WorldWideScience

Sample records for single material targets

  1. Pulsed laser deposition of chalcogenide sulfides from multi- and single-component targets: the non-stoichiometric material transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Ganskukh, Mungunshagai; Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt

    2018-01-01

    , and the Cu content is also very low at low fluence from a single-component target. Above this threshold, the Cu content in the films increases almost linearly up to a value above the stoichiometric value, while the ratio of the concentration of the other metals Zn to Sn (Zn/Sn) remains constant. Films...

  2. Targets and special materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Bouriant, M.; Richaud, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The target preparation group supplied a large number of samples to nuclear physicists for experiments using SARA and also other accelerators throughout the world. Particular preparation and projects include: 208 Pb, 116 Cd, 6 LiF, 123 Sb, In and Ta targets, strippers for SARA and GANIL, optical silicone disks for POLDER and GRAAL experiments, active participations for the AMS project and finally filament preparation for the GENEPI project. (authors)

  3. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  4. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  5. Target system materials and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the common problems of target design. As a model for the discussion, the author considers a spallation source which is fed by a high power proton beam of the order of one megawatt. The materials used for the target station and particularly for the spallation target itself depend on whether the source is built for pulsed, modulated or continuous operation. The difference of materials used is mainly determined by the neutronics considerations. Depending on the choice of materials for the target systems, the characters of material problems met, are of somewhat different nature. It is recognized that for each target version quite specific difficulties have to be overcome. On the other hand, there is a whole set of problems which is common to all target versions. These are: heat load in region of proton beam interactions; thermal stress and cycling; and radiation damage. It is shown that solutions to the whole package of problems up to a beam power of 0 (1MW) have been found. The whole effort concentrates onto the region of the first few centimeters of beam penetration. Two solutions have been proposed: (1) Keep the power of proton beam limited and produce neutrons elsewhere in the target. and (2) Dilute the power by moving mechanically the target and the window. 8 refs., 11 figs

  6. Target materials for exotic ISOL beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gottberg, A

    2016-01-01

    The demand for intensity, purity, reliability and availability of short-lived isotopes far from stability is steadily high, and considerably exceeding the supply. In many cases the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method can provide beams of high intensity and purity. Limitations in terms of accessible chemical species and minimum half-life are driven mainly by chemical reactions and physical processes inside of the thick target. A wide range of materials are in use, ranging from thin metallic foils and liquids to refractory ceramics, while poly-phasic mixed uranium carbides have become the reference target material for most ISOL facilities world-wide. Target material research and development is often complex and especially important post-irradiation analyses are hindered by the high intrinsic radiotoxicity of these materials. However, recent achievements have proven that these investigations are possible if the effort of different facilities is combined, leading to the development of new material matrices t...

  7. Dynamic nuclear polarization of irradiated target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Polarized nucleon targets used in high energy physics experiments usually employ the method of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to polarize the protons or deuterons in an alcohol. DNP requires the presence of paramagnetic centers, which are customarily provided by a chemical dopant. These chemically doped targets have a relatively low polarizable nucleon content and suffer from loss of polarization when subjected to high doses of ionizing radiation. If the paramagnetic centers formed when the target is irradiated can be used in the DNP process, it becomes possible to produce targets using materials which have a relatively high polarizable nucleon content, but which are not easily doped by chemical means. Furthermore, the polarization of such targets may be much more radiation resistant. Dynamic nuclear polarization in ammonia, deuterated ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, methylamine, borane ammonia, butonal, ethane and lithium borohydride has been studied. These studies were conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center using the Yale-SLAC polarized target system. Results indicate that the use of ammonia and deuterated ammonia as polarized target materials would make significant increases in polarized target performance possible

  8. MATERIALS PERFORMANCE TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site was recommended by the President to be a geological repository for commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The multi-barrier approach was adopted for assessing and predicting system behavior, including both natural barriers and engineered barriers. A major component of the long-term strategy for safe disposal of nuclear waste is first to completely isolate the radionuclides in waste packages for long times and then to greatly retard the egress and transport of radionuclides from penetrated packages. The goal of the Materials Performance Targeted Thrust program is to further enhance the understanding of the role of engineered barriers in waste isolation. In addition, the Thrust will explore technical enhancements and seek to offer improvements in materials costs and reliability

  9. MATERIALS PERFORMANCE TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2005-09-13

    The Yucca Mountain site was recommended by the President to be a geological repository for commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The multi-barrier approach was adopted for assessing and predicting system behavior, including both natural barriers and engineered barriers. A major component of the long-term strategy for safe disposal of nuclear waste is first to completely isolate the radionuclides in waste packages for long times and then to greatly retard the egress and transport of radionuclides from penetrated packages. The goal of the Materials Performance Targeted Thrust program is to further enhance the understanding of the role of engineered barriers in waste isolation. In addition, the Thrust will explore technical enhancements and seek to offer improvements in materials costs and reliability.

  10. Single pion electro- and neutrino production on heavy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E. A.; Schienbein, I.; Yu, J.Y.

    2007-04-01

    We present a calculation of single pion electroproduction cross sections on heavy targets in the kinematic region of the Δ(1232) resonance. Final state interactions of the pions are taken into account using the pion multiple scattering model of Adler, Nussinov and Paschos (ANP model). For electroproduction and neutral current reactions we obtain results for carbon, oxygen, argon and iron targets and find a significant reduction of the W-spectra for π 0 as compared to the free nucleon case. On the other hand, the charged pion spectra are only little affected by final state interactions. Measurements of such cross sections with the CLAS detector at JLAB could help to improve our understanding of pion rescattering effects and serve as important/valuable input for calculations of single pion neutrino production on heavy targets relevant for current and future long baseline neutrino experiments. Two ratios, in Eq. (3.8) and (3.10), will test important properties of the model. (authors)

  11. Target Localization with a Single Antenna via Directional Multipath Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Muqaibel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Target localization in urban sensing can benefit from angle dependency of the pulse shape at a radar receiver antenna. We propose a localization approach that utilizes the embedded directivity in ultra-wideband (UWB antennas to estimate target positions. A single radar unit sensing operation of indoor targets surrounded by interior walls is considered, where interior wall multipaths are exploited to provide target cross-range. This exploitation assumes resolvability of the multipath components, which is made possible by the virtue of using UWB radar signals. The proposed approach is most attractive when only few multipaths are detectable due to propagation obstructions or owing to low signal-to-noise ratios. Both simulated and experimental data are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Materials technology applied to nuclear accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthell, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The continuing requests for both shaped and flat, very low areal density metal foils have led to the development of metallurgical quality, high strength products. Intent of this paper is to show methods of forming structures on various substrates using periodic vapor interruptions, alternating anodes, and mechanical peening to alter otherwise unacceptable grain morphology which both lowers tensile strength and causes high stresses in thin films. The three technologies, physical vapor deposition, electrochemistry, and chemical vapor deposition and their thin film products can benefit from the use of laminate technology and control of grain structure morphology through the use of materials research and technology

  13. Pentanol-based target material with polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    1-pentanol is a promising material for a target with polarized protons owing to its high resistance to radiation damage. To develop the target, the solutions of 1-pentanol or 2-pentanol with complexes of pentavalent chromium ware investigated. The material based EHBA-Cr(V) solution in a glass-like matrix, consisting of 1-pentanol, 3-pentanol and 1,2-propanediol, was proposed as a target material. It was investigated by the electron paramagnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry methods. 24 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Moving Target Information Extraction Based on Single Satellite Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shihu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and time variant effects in high resolution satellite push broom imaging are analyzed. A spatial and time variant imaging model is established. A moving target information extraction method is proposed based on a single satellite remote sensing image. The experiment computes two airplanes' flying speed using ZY-3 multispectral image and proves the validity of spatial and time variant model and moving information extracting method.

  15. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 4. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs and challenges ... Application of radioisotopes in medicine has given birth to a new branch, viz. nuclear medicine, wherein radioisotopes are used extensively in the diagnosis and treatment ...

  16. Availability of enriched isotopic material for accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, E.

    1982-01-01

    The electromagnetic isotope enrichment facility at ORNL provides a broad spectrum of highly enriched stable isotopes to the worldwide scientific community. The continued timely availability of these materials is of vital importance in many areas of basic research and, in particular, as source material for the fabrication of accelerator targets. A brief description of the facility and its capabilities and limitations is presented

  17. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  18. Possible Target Corridor for Sustainable Use of Global Material Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bringezu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many countries have started to develop policy programs for the sustainable use of natural resources. Indicators and targets can cover both a territorial and a life-cycle-wide global perspective. This article focuses on how a safe operating space for global material resource use can be outlined based on existing economy-wide material flow indicators. It reflects on issues such as scale and systems perspective, as the choice of indicators determines the target “valves” of the socio-industrial metabolism. It considers environmental pressures and social aspects of safe and fair resource use. Existing proposals for resource consumption targets are reviewed, partially revisited, and taken as a basis to outline potential target values for a safe operating space for the extraction and use of minerals and biomass by final consumption. A potential sustainability corridor is derived with the Total Material Consumption of abiotic resources ranging from 6 to 12 t/person, the Total Material Consumption of biotic resources not exceeding 2 t/person, and the Raw Material Consumption of used biotic and abiotic materials ranging from 3 to 6 t/person until 2050. For policy, a “10-2-5 target triplet” can provide orientation, when the three indicators are assigned values of 10, 2, and 5 t/person, respectively.

  19. Research and development on materials for the SPES target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, Stefano; Andrighetto, Alberto; Manzolaro, Mattia; Scarpa, Daniele; Vasquez, Jesus; Rossignoli, Massimo; Monetti, Alberto; Calderolla, Michele; Prete, Gianfranco

    2014-03-01

    The SPES project at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro) is focused on the production of radioactive ion beams. The core of the SPES facility is constituted by the target, which will be irradiated with a 40 MeV, 200 µA proton beam in order to produce radioactive species. In order to efficiently produce and release isotopes, the material constituting the target should be able to work under extreme conditions (high vacuum and temperatures up to 2000 °C). Both neutron-rich and proton-rich isotopes will be produced; in the first case, carbon dispersed uranium carbide (UCx) will be used as a target, whereas to produce p-rich isotopes, several types of targets will have to be irradiated. The synthesis and characterization of different types of material will be reported. Moreover, the results of irradiation and isotopes release tests on different uranium carbide target prototypes will be discussed.

  20. High power laser interaction with single and double layer targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borodziuk, S.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Jungwirth, Karel; Kálal, M.; Kasperczuk, A.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Králiková, Božena; Krouský, Eduard; Limpouch, Jiří; Mašek, Karel; Pisarczyk, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Rozanov, V. B.; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2005), s. 241-262 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A100; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK2043105 Grant - others:EU(XE) HPRI-CT-1999-00053; RFBR(RU) 02-02-16966; IAEA(XE) 11655/RBF; INTAS(XX) 01-0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser produced plasma * three-frame interferometry * macroparticle * single and double targets * crater * shock wave * laser energy absorption Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  1. Proceedings of the second workshop on polarised target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, G.R.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Cox, S.F.J.; Cragg, D.A.

    1980-10-01

    The proceedings are reported of a second international workshop which was convened to consider the use of polarised targets in nuclear research and in particular the experimental difficulties imposed by the limitations of target materials with respect to their relatively low hydrogen content and susceptibility to radiation damage. Papers presented were entitled: (1) Introduction and general review. (2) Theory of dynamic nuclear polarisation. (3) Radiation induced paramagnetic centres in organic and inorganic materials. (4) Dynamic nuclear polarisation with radiation induced free radicals. (5) Radiation damage of chemically doped materials. (6) Chemical doping. (7) Techniques and instrumentation. (8) The use of polarised nuclei in physics with neutrons. (9) The use of polarised targets in high energy physics. (U.K.)

  2. Interaction of bullets with intermediate targets: material transfer and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Erwin; Rijnders, Marco; Pieper, Pascal; Hermsen, Rob

    2012-11-30

    In complex shooting incidents, it is not always clear which bullet hit or eventually killed the victim and who fired it. The examination of traces of foreign material embedded in or adhered to bullets provides critical information in the trajectory reconstruction of spent bullets. Such a reconstruction can have considerable legal implications because it can prove that it was not someone's intention to kill. However, the microtraces that remain on spent bullets are often ignored. Microtraces on bullets, around bullet-holes and on ricochet marks were investigated using SEM/EDX for two different types of bullets: a relatively hard, full metal jacket (FMJ) bullet and a relatively soft, lead round-nose (LRN) bullet. A total of 179 bullets were fired into intermediate targets, sheets of 5 different materials (MDF, greenboard, gypsum fibreboard, glass and steel), at approximate incident angles of 90°, 10° and 5°. Of the 144 bullets fired at incident angles of 90°, 130 bullets perforated one of the materials, and 14 bullets perforated two of the materials. The 35 bullets fired at incident angles of 10° and 5° ricocheted off the intermediate targets, producing ricochet marks. In the majority of cases, traces from the target materials were found on the bullet, both after perforation and ricochet. The only exceptions were (1) the perforation of 9-mm sheets of MDF by FMJ bullets and (2) ricochet off glass when the glass did not break. Steel targets transfer small, but still detectable traces of iron to the bullet. The order in which targets are hit was reflected in the traces found on the bullets, i.e., materials from a secondary target were deposited on top of deposits from the primary target. This result implies that it is possible to determine the order of impact from the stratification of the material analysed. Traces from the bullets were found around all the bullet holes. Wipe-off from lead bullets is sometimes visible by the naked eye. Ricocheting bullets produce

  3. Universal methods of irradiating target materials for high current accelerator radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevensen, N.R.

    1997-01-01

    Five cyclotrons are situated on the TRIUMF site in Vancouver, Canada spanning a range from 1 to 520 MeV. Two of these cyclotrons are used primarily for the commercial production of medical radioisotopes: the CP42 is a 250 ,μA/42 MeV single beam H - machine that has been operating for the past 15 years. The TR30 is a 2x500 ,μA/30 MeV dual beam H - cyclotron that was commissioned in 1990. To match the increasing output capabilities of these cyclotrons we have incrementally improved our external 'solid' target systems to allow up to 1 μA at 30 MeV on electroplated materials. These advancements have incorporated design changes and choices of materials that are radiation-hard to minimize repairs and maintenance. A high current gas target and various encapsulated targets are also used for medical radioisotope production. An encapsulated target to produce radioiodines from tellurium oxide by (p,n) has been built to take advantage of beam time often available on low energy PET cyclotrons. This target provides for the on-line extraction of radioiodines as well as for the conventional batch process. A new, universal target system was designed and tested. It employs many of the tried and tested advantages of other individual target system while also allowing for the universal high current irradiation of most materials such as powders, foils, metals, fluids and low point melting materials

  4. The prospects for polarized target materials with pure carbon background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    None of the materials presently in common use for polarized proton targets has a pure carbon nuclear background. The alcohols and diols contain some oxygen, and the ammonia and amine-based materials contain nitrogen and/or other noncarbon species. In the latter cases the noncarbon nuclei are measurably polarized as a concomitant of the process used to polarize the hydrogen nuclei. The relative simplicity of a pure carbon background would be advantageous for most types of scattering experiments and perhaps crucial for some. In addition to simplifying the kinematics of background events, pure carbon is relatively easy to prepare as a ''dummy'' target for background subtraction. Also, in such a target material, 13 C-enrichment would yield a clean polarized 13 C material. In this note I explore the possibilities for such materials, touching upon only what I consider to be the ''high'' points. The subject matter is capable of nearly endless ramification and speculation. In fact, owing to a general lack of relevant experimental data, even this relatively brief note contains much that is speculative to some degree

  5. Research and development on materials for the SPES target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corradetti Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The SPES project at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro is focused on the production of radioactive ion beams. The core of the SPES facility is constituted by the target, which will be irradiated with a 40 MeV, 200 µA proton beam in order to produce radioactive species. In order to efficiently produce and release isotopes, the material constituting the target should be able to work under extreme conditions (high vacuum and temperatures up to 2000 °C. Both neutron-rich and proton-rich isotopes will be produced; in the first case, carbon dispersed uranium carbide (UCx will be used as a target, whereas to produce p-rich isotopes, several types of targets will have to be irradiated. The synthesis and characterization of different types of material will be reported. Moreover, the results of irradiation and isotopes release tests on different uranium carbide target prototypes will be discussed.

  6. Single-crystal growth of ceria-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In this work it could be shown that Skull-Melting is a suitable method for growing ceria single crystals. Twenty different ceria-based single crystals could be manufactured. It was possible to dope ceria single crystals with Gd, Sm, Y, Zr, Ti, Ta, and Pr in different concentrations. Also co-doping with the named metals was realized. However, there remain some problems for growing ceria-based single crystals by Skull-Melting. As ignition metal zirconium was used because no ceria-based material works well. For that reason all single crystals show small zirconium contamination. Another problem is the formation of oxygen by the heat-induced reduction of ceria during the melting process. Because of that the skull of sintered material is often destroyed by gas pressure. This problem had to be solved individually for every single crystal. The obtained single crystals were characterized using different methods. To ensure the single crystal character the y were examined by Laue diffraction. All manufactured crystals are single crystals. Also powder diffraction patterns of the milled and oxidized samples were measured. For the determination of symmetry and metric the structural parameters were analyzed by the Rietveld method. All synthesized materials crystallize in space group Fm-3m known from calcium fluoride. The cubic lattice parameter a was determined for all crystals. In the case of series with different cerium and zirconium concentrations a linear correlation between cerium content and cubic lattice parameter was detected. The elemental composition was determined by WDX. All crystals show a homogeneous elemental distribution. The oxygen content was calculated because the WDX method isn't useful for determination.

  7. Single-Isocenter Multiple-Target Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Risk of Compromised Coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, Justin; Chanyavanich, Vorakarn; Betzel, Gregory; Switchenko, Jeffrey; Dhabaan, Anees

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric effects of rotational errors on target coverage using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for multitarget stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 50 SRS cases, each with 2 intracranial planning target volumes (PTVs). Both PTVs were planned for simultaneous treatment to 21 Gy using a single-isocenter, noncoplanar VMAT SRS technique. Rotational errors of 0.5°, 1.0°, and 2.0° were simulated about all axes. The dose to 95% of the PTV (D95) and the volume covered by 95% of the prescribed dose (V95) were evaluated using multivariate analysis to determine how PTV coverage was related to PTV volume, PTV separation, and rotational error. Results: At 0.5° rotational error, D95 values and V95 coverage rates were ≥95% in all cases. For rotational errors of 1.0°, 7% of targets had D95 and V95 values <95%. Coverage worsened substantially when the rotational error increased to 2.0°: D95 and V95 values were >95% for only 63% of the targets. Multivariate analysis showed that PTV volume and distance to isocenter were strong predictors of target coverage. Conclusions: The effects of rotational errors on target coverage were studied across a broad range of SRS cases. In general, the risk of compromised coverage increased with decreasing target volume, increasing rotational error and increasing distance between targets. Multivariate regression models from this study may be used to quantify the dosimetric effects of rotational errors on target coverage given patient-specific input parameters of PTV volume and distance to isocenter.

  8. Feasibility of Target Material Recycling as Waste Management Alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Henderson, D.; Varuttamaseni, A.

    2004-01-01

    The issue of waste management has been studied simultaneously along with the development of the ARIES heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) concept. Options for waste management include disposal in repositories, recycling, or clearance from regulatory control, following a reasonable cooling period. This paper concerns the feasibility of recycling the heavy-ion-beam targets, in particular the hohlraum wall materials that include, for example, Au/Gd, Au, W, Pb, Hg, Ta, Pb/Ta/Cs, Hg/W/Cs, Pb/Hf, Hf, solid Kr, and solid Xe. The choice between target material disposal and recycling depends on the amount of waste generated relative to the nuclear island, the strategy to solve the recycling problem, and the impact of the additional cost and complexity of the recycling process on the overall machine. A detailed flow diagram for the elements of the recycling process was developed to analyze two extreme activation cases: (a) one-shot use and then disposal in a repository and (b) recycling continuously during plant life without removal of transmutation products. Metrics for comparing the two scenarios included waste level, dose to recycling equipment, additional cost, and design complexity. Comparing the two approaches indicated a preference for the one-shot scenario as it generates 1 m 3 /yr of extremely low-level waste (Class A) and offers attractive design and economics features. Recycling reduces the target waste stream by a factor of 10 or more but introduces additional issues. It may produce high-level waste, requires remote handling, adds radioactive storage facilities, and increases the cost and complexity of the plant. The inventory analysis indicated that the heavy-ion-beam (HIB) target materials represent a very small waste stream compared to that of the nuclear island (<1% of the total waste). This means recycling is not a 'must' requirement for IFE-HIB power plants unless the target materials have cost and/or resource problems (e.g., Au and Gd). In this

  9. System Studies for the ADTF: Target and Materials Test Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2002-01-01

    To meet the objectives of the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) program, the Accelerator-Driven Test Facility (ADTF) provides a world-class accelerator-driven test facility to: - Provide the capability to assess technology options for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and waste through a proof-of-performance. - Provide a user facility that allows testing of advanced nuclear technologies and applications, material science and research, experimental physics, and conventional nuclear engineering science applications. - Provide the capability, through upgrades or additions to the ADTF accelerator, to produce tritium for defense purposes, if required. - Provide the capability, through upgrades or additions, to produce radioisotopes for medical and commercial purposes. These missions are diverse and demand a facility with significant flexibility. In order to meet them, it is envisioned that we construct two target stations: the Target and Materials Test (TMT) station and the Subcritical Multiplier (SCM) test station. The two test stations share common hot-cell facilities for post-irradiation examination. It is expected the TMT will come online first, closely followed by the SCM. The TMT will provide the capability to: - Irradiate small samples of proposed ATW (accelerator-driven transmutation of waste) fuels and materials at prototypic flux, temperature, and coolant conditions (requires intense source of neutrons). - Perform transient testing. - Test liquid (lead-bismuth) and solid spallation targets with water, sodium, or helium coolant. - Test generation-IV fuels for advance nuclear systems (requires high-intensity thermal flux). - Irradiate fission product transmutation targets. - Test advanced fuel and coolant combinations, including helium, water, sodium, and lead-bismuth. - Produce isotopes for commercial and medical applications. - Perform neutron physics experiments. The SCM will provide the capability to: - Irradiate large samples of proposed ATW

  10. A bespoke single-band Hubbard model material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, S. M.; Staar, P.; Schulthess, T. C.; Troyer, M.; Spaldin, N. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Hubbard model, which augments independent-electron band theory with a single parameter to describe electron-electron correlations, is widely regarded to be the "standard model" of condensed-matter physics. The model has been remarkably successful at addressing a range of correlation phenomena in solids, but it neglects many behaviors that occur in real materials, such as phonons, long-range interactions, and, in its simplest form, multiorbital effects. Here, we use ab initio electronic structure methods to design a material whose Hamiltonian matches as closely as possible that of the single-band Hubbard model. Our motivation is to compare the measured properties of our new material to those predicted by reliable theoretical solutions of the Hubbard model to determine the relevance of the model in the description of real materials. After identifying an appropriate crystal class and several appropriate chemistries, we use density-functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory to screen for the desired electronic band structure and metal-insulator transition. We then explore the most promising candidates for structural stability and suitability for doping, and we propose specific materials for subsequent synthesis. Finally, we identify a regime—that should manifest in our bespoke material—in which the single-band Hubbard model on a triangular lattice exhibits exotic d -wave superconductivity.

  11. Computational and Experimental Insight Into Single-Molecule Piezoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Christopher Wayne

    Piezoelectric materials allow for the harvesting of ambient waste energy from the environment. Producing lightweight, highly responsive materials is a challenge for this type of material, requiring polymer, foam, or bio-inspired materials. In this dissertation, I explore the origin of the piezoelectric effect in single molecules through density functional theory (DFT), analyze the piezoresponse of bio-inspired peptidic materials through the use of atomic and piezoresponse force microscopy (AFM and PFM), and develop a novel class of materials combining flexible polyurethane foams and non-piezoelectric, polar dopants. For the DFT calculations, functional group, regiochemical, and heteroatom derivatives of [6]helicene were examined for their influence on the piezoelectric response. An aza[6]helicene derivative was found to have a piezoelectric response (108 pm/V) comparable to ceramics such as lead zirconium titanate (200+ pm/V). These computed materials have the possibility to compete with current field-leading piezomaterials such as lead zirconium titanate (PZT), zinc oxide (ZnO), and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and its derivatives. The use of AFM/PFM allows for the demonstration of the piezoelectric effect of the selfassembled monolayer (SAM) peptidic systems. Through PFM, the influence that the helicity and sequence of the peptide has on the overall response of the molecule can be analyzed. Finally, development of a novel class of piezoelectrics, the foam-based materials, expands the current understanding of the qualities required for a piezoelectric material from ceramic and rigid materials to more flexible, organic materials. Through the exploration of these novel types of piezoelectric materials, new design rules and figures of merit have been developed.

  12. Local field in LiD polarized target material

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, Yu V; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Horikawa, N; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Magnon, A; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G

    2004-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the first and the second moments of D, **6Li and **7Li (I greater than 1/2) NMR lines in a granulated LiD- target material as a function of nuclear polarizations and the data has been compared with a theory elaborated by Abragam, Roinel and Bouffard for monocrystalline samples. The experiments were carried out in the large COMPASS twin-target at CERN. The static local magnetic field of the polarized nuclei was measured by frequency shift between the NMR-signals in the two oppositely polarized cells and lead to the first moment, whereas the investigation of the second moment was done through Gaussian approximation. The average field magnitude in granulated material was estimated 20% larger than the value given by the calculations for monocrystalline samples of cylindrical shape. The second moment shows a qualitative agreement with the theory but it is slightly larger at the negative than at the positive polarization. In a polarized mode, the moments depend on the saturated microw...

  13. Optimizing Interacting Potentials to Form Targeted Materials Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torquato, Salvatore [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Conventional applications of the principles of statistical mechanics (the "forward" problems), start with particle interaction potentials, and proceed to deduce local structure and macroscopic properties. Other applications (that may be classified as "inverse" problems), begin with targeted configurational information, such as low-order correlation functions that characterize local particle order, and attempt to back out full-system configurations and/or interaction potentials. To supplement these successful experimental and numerical "forward" approaches, we have focused on inverse approaches that make use of analytical and computational tools to optimize interactions for targeted self-assembly of nanosystems. The most original aspect of our work is its inherently inverse approach: instead of predicting structures that result from given interaction potentials among particles, we determine the optimal potential that most robustly stabilizes a given target structure subject to certain constraints. Our inverse approach could revolutionize the manner in which materials are designed and fabricated. There are a number of very tangible properties (e.g. zero thermal expansion behavior), elastic constants, optical properties for photonic applications, and transport properties.

  14. Computational Magnetohydrodynamics of General Materials in Generalized Coordinates and Applications to Laser-Target Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Jeff T.; Peterkin, Robert E., Jr.

    2003-10-01

    We have developed a multiblock arbitrary coordinate Hydromagnetics (MACH) code for computing the time-evolution of materials of arbitrary phase (solid, liquid, gas, and plasma) in response to forces that arise from material and magnetic pressures. MACH is a single-fluid, time-dependent, arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation environment. The 2 1/2 -dimensional MACH2 and the parallel 3-D MACH3 are widely used in the MHD community to perform accurate simulation of the time evolution of electrically conducting materials in a wide variety of laboratory situations. In this presentation, we discuss simulations of the interaction of an intense laser beam with a solid target in an ambient gas. Of particular interest to us is a laser-supported detonation wave (blast wave) that originates near the surface of the target when the laser intensity is sufficiently large to vaporize target material within the focal spot of the beam. Because the MACH3 simulations are fully three-dimensional, we are able to simulate non-normal laser incidence. A magnetic field is also produced from plasma energy near the edge of the focal spot.

  15. Enhancing RGI lyase thermostability by targeted single point mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Inês R.; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Jers, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan I lyase (RGI lyase) (EC 4.2.2.-) catalyzes the cleavage of rhamnogalacturonan I in pectins by β-elimination. In this study the thermal stability of a RGI lyase (PL 11) originating from Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13/ATCC14580 was increased by a targeted protein engineering...

  16. Hypervelocity penetration against mechanical properties of target materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Khairul Hasni; Abdullah, Mohamad Faizal; Zaidi, Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad; Nor, Norazman M.; Ismail, Ariffin; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Hilmi, Ahmad Humaizi

    2018-02-01

    This paper study the mechanical properties behavior of metal plates against hypervelocity penetration caused by shaped charge. Five different materials were used as target specimen fabricated from welded stacks of material plates, namely Rolled Homogeneous Armor (RHA), Hardox-500, mild steel, aluminum and brass. Specimens had undergone an initial monolithic test consist of tensile tests and microstructure observations, followed by series of hydrodynamics penetration blast tests using shape charge mechanism. Results from blast test shows that the least penetrated specimen is RHA (58mm) followed by Hardox-500 (92 mm), mild steel (110 mm), Brass (155 mm) and aluminum 238 mm). Comparing these with the specimen yield strength from the tensile test results shows that Hardox-500 has higher yield strength (Sy) followed by RHA, mild steel, brass and aluminum, which are 1370 MPa, 1320 MPa, 280,221 respectively, which are not inversely proportional to the penetration. However, the ultimate tensile strength (Sut) where the RHA were the highest followed by Hardox-500, mild steel, brass and aluminum, were inversely proportional with the depth of penetration. The penetration results also show consistence relation with energy absorption.

  17. Impact of target probability on single-trial EEG target detection in a difficult rapid serial visual presentation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecotti, Hubert; Sato-Reinhold, Joyce; Sy, Jocelyn L; Elliott, James C; Eckstein, Miguel P; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2011-01-01

    In non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI), the analysis of event-related potentials (ERP) has typically focused on averaged trials, a current trend is to analyze single-trial evoked response individually with new approaches in pattern recognition and signal processing. Such single trial detection requires a robust response that can be detected in a variety task conditions. Here, we investigated the influence of target probability, a key factor known to influence the amplitude of the evoked response, on single trial target classification in a difficult rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Our classification approach for detecting target vs. non target responses, considers spatial filters obtained through the maximization of the signal to signal-plus-noise ratio, and then uses the resulting information as inputs to a Bayesian discriminant analysis. The method is evaluated across eight healthy subjects, on four probability conditions (P=0.05, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50). We show that the target probability has a statistically significant effect on both the behavioral performance and the target detection. The best mean area under the ROC curve is achieved with P=0.10, AUC=0.82. These results suggest that optimal performance of ERP detection in RSVP tasks is critically dependent on target probability.

  18. Using llama derived single domain antibodies to target botulinum neurotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Marla D.; Anderson, George P.; Bernstein, Rachael D.; Liu, Jinny L.; Goldman, Ellen R.

    2010-04-01

    Llama serum contains both conventional IgG as well as unique forms of antibody that contain only heavy chains where antigen binding is mediated through a single variable domain. These variable domains can be expressed recombinantly and are referred to as single domain antibodies (sdAb). SdAb are among the smallest known naturally derived antigen binding fragments, possess good solubility, thermal stability, and can refold after heat and chemical denaturation. Llamas were immunized with either BoNT A or B toxoid and phage display libraries prepared. Single domain antibodies (sdAb) that were able to detect botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A and B were selected from their respective libraries. Here, the binders obtained by panning the BoNT B library on either BoNT B toxoid or BoNT B complex toxoid coated plates or BoNT B toxin coupled microspheres are described. Using these panning methods, we selected for binders that showed specificity for BoNT B. Phage displayed binders were screened, moved to a protein expression vector and soluble sdAb was produced. Using a Luminex flow cytometer binders were evaluated in direct binding assays. We have exploited the unique properties of sdAb and used them as biological recognition elements in immuno-based sensors that can detect BoNT B.

  19. Single-material Bragg reflectors and their applications in VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Ju; Ju, Gun Wu; Song, Yong Min; Lee, Yong Tak

    2018-01-01

    We present single-material distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) fabricated by oblique-angle deposition of amorphous silicon (a-Si). The high and low refractive indices of a-Si films were obtained at two incident vapour flux angles ( θ α) of 0° and 80° by determining the quarter-wavelength thicknesses of 67 nm at 0° and 128 nm at 80°. The fabricated single-material Bragg reflectors with only five pairs provide high reflectivity values of over 95%. The proposed DBRs were applied to intra-cavity contacted vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) to reduce fabrication costs and step. For the fabricated five pair a-Si/a-Si DBRs on VCSELs, the normalized stop bandwidth of 31.63% was measured while high reflectivity values over 95% were maintained over a wide wavelength range of 710 - 1020 nm. The fabricated VCSELs with D a = 7 μm obtained output power and threshold current, which are reasonable measured results.

