralized power structure then seen previously.

  19. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  20. Meteorology in site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    During the site selection and design phases of a plant, meteorological assistance must be based on past records, usually accumulated at stations not actually on the site. These preliminary atadvices will be averages and extremes that might be expected. After a location has been chosen and work has begun, current and forecast weather conditions become of immediate concern. On-site meteorological observations and forecasts have many applications to the operating program of an atomic energy site. Requirements may range from observations of the daily minimum temperatures to forecasts of radiation dosages from airborne clouds

  1. Meteorological data summaries for the TFTR from March 1984 to February 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolibal, J.; Ku, L.P.; Liew, S.L.; Pierce, C.

    1985-06-01

    This report reviews the first year of meteorological data gathered for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) from March 1, 1984 to February 28, 1985. The meteorological station at TFTR is located at D-Site, to the east of the motor generator building as shown in Fig. 1. The station consists of a 60 m tower which is instrumented at 10, 30, and 60 m along with the associated equipment for data acquisition and logging. Instrumentation for the tower consists of measuring the temperature, wind speed, wind direction, dew point, and the standard deviation of the horizontal wind direction. The purpose of the station is to gather site specific meteorological data to assess atmospheric transport and dispersion for TFTR

  2. A Meteorological Supersite for Aviation and Cold Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Agelin-Chaab, M.; Komar, J.; Elfstrom, G.; Boudala, F.; Zhou, B.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand atmospheric boundary layer processes and parameters, and to evaluate physical processes for aviation applications using data from a supersite observing site. Various meteorological sensors, including a weather and environmental unmanned aerial vehicle (WE-UAV), and a fog and snow tower (FSOS) observations are part of the project. The PanAm University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) Meteorological Supersite (PUMS) observations are being collected from April 2015 to date. The FSOS tower gathers observations related to rain, snow, fog, and visibility, aerosols, solar radiation, and wind and turbulence, as well as surface and sky temperature. The FSOSs are located at three locations at about 450-800 m away from the PUMS supersite. The WE-UAV measurements representing aerosol, wind speed and direction, as well as temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) are provided during clear weather conditions. Other measurements at the PUMS site include cloud backscattering profiles from CL51 ceilometer, MWR observations of liquid water content (LWC), T, and RH, and Microwave Rain Radar (MRR) reflectivity profile, as well as the present weather type, snow water depth, icing rate, 3D-ultrasonic wind and turbulence, and conventional meteorological observations from compact weather stations, e.g., WXTs. The results based on important weather event studies, representing fog, snow, rain, blowing snow, wind gust, planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind research for UAV, and icing conditions are given. The microphysical parameterizations and analysis processes for each event are provided, but the results should not be generalized for all weather events and be used cautiously. Results suggested that integrated observing systems based on data from a supersite as well as satellite sites can provide better information applicable to aviation meteorology, including PBL weather research, validation of numerical weather model predictions, and

  3. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  4. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Hong, Suk Boong [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-01

    Problem shooting in tower structure, sensor installation, earth, and cabling have been done with integrated field-test, establishment of data acquisition system, and instrument calibration since the completion of the main tower construction in this year. Procedure guide was also made for the effective management covering instrument operation, calibration and repair. Real measurement has been done during two months from this October after whole integration of equipments. Occurrence of nocturnal inversion layer, fogging, and frequent stable condition of atmospheric stability were shown as the analysis results of measured data which well represented seasonal and regional characteristics in the site. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS(data acquision system) where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. (Author).

  5. The effect of a tall tower on flow and dispersion through a model urban neighborhood: part 2. Pollutant dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixey, Laurie A; Heist, David K; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Bowker, George E; Perry, Steven G; Wiener, Russell W

    2009-12-01

    This article is the second in a two-paper series presenting results from wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of flow and dispersion in an idealized model urban neighborhood. Pollutant dispersion results are presented and discussed for a model neighborhood that was characterized by regular city blocks of three-story row houses with a single 12-story tower located at the downwind edge of one of these blocks. The tower had three significant effects on pollutant dispersion in the surrounding street canyons: drawing the plume laterally towards the tower, greatly enhancing the vertical dispersion of the plume in the wake of the tower, and significantly decreasing the residence time of pollutants in the wake of the tower. In the wind tunnel, tracer gas released in the avenue lee of the tower, but several blocks away laterally, was pulled towards the tower and lifted in the wake of the tower. The same lateral movement of the pollutant was seen in the next avenue, which was approximately 2.5 tower heights downwind of the tower. The tower also served to ventilate the street canyon directly in its wake more rapidly than the surrounding areas. This was evidenced by CFD simulations of concentration decay where the residence time of pollutants lee of the 12-story tower was found to be less than half the residence time behind a neighboring three-story building. This same phenomenon of rapid vertical dispersion lee of a tower among an array of smaller buildings was also demonstrated in a separate set of wind tunnel experiments using an array of cubical blocks. A similar decrease in the residence time was observed when the height of one block was increased.

  6. The future cooling tower; Fremtidens koeletaarn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, C.H. (Vestas Aircoil A/S, Lem St. (Denmark)); Schneider, P. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Haaning, N. (Ramboell A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Lund, K. (Nyrup Plast A/S, Nyrup (Denmark)); Soerensen, Ole (MultiWing A/S, Vedbaek (Denmark)); Dalsgaard, T. (Silhorko A/S, Skanderborg (Denmark)); Pedersen, Michael (Skive Kommune, Skive (Denmark))

    2011-03-15

    This project has designed and built a pilot-scale cooling tower with an output of up to 100 kW for which good correlation has been ascertained between measured and calculated values for output and pressure loss. The new cooling tower will save approximately 15% of electricity consumption compared with the widespread dry coolers. The pilot tower uses rainwater so that both water consumption and electricity consumption are saved in softening plants. On the basis of this cooling tower, models have been made and these have been implemented in PackCalc II in order to calculate electricity and other operating savings. (Energy 11)

  7. Atmospheric cooling tower with reduced plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, D.M.; Lagoutte, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cooling tower, usable in thermal-electric power plants, has a vertical chimney having a central water tower fed with water to be cooled, a pipe network distributing water coming from the water tower and dispersing it in flows streaming down on a packing, and a basin to receive the water cooled by contact with an air flow passing through apertures at the lower part of the chimney and flowing up through the chimney. The cooling tower has inlet air pipes for the said apertures to a zone of the chimney situated beyond the streaming zone, the said pipes being arranged such their surface is swept by water to be cooled [fr

  8. Cooling towers of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikyska, L.

    1986-01-01

    The specifications are given of cooling towers of foreign nuclear power plants and a comparison is made with specifications of cooling towers with natural draught in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants. Shortcomings are pointed out in the design of cooling towers of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants which have been derived from conventional power plant design. The main differences are in the adjustment of the towers for winter operation and in the designed spray intensity. The comparison of selected parameters is expressed graphically. (J.B.)

  9. Mechanical Properties of UHPFRC Joint for FORIDA Wind Turbine Tower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    FORIDA Development, Vestas and Aalborg University are currently undertaking the project “FORIDA Hybrid Towers – The towers for next generation of wind turbines”, aiming to develop a new wind turbine tower structure (The FORIDA Tower) for very tall turbines. The tower is going to be a hybrid of ma...

  10. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  11. Virtual Meteorological Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brinzila

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual meteorological center, computer based with Internet possibility transmission of the information is presented. Circumstance data is collected with logging field meteorological station. The station collects and automatically save data about the temperature in the air, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and wind direction, rain gauge, solar radiation and air quality. Also can perform sensors test, analyze historical data and evaluate statistical information. The novelty of the system is that it can publish data over the Internet using LabVIEW Web Server capabilities and deliver a video signal to the School TV network. Also the system performs redundant measurement of temperature and humidity and was improved using new sensors and an original signal conditioning module.

  12. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. An analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station is presented. (Author) [pt

  13. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. Finally, it is presented an analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station. (Author) [pt

  14. Pantex Plant meteorological monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.F.

    1993-07-01

    The current meteorological monitoring program of the US Department of Energy's Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas, is described in detail. Instrumentation, meteorological data collection and management, and program management are reviewed. In addition, primary contacts are noted for instrumentation, calibration, data processing, and alternative databases. The quality assurance steps implemented during each portion of the meteorological monitoring program are also indicated

  15. Legionella in industrial cooling towers: monitoring and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, A; Verani, M; Battistini, R

    2010-01-01

    Legionella contamination of industrial cooling towers has been identified as the cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of legionellosis among people living nearby. To evaluate and control Legionella contamination in industrial cooling tower water, microbiological monitoring was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the following different disinfection treatments: (i) continuous chlorine concentration of 0.01 ppm and monthly chlorine shock dosing (5 ppm) on a single cooling tower; (ii) continuous chlorine concentration of 0.4 ppm and monthly shock of biocide P3 FERROCID 8580 (BKG Water Solution) on seven towers. Legionella spp. and total bacterial count (TBC) were determined 3 days before and after each shock dose. Both strategies demonstrated that when chlorine was maintained at low levels, the Legionella count grew to levels above 10(4) CFU l(-1) while TBC still remained above 10(8 )CFU l(-1). Chlorine shock dosing was able to eliminate bacterial contamination, but only for 10-15 days. Biocide shock dosing was also insufficient to control the problem when the disinfectant concentration was administered at only one point in the plant and at the concentration of 30 ppm. On the other hand, when at a biocide concentration of 30 or 50 ppm was distributed throughout a number of points, depending on the plant hydrodynamics, Legionella counts decreased significantly and often remained below the warning limit. Moreover, the contamination of water entering the plant and the presence of sediment were also important factors for Legionella growth. For effective decontamination of outdoor industrial cooling towers, disinfectants should be distributed in a targeted way, taking into account the possible sources of contamination. The data of the research permitted to modify the procedure of disinfection for better reduce the water and aerosol contamination and consequently the exposure risk.

  16. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  17. Women in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  18. On the prospects for dry cooling tower building in FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhurinskij, M.B.; Zlotin, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of dry cooling towers for NPPs are considered. Construction of a number of cooling towers in FRY are described. The advisability of building cooling towers of a combined type - with wet aud dry sections is noted

  19. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingersh, Lee Jay [Westminster, CO

    2008-12-30

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  20. Easy steel tower elevation. Development of a steel tower elevating aiding device; Tetto shoko wo rakuraku to. Tetto shoko hojo sochi no kaihatsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobe, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-02-10

    Elevation of a transmission line steel tower is performed by an operator`s own force upon fixing a safety device to prevent a fall on a safety wire (SW) previously installed on a specified tower leg. It is a considerable burden for the operator to move the tower having a height of 80 to 100 m up and down several times a day. In order to reduce the fatigue, a portable, small and light-weight steel tower elevation aiding device was developed. The existing SW is used to fix the device, requiring no additional facility to be fixed on the tower. Safety assurance depends on the safety device on the SW as currently used. The device has pulling force of 50 kgf (the device operates in a range of 4 to 50 kgf to assure workability in elevation and stopping), and elevation speed of 15 to 20 m/minute (equivalent to the present work. The braking force can be adjusted in three steps at descent according to the ability of the operator). An Ni-hydrogen battery is used, capable of two returns on a tower per charge. Considering the device to be transported in mountainous area, the shape is such that a single unit can be put into a backpack. The device can also be used in general construction sites. (NEDO)

  1. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L.; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  2. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  3. Cooling towers - terms and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    In the field of cooling tower construction and operation, the use of publications has shown that a systematic glossary has not yet been developed. Therefore a dictionary of the terms used in this field, together with their clear definitions, is urgently required. This work has been started by the V.I.K. (Association for the Industrial Power Economy) in Essen and completed by the VDI-Group 'Energy Engineering'. Because of the strong international links and the increasing overseas trade in this field also the corresponding terms in other languages, English, French and Spanish are included. As to make it possible to find the German terms and definitions when starting from a foreign language, alphabetical lists are included for the various languages giving the number of the corresponding German term. In such cases where the technical term used in the United States is not identical with the corresponding term used in the United Kingdom, both terms are included. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. The continuous tower of scalar fields as a system of interacting dark matter–dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce a new parameterisation for the coupling Q in interacting dark matter and dark energy models by connecting said models with the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields model. Based upon the existence of a dark matter and a dark energy sectors in the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields, a simplification is considered for the evolution of a single scalar field from the tower, validated in this paper. This allows for the results obtained with the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields model to match those of an interacting dark matter–dark energy system, considering that the energy transferred from one fluid to the other is given by the energy of the scalar fields that start oscillating at a given time, rather than considering that the energy transference depends on properties of the whole fluids that are interacting.

  6. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  7. Assessing the environmental health relevance of cooling towers--a systematic review of legionellosis outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Sandra M; Gerstner, Doris G; Brenner, Bernhard; Höller, Christiane; Liebl, Bernhard; Herr, Caroline E W

    2014-03-01

    Bioaerosols from cooling towers are often suspected to cause community-acquired legionellosis outbreaks. Although Legionella infections can mostly be assigned to the emission sources, uncertainty exists about the release and distribution into the air, the occurrence of the respirable virulent form and the level of the infective concentration. Our study aimed to evaluate studies on legionellosis outbreaks attributed to cooling towers published within the last 11 years by means of a systematic review of the literature. 19 legionellosis outbreaks were identified affecting 12 countries. Recurring events were observed in Spain and Great Britain. In total, 1609 confirmed cases of legionellosis and a case-fatality rate of approximately 6% were reported. Duration of outbreaks was 65 days on average. For diagnosis the urinary antigen test was mainly used. Age, smoking, male sex and underlying diseases (diabetes, immunodeficiency) could be confirmed as risk factors. Smoking and underlying diseases were the most frequent risk factors associated with legionellosis in 11 and 10 of the 19 studies, respectively. The meteorological conditions varied strongly. Several studies reported a temporal association of outbreaks with inadequate maintenance of the cooling systems. A match of clinical and environmental isolates by serotyping and/or molecular subtyping could be confirmed in 84% of outbreaks. Legionella-contaminated cooling towers as environmental trigger, in particular in the neighbourhood of susceptible individuals, can cause severe health problems and even death. To prevent and control Legionella contamination of cooling towers, maintenance actions should focus on low-emission cleaning procedures of cooling towers combined with control measurements of water and air samples. Procedures allowing rapid detection and risk assessment in the case of outbreaks are essential for adequate public health measures. Systematic registration of cooling towers will facilitate the

  8. Performance characteristics of a shower cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xiaoni; Liu Zhenyan; Li Dandan

    2007-01-01

    This study was prompted by the need to design towers for applications in which, due to salt deposition on the packing and subsequent blockage, the use of tower packing is not practical. In contrast to conventional cooling towers, the cooling tower analyzed in this study is void of fill. By means of efficient atomization nozzles, a shower cooling tower (SCT) is possible to be applied in industry, which, in terms of water cooling, energy saving and equipment investing, is better than conventional packed cooling towers. However, no systematic thermodynamic numerical method could be found in the literature up to now. Based on the kinetic model and mass and heat transfer model, this paper has developed a one dimensional model for studying the motional process and evaporative cooling process occurring at the water droplet level in the SCT. The finite difference approach is used for three motional processes to obtain relative parameters in each different stage, and the possibility of the droplets being entrained outside the tower is fully analyzed. The accuracy of this model is checked by practical operational results from a full scale prototype in real conditions, and some exclusive factors that affect the cooling characteristics for the SCT are analyzed in detail. This study provides the theoretical foundation for practical application of the SCT in industry

  9. Statistics Analysis Measures Painting of Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zacharopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the cooling tower of Megalopolis (construction 1975 and protection from corrosive environment. The maintenance of the cooling tower took place in 2008. The cooling tower was badly damaged from corrosion of reinforcement. The parabolic cooling towers (factory of electrical power are a typical example of construction, which has a special aggressive environment. The protection of cooling towers is usually achieved through organic coatings. Because of the different environmental impacts on the internal and external side of the cooling tower, a different system of paint application is required. The present study refers to the damages caused by corrosion process. The corrosive environments, the application of this painting, the quality control process, the measures and statistics analysis, and the results were discussed in this study. In the process of quality control the following measurements were taken into consideration: (1 examination of the adhesion with the cross-cut test, (2 examination of the film thickness, and (3 controlling of the pull-off resistance for concrete substrates and paintings. Finally, this study refers to the correlations of measurements, analysis of failures in relation to the quality of repair, and rehabilitation of the cooling tower. Also this study made a first attempt to apply the specific corrosion inhibitors in such a large structure.

  10. The Schmehausen cable net cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaich, J.; Mayr, G.; Weber, P.; Jasch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The prototype of a large cable net shell as a natural-draught cooling tower for the THTR-300 is presented. Results of wind tunnel tests and calculations are given, and the capacity is discussed. Design features of the main components are presented in illustrations and are described with regard to the construction process of the cooling tower. Finally, it is shown that the cable net cooling tower is a suitable construction for large dimensions and caving-in or seismic areas. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  12. Annual Meteorological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single-year summaries of observations at Weather Bureau and cooperative stations across the United States. Predominantly the single page Form 1066, which includes...

  13. Evaluation of plume potential and plume abatement of evaporative cooling towers in a subtropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xinhua; Wang Shengwei; Ma Zhenjun

    2008-01-01

    Hong Kong is a typical subtropical region with frequently high humidity in late spring and summer seasons. Plume from evaporative cooling towers, which service air-conditioning systems of civil buildings, has aroused public concerns since 2000 when the fresh water evaporative cooling towers were allowed to be used for high energy efficiency and environmental issues. This paper presents the evaluation of the plume potential and its effect on the sizing of the plume abatement system in a large commercial office building in Hong Kong for practical application. This evaluation was conducted based on a dynamic simulation platform using the typical meteorological year of Hong Kong since the occurrence of the plume heavily depends on the state conditions of the exhaust air from cooling towers and the ambient air, while the state condition of the exhaust air is determined by the total building cooling load and the control strategies of cooling towers employed mainly for improving energy efficiency. The results show that the control strategies have a significant effect on the plume potential and further affect the system design and sizing of the plume abatement system

  14. Meteorology ans solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Oliver

    When in the second half of the 19th century both solar physics and astrophysics came into existence, various solar phenomena were described by analogies encountered in the terrestrial atmosphere. For a certain time, meteorology played a central role in research on solar processes. At first glance, this may appear as a curious and old-fashioned specialty. However, solar physics owes its first insights into solar structure to various analogies in terrestrial atmospheric studies. The present investigation intends to elucidate this fact, to present details of the historical development, and to demonstrate how our present knowledge in certain fields is based on considerations which were originally taken from the description of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  15. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  16. Design and operation of hybrid cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, W.

    1987-01-01

    The first hybrid cooling tower at a coal-fired power station with a waste heat output of 550 MW has been in operation since the middle of 1985. Experience during the construction stage and the initial period of operation has confirmed the correctness of the design standards and of the design itself and, of course, also offers a wealth of knowledge to be observed on future construction projects. A second cooling tower of similar design is being erected at the present time. This cooling tower serves a power station unit with 2500 MW of waste heat output. The programme for this cooling tower offers the possibility for all the accumulated and evaluated experience to be of influence both on the design and also on the method of operation. This paper reports on the details. (orig.) [de

  17. Dry cooling towers - the Schmehausen example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.

    1977-01-01

    In a prototype, there are often problems which require special static, constructive, and assembling measures for their solution. In the case of the Schmehausen dry cooling tower, the demands on the assembling technology are particularly high. (orig.) [de

  18. Cooling tower water circuits with raceways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicollet, G.

    1981-02-01

    Two physical models built at the National Hydraulics Laboratory in Chatou have led to the determination of the design of the works. This new design economizes 4 to 5 MW on pumping power for each cooling tower [fr

  19. LaGuardia air traffic control tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate FAA and its LaGuardia Airport employees past, : present, and future this booklet outlines the airports history and accomplishments and includes copies of some of the photographs in the : air traffic control towers history g...

  20. Damping of wind turbine tower vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Pedersen, Mikkel Melters

    Damping of wind turbine vibrations by supplemental dampers is a key ingredient for the continuous use of monopiles as support for offshore wind turbines. The present thesis consists of an extended summary with four parts and appended papers [P1-P4] concerning novel strategies for damping of tower...... dominated vibrations.The first part of the thesis presents the theoretical framework for implementation of supplemental dampers in wind turbines. It is demonstrated that the feasibility of installing dampers at the bottom of the tower is significantly increased when placing passive or semiactive dampers...... in a stroke amplifying brace, which amplifies the displacement across the damper and thus reduces the desired level of damper force. For optimal damping of the two lowest tower modes, a novel toggle-brace concept for amplifying the bending deformation of the tower is presented. Numerical examples illustrate...

  1. Wind towers architecture, climate and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Mehdi N; Sayigh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a holistic treatment of wind towers, from their underlying scientific principles to design and operation. Includes suggestions for optimization based on the authors' own research findings from recent analytical studies.

  2. Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) Program. Annual progress report, October 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    The METER (Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases) Program was organized to develop and verify methods for predicting the maximum amount of energy that can be dissipated to the atmosphere (through cooling towers or cooling ponds) from proposed nuclear energy centers without affecting...the local and regional environment. The initial program scope (mathematical modeling, laboratory and field experimentation, and societal impact assessment) has now narrowed to emphasis on the acquisition of field data of substantial quality and extent

  3. Good towers of function Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Nhut

    Algebraic curves are used in many different areas, including error-correcting codes. In such applications, it is important that the algebraic curve C meets some requirements. The curve must be defined over a finite field GF(q) with q elements, and then the curve also should have many points over...... this field. There are limits on how many points N(C) an algebraic curve C defined over a finite field can have. An invariant of the curve which is important in this context is the curve’s genus g(C). Hasse and Weil proved that N(C)≤q+1+2g(C) √q and this bound can in general not be improved. However...... of q. In this thesis, we study a construction using Drinfeld modules that produces explicitly defined families of algebraic curves that asymptotically achieve Ihara’s constant. Such families of curves can also be described using towers of function fields. Restated in this language the aim...

  4. Wind tower with vertical rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, A

    1978-08-03

    The invention concerns a wind tower with vertical rotors. A characteristic is that the useful output of the rotors is increased by the wind pressure, which is guided to the rotors at the central opening and over the whole height of the structure by duct slots in the inner cells. These duct slots start behind the front nose of the inner cell and lead via the transverse axis of the pillar at an angle into the space between the inner cells and the cell body. This measure appreciably increases the useful output of the rotors, as the rotors do not have to provide any displacement work from their output, but receive additional thrust. The wind pressure pressing from inside the rotor and accelerating from the outside produces a better outflow of the wind from the power plant pillar with only small tendency to turbulence, which appreciably improves the effect of the adjustable turbulence smoothers, which are situated below the rotors over the whole height.

  5. Experimental Investigation on Strengthening of Bolted Connections in Transmission/Communication Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, R.; Prasad Rao, N.; Rokade, R. P.; Umesha, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    Due to increase in demand for power supply and increase in bandwidth for communication industry, the existing transmission line (TL) and communication towers needs to be strengthened. The strengthening of existing tower is economical rather than installation of new towers due to constraints in acquisition of land. The size of conductors have to be increased or additional number of antenna needs to be installed in existing TL/communication tower respectively. The compression and tension capacity of members in the existing towers have to be increased to sustain the additional loads due to wind and self-weight of these components. The tension capacity enhancement of existing angle sections in live line condition without power shut-down is a challenging task. In the present study, the use of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) plate/angle sections is explored to strengthen existing bolted connections in TL/communication towers. Experimental investigation conducted at component level on strengthening of existing two types of single cover steel butt joint, one made of steel plate and another joint made of steel angle sections respectively. First series of experiment conducted on strengthening the connection using GFRP plate/cleat angle sections. The second series of strengthening experiment is conducted using steel plate/angle sections to replace GFRP sections. The load sharing behaviour of strengthened GFRP and steel section is compared and suitable recommendations are given.

  6. Wind Turbine Tower Vibration Modeling and Monitoring by the Nonlinear State Estimation Technique (NSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With appropriate vibration modeling and analysis the incipient failure of key components such as the tower, drive train and rotor of a large wind turbine can be detected. In this paper, the Nonlinear State Estimation Technique (NSET has been applied to model turbine tower vibration to good effect, providing an understanding of the tower vibration dynamic characteristics and the main factors influencing these. The developed tower vibration model comprises two different parts: a sub-model used for below rated wind speed; and another for above rated wind speed. Supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA data from a single wind turbine collected from March to April 2006 is used in the modeling. Model validation has been subsequently undertaken and is presented. This research has demonstrated the effectiveness of the NSET approach to tower vibration; in particular its conceptual simplicity, clear physical interpretation and high accuracy. The developed and validated tower vibration model was then used to successfully detect blade angle asymmetry that is a common fault that should be remedied promptly to improve turbine performance and limit fatigue damage. The work also shows that condition monitoring is improved significantly if the information from the vibration signals is complemented by analysis of other relevant SCADA data such as power performance, wind speed, and rotor loads.

  7. A highly efficient Francis turbine designed for energy recovery in cooling towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqing Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In China, cooling water entering cooling towers still retains surplus pressure between 39,240 and 147,150 Pa. In order to utilize this wasted energy, it is suggested that the surplus water energy can be harnessed to drive a type of hydroturbine installed in the inner platform of cooling tower and make the fan rotate via its coupled shafts. However, conventional hydroturbines are not suited for this job because of their low efficiency or unmatched rotating speed with that of the fan under the operating conditions of cooling towers. In this article, according to the requirements of turbine work environment in cooling towers, a new type of hydroturbine, Francis turbine with ultra-low specific speed (ns  = 50 m.kW, was designed to replace the fan motor in a cooling tower. Primarily, the shape, position, and number of runner blades were designed and optimized through theoretical analyses and computational fluid dynamics simulations. Additionally, metal elliptical volute and single-row ring guide vanes were applied to scale down the structural dimensions. Finally, the optimal scheme of the new Francis turbine was proven to have a high efficiency of 88% and good operation stability through testing of a physical model and can achieve the goal of harvesting renewable energy in the cooling tower.

  8. Experimental Investigation on Strengthening of Bolted Connections in Transmission/Communication Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, R.; Prasad Rao, N.; Rokade, R. P.; Umesha, P. K.

    2018-06-01

    Due to increase in demand for power supply and increase in bandwidth for communication industry, the existing transmission line (TL) and communication towers needs to be strengthened. The strengthening of existing tower is economical rather than installation of new towers due to constraints in acquisition of land. The size of conductors have to be increased or additional number of antenna needs to be installed in existing TL/communication tower respectively. The compression and tension capacity of members in the existing towers have to be increased to sustain the additional loads due to wind and self-weight of these components. The tension capacity enhancement of existing angle sections in live line condition without power shut-down is a challenging task. In the present study, the use of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) plate/angle sections is explored to strengthen existing bolted connections in TL/communication towers. Experimental investigation conducted at component level on strengthening of existing two types of single cover steel butt joint, one made of steel plate and another joint made of steel angle sections respectively. First series of experiment conducted on strengthening the connection using GFRP plate/cleat angle sections. The second series of strengthening experiment is conducted using steel plate/angle sections to replace GFRP sections. The load sharing behaviour of strengthened GFRP and steel section is compared and suitable recommendations are given.