  20. Optimal Design of Gradient Materials and Bi-Level Optimization of Topology Using Targets (BOTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Anthony

    The objective of this research is to understand the fundamental relationships necessary to develop a method to optimize both the topology and the internal gradient material distribution of a single object while meeting constraints and conflicting objectives. Functionally gradient material (FGM) objects possess continuous varying material properties throughout the object, and they allow an engineer to tailor individual regions of an object to have specific mechanical properties by locally modifying the internal material composition. A variety of techniques exists for topology optimization, and several methods exist for FGM optimization, but combining the two together is difficult. Understanding the relationship between topology and material gradient optimization enables the selection of an appropriate model and the development of algorithms, which allow engineers to design high-performance parts that better meet design objectives than optimized homogeneous material objects. For this research effort, topology optimization means finding the optimal connected structure with an optimal shape. FGM optimization means finding the optimal macroscopic material properties within an object. Tailoring the material constitutive matrix as a function of position results in gradient properties. Once, the target macroscopic properties are known, a mesostructure or a particular material nanostructure can be found which gives the target material properties at each macroscopic point. This research demonstrates that topology and gradient materials can both be optimized together for a single part. The algorithms use a discretized model of the domain and gradient based optimization algorithms. In addition, when considering two conflicting objectives the algorithms in this research generate clear 'features' within a single part. This tailoring of material properties within different areas of a single part (automated design of 'features') using computational design tools is a novel benefit

  1. Criteria for selection of target materials and design of high-efficiency-release targets for radioactive ion beam generation

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, G D; Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we define criteria for choosing target materials and for designing, mechanically stable, short-diffusion-length, highly permeable targets for generation of high-intensity radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for use at nuclear physics and astrophysics research facilities based on the ISOL principle. In addition, lists of refractory target materials are provided and examples are given of a number of successful targets, based on these criteria, that have been fabricated and tested for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF).

  2. Single material solar cells: the next frontier for organic photovoltaics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncali, Jean [Group Linear Conjugated Systems, CNRS, Moltech-Anjou, UMR 6200, University of Angers, 2 Bd Lavoisier 49045 Angers (France)

    2011-03-18

    An overview of various approaches for the realization of single-material organic solar cells (SMOCs) is presented. Fullerene-conjugated systems dyads, di-block copolymers, and self-organized donor-acceptor molecules all represent different possible approaches towards SMOCs. Although each of them presents specific advantages and poses specific problems of design and synthesis, these different routes have witnessed significant progress in the past few years and SMOCs with efficiencies in the range of 1.50% have been realized. These performances are already higher than those of bi-component bulk heterojunction solar cells some ten years ago, demonstrating that SMOCs can represent a credible approach towards efficient and simple organic solar cells. Possible directions for future research are discussed with the aim of stimulating further research on this exciting topic. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Proposed industrial recoverd materials utilization targets for the textile mill products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Materials recovery targets were established to represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving materials by January 1, 1987. This report describes targets for the textile industry and describes how those targets were determined. (MCW)

  4. Single-cell analysis of targeted transcriptome predicts drug sensitivity of single cells within human myeloma tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A K; Mukherjee, U K; Harding, T; Jang, J S; Stessman, H; Li, Y; Abyzov, A; Jen, J; Kumar, S; Rajkumar, V; Van Ness, B

    2016-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by significant genetic diversity at subclonal levels that have a defining role in the heterogeneity of tumor progression, clinical aggressiveness and drug sensitivity. Although genome profiling studies have demonstrated heterogeneity in subclonal architecture that may ultimately lead to relapse, a gene expression-based prediction program that can identify, distinguish and quantify drug response in sub-populations within a bulk population of myeloma cells is lacking. In this study, we performed targeted transcriptome analysis on 528 pre-treatment single cells from 11 myeloma cell lines and 418 single cells from 8 drug-naïve MM patients, followed by intensive bioinformatics and statistical analysis for prediction of proteasome inhibitor sensitivity in individual cells. Using our previously reported drug response gene expression profile signature at the single-cell level, we developed an R Statistical analysis package available at https://github.com/bvnlabSCATTome, SCATTome (single-cell analysis of targeted transcriptome), that restructures the data obtained from Fluidigm single-cell quantitative real-time-PCR analysis run, filters missing data, performs scaling of filtered data, builds classification models and predicts drug response of individual cells based on targeted transcriptome using an assortment of machine learning methods. Application of SCATT should contribute to clinically relevant analysis of intratumor heterogeneity, and better inform drug choices based on subclonal cellular responses.

  5. Penetration of a Small Caliber Projectile into Single and Multi-layered Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad A.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The normal penetration of armor-piercing projectiles into single and multi-layered steel plates has been investigated. An experimental program has been conducted to study the effect of spaced and in-contact layered targets on their ballistic resistance. Armor piercing projectiles with caliber of 7.62 mm were fired against a series of single and multi-layered steel targets. The projectile impact velocities were ranged from 300-600 m/s, whereas the total thicknesses of the tested single, spaced and in-contact layered steel targets were 3 mm. The penetration process of different tested target configurations has been simulated using Autodayn-2D hydrocode. The experimental measurements of the present work were used to discuss the effect of impact velocity, target configurations and number of layers of different spaced and in-contact layered steel targets on their ballistic resistance. In addition, the post-firing examination of the tested targets over the used impact velocity range showed that the single and each layer of spaced and in-contact laminated steel targets were failed by petalling. Finally, the obtained experimental measurements were compared with the corresponding numerical results of Autodyn-2D hydrocode, good agreement was generally obtained.

  6. Penetration of a Small Caliber Projectile into Single and Multi-layered Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahed, M. A.; Salem, A. M.; Zidan, A. S.; Riad, A. M.

    2010-06-01

    The normal penetration of armor-piercing projectiles into single and multi-layered steel plates has been investigated. An experimental program has been conducted to study the effect of spaced and in-contact layered targets on their ballistic resistance. Armor piercing projectiles with caliber of 7.62 mm were fired against a series of single and multi-layered steel targets. The projectile impact velocities were ranged from 300-600 m/s, whereas the total thicknesses of the tested single, spaced and in-contact layered steel targets were 3 mm. The penetration process of different tested target configurations has been simulated using Autodayn-2D hydrocode. The experimental measurements of the present work were used to discuss the effect of impact velocity, target configurations and number of layers of different spaced and in-contact layered steel targets on their ballistic resistance. In addition, the post-firing examination of the tested targets over the used impact velocity range showed that the single and each layer of spaced and in-contact laminated steel targets were failed by petalling. Finally, the obtained experimental measurements were compared with the corresponding numerical results of Autodyn-2D hydrocode, good agreement was generally obtained.

  7. Abnormal Ventral and Dorsal Attention Network Activity During Single and Dual Target Detection in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Jimenez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early visual perception and attention are impaired in schizophrenia, and these deficits can be observed on target detection tasks. These tasks activate distinct ventral and dorsal brain networks which support stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention, respectively. We used single and dual target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP tasks during fMRI with an ROI approach to examine regions within these networks associated with target detection and the attentional blink (AB in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 25 healthy controls. In both tasks, letters were targets and numbers were distractors. For the dual target task, the second target (T2 was presented at 3 different lags after the first target (T1 (lag1=100ms, lag3=300ms, lag7=700ms. For both single and dual target tasks, patients identified fewer targets than controls. For the dual target task, both groups showed the expected AB effect with poorer performance at lag 3 than at lags 1 or 7, and there was no group by lag interaction. During the single target task, patients showed abnormally increased deactivation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, a key region of the ventral network. When attention demands were increased during the dual target task, patients showed overactivation of the posterior intraparietal cortex, a key dorsal network region, along with failure to deactivate TPJ. Results suggest inefficient and faulty suppression of salience-oriented processing regions, resulting in increased sensitivity to stimuli in general, and difficulty distinguishing targets from non-targets.

  8. Correlating single-molecule and ensemble-average measurements of peptide adsorption onto different inorganic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Oh; Jackman, Joshua A; Mochizuki, Masahito; Yoon, Bo Kyeong; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-07

    The coating of solid-binding peptides (SBPs) on inorganic material surfaces holds significant potential for improved surface functionalization at nano-bio interfaces. In most related studies, the goal has been to engineer peptides with selective and high binding affinity for a target material. The role of the material substrate itself in modulating the adsorption behavior of a peptide molecule remains less explored and there are few studies that compare the interaction of one peptide with different inorganic substrates. Herein, using a combination of two experimental techniques, we investigated the adsorption of a 16 amino acid-long random coil peptide to various inorganic substrates - gold, silicon oxide, titanium oxide and aluminum oxide. Quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) experiments were performed in order to measure the peptide binding affinity for inorganic solid supports at the ensemble average level, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were conducted in order to determine the adhesion force of a single peptide molecule. A positive trend was observed between the total mass uptake of attached peptide and the single-molecule adhesion force on each substrate. Peptide affinity for gold was appreciably greater than for the oxide substrates. Collectively, the results obtained in this study offer insight into the ways in which inorganic materials can differentially influence and modulate the adhesion of SBPs.

  9. [Controlling arachidonic acid metabolic network: from single- to multi-target inhibitors of key enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Zheng; Shang, Er-chang; Yang, Kun; Wei, Deng-guo; Zhou, Lu; Jiang, Xiao-lu; He, Chong; Lai, Lu-hua

    2009-03-01

    Inflammatory diseases are common medical conditions seen in disorders of human immune system. There is a great demand for anti-inflammatory drugs. There are major inflammatory mediators in arachidonic acid metabolic network. Several enzymes in this network have been used as key targets for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. However, specific single-target inhibitors can not sufficiently control the network balance and may cause side effects at the same time. Most inflammation induced diseases come from the complicated coupling of inflammatory cascades involving multiple targets. In order to treat these complicated diseases, drugs that can intervene multi-targets at the same time attracted much attention. The goal of this review is mainly focused on the key enzymes in arachidonic acid metabolic network, such as phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase and eukotriene A4 hydrolase. Advance in single target and multi-targe inhibitors is summarized.

  10. Positive impedance humidity sensors via single-component materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jingwen; Peng, Zhijian; Shen, Zhenguang; Zhao, Zengying; Zhang, Guoliang; Fu, Xiuli

    2016-05-06

    Resistivity-type humidity sensors have been investigated with great interest due to the increasing demands in industry, agriculture and daily life. To date, most of the available humidity sensors have been fabricated based on negative humidity impedance, in which the electrical resistance decreases as the humidity increases, and only several carbon composites have been reported to present positive humidity impedance. However, here we fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors only via single-component WO3-x crystals. The resistance of WO3-x crystal sensors in response to relative humidity could be tuned from a negative to positive one by increasing the compositional x. And it was revealed that the positive humidity impedance was driven by the defects of oxygen vacancy. This result will extend the application field of humidity sensors, because the positive humidity impedance sensors would be more energy-efficient, easier to be miniaturized and electrically safer than their negative counterparts for their lower operation voltages. And we believe that constructing vacancies in semiconducting materials is a universal way to fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors.

  11. A practical method for target preparation of powdered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao.

    1977-01-01

    This is the sixth report on the practical method of target preparation for use in nuclear physics experiments following the previous one (INS-TL-131, 1976). We have made various targets by developing the centrifugal precipitation method, which is particularly effective in the cases; (a) metal with high melting point and low vapor pressure, (b) oxides which are difficult to prepare by the usual vacuum evaporation technique and (c) some enriched isotopes which are very minute in quantity (less than - 10 mg) and low in recovery ratio. The samples were once suspended in liquid paraffin by ultrasonic wave vibrator, and then centrifugally precipitated on a thin backing foil such as Mylar or aluminum set and the bottom of the centrifugal tube. Uniformity of target made in this way was checked by an 24 Am-α ray thickness gauge. Contaminations smudged in the preparing process were checked by irradiating the targets with the proton beam from the FM Cyclotron at I.N.S. (auth.)

  12. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the textile-mill-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The Congress, in the National Energy Conservation and Policy Act of 1978 (NECPA), directed the Department of Energy to establish materials recovery targets for the metals and metal products, paper and allied products, rubber, and textile-mill-products industries. The targets were developed to provide incentives for using energy-saving recorded materials and to provied a yardstick for measuring progress and improvement in this endeavor. The NECPA indicates that the targets should represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving recovered materials that each industry can achieve progressively by January 1, 1987. Materials affected by recovered-materials targets include and are limited to aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, iron, steel, paper and associated products, textile-mill, products, and rubber. Using information gathered from the textile-mill-products industry and from other textile-relaed sources, DOE has developed recovered materials targets for that industry. This report presents those targets and their basis and justification. Following an overview of the textile industry, the chapters are: Textile-Mill-Products Industry Operations; Economic Analysis of the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Governmental and Regulatory Influence on the US Textile Industry; Current Mill Use of Recovered Materials in the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Limitations on the Use of Recovered Materials in the US Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Materials-Recovery Targets; and Government and Industry Actions That Could Increase the Use of Recovered Materials.

  13. Nonlinear Magnetic Phenomena in Highly Polarized Target Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Yu F

    2007-01-01

    The report introduces and surveys nonlinear magnetic phenomena which have been observed at high nuclear polarizations in polarized targets of the SMC and of the COMPASS collaborations at CERN. Some of these phenomena, namely the frequency modulation eect and the distortion of the NMR line shape, promote the development of the polarized target technique. Others, as the spin-spin cross-relaxation between spin subsystems can be used for the development of quantum statistical physics. New findings bear on an electromagnetic noise and the spectrally resolved radiation from LiD with negatively polarized nuclei detected by low temperature bolometers. These nonlinear phenomena need to be taken into account for achieving the ultimate polarizations.

  14. Nanostructured materials for selective recognition and targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrotsiou, O; Kotti, K; Dini, E; Kammona, O; Kiparissides, C

    2005-01-01

    Selective recognition requires the introduction of a molecular memory into a polymer matrix in order to make it capable of rebinding an analyte with a very high specificity. In addition, targeted drug delivery requires drug-loaded vesicles which preferentially localize to the sites of injury and avoid uptake into uninvolved tissues. The rapid evolution of nanotechnology is aiming to fulfill the goal of selective recognition and optimal drug delivery through the development of molecularly imprinted polymeric (MIP) nanoparticles, tailor-made for a diverse range of analytes (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides, amino acids, etc.) and of nanostructured targeted drug carriers (e.g., liposomes and micelles) with increased circulation lifetimes. In the present study, PLGA microparticles containing multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), and MIP nanoparticles were synthesized to be employed as drug carriers and synthetic receptors respectively

  15. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1991-07-02

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. The probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations. No Drawings

  16. Novel self-healing materials chemistries for targeted applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gerald O.

    Self-healing materials of the type developed by White and co-workers [1] were designed to autonomically heal themselves when damaged, thereby extending the lifetime of various applications in which such material systems are employed. The system was based on urea-formaldehyde microcapsules containing dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and Grubbs' catalyst particles embedded together in an epoxy matrix. When a crack propagates through the material, it ruptures the microcapsules, releasing DCPD into the crack plane, where it comes in contact and reacts with the catalyst to initiate a ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), bonding the crack and restoring structural continuity. The present work builds on this concept in several ways. Firstly, it expands the scope and versatility of the ROMP self-healing chemistry by incorporation into epoxy vinyl ester matrices. Major technical challenges in this application include protection of the catalyst from deactivation by aggressive curing agents, and optimization of the concentration of healing agents in the matrix. Secondly, new ruthenium catalysts are evaluated for application in ROMP-based self-healing materials. The use of alternative derivatives of Grubbs' catalyst gave rise to self-healing systems with improved healing efficiencies and thermal properties. Evaluation of the stability of these new catalysts to primary amine curing agents used in the curing of common epoxy matrices also led to the discovery and characterization of new ruthenium catalysts which exhibited ROMP initiation kinetics superior to those of first and second generation Grubbs' catalysts. Finally, free radical polymerization was evaluated for application in the development of bio-compatible self-healing materials. [1] White, S. R.; Sottos, N. R.; Geubelle, P. R.; Moore, J. S.; Kessler, M. R.; Sriram, S. R.; Brown, E. N.; Viswanathan, S. Nature 2001, 409, 794.

  17. Investigation of polarized-proton target materials by differential calorimetry: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.; Hill, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple differential calorimeter was designed and operated for an investigation of the thermodynamic properties of polarized target materials. The calibration and use of the calorimeter are discussed, after a brief exposition of our motivation for this work. The results of a preliminary study of target materials is presented with emphasis on the relevance of the glass state to dynamic polarization in chemically-doped targets

  18. A single gene target of an ETS-family transcription factor determines neuronal CO2-chemosensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Julia P; Aziz-Zaman, Sonya; Juozaityte, Vaida

    2012-01-01

    . We report here a mechanism that endows C. elegans neurons with the ability to detect CO(2). The ETS-5 transcription factor is necessary for the specification of CO(2)-sensing BAG neurons. Expression of a single ETS-5 target gene, gcy-9, which encodes a receptor-type guanylate cyclase, is sufficient...

  19. Characterization of a mitochondrially targeted single-stranded DNA-binding protein in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Andrew C; Song, Daqing; Alvarez, Luis A; Wall, Melisa K; Almond, David; McClellan, David A; Maxwell, Anthony; Nielsen, Brent L

    2005-04-01

    A gene encoding a predicted mitochondrially targeted single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB) was identified in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence. This gene (At4g11060) codes for a protein of 201 amino acids, including a 28-residue putative mitochondrial targeting transit peptide. Protein sequence alignment shows high similarity between the mtSSB protein and single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB) from bacteria, including residues conserved for SSB function. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a close relationship between this protein and other mitochondrially targeted SSB proteins. The predicted targeting sequence was fused with the GFP coding region, and the organellar localization of the expressed fusion protein was determined. Specific targeting to mitochondria was observed in in-vitro import experiments and by transient expression of a GFP fusion construct in Arabidopsis leaves after microprojectile bombardment. The mature mtSSB coding region was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified for biochemical characterization. The purified protein binds single-stranded, but not double-stranded, DNA. MtSSB stimulates the homologous strand-exchange activity of E. coli RecA. These results indicate that mtSSB is a functional homologue of the E. coli SSB, and that it may play a role in mitochondrial DNA recombination.

  20. Comparison of Single and Dual Target Visual Attention Tasks in Children with down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J. Murphy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of attentional processing in children with Down Syndrome (DS is imperative for developing effective education practices. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether children with DS exhibit impairment in sustained, transient, single-, or dual-target continuous performance tasks. Target detection time and accuracy was compared in children with DS to Typically Developing (TD children of similar nonverbal mental age (as measured by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, on single and dual- target continuous performance tasks measuring sustained attention, a visual change detection task measuring transient attention, and feature and conjunctive visual search tasks measuring both sustained and transient attention. Results showed that children with DS performed similarly to TD children on sustained and transient attention tasks that only required the detection of a single unique target, but were impaired in overall accuracy on tasks that required dual-target detection. Findings suggest a possible impairment in attention and working memory in children with DS. Error analysis of task responses revealed differences in problem solving strategy between children with DS and TD children, despite similar overall performance. Findings have implications for the education of children with DS and understanding of the nature of intellectual disability per se.

  1. Performance of autofocusing schemes for single target and populated scenes behind unknown walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.

    2007-04-01

    The quality and reliability of through-the-wall radar imagery is governed, among other things, by the knowledge of the wall characteristics. Ambiguity in wall characteristics has a two-fold effect. It smears and blurs the image, and also shifts the imaged target positions. Higher order standardized moments have been shown to be suitable measures of the degree of smearing and blurriness of through-the-wall images. These moments can be used to tune the wall variables to achieve autofocusing. It is noted that the solution to the autofocusing problem is not unique, and there exist several assumed wall characteristics, in addition to the exact, that lead to similar focused images. In this paper, we analyze the dependency of the estimated autofocusing wall parameters on the imaged scene, specifically target density and location, in the presence of single uniform wall. We consider single and multiple target cases with different scene complexity and population. Supporting simulation results are also provided.

  2. Hypervelocity penetration against mechanical properties of target materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, M. M.; Roslan, M. H.; Ishak, M. T.; Hamid, M. H. A.; Katim, N. I. A.; Hashim, F. R.; Razali, S.

    2018-02-01

    Sustainable development is growing importance issues nowadays and requires the consideration of environmental criteria to develop of all new materials and equipment. A better balance must be found in properties of oils so that the impact on the environment can be minimized. In transformers, a stable liquid, inert, with good electrical and thermal properties is necessary and the liquid must be non-toxic to environment and readily biodegradable. The objective of this research is to make a comparative study of different vegetable oils: palm oil, corn oil, rice bran oil and analyze the dielectric properties such as relative permittivity, dielectric constant and resistivity with variation temperature 30°C-90°C and breakdown voltage with different ageing time 30 days, 90 days and 180 days. The dielectric properties data of the vegetable oils are compared with the transformer oil (mineral oil) and appropriate causes for similarities and different have been discussed.

  3. A study of lithium deuteride as a material for a polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Bültmann, S; Day, D B; Fatemi, R D; Gardner, B; Harris, C M; Johnson, J R; Mccarthy, J S; McKee, P M; Meyer, Werner T; Penttilae, S I; Ponikvar, E; Rijllart, A; Rondon, Oscar A; Lorant, S S; Tobias, W A; Trentalange, S; Zhu, H; Zihlmann, B; Zimmermann, D

    1999-01-01

    Experiment E155 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) measured the spin-dependent structure of the proton and neutron, using for the first time sup 6 LiD as the polarized deuteron target material in a high-energy electron beam. This compound provides a significantly higher dilution factor than any other solid deuteron target material currently used in high-energy physics experiments. Results of the polarization behavior of the sup 6 LiD target material before and after exposure to the 50 GeV/c electron beam used in E155 are presented.

  4. Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.F.

    1991-12-31

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

  5. Theoretical investigations of single particle spectroscopies of novel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randeria, Mohit [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-24

    The project focused on three areas in the theoretical investigation of quantum materials. The first was novel magnetism in low dimensional systems, especially chiral magnetism and topological spin textures that can arise in thin films and at interfaces. The second related to high temperature superconductivity, and particularly on understanding puzzling features of quantum oscillations. The third related to collaborations with experimentalists on angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of high Tc superconductors and charge density wave materials.

  6. A Single Unexpected Change in Target- but Not Distractor Motion Impairs Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke S. Meyerhoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addresses the question whether motion information of multiple objects contributes to maintaining a selection of objects across a period of motion. Here, we investigate whether target and/or distractor motion information is used during attentive tracking. We asked participants to track four objects and changed either the motion direction of targets, the motion direction of distractors, neither, or both during a brief flash in the middle of a tracking interval. We observed that a single direction change of targets is sufficient to impair tracking performance. In contrast, changing the motion direction of distractors had no effect on performance. This indicates that target- but not distractor motion information is evaluated during tracking.

  7. Development of a reference material of a single DNA molecule for the quality control of PCR testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Yoshii, Junji; Nakae, Hiroki; Naito, Shigehiro; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2014-09-02

    We developed a reference material of a single DNA molecule with a specific nucleotide sequence. The double-strand linear DNA which has PCR target sequences at the both ends was prepared as a reference DNA molecule, and we named the PCR targets on each side as confirmation sequence and standard sequence. The highly diluted solution of the reference molecule was dispensed into 96 wells of a plastic PCR plate to make the average number of molecules in a well below one. Subsequently, the presence or absence of the reference molecule in each well was checked by real-time PCR targeting for the confirmation sequence. After an enzymatic treatment of the reaction mixture in the positive wells for the digestion of PCR products, the resultant solution was used as the reference material of a single DNA molecule with the standard sequence. PCR analyses revealed that the prepared samples included only one reference molecule with high probability. The single-molecule reference material developed in this study will be useful for the absolute evaluation of a detection limit of PCR-based testing methods, the quality control of PCR analyses, performance evaluations of PCR reagents and instruments, and the preparation of an accurate calibration curve for real-time PCR quantitation.

  8. Targeting neurotransmitter receptors with nanoparticles in vivo allows single-molecule tracking in acute brain slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Juan A.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Etchepare, Laetitia; Espana, Agnès; Cognet, Laurent; Groc, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Single-molecule imaging has changed the way we understand many biological mechanisms, particularly in neurobiology, by shedding light on intricate molecular events down to the nanoscale. However, current single-molecule studies in neuroscience have been limited to cultured neurons or organotypic slices, leaving as an open question the existence of fast receptor diffusion in intact brain tissue. Here, for the first time, we targeted dopamine receptors in vivo with functionalized quantum dots and were able to perform single-molecule tracking in acute rat brain slices. We propose a novel delocalized and non-inflammatory way of delivering nanoparticles (NPs) in vivo to the brain, which allowed us to label and track genetically engineered surface dopamine receptors in neocortical neurons, revealing inherent behaviour and receptor activity regulations. We thus propose a NP-based platform for single-molecule studies in the living brain, opening new avenues of research in physiological and pathological animal models.

  9. Preliminary Mark-18A (Mk-18A) Target Material Recovery Program Product Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bradley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Mk-18A Target Material Recovery Program (MTMRP) was established in 2015 to preserve the unique materials, e.g. 244Pu, in 65 previously irradiated Mk-18A targets for future use. This program utilizes existing capabilities at SRS and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to process targets, recover materials from them, and to package the recovered materials for shipping to ORNL. It also utilizes existing capabilities at ORNL to receive and store the recovered materials, and to provide any additional processing of the recovered materials or residuals required to prepare them for future beneficial use. The MTMRP is presently preparing for the processing of these valuable targets which is expected to begin in ~2019. As part of the preparations for operations, this report documents the preliminary acceptance criteria for the plutonium and heavy curium materials to be recovered from the Mk-18A targets at SRNL for transport and storage at ORNL. These acceptance criteria were developed based on preliminary concepts developed for processing, transporting, and storing the recovered Mk-18A materials. They will need to be refined as these concepts are developed in more detail.

  10. Quantitative estimation of plum pox virus targets acquired and transmitted by a single Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto; Cambra, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    The viral charge acquired and inoculated by single aphids in a non-circulative transmission is estimated using plum pox virus (PPV). A combination of electrical penetration graph and TaqMan real-time RT-PCR techniques was used to establish the average number of PPV RNA targets inoculated by an aphid in a single probe (26,750), approximately half of the acquired ones. This number of PPV targets is responsible for a systemic infection of 20% on the inoculated receptor plants. No significant differences were found between the number of PPV RNA targets acquired after one and after five intracellular punctures (pd), but the frequency of infected receptor plants was higher after 5 pd. The percentage of PPV-positive leaf discs after just 1 pd of inoculation probe (28%/4,603 targets) was lower than after 5 pd (45.8%/135 x 10(6) targets). The methodology employed could be easily extended to other virus-vector-host combinations to improve the accuracy of models used in virus epidemiology.

  11. Targeted mutations induced by a single acetylaminofluorene DNA adduct in mammalian cells and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moryia, M.; Takeshita, M.; Johnson, F.; Peden, K.; Will, S.; Grollman, A.P.

    1988-03-01

    Mutagenic specificity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) has been established in mammalian cells and several strains of bacteria by using a shuttle plasmid vector containing a single N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)acetylaminofluorene (C8-dG-AAF) adduct. The nucleotide sequence of the gene conferring tetracycline resistance was modified by conservative codon replacement so as to accommodate the sequence d(CCTTCGCTAC) flanked by two restriction sites, Bsm I and Xho I. The corresponding synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide underwent reaction with 2-(N-acetoxy-N-acetylamino)-fluorene (AAAF), forming a single dG-AAF adduct. This modified oligodeoxynucleotide was hybridized to its complementary strand and ligated between the Bsm I and Xho I sites of the vector. Plasmids containing the C8-dG-AAF adduct were used to transfect simian virus 40-transformed simian kidney (COS-1) cells and to transform several AB strains of Escherichia coli. Colonies containing mutant plasmides were detected by hybridization to /sup 32/P-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides. Presence of the single DNA adduct increased the mutation frequency by 8-fold in both COS cells and E. coli. Over 80% of mutations detected in both systems were targeted and represented G x C ..-->.. C x G or G x C ..-->.. T x A transversions or single nucleotide deletions. The authors conclude that modification of a deoxyguanosine residue with AAF preferentially induces mutations targeted at this site when a plasmid containing a single C8-dG-AAF adduct is introduced into mammalian cells or bacteria.

  12. Progress in target materials for high-efficiency X-ray backlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Ai; Zhou Bin; Li Longxiang; Zhu Xiurong; Li Yu'nong; Shen Jun; Gao Guohua; Zhang Zhihua; Wu Guangming

    2012-01-01

    The composition, microstructure and density of the target materials are the key parameters to determinate the photon energy and intensity of the laser-induced X-ray backlight. Thus the classification of backlight targets, the preparation of target materials and the interaction between targets and high power laser were introduced in this paper. Underdense targets were more competitive than traditional dense targets among the backlight targets. Nano-structured foam targets, which could be classified into nanofiber targets and aerogel targets, were regarded as novel high-efficiency underdense targets. Nanofiber, which was commonly prepared via electro spinning and thermal treatment, exhibited good formability and high concentration of emission atoms; while aerogel, which was prepared via sol-gel processes and supercritical fluid drying, possesses the advantages of homogeneous microstructure and theoretically high conversion efficiency, but accompanied with the disadvantages of complex synthetic processes and low concentration of emission atoms. To prepare monolithic aerogels with low density and high concentration of emission atoms via combined sol-gel theories may be the better design for the development of the laser-induced X-ray backlight. (authors)

  13. A single-component liquid-phase hydrogen storage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Campbell, Patrick G; Zakharov, Lev N; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2011-12-07

    The current state-of-the-art for hydrogen storage is compressed H(2) at 700 bar. The development of a liquid-phase hydrogen storage material has the potential to take advantage of the existing liquid-based distribution infrastructure. We describe a liquid-phase hydrogen storage material that is a liquid under ambient conditions (i.e., at 20 °C and 1 atm pressure), air- and moisture-stable, and recyclable; releases H(2) controllably and cleanly at temperatures below or at the proton exchange membrane fuel cell waste-heat temperature of 80 °C; utilizes catalysts that are cheap and abundant for H(2) desorption; features reasonable gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity; and does not undergo a phase change upon H(2) desorption. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Developing Culturally Targeted Diabetes Educational Materials for Older Russian-Speaking Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Son, Catherine R

    2014-07-01

    Older adults who immigrate late in life face many challenges adapting to a new country. Immigrants bring their cultural beliefs and behaviors with them, which can influence their ability to make dietary changes required when they have type 2 diabetes. Culturally targeted patient education materials are needed to improve immigrants' health literacy and abilities to self-manage diabetes. Currently, there is a scarcity of diabetes patient education materials to meet the educational needs of the Russian-speaking immigrant group. The purpose of this article is to describe a project in which culturally targeted diabetes education materials for older Russian-speaking immigrants were designed and developed. Culturally targeted patient education materials are essential if they are to be accepted and used by clients from different ethnic minority populations. The creation of culturally relevant materials requires a team effort and community stakeholder input. The availability of materials on the internet facilitates access and use by health care providers. Culturally targeted education materials are an important component in addressing health literacy in ethnic minority populations. Next steps require that these materials be evaluated to test their impact on diabetes self-management behaviors and clinical outcomes such as adherence, amount of physical activity, and blood glucose levels. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. Metacognitive training for patients with schizophrenia: preliminary evidence for a targeted, single-module programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzan, Ryan P; Delfabbro, Paul H; Galletly, Cherrie A; Woodward, Todd S

    2014-12-01

    Metacognitive training is an eight-module, group-based treatment programme for people with schizophrenia that targets the cognitive biases (i.e. problematic thinking styles) thought to contribute to the genesis and maintenance of delusions. The present article is an investigation into the efficacy of a shorter, more targeted, single-module metacognitive training programme, administered individually, which focuses specifically on improving cognitive biases that are thought to be driven by a 'hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches' mechanism (e.g. jumping to conclusions, belief inflexibility, reasoning heuristics, illusions of control). It was hypothesised that a more targeted metacognitive training module could still improve performance on these bias tasks and reduce delusional ideation, while improving insight and quality of life. A sample of 28 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and mild delusions either participated in the hour-long, single-session, targeted metacognitive training programme (n = 14), or continued treatment as usual (n = 14). All patients were assessed using clinical measures gauging overall positive symptomology, delusional ideation, quality of life and insight, and completed two cognitive bias tasks designed to elucidate the representativeness and illusion of control biases. After a 2-week, post-treatment interval, targeted metacognitive training patients exhibited significant decreases in delusional severity and conviction, significantly improved clinical insight, and significant improvements on the cognitive bias tasks, relative to the treatment-as-usual controls. Performance improvements on the cognitive bias tasks significantly correlated with the observed reductions in overall positive symptomology. Patients also evaluated the training positively. Although interpretations of these results are limited due to the lack of an optimally designed, randomised controlled trial and a small sample size, the results are promising and warrant

  16. Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M.; Gupta, Gautam; Duque, Juan G.; Doorn, Stephen K.; Hamilton, Christopher E.; DeFriend Obrey, Kimberly A.

    2013-03-12

    Fluorescent composites of surfactant-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by exposing suspensions of surfactant-wrapped carbon nanotubes to tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) vapor. Sodium deoxycholate (DOC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) were the surfactants. No loss in emission intensity was observed when the suspension of DOC-wrapped SWNTs were exposed to the TMOS vapors, but about a 50% decrease in the emission signal was observed from the SDS-wrapped SWNTs nanotubes. The decrease in emission was minimal by buffering the SDS/SWNT suspension prior to forming the composite. Fluorescent xerogels were prepared by adding glycerol to the SWNT suspensions prior to TMOS vapor exposure, followed by drying the gels. Fluorescent aerogels were prepared by replacing water in the gels with methanol and then exposing them to supercritical fluid drying conditions. The aerogels can be used for gas sensing.

  17. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)

  18. High-Resolution Single-Grain Diffraction of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, Ulrich; Ribárik, Gábor; Ungar, Tamas

    2017-01-01

    . The microstructure usually influences the materials properties critically. It has been demonstrated that, by using high-energy synchrotron radiation, diffraction peaks off individual grains can be recorded in-situ during processing. Important information such as the orientation, average strain, and size...... of individual grains can be obtained, even if the peak shapes are commonly not analyzed. However, it is also well-known that the shape of diffraction peaks, if observed with sufficient resolution, contains significant information about the microstructure. While the intensity distribution in reciprocal space...... of a perfect lattice consists of delta functions located at the reciprocal lattice points, defects induce characteristic peak broadening. In order to exploit the wealth of microstructural information contained in broadened diffraction peaks, the intensity distribution has to be characterized in all three...

  19. Steam explosion studies with single drops of molten refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    Laser heating, levitation melting, and metal combustion were used to prepare individual drops of molten refractory materials which simulate LWR fuel melt products. Drop temperatures ranged from approx. = 1500 to > 3000K. These drops, several millimeters in diameter, were injected into water and subjected to pressure transients (approx. = 1MPa peak pressures) generated by a submerged exploding bridgewire. Molten oxides of Fe, Al and Zr could be induced to explode with bridgewire initiation. High speed films showed the explosions with exceptional clarity, and pressure transducer records could be correlated with individual frames in the films. Pressure spikes one or two MPa high were generated whenever an explosion occurred. Debris particles were mostly spheroidal, with diameters in the range 10 to 1000 μm

  20. Single freeform surface design for prescribed input wavefront and target irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösel, Christoph; Gross, Herbert

    2017-09-01

    In beam shaping applications, the minimization of the number of necessary optical elements for the beam shaping process can benefit the compactness of the optical system and reduce its cost. The single freeform surface design for input wavefronts, which are neither planar nor spherical, is therefore of interest. In this work, the design of single freeform surfaces for a given zero-étendue source and complex target irradiances is investigated. Hence, not only collimated input beams or point sources are assumed. Instead, a predefined input ray direction vector field and irradiance distribution on a source plane, which has to be redistributed by a single freeform surface to give the predefined target irradiance, is considered. To solve this design problem, a partial differential equation (PDE) or PDE system, respectively, for the unknown surface and its corresponding ray mapping is derived from energy conservation and the ray-tracing equations. In contrast to former PDE formulations of the single freeform design problem, the derived PDE of Monge-Ampère type is formulated for general zero-étendue sources in Cartesian coordinates. The PDE system is discretized with finite differences, and the resulting nonlinear equation system is solved by a root-finding algorithm. The basis of the efficient solution of the PDE system builds the introduction of an initial iterate construction approach for a given input direction vector field, which uses optimal mass transport with a quadratic cost function. After a detailed description of the numerical algorithm, the efficiency of the design method is demonstrated by applying it to several design examples. This includes the redistribution of a collimated input beam beyond the paraxial approximation, the shaping of point source radiation, and the shaping of an astigmatic input wavefront into a complex target irradiance distribution.

  1. Targeted genetics in Drosophila cell lines: Inserting single transgenes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Sathiya N; Simcox, Amanda

    2016-07-02

    A long-standing problem with analyzing transgene expression in tissue-culture cells is the variation caused by random integration of different copy numbers of transfected transgenes. In mammalian cells, single transgenes can be inserted by homologous recombination but this process is inefficient in Drosophila cells. To tackle this problem, our group, and the Cherbas group, used recombination-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) to introduce single-copy transgenes into specific locations in the Drosophila genome. In both cases, ϕC31 was used to catalyze recombination between its target sequences attP in the genome, and attB flanking the donor sequence. We generated cell lines de novo with a single attP-flanked cassette for recombination, whereas, Cherbas et al. introduced a single attP-flanked cassette into existing cell lines. In both approaches, a 2-drug selection scheme was used to select for cells with a single copy of the donor sequence inserted by RMCE and against cells with random integration of multiple copies. Here we describe the general advantages of using RMCE to introduce genes into fly cells, the different attributes of the 2 methods, and how future work could make use of other recombinases and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to further enable genetic manipulation of Drosophila cells in vitro.

  2. Chalcogenide thin films deposited by rfMS technique using a single quaternary target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepelita, P.; Stavarache, I.; Negrila, C.; Garoi, F.; Craciun, V.

    2017-12-01

    Thin films of chalcogenide, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 have been obtained using a single quaternary target by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method, with thickness in the range 750 nm to 1200 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations showed, that the composition of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films was very similar to that of the used target CuIn0.75Ga0.25Se2. Identification of the chemical composition of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films by XPS performed in high vacuum, emphasized that the samples exhibit surface features suitable to be integrated into the structure of solar cells. Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy investigations showed that surface morphology was influenced by the increase in thickness of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layer. From X-Ray Diffraction investigations it was found that all films were polycrystalline, having a tetragonal lattice with a preferential orientation along the (112) direction. The optical reflectance as a function of wavelength was measured for the studied samples. The increase in thickness of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber determined a decrease of its optical bandgap value from 1.53 eV to 1.44 eV. The results presented in this paper showed an excellent alternative of obtaining Cu(In,Ga)Se2 compound thin films from a single target.

  3. Transverse-target single-spin azimuthal asymmetry in hard exclusive electroproduction of single pions at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, I.

    2007-12-01

    We present the analysis of data taken in the years 2002-2004 with the 27.56 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring at DESY and the internal transversely polarised hydrogen fixed target of the HERMES experiment. Events with a scattered positron and a produced pion are selected. Exclusive production of single pions, e + p→e +' nπ + , is ensured by requiring the missing mass in the event to be equal to the mass of the neutron, which is not detected. The cross section for this process depends on the Bjorken scaling variable, the four-momentum transfer, and the transverse four-momentum transfer, whose average values for our sample are left angle x right angle =0.12, left angle Q 2 right angle =2.3 GeV 2 , left angle t' right angle =-0.18 GeV 2 , respectively, and two azimuthal angles: the angle φ between the scattering and production planes (their common line contains the virtual photon), and the angle φ S between the scattering plane and the target polarisation vector. The hard scattering is selected by requiring Q 2 >1 GeV 2 . The asymmetry, also called transverse-target single-spin azimuthal asymmetry, is defined as the ratio of the difference to the sum of the cross sections for positive and negative target polarisation. It is characterised by six azimuthal sine modulations, whose amplitudes can vary from -1 to 1. We measure the asymmetry from a sample of 2093 events with a signal-to-background ratio of 1: 1. At average kinematics, the values of the amplitudes are found to be small or consistent with zero, except for the amplitude A sinφ S UT,meas =0.38±0.06(stat) +0.12 -0.06 (syst). The amplitude of main interest for comparison with theory, A sin(φ-φ S ) UT,meas =0.09±0.05(stat) +0.10 -0.03 (syst), after correction for the background contribution becomes A sin(φ-φ S ) UT,bg.cor =0.22 ±0.13(stat) +0.10 -0.04 (syst). As a function of t', the measured values of this amplitude increase as √(-t') and at larger vertical stroke t' vertical stroke the

  4. Transverse-target single-spin azimuthal asymmetry in hard exclusive electroproduction of single pions at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hristova, I.

    2007-12-15

    We present the analysis of data taken in the years 2002-2004 with the 27.56 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring at DESY and the internal transversely polarised hydrogen fixed target of the HERMES experiment. Events with a scattered positron and a produced pion are selected. Exclusive production of single pions, e{sup +}p{yields}e{sup +'}n{pi}{sup +}, is ensured by requiring the missing mass in the event to be equal to the mass of the neutron, which is not detected. The cross section for this process depends on the Bjorken scaling variable, the four-momentum transfer, and the transverse four-momentum transfer, whose average values for our sample are left angle x right angle =0.12, left angle Q{sup 2} right angle =2.3 GeV{sup 2}, left angle t' right angle =-0.18 GeV{sup 2}, respectively, and two azimuthal angles: the angle {phi} between the scattering and production planes (their common line contains the virtual photon), and the angle {phi}{sub S} between the scattering plane and the target polarisation vector. The hard scattering is selected by requiring Q{sup 2}>1 GeV{sup 2}. The asymmetry, also called transverse-target single-spin azimuthal asymmetry, is defined as the ratio of the difference to the sum of the cross sections for positive and negative target polarisation. It is characterised by six azimuthal sine modulations, whose amplitudes can vary from -1 to 1. We measure the asymmetry from a sample of 2093 events with a signal-to-background ratio of 1: 1. At average kinematics, the values of the amplitudes are found to be small or consistent with zero, except for the amplitude A{sup sin{phi}{sub SUT,meas}}=0.38{+-}0.06(stat){sup +0.12}{sub -0.06}(syst). The amplitude of main interest for comparison with theory, A{sup sin({phi}-{phi}{sub S})}{sub UT,meas}=0.09{+-}0.05(stat){sup +0.10}{sub -0.03}(syst), after correction for the background contribution becomes A{sup sin({phi}-{phi}{sub S})}{sub UT,bg.cor}=0.22 {+-}0.13(stat){sup +0.10}{sub -0

  5. Depth-Dose and LET Distributions of Antiproton Beams in Various Target Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Olsen, Sune; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.

    Purpose  Radiotherapy with antiprotons is still being investigated as a possible new beam modality. Antiprotons behave much like protons until they come to rest, where they will annihilate with a target nucleus, thereby releasing additional energy. This can potentially lead to a favourable  depth......-dose distributions and an increased biological effect in the target region from the production of secondary nuclear fragments with increased LET. Earlier it has been speculated how the target material will affect the depth-dose curve of antiprotons and secondary particle production. Intuitively, the presence...... of elements with higher Z, may lead to heavier fragments, which in turn may increase the LET and be beneficial in radiotherapy context. Also, it was speculated whether the addition of elements with high thermal neutron cross section to the target material may or may not boost the locally deposited energy from...

  6. Induction of associative olfactory memory by targeted activation of single olfactory neurons in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2014-04-25

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by ChR2-mediated optical activation of a specific class of olfactory neurons. We show that targeted activation of the olfactory receptor and the octopaminergic neurons is indeed sufficient for the formation of associative olfactory memory in the larval brain. We also show that targeted stimulation of only a single type of olfactory receptor neurons is sufficient to induce olfactory memory that is indistinguishable from natural memory induced by the activation of multiple olfactory receptor neurons.

  7. The "curved lead pathway" method to enable a single lead to reach any two intracranial targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chen-Yu; Yu, Liang-Hong; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Chen, Fan; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Kang, De-Zhi

    2017-01-11

    Deep brain stimulation is an effective way to treat movement disorders, and a powerful research tool for exploring brain functions. This report proposes a "curved lead pathway" method for lead implantation, such that a single lead can reach in sequence to any two intracranial targets. A new type of stereotaxic system for implanting a curved lead to the brain of human/primates was designed, the auxiliary device needed for this method to be used in rat/mouse was fabricated and verified in rat, and the Excel algorithm used for automatically calculating the necessary parameters was implemented. This "curved lead pathway" method of lead implantation may complement the current method, make lead implantation for multiple targets more convenient, and expand the experimental techniques of brain function research.

  8. Inter- and Intrafraction Target Motion in Highly Focused Single Vocal Cord Irradiation of T1a Larynx Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwa, Stefan L.S., E-mail: s.kwa@erasmusmc.nl; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Osman, Sarah O.S.; Gangsaas, Anne; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to verify clinical target volume–planning target volume (CTV-PTV) margins in single vocal cord irradiation (SVCI) of T1a larynx tumors and characterize inter- and intrafraction target motion. Methods and Materials: For 42 patients, a single vocal cord was irradiated using intensity modulated radiation therapy at a total dose of 58.1 Gy (16 fractions × 3.63 Gy). A daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan was performed to online correct the setup of the thyroid cartilage after patient positioning with in-room lasers (interfraction motion correction). To monitor intrafraction motion, CBCT scans were also acquired just after patient repositioning and after dose delivery. A mixed online-offline setup correction protocol (“O2 protocol”) was designed to compensate for both inter- and intrafraction motion. Results: Observed interfraction, systematic (Σ), and random (σ) setup errors in left-right (LR), craniocaudal (CC), and anteroposterior (AP) directions were 0.9, 2.0, and 1.1 mm and 1.0, 1.6, and 1.0 mm, respectively. After correction of these errors, the following intrafraction movements derived from the CBCT acquired after dose delivery were: Σ = 0.4, 1.3, and 0.7 mm, and σ = 0.8, 1.4, and 0.8 mm. More than half of the patients showed a systematic non-zero intrafraction shift in target position, (ie, the mean intrafraction displacement over the treatment fractions was statistically significantly different from zero; P<.05). With the applied CTV-PTV margins (for most patients 3, 5, and 3 mm in LR, CC, and AP directions, respectively), the minimum CTV dose, estimated from the target displacements observed in the last CBCT, was at least 94% of the prescribed dose for all patients and more than 98% for most patients (37 of 42). The proposed O2 protocol could effectively reduce the systematic intrafraction errors observed after dose delivery to almost zero (Σ = 0.1, 0.2, 0.2 mm). Conclusions: With

  9. Single-Labeled Oligonucleotides Showing Fluorescence Changes upon Hybridization with Target Nucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Tae Hwang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-specific detection of nucleic acids has been intensively studied in the field of molecular diagnostics. In particular, the detection and analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is crucial for the identification of disease-causing genes and diagnosis of diseases. Sequence-specific hybridization probes, such as molecular beacons bearing the fluorophore and quencher at both ends of the stem, have been developed to enable DNA mutation detection. Interestingly, DNA mutations can be detected using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes with only one fluorophore. This review summarizes recent research on single-labeled oligonucleotide probes that exhibit fluorescence changes after encountering target nucleic acids, such as guanine-quenching probes, cyanine-containing probes, probes containing a fluorophore-labeled base, and microenvironment-sensitive probes.

  10. Copper matrix composites as heat sink materials for water-cooled divertor target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ha You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent high heat flux (HHF qualification tests of ITER divertor target mock-ups and the preliminary design studies of DEMO divertor target, the performance of CuCrZr alloy, the baseline heat sink material for DEMO divertor, seems to only marginally cover the envisaged operation regime. The structural integrity of the CuCrZr heat sink was shown to be affected by plastic fatigue at 20 MW/m². The relatively high neutron irradiation dose expected for the DEMO divertor target is another serious concern, as it would cause significant embrittlement below 250 °C or irradiation creep above 350 °C. Hence, an advanced design concept of the divertor target needs to be devised for DEMO in order to enhance the HHF performance so that the structural design criteria are fulfilled for full operation scenarios including slow transients. The biggest potential lies in copper-matrix composite materials for the heat sink. In this article, three promising Cu-matrix composite materials are reviewed in terms of thermal, mechanical and HHF performance as structural heat sink materials. The considered candidates are W particle-reinforced, W wire-reinforced and SiC fiber-reinforced Cu matrix composites. The comprehensive results of recent studies on fabrication technology, design concepts, materials properties and the HHF performance of mock-ups are presented. Limitations and challenges are discussed.

  11. Self-aligned optical couplings by self-organized waveguides toward luminescent targets in organic/inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tetsuzo; Iida, Makoto; Nawata, Hideyuki

    2014-06-15

    Self-organization of optical waveguides is observed between two opposed optical fibers placed in a photosensitive organic/inorganic hybrid material, Sunconnect. A luminescent target containing coumarin 481 was deposited onto the edge of one of the two fibers at the core. When a 448-nm write beam was introduced from the other fiber, the write beam and the luminescence from the photoexcited target increased the refractive index of Sunconnect to induce self-focusing. Traces of waveguides were seen to grow from the cores of both fibers and merged into a single self-aligned optical coupling between the fibers. This optical solder functionality enabled increases in both coupling efficiency and tolerance to lateral misalignment of the fibers.

  12. A Theoretical Study of a Novel Single-Electron Refrigerator Fabricated from Semiconductor Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Hiroya; Salleh, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel single-electron refrigerator (SER) that can be fabricated from semiconductor materials such as a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The SER consists of a single-electron box and a single-electron pump (SEP). An equivalent circuit of the SEP refrigerator was derived. Its stability diagram (Coulomb diamond) was theoretically calculated and found to have a distorted honeycomb structure. In addition, a Monte Carlo simulation based on the orthodox theory for the Coulomb blockade phenom...

  13. Behavior of structural and target materials irradiated in spallation neutron environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, J.F. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Wechsler, M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Borden, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes considerations for selection of structural and target materials for accelerator-driven neutron sources. Due to the operating constraints of proposed accelerator-driven neutron sources, the criteria for selection are different than those commonly applied to fission and fusion systems. Established irradiation performance of various alloy systems is taken into account in the selection criteria. Nevertheless, only limited materials performance data are available which specifically related to neutron energy spectra anticipated for spallation sources.

  14. Single fraction radiosurgery using Rapid Arc for treatment of intracranial targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Hendrik A; Wagner, Daniela M; Christiansen, Hans; Hess, Clemens F; Vorwerk, Hilke

    2010-01-01

    Stereotactic-Radio-Surgery (SRS) using Conformal-Arc-Therapy (CAT) is a well established irradiation technique for treatment of intracranial targets. Although small safety margins are required because of very high accuracy of patient positioning and exact online localisation, there are still disadvantages like long treatment time, high number of monitor units (MU) and covering of noncircular targets. This planning study analysed whether Rapid Arc (RA) with stereotactic localisation for single-fraction SRS can solve these problems. Ten consecutive patients were treated with Linac-based SRS. Eight patients had one or more brain metastases. The other patients presented a symptomatic vestibularis schwannoma and an atypic meningeoma. For all patients, two plans (CAT/RA) were calculated and analysed. Conformity was higher for RA with additional larger low-dose areas. Furthermore, RA reduced the number of MU and the treatment time for all patients. Dose to organs at risk were equal or slightly higher using RA in comparison to CAT. RA provides a new alternative for single-fraction SRS irradiation combining advantages of short treatment time with lower number of MU and better conformity in addition to accuracy of stereotactic localisation in selected cases with uncomplicated clinical realization

  15. A Synthetic Biology Project - Developing a single-molecule device for screening drug-target interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Keith; Evans, Luke; Youell, James

    2012-07-16

    This review describes a European-funded project in the area of Synthetic Biology. The project seeks to demonstrate the application of engineering techniques and methodologies to the design and construction of a biosensor for detecting drug-target interactions at the single-molecule level. Production of the proteins required for the system followed the principle of previously described "bioparts" concepts (a system where a database of biological parts - promoters, genes, terminators, linking tags and cleavage sequences - is used to construct novel gene assemblies) and cassette-type assembly of gene expression systems (the concept of linking different "bioparts" to produce functional "cassettes"), but problems were quickly identified with these approaches. DNA substrates for the device were also constructed using a cassette-system. Finally, micro-engineering was used to build a magnetoresistive Magnetic Tweezer device for detection of single molecule DNA modifying enzymes (motors), while the possibility of constructing a Hall Effect version of this device was explored. The device is currently being used to study helicases from Plasmodium as potential targets for anti-malarial drugs, but we also suggest other potential uses for the device. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Metal (Hydr)oxides@Polymer Core-Shell Strategy to Metal Single-Atom Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; Wang, Yang-Gang; Chen, Wenxing; Dong, Juncai; Zheng, Lirong; Luo, Jun; Wan, Jiawei; Tian, Shubo; Cheong, Weng-Chon; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2017-08-16

    Preparing metal single-atom materials is currently attracting tremendous attention and remains a significant challenge. Herein, we report a novel core-shell strategy to synthesize single-atom materials. In this strategy, metal hydroxides or oxides are coated with polymers, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis and acid leaching, metal single atoms are anchored on the inner wall of hollow nitrogen-doped carbon (CN) materials. By changing metal precursors or polymers, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of different metal single atoms dispersed on CN materials (SA-M/CN, M = Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, FeCo, FeNi, etc.). Interestingly, the obtained SA-Fe/CN exhibits much higher catalytic activity for hydroxylation of benzene to phenol than Fe nanoparticles/CN (45% vs 5% benzene conversion). First-principle calculations further reveal that the high reactivity originates from the easier formation of activated oxygen species at the single Fe site. Our methodology provides a convenient route to prepare a variety of metal single-atom materials representing a new class of catalysts.

  17. Intraoperative Boost Radiotherapy during Targeted Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: Overview and Single Center Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Malter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast-conserving surgery followed by whole-breast irradiation is the standard local therapy for early breast cancer. The international discussion of reduced importance of wider tumor-free resection margins than “tumor not touching ink” leads to the development of five principles in targeted oncoplastic breast surgery. IORT improves local recurrence risk and diminishes toxicity since there is less irradiation of healthy tissue. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT can be delivered in two settings: an IORT boost followed by a conventional regimen of external beam radiotherapy or a single IORT dose. The data from TARGIT-A and ELIOT reinforce the conviction that intraoperative radiotherapy during breast-conserving surgery is a reliable alternative to conventional postoperative fractionated irradiation, but only in a carefully selected population at low risk of local recurrence. We describe our experiences with IORT boost (50 kV energy X-rays; 20 Gy in combination with targeted oncoplastic breast surgery in a routine clinical setting. Our experiences demonstrate the applicability and reliability of combining IORT boost with targeted oncoplastic breast surgery in breast-conserving therapy of early breast cancer.

  18. A Theoretical Study of a Novel Single-Electron Refrigerator Fabricated from Semiconductor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroya; Salleh, Faiz

    2011-06-01

    We propose a novel single-electron refrigerator (SER) that can be fabricated from semiconductor materials such as a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The SER consists of a single-electron box and a single-electron pump (SEP). An equivalent circuit of the SEP refrigerator was derived. Its stability diagram (Coulomb diamond) was theoretically calculated and found to have a distorted honeycomb structure. In addition, a Monte Carlo simulation based on the orthodox theory for the Coulomb blockade phenomenon predicts successful single-electron extraction and injection.

  19. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  20. Exposure to carbon nanotube material: aerosol release during the handling of unrefined single-walled carbon nanotube material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D; Baron, Paul A; Foley, Michael; Shvedova, Anna A; Kisin, Elena R; Castranova, Vincent

    2004-01-09

    Carbon nanotubes represent a relatively recently discovered allotrope of carbon that exhibits unique properties. While commercial interest in the material is leading to the development of mass production and handling facilities, little is known of the risk associated with exposure. In a two-part study, preliminary investigations have been carried out into the potential exposure routes and toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotube material (SWCNT)--a specific form of the allotrope. The material is characterized by bundles of fibrous carbon molecules that may be a few nanometers in diameter, but micrometers in length. The two production processes investigated use-transition metal catalysts, leading to the inclusion of nanometer-scale metallic particles within unrefined SWCNT material. A laboratory-based study was undertaken to evaluate the physical nature of the aerosol formed from SWCNT during mechanical agitation. This was complemented by a field study in which airborne and dermal exposure to SWCNT was investigated while handling unrefined material. Although laboratory studies indicated that with sufficient agitation, unrefined SWCNT material can release fine particles into the air, concentrations generated while handling material in the field were very low. Estimates of the airborne concentration of nanotube material generated during handling suggest that concentrations were lower than 53 microg/m(3) in all cases. Glove deposits of SWCNT during handling were estimated at between 0.2 mg and 6 mg per hand.

  1. An analysis of health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers: Off target and too complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeijinga, Anniek; Hoeken, Hans; Sanders, José

    2017-01-01

    Despite various health promotion initiatives, unfavorable figures regarding Dutch truck drivers' eating behaviors, exercise behaviors, and absenteeism have not improved. The aim was to obtain a better understanding of the low level of effectiveness of current health interventions for Dutch truck drivers by examining to what extent these are tailored to the target group's particular mindset (focus of content) and health literacy skills (presentation of content). The article analyzes 21 health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers using a two-step approach: (a) an analysis of the materials' focus, guided by the Health Action Process Approach; and (b) an argumentation analysis, guided by pragma-dialectics. The corpus analysis revealed: (a) a predominant focus on the motivation phase; and (b) in line with the aim of motivating the target group, a consistent use of pragmatic arguments, which were typically presented in an implicit way. The results indicate that existing health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers are not sufficiently tailored to the target group's mindset and health literacy skills. Recommendations are offered to develop more tailored/effective health interventions targeting this high-risk, underserved occupational group.

  2. Assessment of candidates for target window material in accelerator-driven molybdenum-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strons, Philip [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    NorthStar Medical Technologies is pursuing production of an important medical isotope, Mo-99, through a photo-nuclear reaction of a Mo-100 target using a high-power electron accelerator. The current target utilizes an Inconel 718 window. The purpose of this study was to evaluate other candidate materials for the target window, which separates the high-pressure helium gas inside the target from the vacuum inside the accelerator beamline and is subjected to significant stress. Our initial analysis assessed the properties (density, thermal conductivity, maximum stress, minimum window thickness, maximum temperature, and figure of merit) for a range of materials, from which the three most promising were chosen: Inconel 718, 250 maraging steel, and standard-grade beryllium. These materials were subjected to further analysis to determine the effects of thermal and mechanical strain versus beam power at varying thicknesses. Both beryllium and the maraging steel were calculated to withstand more than twice as high beam power than Inconel 718.

  3. Proceedings of JSPS-CAS core university program seminar on target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Z.Z.; Norimatsu, T.

    2008-02-01

    China-Japan Bilateral Collaboration on the Study of Ultrahigh Density Plasma has been established since 2001 and its second phase is conducting from 2006. Target materials are key issue of the Study of Ultrahigh Density Plasma, and the second of target fabrication was opened at the 2005 Workshop on Ultrahigh Density Plasma Production, Application and theory for Laser Fusion at Nine Village Valley, Sichuan. It achieved great successes in high-level academic exchange and efficient presentation of state-of-the-art development in this research field. However, in order to attract greater attention and participation of more scientists in these fields, the organizing committee decided to further specify and enlarge the scale of the workshop to be China-Japan Bilateral Seminar on Target Materials 2007 in Huang Shan in southern Anhui Province of east China. The seminar had more than 20 participants from 7 universities and 3 institutes in Japan and China. They exchanged state-of-the-art development in nanomaterials, capsule fabrication and low density materials toward target of high power laser. This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the seminar. The 17 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Transverse target single-spin asymmetry in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Argentina); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (Germany)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Collaboration

    2013-10-15

    Single-spin asymmetries were investigated in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons from transversely polarized protons at the HERMES experiment. The asymmetries were studied as a function of the azimuthal angle {psi} about the beam direction between the target-spin direction and the hadron production plane, the transverse hadron momentum P{sub T} relative to the direction of the incident beam, and the Feynman variable x{sub F}. The sin {psi} amplitudes are positive for {pi}{sup +} and K{sup +}, slightly negative for {pi}{sup -} consistent with zero for K{sup -}, with particular P{sub T} but weak x{sub F} dependences. Especially large asymmetries are observed for two small subsamples of events, where also the scattered electron was recorded by the spectrometer.

  5. Design of thermostable rhamnogalacturonan lyase mutants from Bacillus licheniformis by combination of targeted single point mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Ines Isabel Cardoso Rodrigues; Jers, Carsten; Otten, Harm

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan I lyases (RGI lyases) (EC 4.2.2.-) catalyze cleavage of α-1,4 bonds between rhamnose and galacturonic acid in the backbone of pectins by β-elimination. In the present study, targeted improvement of the thermostability of a PL family 11 RGI lyase from Bacillus licheniformis (DSM...... the wild-type RGI lyase in Bacillus subtilis as opposed to in Pichia pastoris; this effect is suggested to be a negative result of glycosylation of the P. pastoris expressed enzyme. A ~ twofold improvement in thermal stability at 60 °C, accompanied by less significant increases in Tm of the enzyme mutants......, were obtained due to additive stabilizing effects of single amino acid mutations (E434L, G55V, and G326E) compared to the wild type. The crystal structure of the B. licheniformis wild-type RGI lyase was also determined; the structural analysis corroborated that especially mutation of charged amino...

  6. A single gene target of an ETS-family transcription factor determines neuronal CO2-chemosensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia P Brandt

    Full Text Available Many animals possess neurons specialized for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO(2, which acts as a cue to elicit behavioral responses and is also an internally generated product of respiration that regulates animal physiology. In many organisms how such neurons detect CO(2 is poorly understood. We report here a mechanism that endows C. elegans neurons with the ability to detect CO(2. The ETS-5 transcription factor is necessary for the specification of CO(2-sensing BAG neurons. Expression of a single ETS-5 target gene, gcy-9, which encodes a receptor-type guanylate cyclase, is sufficient to bypass a requirement for ets-5 in CO(2-detection and transforms neurons into CO(2-sensing neurons. Because ETS-5 and GCY-9 are members of gene families that are conserved between nematodes and vertebrates, a similar mechanism might act in the specification of CO(2-sensing neurons in other phyla.

  7. Transverse target single-spin asymmetry in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, 00-689 Warsaw (Poland); Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Avetisyan, E. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Belostotski, S. [K.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188300 Leningrad Region (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Borissov, A. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bowles, J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bryzgalov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, 142281 Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Burns, J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Capiluppi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, G.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cisbani, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, Gruppo Collegato Sanità and Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-01-20

    Single-spin asymmetries were investigated in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons from transversely polarized protons at the HERMES experiment. The asymmetries were studied as a function of the azimuthal angle ψ about the beam direction between the target-spin direction and the hadron production plane, the transverse hadron momentum P{sub T} relative to the direction of the incident beam, and the Feynman variable x{sub F}. The sin ψ amplitudes are positive for π{sup +} and K{sup +}, slightly negative for π{sup −} and consistent with zero for K{sup −}, with particular P{sub T} but weak x{sub F} dependences. Especially large asymmetries are observed for two small subsamples of events, where also the scattered electron was recorded by the spectrometer.

  8. Nuclear microbeam analysis of ICF target material made by GDP technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, C.; He, X. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Meng, J., E-mail: eleanor920@163.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621000 (China); Gao, D. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621000 (China); Zhang, Y.; Li, X.; Lyu, H.; Zhu, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zheng, Y. [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); Wang, X. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Germanium doped carbon–hydrogen polymer (CH) by Glow Discharge Polymer (GDP) technique has become the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target material. The nondestructive measurement of elements content in the ICF target has become a significant work in recent years. This paper presents the compositional and distributional results of the Germanium doped CH analysis. The Ge doped CH materials as thin film and as hollow sphere were investigated by the Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) combined with the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). The samples are thin film with 36 μm thickness and ICF target with 500–2000 μm diameter. The calibration and geometrical arrangement in the analysis of spherical target should be carefully considered in order to acquire accurate results. In the work, the uniformity of the sphere is shown and the ratio of carbon, hydrogen and germanium has been measured. The ratio values are in good agreement with the results obtained by the combustion method. In addition, the difference of the composition from thin film to hollow sphere is also discussed. This work demonstrates that nuclear microbeam analysis is an ideal method to evaluate the ICF target quality.

  9. Supplementary Material for: DASPfind: new efficient method to predict drug–target interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ba Alawi, Wail

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Identification of novel drug–target interactions (DTIs) is important for drug discovery. Experimental determination of such DTIs is costly and time consuming, hence it necessitates the development of efficient computational methods for the accurate prediction of potential DTIs. To-date, many computational methods have been proposed for this purpose, but they suffer the drawback of a high rate of false positive predictions. Results Here, we developed a novel computational DTI prediction method, DASPfind. DASPfind uses simple paths of particular lengths inferred from a graph that describes DTIs, similarities between drugs, and similarities between the protein targets of drugs. We show that on average, over the four gold standard DTI datasets, DASPfind significantly outperforms other existing methods when the single top-ranked predictions are considered, resulting in 46.17 % of these predictions being correct, and it achieves 49.22 % correct single top ranked predictions when the set of all DTIs for a single drug is tested. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our method is best suited for predicting DTIs in cases of drugs with no known targets or with few known targets. We also show the practical use of DASPfind by generating novel predictions for the Ion Channel dataset and validating them manually. Conclusions DASPfind is a computational method for finding reliable new interactions between drugs and proteins. We show over six different DTI datasets that DASPfind outperforms other state-of-the-art methods when the single top-ranked predictions are considered, or when a drug with no known targets or with few known targets is considered. We illustrate the usefulness and practicality of DASPfind by predicting novel DTIs for the Ion Channel dataset. The validated predictions suggest that DASPfind can be used as an efficient method to identify correct DTIs, thus reducing the cost of necessary experimental verifications in the process of drug discovery

  10. Natural material-decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticle container for multifunctional membrane-controlled targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Y

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yan Hu,1 Lei Ke,2 Hao Chen,1 Ma Zhuo,1 Xinzhou Yang,1 Dan Zhao,1 Suying Zeng,1 Xincai Xiao1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To avoid the side effects caused by nonspecific targeting, premature release, weak selectivity, and poor therapeutic efficacy of current nanoparticle-based systems used for drug delivery, we fabricated natural material-decorated nanoparticles as a multifunctional, membrane-controlled targeted drug delivery system. The nanocomposite material coated with a membrane was biocompatible and integrated both specific tumor targeting and responsiveness to stimulation, which improved transmission efficacy and controlled drug release. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs, which are known for their biocompatibility and high drug-loading capacity, were selected as a model drug container and carrier. The membrane was established by the polyelectrolyte composite method from chitosan (CS which was sensitive to the acidic tumor microenvironment, folic acid-modified CS which recognizes the folate receptor expressed on the tumor cell surface, and a CD44 receptor-targeted polysaccharide hyaluronic acid. We characterized the structure of the nanocomposite as well as the drug release behavior under the control of the pH-sensitive membrane switch and evaluated the antitumor efficacy of the system in vitro. Our results provide a basis for the design and fabrication of novel membrane-controlled nanoparticles with improved tumor-targeting therapy. Keywords: multifunctional, membrane-controlled, natural materials, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, targeted drug delivery

  11. Recycling issues facing target and RTL materials of inertial fusion designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Sawan, M.; Henderson, D.; Varuttamaseni, A.