  9. Cooling tower water ozonation at Southern University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.C.; Knecht, A.T.; Trahan, D.B.; Yaghi, H.M.; Jackson, G.H.; Coppenger, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    Cooling-tower water is a critical utility for many industries. In the past, inexpensive water coupled with moderate regulation of discharge water led to the neglect of the cooling tower as an energy resource. Now, with the increased cost of chemical treatment and tough EPA rules and regulations, this situation is rapidly changing. The operator of the DOE Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge as well as many other industries are forced to develop an alternate method of water treatment. The cooling tower is one of the major elements in large energy systems. The savings accrued from a well engineered cooling tower can be a significant part of the overall energy conservation plan. During a short-term ozonation study between 1987-1988, the Y-12 Plant has been successful in eliminating the need for cooling tower treatment chemicals. However, the long-term impact was not available. Since April 1988, the ozone cooling water treatment study at the Y-12 Plant has been moved to the site at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The purpose of this continued study is to determine whether the use of ozonation on cooling towers is practical from an economic, technical and environmental standpoint. This paper discusses system design, operating parameter and performance testing of the ozonation system at Southern University

  10. Component for articulated offshore loading towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, H.

    1980-09-01

    The construction of offshore natural gas liquefaction plants must be regarded as technically feasible and the marketing prospects for LNG - a source of clean burning energy - appear excellent. Nevertheless, the optimum loading procedure for LNG tankers in the - sometimes adverse - offshore environment is still a matter under discussion by the experts - with a tendency to adopt and adapt well-proven components from the offshore crude oil sector. Here, articulated towers are in use for tankerloading and the crude oil is pumped at ambient temperature through the cardan joint of the tower itself. In the case of the cryogenic liquid LNG, this method would entail intolerable risks. Leaks and subsequent LNG spills within the tower joint will cause low temperature-embrittlement and most likely damage the cardan connection at the tower's base plate on the sea bed. The described submarine joint for ultra-cold liquids, which has the same cardanic properties as the cardan joint of the tower is completely separated from the latter. Thus a cryogenic leakage in this submarine joint will under no circumstance reach and affect the tower cardan.

  11. Biofouling control of industrial seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Albloushi, Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    The use of seawater in cooling towers for industrial applications has much merit in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries due to the scarcity and availability of fresh water. Seawater make-up in cooling towers is deemed the most feasible because of its unlimited supply in coastal areas. Such latent-heat removal with seawater in cooling towers is several folds more efficient than sensible heat extraction via heat exchangers. Operational challenges such as scaling, corrosion, and biofouling are a major challenge in conventional cooling towers, where the latter is also a major issue in seawater cooling towers. Biofouling can significantly hamper the efficiency of cooling towers. The most popular methods used in cooling treatment to control biofouling are disinfection by chlorination. However, the disadvantages of chlorination are formation of harmful disinfection byproducts in the presence of high organic loading and safety concerns in the storage of chlorine gas. In this study, the research focuses on biofouling control in seawater cooling towers by investigating two different approaches. The first strategy addresses the use of alternative oxidants (i.e. ozone micro-bubbles and chlorine dioxide) in treatment of cooling towers. The second strategy investigates removing nutrients in seawater using granular activated carbon filter column and ultrafiltration to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Laboratory bench-scale tests in terms of temperature, cycle of concentration, dosage, etc. indicated that, at lower oxidant dosages (total residual oxidant (TRO) equivalent = 0.1 mg/l Cl2), chlorine dioxide had a better disinfection effect than chlorine and ozone. The performance of oxidizing biocides at pilot scale, operating at assorted conditions, showed that for the disinfectants tested, ozone could remove 95 % bioactivity of total number of bacteria and algae followed by chlorine dioxide at 85%, while conventional chlorine dosing only gave 60% reduction in bioactivities

  12. Instruments for meteorological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This present rule has for objective to determine the means for meteorological measurement near a site of nuclear facility in which there is not a PWR power plant [fr

  13. Tower Based Load Measurements for Individual Pitch Control and Tower Damping of Wind Turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A A; Hugues-Salas, O; Savini, B; Keogh, W

    2016-01-01

    The cost of IPC has hindered adoption outside of Europe despite significant loading advantages for large wind turbines. In this work we presented a method for applying individual pitch control (including for higher-harmonics) using tower-top strain gauge feedback instead of blade-root strain gauge feedback. Tower-top strain gauges offer hardware savings of approximately 50% in addition to the possibility of easier access for maintenance and installation and requiring a less specialised skill-set than that required for applying strain gauges to composite blade roots. A further advantage is the possibility of using the same tower-top sensor array for tower damping control. This method is made possible by including a second order IPC loop in addition to the tower damping loop to reduce the typically dominating 3P content in tower-top load measurements. High-fidelity Bladed simulations show that the resulting turbine spectral characteristics from tower-top feedback IPC and from the combination of tower-top IPC and damping loops largely match those of blade-root feedback IPC and nacelle- velocity feedback damping. Lifetime weighted fatigue analysis shows that the methods allows load reductions within 2.5% of traditional methods. (paper)

  14. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  15. A Meteorological Distribution System for High Resolution Terrestrial Modeling (MicroMet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, G. E.; Elder, K.

    2004-12-01

    Spatially distributed terrestrial models generally require atmospheric forcing data on horizontal grids that are of higher resolution than available meteorological data. Furthermore, the meteorological data collected may not necessarily represent the area of interest's meteorological variability. To address these deficiencies, computationally efficient and physically realistic methods must be developed to take available meteorological data sets (e.g., meteorological tower observations) and generate high-resolution atmospheric-forcing distributions. This poster describes MicroMet, a quasi-physically-based, but simple meteorological distribution model designed to produce high-resolution (e.g., 5-m to 1-km horizontal grid increments) meteorological data distributions required to run spatially distributed terrestrial models over a wide variety of landscapes. The model produces distributions of the seven fundamental atmospheric forcing variables required to run most terrestrial models: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, incoming solar radiation, incoming longwave radiation, and precipitation. MicroMet includes a preprocessor that analyzes meteorological station data and identifies and repairs potential data deficiencies. The model uses known relationships between meteorological variables and the surrounding area (primarily topography) to distribute those variables over any given landscape. MicroMet performs two kinds of adjustments to available meteorological data: 1) when there are data at more than one location, at a given time, the data are spatially interpolated over the domain using a Barnes objective analysis scheme, and 2) physical sub-models are applied to each MicroMet variable to improve its realism at a given point in space and time with respect to the terrain. The three, 25-km by 25-km, Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) mesoscale study areas (MSAs: Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears) will be used as example Micro

  16. Aerodynamical errors on tower mounted wind speed measurements due to the presence of the tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Field measurements of wind speed from two lattice towers showed large differences for wind directions where the anemometers of both towers should be unaffected by any upstream obstacle. The wind speed was measured by cup anemometers mounted on booms along the side of the tower. A simple wind tunnel test indicates that the boom, for the studied conditions, could cause minor flow disturbances. A theoretical study, by means of simple 2D flow modelling of the flow around the mast, demonstrates that the tower itself could cause large wind flow disturbances. A theoretical study, based on simple treatment of the physics of motion of a cup anemometer, demonstrates that a cup anemometer is sensitive to velocity gradients across the cups and responds clearly to velocity gradients in the vicinity of the tower. Comparison of the results from the theoretical study and field tests show promising agreement. 2 refs, 8 figs

  17. The quantity of algae colonizing the inside face of cooling towers and the consequences for wear of the shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprosi, G.; Chauvel, D.

    1990-01-01

    These studies are part of the interdirectorate working group's mandate relating to lifespan project on cooling towers. Involving the collaboration of several divisions of Electricity de France: the Construction Division (SEPTEN). The Generation and Transmission Division (SPT) and the Research and Development Division (EAA). Among the biological colonies which proliferate in the cooling circuits of power stations, algae are broadly represented in the form of wall coatings which cover the inside face of cooling towers: shell algae. They can also grow at other points in the cooling circuit; in the cold water basin, in the fill, and, in some cooling towers, in the hot water basin. These plant organisms hamper the operation of power stations by clogging the grids located in the pipe from the cold water basin to the condenser. In addition, when algae come free of the shell, they remove micro-fragments of the concrete, which could accelerate wear. This paper presents the findings of studies conducted by the Aquatic and Atmospheric Department on the infestation of cooling towers by algae. In particular, the results of studies to evaluate the quantity of algae on the inside face of the shell of cooling towers. Many scenarios will be proposed, linked to the operation of the plant and to the local meteorological conditions

  18. The 3D Mesonet Concept: Extending Networked Surface Meteorological Tower Observations Through Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilson, P. B.; Fiebrich, C. A.; Huck, R.; Grimsley, J.; Salazar-Cerreno, J.; Carson, K.; Jacob, J.

    2017-12-01

    Fixed monitoring sites, such as those in the US National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) and the Oklahoma Mesonet provide valuable, high temporal resolution information about the atmosphere to forecasters and the general public. The Oklahoma Mesonet is comprised of a network of 120 surface sites providing a wide array of atmospheric measurements up to a height of 10 m with an update time of five minutes. The deployment of small unmanned aircraft to collect in-situ vertical measurements of the atmospheric state in conjunction with surface conditions has potential to significantly expand weather observation capabilities. This concept can enhance the safety of individuals and support commerce through improved observations and short-term forecasts of the weather and other environmental variables in the lower atmosphere. We report on a concept of adding the capability of collecting vertical atmospheric measurements (profiles) through the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) at remote Oklahoma sites deemed suitable for this application. While there are a number of other technologies currently available that can provide measurements of one or a few variables, the proposed UAS concept will be expandable and modular to accommodate several different sensor packages and provide accurate in-situ measurements in virtually all weather conditions. Such a system would facilitate off-site maintenance and calibration and would provide the ability to add new sensors as they are developed or as new requirements are identified. The small UAS must be capable of accommodating the weight of all sensor packages and have lighting, communication, and aircraft avoidance systems necessary to meet existing or future FAA regulations. The system must be able to operate unattended, which necessitates the inclusion of risk mitigation measures such as a detect and avoid radar and the ability to transmit and receive transponder signals. Moreover, the system should be able to assess local weather conditions (visibility, surface winds, and cloud height) and the integrity of the vehicle (system diagnostics, fuel level) before takeoff. We provide a notional concept of operations for a 3D Mesonet being considered, describe the technical configuration for one station in the network, and discuss plans for future development.

  19. BOREAS TF-8 NSA-OJP Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-8 team collected energy, CO2, and water vapor flux data at the BOREAS NSA-OJP site during the growing season of 1994 and most of the year for 1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  20. BOREAS TGB-4 NSA-BVP Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulet, Nigel T.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB-4) team measured the exchange of heat, water, and CO2 between a boreal forest beaver pond and the atmosphere in the Northern Study Area (NSA) for the ice-free period of BOREAS. The data cover the period of 28-May to 18-Sep-1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  1. Summary of tower designs for large horizontal axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, G. R.; Savino, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Towers for large horizontal axis wind turbines, machines with a rotor axis height above 30 meters and rated at more than 500 kW, have varied in configuration, materials of construction, type of construction, height, and stiffness. For example, the U.S. large HAWTs have utilized steel truss type towers and free-standing steel cylindrical towers. In Europe, the trend has been to use only free-standing and guyed cylindrical towers, but both steel and reinforced concrete have been used as materials of construction. These variations in materials of construction and type of construction reflect different engineering approaches to the design of cost effective towers for large HAWTs. Tower designs are the NASA/DOE Mod-5B presently being fabricated. Design goals and requirements that influence tower configuration, height and materials are discussed. In particular, experiences with United States large wind turbine towers are elucidated. Finally, current trends in tower designs for large HAWTs are highlighted.

  2. Structure of natural draft cooling towers, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishioka, Hitoshi; Sakamoto, Yukichi; Tsurusaki, Mamoru; Koshizawa, Koichi; Chiba, Toshio

    1976-01-01

    Thousands of natural draft cooling towers have been utilized, in Europe and America, as cooling systems of power plants or as countermeasures against thermal polution. Recently in Japan, demands for cooling tower systems have been increasing remarkably with the construction of large power plants and the legislation of environmental regulations. In view of the severe natural conditions in Japan such as strong wind and seismic loadings, etc., the establishment of the optimum design and construction method is essential for the building of safe and economical towers. In order to establish a comprehensive plan of a power plant cooling system of the appropriate structural type, the authors have made researches and experiments on design conditions, static and dynamic analyses, and comparative studies of various structural types such as reinforced concrete thin-shell structures, steel framed structures and composite shell segment structures, based on the investigation results of towers in Europe and America. These results are presented in three reports, the 1st of which concerns cooling tower shells as are hereinafter described. (auth.)

  3. Mycobacteria in Finnish cooling tower waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Paulin, Lars; Kusnetsov, Jaana

    2014-04-01

    Evaporative cooling towers are water systems used in, e.g., industry and telecommunication to remove excess heat by evaporation of water. Temperatures of cooling waters are usually optimal for mesophilic microbial growth and cooling towers may liberate massive amounts of bacterial aerosols. Outbreaks of legionellosis associated with cooling towers have been known since the 1980's, but occurrences of other potentially pathogenic bacteria in cooling waters are mostly unknown. We examined the occurrence of mycobacteria, which are common bacteria in different water systems and may cause pulmonary and other soft tissue infections, in cooling waters containing different numbers of legionellae. Mycobacteria were isolated from all twelve cooling systems and from 92% of the 24 samples studied. Their numbers in the positive samples varied from 10 to 7.3 × 10(4) cfu/L. The isolated species included M. chelonae/abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. mucogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. intracellulare, M. lentiflavum, M. avium/nebraskense/scrofulaceum and many non-pathogenic species. The numbers of mycobacteria correlated negatively with the numbers of legionellae and the concentration of copper. The results show that cooling towers are suitable environments for potentially pathogenic mycobacteria. Further transmission of mycobacteria from the towers to the environment needs examination. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The shape of natural draft cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, J.L.

    1992-07-01

    The shape of cooling towers is more often designed empirically. There, it is considered from a theoretical point of view. The analysis of dynamic of natural draft and of the air flow in a cooling tower shell is presented. It is shown, that although it is convergent, a tower works like a diffuser for pressure recovery. And it is turbulence that produces a transfer of kinetic energy and allows a good operation of the diffusor. The equations permit to define a shell profile which depends upon the operating conditions of the cooling tower. In the same way, a stability criteria for natural draft depending upon operating conditions is established. A heating model of one meter diameter has been built in a thermal similitude. The turbulence rate has been measured with a hot wire anemometer at the tower exit and visualizations have also been made. Natural draft stability has been studied by these means for four different shell shapes and a wide range of operating conditions. Experimental and theoretical results agree satisfactorily and experiments can be considered as a validation of theory

  5. A METEOROLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR POWER LINES BASED ON GIS AND MULTI-SENSOR INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  6. Mathematical problems in meteorological modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Csomós, Petra; Faragó, István; Horányi, András; Szépszó, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with mathematical problems arising in the context of meteorological modelling. It gathers and presents some of the most interesting and important issues from the interaction of mathematics and meteorology. It is unique in that it features contributions on topics like data assimilation, ensemble prediction, numerical methods, and transport modelling, from both mathematical and meteorological perspectives. The derivation and solution of all kinds of numerical prediction models require the application of results from various mathematical fields. The present volume is divided into three parts, moving from mathematical and numerical problems through air quality modelling, to advanced applications in data assimilation and probabilistic forecasting. The book arose from the workshop “Mathematical Problems in Meteorological Modelling” held in Budapest in May 2014 and organized by the ECMI Special Interest Group on Numerical Weather Prediction. Its main objective is to highlight the beauty of the de...

  7. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  8. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  9. Operating manual for the Tower Shielding Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    This manual provides information necessary to operate and perform maintenance on the reactor systems and all equipment or systems which can affect their operation or the safety of personnel at the Tower Shielding Facility. The first four chapters consist of introductory and descriptive material of benefit to personnel in training, the qualifications required for training, the responsibilities of the personnel in the organization, and the procedures for reviewing proposed experiments. Chapter 8, Emergency Procedures, is also a necessary part of the indoctrination of personnel. The procedures for operation of the Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR-II), its water cooling system, and the main tower hoists are outlined in Chapters 5, 6, and 7. The Technical Specification surveillance requirements for the TSR-II are summarized in Chapter 9. The maintenance and calibration schedule is spelled out in Chapter 10. The procedures for assembly and disassembly of the TSR-II are outlined in Chapter 11

  10. Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Dept.

    1995-02-01

    Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.

  11. The new Drop Tower catapult system

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kampen, Peter; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Rath, Hans J.

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the "Drop Tower" began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology centre in Bremen. The Drop Tower Bremen provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness. Items are considered weightless, when they are in "free fall", i.e. moving without propulsion within the gravity field of the earth. The height of the tower limits the simple "free fall" experiment period to max. 4.74 s. With the inauguration of the catapult system in December 2004, the ZARM is entering a new dimension. This world novelty will meet scientists' demands of extending the experiment period up to 9.5 s. Since turning the first sod on May 3rd, 1988, the later installation of the catapult system has been taken into account by building the necessary chamber under the tower. The catapult system is located in a chamber 10 m below the base of the tower. This chamber is almost completely occupied by 12 huge pressure tanks. These tanks are placed around the elongation of the vacuum chamber of the drop tube. In its centre there is the pneumatic piston that accelerates the drop capsule by the pressure difference between the vacuum inside the drop tube and the pressure inside the tanks. The acceleration level is adjusted by means of a servo hydraulic breaking system controlling the piston velocity. After only a quarter of a second the drop capsule achieves its lift-off speed of 175 km/h. With this exact speed, the capsule will rise up to the top of the tower and afterwards fall down again into the deceleration unit which has been moved under the drop tube in the meantime. The scientific advantages of the doubled experiment time are obvious: during almost 10 s of high

  12. Control Towers in Supply Chain Management - Past and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trzuskawska-Grzesińska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The global economy requires global supply chain management which relies on visibility and responsiveness. Determinants such as: information technology tools, process knowledge, sales and operations planning experiences, etc., enable the formation of theory and practice for the supply chain control tower concept. The goal of the research paper is to identify business examples of different approaches to the supply chain control tower in the past and initiate a discussion on their future. This paper synthesizes past control tower practices and identifies possible future trends. The author performed: literature analysis, three selected companies' case studies and comparative analyses. As the control towers evolve, while supply chains are transforming continuous, update from the market is needed. The research findings showed the selected companies, in the future, perceived control tower's activities as a potential source of revenue not just solely a source of cost and time optimization as well as a source of value added to customer. The researched control towers were built and still they are developed. The business frequently changes and requires control towers to be adjusted, reengineered and adaptive. The researched control towers are needed to keep control over supply chain while it is transforming. There is a differentiation between the supply chain control towers, logistic services control towers and reverse supply chain control towers. An integration mechanism between the control towers would be necessary to assure entire supply chain visibility and orchestration. The research also shows the knowledge gap regarding the control towers in supply chain, specially their possible configurations and future.

  13. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  14. Correlation between the meteorological data acquisition systems of the Centro Experimental ARAMAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rando M.; Beu, Cássia M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Centro Experimental ARAMAR (CEA) is a Brazilian Navy Technological Center located in the rural area of lperó (São Paulo State), about 10-km distant from the nearest urban area. One of the most important activities at CEA is the nuclear fuel cycle research, as well as the development of a small-scale pressurized water reactor (PWR) land based prototype, The Laboratório Radioecológico (LAR E) is responsible for the meteorological observation program which relies on an automatic data collection system, The following variables are continuously measured: pressure, precipitation, wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative humidity, The obtained data is refined and used in the annual reports to Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), and are an important input data for atmospheric dispersion models. Due to the construction of the Laboratório de Geraç!o Nucleoclétrica (LABGENE), it will be necessary to change tbe location of the towers and meteorological sensors, Thus, since 20 14, a new set of towers and sensors (Torre Nova) are in operation. The new location is 900 m distant from the old set (Torre Velha). Therefore, CEA has currently two meteorological data acquisition systems operating concurrently for approximately three years. The present work aims to compare the meteorological data of both systems in order to verify their agreement. The meteorological time series of both systems were submitted to a statistical analysis to evaluate their correlation. The results of this work confirm the compatibility of the two systems, showing that the Torre Velha can be deactivated without impairment to the meteorological time series. (author)

  15. Correlation between the meteorological data acquisition systems of the Centro Experimental ARAMAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rando M.; Beu, Cássia M.L., E-mail: rando.oliveira@marinha.mil.br, E-mail: cassia.beu@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CEA/CTMSP), Iperó, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental ARAMAR

    2017-07-01

    Centro Experimental ARAMAR (CEA) is a Brazilian Navy Technological Center located in the rural area of lperó (São Paulo State), about 10-km distant from the nearest urban area. One of the most important activities at CEA is the nuclear fuel cycle research, as well as the development of a small-scale pressurized water reactor (PWR) land based prototype, The Laboratório Radioecológico (LAR E) is responsible for the meteorological observation program which relies on an automatic data collection system, The following variables are continuously measured: pressure, precipitation, wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative humidity, The obtained data is refined and used in the annual reports to Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), and are an important input data for atmospheric dispersion models. Due to the construction of the Laboratório de Geraç!o Nucleoclétrica (LABGENE), it will be necessary to change tbe location of the towers and meteorological sensors, Thus, since 20 14, a new set of towers and sensors (Torre Nova) are in operation. The new location is 900 m distant from the old set (Torre Velha). Therefore, CEA has currently two meteorological data acquisition systems operating concurrently for approximately three years. The present work aims to compare the meteorological data of both systems in order to verify their agreement. The meteorological time series of both systems were submitted to a statistical analysis to evaluate their correlation. The results of this work confirm the compatibility of the two systems, showing that the Torre Velha can be deactivated without impairment to the meteorological time series. (author)

  16. Meteorological Measurement Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    crystal in its feedback loop. Depending on crystal cut orientation, the resonant frequency of the oscillator circuit can exhibit a temperature...along a line-of-sight path established between a transmitter and a downrange receiver. Scintillometer hardware includes a laser or LED light source and...been received. Although single receiver magnetic-direction finding ( MDF ) systems are in use, the most common configuration incorporates several receiver

  17. Mathematical model of drift deposition from a bifurcated cooling tower plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.C.J.; Jung, L.

    1978-01-01

    Cooling tower drift deposition modeling has been extended by including centrifugal force induced through plume bifurcation in a crosswind as a mechanism for drift droplet removal from the plume. The model, in its current state of development, is capable of predicting the trajectory of a single droplet from the stage of strong interaction with the vortex field soon after droplet emission at the tower top through the stage of droplet evaporation in an unsaturated atmosphere after droplet breakaway from the plume. The computer program developed from the mathematical formulation has been used to explore the dependency of the droplet trajectory on droplet size, vortex strength, point of droplet emission, drag coefficient, droplet efflux speed, and ambient conditions. A specific application to drift from a mechanical-draft cooling tower (for a wind speed twice the efflux speed, a relative humidity of 70 per cent, and an initial droplet radius of 100 μm) showed the droplet to follow a helical trajectory within the plume, with breakaway occurring at 2.5 tower diameters downwind and ground impact of the droplet (reduced through evaporation to 55 μm radius) at 11 tower diameters

  18. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Han; Lee, Yung Bok; Han, Moon Heui; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang Won Tae

    1995-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, at 67 m, 27 m, and 10 m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, N and NW in autumn and winter season. The calm distributed 13.6% at 67 m, 24.5% at 27 m, 40.8% at 10 m height. 4 figs, 9 tabs, 6 refs. (Author)

  19. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Seo, Kyung Seok; Hwang, Wan Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, NNW in winter season. The calm distributed 28.6% at 67m, 20.5% at 27m, 39.2% at 10m height. 9 tabs., 4 figs., 6 refs. (Author).

  20. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Han; Lee, Yung Bok; Han, Moon Heui; Suh, Kyung Suk; Tae, Hwang Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, at 67 m, 27 m, and 10 m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, N and NW in autumn and winter season. The calm distributed 13.6% at 67 m, 24.5% at 27 m, 40.8% at 10 m height. 4 figs, 9 tabs, 6 refs. (Author).

  1. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William Henry; Crawford, Winifred C.; Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Watson, Leela R.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Decker, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's LSP and other programs at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) use wind forecasts issued by the 30th Operational Support Squadron (30 OSS) to determine if they need to limit activities or protect property such as a launch vehicle due to the occurrence of warning level winds at VAFB in California. The 30 OSS tasked the AMU to provide a wind forecasting capability to improve wind warning forecasts and enhance the safety of their customers' operations. This would allow 30 OSS forecasters to evaluate pressure gradient thresholds between pairs of regional observing stations to help determine the onset and duration of warning category winds. Development of such a tool will require that solid relationships exist between wind speed and the pressure gradient of one or more station pairs. As part of this task, the AMU will also create a statistical climatology of meteorological observations from the VAFB wind towers.

  2. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  3. Piers cooling towers. From first idess to realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozetto, P.; Tzincoca, A.

    1988-01-01

    After a first part consecrated at the historical aspect of vertical piers cooling towers the second part indicates the experience pulled of the Chooz and Golfech cooling towers conception and realization [fr

  4. Evaluation of Offshore Wind Turbine Tower Dynamics with Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begum Yurdanur Dagli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic behaviour of a cylindirical wind tower with variable cross section is investigated under environmental and earthquake forces. The ground acceleration term is represented by a simple cosine function to investigate both normal and parallel components of the earthquake motions located near ground surface. The function of earthquake force is simplified to apply Rayleigh’s energy method. Wind forces acting on above the water level and wave forces acting on below this level are utilized in computations considering earthquake effect for entire structure. The wind force is divided into two groups: the force acting on the tower and the forces acting on the rotor nacelle assembly (RNA. The drag and the inertial wave forces are calculated with water particle velocities and accelerations due to linear wave theory. The resulting hydrodynamic wave force on the tower in an unsteady viscous flow is determined using the Morison equation. The displacement function of the physical system in which dynamic analysis is performed by Rayleigh’s energy method is obtained by the single degree of freedom (SDOF model. The equation of motion is solved by the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method. The two-way FSI (fluid-structure interaction technique was used to determine the accuracy of the numerical analysis. The results of computational fluid dynamics and structural mechanics are coupled in FSI analysis by using ANSYS software. Time-varying lateral displacements and the first natural frequency values which are obtained from Rayleigh’s energy method and FSI technique are compared. The results are presented by graphs. It is observed from these graphs that the Rayleigh model can be an alternative way at the prelimanary stage of the structural analysis with acceptable accuracy.