    2005-01-01

    Designers of heavy ion (HI) and Z-pinch inertial fusion power plants have explored the potential of recycling the target and recyclable transmission line (RTL) materials as an alternate option to disposal in a geological repository. This work represents the first time a comprehensive recycling assessment was performed on both machines with an exact pulse history. Our results offer two divergent conclusions on the recycling issue. For the HI concept, target recycling is not a 'must' requirement and the preferred option is the one-shot use scenario as target materials represent a small waste stream, less than 1% of the total nuclear island waste. We recommend using low-cost hohlraum materials once-through and then disposing of them instead of recycling expensive materials such as Au and Gd. On the contrary, RTL recycling is a 'must' requirement for the Z-pinch concept in order to minimize the RTL inventory and enhance the economics. The RTLs meet the low level waste and recycling dose requirements with a wide margin when recycled for the entire plant life even without a cooling period. While recycling offers advantages to the Z-pinch system, it adds complexity and cost to the HI designs

  12. Field Geometric Calibration Method for Line Structured Light Sensor Using Single Circular Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve fast calibration of line structured light sensor, a geometric calibration approach based on single circular calibration target is proposed. The proposed method uses the circular points to establish linear equations, and according to the angle constraint, the camera intrinsic parameters can be calculated through optimization. Then, the light plane calibration is accomplished in two steps. Firstly, when the vanishing lines of target plane at various postures are obtained, the intersections between vanishing lines and laser stripe can be computed, and the normal vector of light plane can be calibrated via line fitting method using intersection points. After that, the distance from the origin of camera coordinate system to the light plane can be derived based on the model of perspective-three-point. The actual experimental result shows that this calibration method has high accuracy, its average measuring accuracy is 0.0451 mm, and relative error is 0.2314%. In addition, the entire calibration process has no complex operations. It is simple, convenient, and suitable for calibration on sites.

  13. Plasmonic welded single walled carbon nanotubes on monolayer graphene for sensing target protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jangheon; Kim, Soohyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gi Gyu; Jung, Wonsuk, E-mail: wonsuk81@wku.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-16

    We developed plasmonic welded single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on monolayer graphene as a biosensor to detect target antigen molecules, fc fusion protein without any treatment to generate binder groups for linker and antibody. This plasmonic welding induces atomic networks between SWCNTs as junctions containing carboxylic groups and improves the electrical sensitivity of a SWCNTs and the graphene membrane to detect target protein. We investigated generation of the atomic networks between SWCNTs by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy after plasmonic welding process. We compared the intensity ratios of D to G peaks from the Raman spectra and electrical sheet resistance of welded SWCNTs with the results of normal SWCNTs, which decreased from 0.115 to 0.086 and from 10.5 to 4.12, respectively. Additionally, we measured the drain current via source/drain voltage after binding of the antigen to the antibody molecules. This electrical sensitivity of the welded SWCNTs was 1.55 times larger than normal SWCNTs.

  14. Single-Domain Antibodies and the Promise of Modular Targeting in Cancer Imaging and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Iezzi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments have significantly changed the outcome of cancer in the clinic, effectively inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, triggering antibody-dependent immune effector cell activation and complement mediated cell death. Along with a continued expansion in number, diversity, and complexity of validated tumor targets there is an increasing focus on engineering recombinant antibody fragments for lead development. Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs, in particular those engineered from the variable heavy-chain fragment (VHH gene found in Camelidae heavy-chain antibodies (or IgG2 and IgG3, are the smallest fragments that retain the full antigen-binding capacity of the antibody with advantageous properties as drugs. For similar reasons, growing attention is being paid to the yet smaller variable heavy chain new antigen receptor (VNAR fragments found in Squalidae. sdAbs have been selected, mostly from immune VHH libraries, to inhibit or modulate enzyme activity, bind soluble factors, internalize cell membrane receptors, or block cytoplasmic targets. This succinct review is a compilation of recent data documenting the application of engineered, recombinant sdAb in the clinic as epitope recognition “modules” to build monomeric, dimeric and multimeric ligands that target, tag and stall solid tumor growth in vivo. Size, affinity, specificity, and the development profile of sdAbs drugs are seemingly consistent with desirable clinical efficacy and safety requirements. But the hepatotoxicity of the tetrameric anti-DR5-VHH drug in patients with pre-existing anti-drug antibodies halted the phase I clinical trial and called for a thorough pre-screening of the immune and poly-specific reactivities of the sdAb leads.

  15. Investigation of the particle size distribution of the ejected material generated during the single femtosecond laser pulse ablation of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Han; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, Xiaonong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Single 50 fs laser pulse ablation of an aluminium target in vacuum is investigated in our experiments. • Nanoparticles with large radii of several hundred nanometers are observed. • The nanoparticles are most likely from the mechanical tensile stress relaxation. - Abstract: Single femtosecond laser pulses are employed to ablate an aluminium target in vacuum, and the particle size distribution of the ablated material deposited on a mica substrate is examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The recorded AFM images show that these particles have a mean radius of several tens of nanometres. It is also determined that the mean radius of these deposited nanoparticles increases when the laser fluence at the aluminium target increases from 0.44 J/cm 2 to 0.63 J/cm 2 . The mechanism of the laser-induced nanoparticle generation is thought to be photomechanical tensile stress relaxation. Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm that the nanoparticles thus produced have the same structure as the bulk aluminium

  16. Experimental study of x-ray reemission from different material target heated by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Kexu; Yi Rongqing; Yang Jiamin; Wang Hongbin; Huang Tianxuan; Cui Yanli; Chen Jiusen; Ding Yaonan; Ding Yongkun

    1998-12-01

    Experiments to study the soft X-ray reemission properties from different material heated by the radiation produced by laser plasma are reported. Thermal source is performed with the laser pulse (intensity 10 14 W/cm 2 ) to act on Au disk target in Xing Guang laser facility, which heated different material. Temporal, spatial and spectral composition measurement is performed with varied soft X-ray diagnostic facilities. Finally, reemission time delay, reemission efficiency, reradiation spectrum construction and delay emission time-space properties of the stagnation plasma are given

  17. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)

  18. Preliminary results for HIP bonding Ta to W targets for the materials test station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maloy, Stuart A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten targets for the Materials Test Station (MTS) were clad with thin tantalum cover plates and a tantalum frame using hot isostatic pressing (HIP). A preliminary HIP parameter study showed good bonding and intimate mechanical contact for Ta cover plate thicknesses of 0.25 mm (0.010 inch) and 0.38 mm (0.015 inch). HIP temperatures of full HIP runs were 1500 C (2732 F). HIP pressure was 203 MPa (30 ksi).

  19. Integrated shape and material selection for single and multi-performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jasveer; Mirjalili, Vahid; Pasini, Damiano

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The method of shape transformers is extended to torsional stiffness and combined load design. → The method is generalized for multi-criteria selection of shape and material. → Performance charts are presented for single and multi-objective selection of cross-section shape and material. → A four quadrant performance chart is presented to visualize the relation between objective function space and design variable space. -- Abstract: A shape and material selection method, based on the concept of shape transformers, has been recently introduced to characterize the mass efficiency of lightweight beams under bending and shear. This paper extends this method to deal with the case of torsional stiffness design, and generalize it to single and multi-crieria selection of lightweight shafts subjected to a combination of bending, shear, and torsional load. The novel feature of the paper is the useful integration of shape and material to model and visualize multi-objective selection problems. The scheme is centered on concept selection in structural design, and hinges on measures that govern the shape properties of a cross-section regardless of its size. These measures, referred as shape transformers, can classify shapes in a way similar to material classification. The procedure is exemplified by considering torsional stiffness as a constraint. The performance charts are developed for single and multi-criteria to visualize in a glance the whole range of cross-sectional shapes for each material. Each design chart is explained with a brief example.

  20. Overview on materials and technological developments for the LMJ cryogenic target assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneaume, B.; Allegre, G.; Botrel, R.; Bourcier, H.; Bourdenet, R.; Breton, O.; Collier, R.; Dauteuil, C.; Durut, F.; Faivre, A.; Fleury, E.; Geoffray, I.; Geoffray, G.; Jeannot, L.; Jehanno, L.; Legaie, O.; Legay, G.; Meux, S.; Schunk, J.; Theobald, M.; Vasselin, C.; Perin, J.P.; Viargues, F.; Paquignon, G.

    2011-01-01

    The cryogenic target assemblies (CTAs) designed for Laser Megajoule (LMJ) experiments have many functions and have to meet severe specifications imposed by implosion physics, the CTA thermal environment, and the CTA interfaces with the Megajoule laser cryogenic target positioner. Therefore, CTA fabrication uses many challenging materials and requires several technological studies. During the last 2 years, many developments have enabled better collection of comprehensive data on target constitutive materials and improvements in the fabrication of the CTA base, hohlraum, and aluminum turret. Studies have been carried out (a) to better characterize thermal properties of materials allowing optimization of the thermal simulation of the hohlraum, (b) to improve the CTA base fabrication process in order optimize thermal studies of the LMJ experimental filling station (EFS), and (c) to determine coatings on the polyimide membrane that may limit the 300 K thermal effect on the micro-shell and increase the deuterium-tritium fuel lifetime. CTAs have been produced to evaluate fabrication knowledge, to characterize CTAs, to study air tightness, and to study filling and D 2 ice layering on the EFS. An overview of the results that have been obtained during the past 2 years is presented in this paper. (authors)

  1. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry using single grains of quartz extracted from unheated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerkov Thomsen, Kristina

    2004-02-01

    This work investigates the possibility of applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective dose determinations using unheated materials. It focuses on identifying materials suitable for use in assessment of doses absorbed as a consequence of radiation accidents (i.e. accident dosimetry). Special attention has been paid to quartz extracted from unheated building materials such as concrete and mortar. The single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol has been used to determine absorbed doses in small aliquots as well as single grains of quartz. It is shown that OSL measurements of single grains of quartz extracted from poorly-bleached building materials can provide useful information on radiation accident doses, even when the luminescence sensitivity is low. Sources of variance in well-bleached single grain dose distributions have been investigated in detail and it is concluded that the observed variability in the data is consistent with the sum (in quadrature) of a component, which depends on the number of photons detected from each grain, and a fixed component independent of light level. Dose depth profiles through laboratory irradiated concrete bricks have successfully been measured and minimum detection limits of less than 100 mGy are derived. Measurements of thermal transfer in single grains of poorly-bleached quartz show that thermal transfer is variable on a grain-to-grain basis and that it can be a source of variance in single-grain dose distributions. Furthermore, the potential of using common household and workplace chemicals, such as table salt, washing powder and water softener, in retrospective dosimetry has been investigated. It is concluded that such materials should be considered as retrospective dosimeters in the event of a radiation accident. (au)

  2. Neodymium and strontium isotopic study of Australasian tektites - New constraints on the provenance and age of target materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Joel D.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Koeberl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of Australasian tectites (including two flanged Australian tectites, two low-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites, and three high-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites) and the Nd, Sm, Sr, and Rb concentrations were investigated by isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry, and the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systematics were used to study the characteristics of the parental material. It is shown that the Nd and Sr isotopic data provide evidence that all Australasian tektites were derived from a single sedimentary formation with a narrow range of stratigraphic ages close to 170 Ma. It is suggested that all of the Australasian tektites were derived from a single impact event and that the australites represent the upper part of a melt sheet ejected at high velocity, whereas the indochinites represent melts formed at a lower level in the target material distributed closer to the area of the impact.

  3. The CERN antiproton target: hydrocode analysis of its core material dynamic response under proton beam impact

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Claudio Torregrosa; Calviani, Marco; Muñoz-Cobo, José-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Antiprotons are produced at CERN by colliding a 26 GeV/c proton beam with a fixed target made of a 3 mm diameter, 55 mm length iridium core. The inherent characteristics of antiproton production involve extremely high energy depositions inside the target when impacted by each primary proton beam, making it one of the most dynamically demanding among high energy solid targets in the world, with a rise temperature above 2000 {\\deg}C after each pulse impact and successive dynamic pressure waves of the order of GPa's. An optimized redesign of the current target is foreseen for the next 20 years of operation. As a first step in the design procedure, this numerical study delves into the fundamental phenomena present in the target material core under proton pulse impact and subsequent pressure wave propagation by the use of hydrocodes. Three major phenomena have been identified, (i) the dominance of a high frequency radial wave which produces destructive compressive-to-tensile pressure response (ii) The existence of...

  4. Spallation reactions and energy deposition in heavy target materials comparison of measurements and MC-calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Enke, M.; Galin, J.

    2001-01-01

    A renascence of interest for energetic proton induced production of neutrons originates recently by the inception of new projects for target stations of intense spallation neutron sources (like the planned European Spallation Source ESS), accelerator-driven nuclear reactors, nuclear waste transmutation and also the application for radioactive beams. Here we verify the predictive power of transport codes currently on the market by confronting observables and quantities of interest with an exhaustive matrix of benchmark data essentially coming from two experiments being performed at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at Juelich. Program packages like HERMES, LCS or MCNPX master the prevision of reaction cross sections, hadronic interaction lengths, averaged neutron multiplicities and neutron multiplicity distributions in thick and thin(!) targets for a wide spectrum of incident proton energies, geometrical shapes and materials of the target. While also the observables related to the energy deposition in thick targets are in a good agreement with the model predictions, the production cross section measurements however for light charged particles on thin targets point out that problems exist within these models. (author)

  5. CERN antiproton target: Hydrocode analysis of its core material dynamic response under proton beam impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Torregrosa Martin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiprotons are produced at CERN by colliding a 26  GeV/c proton beam with a fixed target made of a 3 mm diameter, 55 mm length iridium core. The inherent characteristics of antiproton production involve extremely high energy depositions inside the target when impacted by each primary proton beam, making it one of the most dynamically demanding among high energy solid targets in the world, with a rise temperature above 2000 °C after each pulse impact and successive dynamic pressure waves of the order of GPa’s. An optimized redesign of the current target is foreseen for the next 20 years of operation. As a first step in the design procedure, this numerical study delves into the fundamental phenomena present in the target material core under proton pulse impact and subsequent pressure wave propagation by the use of hydrocodes. Three major phenomena have been identified, (i the dominance of a high frequency radial wave which produces destructive compressive-to-tensile pressure response (ii The existence of end-of-pulse tensile waves and its relevance on the overall response (iii A reduction of 44% in tensile pressure could be obtained by the use of a high density tantalum cladding.

  6. Learning Effectiveness and Cognitive Loads in Instructional Materials of Programming Language on Single and Dual Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jenq-Muh; Chang, Ting-Wen; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    The teaching and learning environment in a traditional classroom typically includes a projection screen, a projector, and a computer within a digital interactive table. Instructors may apply multimedia learning materials using various information communication technologies to increase interaction effects. However, a single screen only displays a…

  7. Single cells for forensic DNA analysis--from evidence material to test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Simon; Evers, Heidrun; Heidorn, Frank; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a method that, while providing morphological quality control, allows single cells to be obtained from the surfaces of various evidence materials and be made available for DNA analysis in cases where only small amounts of cell material are present or where only mixed traces are found. With the SteREO Lumar.V12 stereomicroscope and UV unit from Zeiss, it was possible to detect and assess single epithelial cells on the surfaces of various objects (e.g., glass, plastic, metal). A digitally operated micromanipulator developed by aura optik was used to lift a single cell from the surface of evidence material and to transfer it to a conventional PCR tube or to an AmpliGrid(®) from Advalytix. The actual lifting of the cells was performed with microglobes that acted as carriers. The microglobes were held with microtweezers and were transferred to the DNA analysis receptacles along with the adhering cells. In a next step, the PCR can be carried out in this receptacle without removing the microglobe. Our method allows a single cell to be isolated directly from evidence material and be made available for forensic DNA analysis. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Evaluation of undoped ZnS single crystal materials for x-ray imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muad; Lynn, Kelvin G.; McCloy, John S.

    2017-05-01

    ZnS-based materials have a long history of use as x-ray luminescent materials. ZnS was one of the first discovered scintillators and is reported to have one of the highest scintillator efficiencies. The use of ZnS for high energy luminescence has been thus far limited to thin powder screens, such as ZnS:Ag which is used for detecting alpha radiation, due to opacity to its scintillation light, primarily due to scattering. ZnS in bulk form (chemical vapor deposited, powder processed, and single crystal) has high transmission and low scattering compared to powder screens. In this paper, the performance of single crystalline ZnS is evaluated for low energy x-ray (PLE) of several undoped ZnS single crystals is compared to their Radioluminescence (RL) spectra. It was found that the ZnS emission wavelength varies on the excitation source energy.

  9. Physical aspects of the pulsed laser deposition technique: The stoichiometric transfer of material from target to film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    The physical processes of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) change strongly from the initial light absorption in a target to the final deposition and growth of a film. One of the primary advantages of PLD is the stoichiometric transfer of material from target to a film on a substrate. Even...... for a stoichiometric flow of material from a multicomponent target, the simultaneous arrival of the target atoms is not sufficient to ensure a stoichiometric film growth. The laser fluence has to be sufficiently high to induce ablation rather than pure evaporation from target, but a high fluence may lead...

  10. Happy eating: the single target implicit association test predicts overeating after positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita; Houben, Katrijn; Roefs, Anne

    2013-08-01

    For many years, questionnaires have been considered the standard when examining emotional eating behavior. However, recently, some controversy has arisen about these questionnaires, and their usefulness in identifying emotional eaters has been questioned. The current study aimed to investigate the Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) as a measure of emotional eating. Two ST-IATs (assessing food-positive and food-negative associations respectively) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) were compared in undergraduate students. A positive, negative or neutral mood was induced by means of a film clip, and milkshake consumption was measured during and after the mood induction. It was hypothesized that participants with strong emotion-food associations on the ST-IATs (i.e., IAT-emotional eaters) would consume more food in the emotion induction condition corresponding to that emotion, as compared to those with weak emotion-food associations as well as to those in the neutral condition. Participants who scored high on both the positive and negative ST-IATs ate more during a positive mood induction than during a negative mood induction. This effect did not extend to milkshake consumption after the mood induction procedure. In addition, IAT-positive emotional eaters consumed more food than IAT-non-emotional eaters. No effects of the DEBQ on milkshake consumption were found. It is concluded that the ST-IAT has potential as a measure of emotional eating. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilizing Retinotopic Mapping for a Multi-Target SSVEP BCI With a Single Flicker Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Alexander; Zhang, Dan; Engel, Andreas K

    2017-07-01

    In brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that use the steady-state visual evoked response (SSVEP), the user selects a control command by directing attention overtly or covertly to one out of several flicker stimuli. The different control channels are encoded in the frequency, phase, or time domain of the flicker signals. Here, we present a new type of SSVEP BCI, which uses only a single flicker stimulus and yet affords controlling multiple channels. The approach rests on the observation that the relative position between the stimulus and the foci of overt attention result in distinct topographies of the SSVEP response on the scalp. By classifying these topographies, the computer can determine at which position the user is gazing. Offline data analysis in a study on 12 healthy volunteers revealed that 9 targets can be recognized with about 95±3% accuracy, corresponding to an information transfer rate (ITR) of 40.8 ± 3.3 b/min on average. We explored how the classification accuracy is affected by the number of control channels, the trial length, and the number of EEG channels. Our findings suggest that the EEG data from five channels over parieto-occipital brain areas are sufficient for reliably classifying the topographies and that there is a large potential to improve the ITR by optimizing the trial length. The robust performance and the simple stimulation setup suggest that this approach is a prime candidate for applications on desktop and tablet computers.

  12. Targeting single-walled carbon nanotubes for the treatment of breast cancer using photothermal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Luís F F; Krais, John J; Van Rite, Brent D; Harrison, Roger G; Ramesh, Rajagopal; Resasco, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the targeting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for the treatment of breast cancer with minimal side effects using photothermal therapy. The human protein annexin V (AV) binds specifically to anionic phospholipids expressed externally on the surface of tumour cells and endothelial cells that line the tumour vasculature. A 2 h incubation of the SWNT-AV conjugate with proliferating endothelial cells followed by washing and near-infrared (NIR) irradiation at a wavelength of 980 nm was enough to induce significant cell death; there was no significant cell death with irradiation or the conjugate alone. Administration of the same conjugate i.v. in BALB/c female mice with implanted 4T1 murine mammary at a dose of 0.8 mg SWNT kg −1 and followed one day later by NIR irradiation of the tumour at a wavelength of 980 nm led to complete disappearance of implanted 4T1 mouse mammary tumours for the majority of the animals by 11 days since the irradiation. The combination of the photothermal therapy with the immunoadjuvant cyclophosphamide resulted in increased survival. The in vivo results suggest the SWNT-AV/NIR treatment is a promising approach to treat breast cancer. (paper)

  13. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  14. Linking Single Domain Antibodies that Recognize Different Epitopes on the Same Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. Goldman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Single domain antibodies (sdAb are the recombinantly expressed variable regions from the heavy-chain-only antibodies found in camelids and sharks. SdAb are able to bind antigens with high affinity, and most are capable of refolding after heat or chemical denaturation to bind antigen again. Starting with our previously isolated ricin binding sdAb determined to bind to four non-overlapping epitopes, we constructed a series of sdAb pairs, which were genetically linked through peptides of different length. We designed the series so that the sdAb are linked in both orientations with respect to the joining peptide. We confirmed that each of the sdAb in the constructs was able to bind to the ricin target, and have evidence that they are both binding ricin simultaneously. Through this work we determined that the order of genetically linked sdAb seems more important than the linker length. The genetically linked sdAb allowed for improved ricin detection with better limits of detection than the best anti-ricin monoclonal we evaluated, however they were not able to refold as well as unlinked component sdAb.

  15. The biological effect of large single doses: a possible role for non-targeted effects in cell inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon R Veldwijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Novel radiotherapy techniques increasingly use very large dose fractions. It has been argued that the biological effect of large dose fractions may differ from that of conventional fraction sizes. The purpose was to study the biological effect of large single doses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clonogenic cell survival of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was determined after direct X-ray irradiation, irradiation of feeder cells, or transfer of conditioned medium (CM. Cell-cycle distributions and the apoptotic sub-G1 fraction were measured by flow cytometry. Cytokines in CM were quantified by a cytokine antibody array. γH2AX foci were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: The surviving fraction of MCF7 cells irradiated in vitro with 12 Gy showed an 8.5-fold decrease (95% c.i.: 4.4-16.3; P<0.0001 when the density of irradiated cells was increased from 10 to 50×10(3 cells per flask. Part of this effect was due to a dose-dependent transferrable factor as shown in CM experiments in the dose range 5-15 Gy. While no effect on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution was observed, and no differentially expressed cytokine could be identified, the transferable factor induced prolonged expression of γH2AX DNA repair foci at 1-12 h. CONCLUSIONS: A dose-dependent non-targeted effect on clonogenic cell survival was found in the dose range 5-15 Gy. The dependence of SF on cell numbers at high doses would represent a "cohort effect" in vivo. These results support the hypothesis that non-targeted effects may contribute to the efficacy of very large dose fractions in radiotherapy.

  16. Reduced cost design of liquid lithium target for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki

    2001-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is being jointly planned to provide an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source to produce intense high energy neutrons (2 MW/m 2 ) up to 200 dpa and a sufficient irradiation volume (500 cm 3 ) for testing the candidate materials and components up to about a full lifetime of their anticipated use in ITER and DEMO. To realize such a condition, 40 MeV deuteron beam with a current of 250 mA is injected into high speed liquid lithium flow with a speed of 20 m/s. Following Conceptual Design Activity (1995-1998), a design study with focus on cost reduction without changing its original mission has been done in 1999. The following major changes to the CAD target design have been considered in the study and included in the new design: i) number of the Li target has been changed from 2 to 1, ii) spare of impurity traps of the Li loop was removed although the spare will be stored in a laboratory for quick exchange, iii) building volume was reduced via design changes in lithium loop length. This paper describes the reduced cost design of the lithium target system and recent status of Key Element Technology activities. (author)

  17. Design and Demonstration of a Material-Plasma Exposure Target Station for Neutron Irradiated Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Juergen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aaron, A. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, Gary L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burgess, Thomas W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ellis, Ronald James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giuliano, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kiggans, James O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lessard, Timothy L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ohriner, Evan Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perkins, Dale E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Varma, Venugopal Koikal [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Fusion energy is the most promising energy source for the future, and one of the most important problems to be solved progressing to a commercial fusion reactor is the identification of plasma-facing materials compatible with the extreme conditions in the fusion reactor environment. The development of plasma–material interaction (PMI) science and the technology of plasma-facing components are key elements in the development of the next step fusion device in the United States, the so-called Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF). All of these PMI issues and the uncertain impact of the 14-MeV neutron irradiation have been identified in numerous expert panel reports to the fusion community. The 2007 Greenwald report classifies reactor plasma-facing materials (PFCs) and materials as the only Tier 1 issues, requiring a “. . . major extrapolation from the current state of knowledge, need for qualitative improvements and substantial development for both the short and long term.” The Greenwald report goes on to list 19 gaps in understanding and performance related to the plasma–material interface for the technology facilities needed for DEMO-oriented R&D and DEMO itself. Of the 15 major gaps, six (G7, G9, G10, G12, G13) can possibly be addressed with ORNL’s proposal of an advanced Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment. Establishing this mid-scale plasma materials test facility at ORNL is a key element in ORNL’s strategy to secure a leadership role for decades of fusion R&D. That is to say, our end goal is to bring the “signature facility” FNSF home to ORNL. This project is related to the pre-conceptual design of an innovative target station for a future Material–Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). The target station will be designed to expose candidate fusion reactor plasma-facing materials and components (PFMs and PFCs) to conditions anticipated in fusion reactors, where PFCs will be exposed to dense high-temperature hydrogen plasmas providing steady

  18. Nano materials for the Local and Targeted Delivery of Osteoarthritis Drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periyasamy, P.C.; Leijten, J.C.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Karperien, M.; Post, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Nano technology has found its potential in every possible field of science and engineering. It offers a plethora of options to design tools at the nanometer scale, which can be expected to function more effectively than micro- and macro systems for specific applications. Although the debate regarding the safety of synthetic nano materials for clinical applications endures, it is a promising technology due to its potential to augment current treatments. Various materials such as synthetic polymer, biopolymers, or naturally occurring materials such as proteins and peptides can serve as building blocks for adaptive nano scale formulations. The choice of materials depends highly on the application. We focus on the use of nanoparticles for the treatment of degenerative cartilage diseases, such as osteoarthritis (OA). Current therapies for OA focus on treating the symptoms rather than modifying the disease. The usefulness of OA disease modifying drugs is hampered by side effects and lack of suitable drug delivery systems that target, deliver, and retain drugs locally. This challenge can be overcome by using nano technological formulations. We describe the different nano drug delivery systems and their potential for cartilage repair. This paper provides the reader basal understanding of nano materials and aims at drawing new perspectives on the use of existing nano technological formulations for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

  19. Martensitic/ferritic steels as container materials for liquid mercury target of ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In the previous report, the suitability of steels as the ESS liquid mercury target container material was discussed on the basis of the existing database on conventional austenitic and martensitic/ferritic steels, especially on their representatives, solution annealed 316 stainless steel (SA 316) and Sandvik HT-9 martensitic steel (HT-9). Compared to solution annealed austenitic stainless steels, martensitic/ferritic steels have superior properties in terms of strength, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, mercury corrosion resistance, void swelling and irradiation creep resistance. The main limitation for conventional martensitic/ferritic steels (CMFS) is embrittlement after low temperature (≤380 degrees C) irradiation. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) can increase as much as 250 to 300 degrees C and the upper-shelf energy (USE), at the same time, reduce more than 50%. This makes the application temperature range of CMFS is likely between 300 degrees C to 500 degrees C. For the present target design concept, the temperature at the container will be likely controlled in a temperature range between 180 degrees C to 330 degrees C. Hence, CMFS seem to be difficult to apply. However, solution annealed austenitic stainless steels are also difficult to apply as the maximum stress level at the container will be higher than the design stress. The solution to the problem is very likely to use advanced low-activation martensitic/ferritic steels (LAMS) developed by the fusion materials community though the present database on the materials is still very limited

  20. Target Plate Material Influence on Fullerene-C60 Laser Desorption/Ionization Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Guido P.; Günthardt, Barbara F.; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-04-01

    Systematic laser desorption/ionization (LDI) experiments of fullerene-C60 on a wide range of target plate materials were conducted to gain insight into the initial ion formation in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The positive and negative ion signal intensities of precursor, fragment, and cluster ions were monitored, varying both the laser fluence (0-3.53 Jcm-2) and the ion extraction delay time (0-950 ns). The resulting species-specific ion signal intensities are an indication for the ionization mechanisms that contribute to LDI and the time frames in which they operate, providing insight in the (MA)LDI primary ionization. An increasing electrical resistivity of the target plate material increases the fullerene-C60 precursor and fragment anion signal intensity. Inconel 625 and Ti90/Al6/V4, both highly electrically resistive, provide the highest anion signal intensities, exceeding the cation signal intensity by a factor ~1.4 for the latter. We present a mechanism based on transient electrical field strength reduction to explain this trend. Fullerene-C60 cluster anion formation is negligible, which could be due to the high extraction potential. Cluster cations, however, are readily formed, although for high laser fluences, the preferred channel is formation of precursor and fragment cations. Ion signal intensity depends greatly on the choice of substrate material, and careful substrate selection could, therefore, allow for more sensitive (MA)LDI measurements.

  1. Mesoporous multifunctional upconversion luminescent and magnetic "nanorattle" materials for targeted chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Braun, Gary B; Pallaoro, Alessia; Zhang, Yichi; Shi, Yifeng; Cui, Daxiang; Moskovits, Martin; Zhao, Dongyuan; Stucky, Galen D

    2012-01-11

    Nanorattles consisting of hydrophilic, rare-earth-doped NaYF(4) shells each containing a loose magnetic nanoparticle were fabricated through an ion-exchange process. The inner magnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles are coated with a SiO(2) layer to avoid iron leaching in acidic biological environments. This multifunctional mesoporous nanostructure with both upconversion luminescent and magnetic properties has excellent water dispersibility and a high drug-loading capacity. The material emits visible luminescence upon NIR excitation and can be directed by an external magnetic field to a specific target, making it an attractive system for a variety of biological applications. Measurements on cells incubated with the nanorattles show them to have low cytotoxicity and excellent cell imaging properties. In vivo experiments yield highly encouraging tumor shrinkage with the antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) and significantly enhanced tumor targeting in the presence of an applied magnetic field. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Single-Molecule Transistor from Graphene Nanoelectrodes and Novel Functional Materials From Self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qizhi

    This thesis introduces a new strategy to fabricate single molecular transistor by utilizing the covalent chemistry to reconnect the molecule with the electroburnt graphene nanogap. We studied the effect of coupling chemistry and molecular length on the efficiency of reconnection between the molecule and the graphene. With this technique, we are also able to observe the Coulomb Blockade phenomenon, which is a characteristics of single-electron transistors. The high yield and versatility of this approach augur well for creating a new generation of sensors, switches, and other functional devices using graphene contacts. This thesis also introduces a new type of organic single-crystal p-n heterojunction inspired from the ball-and-socket shape-complementarity between fullerene and contorted dibenzotetrathienocoronene (c-DBTTC). We studied the influence of temperature, pressure, and time on the self-assembly process of contorted dibenzotetrathienocoronene on the as-grown fullerene crystals. We also utilized fluorescence microscopy to investigate the charge transfer in this type of p-n heterojunction. Finally, this thesis introduces one-dimensional and two-dimensional programming in solid-state materials from superatom macrocycles. We find that the linkers that bridges the two superatoms determine the distance and electronic coupling between the two superatoms in the macrocycle, which in turn determines the way they self-assembled in the solid-state materials. The thesis is composed of four chapters. The first chapter introduces why we are in terested in molecular transistors and new functional materials, and what has been done so far. The second chapter described the approach we developed to assemble single molecule into circuits with graphene electrodes. The third chapter details the method to fabricate the organic single-crystal C60-DBTTC p-n heterojunction, which is of great importance to understand their charge transfer process. The last chapter introduced a new

  3. The actuation characterization of cantilevered unimorph beams with single crystal piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgen, Onur; Friswell, Michael I; Amin Karami, M; Inman, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical electromechanical characterization of beam-like, uniform cross-section, unimorph structures employing single crystal piezoelectrics is presented. The purpose of the research is to understand and compare the actuation capabilities of several piezoelectric materials and substrate configurations so that optimal design choices can be employed in lightweight, low power aerodynamic applications. Monolithic devices made from three kinds of piezoelectrics—single crystal PMN–PZT (lead magnesium niobate–lead zirconate titanate) and the polycrystalline PZT-5A and PZT-5H types—are compared in a unimorph cantilevered beam configuration. A total of 24 unimorph specimens are fabricated and the validity of existing models is examined through experimentation. The tip velocity response to harmonic voltage excitation is measured and compared to the analytical prediction with the perfect bonding assumption. Summarizing, it was confirmed that the substrate-to-piezoelectric thickness ratio and substrate modulus are the important design parameters in determining the measured output of the unimorphs and the accuracy of the model prediction. The single crystal piezoelectrics demonstrated actuation authority two to four times higher (measured in terms of peak displacement per applied voltage) when compared to the polycrystalline piezoceramics for the same substrate material and geometry choice. In contrast to the higher actuation output, practical implementation issues are noted for the single crystal devices. The lack of grain boundaries (as in the polycrystalline material) makes the single crystals very 'brittle' and susceptible to stress concentrations. Another important limitation is the low transition temperature, which limits the use of conventional solder materials in creating electrical connections

  4. Solid-state flow, mechanical alloying, and melt-related phenomena for [001] single-crystal tungsten ballistic rod penetrators interacting with steel targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizana, Carlos

    This research program consists of a detailed microstructural investigation of in-target, single-crystal [001], clad (with Inconel 718) and unclad, W long-rod, ballistic penetrators. The rods were shot into rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel targets approximately 76 mm in thickness at impact velocities ranging from 1100 m/s to 1350 m/s. A comprehensive microstructural overview of the penetration process was obtained from this investigation. Solid-state flow/erosion, solid-state target/rod mixing as well as influencing factors such as strain rate, penetration performance, cladding interference and the interaction between target and projectile were emphasized. Some of the microstructural features observed, including deformation twins, cleaving, adiabatic shear bands and DRX support an overall solid-state penetration process. Furthermore they provide for a unifying perspective for the applicability of the hydrodynamic paradigm (DOP ≈ l∘rp/rt ) and earlier mechanistic erosion approaches. DRX and grain growth within adiabatic shear bands observed at specific high strain/strain-rate zones within the rods suggest that the projectile erodes by means of these microstructures in a solid-state form. This erosion process contributes to the performance of the rod by either allowing optimum flow of rod material which would increase penetration depth, or by maximizing rod material consumption which would reduce it. Since flow and/or erosion are also necessary in the target for perforation to occur, it is not surprising that the erosion process in the target was observed to mirror the one in the projectile. That is both target and projectile developed erosion zones with DRX facilitating the extreme deformation via dense overlapping shear band formation. Mechanical alloying and/or mixing of the target (steel) and rod (W, or W-Inconel 718) was also observed and investigated. Selective etching techniques as well as energy-dispersive x-ray mapping revealed unambiguous evidence of

  5. Single base mismatches in the mRNA target site allow specific seed region-mediated off-target binding of siRNA targeting human coagulation factor 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravon, Morgane; Berrera, Marco; Ebeling, Martin; Certa, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed the off-target activity of two siRNAs (F7-1, F7-2) that knock-down human blood coagulation factor 7 mRNA. F7-1 modulates a significant number of non-target transcripts while F7-2 shows high selectivity for the target transcript under various experimental conditions. The 3'-UTRs of all F7-1 off-target genes show statistically significant enrichment of the reverse complement of the F7-1 siRNA seed region located in the guide strand. Seed region enrichment was confirmed in off-target transcripts modulated by siRNA targeting the glucocorticoid receptor. To investigate how these sites contribute to off-target recognition of F7-1, we employed CXCL5 transcript as model system because it contains five F7-1 seed sequence motifs with single base mismatches. We show by transient transfection of reporter gene constructs into HEK293 cells that three out of five sites located in the 3'-UTR region are required for F7-1 off-target activity. For further mechanistic dissection, the sequences of these sites were synthesized and inserted either individually or joined in dimeric or trimeric constructs. Only the fusion constructs were silenced by F7-1 while the individual sites had no off-target activity. Based on F7-1 as a model, a single mismatch between the siRNA seed region and mRNA target sites is tolerated for target recognition and the CXCL5 data suggest a requirement for binding to multiple target sites in off-target transcripts.