  5. Meteorology/Oceanography Help - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › Help › Meteorology/Oceanography Help USNO Logo USNO Info Meteorology/Oceanography Help Send an e-mail regarding meteorology or oceanography products. Privacy Advisory Your E-Mail

  6. The Tower and Glass Marbles Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Richard T.; Hailey, David; Rothenberg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Catseye Marble company tests the strength of its marbles by dropping them from various levels of their office tower, to find the highest floor from which a marble will not break. We find the smallest number of drops required and from which floor each drop should be made. We also find out how these answers change if a restriction is placed on…

  7. The Tower of Hanoi and Inductive Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the "Australian Curriculum," the concept of mathematical induction is first met in the senior secondary subject Specialist Mathematics. This article details an example, the Tower of Hanoi problem, which provides an enactive introduction to the inductive process before moving to more abstract and cognitively demanding representations.…

  8. Legionella confirmation in cooling tower water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Maha; Shaheed, Raja A.; Al-Ali, Haidar H.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah S.; Al-Hamaqi, Ghadeer M.; Maan, Hawraa S.; Al-Mahfoodh, Zainab A.; Al-Seba, Hussain Z.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the presence of Legionella spp in cooling tower water. Legionella proliferation in cooling tower water has serious public health implications as it can be transmitted to humans via aerosols and cause Legionnaires’ disease. Methods: Samples of cooling tower water were collected from King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) (Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, 2015/2016). The water samples were analyzed by a standard Legionella culture method, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing. In addition, the bacterial community composition was evaluated. Results: All samples were negative by conventional Legionella culture. In contrast, all water samples yielded positive results by real-time PCR (105 to 106 GU/L). The results of 16S rRNA next generation sequencing showed high similarity and reproducibility among the water samples. The majority of sequences were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria, and Legionella was the predominant genus. The hydrogen-oxidizing gram-negative bacterium Hydrogenophaga was present at high abundance, indicating high metabolic activity. Sphingopyxis, which is known for its resistance to antimicrobials and as a pioneer in biofilm formation, was also detected. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that monitoring of Legionella in cooling tower water would be enhanced by use of both conventional culturing and molecular methods. PMID:29436561

  9. Biofouling control of industrial seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Bloushi, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the research focuses on biofouling control in seawater cooling towers by investigating two different approaches. The first strategy addresses the use of alternative oxidants (i.e. ozone micro-bubbles and chlorine dioxide) in treatment of cooling towers. The second strategy investigates removing nutrients in seawater using granular activated carbon filter column and ultrafiltration to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Laboratory bench-scale tests in terms of temperature, cycle of concentration, dosage, etc. indicated that, at lower oxidant dosages (total residual oxidant (TRO) equivalent = 0.1 mg/l Cl2), chlorine dioxide had a better disinfection effect than chlorine and ozone. The performance of oxidizing biocides at pilot scale, operating at assorted conditions, showed that for the disinfectants tested, ozone could remove 95 % bioactivity of total number of bacteria and algae followed by chlorine dioxide at 85%, while conventional chlorine dosing only gave 60% reduction in bioactivities. Test results of GAC bio-filter showed that around 70 % removal of total organic carbon in the seawater feed was achieved and was effective in keeping the microbial growth to a minimum. The measured results from this study enable designers of seawater cooling towers to manage the biofouling problems when such cooling towers are extrapolated to a pilot scale.

  10. X-ray Observations at Gaisberg Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Hettiarachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of X-rays at ground level due to cloud-to-ground flashes of upward-initiated lightning from Gaisberg Tower, in Austria, which is located at an altitude of 1300 m. This is the first observation of X-ray emissions from upward lightning from a tower top located at high altitude. Measurements were carried out using scintillation detectors installed close to the tower top in two phases from 2011 to 2015. X-rays were recorded in three subsequent strokes of three flashes out of the total of 108 flashes recorded in the system during both phases. In contrast to the observations from downward natural or triggered lightning, X-rays were observed only within 10 µs before the subsequent return stroke. This shows that X-rays were emitted when the dart leader was in the vicinity of the tower top, hence during the most intense phase of the dart leader. Both the detected energy and the fluence of X-rays are far lower compared to X-rays from downward natural or rocket-triggered lightning. In addition to the above 108 flashes, an interesting observation of X-rays produced by a nearby downward flash is also presented. The shorter length of dart-leader channels in Gaisberg is suggested as a possible cause of this apparently weaker X-ray production.

  11. Frost protection for atmospheric cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, G.

    1987-01-01

    When the atmospheric temperature is near or lower than zero it is necessary to reduce the air flow entering in a cooling tower. A wire netting mounted on the air inlet is sprinkled with cold water. The level of the ice curtain and consequently the air flow is regulated by aspersion by hot water [fr

  12. The Exact Limit of Some Cubic Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a new explicit tower of function fields was introduced by Bassa, Beelen, Garcia and Stichtenoth (BBGS). This resulted in currently the best known lower bound for Ihara’s constant in the case of non-prime finite fields. In particular over cubic fields, the tower’s limit is at least as go...

  13. Technical specifications: Tower Shielding Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Tower Shielding Reactor II (TSR-II) and an envelope of operation within which there is reasonable assurance that these limits cannot be exceeded. The specifications were written to satisfy the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0540, September 1, 1972

  14. Structure of natural draft cooling towers, 1. Study on cooling tower shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, H; Sakamoto, Y; Tsurusaki, M; Koshizawa, K; Chiba, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-09-01

    Recently in Japan, demands for cooling tower systems have been increasing remarkably with the construction of large power plants and the legislation of environmental regulations. In view of the severe natural conditions in Japan such as strong wind and seismic loadings, etc., the establishment of the optimum design and construction method is essential for the building of safe and economical towers. In order to establish a comprehensive plan of a power plant cooling system of the appropriate structural type, the authors have made researches and experiments on design conditions, static and dynamic analyses, and comparative studies of various structural types such as reinforced concrete thin-shell structures, steel framed structures and composite shell segment structures, based on the investigation results of towers in Europe and America. These results are presented in three reports, the 1st of which concerns cooling tower shells as are herein described.

  15. Optimization of steel monopod offshore-towers under probabilistic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, economical design implementation of a circular steel monopod-offshore-tower, which is subjected to the extreme wave loading, is presented. The mass of the tower is considered as the objective function. The thickness and radius of the cross-section of the tower are adopted as design

  16. 40 CFR 63.1329 - Process contact cooling towers provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Process contact cooling towers... Process contact cooling towers provisions. (a) The owner or operator of each new affected source that... end finisher process that utilizes a process contact cooling tower shall comply with paragraph (c) of...

  17. Occupational exposure to radiofrequency fields in antenna towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanko, T.; Hietanen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of workers to radiofrequency fields was assessed in two medium-sized antenna towers. Towers had transmitting antennas from different networks, e.g. mobile phone networks, radio and digital TV sub-stations and amateur radio. The levels of radiofrequency fields were measured close to the ladders of the towers. All measured values were below ICNIRP occupational reference levels. (authors)

  18. European sail tower SPS [Solar Power Satellite] concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seboldt, W.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N. [Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration, Cologne (Germany). German Aerospace Center; Klimke, M. [HOPE Worldwide Deutschland, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called ''System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE and U)'' a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called ''European Sail Tower SPS'' and consists mainly of deplorable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such an SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150 m x 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal lightweight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW{sub e}. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology

  19. The experimental study of pollution meteorology and diffusion feature in the site of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Yao Rentai; Xin Cuntian; Chen Jiayi

    2003-01-01

    The experimental observation and study of pollution meteorology and diffusion feature in site of Tianwan nuclear power plant is described. Four sets of (10, 30, 70, 100 m) sensors set on a 100-m-height tower to measure wind speed, wind direction and temperature were used to obtain hourly meteorological information during 1997-08 to 1999-08. The feature of middle scale wind field and the example and frequency of sea and land breezes are analyzed. The observation and formula of the internal boundary layer are completed. A simulation tests were done in a wind tunnel. In order to obtain the diffusion parameter the turbulence observation on two height of 100 m-height tower and 10 sets of SF 6 tracer experiments were done in summer, 1997. Based on above measured data the annual atmospheric dispersion factor and the accident probability dispersion factor at the boundary of an area of no residences were estimated. (authors)

  20. Meteorological tracers in regional planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1974-11-01

    Atmospheric tracers can be used as indicators to study both the ventilation of an urban region and its dispersion meteorology for air pollutants. A correlation analysis applied to the space-time dependent tracer concentrations is able to give transfer functions, the structure and characteristic parameters of which describe the meteorological and topographical situation of the urban region and its surroundings in an integral manner. To reduce the number of persons usually involved in a tracer experiment an automatic air sampling system had to be developed

  1. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  2. Cellular Phone Towers, Tower locations and attributes generated from FCC anntenna registration database. Tower data was cross referenced with county zoning special use permits., Published in 2008, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Waupaca County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cellular Phone Towers dataset current as of 2008. Tower locations and attributes generated from FCC anntenna registration database. Tower data was cross referenced...

  3. Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations, Layer includes all towers identified visually and include cellular and other communication towers., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Noble County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations dataset current as of 2008. Layer includes all towers identified visually and include cellular and other communication towers..

  4. Cancer in proximity to TV towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, B.; Gordon, I.; Hatfield, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The effects of low level electro-magnetic fields on cancer development are controversial. There have been few epidemiological studies on the effects of radio-frequency radiation (RFR) and differing conclusions on possible detrimental health effects in humans (Goldsmith, Int. J Occ. and Env. Hlth, 1:47-57, 1995) (WHO, Env. Health Criteria 137). An unusual opportunity to assess possible risks further arose as cancer data (1972-1990) became available covering an area of North Sydney where three TV towers are located in a populated locality. An analysis of data was undertaken comparing cancer incidence and mortality in the three municipalities which immediately surround the TV towers compared to the adjacent three surrounding municipalities. Methods Data for the RFR sources on the towers was obtained (Dept. of Communications, Radio and TV Stations, 1994). The combined field strengths of the video and audio from the three towers and four channels at increasing distances were calculated (NCRP Report 119). Data from the NSW Cancer Registry on incidence, mortality and residence for 1972-1990 available via Healthwiz were extracted by municipality and for sex and age bands 0-14, 15-69 and 70+. Privacy reasons limit the availability of more refined data. The data were examined using a Poisson regression model (Frome EL, Biometrics, 39:665-74, 1983) with the numbers of cases or deaths regarded as Poisson random variables, whose mean is a product of the person years for the observation, and functions of the variables. The variables used were age categories, sex, calendar period (1972-78, 1979-84 and 1985-90), and area (inner 0-4 km and outer 4-12 km). To compare with the whole of NSW standardised incidence ratios and standardised mortality ratios were calculated. Confidence intervals were calculated using the 'exact' method (Liddell FDK, J. Epid. and Comm. Health, 38:85-88, 1984). Calculated field strengths are well below the limits prescribed in the Australian

  5. Study on Tower Models for EHV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning outage accident is one of the main factors that threat seriously the safe and reliable operation of power system. So it is very important to establish reasonable transmission tower model and evaluate the impulse response characteristic of lightning wave traveling on the transmission tower properly for determining reliable lightning protection performance. With the help of Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP, six 500kV tower models are built. Aiming at one line to one transformer operating mode of 500kV substation, the intruding wave overvoltage under different tower models is calculated. The effect of tower model on intruding overvoltage has been studied. The results show that different tower models can result in great differences to the calculation results. Hence, reasonable selection of the tower model in the calculation of back- strike intruding wave is very important.

  6. Modality analysis of anchored ion exchange tower using Ansys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liang; Lei Zeyong

    2008-01-01

    Ion exchange towers are exposed to serious damage in the event of earthquakes. It is very necessary to study the seismic resistance of ion exchange tower. A finite element model of anchored ion exchange tower was made by Ansys. The first 10 ranks of inherent frequencies were made out, and three-dimensional main vibratory model figures were drawn out. The maximal stress along x-axis and y-axis and the main displacement were found at the bottom part of the wall of tower junction with the pillars. It is concluded that the breakage of tower wall easily occurs at the bottom part of the wall of tower junction with the pillars. Therefore, it is very important to reinforce the junction of the tower body, and the strengthening plate should lie near the bottom of wall. (authors)

  7. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  8. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the

  9. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddhibi, F; Amara, M Ben; Balghouthi, M; Guizani, A

    2015-01-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature

  10. Restoration of the Serranos Towers in Valencia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Mileto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent restoration of the emblematic Serranos Towers carried out by an interdisciplinary team of specialists was an excuse to delve into the history and masonry of the towers, from their initial building and use as a prison to the restorations works practised in the 19th century and subsequent repairs. The cleaning of the walls permitted a direct study of the masonry, which provided a great deal of information that complemented the rigorous historical investigation. The maintenance scheme planned for the future is an interesting proposal, where good sense prevails over improvisation, so often a reality in the restoration of monuments today.

  11. Wind-induced response analysis of a wind turbine tower including the blade-tower coupling effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-bo CHEN; Jing LI; Jian-yun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    To analyze wind-induced response characteristics of a wind turbine tower more accurately, the blade-tower coupling effect was investigated. The mean wind velocity of the rotating blades and tower was simulated according to wind shear effects,and the fluctuating wind velocity time series of the wind turbine were simulated by a harmony superposition method. A dynamic finite element method (FEM) was used to calculate the wind-induced response of the blades and tower. Wind-induced responses of the tower were calculated in two cases (one included the blade-tower coupling effect, and the other only added the mass of blades and the hub at the top of the tower), and then the maximal displacements at the top of the tower of the tow cases were compared with each other. As a result of the influence of the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades, the maximal displacement of the first case increased nearly by 300% compared to the second case. To obtain more precise analysis, the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades should be considered simultaneously in the design of wind turbine towers.

  12. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  13. The solar two power tower project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, J.M.; Klimas, P.C.; Laquil, P. de III; Skowronski, M.

    1993-01-01

    A consortium of United States utility concerns led by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has begun a cooperative project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry to convert the 10-MWe Solar One Tower Pilot Plant to molten nitrate salt technology. Successful operation of the convert plant to be called Solar Two, will reduce the economic risks in building the initial commercial power tower projects and accelerate the commercial acceptance of this promising renewable energy technology. In a molten salt power tower plant, sunlight is concentrated by a field of sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, onto a centrally located receiver, atop a tower. Molten salt is heated in the receiver and stored until it is needed to generate steam to power a conventional turbine generator. Joining the SCE and DOE in sponsoring in sponsoring this project are the following organizations: Los Alamos department of Water Power, Idaho Power Company, PacifiCorp, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Arizona Public Service Company, Salt River Project, City of Pasadena, California Energy Commission, Electric Power Research Institute, South Coast Air Quality Commission, Electric Power research Institute, South Coast Air Quality Management District, and Bechtel Corporation. The Solar Two project will convert the Solar One heat transfer system from a water/steam type to molten nitrate salt by replacing the water/steam receiver and oil/rock thermal storage system with a nitrate salt receiver, salt thermal storage, and steam generator. The estimate cost of Solar Two, including 3-year test period, is 48.5 millions. The plant will be on line in early 1995. (authors)

  14. Method to characterize local meteorology at nuclear facilities for application to emergency response needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Glantz, C.S.

    1986-04-01

    Effluent dispersion is evaluated using computer codes that require various meteorological parameters such as wind and stability data. These data will be based on current conditions at the site in question, and on forecasts of the expected local meteorology for the time period to be simulated. To assist NRC personnel in preparing these forecasts, a weather-typing model was implemented to analyze the characteristic behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic-scale weather features (e.g., warm fronts, cold fronts, high pressure systems). Historical observations acquired by instrumented towers at several nuclear power plants were analyzed as a function of the prevailing synoptic weather feature, synoptic-scale pressure gradient, and time of year. This study focused on sites located in shoreline and complex terrain environments because of the occurrence of mesoscale circulations, which are the sea/lake-land breeze and valley wind systems. Such circulations produce diurnally changing wind and stability conditions that cannot be readily identified by synoptic-scale weather forecasts. The advantage in analyzing the climatological behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic weather systems is that certain weather systems will control the local meteorology and produce persistent conditions

  15. INTEGRATED TWIN TOWERS DAN ISLAMISASI ILMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifuddin Syaifuddin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows some idea as follows: First, integrated design of the Twin Towers as the changing action from IAIN to UIN Sunan Ampel. The religion and general knowledge’s position of Twin Towers’ integrated design is not mixed into one, but it works individually, and at the certain time are united in mutual dialogue. Second, Islamize design is done in order to criticize the general knowledge which has western sources and are secular, materialistic, and individualistic. In the process to Islamize the knowledge, Islamic knowledge tries to intervene the general knowledge in order to filter it so the knowledge will be Islamized. Consequently, to Islamize knowledge is to give an Islamic concept into general knowledge. Third, there are the similarities and differences between integrated design knowledge based on Islamic knowledge and integrated Twin Towers. The difference is in its epistemology process. The similarity is in the curriculum (ontology and objective (axiology. In the curriculum, the examined knowledge is religion and general knowledge. While the objective, Islamize knowledge and integrated Twin Towers aims to integrate religion and general knowledge, to dialogue, to communicate, and to synergy, so it can be a knowledge which is intact-integral-integrative.

  16. Subring Depth, Frobenius Extensions, and Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kadison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum depth d(B,A of a subring B⊆A introduced in the work of Boltje, Danz and Külshammer (2011 is studied and compared with the tower depth of a Frobenius extension. We show that d(B,A < ∞ if A is a finite-dimensional algebra and Be has finite representation type. Some conditions in terms of depth and QF property are given that ensure that the modular function of a Hopf algebra restricts to the modular function of a Hopf subalgebra. If A⊇B is a QF extension, minimum left and right even subring depths are shown to coincide. If A⊇B is a Frobenius extension with surjective Frobenius, homomorphism, its subring depth is shown to coincide with its tower depth. Formulas for the ring, module, Frobenius and Temperley-Lieb structures are noted for the tower over a Frobenius extension in its realization as tensor powers. A depth 3 QF extension is embedded in a depth 2 QF extension; in turn certain depth n extensions embed in depth 3 extensions if they are Frobenius extensions or other special ring extensions with ring structures on their relative Hochschild bar resolution groups.

  17. Modeling of Direct Contact Wet Cooling Tower in ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khatib, H.H.; Ismail, A.L.; ElRefaie, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The Egyptian Testing and Research Reactor no.2 (ETRR-2) was commissioned at 1997 with maximum power 22 MW for research purposes; an induced draft wet cooling tower (counter flow type) was putted in operation in 2003 instead of the first one. Investigations are achieved to evaluate cooling tower performance to guarantee that the cooling tower capable to dissipate heat generated in reactor core. Merkel and Poppe analysis was applied to simulate this cooling tower packing. Merkel analysis was applied to predict water outlet temperature from cooling tower and also to show the effect of ambient conditions on this temperature. Poppe analysis was applied to predict Merkel number which evaluate cooling tower. The Runge-Kutta numerical method was applied to solve the differential equations in this model and an engineering equation solver (EES) is the language used to model the cooling tower. This research illustrates that the cooling tower achieves good performance in various sever ambient condition at maximum operating condition of reactor power. The results show that at severe summer condition of wet bulb temperature equals 24 degree c and tower inlet temperature equals 37 degree c, the outlet water temperature equals 30.4 degree c from cooling tower, while the Merkel number is be found 1.253

  18. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  19. The caracol tower at chichen itza: an ancient astronomical observatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveni, A F; Gibbs, S L; Hartung, H

    1975-06-06

    platforms of the Caracol seem to have been laid out deliberately to point to horizon events involving the sun and the planet Venus. Of the lines taken through the windows, the Venus setting points seem most plausible to us in view of both the accuracy with which they fit the architecture and the historical evidence bearing upon the importance of Venus to the Mesoamerican people. A specific connection between the Venus calendar in the Dresden Codex and the sighting of the extreme positions of the planet along the horizon, however, is yet to be established. It is especially significant that alignments in both the base and the top of the tower relate to Venus. The solar equinox alignment in window I remains problematical, although the arrangement probably functioned as an approximate means of determining the first day of spring and the first day of autumn. Lines pointing to individual bright stars undoubtedly should be given lower value. If one is willing to carry the matching game to its ultimate completion, a stellar object can always be found which, although very obscure, will fit an alignment. In our consideration of the problem we have attempted to single out bright stars which appeared or disappeared on significant calendar dates. Other round structures resembling the Caracol exist in Mesoamerica (20), although there are comparatively few built by the Maya. Nearly all can be attributed to the cult of Quetzalcoatl (34). To our knowledge none have been carefully measured and analyzed for astronomical orientations. The ruined tower Q-152 at Mayapan bore distinct similarities to the Caracol, both in shape and structure. It probably contained only a single doorway which faced west. Both structures possessed circular corridors. A circular tower is still standing at Paalmul on the coast of Quintana Roo north of Tulum. Pollock (20, p. 115) states that it has a single room in the turret. A window similar to No. I in the Caracol faces northwest, the same direction as the base of

  20. Meteorological data fields 'in perspective'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Pierce, H.; Morris, K. R.; Dodge, J.

    1985-01-01

    Perspective display techniques can be applied to meteorological data sets to aid in their interpretation. Examples of a perspective display procedure applied to satellite and aircraft visible and infrared image pairs and to stereo cloud-top height analyses are presented. The procedure uses a sophisticated shading algorithm that produces perspective images with greatly improved comprehensibility when compared with the wire-frame perspective displays that have been used in the past. By changing the 'eye-point' and 'view-point' inputs to the program in a systematic way, movie loops that give the impression of flying over or through the data field have been made. This paper gives examples that show how several kinds of meteorological data fields are more effectively illustrated using the perspective technique.

  1. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  2. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  3. Epicurean Meteorology: Sources, method, scope and organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    In Epicurean Meteorology Frederik Bakker discusses the meteorology as laid out by Epicurus (341-270 BCE) and Lucretius (1st century BCE). Although in scope and organization their ideas are clearly rooted in the Peripatetic tradition, their meteorology sets itself apart from this tradition by its

  4. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science publishes rigorous theoretical reasoning and advanced empirical research in all areas of Meteorology and Climate Sciences. We welcome articles or proposals from all perspectives and on all subjects pertaining to Meteorology, Agriculture, Humanity, Physics, Geography, ...

  5. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the theory. Further, special conditions in evaporation are considered, followed by a fotmulation of the difficulties in determining evaporation, The last part of the paper gives a short discussion about ...

  6. tavgM_2d_slv_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Single Level Meteorology, Monthly Mean 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MATMNXSLV) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXSLV or tavgM_2d_slv_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional atmospheric single-level diagnostics that is time averaged...

  7. tavg1_2d_slv_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Single Level Meteorology, Time Average 1-hourly 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MAT1NXSLV) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXSLV or tavg1_2d_slv_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional atmospheric single-level diagnostics that is time averaged...

  8. Analysis of Ideal Towers for Tall Wind Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Joseph O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Innovation in wind turbine tower design is of significant interest for future development of wind power plants. First, wind turbine towers account for a large portion of overall capital expenditures for wind power projects. Second, for low wind-resource regions of the world, the use of low-cost tall-tower technology has the potential to open new markets for development. This study investigates the relative potential of various tower configurations in terms of mass and cost. For different market applications and hub heights, idealized tall towers are designed and compared. The results show that innovation in wind turbine controls makes reaching higher hub heights with current technology economically viable. At the same time, new technologies hold promise for reducing tower costs as these technologies mature and hub heights reach twice the current average.

  9. ''Novel'' types of cooling towers for the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikyska, L.

    1991-01-01

    New types of cooling towers are beginning to be used abroad for the cooling circuits of nuclear power plants employing power generation units rated at 1,300 to 1,400 MW. These so-called water recovery cooling towers make use of natural draught without a droplet section. They are actually upgraded designs which were built in Europe as far back as 70 years ago. Because of the unsuitable materials then employed, these cooling towers fell into oblivion. Today, however, they are undergoing a renaissance. An upgraded design of these towers is described and compared with existing cooling towers with a droplet section. The feasibility of using these towers in Czechoslovak conditions is considered. (author)

  10. Analysis of Ideal Towers for Tall Wind Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Joseph O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-27

    Innovation in wind turbine tower design is of significant interest for future development of wind power plants. First, wind turbine towers account for a large portion of overall capital expenditures for wind power projects. Second, for low wind-resource regions of the world, the use of low-cost tall-tower technology has the potential to open new markets for development. This study investigates the relative potential of various tower configurations in terms of mass and cost. For different market applications and hub heights, idealized tall towers are designed and compared. The results show that innovation in wind turbine controls makes reaching higher hub heights with current technology economically viable. At the same time, new technologies hold promise for reducing tower costs as these technologies mature and hub heights reach twice the current average.

  11. Cooling tower wood sampling and analyses: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymore, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive wood sampling and analyses programs were initiated on crossflow and counterflow cooling towers that have been in service since 1951 and 1955, respectively. Wood samples were taken from all areas of the towers and were subjected to biological, chemical and physical tests. The tests and results for the analyses are discussed. The results indicate the degree of wood deterioration, and areas of the towers which experience the most advanced degree of degradation

  12. Structural problems in the construction of natural draught cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerna, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with the structural requirements and development possibilities for large cooling towers, and in particular discusses parameter investigations into the reinforcement of cooling tower shells and problems of optimisation. In conclusion proposals are made as to how concrete cooling towers of very large dimensions reinforced with steel, as for example are required in dry cooling for large capacity plant, can be developed economically. (orig.) [de

  13. Radiation scanning aids tower diagnosis at Arun LNG plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naklie, M.M.; Pless, L.; Gurning, T.P.; Hyasak, M.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation scanning has been used effectively to troubleshoot the treating towers of the Arun LNG plant in Sumatra, Indonesia. The plant is one of the world's largest such facilities. The analysis was part of an investigation aimed at increasing the capacity of the treater section of the plant. Radiation scanning is a tool which, in addition to tower differential pressure and product purity, can aid in diagnosing tower performance

  14. A tall tower study of Missouri winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Neil I. [Department of Soil, Environmental and Atmospheric Sciences, 332 ABNR Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes the results of a study of wind speeds observed at heights up to 150 m above ground level around Missouri. This is an amalgamation of four projects that allowed a total of eleven tall communication towers to be instrumented with wind observation equipment across the State of Missouri. This provided an assessment of the wind resource and the characteristics of the seasonal and diurnal cycles of wind in different areas of Missouri at the heights of utility scale wind turbines. Comparisons were also made to wind speeds predicted at these levels from a previously published wind map. The main finding was that the observed winds at each tower were smaller than those presented in the wind map. The discrepancy is most likely to be due to underestimation of the surface roughness and turbulence leading to an overestimation of near-surface wind shear. However, the wind shear, as expressed by the shear parameter was consistently greater than the 'standard' value of 1.4. The reconciliation of these two apparently contradictory findings is that the shear varies with the height at which it is measured. In wind resource assessment, wind shear is usually observed below 50 m and is tacitly assumed to be constant with height when used to extrapolate winds to higher levels. The author advocates the use of the friction velocity as a measure of shear in wind power applications in preference to the shear parameter that is usually used. This is because the shear parameter has a velocity bias that can also manifest as a bias with height or season. As wind power resource assessment is starting to use taller towers than the standard 50 m, intercomparison of site resources and extrapolation to turbine heights can be compromised if the shear parameter is used. (author)

  15. Improving performance and reducing costs of cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartz, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Cooling towers represent a significant capital investment at a steam electric power station. In addition, deficiencies in thermal performance can result in major operating penalties of fuel cost, replacement energy, and capacity addition. This paper summarizes two recent EPRI research projects aimed at reducing thermal performance deficiencies and decreasing installed costs of evaporative cooling towers. First, EPRI Research Project 2113, Cooling Tower Performance Prediction and Improvement, is summarized. This project has resulted in published data sets on the measured thermal performance characteristics of a variety of cooling tower packings, computer codes to predict tower performance, and computer code validation through large-scale tower performance measurements. Principal results are contained in an EPRIGEMS software module, Cooling Tower Advisor. This PC- based software contains a tutorial plus codes to predict tower thermal performance, arranged in a user-friendly format. The second EPRI effort, Research Project 2819-10/11, Fabric Structures for Power Plant Applications, has resulted in designs and costs of large structures with shells constructed of recently-developed fabrics. Primary power plant applications for such structures are the shells of natural draft cooling towers and coal-pile covers. Fabric structures offer low initial cost, acceptable life, and seismic superiority, among other advantages. Detailed conceptual designs and installed cost data are reviewed. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  16. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2008-01-01

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered

  17. A study of the life expectancy of cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvin, M.; Chauvel, D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the following different tasks of the study whose aim was to extend the life time of cooling towers for French Nuclear Power plants to 40 years. The aging factors specific to cooling towers were measured and analysed with regard to the external surface, the internal surface and inside the concrete. The safety coefficient for buckling was calculated and then the stress analysis of the materials (concrete and steel) was done. A special computer program written for cooling towers was used with a model including the soil stiffness and the supports of the tower. (author)

  18. Measurements at cooling tower plumes. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, F.; Haschke, D.; Solfrian, W.

    1976-04-01

    Referring to the present status of knowledge model conceptions, assumptions and approaches are summarized, which can lead to mathematical models for the simulation of dry or wet cooling tower plumes. By developing a one-dimensional plume model (FOG) the most important problems are considered in detail. It is shown that for the calibration of the necessary parameters as well as for the development of models full scale measurements are of decisive importance. After a discussion of different possibilities of measurement the organisation of a campaign of measurement is described. (orig.) [de

  19. Transmission Tower Environment Monitoring Using UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redzuwan, Redia Mohd; Din, Norashidah Md; Baharuddin, Mohd Zafri; Mustafa, Intan Shafinaz; Omar, Rohayu Che'

    2013-01-01

    Power utility engineers used to conduct ground survey to collect topographic data. Therefore, they can get detailed and accurate information, but these techniques take a lot of labors and expenses, and spending times for the surveying. An attractive solution to the ground survey is using images taken using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Images captured from UAV can be collected quickly and efficiently over the same area covered in the land survey, in a fraction of the time. The purpose of this research is to mosaic the large numbers of spectral images together into a region wide panoramic image which allows experts to analyze the data for transmission tower monitoring purposes.

  20. Girassol, Riser Towers for ultra deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougier, Regis

    1999-07-01

    This is a brief presentation of the technical concept developed by ALTO MAR GIRASSOL (AMG) for the Girassol umbilical and flowlines system. In 1998 AMG was awarded a contract by Elf Exploration Angola for the engineering, procurement, construction and installation (EPCI) of the umbilical and flowline system. The technical concept is based around the use of sealine bundles and self-supporting hybrid riser towers which carry the production, water injection, gas injection, gas lift and service lines. The items discussed are: (1) selected field layout, (2) seabed flowlines, hybrid riser system, umbilicals, export lines, installation plan and overall project schedule.

  1. Dynamic testing of NOVA laser switchyard tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, H.J.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Fields, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    NOVA is the latest in a series of powerful laser systems designed to study the feasibility of initiating a controlled fusion reaction by concentrating several laser beams on a small fuel target. The laser components, turning mirrors and target chamber are all mounted on large steel frame structures. These structures were first analyzed via finite element models to access their seismic integrity as well as their overall vibrational stability. When construction was completed, a modal analysis was performed on the structures to verify and improve the finite element models. This report discusses the linking of the analytical and experimental studies for the NOVA switchyard tower structure

  2. Meteorological radar services: a brief discussion and a solution in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, K. A.

    2014-08-01

    The Department of Meteorology is the organization designated by the Civil Aviation Department and by the National Supervisory Authority of the Republic of Cyprus, as an air navigation service provider, based on the regulations of the Single European Sky. Department of Meteorology holds and maintains also an ISO: 9001/2008, Quality System, for the provision of meteorological and climatological services to aeronautic and maritime community, but also to the general public. In order to fulfill its obligations the Department of Meteorology customs the rather dense meteorological stations network, with long historical data series, installed and maintained by the Department, in parallel with modelling and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), along with training and gaining of expertise. Among the available instruments in the community of meteorologists is the meteorological radar, a basic tool for the needs of very short/short range forecasting (nowcasting). The Department of Meteorology installed in the mid 90's a C-band radar over «Throni» location and expanded its horizons in nowcasting, aviation safety and warnings issuance. The radar has undergone several upgrades but today technology has over passed its rather old technology. At the present the Department of Meteorology is in the process of buying Meteorological Radar Services as a result of a public procurement procedure. Two networked X-band meteorological radar will be installed (the project now is in the phase of infrastructure establishment while the hardware is in the process of assemble), and maintained from Space Hellas (the contractor) for a 13 years' time period. The present article must be faced as a review article of the efforts of the Department of Meteorology to support its weather forecasters with data from meteorological radar.

  3. EFFECT OF THE FILL VENTILATION WINDOW ON PERFORMANCE OF A NATURAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER SUBJECTED TO CROSS-WINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various aerodynamic design elements and technics (wind deflectors, wind walls, etc. are utilized for improvement of the thermal efficiency of the natural draft cooling towers, particularly in conditions of cross wind. One of the technical methods, proposed by engineers of Belarus Academy of Sciences, is installation of the ventilation window in the center of the fill. This method is substantiated by the fact that the flow of cooling gas obtains maximum temperature and humidity near the center of the under-fill space of cooling tower and, as a consequence, performs minimal heat exchange. The influence of the fill ventilation window and wind deflectors in the inlet windows of the cooling tower on its thermal performance in condition of cross-wind is investigated in the paper numerically. The cooling tower of the “Woo-Jin” power plant (China 150 m of the height and 114 m of the base diameter was taken as a prototype. The analogy (equivalence between the heat and mass transfer was taken into consideration, which enabled us to consider single-phase flow and perform complicated 3D simulation by using modern personal computers. Heat transfer coefficient for the fill and its hydrodynamic resistance were defined by using actual data on total flow rate in the cooling tower. The numerical model and computational methods were tested and verified in numerous previous works. The non-linear dependence of the thermal performance of the cooling tower on wind velocity (with the minimum in vicinity of Ucr ~ 8 m/s for the simulated system was demonstrated. Calculations show that in the condition of the average wind speed the fill ventilation window doesn’t improve, but slightly decrease (by 3–7 % performance of the cooling tower. Situation changes in the condition of strong winds Ucw > 12 m/s, which are not typical for Belarus. Utilization of airflow deflectors at the inlet windows of cooling tower, conversely, increases thermal performance of the

  4. The tower of Hanoi myths and maths

    CERN Document Server

    Hinz, Andreas M; Petr, Ciril

    2018-01-01

    The solitaire game “The Tower of Hanoi" was invented in the 19th century by the French number theorist Édouard Lucas. The book presents its mathematical theory and offers a survey of the historical development from predecessors up to recent research. In addition to long-standing myths, it provides a detailed overview of the essential mathematical facts with complete proofs, and also includes unpublished material, e.g., on some captivating integer sequences. The main objects of research today are the so-called Hanoi graphs and the related Sierpiński graphs. Acknowledging the great popularity of the topic in computer science, algorithms, together with their correctness proofs, form an essential part of the book. In view of the most important practical applications, namely in physics, network theory and cognitive (neuro)psychology, the book also addresses other structures related to the Tower of Hanoi and its variants. The updated second edition includes, for the first time in English, the breakthrough reach...

  5. Reliability analysis of meteorological data registered during nuclear power plant normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, V.; Ulke, A.; Marino, B.; Thomas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The atmosphere is the environment in which gaseous radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants are transported. It is therefore essential to have reliable meteorological information to characterize the dispersion and feed evaluation models and radiological environmental impact during normal operation of the plant as well as accidental releases. In this way it is possible to determine the effects on the environment and in humans. The basic data needed to represent adequately the local weather include air temperature, wind speed and direction, rainfall, humidity and pressure. On the other hand, specific data consistent with the used model is required to determine the turbulence, for instance, radiation, cloud cover and vertical temperature gradient. It is important that the recorded data are representative of the local meteorology. This requires, first, properly placed instruments, that should be kept in operation and undergoing maintenance on a regular basis. Second, but equally substantial, a thorough analysis of its reliability must be performed prior to storage and/or data processing. In this paper we present the main criteria to consider choosing the location of a meteorological tower in the area of a nuclear power plant and propose a methodology for assessing the reliability of recorded data. The methodology was developed from the analysis of meteorological data registered in nuclear power plants in Argentina. (authors) [es

  6. Molten salt power towers operating at 600–650 °C: Salt selection and cost benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vidal, Judith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bauer, Matthew

    2018-04-01

    This analysis examines the potential benefit of adopting the supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) Brayton cycle at 600-650 degrees C compared to the current state-of-the-art power tower operating a steam-Rankine cycle with solar salt at approximately 574 degrees C. The analysis compares a molten-salt power tower configuration using direct storage of solar salt (60:40 wt% sodium nitrate: potassium nitrate) or single-component nitrate salts at 600 degrees C or alternative carbonate- or chloride-based salts at 650 degrees C.

  7. Vertical Deformation Monitoring of the Suspension Bridge Tower Using GNSS: A Case Study of the Forth Road Bridge in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusen Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The vertical deformation monitoring of a suspension bridge tower is of paramount importance to maintain the operational safety since nearly all forces are eventually transferred as the vertical stress on the tower. This paper analyses the components affecting the vertical deformation and attempts to reveal its deformation mechanism. Firstly, we designed a strategy for high-precision GNSS data processing aiming at facilitating deformation extraction and analysis. Then, 33 months of vertical deformation time series of the southern tower of the Forth Road Bridge (FRB in the UK were processed, and the accurate subsidence and the parameters of seasonal signals were estimated based on a classic function model that has been widely studied to analyse GNSS coordinate time series. We found that the subsidence rate is about 4.7 mm/year, with 0.1 mm uncertainty. Meanwhile, a 15-month meteorological dataset was utilised with a thermal expansion model (TEM to explain the effects of seasonal signals on tower deformation. The amplitude of the annual signals correlated quite well that obtained by the TEM, with the consistency reaching 98.9%, demonstrating that the thermal effect contributes significantly to the annual signals. The amplitude of daily signals displays poor consistency with the ambient temperature data. However, the phase variation tendencies between the daily signals of the vertical deformation and the ambient temperature are highly consistent after February 2016. Finally, the potential contribution of the North Atlantic Drift (NAD to the characteristics of annual and daily signals is discussed because of the special geographical location of the FRB. Meanwhile, this paper emphasizes the importance of collecting more detailed meteorological and other loading data for the investigation of the vertical deformation mechanism of the bridge towers over time with the support of GNSS.

  8. Performance characteristics of counter flow wet cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Jameel-Ur-Rehman; Yaqub, M.; Zubair, Syed M.

    2003-01-01

    Cooling towers are one of the biggest heat and mass transfer devices that are in widespread use. In this paper, we use a detailed model of counter flow wet cooling towers in investigating the performance characteristics. The validity of the model is checked by experimental data reported in the literature. The thermal performance of the cooling towers is clearly explained in terms of varying air and water temperatures, as well as the driving potential for convection and evaporation heat transfer, along the height of the tower. The relative contribution of each mode of heat transfer rate to the total heat transfer rate in the cooling tower is established. It is demonstrated with an example problem that the predominant mode of heat transfer is evaporation. For example, evaporation contributes about 62.5% of the total rate of heat transfer at the bottom of the tower and almost 90% at the top of the tower. The variation of air and water temperatures along the height of the tower (process line) is explained on psychometric charts

  9. Reality based optimization of steel monopod offshore-towers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the implementation of reliability-based optimization (RBO) of a circular steel monopod-offshore-tower with constant and variable diameters (represented by segmentations) and thicknesses is presented. The tower is subjected to the extreme wave loading. For this purpose, the

  10. Wind-induced Vibrations in the European Court Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jannick B.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Ken G.

    2012-01-01

    Issues regarding occupancy comfort in vibration-sensitive structures are the motivation of this study concerning windinduced vibrations in the European Court Towers in Luxembourg. In one of the two identical towers tuned liquid dampers (TLD) have been installed. Recent studies investigate the cha...

  11. Main photoautotrophic components of biofilms in natural draft cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Tomáš; Čapek, Petr; Böhmová, Petra

    2016-05-01

    While photoautotrophic organisms are an important component of biofilms that live in certain regions of natural draft cooling towers, little is known about these communities. We therefore examined 18 towers at nine sites to identify the general patterns of community assembly in three distinct tower parts, and we examined how community structures differ depending on geography. We also compared the newly acquired data with previously published data. The bottom sections of draft cooling towers are mainly settled by large filamentous algae, primarily Cladophora glomerata. The central portions of towers host a small amount of planktic algae biomass originating in the cooling water. The upper fourths of towers are colonized by biofilms primarily dominated by cyanobacteria, e.g., members of the genera Gloeocapsa and Scytonema. A total of 41 taxa of phototrophic microorganisms were identified. Species composition of the upper fourth of all towers was significantly affected by cardinal position. There was different species composition at positions facing north compared to positions facing south. West- and east-facing positions were transitory and highly similar to each other in terms of species composition. Biofilms contribute to the degradation of paint coatings inside towers.

  12. Proceedings: Cooling tower and advanced cooling systems conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference was held August 30 through September 1, 1994, in St. Petersburg, Florida. The conference was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and hosted by Florida Power Corporation to bring together utility representatives, manufacturers, researchers, and consultants. Nineteen technical papers were presented in four sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid systems. On the final day, panel discussions addressed current issues in cooling tower operation and maintenance as well as research and technology needs for power plant cooling. More than 100 people attended the conference. This report contains the technical papers presented at the conference. Of the 19 papers, five concern cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, five to cooling tower performance, four discuss cooling tower fouling, and five describe dry and hybrid cooling systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  13. 78 FR 17183 - Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card... request: (1) An extension from the Office of Management and Budget; and (2) to merge the currently approved information collection 0596- 0222, ``Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card'' with 0596-0226, ``Forest...

  14. Evaluation of Savannah River Plant emergency response models using standard and nonstandard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Two computer codes have been developed for operational use in performing real time evaluations of atmospheric releases from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina. These codes, based on mathematical models, are part of the SRP WIND (Weather Information and Display) automated emergency response system. Accuracy of ground level concentrations from a Gaussian puff-plume model and a two-dimensional sequential puff model are being evaluated with data from a series of short range diffusion experiments using sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer. The models use meteorological data collected from 7 towers on SRP and at the 300 m WJBF-TV tower about 15 km northwest of SRP. The winds and the stability, which is based on turbulence measurements, are measured at the 60 m stack heights. These results are compared to downwind concentrations using only standard meteorological data, i.e., adjusted 10 m winds and stability determined by the Pasquill-Turner stability classification method. Scattergrams and simple statistics were used for model evaluations. Results indicate predictions within accepted limits for the puff-plume code and a bias in the sequential puff model predictions using the meteorologist-adjusted nonstandard data. 5 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  15. Adaptive Backstepping Control of Lightweight Tower Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Borup, Kasper Trolle; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    the angular deflection of the tower with respect to the vertical axis in response to variations in wind speed. The controller is shown to guarantee asymptotic tracking of the reference trajectory. The performance of the control system is evaluated through deterministic and stochastic simulations including......This paper investigates the feasibility of operating a wind turbine with lightweight tower in the full load region exploiting an adaptive nonlinear controller that allows the turbine to dynamically lean against the wind while maintaining nominal power output. The use of lightweight structures...... for towers and foundations would greatly reduce the construction cost of the wind turbine, however extra features ought be included in the control system architecture to avoid tower collapse. An adaptive backstepping collective pitch controller is proposed for tower point tracking control, i.e. to modify...

  16. The design and stability determination of wind turbine tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Abd Wahab; Khairul Barriyah

    2001-01-01

    In wind turbine tower design, two load categories (static and wind load) were considered. The static load for this structure is the tower self-weight, which can be calculated from its density and area of the material, whereas the wind load was calculated based on CP3: Chapter V: Part 2: 1972, using the maximum wind speed of 30 m/s. The stability of this tower under the action of these two loads has been determined using RISA-3D program. The program were subjected to two joint types, i.e pinned and fixed joints. The tower using fixed joint members has established the necessary tower stability. The simulation, calculation and results are being discussed in detail in this paper. (Author)

  17. Frequency analysis of a tower-cable coupled system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moo Yeol [Young Sin Precision Engineering Ltd., Gyungju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seock Hyun; Park, In Su [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Cui, Chengxun [Yanbian University, Yangji (China)

    2013-06-15

    This study considers the prediction of natural frequency to avoid resonance in a wind turbine tower- cable coupled system. An analytical model based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method is proposed to predict the resonance frequency of a wind turbine tower structure supported by four guy cables. To verify the validity of the analytical model, a small tower-cable model is manufactured and tested. The frequency and mode data of the tower model are obtained by modal testing and finite element analysis. The validity of the proposed method is verified through the comparison of the frequency analysis results. Finally, using a parametric study with the analytical model, we identified how the cable tension and cable angle affect the resonance frequency of the wind turbine tower structure. From the analysis results, the tension limit and optimal angle of the cable are identified.

  18. A community outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a cooling tower in Vic and Gurb, Catalonia (Spain) in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, M R Sala; Arias, C; Oliva, J M; Pedrol, A; García, M; Pellicer, T; Roura, P; Domínguez, A

    2009-02-01

    We report the investigation of a community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires' disease. An epidemiological, environmental, and meteorological investigation was undertaken. Fifty-five cases were reported in October and November 2005. The exposure occurred in a large area, with 12 cases (21.8%) located between 1,800 and 3,400 metres from the source. Water sample cultures showed that Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1) was present in five cooling towers in two industrial locations in Gurb (plants A and B). Two Lp-1 strains were recovered from plants A and B, but only Lp-1 strains from plant A showed a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile identical to those obtained from three of the cases. Inspection of the cooling towers in plant A revealed inadequate maintenance. Weather conditions in October 2005, with mostly high temperatures and high humidity, together with the flat terrain could have been favouring factors. This study showed a community outbreak from a cooling tower as a common source in a large area. Climate and terrain could explain the dissemination of contaminated aerosols.

  19. PORFIDO on the NEMO Phase 2 tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaffoni, Orlando; Cordelli, Marco; Habel, Roberto; Martini, Agnese; Trasatti, Luciano [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy)

    2014-11-18

    We have designed and built an underwater measurement system, PORFIDO (Physical Oceanography by RFID Outreach) to gather oceanographic data from the Optical Modules of a neutrino telescope with a minimum of disturbance to the main installation. PORFIDO is composed of a sensor glued to the outside of an Optical Module, in contact with seawater, and of a reader placed inside the sphere, facing the sensor. Data are transmitted to the reader through the glass by RFID and to shore in real time for periods of years. The sensor gathers power from the radio frequency, thus eliminating the need for batteries or connectors through the glass. We have deployed four PORFIDO probes measuring temperatures with the NEMO-KM3Net-Italy Phase 2 tower in april 2013. The four probes are operative and are transmitting temperature data from 3500 m depth.

  20. PORFIDO on the NEMO Phase 2 tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaffoni, Orlando; Cordelli, Marco; Habel, Roberto; Martini, Agnese; Trasatti, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and built an underwater measurement system, PORFIDO (Physical Oceanography by RFID Outreach) to gather oceanographic data from the Optical Modules of a neutrino telescope with a minimum of disturbance to the main installation. PORFIDO is composed of a sensor glued to the outside of an Optical Module, in contact with seawater, and of a reader placed inside the sphere, facing the sensor. Data are transmitted to the reader through the glass by RFID and to shore in real time for periods of years. The sensor gathers power from the radio frequency, thus eliminating the need for batteries or connectors through the glass. We have deployed four PORFIDO probes measuring temperatures with the NEMO-KM3Net-Italy Phase 2 tower in april 2013. The four probes are operative and are transmitting temperature data from 3500 m depth

  1. Tornado frequency in the USA - meteorological and non-meteorological factors of a downward trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citing numerical simulations, climate alarmists believe that global warming will lead to more frequent and more intensive tornadoes. Considering temperature increase data in the contiguous USA, this study has investigated the trend of strong tornadoes in F3+ category in the 1954-2012 period. Statistically significant decrease of tornadoes per year at an average rate of 0.44 has been recorded, that is, 4.4 tornadoes per decade. Tornado increase has been recorded with F0 and F1 categories and the cause of this increase lies in meteorological and non-meteorological factors. By using upper and lower standard deviation values, the stages of tornado activity have been singled out. The 1957-1974 period may be considered as an active stage and the 1978-2009 period as an inactive stage. Upward trend of air temperature increase does not correspond with the downward trend of the number of F3+ tornado category, while the correlation coefficient between these two variables is R = −0.14. This fact does not correspond with the simulation results and output data of various numerical models anticipating an increase in the number and intensity of tornado events in the conditions of surface air temperature growth.

  2. Some directions in laser meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, V.E.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of lidar systems in studies of pollution meteorology are discussed. It is pointed out that lidar can contribute to the determination of characteristics of particulate pollutants and also the study of the dynamics of dispersion. Agricultural and energy related problems require both short and longer term forecasting. It is as yet not completely clear whether lidar will be significant in longer term forecasts, of benefit to agriculture and conservation, or whether its usefulness will be primarily in the study of basic atmospheric processes involving the effect of clouds and aerosols on radiation balance. However, recent studies indicate that lidar will be important, in the future, in global wind sensing from satellites. Lidar and radar systems for cloud observations are compared

  3. Design of a redundant meteorological station for a BWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, R.; Celis del Angel, L.; Bucio, F.; Rivero, T.; Palacios, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the design of a meteorological station for a reactor type BWR is proposed. Two independent channels of data acquisition that allow him to have a bigger readiness is exposed. It is incorporate sensors without mobile parts to measure speed, wind direction and pluvial precipitation. It also counts, with sensors of global solar radiation, net radiation, barometric pressure, relative humidity and ambient temperature; with them they are possible to be calculated, moreover, other variables as temperature differential, dew point and atmospheric stability. The sensors are placed on a tower to different heights and send their information (each second) to a local registration system, the one which in turn, it remits the data to the monitoring office so that a computer is linked with the system, display and management the information in real time and automatic way. The redundant structure allows that in the event of maintenance the data acquisition is not interrupted, even if the information is transferred to another place. In all the station sections it is used protocols of standard communication to allow that a great quantity of devices can be connected without major problem. The above-mentioned would allow to the operators in the control room to have reliable information during the whole time of the reactor operation. (Author)

  4. Improving the efficiency of natural draft cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smrekar, J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Oman, J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: janez.oman@fs.uni-lj.si; Sirok, B. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-06-15

    This study shows how the efficiency of a natural draft cooling tower can be improved by optimising the heat transfer along the cooling tower (CT) packing using a suitable water distribution across the plane area of the cooling tower. On the basis of cooling air measurements, it is possible to distribute the water in such a way that it approaches the optimal local water/air mass flow ratio and ensures the homogeneity of the heat transfer and a reduction of entropy generation, thus minimising the amount of exergy lost. The velocity and temperature fields of the air flow were measured with the aid of a remote control mobile robot unit that was developed to enable measurements at an arbitrary point above the spray zone over the entire plane area of the cooling tower. The topological structures of the moist air velocity profiles and the temperature profiles above the spray zone were used as input data for calculation of the local entropy generation in the tower. On the basis of the measured boundary conditions, a numerical analysis of the influence of the water distribution across the cooling tower's plane area on entropy generation and exergy destruction in the cooling tower was conducted.

  5. Asbestos in cooling-tower waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.A.G.

    1979-03-01

    Water discharges from cooling towers constructed with asbestos fill were found to contain chrysotile--asbestos fibers at concentrations as high as 10 8 fibers/liter. The major source of these fibers, appears to be the components of the towers rather than the air drawn through the towers or the makeup water taken into the towers. Suggested mechanisms for the release of chrysotile fibers from cooling-tower fill include freeze-thaw cycles and dissolution of the cement due to acidic components of the circulating water. Ash- or other material-settling ponds were found to reduce asbestos-fiber concentrations in cooling-tower effluent. The literature reviewed did not support the case for a causal relationship between adverse human health effects and drinking water containing on the order of 10 6 chrysotile--asbestos fibers/liter; for this and other reasons, it is not presently suggested that the use of asbestos fill be discontinued. However, caution and surveillance are dictated by the uncertainties in the epidemiological studies, the absence of evidence for a safe threshold concentration in water, and the conclusive evidence for adverse effects from occupational exposure. It is recommended that monitoring programs be carried out at sites where asbestos fill is used; data from such programs can be used to determine whether any mitigative measures should be taken. On the basis of estimates made in this study, monitoring for asbestos in drift from cooling towers does not appear to be warranted

  6. Improving the efficiency of natural draft cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrekar, J.; Oman, J.; Sirok, B.

    2006-01-01

    This study shows how the efficiency of a natural draft cooling tower can be improved by optimising the heat transfer along the cooling tower (CT) packing using a suitable water distribution across the plane area of the cooling tower. On the basis of cooling air measurements, it is possible to distribute the water in such a way that it approaches the optimal local water/air mass flow ratio and ensures the homogeneity of the heat transfer and a reduction of entropy generation, thus minimising the amount of exergy lost. The velocity and temperature fields of the air flow were measured with the aid of a remote control mobile robot unit that was developed to enable measurements at an arbitrary point above the spray zone over the entire plane area of the cooling tower. The topological structures of the moist air velocity profiles and the temperature profiles above the spray zone were used as input data for calculation of the local entropy generation in the tower. On the basis of the measured boundary conditions, a numerical analysis of the influence of the water distribution across the cooling tower's plane area on entropy generation and exergy destruction in the cooling tower was conducted

  7. Numerical Simulation of Tower Rotor Interaction for Downwind Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Janajreh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Downwind wind turbines have lower upwind rotor misalignment, and thus lower turning moment and self-steered advantage over the upwind configuration. In this paper, numerical simulation to the downwind turbine is conducted to investigate the interaction between the tower and the blade during the intrinsic passage of the rotor in the wake of the tower. The moving rotor has been accounted for via ALE formulation of the incompressible, unsteady, turbulent Navier-Stokes equations. The localized CP, CL, and CD are computed and compared to undisturbed flow evaluated by Panel method. The time history of the CP, aerodynamic forces (CL and CD, as well as moments were evaluated for three cross-sectional tower; asymmetrical airfoil (NACA0012 having four times the rotor's chord length, and two circular cross-sections having four and two chords lengths of the rotor's chord. 5%, 17%, and 57% reductions of the aerodynamic lift forces during the blade passage in the wake of the symmetrical airfoil tower, small circular cross-section tower and large circular cross-section tower were observed, respectively. The pronounced reduction, however, is confined to a short time/distance of three rotor chords. A net forward impulsive force is also observed on the tower due to the high speed rotor motion.