  6. International target values 2010 for achievable measurement uncertainties in nuclear material accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio C.; Almeida, Silvio G. de; Renha Junior, Geraldo

    2011-01-01

    The International Target Values (ITVs) are reasonable uncertainty estimates that can be used in judging the reliability of measurement techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile materials subject to accountancy and/or safeguards verification. In the absence of relevant experimental estimates, ITVs can also be used to select measurement techniques and calculate sample population during the planning phase of verification activities. It is important to note that ITVs represent estimates of the 'state-of-the-practice', which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions affecting both facility operators and safeguards inspectors, not only in the field, but also in laboratory. Tabulated values cover measurement methods used for the determination of volume or mass of the nuclear material, for its elemental and isotopic assays, and for its sampling. The 2010 edition represents the sixth revision of the International Target Values (ITVs), issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Safeguards Technical Report (STR-368). The first version was released as 'Target Values' in 1979 by the Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) and focused on destructive analytical methods. In the latest 2010 revision, international standards in estimating and expressing uncertainties have been considered while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous editions of the ITVs. Those standards have been usually applied in QC/QA programmes, as well as qualification of methods, techniques and instruments. Representatives of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) participated in previous Consultants Group Meetings since the one convened to establish the first list of ITVs released in 1993 and in subsequent revisions, including the latest one

  7. Polypropylene track membranes as a promising material for targets with polarized protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkova, I. I.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Kravets, L. I.

    2014-01-01

    Polypropylene track membranes made by irradiation of polypropylene films with a beam of high-energy heavy ions followed by chemical etching of latent ion tracks are proposed for being used as a polarized target material. To give membranes paramagnetic properties needed for allowing dynamic polarization of nuclei, the nitroxyl radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl was introduced in the samples by the thermal diffusion technique. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance method, we obtained information on paramagnetic centers in the polymer matrix of the membranes and determined the nitroxyl radical concentration and rotational mobility of the spin probe in them.

  8. Integrated modelling of material migration and target plate power handling at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coster, D.P.; Bonnin, X.; Chankin, A.

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of the tokamak edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) region is such that extrapolation to ITER requires modelling to be pursued through the integration of a number of edge codes, each of which must be thoroughly tested against results from present day machines. This contribution demonstrates how the edge modelling effort at JET is focused on such an approach by considering two examples, target power loading and material erosion and migration, the understanding of which are crucial issues for ITER. (author)

  9. A Gas Target Internal to the LHC for the Study of pp Single-Spin Asymmetries and Heavy Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Barschel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the application of an open storage cell as gas target for a proposed LHC fixed-target experiment AFTER@LHC. The target provides a high areal density at minimum gas input, which may be polarized 1H, 2H, or 3He gas or heavy inert gases in a wide mass range. For the study of single-spin asymmetries in pp interaction, luminosities of nearly 1033/cm2 s can be produced with existing techniques.

  10. Modeling the interaction of high power ion or electron beams with solid target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.M.

    1983-11-01

    Intense energy deposition on first wall materials and other components as a result of plasma disruptions in magnetic fusion devices are expected to cause melting and vaporization of these materials. The exact amount of vaporization losses and melt layer thickness are very important to fusion reactor design and lifetime. Experiments using ion or electron beams to simulate the disruption effects have different environments than the actual disruption conditions in fusion reactors. A model has been developed to accurately simulate the beam-target interactions so that the results from such experiments can be meaningful and useful to reactor design. This model includes a two dimensional solution of the heat conduction equation with moving boundaries. It is found that the vaporization and melting of the sample strongly depends on the characteristics of the beam spatial distribution, beam diameter, and on the power-time variation of the beam

  11. Phosphatidylserine targeted single-walled carbon nanotubes for photothermal ablation of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Needa A.; Davis, Carole; McKernan, Patrick; Hauser, Paul; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel; Silvy, Ricardo P.; Resasco, Daniel E.; Harrison, Roger G.

    2018-01-01

    Bladder cancer has a 60%-70% recurrence rate most likely due to any residual tumour left behind after a transurethral resection (TUR). Failure to completely resect the cancer can lead to recurrence and progression into higher grade tumours with metastatic potential. We present here a novel therapy to treat superficial tumours with the potential to decrease recurrence. The therapy is a heat-based approach in which bladder tumour specific single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are delivered intravesically at a very low dose (0.1 mg SWCNT per kg body weight) followed 24 h later by a short 30 s treatment with a 360° near-infrared light that heats only the bound nanotubes. The energy density of the treatment was 50 J cm-2, and the power density that this treatment corresponds to is 1.7 W cm-2, which is relatively low. Nanotubes are specifically targeted to the tumour via the interaction of annexin V (AV) and phosphatidylserine, which is normally internalised on healthy tissue but externalised on tumours and the tumour vasculature. SWCNTs are conjugated to AV, which binds specifically to bladder cancer cells as confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Due to this specific localisation, NIR light can be used to heat the tumour while conserving the healthy bladder wall. In a short-term efficacy study in mice with orthotopic MB49 murine bladder tumours treated with the SWCNT-AV conjugate and NIR light, no tumours were visible on the bladder wall 24 h after NIR light treatment, and there was no damage to the bladder. In a separate survival study in mice with the same type of orthotopic tumours, there was a 50% cure rate at 116 days when the study was ended. At 116 days, no treatment toxicity was observed, and no nanotubes were detected in the clearance organs or bladder.

  12. Single access laparoscopic cholecystectomy: technique without the need for special materials and with better ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lameirão Pinto

    Full Text Available The authors describe a surgical technique which allows, without increasing costs, to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a single incision, without using specific materials and with better surgical ergonomics. The technique consists of a longitudinal umbilical incision, navel detachment, use of a permanent 10mm trocar and two clamps directly and bilaterally through the aponeurosis without the use of 5mm trocars, transcutaneous gallbladder repair with straight needle cotton suture, ligation with unabsorbable suture and umbilical incision for the specimen extraction. The presented technique enables the procedure with conventional and permanent materials, improving surgical ergonomics, with safety and aesthetic advantages.

  13. Dissolution chemistry and biocompatibility of single-crystalline silicon nanomembranes and associated materials for transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Suk-Won; Park, Gayoung; Edwards, Chris; Corbin, Elise A; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cheng, Huanyu; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Yu, Sooyoun; Ng, Joanne; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Jiyoung; Yee, Cassian; Bhaduri, Basanta; Su, Yewang; Omennetto, Fiorenzo G; Huang, Yonggang; Bashir, Rashid; Goddard, Lynford; Popescu, Gabriel; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Rogers, John A

    2014-06-24

    Single-crystalline silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) represent a critically important class of material for high-performance forms of electronics that are capable of complete, controlled dissolution when immersed in water and/or biofluids, sometimes referred to as a type of "transient" electronics. The results reported here include the kinetics of hydrolysis of Si NMs in biofluids and various aqueous solutions through a range of relevant pH values, ionic concentrations and temperatures, and dependence on dopant types and concentrations. In vitro and in vivo investigations of Si NMs and other transient electronic materials demonstrate biocompatibility and bioresorption, thereby suggesting potential for envisioned applications in active, biodegradable electronic implants.

  14. Physicomechanical properties of single- and two-phase polycrystalline materials on micro- and macroscopic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuksa, L.V.; Arzamaskova, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on elastic and plastic properties of the single- and two-phase polycrystalline materials in dependence on the choice of the consideration scale level are presented. The experimental and theoretical methods, making it possible to study the role of the scale factor by consideration on the micro- and macrolevel and the peculiarities of forming the physicomechanical properties of the material as a whole, are developed. The dependences, characterizing the change of the physicomechanical properties by different scales of consideration, are obtained [ru

  15. Materialization of single multicomposite nanowire: entrapment of ZnO nanoparticles in polyaniline nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present materialization of single multicomposite nanowire (SMNW-entrapped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs via an electrochemical growth method, which is a newly developed fabrication method to grow a single nanowire between a pair of pre-patterned electrodes. Entrapment of ZnO NPs was controlled via different conditions of SMNW fabrication such as an applied potential and mixture ratio of NPs and aniline solution. The controlled concentration of ZnO NP results in changes in the physical properties of the SMNWs, as shown in transmission electron microscopy images. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity and elasticity of SMNWs show improvement over those of pure polyaniline nanowire. The new nano-multicomposite material showed synergistic effects on mechanical and electrical properties, with logarithmical change and saturation increasing ZnO NP concentration.

  16. Single-Transverse-Spin-Asymmetry studies with a fixed-target experiment using the LHC beams (AFTER@LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J.P.; Arnaldi, R.; Brodsky, S.J.; Chambert, V.; Da Silva, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Echevarria, M. G; Ferreiro, E.G.; Fleuret, F.; Gao, Y.; Genolini, B.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Kikola, D.; Klein, A.; Kurepin, A.; Kusina, A.; Lorcé, C.; Lyonnet, F.; Massacrier, L.; Nass, A.; Pisano, C.; Robbe, P.; Schienbein, I.; Schlegel, M.; Scomparin, E.; Seixas, J.; Shao, H.S.; Signori, A.; Steffens, E.; Topilskaya, N.; Trzeciak, B.; Uggerhøj, U.I.; Uras, A.; Ulrich, R.; Yang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the potential of AFTER@LHC to measure single-transverse-spin asymmetries in open-charm and bottomonium production. With a HERMES-like hydrogen polarised target, such measurements over a year can reach precisions close to the per cent level. This is particularly remarkable since these analyses can probably not be carried out anywhere else

  17. Single and double spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering measured with CLAS and a longitudinally polarized proton target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, S.; Biselli, A.; Niccolai, S.; Seder, E.; Guidal, M.; Mirazita, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, B.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D. G.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Meyer, C. A.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatie, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2015-03-19

    Single-beam, single-target, and double-spin asymmetries for hard exclusive photon production on the proton e→p→e'p'γ are presented. The data were taken at Jefferson Lab using the CLAS detector and a longitudinally polarized 14NH3 target. The three asymmetries were measured in 165 4-dimensional kinematic bins, covering the widest kinematic range ever explored simultaneously for beam and target-polarization observables in the valence quark region. The kinematic dependences of the obtained asymmetries are discussed and compared to the predictions of models of Generalized Parton Distributions. As a result, the measurement of three DVCS spin observables at the same kinematic points allows a quasi-model-independent extraction of the imaginary parts of the H and H~ Compton Form Factors, which give insight into the electric and axial charge distributions of valence quarks in the proton.

  18. The Choice Method of Selected Material has influence single evaporation flash method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaryo, Geni Rina; Sumijanto; Nurul L, Siti

    2000-01-01

    The final objective of this research is to design the mini scale of desalination installation. It has been started from 1997/1998 and has been doing for this 3 years. Where the study on the assessment of various desalination system has been done in the first year and thermodynamic in the second year. In this third year, literatully study on material resistance from outside pressure has been done. The number of pressure for single evaporator flashing method is mainly depend on the temperature that applied in that system. In this paper, the configuration stage, the choice method of selecting material for main evaporator vessel, tube, tube plates, water boxes, pipework, and valves for multistage flash distillation will be described. The choice of selecting material for MSF is base on economical consideration, cheap, high resistance and easy to be maintained

  19. Calorimetric measurement of afterheat in target materials for the accelerator production of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The estimate of afterheat in a spallation target of lead (Pb) or tungsten (W), by calorimetry, is the purpose of this experiment in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT). Such measurements are needed to confirm code calculations, these being the only practical way of gaining this type of information in a form suitable to aid the design of the APT machine. Knowledge of the magnitude and duration of afterheat resulting from decay of activation products produced by proton bombardment of the target is necessary to quantify APT safety assumptions, to design target cooling and safety systems, and to reduce technical risk. Direct calorimetric measurement of the afterheat for the appropriate incident proton energies is more reliable than the available alternative, which is indirect, based on data from gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. The basic concept, a direct measurement of decay afterheat which bypasses the laborious classical way of determining this quantity, has been demonstrated to work. The gamma-ray energy given off by the decay products produced in the activation of lead or tungsten with high-energy protons apparently does represent a significant fraction of the total decay energy. A calorimeter designed for measurement of isotopes decaying by alpha emission must be modified to reduce energy lost with escaping gamma rays. Replacement of the aluminum liner with a tungsten liner in the SSC measurement chamber resulted in a 270% increase in measured heat, proving that the energy loss in the earlier (1992) measurements was significant. Gamma-ray measurements are needed to confirm the gamma-ray absorption calculations for the calorimeter to determine the correction for loss of heat due to transmission of high-energy gamma rays through the calorimeter walls. The experiments at BLIP have shown that calorimetry can be a useful tool in measuring the afterheat in APT target materials

  20. Estimation of Single-Crystal Elastic Constants of Polycrystalline Materials from Back-Scattered Grain Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldipur, P.; Margetan, F. J.; Thompson, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    Single-crystal elastic stiffness constants are important input parameters for many calculations in material science. There are well established methods to measure these constants using single-crystal specimens, but such specimens are not always readily available. The ultrasonic properties of metal polycrystals, such as velocity, attenuation, and backscattered grain noise characteristics, depend in part on the single-crystal elastic constants. In this work we consider the estimation of elastic constants from UT measurements and grain-sizing data. We confine ourselves to a class of particularly simple polycrystalline microstructures, found in some jet-engine Nickel alloys, which are single-phase, cubic, equiaxed, and untextured. In past work we described a method to estimate the single-crystal elastic constants from measured ultrasonic velocity and attenuation data accompanied by metallographic analysis of grain size. However, that methodology assumes that all attenuation is due to grain scattering, and thus is not valid if appreciable absorption is present. In this work we describe an alternative approach which uses backscattered grain noise data in place of attenuation data. Efforts to validate the method using a pure copper specimen are discussed, and new results for two jet-engine Nickel alloys are presented

  1. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  2. Defending a single object against an attacker trying to detect a subset of false targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, R.; Zhai, Q.Q.; Levitin, G.

    2016-01-01

    Deployment of false targets can be a very important and effective measure for enhancing the survivability of an object subjected to intentional attacks. Existing papers have assumed that false targets are either perfect or can be detected with a constant probability. In practice, the attacker may allocate part of its budget into intelligence actions trying to detect a subset of false targets. Analogously, the defender can allocate part of its budget into disinformation actions to prevent the false targets from being detected. In this paper, the detection probability of each false target is assumed to be a function of the intelligence and disinformation efforts allocated on the false target. The optimal resource distribution between target identification/disinformation and attack/protection efforts is studied as solutions of a non-cooperative two period min–max game between the two competitors for the case of constrained defense and attack resources. - Highlights: • A defense-attack problem is studied as a two-period min–max game. • Both intelligence contest over false targets and impact contest are considered. • Optimal defense and attack strategies are investigated with different parameters.

  3. International target values 2010 for achievable measurement uncertainties in nuclear material accountancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Silvio G. de; Renha Junior, Geraldo, E-mail: silvio@abacc.org.b, E-mail: grenha@abacc.org.b [Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The International Target Values (ITVs) are reasonable uncertainty estimates that can be used in judging the reliability of measurement techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile materials subject to accountancy and/or safeguards verification. In the absence of relevant experimental estimates, ITVs can also be used to select measurement techniques and calculate sample population during the planning phase of verification activities. It is important to note that ITVs represent estimates of the 'state-of-the-practice', which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions affecting both facility operators and safeguards inspectors, not only in the field, but also in laboratory. Tabulated values cover measurement methods used for the determination of volume or mass of the nuclear material, for its elemental and isotopic assays, and for its sampling. The 2010 edition represents the sixth revision of the International Target Values (ITVs), issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Safeguards Technical Report (STR-368). The first version was released as 'Target Values' in 1979 by the Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) and focused on destructive analytical methods. In the latest 2010 revision, international standards in estimating and expressing uncertainties have been considered while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous editions of the ITVs. Those standards have been usually applied in QC/QA programmes, as well as qualification of methods, techniques and instruments. Representatives of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) participated in previous Consultants Group Meetings since the one convened to establish the first list of ITVs released in 1993 and in subsequent revisions

  4. Targeting single-walled carbon nanotubes for the treatment of breast cancer using photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    To develop a therapeutic system with cancer cell selectivity, the present study evaluated a possible specific and localized tumor treatment. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on the external face of the cell membrane is almost completely exclusive to cancer cells and endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature. The human protein annexin V is known to have strong calcium-dependent binding to anionic phospholipids such as PS. This protein was studied for targeting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to the vasculature of breast tumors. The synthesis of the protein annexin V, by a pET vector in Escherichia coli, constitutes the first phase of this study. Recombinant annexin V was purified from the cell lysate supernatant by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The overall production of purified annexin V protein was 50 mg/L. The binding ability of the protein annexin V was evaluated by determining the dissociation constant when incubated with proliferating human endothelial cells in vitro. The dissociation constant, Kd, was measured to be 0.8 nM, indicating relatively strong binding. This value of Kd is within the range reported in the literature. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were functionalized with annexin V using two intermediate linkers (containing FMOC and DSPE) resulting in stable suspensions. The SWNT and protein concentrations were 202 mg/L and 515 mg/L, respectively, using the linker with DSPE (average of nine preparations). The conjugation method that used the DSPE-PEG-maleimide linker allowed to successfully conjugate the SWNTs with final concentrations approximately five times higher than the linker containing FMOC. The conjugation method used has a non-covalent nature, and therefore the optical properties of the nanotubes were preserved. The conjugate was also visually observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), allowing to verify the presence of the protein annexin V on the surface of the nanotubes, with an height ranging between 2

  5. NASA-JSC Protocol for the Characterization of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Material Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pasha; Gorelik, Olga; Hadjiev, Victor; Holmes, William; Devivar, Rodrigo; Files, Bradley; Yowell, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the raw as well as purified single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material always contain certain amount of impurities of varying composition (mostly metal catalyst and non-tubular carbon). Particular purification method also creates defects and/or functional groups in the SWCNT material and therefore affects the its dispersability in solvents (important to subsequent application development). A number of analytical characterization tools have been used successfully in the past years to assess various properties of nanotube materials, but lack of standards makes it difficult to compare these measurements across the board. In this work we report the protocol developed at NASA-JSC which standardizes measurements using TEM, SEM, TGA, Raman and UV-Vis-NIR absorption techniques. Numerical measures are established for parameters such as metal content, homogeneity, thermal stability and dispersability, to allow easy comparison of SWCNT materials. We will also report on the recent progress in quantitative measurement of non-tubular carbon impurities and a possible purity standard for SWCNT materials.

  6. Targeted pre-treatment of hemp bast fibres for optimal performance in biocomposite materials: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Thygesen, Anders; Summerscales, John

    2017-01-01

    . In order to achieve strong NFCs, well separated and cellulose-rich fibres are required. Hemp is taking a center stage in this regard as a source of suitable natural plant cellulose fibres because natural hemp bast fibres are long and inherently possess high strength. Classical field and water retting...... methods have been used for centuries for removal of non-cellulosic components from fibrous plant stems including from hemp, but carries a risk of reducing the mechanical properties of the fibres via damaging the cellulose. For NFCs new targeted fibre pre-treatment methods are needed to selectively...... and effectively remove non-cellulosic components from the plant fibres to produce cellulose rich fibres without introducing any damage to the fibres. A key feature for successful use of natural fibres such as hemp fibres in composite materials is optimal interfacial contact between the fibres and the hydrophobic...

  7. Single-nary philosophy for non-linear study of mechanics of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, C.

    2005-01-01

    Non-linear study of mechanics of materials is formulated in this paper as a problem of meta-intelligent system analysis. Non-linearity will be singled out as an important concept for understanding of high-order complex systems. Through single-nary thinking, which will be represented in this work, we introduce a modification of Aristotelian philosophy using modal logic and multi-valued logic (these logics we call 'high-order' logic). Next, non-linear cause - effect relations are expressed through non-additive measures and multiple-information aggregation principles based on fuzzy integration. The study of real time behaviors, required experiences and intuition, will be realized using truth measures (non-additive measures) and a procedure for information processing in intelligence levels. (author)

  8. Multi probes measurements at the PALS Facility Research Centre during high intense laser pulse interactions with various target materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Massimo; Krása, Josef; Cikhardt, Jakub; Consoli, Fabrizio; De Angelis, Riccardo; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Krůs, Miroslav; Dostál, Jan; Margarone, Daniele; Picciotto, Antonino; Velyhan, Andriy; Klír, Daniel; Dudžák, Roman; Limpouch, Jiří; Korn, Georg

    2018-01-01

    During the interaction of high intense laser pulse with solid target, a large amount of hot electrons is produced and a giant Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) is generated due to the current flowing into the system target-target holder, as well as due to the escaping charged particles in vacuum. EMP production for different target materials is investigated inside and outside the target chamber, using monopole antenna, super wide-band microstrip antenna and Moebius antenna. The EMP consists in a fast transient magnetic field lasting hundreds of nanosecond with frequencies ranging from MHz to tens of GHz. Measurements of magnetic field and return target current in the range of kA were carried out by an inductive target probe (Cikhardt J. et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85 (2014) 103507).

  9. Recent developments in the nanostructured materials functionalized with ruthenium complexes for targeted drug delivery to tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prakash Thangavel,1 Buddolla Viswanath,1 Sanghyo Kim1,2 1Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 2Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Republic of Korea Abstract: In recent years, the field of metal-based drugs has been dominated by other existing precious metal drugs, and many researchers have focused their attention on the synthesis of various ruthenium (Ru complexes due to their potential medical and pharmaceutical applications. The beneficial properties of Ru, which make it a highly promising therapeutic agent, include its variable oxidation states, low toxicity, high selectivity for diseased cells, ligand exchange properties, and the ability to mimic iron binding to biomolecules. In addition, Ru complexes have favorable adsorption properties, along with excellent photochemical and photophysical properties, which make them promising tools for photodynamic therapy. At present, nanostructured materials functionalized with Ru complexes have become an efficient way to administer Ru-based anticancer drugs for cancer treatment. In this review, the recent developments in the nanostructured materials functionalized with Ru complexes for targeted drug delivery to tumors are discussed. In addition, information on “traditional” (ie, non-nanostructured Ru-based cancer therapies is included in a precise manner. Keywords: metallodrugs, nanotechnology, cancer treatment, cell apoptosis, DNA damage, toxicity

  10. Recent developments in the nanostructured materials functionalized with ruthenium complexes for targeted drug delivery to tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Prakash; Viswanath, Buddolla; Kim, Sanghyo

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the field of metal-based drugs has been dominated by other existing precious metal drugs, and many researchers have focused their attention on the synthesis of various ruthenium (Ru) complexes due to their potential medical and pharmaceutical applications. The beneficial properties of Ru, which make it a highly promising therapeutic agent, include its variable oxidation states, low toxicity, high selectivity for diseased cells, ligand exchange properties, and the ability to mimic iron binding to biomolecules. In addition, Ru complexes have favorable adsorption properties, along with excellent photochemical and photophysical properties, which make them promising tools for photodynamic therapy. At present, nanostructured materials functionalized with Ru complexes have become an efficient way to administer Ru-based anticancer drugs for cancer treatment. In this review, the recent developments in the nanostructured materials functionalized with Ru complexes for targeted drug delivery to tumors are discussed. In addition, information on "traditional" (ie, non-nanostructured) Ru-based cancer therapies is included in a precise manner.

  11. Magnetically controlled multifrequency invisibility cloak with a single shell of ferrite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Youwen

    2015-02-01

    A magnetically controlled multifrequency invisibility cloak with a single shell of the isotropic and homogeneous ferrite material has been investigated based on the scattering cancellation method from the Mie scattering theory. The analytical and simulated results have demonstrated that such this shell can drastically reduce the total scattering cross-section of this cloaking system at multiple frequencies. These multiple cloaking frequencies of this shell can be externally controlled since the magnetic permeability of ferrites is well tuned by the applied magnetic field. This may provide a potential way to design a tunable multifrequency invisibility cloak with considerable flexibility.

  12. Formation of Micro and Mesoporous Amorphous Silica-Based Materials from Single Source Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nazri Mohd Sokri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polysilazanes functionalized with alkoxy groups were designed and synthesized as single source precursors for fabrication of micro and mesoporous amorphous silica-based materials. The pyrolytic behaviors during the polymer to ceramic conversion were studied by the simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS analysis. The porosity of the resulting ceramics was characterized by the N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm measurements. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic analyses as well as elemental composition analysis were performed on the polymer-derived amorphous silica-based materials, and the role of the alkoxy group as a sacrificial template for the micro and mesopore formations was discussed from a viewpoint to establish novel micro and mesoporous structure controlling technologies through the polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs route.

  13. Novel Materials Containing Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Wrapped in Polymer Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Richard E.; O'Connell, Michael J.; Smith, Kenneth; Colbert, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    In this design, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been coated in polymer molecules to create a new type of material that has low electrical conductivity, but still contains individual nanotubes, and small ropes of individual nanotubes, which are themselves good electrical conductors and serve as small conducting rods immersed in an electrically insulating matrix. The polymer is attached through weak chemical forces that are primarily non-covalent in nature, caused primarily through polarization rather than the sharing of valence electrons. Therefore, the electronic structure of the SWNT involved is substantially the same as that of free, individual (and small ropes of) SWNT. Their high conductivity makes the individual nanotubes extremely electrically polarizable, and materials containing these individual, highly polarizable molecules exhibit novel electrical properties including a high dielectric constant.

  14. High affinity γPNA sandwich hybridization assay for rapid detection of short nucleic acid targets with single mismatch discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Johnathan M; Zhang, Li Ang; Manna, Arunava; Armitage, Bruce A; Ly, Danith H; Schneider, James W

    2013-07-08

    Hybridization analysis of short DNA and RNA targets presents many challenges for detection. The commonly employed sandwich hybridization approach cannot be implemented for these short targets due to insufficient probe-target binding strengths for unmodified DNA probes. Here, we present a method capable of rapid and stable sandwich hybridization detection for 22 nucleotide DNA and RNA targets. Stable hybridization is achieved using an n-alkylated, polyethylene glycol γ-carbon modified peptide nucleic acid (γPNA) amphiphile. The γPNA's exceptionally high affinity enables stable hybridization of a second DNA-based probe to the remaining bases of the short target. Upon hybridization of both probes, an electrophoretic mobility shift is measured via interaction of the n-alkane modification on the γPNA with capillary electrophoresis running buffer containing nonionic surfactant micelles. We find that sandwich hybridization of both probes is stable under multiple binding configurations and demonstrate single base mismatch discrimination. The binding strength of both probes is also stabilized via coaxial stacking on adjacent hybridization to targets. We conclude with a discussion on the implementation of the proposed sandwich hybridization assay as a high-throughput microRNA detection method.

  15. Structured oligonucleotides for target indexing to allow single-vessel PCR amplification and solid support microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Laurie D; Boissinot, Karel; Peytavi, Régis; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G

    2015-02-07

    The combination of molecular diagnostic technologies is increasingly used to overcome limitations on sensitivity, specificity or multiplexing capabilities, and provide efficient lab-on-chip devices. Two such techniques, PCR amplification and microarray hybridization are used serially to take advantage of the high sensitivity and specificity of the former combined with high multiplexing capacities of the latter. These methods are usually performed in different buffers and reaction chambers. However, these elaborate methods have high complexity and cost related to reagent requirements, liquid storage and the number of reaction chambers to integrate into automated devices. Furthermore, microarray hybridizations have a sequence dependent efficiency not always predictable. In this work, we have developed the concept of a structured oligonucleotide probe which is activated by cleavage from polymerase exonuclease activity. This technology is called SCISSOHR for Structured Cleavage Induced Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide Hybridization Reaction. The SCISSOHR probes enable indexing the target sequence to a tag sequence. The SCISSOHR technology also allows the combination of nucleic acid amplification and microarray hybridization in a single vessel in presence of the PCR buffer only. The SCISSOHR technology uses an amplification probe that is irreversibly modified in presence of the target, releasing a single-stranded DNA tag for microarray hybridization. Each tag is composed of a 3-nucleotide sequence-dependent segment and a unique "target sequence-independent" 14-nucleotide segment allowing for optimal hybridization with minimal cross-hybridization. We evaluated the performance of five (5) PCR buffers to support microarray hybridization, compared to a conventional hybridization buffer. Finally, as a proof of concept, we developed a multiplexed assay for the amplification, detection, and identification of three (3) DNA targets. This new technology will facilitate the design

  16. Single crystalline essentially cubic hafnium, zirconium pyrophosphate luminescent material having improved brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenot, C.F.; Mathrs, J.E.; Shaffer, F.N.

    1980-01-01

    It has been discovered that when (Hf,Zr) P 2 O 5 is prepared by reacting a mixutre of MO 2 , A 2 O and P 2 O 5 . (where M is zirconium, and A is an alkali metal, lithium, sodium or potassium), large single-crystalline cubic particles result, which when separated from an aqueous-soluble alkali metal-containing second phase exhibit improved intensity of ultraviolet emissions upon x-ray excitation. When used in x-ray intensifying screens with conventional silver halide emulsion x-ray film, such improved lumiescent material The invention includes material of the composition (Hfsub(1-x)Zrsub(x)) P 2 O 7 , where range from 0 to 1, having strong emission peaking at about 340 nm with controlled persistence, and also includes a method for producing such luminescent materials, and x-ray intensifying screens incorporating such materials having values of x within the range of about 0.005 to 0.5. (LL)

  17. Single-Spin Asymmetries in Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized Hydrogen Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bacchetta, A.; Bailey, P.; Balin, D.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Borysenko, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capitani, G. P.; Cappiluppi, M.; Chen, T.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Leo, R. De; Demey, M.; Nardo, L. De; Sanctis, E. De; Devitsin, E.; Nezza, P. Di; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garrow, K.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Grebeniouk, O.; Gregor, I. M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Henoch, M.; Hesselink, W. H.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Ilyichev, A.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, H.; Lu, J.; Lu, S.; Ma, B.-Q.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Michler, T.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Osborne, A.; Pickert, N.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schill, C.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Sinram, K.; Sommer, W.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Tait, P.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, C.; Volmer, J.; Wang, S.; Wendland, J.; Wilbert, J.; Smit, G. Ybeles; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2005-01-01

    Single-spin asymmetries for semi-inclusive electroproduction of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering of positrons are measured for the first time with transverse target polarization. The asymmetry depends on the azimuthal angles of both the pion (ϕ) and the target spin axis (ϕS) about the virtual-photon direction and relative to the lepton scattering plane. The extracted Fourier component πUT is a signal of the previously unmeasured quark transversity distribution, in conjunction with the Collins fragmentation function, also unknown. The component πUT arises from a correlation between the transverse polarization of the target nucleon and the intrinsic transverse momentum of quarks, as represented by the previously unmeasured Sivers distribution function. Evidence for both signals is observed, but the Sivers asymmetry may be affected by exclusive vector meson production.