  8. Thermal performance of a transpired solar collector updraft tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryener, Dogan; Hollick, John; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Transpired solar collector updraft tower has been studied experimentally. • Transpired solar collector updraft tower efficiency ranges from 60 to 80%. • A comparison has been made with other SUT prototypes. • Three times higher efficiency compared to the glazed collectors of conventional solar towers. - Abstract: A novel solar updraft tower prototype, which consists of transpired solar collector, is studied, its function principle is described and its experimental thermal performance is presented for the first time. A test unit of transpired solar collector updraft tower was installed at the campus of Trakya University Engineering Faculty in Edirne-Turkey in 2014. Solar radiation, ambient temperature, collector cavity temperatures, and chimney velocities were monitored during summer and winter period. The results showed that transpired solar collector efficiency ranges from 60% to 80%. The maximum temperature rise in the collector area is found to be 16–18 °C on the typical sunny day. Compared to conventional solar tower glazed collectors, three times higher efficiency is obtained. With increased thermal efficiency, large solar collector areas for solar towers can be reduced in half or less.

  9. Dynamic behavior and identification of failure modes of cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serhan, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The major thrust of this paper is to provide an engineering assessment of two hyperboloidal 540-foot high reinforced concrete cooling towers at a nuclear power plant relative to the proposed construction of a new safety-related facility in the shadow of these cooling towers. A three-dimensional full 360-degree finite-element model that is capable of realistically representing the response of the two cooling towers subjected to the plant design-basis safe shutdown earthquake, 90 mph wind, and 300 mph tornado is used to create a data pool which supports the proposed construction of the new facility. Dynamic time history analyses are performed to represent the complex interplay of the dynamic characteristics of the cooling towers and the input wind-pressure excitation in terms of gust factors. This study resulted in the confirmation and enhancement of many of the important aspects in the design/analysis methodologies for cooling towers reported in literature. In summary, this study provides a high confidence that no significant damage will be caused to the two cooling towers when subjected to the plant design-basis safe shutdown earthquake and the 90 mph basic wind velocity. However, the two cooling towers are expected to collapse if subjected in a direct hit to a 300 mph tornado. The nonlinear finite element analyses including base uplift performed for this study and the literature research on past failures of cooling towers due to severe wind storms confirm that the mode of failure will not be the overturning cantilever tree-type and the towers will collapse inwardly with the exception of few isolated debris

  10. Health risks from exposure to Legionella in reclaimed water aerosols: Toilet flushing, spray irrigation, and cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kerry A; Hamilton, Mark T; Johnson, William; Jjemba, Patrick; Bukhari, Zia; LeChevallier, Mark; Haas, Charles N

    2018-05-01

    The use of reclaimed water brings new challenges for the water industry in terms of maintaining water quality while increasing sustainability. Increased attention has been devoted to opportunistic pathogens, especially Legionella pneumophila, due to its growing importance as a portion of the waterborne disease burden in the United States. Infection occurs when a person inhales a mist containing Legionella bacteria. The top three uses for reclaimed water (cooling towers, spray irrigation, and toilet flushing) that generate aerosols were evaluated for Legionella health risks in reclaimed water using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). Risks are compared using data from nineteen United States reclaimed water utilities measured with culture-based methods, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and ethidium-monoazide-qPCR. Median toilet flushing annual infection risks exceeded 10 -4 considering multiple toilet types, while median clinical severity infection risks did not exceed this value. Sprinkler and cooling tower risks varied depending on meteorological conditions and operational characteristics such as drift eliminator performance. However, the greatest differences between risk scenarios were due to 1) the dose response model used (infection or clinical severity infection) 2) population at risk considered (residential or occupational) and 3) differences in laboratory analytical method. Theoretical setback distances necessary to achieve a median annual infection risk level of 10 -4 are proposed for spray irrigation and cooling towers. In both cooling tower and sprinkler cases, Legionella infection risks were non-trivial at potentially large setback distances, and indicate other simultaneous management practices could be needed to manage risks. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the most influential factors for variability in risks were the concentration of Legionella and aerosol partitioning and/or efficiency across all models, highlighting the importance of

  11. Simultaneous multicopter-based air sampling and sensing of meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosy, Caroline; Krampf, Karina; Zeeman, Matthias; Wolf, Benjamin; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Klaus; Emeis, Stefan; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-08-01

    The state and composition of the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), i.e., the atmospheric surface layer (SL), reflects the interactions of external forcing, land surface, vegetation, human influence and the atmosphere. Vertical profiles of atmospheric variables in the SL at high spatial (meters) and temporal (1 Hz and better) resolution increase our understanding of these interactions but are still challenging to measure appropriately. Traditional ground-based observations include towers that often cover only a few measurement heights at a fixed location. At the same time, most remote sensing techniques and aircraft measurements have limitations to achieve sufficient detail close to the ground (up to 50 m). Vertical and horizontal transects of the PBL can be complemented by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Our aim in this case study is to assess the use of a multicopter-type UAV for the spatial sampling of air and simultaneously the sensing of meteorological variables for the study of the surface exchange processes. To this end, a UAV was equipped with onboard air temperature and humidity sensors, while wind conditions were determined from the UAV's flight control sensors. Further, the UAV was used to systematically change the location of a sample inlet connected to a sample tube, allowing the observation of methane abundance using a ground-based analyzer. Vertical methane gradients of about 0.3 ppm were found during stable atmospheric conditions. Our results showed that both methane and meteorological conditions were in agreement with other observations at the site during the ScaleX-2015 campaign. The multicopter-type UAV was capable of simultaneous in situ sensing of meteorological state variables and sampling of air up to 50 m above the surface, which extended the vertical profile height of existing tower-based infrastructure by a factor of 5.

  12. Lloyd Berkner: Catalyst for Meteorology's Fabulous Fifties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    In the long sweep of meteorological history - from Aristotle's Meteorologica to the threshold of the third millennium - the 1950s will surely be recognized as a defining decade. The contributions of many individuals were responsible for the combination of vision and institution building that marked this decade and set the stage for explosive development during the subsequent forty years. In the minds of many individuals who were active during those early years, however, one name stands out as a prime mover par excellence: Lloyd Viel Berkner. On May 1, 1957, Berkner addressed the National Press Club. The address was entitled, "Horizons of Meteorology". It reveals Berkner's insights into meteorology from his position as Chairman of the Committee on Meteorology of the National Academy of Sciences, soon to release the path-breaking report, Research and Education in Meteorology (1958). The address also reflects the viewpoint of an individual deeply involved in the International Geophysical Year (IGY). It is an important footnote to meteorological history. We welcome this opportunity to profile Berkner and to discuss "Horizons of Meteorology" in light of meteorology's state-of-affairs in the 1950s and the possible relevance to Berkner's ideas to contemporary issues.

  13. DESCARTES AND THE METEOROLOGY OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick BRISSEY

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Descartes claimed that he thought he could deduce the assumptions of his Meteorology by the contents of the Discourse. He actually began the Meteorology with assumptions. The content of the Discourse, moreover, does not indicate how he deduced the assumptions of the Meteorology. We seem to be left in a precarious position. We can examine the text as it was published, independent of Descartes’ claims, which suggests that he incorporated a presumptive or hypothetical method. On the other hand, we can take Descartes’ claims as our guide and search for the epistemic foundations of the Meteorology independent of the Discourse. In this paper, I will pursue the latter route. My aim is to explain why, and how, Descartes thought that he had deduced the assumptions of the Meteorology. My interest, in this case, is solely Descartes’ physical foundation for the Meteorology, in the physics and physiology that resulted in Descartes’ explanation. With this aim, I provide an interpretation of Descartes’ World where many of its conclusions serve as evidence for the assumptions of the Meteorology. I provisionally conclude that Descartes thought that his World was the epistemic foundation for his Meteorology.

  14. Meteorological Factors Affecting Evaporation Duct Height Climatologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Italy Maritime Meteorology Division Japan Meteorological Agency Ote-Machi 1-3-4 Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo, Japan Instituto De Geofisica U.N.A.M. Biblioteca ...Torre De Ciencias, 3ER Piso Ciudad Universitaria Mexico 20, D.F. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituu. Postbus 201 3730 AE Debilt Netherlands

  15. Research into spectra transformation of cooling tower droplet drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrykin, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    Empirical droplet-diameter distributions in a cooling tower and outside are well approximated by the Rosin-Rammler-Bennet two-parameter function. Fractional efficiency of eliminators is also approximated by the above function fairly well. The design formulas proposed are universal and allow evaluation of droplet spectra transformation as well as the efficiency of measures for preventing droplet emissions from cooling towers both at the design and operation stages. Estimates of cooling tower droplet emissions calculated by the formulas suggested may be recommended as input data applied to the solution of environmental pollution problems and their assessment

  16. Fire behaviour of cooling tower packing; Brandverhalten von Kuehlturmeinbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattausch, Tim [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Dortmund (Germany). Fachstelle fuer Brandschutz

    2013-10-01

    The rapid burning down of the cooling tower of the shutdown power plant in Schwandorf revealed the potential of a total loss of a cooling tower in case of fire. VGB ordered a research project in order to obtain more knowledge about the fire risk of cooling tower packing currently applied. Depending on kind and age of the plastics used, the results of these tests manifest a big variation of the fire behaviour. For the applications of plastics, it is essential to determine and to adhere to organisational fire protection measures. (orig.)

  17. Virtual and remote control tower research, design, development and validation

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The interdisciplinary research and development work carried out in the last ten years which is presented in this book aimed at replacing the conventional airport control tower by a new “remote tower operation” work environment (RTO) which should enhance work efficiency and safety and reduce costs. This revolutionary human–system interface allows for remote aerodrome traffic control without a physical tower building and enables the establishment of remote airport traffic control centers (RTC) of which each may serve several airports from a central location.

  18. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine Towers on Flexible Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adhikari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind turbines are considered as an essential part to develop sustainable, alternative energy sources. The structures themselves are both slender and highly flexible, with a subsea foundation typically consisting of a single large diameter monopile. They are subject to intense wind and wave loadings, with the result that significant movement of both the exposed structure and the upper part of the monopile can occur. Although the structures are intended for design life of 25 to 30 years, very little is known about the long term behaviour of these structures. This paper characterizes the dynamic behaviour of these structures. A simplified approach has been proposed for the free vibration analysis of wind turbines taking the effect of foundation into account. The method is based on an Euler-Bernoulli beam-column with elastic end supports. The elastic end-supports are considered to model the flexible nature of the interaction of these systems with the foundation. A closed-form expression of the characteristic equation governing all the natural frequencies of the system has been derived. Theoretical developments are explained by practical numerical examples. Analytical as well as a new experimental approach has been proposed to determine the parameters for the foundation. Some design issues of wind turbine towers are discussed from the point of view of the foundation parameters.

  19. The Worlds First Ever Cooling Tower Acceptance Test Using Process Data Reconciliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnus Langenstein; Jan Hansen-Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    The cooling capacity of cooling towers is influenced by multiple constructive and atmospheric parameters in a very complex way. This leads to strong variations of the measured cold-water temperature and causes unacceptable unreliability of conventional acceptance tests, which are based on single point measurements. In order to overcome this lack of accuracy a new approach to acceptance test based on process data reconciliation has been developed by BTB Jansky and applied at a nuclear power plant. This approach uses process data reconciliation according to VDI 2048 to evaluate datasets over a long period covering different operating conditions of the cooling tower. Data reconciliation is a statistical method to determine the true process parameters with a statistical probability of 95% by considering closed material-, mass-and energy balances. Datasets which are not suitable for the evaluation due to strong transient gradients are excluded beforehand, according to well-defined criteria. The reconciled cold-water temperature is then compared, within a wet bulb temperature range of 5 deg. C to 20 deg. C to the manufacturer's guaranteed temperature. Finally, if the average deviation between reconciled and guaranteed value over the evaluated period is below zero, the cooling tower guarantee is fulfilled. (authors)

  20. 75 FR 63802 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Parto Abgardan Cooling Towers Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Abgardan Cooling Towers Co. Parto Abgardan Cooling Towers Co., P.O. Box 966, Folsom, CA 95763; and P.O. Box... Making Denial of Export Privileges of Aqua-Loop Cooling Towers, Co. Applicable to Parto Abgardan Cooling...-Loop Cooling Towers, Co. (``Aqua-Loop'') on March 25, 2010 (``Denial Order''), applicable to the...

  1. A software architecture for a transportation control tower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgrass, A.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Pourmirza, S.; Völzer, H.; Weske, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    A Transportation Control Tower is a software application that facilitates transportation planners with easily monitoring and dispatching transportation resources. This paper presents a software architecture for such an application. It focuses in particular on the novel aspects of the software

  2. Newton slopes for Artin-Schreier-Witt towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher; Wan, Daqing; Xiao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    We fix a monic polynomial f(x)∈Fq[x] over a finite field and consider the Artin-Schreier-Witt tower defined by f(x); this is a tower of curves ⋯→Cm→Cm−1→⋯→C0=A1, with total Galois group Zp. We study the Newton slopes of zeta functions of this tower of curves. This reduces to the study of the Newton...... slopes of L-functions associated to characters of the Galois group of this tower. We prove that, when the conductor of the character is large enough, the Newton slopes of the L-function form arithmetic progressions which are independent of the conductor of the character. As a corollary, we obtain...

  3. Transient Simulation of Wind Turbine Towers under Lightning Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation algorithm is proposed in this paper for lightning transient analysis of the wind turbine (WT towers. In the proposed algorithm, the tower body is first subdivided into a discrete multiconductor system. A set of formulas are given to calculate the electrical parameters of the branches in the multiconductor system. By means of the electrical parameters, each branch unit in the multiconductor system is replaced as a coupled π-type circuit and the multiconductor system is converted into a circuit model. Then, the lightning transient responses can be obtained in different parts on the tower body by solving the circuit equations of the equivalent discretization network. The laboratory measurement is also made by a reduced-scale tower for checking the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Hadron calorimeter towers with a high space resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellettini, G.; Bertani, R.; Bradaschia, C.; Del Fabbro, R.; Scribano, A.; Terreni, G.

    1982-01-01

    The performances of a set of hadron calorimeter towers for measuring the hadron impact point are described. It is shown that an accuracy of 1-2 cm can be achieved with a proper treatment of the data. (orig.)

  5. Lower parts of Temelin nuclear power plant cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebek, J.

    1988-01-01

    The progress of work is described in detail on the foundations and lower parts of the cooling towers of the Temelin nuclear power plant. The cooling tower is placed on a reinforced concrete footing of a circular layout. Support pillars are erected on the reinforced concrete continuous footing. They consists of oblique shell stanchions. Inside, the footing joins up to monolithic wall and slab structures of the cooling tower tub. The tub bottom forms a foundation plate supporting prefab structures of the cooling tower inner structural systems. The framed support of the chimney shell consists of 56 pairs of prefabricated oblique stanchions. Following their erection into the final position and anchoring in the continuous footing, the concreting of the casing can start of the reinforced conrete chimney. (Z.M.). 3 figs

  6. Optimization of cooling tower performance analysis using Taguchi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discuss the application of Taguchi method in assessing maximum cooling tower effectiveness for the counter flow cooling tower using expanded wire mesh packing. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array .The trail was performed under different inlet conditions of flow rate of water, air and water temperature. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA and regression were carried out in order to determine the effects of process parameters on cooling tower effectiveness and to identity optimal factor settings. Finally confirmation tests verified this reliability of Taguchi method for optimization of counter flow cooling tower performance with sufficient accuracy.

  7. Use of cooling tower blow down in ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, N; Singh, V; Panno, B; Wilcoxon, M

    2010-01-01

    Reducing water consumption in bioethanol production conserves an increasingly scarce natural resource, lowers production costs, and minimizes effluent management issues. The suitability of cooling tower blow down water for reuse in fermentation was investigated as a means to lower water consumption. Extensive chemical characterization of the blow down water revealed low concentrations of toxic elements and total dissolved solids. Fermentation carried out with cooling tower blow down water resulted in similar levels of ethanol and residual glucose as a control study using deionized water. The study noted good tolerance by yeast to the specific scale and corrosion inhibitors found in the cooling tower blow down water. This research indicates that, under appropriate conditions, reuse of blow down water from cooling towers in fermentation is feasible.

  8. Final Rule for Industrial Process Cooling Towers: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet concerning a final rule to reduce air toxics emissions from industrial process cooling towers. Air toxics are those pollutants known or suspected of causing cancer or other serious health effects.

  9. A Dimensioning Methodology for a Natural Draft Wet Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Opriș

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for the dimensioning of a natural draft wet cooling tower. The main geometrical dimensions depend on the packing type, the cooling and the weather conditions. The study is based on splitting the tower in three main zones: the spray and packing zone, the rain zone and the natural draft zone. The methodology is developed on modular bases, by using block-modules both for the three main zones of the cooling tower and for the inlet/outlet air properties. It is useful in explaining to the students the complex physical phenomena within the cooling tower but also for the development of a computer program to be used in engineering, management and education.

  10. Parametric study of closed wet cooling tower thermal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, S. M.; Hayder, M. J.

    2017-08-01

    The present study involves experimental and theoretical analysis to evaluate the thermal performance of modified Closed Wet Cooling Tower (CWCT). The experimental study includes: design, manufacture and testing prototype of a modified counter flow forced draft CWCT. The modification based on addition packing to the conventional CWCT. A series of experiments was carried out at different operational parameters. In view of energy analysis, the thermal performance parameters of the tower are: cooling range, tower approach, cooling capacity, thermal efficiency, heat and mass transfer coefficients. The theoretical study included develops Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to predicting various thermal performance parameters of the tower. Utilizing experimental data for training and testing, the models simulated by multi-layer back propagation algorithm for varying all operational parameters stated in experimental test.

  11. Noise emissions of cooling towers; Geraeuschemissionen von Kuehltuermen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkelmann, Dirk [Mueller-BBM GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Cooling towers are often large structures with high sound emission. The impact of water drops on the water surface in the collecting basin leads to the generation of middle- and high-frequency noise that is emitted via the air intake opening and the outlet. In forced-draft cooling towers, additional noise is generated by drives and fans. The sound emissions can be predicted by means of empirical calculation models. In this way, noise control measures can be taken into account already at an early phase of planning. Different, proven measures for reduction of sound emissions are taken depending on cooling tower design. Regulations on noise acceptance testing for cooling towers are given in various standards. (orig.)

  12. Natural-draught cooling tower of the Philippsburg-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, G.; Wurz, D.

    1983-01-01

    In spring 1980 a comprehensive research programm was carried out on the natural-draught cooling tower of the Philippsburg-1 reactor. The study was meant to synchronously acquire all parameters necessary for the evaluation of plant operation and cooling tower emissions. The study is subdivided into 8 sub-projects. Parts 1 to 7 that are included in this progress-of-work report describe experimental work and discuss the results. A critical analysis of measuring results proves that the values for operational behaviour and cooling tower emissions were duly anticipated. Even a very critical judgment of the results can exclude direct or indirect hazards for humans, animals and plants owing to cooling tower emissions. Sub-project 8 compares results from diffusion calculations (24 models) to results gained from experiments. The results of sub-project 8 will be published in a progress report to come. (orig.) [de

  13. Natural-draught cooling towers made of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraetzig, W.B.; Peters, H.L.; Zerna, W.

    1978-01-01

    Large power plant units and dry cooling tower technology require larger dimensions for natural-draught cooling towers. The main curvation radii in latitudinal and meridian direction are thus increased, which results in a lower three-dimensional support strength. This development is an incentive for constant re-consideration of calculation methods, safety philosophy, and dimensioning criteria. In this context, wind effects have been re-formulated and given a scientific foundation. Constructional measures to improve the static and dynamic behaviour of the structure have been presented and critically assessed. A cost analysis, finally, gave the most rational applications of the new shell construction with reinforcing elements. A cooling tower now under construction gave a realistic example. Fundamental aspects concerning the foundations of cooling tower shells and two special types of foundation are further points to clarify the subject. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Towers of generalized divisible quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haah, Jeongwan

    2018-04-01

    A divisible binary classical code is one in which every code word has weight divisible by a fixed integer. If the divisor is 2ν for a positive integer ν , then one can construct a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) code, where X -stabilizer space is the divisible classical code, that admits a transversal gate in the ν th level of Clifford hierarchy. We consider a generalization of the divisibility by allowing a coefficient vector of odd integers with which every code word has zero dot product modulo the divisor. In this generalized sense, we construct a CSS code with divisor 2ν +1 and code distance d from any CSS code of code distance d and divisor 2ν where the transversal X is a nontrivial logical operator. The encoding rate of the new code is approximately d times smaller than that of the old code. In particular, for large d and ν ≥2 , our construction yields a CSS code of parameters [[O (dν -1) ,Ω (d ) ,d ] ] admitting a transversal gate at the ν th level of Clifford hierarchy. For our construction we introduce a conversion from magic state distillation protocols based on Clifford measurements to those based on codes with transversal T gates. Our tower contains, as a subclass, generalized triply even CSS codes that have appeared in so-called gauge fixing or code switching methods.

  15. The Tower Shielding Facility: Its glorious past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) is the only reactor facility in the US that was designed and built for radiation-shielding studies in which both the reactor source and shield samples could be raised into the air to allow measurements to be made without interference from ground scattering or other spurious effects. The TSF proved its usefulness as many different programs were successfully completed. It became active in work for the Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA) Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power, Defense Nuclear Agency, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, the Gas-Cooled and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor programs, and the Japanese-American Shielding Program of Experimental Research, just to mention a few of the more extensive ones. The history of the TSF as presented in this report describes the various experiments that were performed using the different reactors. The experiments are categorized as to the programs which they supported and placed in corresponding chapters. The experiments are described in modest detail, along with their purpose when appropriate. Discussion of the results is minimal, but references are given to more extensive topical reports

  16. Christchurch Bay Tower data archive. Principal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, J.R.

    1998-05-01

    Wave force experiments at the Christchurch Bay Tower yielded valuable data on wave forces on cylinders under the complex flows experienced in real sea conditions. The last experiments were conducted in 1987, but the data remain an important source of information on the wave forces on cylinders, together with the measured wave particle kinematics. The use of two columns with different diameters enabled the studies to extend over a large range of Keulegan Carpenter numbers and Reynolds numbers. The experiments included clean vertical and horizontal cylinders, cylinders with real kelp fouling, with simulated hard roughness and a flexible cylinder. Considerable effort was devoted to quality control of the measured data. The experiments were funded mainly by the UK Department of Energy, and ownership of the results has now been transferred to the Offshore Safety Division of the Health and Safety Executive. They have now commissioned the archiving of a set of important records from the experiments, covering clean cylinders, kelp fouling, hard roughness and a horizontal cylinder. The purpose is to make the data available for future work on wave loadings and the related wave particle kinematics. The raw measured data are not usable without specialist decoding, calibration and certain pre-processing tasks. So, in this archiving work, the data have been processed into parameters such as 2 axis forces and 3 axis wave kinematics. As a result of this archiving project the data are available on CD ROM. (author)

  17. The Tower Shielding Facility: Its glorious past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1997-05-07

    The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) is the only reactor facility in the US that was designed and built for radiation-shielding studies in which both the reactor source and shield samples could be raised into the air to allow measurements to be made without interference from ground scattering or other spurious effects. The TSF proved its usefulness as many different programs were successfully completed. It became active in work for the Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA) Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power, Defense Nuclear Agency, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, the Gas-Cooled and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor programs, and the Japanese-American Shielding Program of Experimental Research, just to mention a few of the more extensive ones. The history of the TSF as presented in this report describes the various experiments that were performed using the different reactors. The experiments are categorized as to the programs which they supported and placed in corresponding chapters. The experiments are described in modest detail, along with their purpose when appropriate. Discussion of the results is minimal, but references are given to more extensive topical reports.

  18. Assessment of requirements for dry towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D E; Sonnichsen, J C

    1976-09-01

    The regional limitations of surface water supplies in the U.S. were assessed with respect to the consumptive use requirements of wet cooling towers. The study simulated unit consumptive use factors by region, assessed regional water supplies, and examined electric load projections through 2000 A.D. to ascertain where and when water limitations may occur and, therefore, where dry cooling may be required. It was concluded that the cooling water supply situation in the United States through the year 2000 is adequate in most areas, but is uncertain over much of the Southwest. The uncertainty is related to increasing competition for the available supplies and to potential Federal and/or State policy decisions that may have a significant effect on power plant cooling. Limitations on coastal siting, seismic zone constraints, and state constraints on the purchase and transfer of water rights from other uses to cooling supply have the potential of bringing wet/dry or dry cooling into relatively common use in the 1990's. (LCL)

  19. Evaluation of dynamic response for monopole and hybrid wind mill tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hemal J.; Desai, Atul K.

    2017-07-01

    The wind mill towers are constructed using monopoles or lattice type tower. As the height of tower increases it gives more power but it becomes uneconomical, so in the present research work innovative wind mill tower such as combination of monopole and lattice tower is analyzed using FEM software. When the tall structures are constructed on soft soil it becomes dynamically sensitive so 3 types of soil such as hard, medium and soft soil is also modeled and the innovative tower is studied for different operating frequencies of wind turbine. From study it is concluded that the innovative tower will reduce resonance condition considering soil structure interaction.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS FOR STABILITY ANALYSIS OF TOWER CRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinel'shchikov Aleksey Vladimirovich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tower cranes are one of the main tools for execution of reloading works during construction. Design of tower cranes is carried out in accordance with RD 22-166-86 “Construction of tower cranes. Rules of analysis”, according to which to ensure stability it is required not to exceed the overturning moment upper limit. The calculation of these moments is carried out with the use of empirical coefficients and quite time-consuming. Moreover, normative methodology only considers the static position of the crane and does not take into account the presence of dynamic transients due to crane functioning (lifting and swinging of the load, boom turning and the presence of the dynamic external load (e.g. from wind for different orientations of the crane. This paper proposes a method of determining the stability coefficient of the crane based on acting reaction forces at the support points - the points of contact of wheels with the crane rail track, which allows us, at the design stage, to investigate stability of tower crane under variable external loads and operating conditions. Subject: the safety of tower cranes operation with regard to compliance with regulatory requirements of ensuring their stability both at the design stage and at the operational stage. Research objectives: increasing the safety of operation of tower cranes on the basis of improving methodology of their design to ensure static and dynamic stability. Materials and methods: analysis and synthesis of the regulatory framework and modern research works on provision of safe operation of tower cranes, the method of numerical simulation. Results: we proposed the formula for analysis of stability of tower cranes using the resulting reaction forces at the supports of the crane at the point of contact of the wheel with the rail track.

  1. Influence of detergents on water drift in cooling towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkovicova, Rut

    An influence of detergents on the water drift from the cooling tower was experimentally investigated. For this experimental measurements was used a model cooling tower, especially an experimental aerodynamic line, which is specially designed for the measurement and monitoring of processes taking place around the eliminators of the liquid phase. The effect of different concentrations of detergent in the cooling water on the drift of water droplets from a commonly used type eliminator was observed with visualization methods.

  2. Optimization of cooling tower performance analysis using Taguchi method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkumar Ramakrishnan; Ragupathy Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    This study discuss the application of Taguchi method in assessing maximum cooling tower effectiveness for the counter flow cooling tower using expanded wire mesh packing. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array .The trail was performed under different inlet conditions of flow rate of water, air and water temperature. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression were carried out in order to determine the effects of process...

  3. Influence of detergents on water drift in cooling towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitkovicova Rut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An influence of detergents on the water drift from the cooling tower was experimentally investigated. For this experimental measurements was used a model cooling tower, especially an experimental aerodynamic line, which is specially designed for the measurement and monitoring of processes taking place around the eliminators of the liquid phase. The effect of different concentrations of detergent in the cooling water on the drift of water droplets from a commonly used type eliminator was observed with visualization methods.

  4. Acoustic results of the Boeing model 360 whirl tower test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael E.; Jordan, David

    1990-09-01

    An evaluation is presented for whirl tower test results of the Model 360 helicopter's advanced, high-performance four-bladed composite rotor system intended to facilitate over-200-knot flight. During these performance measurements, acoustic data were acquired by seven microphones. A comparison of whirl-tower tests with theory indicate that theoretical prediction accuracies vary with both microphone position and the inclusion of ground reflection. Prediction errors varied from 0 to 40 percent of the measured signal-to-peak amplitude.

  5. SUMO: A small unmanned meteorological observer for atmospheric boundary layer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuder, J; Jonassen, M; Mayer, S; Brisset, P; Mueller, M

    2008-01-01

    A new system for atmospheric measurements in the lower troposphere has been developed and successfully tested. The presented Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO) is based on a light-weighted commercially available model airplane, equipped with an autopilot and meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. During the 5 week field campaign FLOHOF (Flow over and around HofsjoUkull) in Central Iceland the system has been successfully tested in July/August 2007. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground. In addition the applicability of SUMO for horizontal surveys up to 4 km away from the launch site has been approved. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under harsh polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m at ground temperatures of -20 deg. C and wind speeds up to 15 m s -1 . With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and its weight of below 600 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas. The direct material costs for one SUMO unit, including airplane, autopilot and sensors are below 1200 Euro. Assuming at least several tenths of flights for each airframe, SUMO provides a cost-efficient measurement system with a large potential to close the existing observational gap of reasonable atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes

  6. SUMO: A small unmanned meteorological observer for atmospheric boundary layer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuder, J; Jonassen, M; Mayer, S [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allegaten 70, 5009 Bergen (Norway); Brisset, P [Ecole Nationale de l' Aviation Civile (ENAC), 7 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Mueller, M [Orleansstrasse 26a, 31135 Hildesheim (Germany)], E-mail: joachim.reuder@gfi.uib.no, E-mail: pascal.brisset@enac.fr, E-mail: marius.jonassen@gfi.uib.no, E-mail: martin@pfump.org, E-mail: stephanie.mayer@gfi.uib.no

    2008-05-01

    A new system for atmospheric measurements in the lower troposphere has been developed and successfully tested. The presented Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO) is based on a light-weighted commercially available model airplane, equipped with an autopilot and meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. During the 5 week field campaign FLOHOF (Flow over and around HofsjoUkull) in Central Iceland the system has been successfully tested in July/August 2007. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground. In addition the applicability of SUMO for horizontal surveys up to 4 km away from the launch site has been approved. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under harsh polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m at ground temperatures of -20 deg. C and wind speeds up to 15 m s{sup -1}. With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and its weight of below 600 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas. The direct material costs for one SUMO unit, including airplane, autopilot and sensors are below 1200 Euro. Assuming at least several tenths of flights for each airframe, SUMO provides a cost-efficient measurement system with a large potential to close the existing observational gap of reasonable atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes.

  7. The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO. A new tool for atmospheric boundary layer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuder, Joachim; Jonassen, Marius; Mayer, Stephanie [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Geophysical Inst.; Brisset, Pascal [Ecole Nationale de l' Aviation Civile (ENAC), Toulouse (France); Mueller, Martin [Martin Mueller Engineering, Hildesheim (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO has been developed as a cost-efficient measurement system with the aim to close the existing observational gap of atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes. The system is highly flexible and has the capability for in-situ ABL measurements with unique spatial and temporal resolution. SUMO is based on a light-weighted styrofoam model airplane, equipped with an autopilot system for autonomous flight missions and in its recent version with meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and a total lift-off weight of 580 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas with limited infrastructure. During several field campaigns in 2007 and 2008 the system has been successfully tested and operated. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground during the FLOHOF (FLOw over and around HOFsjoekull) field campaign in Central Iceland in July/August 2007. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m even at ground temperatures of -20 C and wind speeds up to 15 m s{sup -1}. (orig.)

  8. Exergy analysis of a distillation tower for crude oil fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the application of the exergy method to a crude oil atmospheric distillation tower is presented. The fundamentals and procedures are presented as well as the main parameters used to describe the thermodynamic performance of the system, such as Exergy Losses, Effectiveness and Improvement Potential. A parametric analysis of the influence on the effectiveness of the tower is then performed as a function of the number of trays, the amount of stripping steam, the use of reboilers and the operation pressure. The results obtained are discussed. As expected, the effectiveness of the tower increases with the overall number of trays in the tower and in the stripping columns for a constant operation pressure and a constant amount of stripping steam but there is a limit at which the pressure drop across the trays and the stripping steam requirements make the effectiveness decrease. The use of reboilers in the stripping columns adjacent to the main tower allows an increase in the effectiveness basically due to a greater heat integration. Finally, the increase in the operation pressure of the tower produces an increase of the effectiveness but also an increase in the stripping steam requirements

  9. FLUXNET: A Global Network of Eddy-Covariance Flux Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. B.; Holladay, S. K.; Margle, S. M.; Olsen, L. M.; Gu, L.; Heinsch, F.; Baldocchi, D.

    2003-12-01

    The FLUXNET global network was established to aid in understanding the mechanisms controlling the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy across a variety of terrestrial ecosystems. Flux tower data are also being used to validate ecosystem model outputs and to provide information for validating remote sensing based products, including surface temperature, reflectance, albedo, vegetation indices, leaf area index, photosynthetically active radiation, and photosynthesis derived from MODIS sensors on the Terra and Aqua satellites. The global FLUXNET database provides consistent and complete flux data to support global carbon cycle science. Currently FLUXNET consists of over 210 sites, with most flux towers operating continuously for 4 years or longer. Gap-filled data are available for 53 sites. The FLUXNET database contains carbon, water vapor, sensible heat, momentum, and radiation flux measurements with associated ancillary and value-added data products. Towers are located in temperate conifer and broadleaf forests, tropical and boreal forests, crops, grasslands, chaparral, wetlands, and tundra on five continents. Selected MODIS Land products in the immediate vicinity of the flux tower are subsetted and posted on the FLUXNET Web site for 169 flux-towers. The MODIS subsets are prepared in ASCII format for 8-day periods for an area 7 x 7 km around the tower.

  10. Effect on the annual atmospheric dispersion factor of different diffusion parameters and meteorological data at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Yan Jiangyu; Wang Han; Xin Cuntian

    2003-01-01

    Based on the hourly metrological observing data of 100 m high tower during 1997-1999 at Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site and 1995-1997 in Fujian Huian NPP site, the effect on the annual atmospheric dispersion factor (AADF) of four different diffusion parameters (on-site measuring values, IAEA's, Briggs's and Pasquill's) are estimated. The analysis shows that the deviation between the results from IAEA's, Briggs's and on-site measured diffusion parameters is less than 20%. The effect on the AADF from different years' meteorological data also is estimated. (authors)

  11. Synoptic meteorology manual of standard practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, D.E.

    1954-03-22

    This report, dated March 22, 1954 details work procedures for the 200- West Area at HAPO. Topics discussed include emergency procedures, safety and housekeeping practices, policies and procedures, instruments and equipment located at the 622 tower, instruments and equipment located offsite, observational procedures, form entries, and card punching, and weather forecasting.

  12. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  13. Exploring the link between meteorological drought and streamflow to inform water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Amy; Macdonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Drought indicators are an under-used metric in UK drought management. Standardised drought indicators offer a potential monitoring and management tool for operational water resource management. However, the use of these metrics needs further investigation. This work uses statistical analysis of the climatological drought signal based on meteorological drought indicators and observed streamflow data to explore the link between meteorological drought and hydrological drought to inform water resource management for a single water resource region. The region, covering 21,000 km2 of the English Midlands and central Wales, includes a variety of landscapes and climatological conditions. Analysis of the links between meteorological drought and hydrological drought performed using streamflow data from 'natural' catchments indicates a close positive relationship between meteorological drought indicators and streamflow, enhancing confidence in the application of drought indicators for monitoring and management. However, many of the catchments in the region are subject to modification through impoundments, abstractions and discharge. Therefore, it is beneficial to explore how climatological drought signal propagates into managed hydrological systems. Using a longitudinal study of catchments and sub-catchments that include natural and modified river reaches the relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought is explored. Initial statistical analysis of meteorological drought indicators and streamflow data from modified catchments shows a significantly weakened statistical relationship and reveals how anthropogenic activities may alter hydrological drought characteristics in modified catchments. Exploring how meteorological drought indicators link to streamflow across the water supply region helps build an understanding of their utility for operational water resource management.

  14. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  15. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  16. Long-term Measurements of Summer-time Ozone at the Walnut Grove Tower - Understanding Trends in the Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Di, P.; Mims, D.; Avise, J.; DaMassa, J.; Kaduwela, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has been monitoring boundary layer ozone at the Walnut Grove Tower (WGT) since 1996 for investigating regional transport and vertical profile. Walnut Grove is located between Sacramento and Stockton, CA in the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta. Sampling inlets are positioned at 30-ft, 400-ft, 800-ft, 1200-ft and 1600-ft levels of the 2000-ft tower, which is one of the tallest monitoring towers in the Western US. Ozone, ambient temperature, wind speed, and wind direction are simultaneously measured at each level, and reported as hourly averages. The current study included analyses of available ozone and corresponding meteorological data for the months of June - September from 1996 - 2014 with objectives to: 1) explore trends and inter-annual variability of ozone, 2) examine any correlations between ozone and meteorological parameters, 3) understand interactions of ozone measured at various levels, and 4) assess how well a regulatory state-of-the-science air quality model such as the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) captures observation. Daily 1-hr maximum ozone has been consistently decreasing during the 1996 - 2014 period at a rate of ~1 ppb per year. This indicates that CARB's measures to control ambient ozone have been effective over the past years. Evolution of the vertical profile throughout the day shows that ozone is fairly homogeneously mixed between 1 - 5 pm, when mixing height typically reaches the maximum. Ozone at 30-ft shows the greatest variability because of its proximity to the ground and emissions sources - rises faster during morning hours (7 - 10 am) and declines more rapidly during evening hours (7 - 10 pm) compared to other levels. Air masses reaching the tower are predominantly southwesterly (247 - 257 deg.) at the bottom, and southwesterly to slightly northwesterly (254 - 302 deg.) at top levels. Daily 1-hr maximum ozone was negatively correlated with wind speed (i.e. ozone was high under

  17. Engineering and economic evaluation of wet/dry cooling towers for water conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, M.C.

    1976-11-01

    The results are presented of a design and cost study for wet/dry tower systems used in conjunction with 1000 MWe nuclear power plants to reject waste heat while conserving water. Design and cost information for wet/dry tower systems are presented, and these cooling system alternatives are compared with wet and dry tower systems to determine whether the wet/dry tower concept is an economically viable alternative. The wet/dry cooling tower concept investigated is one which combines physically separated wet towers and dry towers into an operational unit. In designing the wet/dry tower, a dry cooling tower is sized to carry the plant heat load at low ambient temperatures, and a separate wet tower is added to augment the heat rejection of the dry tower at higher ambient temperatures. These wet/dry towers are designed to operate with a conventional low back pressure turbine commercially available today. The component wet and dry towers are state-of-the-art designs. From this study it was concluded that: wet/dry cooling systems can be designed to provide a significant economic advantage over dry cooling yet closely matching the dry tower's ability to conserve water, a wet/dry system which saves as much as 99 percent of the make-up water required by a wet tower can maintain that economic advantage, and therefore, for power plant sites where water is in short supply, wet/dry cooling is the economic choice over dry cooling

  18. Modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.

  19. Interim report on the meteorological database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) directs the project, which is being conducted by the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The goals of HEDR, as approved by the TSP, include dose estimates and determination of confidence ranges for these estimates. This letter report describes the current status of the meteorological database. The report defines the meteorological data available for use in climate model calculations, describes the data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database. This report also provides an initial assessment of the data quality. The available meteorological data are adequate for atmospheric calculations. Initial checks of the data indicate the data entry accuracy meets the data quality objectives

  20. Index of Meteorological Observations Publication (Before 1890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of meteorological observations in the United States made prior to January 1, 1890, organized by state. Includes station name, coordinates, elevation, period of...

  1. A marine meteorological data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    A marine meteorological data acquisition system has been developed for long term unattended measurements at remote coastal sites, ocean surface platforms and for use on board research vessels. The system has an open and modular configuration...

  2. NDBC Standard Meteorological Buoy Data, 1970-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) distributes meteorological data from moored buoys maintained by NDBC and others. Moored buoys are the weather sentinels of the...

  3. Ionospheric irregularities in periods of meteorological disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchevkina, O. P.; Karpov, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    The results of observations of the total electron content (TEC) in periods of storm disturbances of meteorological situation are presented in the paper. The observational results have shown that a passage of a meteorological storm is accompanied by a substantial decrease in values of TEC and critical frequencies of the ionospheric F2 region. The decreases in values of these ionospheric parameters reach 50% and up to 30% in TEC and critical frequency of the F2 layer, respectively, as compared to meteorologically quiet days. Based on qualitative analysis, it is found that the processes related to formation of local regions of thermospheric heating due to a dissipation of AGW coming into the upper atmosphere from the region of the meteorological disturbance in the lower atmosphere are a possible cause of these ionospheric disturbances.

  4. Meteorological interpretation of transient LOD changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Y.

    2008-04-01

    The Earth’s spin rate is mainly changed by zonal winds. For example, seasonal changes in global atmospheric circulation and episodic changes accompanied with El Nĩ os are clearly detected n in the Length-of-day (LOD). Sub-global to regional meteorological phenomena can also change the wind field, however, their effects on the LOD are uncertain because such LOD signals are expected to be subtle and transient. In our previous study (Masaki, 2006), we introduced atmospheric pressure gradients in the upper atmosphere in order to obtain a rough picture of the meteorological features that can change the LOD. In this presentation, we compare one-year LOD data with meteorological elements (winds, temperature, pressure, etc.) and make an attempt to link transient LOD changes with sub-global meteorological phenomena.

  5. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to

  6. The 1989 progress report: dynamic meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadourny, R.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The aim of the research programs is the dynamic study of climate and environment in relationship with the global athmospheric behavior. The investigations reported were performed in the fields of: climate modelling, dynamic study of Turbulence, analysis of atmospheric radiation and nebulosity, tropical meteorology and climate, Earth radioactive balance, lidar measurements, middle atmosphere studies. The published papers, the conferences and Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  7. Meteorological circumstances during the 'Chernobyl-period'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivens, R.; Lablans, W.N.; Wessels, H.R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the meteorological circumstances and air flows in Europe from 26th April up to 8th May 1986, which caused the spread of contaminated air originating from Chernobyl is outlined and mapped out. Furthermore a global survey is presented of the precipitation in the Netherlands during the period 2nd May to 10th May based on observations of various observation stations of the Royal Dutch Meteorologic Institute (KNMI). 11 figs.; 1 table (H.W.)

  8. Meteorological measurements at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On-site meteorological measurements are necessary for evaluating atmospheric dispersion of gaseous effluents. Radiation doses in a plant's vicinity due to these effluents are calculated from the results of dispersion evaluations. The guide addresses the requirements for on-site meteorological measurement systems. Guide YVL 7.3 addresses atmospheric dispersion evaluations and calculation methods, Guide YVL 7.2 radiation dose calculations and Guide YVL 7.8 environmental data reporting. (5 refs.)

  9. Productivity and CO2 exchange of Great Plains ecoregions. I. Shortgrass steppe: Flux tower estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Morgan, Jack A.; Hanan, Niall P.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rajan, Nithya; Smith, David P.; Howard, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    The shortgrass steppe (SGS) occupies the southwestern part of the Great Plains. Half of the land is cultivated, but significant areas remain under natural vegetation. Despite previous studies of the SGS carbon cycle, not all aspects have been completely addressed, including gross productivity, ecosystem respiration, and ecophysiological parameters. Our analysis of 1998 − 2007 flux tower measurements at five Bowen ratio–energy balance (BREB) and three eddy covariance (EC) sites characterized seasonal and interannual variability of gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration. Identification of the nonrectangular hyperbolic equation for the diurnal CO2 exchange, with vapor pressure deficit (VPD) limitation and exponential temperature response, quantified quantum yield α, photosynthetic capacity Amax, and respiration rate rd with variation ranges (19 \\production from − 900 to + 700 g CO2 m− 2 yr− 1, indicating that SGS may switch from a sink to a source depending on weather. Comparison of the 2004 − 2006 measurements at two BREB and two parallel EC flux towers located at comparable SGS sites showed moderately higher photosynthesis, lower respiration, and higher net production at the BREB than EC sites. However, the difference was not related only to methodologies, as the normalized difference vegetation index at the BREB sites was higher than at the EC sites. Overall magnitudes and seasonal patterns at the BREB and the EC sites during the 3-yr period were similar, with trajectories within the ± 1.5 standard deviation around the mean of the four sites and mostly reflecting the effects of meteorology.

  10. Evaluation of the seismic response of historical masonry bell towers located in South-East Lombardy, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Marco; Milani, Gabriele; Shehu, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of two existing masonry towers located in South-East Lombardy, Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities that justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analyzed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, with non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both the X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some results presented in this paper show the high vulnerability of ancient masonry towers under horizontal loads.

  11. Going beyond the stationary flux towers to assess the interactions of land use and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, Dan; Rohatyn, shani; Ramati, Efrat; Tatrinov, Fedor; Rotenberg, Eyal

    2017-04-01

    Networks of permanent, stationary flux towers that allows continuous canopy-scale measurements over annual time-scales have revolutionized the study of the contemporary carbon cycle over the past two decades. However, this approach is limited in addressing questions related to dynamic changes in land use, vegetation types, disturbance, and their interactions with variations in environmental conditions. Using mobile laboratory for measuring CO2, water, energy, COS, and VOC fluxes, permitted us to extend our stationary flux tower measurements across many sites, but also limited measurements to short-time campaigns (days to weeks). To overcome this limitation, we adopted an empirical approach (often used in remote sensing) and used state of the art campaign-based ecosystem flux measurements to 'calibrate' local meteorological data available on continuous basis, to estimate annual-scale carbon, water, and energy budgets. Using this approach, we investigated the interactions of land use change (afforestation) and climate (humid Mediterranean to semi-arid, 730 to 300 mm in annual precipitation) on the ecosystem fluxes. The results showed that across this climatic range, afforestation increased ET markedly more in the wet (+200 mm yr-1 or 30% of P) than in the dry end (+58 mm yr-1 or 19% of P). Similarly, increase in carbon sequestration (NEE) associated with forestation was greater in the wet sites (+460 gC m-2 yr-1) than in the dry sites (+30 gC m-2 yr-1). In contrast, ecosystem net-radiation (Rn) and sensible heat flux (H) increased due to afforestation much more in the dry sites than in the wet sites ( 47 vs. 27 and 49 vs. 17 Wm-2, respectively). COS and VOC fluxes were also measured but reported separately. The results provided quantitative assessment of shifts in the tradeoffs associated with afforestation in this region, between the hydrological and energy-budget 'costs', vs. carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services, (e.g, surface cooling, erosion

  12. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  13. Providing Meteorological Information for Controlled Burns at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, R.

    1999-01-01

    Regional and local weather information are important for a variety of applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility covering approximately 800 square kilometers of southwest South Carolina east of the Savannah River. For example, meteorological observations and forecasts are used to assess the consequences of an accidental radiological or chemical release. Traditionally, hazards posed by SRS operations have been associated with nuclear reactors, chemical reprocessing plants, fuel fabrication, or waste-vitrification facilities. However, recent events have shown site-specific meteorology to be a valuable tool to the United States Forest Service (USFS) in mitigating potential hazards from controlled burns that are conducted at the SRS. Prescribed burns at the SRS are important for a variety of reasons. The removal of thick undergrowth allows wildlife to more easily feed and migrate, accelerates the growth of young pine stands, and controls certain diseases that affect local pine forests (e.g. Adams et al. 1973). In addition, the removal of twigs, pine needles, or leaves (a fuel source) reduces the chance of serious wildfire damage. However, the threat of smoke inhalation and reduced visibility requires careful planning on the part of the fire professionals. At the SRS, approximately 100 square kilometers of land per year are burned in a controlled manner, mainly in the spring.To reduce the potentially harmful effects to any onsite activity, it is important that USFS personnel understand current and predicted weather patterns within the area. This paper discusses two sources of meteorological information that are provided to SRS-USFS personnel for use in planning forest burns: (1) a meteorological tower system which provides current data from a series of onsite locations, and (2) an operational prognostic mesoscale model used to generate forecast information. The forecast data supplements the basic National Weather Service (NWS

  14. Modification of the colony tower for the Rio Blanco detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.; Freeman, S.A.; Honda, K.K.; Lee, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Supplemental structural bracing was designed and installed for the 180-ft-tall Colony Tower, an experimental oil shale processing retort structure, in anticipation of its lateral response to the Rio Blanco detonation. The tower is a steel structure with both horizontal and vertical diagonal bracing. Data obtained from the earlier Project Rulison detonation indicated that an evaluation study was necessary. Design criteria that would provide an adequate margin of safety were developed based on predicted Rio Blanco ground motion. The evaluation of the unmodified structure showed that several bracing members would be subjected to forces exceeding their yield strength, and some would reach a level at which failure could occur. Further analyses were made with assumed modified bracing members. A final scheme for modified vertical bracing was established and installed. After modification, the response of the tower during the Rio Blanco detonation was measured by instruments on the ground and at various locations on the tower, and no evidence of damage was discovered. The modification of the Colony Tower and the procedures used to determine these modifications show the usefulness of current ground motion and structural response prediction technology for forecasting dynamic behavior of important structures subjected to ground motion from underground nuclear explosions. (auth)

  15. Legionella safety in cooling towers; Legionellaveiligheid in koeltorens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordes, B. [Kordes Advies, (Netherlands); De Bok, F. [KBBL Wijhe, (Netherlands); De Zeeuw, L. [Holland Environment Group, (Netherlands); Settels, P. [Safety, Health Services and Ergonomics, ING, (Netherlands); Oesterholt, F.; Wullings, B. [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, (Netherlands); Guiot, P. [Tevan, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Brands, R. [Cumulus Nederland, Cuijk (Netherlands); Nuijten, O. [Kennisinstituut ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wijne, R. [Beer advocaten, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    In 9 articles attention is paid to several aspects with regard to Legionella in cooling towers: representative sampling, the use of copper and silver ionization or hydrogen peroxide to prevent Legionella growth and biofilms, the use of a zero-tolerance model to control a cooling tower installation, detection of DNA of Legionella Pneumophila, legionella safety in air conditioners, the model Legionella risk analysis and control of cooling tower installations, legislation and regulations for the control of cooling tower installations with regard to the Dutch Occupational Health and Safety Act ('Arbo-wet'), and an article about a lawsuit for victims of a Legionella outbreak, caused by careless owners of a cooling tower in Amsterdam, Netherlands. [Dutch] In 9 artikelen wordt in deze aflevering aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. Legionella in koeltorens: representatieve monstername, de toepassing van koper en zilver-ionisatie of waterstofperoxide om de groei van Legionella en biofilms te voorkomen, het gebruik van een zero-tolerance model om een koeltoren installatie te controleren, detectie van DNA van Legionella Pneumophila, Legionella veiligheid in luchtbehandelingsinstallaties, het model Legionella risicoanalyse en beheersplan voor koeltoreninstallaties, de rol van de Arbo-wet, en een artikel over een rechtszaak voor slachtoffers van Legionella door onzorgvuldig beheer van een koeltoren in Amsterdam.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Wind Turbine Blade-Tower Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang; Hu Zhou; Decheng Wan

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of wind turbine blade-tower interaction by using the open source OpenFOAM tools coupled with arbitrary mesh interface (AMI) method were presented.The governing equations were the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) which were solved by the pimpleDyMFoam solver,and the AMI method was employed to handle mesh movements.The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) phase Ⅵ wind turbine in upwind configuration was selected for numerical tests with different incoming wind speeds (5,10,15,and 25 m/s) at a fixed blade pitch and constant rotational speed.Detailed numerical results of vortex structure,time histories of thrust,and pressure distribution on the blade and tower were presented.The findings show that the wind turbine tower has little effect on the whole aerodynamic performance of an upwind wind turbine,while the rotating rotor will induce an obvious cyclic drop in the front pressure of the tower.Also,strong interaction of blade tip vortices with separation from the tower was observed.

  17. Sensor Placement For Structural Monitoring of Transmission Line Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eRaphael

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transmission line towers are usually analyzed using linear elastic idealized truss models. Due to the assumptions used in the analysis, there are discrepancies between the actual results obtained from full scale prototype testing and the analytical results. Therefore, design engineers are interested in assessing the actual stress levels in transmission line towers. Since it is costly to place sensors on every member of a tower structure, the best locations for sensors need to be carefully selected. This study evaluates a methodology for sensor placement in transmission line towers. The objective is to find optimal locations for sensors such that the real behavior of the structure can be explained from measurements. The methodology is based on the concepts of entropy and model falsification. Sensor locations are selected based on maximum entropy such that there is maximum separation between model instances that represent different possible combinations of parameter values which have uncertainties. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to that of an intuitive method in which sensor locations are selected where the forces are maximum. A typical 220 kV transmission tower is taken as case study in this paper. It is shown that the intuitive method results in much higher number of non-separable models compared to the optimal sensor placement algorithm. Thus the intuitive method results in poor identification of the system.

  18. Improvement of coal focus and cooling towers of COFRENTES NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, I.; Bogh, P.

    1998-01-01

    Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant is performing a improving program of its cooling towers based on the filling revamping and cooling water circuit improvement. Furthermore, and as consequence of the acquired experience on cooling towers due to the mentioned program, Cofrentes NPP has decided to follow up with this project from a different point of view based on the thermal-hydraulic optimization of the cooling process inside the towers. This program, which is going to be carried out by Cofrentes NPP, Iberinco and Energy Planning and Power Generation (EPPG) provides an improvement on the thermal profile and of the draught inside the cooling towers by improving the water distribution in the towers active area. In order to perform such a program is needed to fulfill a test program to assure a guaranteed performance gain. In this way, Iberinco is developing a test procedure which improves the results which are obtained with the present standards used commonly by the industry. As a consequence of this program, Cofrentes is expecting to obtain a gain of 5 to 8 MWe with a revenue period of 4 to 5 months, results validated in another foreigner Plant which have developed a similar program. (Author)

  19. Overall Analysis of Meteorological Information in the KAERI Site (2006 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. H.; Choi, G. S.; Choi, S. D

    2007-07-15

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done in the scope of 'Environmental Radiation Monitoring Around the Nuclear Facilities' project. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were N in winter, SW in 2nd, E in 3rd quaters. The calm distributed 14.7% at 67m, 33.2% at 27m, 57.3% at 10m height. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency.