  18. International target values 2000 for measurement uncertainties in safeguarding nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, H.; Binner, R.; Kuhn, E.

    2001-01-01

    The IAEA has prepared a revised and updated version of International Target Values (ITVs) for uncertainty components in measurements of nuclear material. The ITVs represent uncertainties to be considered in judging the reliability of analytical techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile material subject to safeguards verification. The tabulated values represent estimates of the 'state of the practice' which ought to be achievable under routine conditions by adequately equipped, experienced laboratories. The ITVs 2000 are intended to be used by plant operators and safeguards organizations as a reference of the quality of measurements achievable in nuclear material accountancy, and for planning purposes. The IAEA prepared a draft of a technical report presenting the proposed ITVs 2000, and in April 2000 the chairmen or officers of the panels or organizations listed below were invited to co- author the report and to submit the draft to a discussion by their panels and organizations. Euratom Safeguards Inspectorate, ESAKDA Working Group on Destructive Analysis, ESARDA Working Group on Non Destructive Analysis, Institute of Nuclear Material Management, Japanese Expert Group on ITV-2000, ISO Working Group on Analyses in Spent Fuel Reprocessing, ISO Working Group on Analyses in Uranium Fuel Fabrication, ISO Working Group on Analyses in MOX Fuel Fabrication, Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares (ABACC). Comments from the above groups were received and incorporated into the final version of the document, completed in April 2001. The ITVs 2000 represent target standard uncertainties, expressing the precision achievable under stipulated conditions. These conditions typically fall in one of the two following categories: 'repeatability conditions' normally encountered during the measurements done within one inspection period; or 'reproducibility conditions' involving additional sources of measurement variability such as

  19. In-target rare nuclei production rates with EURISOL single-stage configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Chabod, S P; Ene, D; Doré, D; Blideanu, V; David, J.-Ch; Ridikas, D

    2010-01-01

    We conducted calculations of exotic nuclei production rates for 320 configurations of EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility) direct spallation targets. The nuclei yields were evaluated using neutron generation-transport codes, completed with evolution calculations to account for nuclei decays and low energy neutron interactions. The yields were optimized for 11 selected elements (Li, Be, Ne, Mg, Ar, Ni, Ga, Kr, Sn, Hg, Fr) and 23 of their isotopes, as function of the target compositions and geometries as well as the incident proton beam energies. For the considered elements, we evaluated the yield distributions as functions of the charge and mass numbers using two different spallation models.

  20. Target-selective homologous recombination cloning for high-throughput generation of monoclonal antibodies from single plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Nobuyuki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Isobe, Masaharu

    2011-04-13

    Molecular cloning of functional immunoglobulin genes from single plasma cells is one of the most promising technologies for the rapid development of monoclonal antibody drugs. However, the proper insertion of PCR-amplified immunoglobulin genes into expression vectors remains an obstacle to the high-throughput production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. We developed a single-step cloning method, target-selective homologous recombination (TS-HR), in which PCR-amplified immunoglobulin variable genes were selectively inserted into vectors, even in the presence of nonspecifically amplified DNA. TS-HR utilizes Red/ET-mediated homologous recombination with a target-selective vector (TS-vector) with unique homology arms on its termini. Using TS-HR, immunoglobulin variable genes were cloned directly into expression vectors by co-transforming unpurified PCR products and the TS-vector into E. coli. Furthermore, the high cloning specificity of TS-HR allowed plasmids to be extracted from pools of transformed bacteria without screening single colonies for correct clones. We present a one-week protocol for the production of recombinant mouse monoclonal antibodies from large numbers of single plasma cells. The time requirements and limitations of traditional cloning procedures for the production of recombinant immunoglobulins have been significantly reduced with the development of the TS-HR cloning technique. © 2011 Kurosawa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. Target-selective homologous recombination cloning for high-throughput generation of monoclonal antibodies from single plasma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobe Masaharu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular cloning of functional immunoglobulin genes from single plasma cells is one of the most promising technologies for the rapid development of monoclonal antibody drugs. However, the proper insertion of PCR-amplified immunoglobulin genes into expression vectors remains an obstacle to the high-throughput production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Results We developed a single-step cloning method, target-selective homologous recombination (TS-HR, in which PCR-amplified immunoglobulin variable genes were selectively inserted into vectors, even in the presence of nonspecifically amplified DNA. TS-HR utilizes Red/ET-mediated homologous recombination with a target-selective vector (TS-vector with unique homology arms on its termini. Using TS-HR, immunoglobulin variable genes were cloned directly into expression vectors by co-transforming unpurified PCR products and the TS-vector into E. coli. Furthermore, the high cloning specificity of TS-HR allowed plasmids to be extracted from pools of transformed bacteria without screening single colonies for correct clones. We present a one-week protocol for the production of recombinant mouse monoclonal antibodies from large numbers of single plasma cells. Conclusion The time requirements and limitations of traditional cloning procedures for the production of recombinant immunoglobulins have been significantly reduced with the development of the TS-HR cloning technique.

  2. Radiative transfer modeling of dust-coated Pancam calibration target materials: Laboratory visible/near-infrared spectrogoniometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Sohl-Dickstein, J.; Grundy, W.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Christensen, P.R.; Graff, T.; Guinness, E.A.; Kinch, K.; Morris, Robert; Shepard, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory visible/near-infrared multispectral observations of Mars Exploration Rover Pancam calibration target materials coated with different thicknesses of Mars spectral analog dust were acquired under variable illumination geometries using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer. The data were fit with a two-layer radiative transfer model that combines a Hapke formulation for the dust with measured values of the substrate interpolated using a He-Torrance approach. We first determined the single-scattering albedo, phase function, opposition effect width, and amplitude for the dust using the entire data set (six coating thicknesses, three substrates, four wavelengths, and phase angles 3??-117??). The dust exhibited single-scattering albedo values similar to other Mars analog soils and to Mars Pathfinder dust and a dominantly forward scattering behavior whose scattering lobe became narrower at longer wavelengths. Opacity values for each dust thickness corresponded well to those predicted from the particles sizes of the Mars analog dust. We then restricted the number of substrates, dust thicknesses, and incidence angles input to the model. The results suggest that the dust properties are best characterized when using substrates whose reflectances are brighter and darker than those of the deposited dust and data that span a wide range of dust thicknesses. The model also determined the dust photometric properties relatively well despite limitations placed on the range of incidence angles. The model presented here will help determine the photometric properties of dust deposited on the MER rovers and to track the multiple episodes of dust deposition and erosion that have occurred at both landing sites. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Single Visit Apexification Procedure of a Traumatically Injured Tooth with a Novel Bioinductive Material (Biodentine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingarwar, Mahesh Madhukar; Pathak, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim of this article is to present a case wherein single visit apexification of a traumatically injured tooth was done with a bioactive material–Biodentine. An injury sustained between the ages of 6 and 14 can adversely affect pulpal health and interrupt root development. In these instances, apexification is generally the preferred treatment. A 10 years old male patient presented with coronal fracture of the left upper central incisor. Clinical and radiographic assessment showed negative pulpal sensibility and arrested apical root development. Artificial apical barrier induction with Biodentine followed by endodontic treatment and prosthetic rehabilitation was decided as the line of treatment. To conclude, this bioactive and biocompatible calcium-based cement can regenerate damaged dental tissues and represents a promising alternative to the conventional multivisit apexification technique. Clinical significance: Biodentine which is a biologically active cement can be an efficient alternative to the conventional apexification materials which were hitherto recommended. How to cite this article: Bajwa NK, Jingarwar MM, Pathak A. Single Visit Apexification Procedure of a Traumatically Injured Tooth with a Novel Bioinductive Material (Biodentine). Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):58-61. PMID:26124583

  4. Direct separation of 67Ga citrate from zinc and copper target materials by an ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Azony, K.M.; Ferieg, Kh.; Saleh, Z.A.

    2004-01-01

    The separation of 6 7G a from zinc and copper target materials using an anion- f:exchanger (Dowex21K) and 0.1 M citrate buffer at pH 6 is described. The gallium-67 was separated in citrate solution and can be directly used for medical applications. Gallium-67 with a half-life of 78.3 h and gamma-rays with energies of 93, 185 and 300 keV is a cyclotron produced radioisotope for which a considerable demand exists. 6 7G a is frequently produced through proton or deuteron bombardment of natural or enriched Zn targets (Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973). It is usually separated from Zn by ion exchange chromatography (Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973; van der Walt and Strelow, 1983) or by liquid extraction Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973; Hupf and Beaver, 1970). The isotope is usually supplied in citrate solution which is widely used as 6 7G a Gallium citrate which is a well-established radiopharmaceutical for imaging soft tissue tumors and abscesses. Several routes for large scale production of 6 7G a and the development of medical applications have been reported (Silvester and Thakur, 1970; Dahl and Tilbury, 1972; Steyn and Meyer,1973; Vlatkovic et al., 1975; Neirinckx, 1976; Thakur, 1977). Various attempts were carried out to separate gallium-67 by using different ion exchange methods (Strelow et al., 1971; Das and Ramamoorthy, 1995; Boothe et al.,1991) through the labelling of citrate by using 6 7G a was carried out for medical applications

  5. Evaluations for the choice of the best target material in a accelerator-driven reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhold, P.

    1995-10-01

    From the point of view of the overall credibility of the machine the choice of the best target material play a fundamental role. That has to fulfill at least three requirements: (1) the maximum number of neutrons produced per incident proton; (2) the maximum melting point; (3) the minimum activation under neutron irradiation. A number of different candidates can be investigated, keeping in mind that the first requirement is roughly fulfilled by high atomic number elements: the most popular among them appear to be W, Pb, and Np. While the characteristics for the second point are well known (3410C, 327C and 640C), as well as many evaluations are done about the first point, even if showing numbers ranging roughly a factor of 2 between the lowest and the highest ones, poor attention instead has been given to the third one. As far as the operation/maintenance of the machine is concerned, is important to know the dose rate of the target due to its neutron activation. According to the author`s calculations, for example after one year of 800 MeV/62.5 mA proton irradiation of W, one can have, after one day of decay, dose rates as high as 2*10**6 Sv/hr, cumulative of the effects due to the direct proton beam and to the arising neutron flux. The author made use of the codes MSMPN, ANITA for the neutron activation analysis and of NMTC, ORIGEN for the proton interaction analysis. In particular it`s worth noting how dramatic differences can arise from different isotopic composition, that is for example between natural W or only W-186, due to the very different behavior of the daughter elements as decay time and gamma-energy. For example the dose rate due to the neutron activation alone, after one month of decay, for natural W is a factor of 500 greater than for W-186.

  6. Multi probes measurements at the PALS Facility Research Centre during high intense laser pulse interactions with various target materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Marco Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the interaction of high intense laser pulse with solid target, a large amount of hot electrons is produced and a giant Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP is generated due to the current flowing into the system target–target holder, as well as due to the escaping charged particles in vacuum. EMP production for different target materials is investigated inside and outside the target chamber, using monopole antenna, super wide-band microstrip antenna and Moebius antenna. The EMP consists in a fast transient magnetic field lasting hundreds of nanosecond with frequencies ranging from MHz to tens of GHz. Measurements of magnetic field and return target current in the range of kA were carried out by an inductive target probe (Cikhardt J. et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85 (2014 103507.

  7. The rise of 3-d single-ion magnets in molecular magnetism: towards materials from molecules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jamie M; Harriman, Katie L M; Murugesu, Muralee

    2016-04-21

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) that contain one spin centre (so-called single-ion magnets) theoretically represent the smallest possible unit for spin-based electronic devices. The realisation of this and related technologies, depends on first being able to design systems with sufficiently large energy barriers to magnetisation reversal, U eff , and secondly, on being able to organise these molecules into addressable arrays. In recent years, significant progress has been made towards the former goal - principally as a result of efforts which have been directed towards studying complexes based on highly anisotropic lanthanide ions, such as Tb(iii) and Dy(iii). Since 2013 however, and the remarkable report by Long and co-workers of a linear Fe(i) system exhibiting U eff = 325 K, single-ion systems of transition metals have undergone something of a renaissance in the literature. Not only do they have important lessons to teach us about anisotropy and relaxation dynamics in the quest to enhance U eff , the ability to create strongly coupled spin systems potentially offers access to a whole of host of 1, 2 and 3-dimensional materials with interesting structural and physical properties. This perspective summarises recent progress in this rapidly expanding sub-genre of molecular magnetism from the viewpoint of the synthetic chemist, with a particular focus on the lessons that have so far been learned from single-ion magnets of the d-block, and, the future research directions which we feel are likely to emerge in the coming years.

  8. Targeting a single function of the multifunctional matrix metalloprotease MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Porse, Astrid; Erpicum, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    the enzyme ability to activate proMMP-2 without interfering with the collagenolytic function or the general proteolytic activity of MT1-MMP. Using this antibody, we have shown that the MT1-MMP-catalyzed activation of proMMP-2 is involved in the outgrowth of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells in a collagen......The group of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) is responsible for multiple processes of extracellular matrix remodeling in the healthy body but also for matrix and tissue destruction during cancer invasion and metastasis. The understanding of the contributions from each individual MMP, both in healthy...... and pathological events, has been complicated by the lack of specific inhibitors and the fact that some of the potent MMPs are multifunctional enzymes. These factors have also hampered the setup of therapeutic strategies targeting MMP activity. A tempting target is the membrane-associated MT1-MMP, which has well...

  9. Comparison of different target material options for the European Spallation Source based on certain aspects related to the final disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kókai, Zsófia; Török, Szabina; Zagyvai, Péter; Kiselev, Daniela; Moormann, Rainer; Börcsök, Endre; Zanini, Luca; Takibayev, Alan; Muhrer, Günter; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Janik, József

    2018-02-01

    Different target options have been examined for the European Spallation Source, which is under construction in Lund, Sweden. During the design update phase, parameters and characteristics for the target design have been optimized not only for neutronics but also with respect to the waste characteristics related to the final disposal of the target. A rotating, solid tungsten target was eventually selected as baseline concept; the other options considered included mercury and lead-bismuth (LBE) targets suitable for a pulsed source. Since the licensee is obliged to present a decommissioning plan even before the construction phase starts, the radioactive waste category of the target after full operation time is of crucial importance. The results obtained from a small survey among project partners of 7th Framework Program granted by EU 202247 contract have been used. Waste characteristics of different potential spallation target materials were compared. Based on waste index, the tungsten target is the best alternative and the second one is the mercury target. However, all alternatives have HLW category after a 10 year cooling. Based on heat generation alone all of the options would be below the HLW limit after this cooling period. The LBE is the least advantageous alternative based on waste index and heat generation comparison. These results can be useful in compiling the licensing documents of the ESS facility as the target alternatives can be compared from various aspects related to their disposal.

  10. Single potential electrodeposition of nanostructured battery materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, James Matthew

    different sizes, shapes, and surface areas. This is advantageous because high surface area materials benefit from improved kinetics for solid state transformations and from decreases in mechanical degradation that occurs during the lithiation and delithiation of battery materials. Intermetallic materials are an alternative to conventional anode materials because they have high capacities and react reversibly with lithium at potentials that hinder the dendrite formation of metallic lithium. Unfortunately, the volume expansion associated with the lithiation and delithiation of intermetallic materials is usually large (over 300%). With this in mind a procedure for the electrodeposition of Cu2Sb from aqueous solutions was developed and is presented in this thesis. Cu2Sb is an intermetallic that lithiates at potentials more positive than the potential needed to plate lithium metal, and has a volume expansion less than 100%. Electrodeposition of an intermetallic with a relatively small volume expansion and with high surface area morphology should dramatically reduce material degradation during battery cycling, thus promoting the life of the material. To electrodeposit Cu2Sb from aqueous solutions, soluble salts of Cu2+ and Sb3+ were needed. There are many Cu2+ salts that are highly soluble in water, but most Sb 3+ salts cause formation of Sb2O3 in aqueous solutions. To obtain Sb3+ in aqueous solutions, citric acid was used as a complexing agent. The results presented in this dissertation show that solution speciation plays an important role in the electrochemistry of aqueous citrate solutions of both copper and antimony. The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) presented here show that the reduction potential of Cu2+ shifted in the negative direction and the reduction potential of Sb 3+ shifted in the positive direction with an increase in pH. Also, Cu2Sb films were deposited at a single potential (-1050 mV vs. SSCE) from aqueous solutions at pH 6. We determined that the deposition

  11. Target representation of naturalistic echolocation sequences in single unit responses from the inferior colliculus of big brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Mark I.; Simmons, James A.

    2005-11-01

    Echolocating big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit trains of frequency-modulated (FM) biosonar signals whose duration, repetition rate, and sweep structure change systematically during interception of prey. When stimulated with a 2.5-s sequence of 54 FM pulse-echo pairs that mimic sounds received during search, approach, and terminal stages of pursuit, single neurons (N=116) in the bat's inferior colliculus (IC) register the occurrence of a pulse or echo with an average of <1 spike/sound. Individual IC neurons typically respond to only a segment of the search or approach stage of pursuit, with fewer neurons persisting to respond in the terminal stage. Composite peristimulus-time-histogram plots of responses assembled across the whole recorded population of IC neurons depict the delay of echoes and, hence, the existence and distance of the simulated biosonar target, entirely as on-response latencies distributed across time. Correlated changes in pulse duration, repetition rate, and pulse or echo amplitude do modulate the strength of responses (probability of the single spike actually occurring for each sound), but registration of the target itself remains confined exclusively to the latencies of single spikes across cells. Modeling of echo processing in FM biosonar should emphasize spike-time algorithms to explain the content of biosonar images.

  12. Building a Robust Tumor Profiling Program: Synergy between Next-Generation Sequencing and Targeted Single-Gene Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Hiemenz

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS is a powerful platform for identifying cancer mutations. Routine clinical adoption of NGS requires optimized quality control metrics to ensure accurate results. To assess the robustness of our clinical NGS pipeline, we analyzed the results of 304 solid tumor and hematologic malignancy specimens tested simultaneously by NGS and one or more targeted single-gene tests (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NPM1, FLT3, and JAK2. For samples that passed our validated tumor percentage and DNA quality and quantity thresholds, there was perfect concordance between NGS and targeted single-gene tests with the exception of two FLT3 internal tandem duplications that fell below the stringent pre-established reporting threshold but were readily detected by manual inspection. In addition, NGS identified clinically significant mutations not covered by single-gene tests. These findings confirm NGS as a reliable platform for routine clinical use when appropriate quality control metrics, such as tumor percentage and DNA quality cutoffs, are in place. Based on our findings, we suggest a simple workflow that should facilitate adoption of clinical oncologic NGS services at other institutions.

  13. Building a Robust Tumor Profiling Program: Synergy between Next-Generation Sequencing and Targeted Single-Gene Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemenz, Matthew C; Kadauke, Stephan; Lieberman, David B; Roth, David B; Zhao, Jianhua; Watt, Christopher D; Daber, Robert D; Morrissette, Jennifer J D

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful platform for identifying cancer mutations. Routine clinical adoption of NGS requires optimized quality control metrics to ensure accurate results. To assess the robustness of our clinical NGS pipeline, we analyzed the results of 304 solid tumor and hematologic malignancy specimens tested simultaneously by NGS and one or more targeted single-gene tests (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NPM1, FLT3, and JAK2). For samples that passed our validated tumor percentage and DNA quality and quantity thresholds, there was perfect concordance between NGS and targeted single-gene tests with the exception of two FLT3 internal tandem duplications that fell below the stringent pre-established reporting threshold but were readily detected by manual inspection. In addition, NGS identified clinically significant mutations not covered by single-gene tests. These findings confirm NGS as a reliable platform for routine clinical use when appropriate quality control metrics, such as tumor percentage and DNA quality cutoffs, are in place. Based on our findings, we suggest a simple workflow that should facilitate adoption of clinical oncologic NGS services at other institutions.

  14. Circular revisit orbits design for responsive mission over a single target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taibo; Xiang, Junhua; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-10-01

    The responsive orbits play a key role in addressing the mission of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) because of their capabilities. These capabilities are usually focused on supporting specific targets as opposed to providing global coverage. One subtype of responsive orbits is repeat coverage orbit which is nearly circular in most remote sensing applications. This paper deals with a special kind of repeating ground track orbit, referred to as circular revisit orbit. Different from traditional repeat coverage orbits, a satellite on circular revisit orbit can visit a target site at both the ascending and descending stages in one revisit cycle. This typology of trajectory allows a halving of the traditional revisit time and does a favor to get useful information for responsive applications. However the previous reported numerical methods in some references often cost lots of computation or fail to obtain such orbits. To overcome this difficulty, an analytical method to determine the existence conditions of the solutions to revisit orbits is presented in this paper. To this end, the mathematical model of circular revisit orbit is established under the central gravity model and the J2 perturbation. A constraint function of the circular revisit orbit is introduced, and the monotonicity of that function has been studied. The existent conditions and the number of such orbits are naturally worked out. Taking the launch cost into consideration, optimal design model of circular revisit orbit is established to achieve a best orbit which visits a target twice a day in the morning and in the afternoon respectively for several days. The result shows that it is effective to apply circular revisit orbits in responsive application such as reconnoiter of natural disaster.

  15. Millimeter-Wave Dielectric Properties of Single Crystal Ferroelectric and Dielectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloy, John S.; Korolev, Konstantin A.; Li, Zijing; Afsar, Mohammed N.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2011-01-03

    Transmittance measurements on various single crystal ferroelectric materials over a broad millimeter-wave frequency range have been performed. Frequency dependence of the complex dielectric permittivity has been determined in the millimeter wave region for the first time. The measurements have been employed using a free-space quasi-optical millimeter-wave spectrometer equipped with a set of high power backward wave oscillators (BWOs) as sources of coherent radiation, tunable in the range from 30 - 120 GHz. The uncertainties and possible sources of instrumentation and measurement errors related to the free-space millimeter-wave technique are discussed. This work has demonstrated that precise MMW permittivities can be obtained even on small thin crystals using the BWO quasi-optical approach.

  16. Novel single-beam optical spectrophotometer for fast luminescence, absorption, and reflection measurements of turbid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Werner

    1995-02-01

    A novel spectrophotometer based on the deflection of a secondary element for measuring clear and highly turbid materials within the millisecond time range is developed. The number of optical components of the monochromator is reduced to the absolute minimum. This results in excellent light throughput and a low stray-light level. The spectrophotometer has been designed allowing spectral measurements of absorption, transmission, reflection, and luminescence in a single-beam mode, as documented by various examples. Its design is highly flexible and the price/quality relation might be adopted to the envisaged purpose. The main philosophy is to relocate as many functions as possible form the hardware to the software part of the spectrophotometer. Several novel procedures based on old concepts are proposed. An appropriate computer program providing data acquisition, control functions as well as numerous analytical capabilities is developed on the basis of the compiler language power basic and indispensably 'fast' routines are written in assembler language.

  17. A compact model for single material double work function gate MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changyong, Zheng; Wei, Zhang; Tailong, Xu; Yuehua, Dai; Junning, Chen

    2013-09-01

    An analytical surface potential model for the single material double work function gate (SMDWG) MOSFET is developed based on the exact resultant solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation. The model includes the effects of drain biases, gate oxide thickness, different combinations of S-gate and D-gate length and values of substrate doping concentration. More attention has been paid to seeking to explain the attributes of the SMDWG MOSFET, such as suppressing drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), accelerating carrier drift velocity and device speed. The model is verified by comparison to the simulated results using the device simulator MEDICI. The accuracy of the results obtained using our analytical model is verified using numerical simulations. The model not only offers the physical insight into device physics but also provides the basic designing guideline for the device.

  18. Angle-resolved imaging of single-crystal materials with MeV helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathman, M.D.; Baumann, S.

    1992-01-01

    The simplest form of angle-resolved mapping for single-crystal materials is the creation of a channeling angular scan. Several laboratories have expanded this simple procedure to include mapping as a function of two independent tilts. These angle-resolved images are particularly suited to the assessment of crystal parameters including disorder, lattice location of impurities, and lattice stress. This paper will describe the use of the Charles Evans and Associates RBS-400 scattering chamber for acquisition, display, and analysis of angle-resolved images obtained from backscattered helium ions. Typical data acquisition times are 20 min for a ±2deg X-Y tilt scan with 2500 pixels (8/100deg resolution), and 10 nC per pixel. In addition, we will present a method for automatically aligning crystals for channeling measurements based on this imaging technology. (orig.)

  19. The single lineup paradigm: A new way to manipulate target presence in eyewitness identification experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriet, Chris; Fitzgerald, Ryan J

    2018-02-01

    The suspect in eyewitness lineups may be guilty or innocent. These possibilities are traditionally simulated in eyewitness identification studies using a dual-lineup paradigm: All witnesses observe the same perpetrator and then receive one of two lineups. In this paradigm, the suspect's guilt is manipulated by including the perpetrator in one lineup and an innocent suspect in the other. The lineup is then filled with people matched to either the suspect (resulting in different fillers in perpetrator-present and perpetrator-absent lineups) or to the perpetrator (resulting in the same fillers in each lineup). An inescapable feature of the dual-lineup paradigm is that the perpetrator-present and perpetrator-absent lineups differ not only in the suspect's guilt, but also in their composition. Here, we describe a single-lineup paradigm: Subjects observe one of two perpetrators and then all subjects receive the same lineup containing one of the perpetrators. This alternative paradigm allows manipulation of the suspect's guilt without changing the lineup's composition. In three experiments, we applied the single-lineup paradigm to explore suspect-filler similarity and consistently found that increasing similarity reduced perpetrator identifications but did little to prevent innocent suspect misidentifications. Conversely, when fillers were matched to the perpetrator using a dual-lineup paradigm, increasing similarity reduced identification of perpetrators and innocent suspects. This finding suggests that the effect of filler similarity may depend on the person to whom the fillers are matched. We suggest that the single-lineup paradigm is a more ecologically valid and better controlled approach to creating suspect-matched lineups in laboratory investigations of eyewitness memory than existing procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Joint synthetic aperture radar plus ground moving target indicator from single-channel radar using compressive sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Douglas; Hallquist, Aaron; Anderson, Hyrum

    2017-10-17

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to utilizing an operational single-channel radar to collect and process synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) imagery from a same set of radar returns. In an embodiment, data is collected by randomly staggering a slow-time pulse repetition interval (PRI) over a SAR aperture such that a number of transmitted pulses in the SAR aperture is preserved with respect to standard SAR, but many of the pulses are spaced very closely enabling movers (e.g., targets) to be resolved, wherein a relative velocity of the movers places them outside of the SAR ground patch. The various embodiments of image reconstruction can be based on compressed sensing inversion from undersampled data, which can be solved efficiently using such techniques as Bregman iteration. The various embodiments enable high-quality SAR reconstruction, and high-quality GMTI reconstruction from the same set of radar returns.

  1. Target-mediated drug disposition with drug-drug interaction, Part I: single drug case in alternative formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gilbert; Jusko, William J; Schropp, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) describes drug binding with high affinity to a target such as a receptor. In application TMDD models are often over-parameterized and quasi-equilibrium (QE) or quasi-steady state (QSS) approximations are essential to reduce the number of parameters. However, implementation of such approximations becomes difficult for TMDD models with drug-drug interaction (DDI) mechanisms. Hence, alternative but equivalent formulations are necessary for QE or QSS approximations. To introduce and develop such formulations, the single drug case is reanalyzed. This work opens the route for straightforward implementation of QE or QSS approximations of DDI TMDD models. The manuscript is the first part to introduce DDI TMDD models with QE or QSS approximations.

  2. The “curved lead pathway” method to enable a single lead to reach any two intracranial targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chen-Yu; Yu, Liang-Hong; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Chen, Fan; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Kang, De-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation is an effective way to treat movement disorders, and a powerful research tool for exploring brain functions. This report proposes a “curved lead pathway” method for lead implantation, such that a single lead can reach in sequence to any two intracranial targets. A new type of stereotaxic system for implanting a curved lead to the brain of human/primates was designed, the auxiliary device needed for this method to be used in rat/mouse was fabricated and verified in rat, and the Excel algorithm used for automatically calculating the necessary parameters was implemented. This “curved lead pathway” method of lead implantation may complement the current method, make lead implantation for multiple targets more convenient, and expand the experimental techniques of brain function research.

  3. Road-Aided Ground Slowly Moving Target 2D Motion Estimation for Single-Channel Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhirui Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To detect and estimate ground slowly moving targets in airborne single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR, a road-aided ground moving target indication (GMTI algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, the road area is extracted from a focused SAR image based on radar vision. Second, after stationary clutter suppression in the range-Doppler domain, a moving target is detected and located in the image domain via the watershed method. The target’s position on the road as well as its radial velocity can be determined according to the target’s offset distance and traffic rules. Furthermore, the target’s azimuth velocity is estimated based on the road slope obtained via polynomial fitting. Compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed method can effectively cope with slowly moving targets partly submerged in a stationary clutter spectrum. In addition, the proposed method can be easily extended to a multi-channel system to further improve the performance of clutter suppression and motion estimation. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Porous silicon carbide and aluminum oxide with unidirectional open porosity as model target materials for radioisotope beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Czapski, M; Tardivat, C; Stora, T; Bouville, F; Leloup, J; Luis, R Fernandes; Augusto, R Santos

    2013-01-01

    New silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) of a tailor-made microstructure were produced using the ice-templating technique, which permits controlled pore formation conditions within the material. These prototypes will serve to verify aging of the new advanced target materials under irradiation with proton beams. Before this, the evaluation of their mechanical integrity was made based on the energy deposition spectra produced by FLORA codes. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetically engineered T cells bearing chimeric nanoconstructed receptors harboring TAG-72-specific camelid single domain antibodies as targeting agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad A

    2013-01-01

    Despite the preclinical success of adoptive therapy with T cells bearing chimeric nanoconstructed antigen receptors (CARs), certain limitations of this therapeutic approach such as the immunogenicity of the antigen binding domain, the emergence of tumor cell escape variants and the blocking...... expressing tumor cells, the combination of CD3ζ, OX40, CD28 as well as the CH3-CH2-hinge-hinge domains most efficiently triggered T cell activation. Importantly, CAR mediated functions were not blocked by the soluble TAG-72 antigen at a supraphysiological concentration. Our approach may have the potential...... capacity of soluble antigen still remain. Here, we address these issues using a novel CAR binding moiety based on the oligoclonal camelid single domain antibodies. A unique set of 13 single domain antibodies were selected from an immunized camel phage library based on their target specificity and binding...

  6. Predictive Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer: From the Single Therapeutic Target to a Plethora of Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most frequent cancers and is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Treatments used for CRC may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. The current standard drugs used in chemotherapy are 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in combination with irinotecan and/or oxaliplatin. Most recently, biologic agents have been proven to have therapeutic benefits in metastatic CRC alone or in association with standard chemotherapy. However, patients present different treatment responses, in terms of efficacy and toxicity; therefore, it is important to identify biological markers that can predict the response to therapy and help select patients that would benefit from specific regimens. In this paper, authors review CRC genetic markers that could be useful in predicting the sensitivity/resistance to chemotherapy.