  20. The Creation of an Historical Meteorological Database for Dose Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Wind measurement towers did not exist at the Savannah River Site (SRS) until the early 1970s. Three relatively simple methods were used to create a 1955-61 meteorological database for the SRS for a dose reconstruction project. The winds were estimated from onsite measurements in the 1990s and National Weather Service (NWS) observations in the 1990s and 1950s using (1) a linear regression method, (2) a similarity theory approach, and (3) a simple statistical differences method. The criteria for determining success were based on (1) how well the mean values and standard deviations of the predicted wind speed agree with the known SRS values from the 1990s, (2) the shape of the predicted frequency distribution functions for wind speed, and (3) how closely the predicted windroses resembled the SRS windrose for the 1990s. The linear regression model's wind speed distribution function was broad, flat, and skewed too much toward higher wind speeds. The similarity theory approach produced a wind speed distribution function that contained excess predicted speeds in the range 0-1.54 m s-1 (0-3 kts) and had ''excluded'' bins caused by predictions being made from integer values of knots in the NWS data. The distribution function from the mean difference method was smooth with a shape like a Weibull distribution and appeared to resemble closely the SRS 1992-96 distribution. The wind directions for all three methods of approach were successfully based on the mean difference method. It was difficult to discern differences among the wind roses produced by the three methods so the wind speed distribution functions need to be examined in order to make an informed choice for dose reconstruction

  1. The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) - Naval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC

  2. Tridimensional statistic analysis of cooling tower plumes. Methods and results relating to power effect and disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabaton, M.; Viollet, P.L.; Darles, A.; Gland, H.

    1980-07-01

    The PANACH three dimensional calculation code developed from tests on a small scale model and validated from full scale measurement campaigns, was used to estimate a three dimensional statistic of plumes. As it is not possible with the calculation times to make a calculation for each radio sondage, a classification method was adopted. This method developed by the French National Meteorological Office is based on a double classification comprising basic classes in which the plumes are assumed to be dynamically similar and a sub-classification to take better account of the true moisture profiles. This statistical method was then applied to the case of 2 or 4 1300 MWe units fitted with natural draught cooling towers of the wet, dry or wet-dry types [fr

  3. Determination of the replacement cooling tower capability at the ETRR-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din El-Morshdy, S.

    2004-01-01

    The ETRR-2 replacement cooling tower capability has been evaluated by the thermal acceptance test performed in June 2003. All instruments used were calibrated prior to the test. The measured data are collected at regular intervals in accordance with the acceptance test code for water cooling towers of the cooling tower institute recommendations. Both the characteristic curve and the performance curve methods were used to evaluate the tower capability. The test results yield a tower capability of about 105% and so the tower is thermally accepted. (orig.)

  4. Effects of nearby surface features on wind speed at a nuclear plant meteorological station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.A.; Goodwin, R.J.; Pittman, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a definite cause and effect relationship between the trees in the vicinity of the meteorological tower and the wind speed at the 10-meter level on the meteorological tower. For the affected directions, horizontal wind speed is significantly reduced below what it would be for that level if the trees were not present. This effect is only slightly less for the 10:1 exposure achieved with the 1977 tree clearing, which illustrates that meeting this commonly accepted distance to height ratio does not assure representativeness of 10-meter data collected at a nuclear plant site. The somewhat stronger effect for winds from the south through southwest directions may be partly attributable to the abrupt change in roughness and elevation encountered by air moving at an angle or directly across the reservoir, which is 3.5 to 5.0 kilometers wide at this site. This general reduction in wind speed values below what would be expected at the plant location will result in biased dispersion estimates. Calculated relative concentration values for releases treated as ground-level or building-wake releases would be larger than actual concentrations. While this would provide conservative concentration values, radioactive plume transport calculations would be nonconservative. The calculated, or predicted, transport rate would be slower than the actual transport rate. Such local biases affecting the spatial representativeness of airflow at 10 meters are a primary reason for TVA's decision to use 46-meter wind data for ground-level transport and diffusion modeling in its radiological emergency preparedness program

  5. One-year dynamic monitoring of a masonry tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidobaldi Marco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of the continuous dynamic monitoring program carried out on the tallest historic tower in Mantua, Italy. This project follows an extensive diagnostic investigation aimed at assessing the structural condition of the tower after the Italian earthquakes of May 2012. A simple dynamic monitoring system was permanently installed in the upper part of the building and automatic modal identification was performed. The results allow to evaluate the effects of changing temperature on automatically identified natural frequencies, to verify the practical feasibility of damage detection methods based on natural frequencies shifts and provide clear evidence of the possible key role of continuous dynamic monitoring in the preventive conservation of historic towers.

  6. An integrated reliability-based design optimization of offshore towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, Halil; Togan, Vedat; Vrouwenvelder, Ton

    2009-01-01

    After recognizing the uncertainty in the parameters such as material, loading, geometry and so on in contrast with the conventional optimization, the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) concept has become more meaningful to perform an economical design implementation, which includes a reliability analysis and an optimization algorithm. RBDO procedures include structural analysis, reliability analysis and sensitivity analysis both for optimization and for reliability. The efficiency of the RBDO system depends on the mentioned numerical algorithms. In this work, an integrated algorithms system is proposed to implement the RBDO of the offshore towers, which are subjected to the extreme wave loading. The numerical strategies interacting with each other to fulfill the RBDO of towers are as follows: (a) a structural analysis program, SAPOS, (b) an optimization program, SQP and (c) a reliability analysis program based on FORM. A demonstration of an example tripod tower under the reliability constraints based on limit states of the critical stress, buckling and the natural frequency is presented.

  7. Induced flocculation of Pachysolen tannophilus using the tower fermentor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverell, K.F.; Clark, T.A.

    1985-12-01

    This article reports the induction of flocculation with Pachysolen tannophilus by the use of controlled aeration in a tower fermentor. The observed environmental and physiological conditions for flocculent growth are described. Although most studies with P. tannophilus have used oxylose as substrate, a synthetic glucose medium was chosen for this study as the faster growth rate of the organism on glucose was considered to favor more rapid selection of a flocculent strain. Due to flocculation, the concentration of yeast cells retained in the tower was up to 16 times greater than in the overflow. Ethanol yields approaching theoretical were achieved at low specific oxygen uptake rates, conditions which also favored maximum flocculation. Future work will involve continuous tower fermentation of sugar mixtures representative of the composition of wood hydrolysates.

  8. Membrane distillation of industrial cooling tower blowdown water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Koeman-Stein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of membrane distillation for desalination of cooling tower blowdown water (CTBD is investigated. Technical feasibility is tested on laboratory and pilot scale using real cooling tower blowdown water from Dow Benelux in Terneuzen (Netherlands. Two types of membranes, polytetrafluorethylene and polyethylene showed good performance regarding distillate quality and fouling behavior. Concentrating CTBD by a factor 4.5 while maintaining a flux of around 2 l/m2*h was possible with a water recovery of 78% available for reuse. Higher concentration factors lead to severe decrease in flux which was caused by scaling. Membrane distillation could use the thermal energy that would otherwise be discharged of in a cooling tower and function as a heat exchanger. This reduces the need for cooling capacity and could lead to a total reduction of 37% water intake for make-up water, as well as reduced energy and chemicals demands and greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Cooling Tower Overhaul of Secondary Cooling System in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Chul; Lee, Young Sub; Jung, Hoan Sung; Lim, In Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    HANARO, an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor of 30 MWth power in Korea, has been operating normally since its initial criticality in February, 1995. For the last about ten years, A cooling tower of a secondary cooling system has been operated normally in HANARO. Last year, the cooling tower has been overhauled for preservative maintenance including fills, eliminators, wood support, water distribution system, motors, driving shafts, gear reducers, basements, blades and etc. This paper describes the results of the overhaul. As results, it is confirmed that the cooling tower maintains a good operability through a filed test. And a cooling capability will be tested when a wet bulb temperature is maintained about 28 .deg. C in summer and the reactor is operated with the full power.

  10. An integrated reliability-based design optimization of offshore towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadeniz, Halil [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.karadeniz@tudelft.nl; Togan, Vedat [Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Vrouwenvelder, Ton [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    After recognizing the uncertainty in the parameters such as material, loading, geometry and so on in contrast with the conventional optimization, the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) concept has become more meaningful to perform an economical design implementation, which includes a reliability analysis and an optimization algorithm. RBDO procedures include structural analysis, reliability analysis and sensitivity analysis both for optimization and for reliability. The efficiency of the RBDO system depends on the mentioned numerical algorithms. In this work, an integrated algorithms system is proposed to implement the RBDO of the offshore towers, which are subjected to the extreme wave loading. The numerical strategies interacting with each other to fulfill the RBDO of towers are as follows: (a) a structural analysis program, SAPOS, (b) an optimization program, SQP and (c) a reliability analysis program based on FORM. A demonstration of an example tripod tower under the reliability constraints based on limit states of the critical stress, buckling and the natural frequency is presented.

  11. Meteorological Drivers of Extreme Air Pollution Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D. E.; Schnell, J.; Callahan, C. W.; Suo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The accumulation of pollutants in the near-surface atmosphere has been shown to have deleterious consequences for public health, agricultural productivity, and economic vitality. Natural and anthropogenic emissions of ozone and particulate matter can accumulate to hazardous concentrations when atmospheric conditions are favorable, and can reach extreme levels when such conditions persist. Favorable atmospheric conditions for pollutant accumulation include optimal temperatures for photochemical reaction rates, circulation patterns conducive to pollutant advection, and a lack of ventilation, dispersion, and scavenging in the local environment. Given our changing climate system and the dual ingredients of poor air quality - pollutants and the atmospheric conditions favorable to their accumulation - it is important to characterize recent changes in favorable meteorological conditions, and quantify their potential contribution to recent extreme air pollution events. To facilitate our characterization, this study employs the recently updated Schnell et al (2015) 1°×1° gridded observed surface ozone and particulate matter datasets for the period of 1998 to 2015, in conjunction with reanalysis and climate model simulation data. We identify extreme air pollution episodes in the observational record and assess the meteorological factors of primary support at local and synoptic scales. We then assess (i) the contribution of observed meteorological trends (if extant) to the magnitude of the event, (ii) the return interval of the meteorological event in the observational record, simulated historical climate, and simulated pre-industrial climate, as well as (iii) the probability of the observed meteorological trend in historical and pre-industrial climates.

  12. Constraining CO2 tower measurements in an inhomogeneous area with anthropogenic emissions using a combination of car-mounted instrument campaigns, aircraft profiles, transport modeling and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Rella, C.; Conley, S. A.; Goeckede, M.; Law, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA CO2 observation network in Oregon has been enhanced by 3 new towers in 2012. The tallest tower in the network (270 m), located in Silverton in the Willamette Valley is affected by anthropogenic emissions from Oregon's busiest traffic routes and urban centers. In summer 2012, we conducted a measurement campaign using a car-mounted PICARRO CRDS CO2/CO analyzer. Over 3 days, the instrument was driven over 1000 miles throughout the northwestern portion of Oregon measuring the CO/ CO2 ratios on main highways, back roads in forests, agricultural sites, and Oregon's biggest urban centers. By geospatial analyses we obtained ratios of CO/ CO2 over distinct land cover types divided into 10 classes represented in the study area. Using the coupled WRF-STILT transport model we calculated the footprints of nearby CO/ CO2 observation towers for the corresponding days of mobile road measurements. Spatiotemporally assigned source areas in combination with the land use classification were then used to calculate specific ratios of CO (anthropogenic origins) and CO2 to separate the anthropogenic portion of CO2 from the mixing ratio time series measured at the tower in Silverton. The WRF modeled boundary layer heights used in out study showed some differences compared to the boundary layer heights derived from profile data of wind, temperature, and humidity measured with an airplane in August, September, and November 2012, repeatedly over 5 tower locations. A Bayesian Regularized Artificial Neural Network (BRANN) was used to correct the boundary layer height calculated with WRF with a temporal resolution of 20 minutes and a horizontal resolution of 4 km. For that purpose the BRANN was trained using height profile data from the flight campaigns and spatiotemporally corresponding meteorological data from WRF. Our analyses provide information needed to run inverse modeling of CO2 exchange in an area that is affected by sources that cannot easily be considered by biospheric models

  13. Comparison of sap flux, moisture flux tower and MODIS enhanced vegetation index methods for estimating riparian evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Morino, Kiyomi; Neale, Christopher M.U; Cosh, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) was measured on a salt cedar (Tamarix spp.) dominated river terrace on the Lower Colorado River from 2007 to 2009 using tissue-heat-balance sap flux sensors at six sites representing very dense, medium dense, and sparse stands of plants. Salt cedar ET varied markedly across sites, and sap flux sensors showed that plants were subject to various degrees of stress, detected as mid-day depression of transpiration and stomatal conductance. Sap flux results were scaled from the leaf level of measurement to the stand level by measuring plant-specific leaf area index and fractional ground cover at each site. Results were compared to Bowen ratio moisture tower data available for three of the sites. Sap flux sensors and flux tower results ranked the sites the same and had similar estimates of ET. A regression equation, relating measured ET of salt cedar and other riparian plants and crops on the Lower Colorado River to the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensor on the Terra satellite and reference crop ET measured at meteorological stations, was able to predict actual ET with an accuracy or uncertainty of about 20%, despite between-site differences for salt cedar. Peak summer salt cedar ET averaged about 6 mm d-1 across sites and methods of measurement.

  14. De Reus van Schimmert: from water tower to data center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tzanakakis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The water tower of Schimmert was built in 1926 to cover the needs of water of Schimmert and the surrounding areas as well. This imposing 38 meters high tower dwarfs any nearby buildings, providing a 360° view of the surrounding area and deserves its pseudonym de Reus van Schimmert (the Giant of Schimmert. In the attempt to find a sustainable business model for the iconic building the concept of installing a data center in its core is investigated. The waste heat from the servers will be transferred to the reservoir on the top and from there used to power a district heating system in Schimmert.

  15. Two upward lightning at the Eagle Nest tower

    OpenAIRE

    Montañá Puig, Juan; Van der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Romero Durán, David; March Nomen, Víctor; Solà de Las Fuentes, Gloria; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Soula, Serge; Hermoso Alameda, Blas

    2012-01-01

    A new instrument composed by a high speed camera, two high energy detectors, a E-field antenna and a VHF antenna were installed at the Eagle Nest tower (northeast of Spain) during summer 2011. With this equipment several lightning flashes to the tower and its vicinity have been observed. This paper presents two examples: the first was an upward negative leader triggered by a close c1oud-to-ground flash and the second was an upward negative flash not associated with previous lightning activity...

  16. Energy and exergy analysis of counter flow wet cooling towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Mani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling tower is an open system direct contact heat exchanger, where it cools water by both convection and evaporation. In this paper, a mathematical model based on heat and mass transfer principle is developed to find the outlet condition of water and air. The model is solved using iterative method. Energy and exergy analysis infers that inlet air wet bulb temperature is found to be the most important parameter than inlet water temperature and also variation in dead state properties does not affect the performance of wet cooling tower. .

  17. Towards Cooling Tower Efficiency-An Energy Audit Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Su Weng Alwin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the power generation trends from national grid and gas for a period of 4 years. Energy audit of critical systems like this is needful for optimal energy utilization. An energy audit was carried outon 6 industrial cooloing towers and their annual operating cost calculated. Variable speed drive suggested was installed and corresponding annual energy savings of 114,900 kWh/year cost saving of RM30,000 was achieved at a case study plant located in Malaysia. Cooling towers with smart systems was recommended for higher energy savings.

  18. Dry cooling tower operating experience in the LOFT reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A dry cooling tower has been uniquely utilized to dissipate heat generated in a small experimental pressurized water nuclear reactor. Operational experience revealed that dry cooling towers can be intermittently operated with minimal wind susceptibility and water hammer occurrences by cooling potential steam sources after a reactor scram, by isolating idle tubes from the external atmosphere, and by operating at relatively high pressures. Operating experience has also revealed that tube freezing can be minimized by incorporating the proper heating and heat loss prevention features

  19. Calculation of cooling tower plumes for high pressure wintry situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, F.; Tinguely, M.; Haschke, D.

    1982-12-01

    The diffusion of the plumes of the projected nuclear power plants at Kaiseraugst and Schwoerstadt, during high pressure wintry conditions, has been examined using a mathematical model to simulate the plumes. For these calculations, microaerological measurements were made in the proximity of Kaiseraugst and Schwoerstadt. These give a typical image of the weather during high pressure wintry conditions, which is normally associated with an inversion, sometimes strong, at a low height. Dry cooling towers with natural draught, which offer an alternative solution to the wet cooling towers proposed for Kasieraugst, are examined equally. (Auth./G.T.H.)

  20. Environmental Tests of the Flight GLAST LAT Tracker Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Angelis, A.De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.

    2008-03-12

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.

  1. Cooling tower drift: experiment design for comprehensive case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.S.

    1978-01-01

    A drift experiment program to develop a data base which can be used for validation of drift deposition models has been formulated. The first field effort is designed for a suitable mechanical-draft cooling tower to be selected after site visits have been conducted. The discussion here demonstrates the importance of characterizing the droplet size spectrum emitted from the tower and to accurately account for droplet evaporation, because the downwind droplet deposition patterns and near-surface airborne concentrations are extremely sensitive to these parameters

  2. Desalination using spray tower and vapour compression refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish Kumar, S.; Mani, A.

    2006-01-01

    A desalination system using a spray tower and Vapour Compression Refrigeration (VCR) system is proposed for obtaining fresh water from brackish water. In the spray tower, simultaneous heat and mass transfer take place between the brackish water and air, which results in the evaporation of the brackish water and humidification of the air. Fresh water is obtained from the humidified air by condensing the water vapour using a VCR system. Parametric studies were carried out to study the effect of various operational parameters on the fresh water production rate. (author)

  3. Cooling tower practice in Germany: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerna, W.; Kraetzig, W.B.; Mungan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Development in design and construction of natural draught cooling towers that has taken place in Germany is discussed. Research has been concentrated on theory and analysis of shells, on acting forces, especially on wind effects, on buckling behavior and constructional problems. An approximate earthquake analysis allows a quick estimation of seismic response. The earthquake analysis is carried out by the response-spectrum-method. All design methods develop construction methods minimizing the imperfections and their control and correction during the erection process. It is shown how by arranging stiffening rings the buckling resistance and the lowest natural frequency of this new generation of cooling towers can be improved. 13 refs

  4. Meteorological considerations in emergency response capability at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairobent, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Meteorological considerations in emergency response at nuclear power plants are discussed through examination of current regulations and guidance documents, including discussion of the rationale for current regulatory requirements related to meteorological information for emergency response. Areas discussed include: major meteorological features important to emergency response; onsite meteorological measurements programs, including redundant and backup measurements; access to offsite sources of meteorological information; consideration of real-time and forecast conditions and atmospheric dispersion modeling

  5. Air pollutants, meteorology and plant injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukammal, E I; Brandt, C S; Neuwirth, R; Pack, D H; Swinbank, W C

    1968-01-01

    The study of the effect of air pollutants on plant growth inevitably involves meteorological factors, and the World Meteorological Organization has therefore been giving much attention to this matter for some time. Within the Organization, responsibility for this work naturally fell to the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (CAgM), and following the time-honored procedure in such cases, the Commission established in 1962 a small international group of acknowledged experts to study plant injury and reduction of yield by non-radioactive air pollutants, and charged it with the specific task of preparing a review of present knowledge of the subjects involved. After several years' work, the group fulfilled its appointed task and the resulting report is now published in this WMO Technical Note. 95 references.

  6. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  7. Background of the Military Aviation Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Zshumatiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the birth of aviation and its meteorological service in the early twentieth century. The article details the military aviation meteorological services in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the USA and Russia. Are described the problems, which arose with the takeoff and landings of flight vehicles with complex weather conditions. It is shown that the information about the actual and forthcoming weather is capable of reducing a quantity of failures of flight vehicles, of increasing safety of pilots and accuracy of the defeat of enemy, of planning the application of aviation.

  8. On the study of a sick building: the case of Athens Air Traffic Control Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assimakopoulos, V.D.; Helmis, C.G. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2004-07-01

    It is well known that in many cases the responsibility for the formation of the sick-building syndrome lies with the inappropriate envelope design, the misuse of the building by the inhabitants and the combination of indoor-outdoor pollution sources. In the case of Athens Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT), sick syndrome episodes were reported by the employees. In the present study, recently obtained indoor air quality measurements, during selected meteorological conditions, taken in the ATCT, are presented and discussed. These include concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which in many cases were thought responsible for the poor indoor environment. The measurements cover the indoor and outdoor environment of selected building regions, the ventilation systems and the plenum under the floor. The data indicates that there are certain places in the building where the VOCs concentrations were well above outdoor levels, while in others the concentrations were lower. Further analysis of the results showed that the central ventilation system is not sufficient for the building needs and that in some areas, either due to cleaning negligence or to the construction material used, VOCs pollution sources have developed. In order to eliminate these problems and to improve the indoor environment certain actions were taken. Following these interventions a second set of measurements were collected, inside and outside the ATCT building, which indicated a substantial improvement of the indoor air quality. (author)

  9. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Litter Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Above-ground litter productivity was measured in a 18 ha plot adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National Forest, Para,...

  10. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Litter Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Above-ground litter productivity was measured in a 18 ha plot adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National...

  11. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell towers developed for Appraiser's Department in 2003. Location was based upon parcel centroids, and corrected to orthophotography. Probably includes towers other than cell towers (uncertain). Not published., Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cellular Phone Towers dataset current as of 2003. Cell towers developed for Appraiser's Department in 2003. Location was based upon parcel centroids, and corrected...

  12. Tall tower landscape scale N2O flux measurements in a Danish agricultural and urban, coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Lequy, Émeline; Loubet, Benjamin; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2015-04-01

    eastern coastline of the Roskilde fjord on the Danish island Zealand. The tower is surrounded by the fjord, by agricultural area, forests and, in the South by the urban area of the City of Roskilde. The City of Roskilde operates a waste incinerator and a waste water treatment plant, which drains treated waste water into the fjord. The level of the measured flux values was generally relatively low. Based on the clear definition of the lag time between N2O concentrations and the vertical wind speed, fluxes were measureable over larger periods. The fluxes showed clear directional relationships indicating their large spatial and temporal variability in the landscape. Footprint calculations were performed to attribute source areas to the measured fluxes ...(Kormann and Meixner, 2001; Neftel et al., 2008). The footprint of the flux measurement included areas between 200 m and several kilometres distance from the tower. A preliminary approach was developed to generate monthly maps of N2O fluxes around the tower. Here we present the results from the first seven months of flux measurements. Based on these results we discuss the potential and the limitations of tall tower eddy covariance measurements to estimate maps of N2O fluxes and the integral value of the landscape N2O flux. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by the EU-FP7 InGOS project. We thank Ebba Dellwik (Technical University of Denmark) for providing sonic anemometer data. References: Kormann, R. and Meixner, F.X., 2001. An Analytical Footprint Model For Non-Neutral Stratification. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 99(2): 207-224. Neftel, A., Spirig, C. and Ammann, C., 2008. Application and test of a simple tool for operational footprint evaluations. Environmental Pollution, 152(3): 644-652.

  13. On the seismic behavior of the main tower of the San Felice sul Panaro (Italy) fortress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Giovanni; D'Altri, Antonio Maria; de Miranda, Stefano; Magagnini, Stefano; Tralli, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    The medieval fortresses are a very common and distinctive type among the Emilian historical constructions and the earthquakes of May 20th and 29th, 2012 underlined their high vulnerability. Among those heavily damaged, there is the fortress of San Felice sul Panaro located between the two epicenters. This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under seismic actions of the main tower (Mastio tower). The Mastio has peculiar geometric features and represents a typical example of non-isolated tower. In fact, it is constrained in very different ways by the surrounding parts of the fortress along two of its sides: on the north side it is constrained by the perimeter wall until one third of his high, while a stiffer building constrains it on the west side. In order to remodel the entire fortress, a multidisciplinary project involving the Municipality of San Felice sul Panaro and four Universities of the Emilia- Romagna (Bologna, Ferrara, Parma and Modena) together with the University of Genoa is going on. The study, oriented to the structural restoration, produced an accurate survey of the entire building including a fine definition of architectural peculiarities, historical stages and materials evolution. Based on such geometrical data, we developed a detailed 3D realistic mesh, with a point-by-point characterization of each single geometric element. We performed both pushover and nonlinear dynamic analyses using accelerograms data measured near the fortress on May 29th. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, has been used for masonry in nonlinear dynamic analyses. On the other hand, pushover analyses have been performed utilizing similar constitutive equations available on code DIANA. The effects of higher modes of vibration have been taken into account by means of the modal pushover analysis technique. For the sake of conciseness, only some preliminary

  14. Emission of asbestos fibres from natural-draught cooling towers. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, G.; Althaus, E.; Karotke, E.; Grimm, K.; Heumann, H.G.; Rueckert, G.

    1985-01-01

    Sampling for the studies reported has been done in a relatively new nuclear power plant with natural-draught, wet cooling tower, and in an older, brown-coal fired power plant with the same type of cooling towers, both towers equipped with internal structures made of asbestos cement. Samples have been taken from the plumes, air in the environment, cooling water receiving tank, make-up water. The samples have been primarily examined for their content of asbestos fibres. The results show that relatively few asbestos is found in the environmental air and in the cooling water receiving tank. Putting it continuously, it can be said that the cooling water entrains only little amounts of the asbestos of the internal structures. The plume samples indicate emission of some thousand asbestos fibres per m 3 , or less than 1 ng. Taking into account one sample exhibiting an extremely high amount of asbestos, the average emission of asbestos fibres with the plumes is 10 6 fibres per m 3 , or 100 ng/m 3 of plume. The maximum air pollution thus calculated in accordance with TA Luft (Clean Air Technical Directive), for the less favourable weather conditions at a hight of 2 m above ground, is 10 fibres per one m 3 of air; including the extreme data of the single sample mentioned above, the result is some thousand fibres per m 3 . The data are far below the TRK data (Technical guiding data for maximum concentration at the place of work), which state a maximum of 10 6 fibres per m 3 . (orig.) [de

  15. Industrial cooling tower design and operation in the moderate-continental climate conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Laković Mirjana S.; Banjac Miloš J.; Laković Slobodan V.; Jović Milica M.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of producers offer a wide choice of various types of industrial cooling towers. Usually, a proper choice of pre-fabricated cooling tower satisfies end-user needs. However, if there are specific end-user requirements, it is necessary to design cooling tower according to those requirements. For the adhesive factory located in southern region of Serbia, 350 kW mechanical draught wet cooling tower was designed and built. Dimensioning of the cooli...

  16. Solar tracking control tower; Steuerungstechnik folgt der Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Andreas [Jetter AG, Ludwigsburg (Germany). Bereich technisches Marketing und Seminare

    2010-11-15

    The ''Gemue-Dome'' building at Waldzimmern is a unique industrial building. The research, development and innovation center has a rotary control tower equipped with solar cells which automatically tracks the sun. This automation task was a challenge for the control and power supply sections. (orig.)

  17. Further investigation on the performance of a shower cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xiaoni; Liu Zhenyan

    2008-01-01

    This study was prompted by the need to design towers for applications in which, due to salt deposition on the packing and subsequent blockage, the use of tower packing is not practical. In the previous model we presented [Qi Xiaoni, Liu Zhenyan, Li Dandan. Performance characteristics of a shower cooling tower. Energy Convers Manage 2007;48(1):193-203.], three critical assumptions were made to reduce the complexity and computational time, which can also reduce the models' accuracy. Accurate modelling of the operating process is a determining factor both for designing the shower cooling tower (SCT) and for optimising its operation. In this paper, we derive a new model without applying the three assumptions. According to the condition of the outlet air, the governing equations consider two cases, including the supersaturated and unsaturated states. This model is used to predict the performance of a full scale SCT located in China with different conditions for validation. The differences in the heat and mass transfer analyses of the two models are described at different atmospheric conditions

  18. Continuous measurements of methane from a tower network over Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Saeki, T.; Koyama, Y.; Maksyutov, S.; Shimoyama, K.; Tsuda, N.; Suto, H.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.