  7. Targeted physiotherapy for patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis: A protocol for a randomised, single-blind controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schache Anthony G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patellofemoral joint (PFJ is one compartment of the knee that is frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA and is a potent source of OA symptoms. However, there is a dearth of evidence for compartment-specific treatments for PFJ OA. Therefore, this project aims to evaluate whether a physiotherapy treatment, targeted to the PFJ, results in greater improvements in pain and physical function than a physiotherapy education intervention in people with symptomatic and radiographic PFJ OA. Methods 90 people with PFJ OA (PFJ-specific history, signs and symptoms and radiographic evidence of PFJ OA will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated into one of two treatments. A randomised controlled trial adhering to CONSORT guidelines will evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks, as well as a home exercise program 4 times/week compared to a physiotherapist-delivered OA education control treatment (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks. Physiotherapy treatment will consist of (i quadriceps muscle retraining; (ii quadriceps and hip muscle strengthening; (iii patellar taping; (iv manual PFJ and soft tissue mobilisation; and (v OA education. Resistance and dosage of exercises will be tailored to the participant's functional level and clinical state. Primary outcomes will be evaluated by a blinded examiner at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months using validated and reliable pain, physical function and perceived global effect scales. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed regression models, including respective baseline scores as a covariate, subjects as a random effect, treatment condition as a fixed factor and the covariate by treatment interaction. Conclusion This RCT is targeting PFJ OA, an important sub-group of knee OA patients, with a specifically designed conservative intervention. The project's outcome will influence PFJ OA rehabilitation, with the

  8. Targeted physiotherapy for patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis: A protocol for a randomised, single-blind controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill; Pandy, Marcus G; Schache, Anthony G; Hinman, Rana S

    2008-01-01

    Background The patellofemoral joint (PFJ) is one compartment of the knee that is frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA) and is a potent source of OA symptoms. However, there is a dearth of evidence for compartment-specific treatments for PFJ OA. Therefore, this project aims to evaluate whether a physiotherapy treatment, targeted to the PFJ, results in greater improvements in pain and physical function than a physiotherapy education intervention in people with symptomatic and radiographic PFJ OA. Methods 90 people with PFJ OA (PFJ-specific history, signs and symptoms and radiographic evidence of PFJ OA) will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated into one of two treatments. A randomised controlled trial adhering to CONSORT guidelines will evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks, as well as a home exercise program 4 times/week) compared to a physiotherapist-delivered OA education control treatment (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks). Physiotherapy treatment will consist of (i) quadriceps muscle retraining; (ii) quadriceps and hip muscle strengthening; (iii) patellar taping; (iv) manual PFJ and soft tissue mobilisation; and (v) OA education. Resistance and dosage of exercises will be tailored to the participant's functional level and clinical state. Primary outcomes will be evaluated by a blinded examiner at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months using validated and reliable pain, physical function and perceived global effect scales. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed regression models, including respective baseline scores as a covariate, subjects as a random effect, treatment condition as a fixed factor and the covariate by treatment interaction. Conclusion This RCT is targeting PFJ OA, an important sub-group of knee OA patients, with a specifically designed conservative intervention. The project's outcome will influence PFJ OA rehabilitation, with the potential to reduce

  9. Phonons of single quintuple Bi 2 Te 3 and Bi 2 Se 3 films and bulk materials

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Wei

    2011-03-10

    Phonons of single quintuple films of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 and corresponding bulk materials are calculated in detail by MedeA (a trademark of Materials Design) and Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP). The calculated results with and without spin-orbit couplings are compared, and the important roles that the spin-orbit coupling plays in these materials are discussed. A symmetry breaking caused by the anharmonic potentials around Bi atoms in the single quintuple films is identified and discussed. The observed Raman intensity features in Bi 2Te3 and Bi2Se3 quintuple films are explained. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  10. Anatomic Double Bundle single tunnel Foreign Material Free ACL-Reconstruction - a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmet, Gernot

    2011-10-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) consists of two bundles, the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral bundle (PM). Double bundle reconstructions appear to give better rotational stability. The usual technique is to make two tunnels in the femur and two in the tibia. This is difficult and in small knees may not even be possible. We have developed a foreign material free press fit fixation for double bundle ACL reconstruction using a single femoral tunnel ((R)). This is based on the ALL PRESS FIT ACL reconstruction. It is suitable for the most common medium and, otherwise difficult, small sizes of knees. Using diamond edged wet grinding hollow reamers, bone cylinders in different diameters are harvested from the implantation tunnels of the tibia and femur and used for the press fit fixation. Using the press fit technique the graft is first fixed in tibia. It is then similarly fixed under tension in the femoral side with the knee in 120 degree flexion. This is called Bottom To Top Fixation (BTT). On extending the knee the graft tension is self adapting. Depending on the size of the individual knee, the diameter of the femoral bone plug is varied from 8 to 13 mm to achieve an anatomic spread with a double bundle-like insertion. The tibia tunnel can be applied with two 7 or 8 mm diameter tunnels overlapping to a semi oval tunnel between 10 to 13 mm. Since May 2003 we have carried out ACL-reconstructions with Hamstring grafts without foreign material using the ALL PRESS FIT technique. Initially, an 8 mm press fit fixation was used proximally with good results. Since April 2008, the range of diameters was increased up to 13 mm. The results of the Lachman tests have been good to excellent. Results of the Pivot shift test suggested more stability with femoral broader diameters of 9,5 to 13 mm. The foreign material free fixation of ham-string in the ALL PRESS FIT Bottom To Top Fixation is a successful method for ACL Reconstruction. The Diamond Instruments and tubed guiding

  11. Single-well tracer methods for hydrogeologic evaluation of target aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.

    1994-11-01

    Designing an efficient well field for an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) project requires measuring local groundwater flow parameters as well as estimating horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity. Effective porosity determines the volume of aquifer needed to store a given volume of heated or chilled water. Ground-water flow velocity governs the migration of the thermal plume, and dispersion and heat exchange along the flow path reduces the thermal intensity of the recovered plume. Stratigraphic variations in the aquifer will affect plume dispersion, may bias the apparent rate of migration of the plume, and can prevent efficient hydraulic communication between wells. Single-well tracer methods using a conservative flow tracer such as bromide, along with pumping tests and water-level measurements, provide a rapid and cost-effective means for estimating flow parameters. A drift-and-pumpback tracer test yields effective porosity and flow velocity. Point-dilution tracer testing, using new instrumentation for downhole tracer measurement and a new method for calibrating the point-dilution test itself, yields depth-discrete hydraulic conductivity as it is affected by stratigraphy, and can be used to estimate well transmissivity. Experience in conducting both drift-and-pumpback and point-dilution tests at three different test sites has yielded important information that highlights both the power and the limitations of the single-well tracer methods. These sites are the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center (UASRC) ATES well field and the VA Medical Center (VA) ATES well field, both located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and the Hanford bioremediation test site north of Richland, Washington

  12. Semi-Inclusive Single Pion Electroproduction From Deuteron and Proton Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantarians, Narbe [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Semi-inclusive electroproduction of all three pion flavors (π+, π-0) from both deuteron and proton targets is measured for Q^2 > 1.1 GeV2, 0.12 < x < 0.48, 0.3 < z < 0.7. and Mx > 1.4 GeV. We study the PT, Z, and Φh dependences for the ratio of yields d(e,e',π)X/p(e,e'π)X. From these ratios it is possible to study the d/u valence quark distributions for the neutron and proton as well as the ratio of (current) fragmentation functions D-/D+. The data presented is from Jefferson Lab experiment PR94-102, using an electron beam with energy 5.769 GeV with beam current of 7nA. The results agree with previous data as well as provide an extended kinematic coverage.

  13. Therapeutic Effect of Novel Single-Stranded RNAi Agent Targeting Periostin in Eyes with Retinal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahito Nakama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neovascularization (NV due to retinal ischemia remains one of the principal causes of vision impairment in patients with ischemic retinal diseases. We recently reported that periostin (POSTN may play a role in the development of preretinal fibrovascular membranes, but its role in retinal NV has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of POSTN in the ischemic retinas of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinal NV. We also studied the function of POSTN on retinal NV using Postn KO mice and human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs in culture. In addition, we used a novel RNAi agent, NK0144, which targets POSTN to determine its effect on the development of retinal NV. Our results showed that the expression of POSTN was increased in the vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and M2 macrophages in ischemic retinas. POSTN promoted the ischemia-induced retinal NV by Akt phosphorylation through integrin αvβ3. NK0144 had a greater inhibitory effect than canonical double-stranded siRNA on preretinal pathological NV in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest a causal relationship between POSTN and retinal NV, and indicate a potential therapeutic role of intravitreal injection of NK0144 for retinal neovascular diseases.

  14. Targeting Aging with Functional Food: Pasta with Opuntia Single-Arm Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Candore, Giuseppina; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Aldo; Gambino, Caterina Maria; Ruisi, Paolo; Caruso, Calogero; Vasto, Sonya; Accardi, Giulia

    2017-10-10

    Interventions to extend life span represent the new perspective in aging investigation. Healthy dietary habits are important modifiable factors that can favor a healthy aging phenotype. Many studies have demonstrated benefits for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus resulting from the traditional Mediterranean foods. Opuntia Ficus Indica (OFI), widespread in the Mediterranean basin, belongs to the Cactaceae family. It is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, products containing extracts from OFI fruits or cladodes have been used to control obesity and other metabolic parameters, such as glycemia and lipid profile. The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of pasta with 3% of OFI cladode extracts added to show its beneficial effect in human health. We performed a single arm longitudinal intervention study in 42 healthy volunteers, administrating 500 g/week of this functional pasta for 30 days. Our pasta had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties with putative effect on the aging process and related metabolic diseases. We also demonstrated a hypoglycemic effect. The results are preliminary, but it is possible to speculate that our pasta could be considered an effective food for the prevention of age-related metabolic disorders.

  15. Locating sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material smuggling: a spatial information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  16. Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  17. Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube-based fuel cell benchmarked against US DOE 2017 technical targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Neetu; Ramesh, Palanisamy; Bekyarova, Elena; Tian, Xiaojuan; Wang, Feihu; Itkis, Mikhail E; Haddon, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Chemically modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with varying degrees of functionalization were utilized for the fabrication of SWNT thin film catalyst support layers (CSLs) in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), which were suitable for benchmarking against the US DOE 2017 targets. Use of the optimum level of SWNT -COOH functionality allowed the construction of a prototype SWNT-based PEMFC with total Pt loading of 0.06 mg(Pt)/cm²--well below the value of 0.125 mg(Pt)/cm² set as the US DOE 2017 technical target for total Pt group metals (PGM) loading. This prototype PEMFC also approaches the technical target for the total Pt content per kW of power (<0.125 g(PGM)/kW) at cell potential 0.65 V: a value of 0.15 g(Pt)/kW was achieved at 80°C/22 psig testing conditions, which was further reduced to 0.12 g(Pt)/kW at 35 psig back pressure.

  18. Accurate mitochondrial DNA sequencing using off-target reads provides a single test to identify pathogenic point mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Helen R; Pyle, Angela; Blakely, Emma L; Alston, Charlotte L; Duff, Jennifer; Hudson, Gavin; Horvath, Rita; Wilson, Ian J; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Taylor, Robert W; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are a common cause of inherited metabolic disease and can be due to mutations affecting mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA. The current diagnostic approach involves the targeted resequencing of mitochondrial DNA and candidate nuclear genes, usually proceeds step by step, and is time consuming and costly. Recent evidence suggests that variations in mitochondrial DNA sequence can be obtained from whole-exome sequence data, raising the possibility of a comprehensive single diagnostic test to detect pathogenic point mutations. We compared the mitochondrial DNA sequence derived from off-target exome reads with conventional mitochondrial DNA Sanger sequencing in 46 subjects. Mitochondrial DNA sequences can be reliably obtained using three different whole-exome sequence capture kits. Coverage correlates with the relative amount of mitochondrial DNA in the original genomic DNA sample, heteroplasmy levels can be determined using variant and total read depths, and-providing there is a minimum read depth of 20-fold-rare sequencing errors occur at a rate similar to that observed with conventional Sanger sequencing. This offers the prospect of using whole-exome sequence in a diagnostic setting to screen not only all protein coding nuclear genes but also all mitochondrial DNA genes for pathogenic mutations. Off-target mitochondrial DNA reads can also be used to assess quality control and maternal ancestry, inform on ethnic origin, and allow genetic disease association studies not previously anticipated with existing whole-exome data sets.

  19. Single-molecule motions and interactions in live cells reveal target search dynamics in mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Schroeder, Jeremy W; Gao, Burke; Simmons, Lyle A; Biteen, Julie S

    2015-12-15

    MutS is responsible for initiating the correction of DNA replication errors. To understand how MutS searches for and identifies rare base-pair mismatches, we characterized the dynamic movement of MutS and the replisome in real time using superresolution microscopy and single-molecule tracking in living cells. We report that MutS dynamics are heterogeneous in cells, with one MutS population exploring the nucleoid rapidly, while another MutS population moves to and transiently dwells at the replisome region, even in the absence of appreciable mismatch formation. Analysis of MutS motion shows that the speed of MutS is correlated with its separation distance from the replisome and that MutS motion slows when it enters the replisome region. We also show that mismatch detection increases MutS speed, supporting the model for MutS sliding clamp formation after mismatch recognition. Using variants of MutS and the replication processivity clamp to impair mismatch repair, we find that MutS dynamically moves to and from the replisome before mismatch binding to scan for errors. Furthermore, a block to DNA synthesis shows that MutS is only capable of binding mismatches near the replisome. It is well-established that MutS engages in an ATPase cycle, which is necessary for signaling downstream events. We show that a variant of MutS with a nucleotide binding defect is no longer capable of dynamic movement to and from the replisome, showing that proper nucleotide binding is critical for MutS to localize to the replisome in vivo. Our results provide mechanistic insight into the trafficking and movement of MutS in live cells as it searches for mismatches.

  20. Gene expression, single nucleotide variant and fusion transcript discovery in archival material from breast tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Norton

    Full Text Available Advantages of RNA-Seq over array based platforms are quantitative gene expression and discovery of expressed single nucleotide variants (eSNVs and fusion transcripts from a single platform, but the sensitivity for each of these characteristics is unknown. We measured gene expression in a set of manually degraded RNAs, nine pairs of matched fresh-frozen, and FFPE RNA isolated from breast tumor with the hybridization based, NanoString nCounter (226 gene panel and with whole transcriptome RNA-Seq using RiboZeroGold ScriptSeq V2 library preparation kits. We performed correlation analyses of gene expression between samples and across platforms. We then specifically assessed whole transcriptome expression of lincRNA and discovery of eSNVs and fusion transcripts in the FFPE RNA-Seq data. For gene expression in the manually degraded samples, we observed Pearson correlations of >0.94 and >0.80 with NanoString and ScriptSeq protocols, respectively. Gene expression data for matched fresh-frozen and FFPE samples yielded mean Pearson correlations of 0.874 and 0.783 for NanoString (226 genes and ScriptSeq whole transcriptome protocols respectively, p<2x10(-16. Specifically for lincRNAs, we observed superb Pearson correlation (0.988 between matched fresh-frozen and FFPE pairs. FFPE samples across NanoString and RNA-Seq platforms gave a mean Pearson correlation of 0.838. In FFPE libraries, we detected 53.4% of high confidence SNVs and 24% of high confidence fusion transcripts. Sensitivity of fusion transcript detection was not overcome by an increase in depth of sequencing up to 3-fold (increase from ~56 to ~159 million reads. Both NanoString and ScriptSeq RNA-Seq technologies yield reliable gene expression data for degraded and FFPE material. The high degree of correlation between NanoString and RNA-Seq platforms suggests discovery based whole transcriptome studies from FFPE material will produce reliable expression data. The RiboZeroGold ScriptSeq protocol

  1. Bringing in the target audience in bystander social marketing materials for communities: suggestions for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G

    2011-06-01

    The Know Your Power™ social marketing campaign images model active bystander behaviors that target audience members can use in situations where sexual and relationship violence and stalking are occurring, have occurred, or have the potential to occur. In this practitioner note, we describe strategies that we have used to engage target audience members in the development of the social marketing campaign that we hope can be used by practitioners. We give examples from the development and evaluation of the Know Your Power(TM) social marketing campaign that used focus group and other types of feedback from the target audience to inform the direction of the campaign.

  2. Octa-ammonium POSS-conjugated single-walled carbon nanotubes as vehicles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Naderi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have unique physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, novel properties can be developed by attachment or encapsulation of functional groups. These unique properties facilitate the use of CNTs in drug delivery. We developed a new nanomedicine consisting of a nanocarrier, cell-targeting molecule, and chemotherapeutic drug and assessed its efficacy in vitro. Methods: The efficacy of a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-based nanoconjugate system is assessed in the targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX to cancer cells. SWCNTs were oxidized and reacted with octa-ammonium polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (octa-ammonium POSS to render them biocompatible and water dispersable. The functionalized SWCNTs were loaded with PTX, a chemotherapeutic agent toxic to cancer cells, and Tn218 antibodies for cancer cell targeting. The nanohybrid composites were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared (UV–Vis–NIR. Additionally, their cytotoxic effects on Colon cancer cell (HT-29 and Breast cancer cell (MCF-7 lines were assessed in vitro. Results: TEM, FTIR, and UV–Vis–NIR studies confirmed side-wall functionalization of SWCNT with COOH-groups, PTX, POSS, and antibodies. Increased cell death was observed with PTX–POSS–SWCNT, PTX–POSS–Ab–SWCNT, and free PTX compared to functionalized-SWCNT (f-SWCNT, POSS–SWCNT, and cell-only controls at 48 and 72 h time intervals in both cell lines. At all time intervals, there was no significant cell death in the POSS–SWCNT samples compared to cell-only controls. Conclusion: The PTX-based nanocomposites were shown to be as cytotoxic as free PTX. This important finding indicates successful release of PTX from the nanocomposites and further reiterates the potential of SWCNTs to deliver drugs directly to targeted cells and tissues.

  3. Ethylenediaminium di(2-nitrophenolate) single crystals as materials for optical second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraj, M.; Ravi, G.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.

    2014-09-01

    An organic second harmonic generation (SHG) active material, ethylenediaminium di(2-nitrophenolate) (EDA2NP) was synthesized through proton transfer reaction. Good quality single crystals of dimension 6×4×2 mm3 were grown by solvent evaporation method using ethanol as a solvent for the first time in literature. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectrum was recorded to identify the presence of various functional groups and the molecular structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum. Thermal analyses of the grown crystal were carried out using thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. Optical (UV-vis-NIR) analysis shows that the grown crystals were found to be transparent (450-2500 nm) in the entire visible region. The existence of second harmonic generation signals was observed by using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm.

  4. Non-destructive characterization of materials by single-sided NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goga, Nicolae-Octavian

    2007-01-01

    The experiments conducted in this work demonstrate the efficiency and sensitivity of single-sided NMR for investigating macromolecular materials on large time and length scales. Elastomers can readily be characterized by unilateral NMR of protons in terms of a variety of parameters, which correlate with the overall molecular mobility. In this way information about the cross-link density, state of cure and strain, the effects of aging and product heterogeneity can obtained. For these purposes, the NMR-MOUSE was used to optimize product development and to monitor product and production quality on-line. The sensor is also suitable for nondestructive probing of the mechanical deformation in cross-linked elastomers. A special magnet design that fits a stress-strain device has been used for complementary investigation of a series of different rubber stripes during mechanical testing. The profile NMR-MOUSE was found to be a unique tool for the characterization of changes induced by the UV irradiation in natural rubber. The aging profiles were interpreted for the first time based on a novel model in which the radiation absorption coefficient depends on the depth in the sample. (orig.)

  5. A study of the effect of binary oxide materials in a single droplet vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, R.C., E-mail: rch@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Dinh, T.N.; Manickam, L.T. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    In an effort to explore fundamental mechanisms that may govern the effect of melt material on vapor explosion's triggering, fine fragmentation and energetics, a series of experiments using a binary-oxide mixture with eutectic and non-eutectic compositions were performed. Interactions of a hot liquid (WO{sub 3}–CaO) droplet and a volatile liquid (water) were investigated in well-controlled, externally triggered, single-droplet experiments conducted in the Micro-interactions in steam explosion experiments (MISTEE) facility. The tests were visualized by means of a synchronized digital cinematography and continuous X-ray radiography system, called simultaneous high-speed acquisition of X-ray radiography and photography (SHARP). The acquired images followed by further analysis indicate milder interactions for the droplet with non-eutectic melt composition in the tests with low melt superheat, whereas no evident differences between eutectic and non-eutectic melt compositions regarding bubble dynamics, energetics and melt preconditioning was observed in the tests with higher melt superheat.

  6. The effect of binary oxide materials on a single droplet vapor explosion triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, R.C.; Manickam, L.T.; Dinh, T.N. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    In order to explore the fundamental mechanism dictated by the material influence on triggering, fine fragmentation and subsequent vapor explosion energetics, a series of experiments using a mixture of eutectic and non-eutectic binary oxide were initiated. Dynamics of the hot liquid (WO{sub 3}-CaO) droplet and the volatile liquid (water) were investigated in the MISTEE (Micro-Interactions in Steam Explosion Experiments) facility by performing well-controlled, externally triggered, single-droplet experiments, using a high-speed visualization system with synchronized digital cinematography and continuous X-ray radiography, called SHARP (Simultaneous High-speed Acquisition of X-ray Radiography and Photography). The acquired images followed by further analysis showed a milder interaction for the non-eutectic melt composition for the tests with low melt superheat, whether no evident differences between eutectic and non-eutectic melt compositions regarding bubble dynamics, energetics and melt preconditioning was perceived for the high melt superheat tests. (author)

  7. A study of the effect of binary oxide materials in a single droplet vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, R.C.; Dinh, T.N.; Manickam, L.T.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to explore fundamental mechanisms that may govern the effect of melt material on vapor explosion's triggering, fine fragmentation and energetics, a series of experiments using a binary-oxide mixture with eutectic and non-eutectic compositions were performed. Interactions of a hot liquid (WO 3 –CaO) droplet and a volatile liquid (water) were investigated in well-controlled, externally triggered, single-droplet experiments conducted in the Micro-interactions in steam explosion experiments (MISTEE) facility. The tests were visualized by means of a synchronized digital cinematography and continuous X-ray radiography system, called simultaneous high-speed acquisition of X-ray radiography and photography (SHARP). The acquired images followed by further analysis indicate milder interactions for the droplet with non-eutectic melt composition in the tests with low melt superheat, whereas no evident differences between eutectic and non-eutectic melt compositions regarding bubble dynamics, energetics and melt preconditioning was observed in the tests with higher melt superheat

  8. Non-destructive characterization of materials by single-sided NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goga, Nicolae-Octavian

    2007-08-20

    The experiments conducted in this work demonstrate the efficiency and sensitivity of single-sided NMR for investigating macromolecular materials on large time and length scales. Elastomers can readily be characterized by unilateral NMR of protons in terms of a variety of parameters, which correlate with the overall molecular mobility. In this way information about the cross-link density, state of cure and strain, the effects of aging and product heterogeneity can obtained. For these purposes, the NMR-MOUSE was used to optimize product development and to monitor product and production quality on-line. The sensor is also suitable for nondestructive probing of the mechanical deformation in cross-linked elastomers. A special magnet design that fits a stress-strain device has been used for complementary investigation of a series of different rubber stripes during mechanical testing. The profile NMR-MOUSE was found to be a unique tool for the characterization of changes induced by the UV irradiation in natural rubber. The aging profiles were interpreted for the first time based on a novel model in which the radiation absorption coefficient depends on the depth in the sample. (orig.)

  9. Single Point Incremental Forming to increase material knowledge and production flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habraken, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, manufactured pieces can be divided into two groups: mass production and production of low volume number of parts. Within the second group (prototyping or small batch production), an emerging solution relies on Incremental Sheet Forming or ISF. ISF refers to processes where the plastic deformation occurs by repeated contact with a relatively small tool. More specifically, many publications over the past decade investigate Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) where the final shape is determined only by the tool movement. This manufacturing process is characterized by the forming of sheets by means of a CNC controlled generic tool stylus, with the sheets clamped by means of a non-workpiece-specific clamping system and in absence of a partial or a full die. The advantage is no tooling requirements and often enhanced formability, however it poses a challenge in term of process control and accuracy assurance. Note that the most commonly used materials in incremental forming are aluminum and steel alloys however other alloys are also used especially for medical industry applications, such as cobalt and chromium alloys, stainless steel and titanium alloys. Some scientists have applied incremental forming on PVC plates and other on sandwich panels composed of propylene with mild steel and aluminum metallic foams with aluminum sheet metal. Micro incremental forming of thin foils has also been developed. Starting from the scattering of the results of Finite Element (FE) simulations, when one tries to predict the tool force (see SPIF benchmark of 2014 Numisheet conference), we will see how SPIF and even micro SPIF (process applied on thin metallic sheet with a few grains within the thickness) allow investigating the material behavior. This lecture will focus on the identification of constitutive laws, on the SPIF forming mechanisms and formability as well as the failure mechanism. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain SPIF formability, they will be

  10. Influence of Different Moderator Materials on Characteristics of Neutron Fluxes Generated under Irradiation of Lead Target with Proton Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Petrochenkov, S A; Golovatyuk, V M; Krivopustov, M I; Bamblevski, V P; Westmeier, W; Odoj, R; Brandt, R; Robotham, H; Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Zamani-Valassiadou, M

    2002-01-01

    Neutron fields generated in extended heavy (Z\\geq 82) targets under irradiation with proton beams at energies in the range of 1 GeV are investigated. Influence of different moderators on the spectra and multiplicities of neutrons escaping the surface of the assembly consisting of a lead target (\\varnothing 8 cm\\times 20 cm or \\varnothing 8cm\\times 50 cm) screened by variable thickness of polyethylene or graphite, respectively, was compared in the present work. It is shown that the effectiveness of graphite as a material used in such assemblies to moderate spallation neutrons down to thermal energies is significantly lower than that of paraffin.

  11. Advances in material design for regenerative medicine, drug delivery and targeting/imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the major breakthroughs and paradigm shifts in medicine to date have occurred due to innovations and materials and/or application/implementation of materials in clinical medicine. Artificial heart valves, implantable cardiac devices, limb prosthesis, cardiovascular stents, orthopedic implan...

  12. Single-crystal growth of ceria-based materials; Einkristallzuechtung von Materialien auf der Basis von Cerdioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbrich, Gregor

    2015-07-23

    In this work it could be shown that Skull-Melting is a suitable method for growing ceria single crystals. Twenty different ceria-based single crystals could be manufactured. It was possible to dope ceria single crystals with Gd, Sm, Y, Zr, Ti, Ta, and Pr in different concentrations. Also co-doping with the named metals was realized. However, there remain some problems for growing ceria-based single crystals by Skull-Melting. As ignition metal zirconium was used because no ceria-based material works well. For that reason all single crystals show small zirconium contamination. Another problem is the formation of oxygen by the heat-induced reduction of ceria during the melting process. Because of that the skull of sintered material is often destroyed by gas pressure. This problem had to be solved individually for every single crystal. The obtained single crystals were characterized using different methods. To ensure the single crystal character the y were examined by Laue diffraction. All manufactured crystals are single crystals. Also powder diffraction patterns of the milled and oxidized samples were measured. For the determination of symmetry and metric the structural parameters were analyzed by the Rietveld method. All synthesized materials crystallize in space group Fm-3m known from calcium fluoride. The cubic lattice parameter a was determined for all crystals. In the case of series with different cerium and zirconium concentrations a linear correlation between cerium content and cubic lattice parameter was detected. The elemental composition was determined by WDX. All crystals show a homogeneous elemental distribution. The oxygen content was calculated because the WDX method isn't useful for determination.

  13. PET/CT-guided percutaneous liver mass biopsies and ablations: Targeting accuracy of a single 20 s breath-hold PET acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyn, P.B.; Tatli, S.; Sahni, V.A.; Sadow, C.A.; Forgione, K.; Mauri, G.; Morrison, P.R.; Catalano, P.J.; Silverman, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether a single 20 s breath-hold positron-emission tomography (PET) acquisition obtained during combined PET/computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous liver biopsy or ablation procedures has the potential to target 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-avid liver masses as accurately as up to 180 s breath-hold PET acquisitions. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 10 adult patients with 13 liver masses who underwent FDG PET/CT-guided percutaneous biopsies (n = 5) or ablations (n = 5). PET was acquired as nine sequential 20 s, monitored, same-level breath-hold frames and CT was acquired in one monitored breath-hold. Twenty, 40, 60, and 180 s PET datasets were reconstructed. Two blinded readers marked tumour centres on randomized PET and CT datasets. Three-dimensional spatial localization differences between PET datasets and either 180 s PET or CT were analysed using multiple regression analyses. Statistical tests were two-sided and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Targeting differences between 20 s PET and 180 s PET ranged from 0.7–20.3 mm (mean 5.3 ± 4.4 mm; median 4.3) and were not statistically different from 40 or 60 s PET (p = 0.74 and 0.91, respectively). Targeting differences between 20 s PET and CT ranged from 1.4–36 mm (mean 9.6 ± 7.1 mm; median 8.2 mm) and were not statistically different from 40, 60, or 180 s PET (p = 0.84, 0.77, and 0.35, respectively). Conclusion: Single 20 s breath-hold PET acquisitions from PET/CT-guided percutaneous liver procedures have the potential to target FDG-avid liver masses with equivalent accuracy to 180 s summed, breath-hold PET acquisitions and may facilitate strategies that improve image registration and shorten procedure times

  14. High-Purity Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: A Key Enabling Material in Emerging Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Jacques; Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Finnie, Paul; Lopinski, Gregory; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2017-10-17

    Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) are emerging as a promising material for high-performance, high-density devices as well as low-cost, large-area macroelectronics produced via additive manufacturing methods such as roll-to-roll printing. Proof-of-concept demonstrations have indicated the potential of sc-SWCNTs for digital electronics, radiofrequency circuits, radiation hard memory, improved sensors, and flexible, stretchable, conformable electronics. Advances toward commercial applications bring numerous opportunities in SWCNT materials development and characterization as well as fabrication processes and printing technologies. Commercialization in electronics will require large quantities of sc-SWCNTs, and the challenge for materials science is the development of scalable synthesis, purification, and enrichment methods. While a few synthesis routes have shown promising results in making near-monochiral SWCNTs, gram quantities are available only for small-diameter sc-SWCNTs, which underperform in transistors. Most synthesis routes yield mixtures of SWCNTs, typically 30% metallic and 70% semiconducting, necessitating the extraction of sc-SWCNTs from their metallic counterparts in high purity using scalable postsynthetic methods. Numerous routes to obtain high-purity sc-SWCNTs from raw soot have been developed, including density-gradient ultracentrifugation, chromatography, aqueous two-phase extraction, and selective DNA or polymer wrapping. By these methods (termed sorting or enrichment), >99% sc-SWCNT content can be achieved. Currently, all of these approaches have drawbacks and limitations with respect to electronics applications, such as excessive dilution, expensive consumables, and high ionic impurity content. Excess amount of dispersant is a common challenge that hinders direct inclusion of sc-SWCNTs into electronic devices. At present, conjugated polymer extraction may represent the most practical route to sc-SWCNTs. By the use of

  15. Ultra-high vacuum target assembly for charged particle irradiations in the materials research field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressers, J.; Cassanelli, G.; Cat, R. de; Kohnen, H.; Gherardi, G.

    1978-01-01

    A target assembly designed for ion irradiation and ion implantation experiments on different particle accelerators is described. It consists of a target chamber separated from the beam line by a thin metal window, thus allowing implantations to be carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Homogeneous in-depth distribution of the implanted ion species is realized by rotating the target about an axis perpendicular to the ion beam (rocking). The target holder is driven by means of a stepping motor with a constant step angle and a rocking device controller containing the required rocking angle-dwell time relation. Ion beam homogeneity over a sufficiently large target area is arrived at by transforming the Gaussian beam intensity profile into a flat beam intensity distribution by means of an electrostatic ring lens. The beam intensity profile is monitored by means of a specially designed ion beam monitor based on the Nipkov disc principle. A toroidal beam current monitoring transformer continuously measures the total beam current. Beam scanners and current measuring collimators complete the beam analysing equipment

  16. Analyses of significant features of L-Prolinium Picrate single crystal: An excellent material for non linear optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thukral, Kanika [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR- National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, 110012 (India); CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110 012 (India); Vijayan, N., E-mail: nvijayan@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110 012 (India); Vij, Mahak [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110 012 (India); Nagaraja, C.M. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, 140001, Punjab (India); Jayaramakrishnan, V. [Centro De Investigations En Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Colonia Lomas del Campestre, León, Guanajuato, Código Postal, 37150 (Mexico); Jayalakshmy, M.S. [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, 686560 (India); Kant, Rajni [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu Tawi, 180006 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Today the fundamental aspect of the researchers is to explore maximum physical properties of the material for device fabrication. In the present article, single crystal X-ray diffraction has been carried out to verify the formation of the synthesized compound. In addition to that, powder X-ray diffraction has been performed to obtain diffraction pattern of L-Prolinium Picrate single crystal. The strain present inside the single crystal was measured using Hall-Williamson equation from PXRD measurements. The dark current and photon current was obtained from photoconductivity technique whose plot depicted that the sample was negative photoconducting material. Optical homogeneity of the single crystal was analyzed using birefringence technique. Its resistance towards Nd: YAG laser was scrutinized for L-Prolinium Picrate single crystal by applying 1 pulse per second. Different thermal parameters like thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity and specific heat were computed using photo-pyroelectric technique. Solid state parameters were calculated from Clausius Mossotti relation by taking structural information of the title compound. Also, optical parameters like refractive index, reflectance etc were calculated through UV–Vis–NIR analysis. - Highlights: • An optically transparent L-Prolinium Picrate single crystal was harvested from slow evaporation solution growth technique. • The compound shows negative photoconducting nature. • Its optical homogeneity was analyzed using birefringence. • Single shot of laser was applied to sample to measure laser damage threshold value. • The thermal parameters were computed from Photopyroelectric technique.

  17. Receptor-targeted lentiviral vectors are exceptionally sensitive toward the biophysical properties of the displayed single-chain Fv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Thorsten; Hanisch, Lydia J; Muth, Anke; Honegger, Annemarie; Abken, Hinrich; Plückthun, Andreas; Buchholz, Christian J; Schneider, Irene C

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of applications require the expression of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) fusion proteins in mammalian cells at the cell surface membrane. Here we assessed the CD30-specific scFv HRS3, which is used in immunotherapy, for its ability to retarget lentiviral vectors (LVs) to CD30 and to mediate selective gene transfer into CD30-positive cells. Fused to the C-terminus of the type-II transmembrane protein hemagglutinin (H) of measles virus and expressed in LV packaging cells, gene transfer mediated by the released LV particles was inefficient. A series of point mutations in the scFv framework regions addressing its biophysical properties, which substantially improved production and increased the melting temperature without impairing its kinetic binding behavior to CD30, also improved the performance of LV particles. Gene transfer into CD30-positive cells increased ∼100-fold due to improved transport of the H-scFv protein to the plasma membrane. Concomitantly, LV particle aggregation and syncytia formation in packaging cells were substantially reduced. The data suggest that syncytia formation can be triggered by trans-cellular dimerization of H-scFv proteins displayed on adjacent cells. Taken together, we show that the biophysical properties of the targeting ligand have a decisive role for the gene transfer efficiency of receptor-targeted LVs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Educational Films as Part of Study Materials for Vulnerable Target Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Javrh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical approaches to special, didactically augmented visual and audio study materials for adults. We also define the narrow sense of the concept of an educational film as a well-rounded visual material that is structured didactically and contains inherent educational goals both in its design and application. The use of the word “film” instead of “video” is legitimized by fulfilling the condition of being a semantically complete and well-rounded product. In the conclusion, we present the findings obtained in Slovenia through experience and practice in the education of vulnerable groups of adults by employing such didactic materials.