    2010-01-01

    We have been conducting continuous measurements of Methane (CH 4 ) concentration from an expanding network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe and wetland biomes of Siberia since 2004. High daytime means (>2000 ppb) observed simultaneously at several towers during winter, together with in situ weather data and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, indicate that high pressure systems caused CH 4 accumulation at subcontinental scale due to the widespread formation of an inversion layer. Daytime means sometimes exceeded 2000 ppb, particularly in the summer of 2007 when temperature and precipitation rates were anomalously high over West Siberia, which implies that CH 4 emission from wetlands were exceptionally high in 2007. Many hot spots detected by MODIS in the summer of 2007 illustrate that the contribution of biomass burning also cannot be neglected. Daytime mean CH 4 concentrations from the Siberian tower sites were generally higher than CH 4 values reported at NOAA coastal sites in the same latitudinal zone, and the difference in concentrations between two sets of sites was reproduced with a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport model. Simulations of emissions from different CH 4 sources suggested that the major contributor to variation switched from wetlands during summer to fossil fuel during winter.

  19. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  20. Galois towers over non-prime finite fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Garcia, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we construct Galois towers with good asymptotic properties over any non-prime finite field Fℓ; i.e., we construct sequences of function fields N=(N1⊂N2⊂⋯) over Fℓ of increasing genus, such that all the extensions Ni/N1 are Galois extensions and the number of rational places of these...

  1. Towers of Function Fields over Non-prime Finite Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Garcia, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Over all non-prime finite fields, we construct some recursive towers of function fields with many rational places. Thus we obtain a substantial improvement on all known lower bounds for Ihara’s quantity A(ℓ), for ℓ = pn with p prime and n > 3 odd. We relate the explicit equations to Drinfeld modu...

  2. Continuous measurements of methane from a tower network over Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Saeki, T.; Koyama, Y.; Maksyutov, S. (Center for Global Environmental Research, National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Shimoyama, K. (Inst. of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)); Tsuda, N. (Global Environmental Forum, Tokyo (Japan)); Suto, H. (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)); Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O. (Inst. of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation))

    2010-11-15

    We have been conducting continuous measurements of Methane (CH{sub 4}) concentration from an expanding network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe and wetland biomes of Siberia since 2004. High daytime means (>2000 ppb) observed simultaneously at several towers during winter, together with in situ weather data and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, indicate that high pressure systems caused CH{sub 4} accumulation at subcontinental scale due to the widespread formation of an inversion layer. Daytime means sometimes exceeded 2000 ppb, particularly in the summer of 2007 when temperature and precipitation rates were anomalously high over West Siberia, which implies that CH{sub 4} emission from wetlands were exceptionally high in 2007. Many hot spots detected by MODIS in the summer of 2007 illustrate that the contribution of biomass burning also cannot be neglected. Daytime mean CH{sub 4} concentrations from the Siberian tower sites were generally higher than CH{sub 4} values reported at NOAA coastal sites in the same latitudinal zone, and the difference in concentrations between two sets of sites was reproduced with a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport model. Simulations of emissions from different CH{sub 4} sources suggested that the major contributor to variation switched from wetlands during summer to fossil fuel during winter.

  3. Design of cooling towers by the effectiveness-NTU method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, H.; Webb, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper develops the effectiveness-NTU, number of transfer units, design method for cooling towers. The definitions for effectiveness and NTU are totally consistent with the fundamental definitions used in heat exchanger design. Sample calculations are presented for counter and crossflow cooling towers. Using the proper definitions, a person competent in heat transfer design can easily use the same basic method to design a cooling tower of counter, cross, or parallel flow configuration. The problems associated with the curvature of the saturated air enthalpy line are also treated. A one-increment design ignores the effect of this curvature. Increased precision can be obtained by dividing the cooling range into two or more increments. The standard effectiveness-NYU method is then used for each of the increments. Calculations are presented to define the error associated with different numbers of increments. This defines the number of increments required to attain a desired degree of precision. The authors also summarize the LMED method introduced by Berman, and show that this is totally consistent with the effectiveness-NTU method. Hence, using proper and consistent terms, heat exchanger designers are shown how to use either the standard Log-Mean Enthalpy Method (LMED) or effectiveness-NTU design methods to design cooling towers

  4. Indiana State University Graduates to Advanced Plastic Cooling Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Perhaps more than many other industries, today's universities and colleges are beset by dramatically rising costs on every front. One of the areas where overhead can be contained or reduced is in the operation of the chilled water systems that support air conditioning throughout college campuses, specifically the cooling towers. Like many…

  5. Atmospheric wet-type cooling tower with antifreeze system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coic, P.

    1985-01-01

    The cooling tower has air inlets at its base, a network of pipes which distributes the air to be cooled above the packing, and valves to isolate a part of the network. It includes also a bypass circuit, provided with means to control the flow rate fraction which is by-passed [fr

  6. Hausdorff gaps and towers in P(\\omega)/Fin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borodulin-Nadzieja, P.; Chodounský, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 229, č. 3 (2015), s. 197-229 ISSN 0016-2736 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Hausdorff gaps * special gaps * towers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2015 http://journals.impan.pl/cgi-bin/doi?fm229-3-1

  7. Simulation of control drives in a tower crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech SOLARZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a control system for a tower crane is investigated. Underlying the controller design is the theory of optimal linear control. Computer models of a crane and the control systems for the crane drives are developed. Simulation data reveals that the motion of the load can be effectively controlled so that it should follow a predetermined trajectory.

  8. Spectral fatigue analysis of a tensioned riser compliant tower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karadeniz, H.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Shi, C.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the conceptual Tensioned Riser Compliant Tower (TRCT) structure of the Shell Oil, which is developed for a region of approximately 600 meter water depth of the West of Shetlands in the North Sea, is analyzed by using the SAPOS program of the Delft University of Technology. The fatigue

  9. Exergy optimization of cooling tower for HGSHP and HVAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kuljeet; Das, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of new correlations for outlet parameters with all inlet parameters. • Simultaneous achievement of required heat load and minimum exergy destruction. • Multiple combinations of parameters found for same heat load at minimized exergy. • Study useful for optimum control of cooling tower under varying ambient conditions. • Generalized optimization study can be implemented for any mechanical cooling tower. - Abstract: In the present work, a constrained inverse optimization method for building cooling applications is proposed to control the mechanical draft wet cooling tower by minimizing the exergy destruction and satisfying an imposed heat load under varying environmental conditions. The optimization problem is formulated considering the cooling dominated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and hybrid ground source heat pump (HGSHP). As per the requirement, new second degree correlations for the tower outlet parameters (water temperature, air dry and wet-bulb temperatures) with five inlet parameters (dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, water inlet temperature, water and air mass flow rates) are developed. The Box–Behnken design response surface method is implemented for developing the correlations. Subsequently, the constrained optimization problem is solved using augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. This work further developed optimum inlet parameters operating curves for the HGSHP and the HVAC systems under varying environmental conditions aimed at minimizing the exergy destruction along with the fulfillment of the required heat load.

  10. Interception and retention of simulated cooling tower drift by vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.G. Jr.; Parr, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    A key issue concerning environmental impacts from cooling tower operation is the interception of drift by vegetation and the efficiency of plants in retaining the residue scavenged from the atmosphere. Chromated drift water, typical of the cooling towers of the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was prepared using radio-labelled chromium. A portable aerosol generator was used to produce a spectrum of droplets with diameters (100 to 1300 μ) characteristic of cooling towers using state-of-the-art drift eliminators. Efficiency of interception by foliage varied according to leaf morphology with yellow poplar seedlings intercepting 72% of the deposition mass in contrast to 45% by loblolly pine and 24% by fescue grass. Retention patterns of intercepted deposition consisted of a short-time component (0 to 3 days) and a long-time component (3 to 63 days). Retention times, estimated from the regression equation of the long component, indicated that drift contamination from any deposition event may persist from between 8 and 12 weeks. In field situations adjacent to cooling towers, the average annual concentration of drift on vegetation at any distance remains relatively constant, with losses from weathering being compensated by chronic deposition

  11. Walls, Towers, and Sphinxes: Multicultural Concept Construction and Group Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    2005-01-01

    One can easily identify the United States of America by the Statue of Liberty, France by the Eiffel Tower, Egypt by its Great Sphinx, and China by its Great Wall. What do these landmarks tell people about these places? What are the characteristics of the place and culture that are symbolized by these landmarks? These questions can serve as the…

  12. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  13. Exposure level from selected base station tower around Kuala Nerus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health risk due to RF radiation exposure from base station tower (BST) has been debated for years leading to public concerns. Thus, this preliminary study aims to measure, evaluate and analyze the exposure level on three selected BST around Kuala Nerus. The measurement of exposure level in terms of voltage ...

  14. An improved AODV routing protocol based on tower structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yong Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed a new routing protocol(IAODV based on tower structure in the Ad Hoc network for the problem which Location Routing Protocol need hardware and Complex algorithm. By the simulation, The complexity of the new routing protocol is reduced without reducing the performance of the network.

  15. Distance protection of multiple-circuit shared tower transmission lines with different voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    combined faults, being advised to increase the resistive limit of the protection zone, if the network has lower short-circuit power. It is recommended to assure that the fault can only happen for cases where the faulted phase from the higher voltage level leads the faulted phase from the lower voltage......Multiple-circuit transmission lines combining different voltage levels in one tower present extra challenges when setting a protection philosophy, as faults between voltage levels are possible. In this study, the fault loop impedance of combined faults is compared with the fault loop impedance......-phase-to-ground faults. It is also demonstrated that the fault loop impedance of combined faults is more resistive, when compared with equivalent single-phase-to-ground faults. It is concluded that the settings used to protect a line against single-phase-to-ground faults are capable of protecting the line against...

  16. A new tower with good p-rank meeting Zink’s bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2017-01-01

    In this article we investigate the asymptotic p-rank of a new tower of function fields defined over cubic finite fields. Its limit meets Zink's bound, but the new feature of this tower is that its asymptotic p-rank for small cubic finite fields is much smaller than that of other cubic towers...

  17. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. 61.134 Section 61.134 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke by...

  18. De Reus van Schimmert : from a water tower to a green data center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzanakakis, K.

    2017-01-01

    The water tower of Schimmert is an iconic tower that has served the local community for decades. In 2014 it was decommissioned and currently local companies and authorities are searching for a viable business model for this imposing tower. The present report examines the feasibility of transforming

  19. Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced Manufacturing Research | NREL Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless Cell-Phone Tower Power System Prototype Testing for Verizon Wireless For Verizon Wireless , NREL tested a new cell-phone tower power system prototype based on DC interconnection and photovoltaics

  20. 78 FR 10210 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... wind towers. Background The Commission instituted these investigations effective December 29, 2011...)] Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... with material injury by reason of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam, provided...

  1. 78 FR 11146 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-981] Utility Scale Wind Towers...''), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on utility scale wind towers (``wind towers...) 482-3936, or (202) 482-4852, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In accordance with...

  2. Dimensions of Air Traffic Control Tower Information Needs: From Information Requests to Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…

  3. Meteorological influences on coastal new particle formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.J.; Buzorius, G.; O`Dowd, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    The meteorological situation at the midlatitude coastal station of Mace Head, Ireland, is described based on observations during the New Particle Formation and Fate in the Coastal Environment (PARFORCE) experiments in September 1998 and June 1999. Micrometeorological sensors were mounted near the

  4. assessment and monitoring of meteorological and hydrological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Djellouli, A. Bouanani and K. Babahamed

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... en meteorological drought indices was found for 9-month time step ... Drought severity is expected to increase further in the next 50 years [20]. ... In the present study, our interest to examine the applicability of various drought ...

  5. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    56

    India Meteorological Department, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003 .... adjoining Iran & Arabian Sea with temperature gradient of order 5 Kelvin on 28th February, 2015. (Fig. 4a). On 1st .... Indian Region on 00 UTC of 1st March and seen in two patches, one over north Pakistan & .... Accordingly, the precipitation belt also.

  6. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; Zarimpas, N.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  7. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  8. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  9. Problem-Based Learning Approaches in Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Perez, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning, despite recent controversies about its effectiveness, is used extensively as a teaching method throughout higher education. In meteorology, there has been little attempt to incorporate Problem-Based Learning techniques into the curriculum. Motivated by a desire to enhance the reflective engagement of students within a…

  10. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  11. assessment and monitoring of meteorological and hydrological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last century, Algeria experienced a rainfall deficit was recorded in 1944, then successive drought periods since 1975 to the present day in Northen and Eastern. The most recent has repercussions on water resources and on agriculture. In this paper, we focus on the meteorological and hydrological drought.

  12. Meteorological Development Laboratory Student Career Experience Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, C., Sr.

    2007-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.

  13. NASA's aviation safety - meteorology research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblade, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The areas covering the meteorological hazards program are: severe storms and the hazards to flight generated by severe storms; clear air turbulence; icing; warm fog dissipation; and landing systems. Remote sensing of ozone by satellites, and the use of satellites as data relays is also discussed.

  14. Outcomes of the Tower Crane Technique with a 15-mm Trocar in Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooyoung Chong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS pulmonary wedge resection has emerged as the standard treatment for primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Recently, single-port VATS has been introduced and is now widely performed. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Tower crane technique as novel technique using a 15-mm trocar and anchoring suture in primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: Patients who underwent single- port VATS wedge resection in Chungnam National University Hospital from April 2012 to March 2014 were enrolled. The medical records of the enrolled patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results: A total of 1,251 patients were diagnosed with pneumothorax during this period, 270 of whom underwent VATS wedge resection. Fifty-two of those operations were single-port VATS wedge resections for primary spontaneous pneumothorax performed by a single surgeon. The median age of the patients was 19.3±11.5 years old, and 43 of the patients were male. The median duration of chest tube drainage following the operation was 2.3±1.3 days, and mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.2±1.3 days. Prolonged air leakage for more than three days following the operation was observed in one patient. The mean duration of follow-up was 18.7±6.1 months, with a recurrence rate of 3.8%. Conclusion: The tower crane technique with a 15-mm trocar may be a promising treatment modality for patients presenting with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

  15. Monitoring the performance of single and triple junction amorphous silicon modules in two building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eke, Rustu; Senturk, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The first and the largest BIPV of Turkey were installed. • Single and triple junction amorphous module performances in BIPV applications are analyzed. • Total generated electricity of the BIPV system is measured as 103,702 kW h for 36 months of operation. • Annual energy rating is calculated as 856 kW h/kWp for a non-optimally oriented plant. • The PR of the system is found 0.74 and 0.81 for PV systems on towers and facade respectively. - Abstract: Mugla is located in south west Turkey at 37°13′N latitude and 28°36′E longitude with yearly sum of horizontal global irradiation exceeding 1700 kW h per square meter. Mugla has a Mediterranean Climate which is characterized by long, hot and dry summers with cool and wet winters. Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University is the largest “PV Park” in Turkey consisting of 100 kWp installed Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPSs) with different PV applications. The 40 kWp building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system which is the first and largest in Turkey was installed on the façade and the two towers of the “Staff Block of the Education Faculty’s Building” of Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University in February 2008. Triple junction amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules are used on the façade and single junction amorphous silicon PV modules are used on the East and West towers of the building. In this paper, the 40 kWp BIPV system in Mugla, Turkey is presented, and its performance is evaluated. Energy rating (kW h/kWp energy yield), efficiencies and performance ratios of both applications are also evaluated for 36 months of operation. Daily, monthly and seasonal variations in performance parameters of the BIPV system in relation to solar data and meteorological parameters and outdoor performance of two reference modules (representing the modules on façade and towers) in a summer and a winter day are also investigated

  16. Emission of a natural-draught wet cooling tower and flow conditions at the brim of the cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, E.; Billet, W.; Dittrich, H.; Ernst, G.; Roller, W.; Wurz, D.

    1975-01-01

    Between July 1973 and September 1974, measurements were carried out around a natural-draught wet cooling tower during different weather conditions. The results of these measurements are to serve as basic material for the calculation of plume diffusion. (orig./TK) [de

  17. Comparison of HYSPLIT-4 model simulations of the ETEX data, using meteorological input data of differing spatial and temporal resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, G.D.; Mills, G.A.; Draxler, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    Model simulations of air concentrations during ETEX-1 using the HYSPLIT-4 (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectories, version 4) code and analysed meteorological data fields provided by ECMWF and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology are presented here. The HYSPLIT-4 model is a complete system for computing simple trajectories to complex dispersion and deposition simulations using either puff or particle approaches. A mixed dispersion algorithm is employed in this study: puffs in the horizontal and particles in the vertical

  18. Numerical research of a super-large cooling tower subjected to accidental loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Lin, Feng [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gu, Xianglin, E-mail: gxl@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Lu, Xiaoqin [Guangdong Electric Power Design Institute, Guangzhou 510660 (China)

    2014-04-01

    With the continued development of nuclear power plants, more and more super-large cooling towers are to be built in China and around the world. For the safe operation of nuclear power plants, research work has been done on the causes of collapse of cooling towers, collapse modes and the secondary disasters caused by the collapse of cooling towers. However, the collapse modes and the ground vibration induced by the collapse of cooling towers subjected to the accidental loads have not been fully understood. This paper has been focused on the modes and mechanisms behavior of the collapse of cooling towers subjected to accidental loads. Meanwhile, prediction of the ground vibration due to the collapse of the cooling towers has also been completed in a parallel project. Using dynamic finite element program LS-DYNA, a 3D finite element model for a super-large cooling tower was developed and the nonlinear material models were incorporated. In this paper, four types of accidental loads were considered to trigger the collapse or local failure of the tower, including vehicle collision, airplane impact, local explosion and missile attack. It was found that vehicle collision, missile attack and small TNT equivalent explosives (2 kg, 20 kg, 200 kg) might result in local failure of the cooling tower, however, the tower can still keep stable. On the other hand, large TNT equivalent explosives (2000 kg, 4500 kg) could cause severe damages in the inclined columns of the cooling tower, and lead to progressive collapse of the entire cooling tower. The two kinds of TNT equivalent explosives caused the same collapse mode while the collapsing duration was different. The airplane impacted at the throat of the cooling tower caused the local failure of shell structure of the tower, and then the progressive collapse of the cooling tower happened due to the gravitational action. The resulting collapse mode was different from that triggered by the local explosion.

  19. Numerical research of a super-large cooling tower subjected to accidental loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Lin, Feng; Gu, Xianglin; Lu, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    With the continued development of nuclear power plants, more and more super-large cooling towers are to be built in China and around the world. For the safe operation of nuclear power plants, research work has been done on the causes of collapse of cooling towers, collapse modes and the secondary disasters caused by the collapse of cooling towers. However, the collapse modes and the ground vibration induced by the collapse of cooling towers subjected to the accidental loads have not been fully understood. This paper has been focused on the modes and mechanisms behavior of the collapse of cooling towers subjected to accidental loads. Meanwhile, prediction of the ground vibration due to the collapse of the cooling towers has also been completed in a parallel project. Using dynamic finite element program LS-DYNA, a 3D finite element model for a super-large cooling tower was developed and the nonlinear material models were incorporated. In this paper, four types of accidental loads were considered to trigger the collapse or local failure of the tower, including vehicle collision, airplane impact, local explosion and missile attack. It was found that vehicle collision, missile attack and small TNT equivalent explosives (2 kg, 20 kg, 200 kg) might result in local failure of the cooling tower, however, the tower can still keep stable. On the other hand, large TNT equivalent explosives (2000 kg, 4500 kg) could cause severe damages in the inclined columns of the cooling tower, and lead to progressive collapse of the entire cooling tower. The two kinds of TNT equivalent explosives caused the same collapse mode while the collapsing duration was different. The airplane impacted at the throat of the cooling tower caused the local failure of shell structure of the tower, and then the progressive collapse of the cooling tower happened due to the gravitational action. The resulting collapse mode was different from that triggered by the local explosion

  20. Contrastive analysis of cooling performance between a high-level water collecting cooling tower and a typical cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jiajin; Shi, Cheng

    2018-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model is established and validated for cooling performance optimization between a high-level water collecting natural draft wet cooling tower (HNDWCT) and a usual natural draft wet cooling tower (UNDWCT) under the actual operation condition at Wanzhou power plant, Chongqing, China. User defined functions (UDFs) of source terms are composed and loaded into the spray, fill and rain zones. Considering the conditions of impact on three kinds of corrugated fills (Double-oblique wave, Two-way wave and S wave) and four kinds of fill height (1.25 m, 1.5 m, 1.75 m and 2 m), numerical simulation of cooling performance are analysed. The results demonstrate that the S wave has the highest cooling efficiency in three fills for both towers, indicating that fill characteristics are crucial to cooling performance. Moreover, the cooling performance of the HNDWCT is far superior to that of the UNDWCT with fill height increases of 1.75 m and above, because the air mass flow rate in the fill zone of the HNDWCT improves more than that in the UNDWCT, as a result of the rain zone resistance declining sharply for the HNDWCT. In addition, the mass and heat transfer capacity of the HNDWCT is better in the tower centre zone than in the outer zone near the tower wall under a uniform fill layout. This behaviour is inverted for the UNDWCT, perhaps because the high-level collection devices play the role of flow guiding in the inner zone. Therefore, when non-uniform fill layout optimization is applied to the HNDWCT, the inner zone increases in height from 1.75 m to 2 m, the outer zone reduces in height from 1.75 m to 1.5 m, and the outlet water temperature declines approximately 0.4 K compared to that of the uniform layout.

  1. Development and testing of a system for meteorological and radiological data centralizing on Magurele zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaus, M.; Niculescu, D.

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of European collaboration co-ordinated by F.Z. Karlsruhe, the adapting, installing and developing of a decision support system for nuclear emergency management is now in progress in NIPNE. The decision support system RODOS will be available to the Romanian competent authorities - as well as to many western and eastern countries - in case of nuclear accidents. One main task in implementing the decision support system is to provide as input, among others, on-line real-time radiological and meteorological data, measured in national territory. For that purpose the regional and national measuring networks had to be connected to the central RODOS station in NIPNE. As the first step the sources of data existing on the Magurele zone were coupled to the RODOS system. The main sources of data are different meteorological sensors and flowmeters installed at three levels on the meteorological tower and a remote gamma-ray area monitor with several measuring locations in Magurele zone, connected by radio links to the central unit in Nuclear Instruments and Methods Department. For transmission of collected data to the central RODOS station, a local area network was implemented to connect all the computers. The Ethernet - based network uses optical fiber between buildings, coaxial and twisted cable inside buildings and suitable Hewlett-Packard hubs and transceivers. Several communication software packages based on TCP/IP protocols were installed on the computers and tested. The real-time data transfer between collecting computers and the central station will be carried out by automatic triggering of FTP programs at regular time intervals. The local network provides also a link to Internet, so that the indispensable exchange of data with similar RODOS centers in other countries, especially with the coordinating institute in Karlsruhe, as well as with other organizations is ensured. (authors)

  2. A New Type of Captive Balloon for Vertical Meteorological Observation in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M.; Sakai, S.; Ono, K.

    2010-12-01

    Many meteorological observations in urban area have been made in recent years in order to investigate the mechanism of heat island. However, there are few data of cooling process in urban area. For this purpose, high density observations in both space and time are required. Generally vertical meteorological observations can be made by towers, radars, balloons. These methods are limited by urban area conditions. Among these methods, a captive balloon is mainly used to about a hundred meter from ground in a vertical meteorological observation. Small airships called kytoons or advertising balloons, for example. Conventional balloons are, however, influenced by the wind and difficult to keep the specified position. Moreover, it can be dangerous to conduct such observations in the highly build-up area. To overcome these difficulties, we are developing a new type of captive balloon. It has a wing form to gain lift and keep its position. It is also designed small to be kept in a carport. It is made of aluminum film and polyester cloth in order to attain lightweight solution. We have tried floating a balloon like NACA4424 for several years. It was difficult to keep a wing form floating up over 100 meters from ground because internal pressure was decreased by different temperature. The design is changed in this year. The balloon that has wing form NACA4415 is similar in composition to an airplane. It has a big gasbag with airship form and two wing form. It is able to keep form of a wing by high internal pressure. We will report a plan for the balloon and instances of some observations.

  3. The optimal operation of cooling tower systems with variable-frequency control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong; Huang, Liqing; Cui, Zhiguo; Liu, Jing

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the energy performance of chiller and cooling tower systems integrated with variable-frequency control for cooling tower fans and condenser water pumps. With regard to an example chiller system serving an office building, Chiller and cooling towers models were developed to assess how different variable-frequency control methods of cooling towers fans and condenser water pumps influence the trade-off between the chiller power, pump power and fan power under various operating conditions. The matching relationship between the cooling tower fans frequency and condenser water pumps frequency at optimal energy consumption of the system is introduced to achieve optimum system performance.

  4. Solution and scope of utilization of the cross-stream cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zembaty, W.

    1995-01-01

    Technical solutions and operational properties of the cross-stream cooling towers as well as the scope of their utilization are presented. The differences within thermodynamic calculations of the cross-stream and counter-stream cooling towers due to the direction of the air flow as well as water flow in sprinkling system are discussed. The assessment of the capital and operational costs of the cross-stream cooling towers is given and compared with the cost of counter-stream cooling towers (utilizing as an example a calculation conducted for the cooling towers of the 720, 1100 and 1400 MW units). (author). 6 refs, 9 figs

  5. Idiopathic epistaxis and meteorological factors: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelavic, B; Majstorovic, Z; Kordić, M; Leventić, M; Grgić, M V; Baudoin, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the occurrence of idiopathic epistaxis and daily values of air pressure, temperature, and humidity. We also investigated whether biometeorological forecasts should be addressed to persons with a history of nosebleed diathesis. We analyzed consecutive idiopathic epistaxis events over a 3-year period. Patients were included if they had been in the municipality of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina at least 24 hours before the epistaxis occurrence. The monthly variation in epistaxis events was determined. Epistaxis days (Days "0", 0 = day with epistaxis occurrence) and selected nonepistaxis days (Days "-1", -1 = each first single day without epistaxis prior to Day 0) were compared according to daily values of mean, minimum, and maximum temperature; diurnal temperature range; minimum and maximum atmospheric pressure; diurnal pressure range; and mean relative humidity. The greatest and smallest percentage of epistaxis events occurred in the months of March and August, respectively. There were no significant differences between Days 0 and Days -1 with respect to the examined meteorological factors. In this region with a Mediterranean climate, we found a seasonal variation with an incidence peak during the spring transition months, but we did not identify any meteorological trigger factors for epistaxis. Thus, there is no need for biometeorological forecasts to be addressed to persons with a history of nosebleed diathesis.

  6. ICON - Port Everglades 2015 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  7. Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  8. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  9. Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  10. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  11. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  12. Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  13. Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  14. Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  15. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  16. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  17. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  18. Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  19. Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  20. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...