  19. Design and Generation of Humanized Single-chain Fv Derived from Mouse Hybridoma for Potential Targeting Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantasup, Kannika; Chantima, Warangkana; Sangma, Chak; Poomputsa, Kanokwan; Dharakul, Tararaj

    2015-12-01

    Single-chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) are attractive candidates for targeted immunotherapy in several human diseases. In this study, a concise humanization strategy combined with an optimized production method for humanizing scFvs was successfully employed. Two antibody clones, one directed against the hemagglutinin of H5N1 influenza virus, the other against EpCAM, a cancer biomarker, were used to demonstrate the validity of the method. Heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) variable regions of immunoglobulin genes from mouse hybridoma cells were sequenced and subjected to the construction of mouse scFv 3-D structure. Based on in silico modeling, the humanized version of the scFv was designed via complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting with the retention of mouse framework region (FR) residues identified by primary sequence analysis. Root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value between mouse and humanized scFv structures was calculated to evaluate the preservation of CDR conformation. Mouse and humanized scFv genes were then constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using this method, we successfully generated humanized scFvs that retained the targeting activity of their respective mouse scFv counterparts. In addition, the humanized scFvs were engineered with a C-terminal cysteine residue (hscFv-C) for site-directed conjugation for use in future targeting applications. The hscFv-C expression was extensively optimized to improve protein production yield. The protocol yielded a 20-fold increase in production of hscFv-Cs in E. coli periplasm. The strategy described in this study may be applicable in the humanization of other antibodies derived from mouse hybridoma.

  20. A review on solar cells from Si-single crystals to porous materials and quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed A. Badawy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy conversion to electricity through photovoltaics or to useful fuel through photoelectrochemical cells was still a main task for research groups and developments sectors. In this article we are reviewing the development of the different generations of solar cells. The fabrication of solar cells has passed through a large number of improvement steps considering the technological and economic aspects. The first generation solar cells were based on Si wafers, mainly single crystals. Permanent researches on cost reduction and improved solar cell efficiency have led to the marketing of solar modules having 12–16% solar conversion efficiency. Application of polycrystalline Si and other forms of Si have reduced the cost but on the expense of the solar conversion efficiency. The second generation solar cells were based on thin film technology. Thin films of amorphous Si, CIS (copper–indium–selenide and t-Si were employed. Solar conversion efficiencies of about 12% have been achieved with a remarkable cost reduction. The third generation solar cells are based on nano-crystals and nano-porous materials. An advanced photovoltaic cell, originally developed for satellites with solar conversion efficiency of 37.3%, based on concentration of the solar spectrum up to 400 suns was developed. It is based on extremely thin concentration cells. New sensitizer or semiconductor systems are necessary to broaden the photo-response in solar spectrum. Hybrids of solar and conventional devices may provide an interim benefit in seeking economically valuable devices. New quantum dot solar cells based on CdSe–TiO2 architecture have been developed.

  1. A review on solar cells from Si-single crystals to porous materials and quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Waheed A

    2015-03-01

    Solar energy conversion to electricity through photovoltaics or to useful fuel through photoelectrochemical cells was still a main task for research groups and developments sectors. In this article we are reviewing the development of the different generations of solar cells. The fabrication of solar cells has passed through a large number of improvement steps considering the technological and economic aspects. The first generation solar cells were based on Si wafers, mainly single crystals. Permanent researches on cost reduction and improved solar cell efficiency have led to the marketing of solar modules having 12-16% solar conversion efficiency. Application of polycrystalline Si and other forms of Si have reduced the cost but on the expense of the solar conversion efficiency. The second generation solar cells were based on thin film technology. Thin films of amorphous Si, CIS (copper-indium-selenide) and t-Si were employed. Solar conversion efficiencies of about 12% have been achieved with a remarkable cost reduction. The third generation solar cells are based on nano-crystals and nano-porous materials. An advanced photovoltaic cell, originally developed for satellites with solar conversion efficiency of 37.3%, based on concentration of the solar spectrum up to 400 suns was developed. It is based on extremely thin concentration cells. New sensitizer or semiconductor systems are necessary to broaden the photo-response in solar spectrum. Hybrids of solar and conventional devices may provide an interim benefit in seeking economically valuable devices. New quantum dot solar cells based on CdSe-TiO2 architecture have been developed.

  2. An Assessment of New Applications for Single-Crystal Piezoelectric Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veitch, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Piezoelectricity was first discovered by the Curie brothers in 1880. During the 1940s, piezoelectric ceramic materials were first used in commercial devices, and new materials and other applications have continued to develop over the years...

  3. Electron beams accelerated with two TW class lasers. Preplasma effect of target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergaux, M.; Gobet, F.; Tarisien, M.; Hannachi, F.; Aleonard, M.M.; D'Humieres, E.; Nicolai, P.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Malka, G.; Debayle, A.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. It is well known that ultra short pulses of UH1 lasers in the TW domain can produce energetic electrons above 10 MeV. For nuclear physics purposes the range 10-100 MeV is well appropriate to explore (g,xn) reactions. These reactions are of interest, in particular, to study the production of isomers in plasma in relation with astrophysical problems. Meanwhile a careful study of the produced photons is of interest for the study of intense photon 'beams' (radiography, ignition in the Inertial Fusion physics). In both cases, the optimization of these photon beams as regards the number of photons as well as their angular dispersion is important. From previous experiments, with polypropylene targets, it has been shown that both the target thickness and the preplasma conditions influenced the distributions of the produced electrons. Here we investigate the effect of the target atomic number (Z) on the electron production. The experiments have been done with two TW class lasers, with fs pulses; targets of CH, Al, Cu, Au and Ta have been used. All the targets had the same thickness (10 μm). The energy distribution of the electrons and their angular distribution have been characterized. Both lasers had nearly the same energy, the pulse duration was respectively 40 and 80 fs, respectively at LOA (Palaiseau) and IOQ (Iena). The main differences of the lasers regarded the contrast (10 6 at LOA, 10 7 at IOQ) and the ASE duration (2 ns or 0.5 ns). In presence of a large ASE the number of electrons above 10 MeV were ∼ 10 9 , roughly 3 orders of magnitude higher than without ASE. As regards the angular dispersion of electrons above 10 MeV, measured at LOA, it was increasing progressively between CH targets and Au ones, ranging from 10 deg to 40 deg between these increasing atomic numbers. The explanation of such a flagrant difference in the results of these two apparently similar experimental campaigns is related to the size and form of

  4. Precision Photothermal Annealing of Nanoporous Gold Thin Films for the Microfabrication of a Single-chip Material Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shen, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rubenchik, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Demos, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Matthews, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Single-chip material libraries of thin films of nanostructured materials are a promising approach for high throughput studies of structure-property relationship in the fields of physics and biology. Nanoporous gold (np-Au), produced by an alloy corrosion process, is a nanostructured material of specific interest in both these fields. One attractive property of np-Au is its self-similar coarsening behavior by thermally induced surface diffusion. However, traditional heat application techniques for the modification of np-Au are bulk processes that cannot be used to generate a library of different pore sizes on a single chip. Laser micromachining offers an attractive solution to this problem by providing a means to apply energy with high spatial and temporal resolution. In the present study we use finite element multiphysics simulations to predict the effects of laser mode (continuous-wave vs. pulsed) and supporting substrate thermal conductivity on the local np-Au film temperatures during photothermal annealing and subsequently investigate the mechanisms by which the np-Au network is coarsening. Our simulations predict that continuous-wave mode laser irradiation on a silicon supporting substrate supports the widest range of morphologies that can be created through the photothermal annealing of thin film np-Au. Using this result we successfully fabricate a single-chip material library consisting of 81 np-Au samples of 9 different morphologies for use in increased throughput material interaction studies.

  5. Experimental research on the penetration of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullet into steel target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. W.; Chen, G.

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the penetration experiments of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullets into 45# steel targets are conducted by employing H25 artillery. In which, an experimental technique of sub-caliber penetration is constructed. The quasi static and dynamic behaviours of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are also experimental investigated. The self-sharpening phenomenon of composite material is observed. Integrated with metallographic analysis, the failure modes of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are identified systemically and compared with the quasi-static and dynamic material tests. It includes four failure modes, i.e., shear fracture of tungsten fiber, brittle fracture of tungsten fiber and shear fracture of metallic glass matrix as well as melting of tungsten fiber and metallic glass matrix. Comparatively, three failure mechanisms of tungsten fiber in the bullet nose are also identified, i.e., shear fracture, splitting fracture and bending or/and buckling. Finally, the mechanism of self-sharpening behaviour of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material is discussed.

  6. Experimental research on the penetration of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullet into steel target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X.W.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the penetration experiments of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullets into 45# steel targets are conducted by employing H25 artillery. In which, an experimental technique of sub-caliber penetration is constructed. The quasi static and dynamic behaviours of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are also experimental investigated. The self-sharpening phenomenon of composite material is observed. Integrated with metallographic analysis, the failure modes of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are identified systemically and compared with the quasi-static and dynamic material tests. It includes four failure modes, i.e., shear fracture of tungsten fiber, brittle fracture of tungsten fiber and shear fracture of metallic glass matrix as well as melting of tungsten fiber and metallic glass matrix. Comparatively, three failure mechanisms of tungsten fiber in the bullet nose are also identified, i.e., shear fracture, splitting fracture and bending or/and buckling. Finally, the mechanism of self-sharpening behaviour of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material is discussed.

  7. Activated platelets in carotid artery thrombosis in mice can be selectively targeted with a radiolabeled single-chain antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Heidt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activated platelets can be found on the surface of inflamed, rupture-prone and ruptured plaques as well as in intravascular thrombosis. They are key players in thrombosis and atherosclerosis. In this study we describe the construction of a radiolabeled single-chain antibody targeting the LIBS-epitope of activated platelets to selectively depict platelet activation and wall-adherent non-occlusive thrombosis in a mouse model with nuclear imaging using in vitro and ex vivo autoradiography as well as small animal SPECT-CT for in vivo analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LIBS as well as an unspecific control single-chain antibody were labeled with (111Indium ((111In via bifunctional DTPA ( = (111In-LIBS/(111In-control. Autoradiography after incubation with (111In-LIBS on activated platelets in vitro (mean 3866 ± 28 DLU/mm(2, 4010 ± 630 DLU/mm(2 and 4520 ± 293 DLU/mm(2 produced a significantly higher ligand uptake compared to (111In-control (2101 ± 76 DLU/mm(2, 1181 ± 96 DLU/mm(2 and 1866 ± 246 DLU/mm(2 indicating a specific binding to activated platelets; P<0.05. Applying these findings to an ex vivo mouse model of carotid artery thrombosis revealed a significant increase in ligand uptake after injection of (111In-LIBS in the presence of small thrombi compared to the non-injured side, as confirmed by histology (49630 ± 10650 DLU/mm(2 vs. 17390 ± 7470 DLU/mm(2; P<0.05. These findings could also be reproduced in vivo. SPECT-CT analysis of the injured carotid artery with (111In-LIBS resulted in a significant increase of the target-to-background ratio compared to (111In-control (1.99 ± 0.36 vs. 1.1 ± 0.24; P < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nuclear imaging with (111In-LIBS allows the detection of platelet activation in vitro and ex vivo with high sensitivity. Using SPECT-CT, wall-adherent activated platelets in carotid arteries could be depicted in vivo. These results encourage further studies elucidating the role of

  8. A method for measuring the corrosion rate of materials in spallation neutron source target/blanket cooling loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the ongoing evaluation of the susceptibility of materials in accelerator target/blanket cooling loops to corrosion. To simulate the exposure environment in a target/blanket cooling loop, samples were irradiated by an 800 MeV proton beam at the A6 Target Station of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). To accomplish this, a cooling water loop capable of exposing corrosion samples to an 800 MeV proton beam at currents upwards of 1 mA was constructed. This loop allowed control and evaluation hydrogen water chemistry, water conductivity, and solution pH. Specially designed ceramic sealed samples were used to measure the real-time corrosion rates of materials placed directly in the proton beam using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS was also used to measure real-time corrosion rates of samples that were out of the proton beam and downstream from the in-beam samples. These out-of-beam probes primarily examined the effects of long lived water radiolysis products from proton irradiation on corrosion rates. An overview of the LANSCE corrosion loop, the corrosion probes, and data from an in-beam alloy 718 probe are presented

  9. Targeted Integration of Single-Copy Transgenes in Drosophila melanogaster Tissue-Culture Cells Using Recombination-Mediated Cassette Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Sathiya N; Jacobsen, Thomas L; Lyon, Peter; Selvaraj, Bhavani; Halpin, Peter; Simcox, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Transfection of transgenes into Drosophila cultured cells is a standard approach for studying gene function. However, the number of transgenes present in the cell following transient transfection or stable random integration varies, and the resulting differences in expression level affect interpretation. Here we developed a system for Drosophila cell lines that allows selection of cells with a single-copy transgene inserted at a specific genomic site using recombination-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). We used the φC31 integrase and its target sites attP and attB for RMCE. Cell lines with an attP-flanked genomic cassette were transfected with donor plasmids containing a transgene of interest (UAS-x), a dihydrofolate reductase (UAS-DHFR) gene flanked by attB sequences, and a thymidine kinase (UAS-TK) gene in the plasmid backbone outside the attB sequences. In cells undergoing RMCE, UAS-x and UAS-DHFR were exchanged for the attP-flanked genomic cassette, and UAS-TK was excluded. These cells were selected using methotrexate, which requires DHFR expression, and ganciclovir, which causes death in cells expressing TK. Pure populations of cells with one copy of a stably integrated transgene were efficiently selected by cloning or mass culture in ∼6 weeks. Our results show that RMCE avoids the problems associated with current methods, where transgene number is not controlled, and facilitates the rapid generation of Drosophila cell lines in which expression from a single transgene can be studied. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. The single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia represents a potential drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Stefan; Balmer, Vreni; Sterk, Geert Jan; Pollastri, Michael P; Leurs, Rob; Müller, Norbert; Hemphill, Andrew; Spycher, Cornelia

    2017-09-01

    Giardiasis is an intestinal infection correlated with poverty and poor drinking water quality, and treatment options are limited. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Giardia infections afflict nearly 33% of people in developing countries, and 2% of the adult population in the developed world. This study describes the single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) of G. lamblia and assesses PDE inhibitors as a new generation of anti-giardial drugs. An extensive search of the Giardia genome database identified a single gene coding for a class I PDE, GlPDE. The predicted protein sequence was analyzed in-silico to characterize its domain structure and catalytic domain. Enzymatic activity of GlPDE was established by complementation of a PDE-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, and enzyme kinetics were characterized in soluble yeast lysates. The potency of known PDE inhibitors was tested against the activity of recombinant GlPDE expressed in yeast and against proliferating Giardia trophozoites. Finally, the localization of epitope-tagged and ectopically expressed GlPDE in Giardia cells was investigated. Giardia encodes a class I PDE. Catalytically important residues are fully conserved between GlPDE and human PDEs, but sequence differences between their catalytic domains suggest that designing Giardia-specific inhibitors is feasible. Recombinant GlPDE hydrolyzes cAMP with a Km of 408 μM, and cGMP is not accepted as a substrate. A number of drugs exhibit a high degree of correlation between their potency against the recombinant enzyme and their inhibition of trophozoite proliferation in culture. Epitope-tagged GlPDE localizes as dots in a pattern reminiscent of mitosomes and to the perinuclear region in Giardia. Our data strongly suggest that inhibition of G. lamblia PDE activity leads to a profound inhibition of parasite proliferation and that GlPDE is a promising target for developing novel anti-giardial drugs.

  11. π and π + σ plasmon localization in single-walled carbon nanotube meta-materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, C; Thurakitseree, T; Maruyama, S; Knupfer, M

    2013-10-11

    We have investigated the plasmon excitations and interband transitions in nematic nanotube meta-materials with different nanotube mean diameters. While the characteristic optical low-energy transitions give testimony to the differing mean diameters, the full momentum resolved π as well as π + σ plasmon response of the meta-materials is found to be entirely invariant with the nanotube diameters 1 nm meta-material offers a knob to uniformly tune the plasmon resonances.

  12. Development and Characterization of a Camelid Single Domain Antibody-Urease Conjugate That Targets Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baomin; Wong, Wah Yau; Uger, Marni D; Wisniewski, Pawel; Chao, Heman

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation and is essential for a tumor to grow beyond a certain size. Tumors secrete the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, which acts upon local endothelial cells by binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). In this study, we describe the development and characterization of V21-DOS47, an immunoconjugate that targets VEGFR2. V21-DOS47 is composed of a camelid single domain anti-VEGFR2 antibody (V21) and the enzyme urease. The conjugate specifically binds to VEGFR2 and urease converts endogenous urea into ammonia, which is toxic to tumor cells. Previously, we developed a similar antibody-urease conjugate, L-DOS47, which is currently in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer. Although V21-DOS47 was designed from parameters learned from the generation of L-DOS47, additional optimization was required to produce V21-DOS47. In this study, we describe the expression and purification of two versions of the V21 antibody: V21H1 and V21H4. Each was conjugated to urease using a different chemical cross-linker. The conjugates were characterized by a panel of analytical techniques, including SDS-PAGE, size exclusion chromatography, Western blotting, and LC-MS E peptide mapping. Binding characteristics were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry assays. To improve the stability of the conjugates at physiologic pH, the pIs of the V21 antibodies were adjusted by adding several amino acid residues to the C-terminus. For V21H4, a terminal cysteine was also added for use in the conjugation chemistry. The modified V21 antibodies were expressed in the E. coli BL21 (DE3) pT7 system. V21H1 was conjugated to urease using the heterobifunctional cross-linker succinimidyl-[( N -maleimidopropionamido)-diethyleneglycol] ester (SM(PEG) 2 ), which targets lysine resides in the antibody. V21H4 was conjugated to urease using the homobifunctional cross-linker, 1,8-bis(maleimido)diethylene glycol

  13. Development and Characterization of a Camelid Single Domain Antibody–Urease Conjugate That Targets Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baomin Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation and is essential for a tumor to grow beyond a certain size. Tumors secrete the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, which acts upon local endothelial cells by binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs. In this study, we describe the development and characterization of V21-DOS47, an immunoconjugate that targets VEGFR2. V21-DOS47 is composed of a camelid single domain anti-VEGFR2 antibody (V21 and the enzyme urease. The conjugate specifically binds to VEGFR2 and urease converts endogenous urea into ammonia, which is toxic to tumor cells. Previously, we developed a similar antibody–urease conjugate, L-DOS47, which is currently in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer. Although V21-DOS47 was designed from parameters learned from the generation of L-DOS47, additional optimization was required to produce V21-DOS47. In this study, we describe the expression and purification of two versions of the V21 antibody: V21H1 and V21H4. Each was conjugated to urease using a different chemical cross-linker. The conjugates were characterized by a panel of analytical techniques, including SDS-PAGE, size exclusion chromatography, Western blotting, and LC-MSE peptide mapping. Binding characteristics were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry assays. To improve the stability of the conjugates at physiologic pH, the pIs of the V21 antibodies were adjusted by adding several amino acid residues to the C-terminus. For V21H4, a terminal cysteine was also added for use in the conjugation chemistry. The modified V21 antibodies were expressed in the E. coli BL21 (DE3 pT7 system. V21H1 was conjugated to urease using the heterobifunctional cross-linker succinimidyl-[(N-maleimidopropionamido-diethyleneglycol] ester (SM(PEG2, which targets lysine resides in the antibody. V21H4 was conjugated to urease using the homobifunctional cross-linker, 1,8-bis

  14. Effects of simplifying outreach materials for energy conservation programs that target low-income consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Canfield, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Critics have speculated that the limited success of energy conservation programs among low-income consumers may partly be due to recipients having insufficient literacy to understand the outreach materials. Indeed, we found outreach materials for low-income consumers to require relatively high levels of reading comprehension. We therefore improved the Flesch–Kincaid readability statistics for two outreach brochures, by using shorter words and shorter sentences to describe their content. We examined the effect of that simplification on low-income consumers′ responses. Participants from low-income communities in the greater Pittsburgh area, who varied in literacy, were randomly assigned to either original communications about energy conservation programs or our simplified versions. Our findings suggest that lowering readability statistics successfully simplified only the more straightforward brochure in our set of two, likely because its content lent itself better to simplification. Findings for this brochure showed that simplification improved understanding of its content among both low-literacy and high-literacy recipients, without adversely affecting their evaluation of the materials, or their intention to enroll in the advertised programs. We discuss strategies for improving communication materials that aim to reach out to low-income populations. - Highlights: • Brochures about energy programs for low-income consumers can be too hard to read. • We made brochures easier to read by using shorter words and shorter sentences. • Simplifying a straightforward brochure improved the understanding of all recipients. • However, simplifying a complex brochure had no effect on understanding. • We suggest strategies for improving outreach to low-income consumers

  15. Effective depth-of-penetration range due to hardness variation for different lots of nominally identical target material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Frueh

    2016-04-01

    A linear regression analysis of penetration vs. hardness shows that a target hardness increase within the given range of 280–330 BHN may result in a reduction of penetration depth of about 5.8 mm at constant velocity. This is equal to a change of −12% at an impact velocity of 1250 m/s. A multiple linear regression analysis included also the influence of yaw angle and impact velocity. It shows that small yaw angles and slight variations of impact velocities provide a smaller variation of the semi-infinite penetration depths than a variation of target hardness within a typical specification span of 50 BHN. For such a span a change in penetration of approximately −4.8 mm due to hardness variation is found, whereas 1° of yaw angle or −10 m/s of velocity variation gives a change of about −1.0 mm respectively −0.9 mm. For the given example, the overwhelming part of the variation is to be attributed to hardness effects – 4.8 mm out of 5.8 mm (83%. For nominally identical target material the target hardness thus influences the ballistic test results more severely than the typical scatter in impact conditions.

  16. δ18O and chemical composition of Libyan Desert Glass, country rocks, and sands: New considerations on target material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Sighinolfi, Giampaolo; de Michele, Vincenzo; Selmo, Enricomaria

    2011-02-01

    Oxygen isotope and chemical measurements were carried out on 25 samples of Libyan Desert Glass (LDG), 21 samples of sandstone, and 3 of sand from the same area. The δ18O of LDG samples range from 9.0‰ to 11.9‰ (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water [VSMOW]); some correlations between isotope data and typological features of the LDG samples are pointed out. The initial δ18O of a bulk parent material may be slightly increased by fusion due to the loss of isotopically light pore water with no isotope exchange with oxygen containing minerals. Accordingly, the δ18O of the bulk parent material of LDG may have been about 9.0 ± 1‰ (VSMOW). The measured bulk sandstone and sand samples have δ18O values ranging from 12.6‰ to 19.5‰ and are consequently ruled out as parent materials, matching the results of previous studies. However, separated quartz fractions have δ18O values compatible with the LDG values suggesting that the modern surface sand inherited quartz from the target material. This hypothesis fits previous findings of lechatelierite and baddeleyite in these materials. As the age of the parent material reported in previous studies is Pan-African, we measured the δ18O values of bulk rock and quartz from intrusives of Pan-African age and the results obtained were compatible with the LDG values. The main element abundances (Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na) in our LDG samples conform to previous estimates; Fe, Mg, and K tend to be higher in heterogeneous samples with dark layers. The hypothesis of a low-altitude airburst involving silica-rich surface materials deriving from weathered intrusives of Pan-African age, partially melted and blown over a huge surface by supersonic winds matches the results obtained.

  17. Corrosion of target and structural materials in water irradiated by an 800 MeV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, D.P.; Kanner, G.S.; Lillard, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation enhanced, aqueous corrosion of solid neutron-targets such as tungsten or tantalum, or target cladding or structural materials such as superalloys and stainless steels, is a significant concern in accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. In this paper we briefly describe our current methods for control and in situ monitoring of corrosion in accelerator cooling water loops. Using floating, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we have measured the corrosion rates of aluminum 6061, copper, Inconel 718, and 304L stainless steel in the flow loop of a water target irradiated by a μamp, 800 MeV proton beam. Impedance spectroscopy allows us to model the corrosion process of a material as an equivalent electrical circuit. Thus the polarization resistance, which is inversely proportional to the corrosion rate, can be extracted from the frequency response of a metal specimen. During a three month period, without the use of corrosion mitigation techniques, we observed increases of several orders of magnitude in the water conductivity and the corrosion rates. The increase in corrosion is at least partially attributed to a build up of peroxide in our pseudo-closed loop system. In this paper we also briefly describe our second generation experiments, scheduled to begin in late 1996. In these experiments we plan to measure the corrosion rates of tungsten, tantalum, Inconel 718, 316L and 304L stainless steel, HT-9 austenitic stainless steel, and aluminum 5053. Two or three electrode probes of each material are being placed directly in the proton beam, in a high neutron flux region, or a significant distance from the high radiation area. We will be measuring corrosion rates, changes in pH and conductivity, and we will be establishing parameters for filtration and mitigation of corrosion. We will also discuss our ideas for making in situ measurements of water radiolysis using optical and laser diagnostic techniques

  18. HEU and LEU MTR fuel elements as target materials for the production of fission molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameh, A.A.; Bertram-Berg, A.

    1993-01-01

    The processing of irradiated MTR-fuels for the production of fission nuclides for nuclear medicine presents a significantly increasing task in the field of chemical separation technology of high activity levels. By far the most required product is MO-99, the mother nuclide of Tc-99m which is used in over 90% of the organ function tests in nuclear medicine. Because of the short half life of Mo-99 (66 h) the separation has to be carried out from shortly cooled neutron irradiated U-targets. The needed product purity, the extremely high radiation level, the presence of fission gases like xenon-133 and of volatile toxic isotopes such as iodine-131 and its compounds in kCi-scale require a sophisticated process technology

  19. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin; Heilmeier, Hermann; Bringezu, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewable energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the production of biomass requires agricultural land and is often associated with adverse environmental effects such as eutrophication of surface and ground water. Decision making in favor of or against bio-based and conventional fossil product alternatives therefore often requires weighing of environmental impacts. In this article, we apply distance-to-target weighing methodology to aggregate LCA results obtained in four different environmental impact categories (i.e., non-renewable energy consumption, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, and acidification potential) to one environmental index. We include 45 bio- and fossil-based product pairs in our analysis, which we conduct for Germany. The resulting environmental indices for all product pairs analyzed range from -19.7 to +0.2 with negative values indicating overall environmental benefits of bio-based products. Except for three options of packaging materials made from wheat and cornstarch, all bio-based products (including energy, fuels, and materials) score better than their fossil counterparts. Comparing the median values for the three options of biomass utilization reveals that bio-energy (-1.2) and bio-materials (-1.0) offer significantly higher environmental benefits than bio-fuels (-0.3). The results of this study reflect, however, subjective value judgments due to the weighing methodology applied. Given the uncertainties and controversies associated not only with distance-to-target methodologies in particular but also with weighing approaches in general, the authors strongly recommend using weighing for decision finding only as a

  20. Method for single crystal growth of photovoltaic perovskite material and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jinsong; Dong, Qingfeng

    2017-11-07

    Systems and methods for perovskite single crystal growth include using a low temperature solution process that employs a temperature gradient in a perovskite solution in a container, also including at least one small perovskite single crystal, and a substrate in the solution upon which substrate a perovskite crystal nucleates and grows, in part due to the temperature gradient in the solution and in part due to a temperature gradient in the substrate. For example, a top portion of the substrate external to the solution may be cooled.

  1. Characterization of uranium carbide target materials to produce neutron-rich radioactive beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Roussière, Brigitte; Barré-Boscher, Nicole [Institut de Physique Nucléaire (UMR8608) CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Gottberg, Alexander [CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Corradetti, Stefano; Andrighetto, Alberto [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universit‘a 2, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Cheikh Mhamed, Maher; Essabaa, Saïd [Institut de Physique Nucléaire (UMR8608) CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Franberg-Delahaye, Hanna; Grinyer, Joanna [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Joanny, Loïc [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (UMR 6226) CNRS – Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Lau, Christophe [Institut de Physique Nucléaire (UMR8608) CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Le Lannic, Joseph [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (UMR 6226) CNRS – Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Raynaud, Marc; Saïd, Abdelhakim [Institut de Physique Nucléaire (UMR8608) CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Stora, Thierry [CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2016-03-01

    In the framework of a R&D program aiming to develop uranium carbide (UC{sub x}) targets for radioactive nuclear beams, the Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay (IPNO) has developed an experimental setup to characterize the release of various fission fragments from UC{sub x} samples at high temperature. The results obtained in a previous study have demonstrated the feasibility of the method and started to correlate the structural properties of the samples and their behavior in terms of nuclear reaction product release. In the present study, seven UC{sub x} samples have been systematically characterized in order to better understand the correlation between their physicochemical characteristics and release properties. Two very different samples, the first one composed of dense UC and the second one of highly porous UC{sub x} made of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, were provided by the ActILab (ENSAR) collaboration. The others were synthesized at IPNO. The systems for irradiation and heating necessary for the release studies have been improved with respect to those used in previous studies. The results show that the open porosity is hardly the limiting factor for the fission product release. The homogeneity of the microstructure and the pore size distribution contributes significantly to the increase of the release. The use of carbon nanotubes in place of traditional micrometric graphite particles appears to be promising, even if the homogeneity of the microstructure can still be enhanced.

  2. A Single-Molecule Propyne Trap: Highly Efficient Removal of Propyne from Propylene with Anion-Pillared Ultramicroporous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lifeng; Cui, Xili; Yang, Qiwei; Qian, Siheng; Wu, Hui; Bao, Zongbi; Zhang, Zhiguo; Ren, Qilong; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin; Xing, Huabin

    2018-03-01

    Propyne/propylene (C 3 H 4 /C 3 H 6 ) separation is a critical process for the production of polymer-grade C 3 H 6 . However, optimization of the structure of porous materials for the highly efficient removal of C 3 H 4 from C 3 H 6 remains challenging due to their similar structures and ultralow C 3 H 4 concentration. Here, it is first reported that hybrid ultramicroporous materials with pillared inorganic anions (SiF 6 2- = SIFSIX, NbOF 5 2- = NbOFFIVE) can serve as highly selective C 3 H 4 traps for the removal of trace C 3 H 4 from C 3 H 6 . Especially, it is revealed that the pyrazine-based ultramicroporous material with square grid structure for which the pore shape and functional site disposition can be varied in 0.1-0.5 Å scale to match both the shape and interacting sites of guest molecule is an interesting single-molecule trap for C 3 H 4 molecule. The pyrazine-based single-molecule trap enables extremely high C 3 H 4 uptake under ultralow concentration (2.65 mmol g -1 at 3000 ppm, one C 3 H 4 per unit cell) and record selectivity over C 3 H 6 at 298 K (>250). The single-molecule binding mode for C 3 H 4 within ultramicroporous material is validated by X-ray diffraction experiments and modeling studies. The breakthrough experiments confirm that anion-pillared ultramicroporous materials set new benchmarks for the removal of ultralow concentration C 3 H 4 (1000 ppm on SIFSIX-3-Ni, and 10 000 ppm on SIFSIX-2-Cu-i) from C 3 H 6 . © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Recent R&D trends in inorganic single crystal scintillator materials for radiation detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2015), s. 463-481 ISSN 2195-1071 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14266; GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * single crystal * luminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.359, year: 2015

  4. Alternative perovskite materials as a cathode component for intermediate temperature single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudillere, Cyril; Olivier, Louis; Vernoux, Philippe; Farrusseng, David [Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l' environnement de Lyon, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France); Zhang, Chunming; Shao, Zongping [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No 5 Xin Mofan Road, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-08-01

    This paper exploits the suitability of three perovskite materials Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF), GdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} (GBC) and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSMF) as SOFC cathodes in the single-chamber configuration operating at the intermediate temperature range. TG analysis showed high thermal stability depending on the crystalline phases of the materials. The catalytic activity of these three materials for hydrocarbon conversion was investigated under a realistic feed, i.e. with hydrocarbon, oxygen, water and carbon dioxide. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the various cathodes tested in symmetric cell configuration revealed a B-site dependence of the electrode catalytic activity for oxygen reduction. High temperature (1000 C) powder reactivity tests over a gadolinium doped-ceria (CGO) and perovskite cathode revealed excellent chemical compatibility of BSMF and CGO. Catalytic tests associated with thermal and structural characterization attest to the suitability of these materials in the single-chamber configuration. (author)

  5. Alternative perovskite materials as a cathode component for intermediate temperature single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudillère, Cyril; Olivier, Louis; Vernoux, Philippe; Zhang, Chunming; Shao, Zongping; Farrusseng, David

    This paper exploits the suitability of three perovskite materials Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ (BSCF), GdBaCo 2O 5+ δ (GBC) and Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Mn 0.7Fe 0.3O 3- δ (BSMF) as SOFC cathodes in the single-chamber configuration operating at the intermediate temperature range. TG analysis showed high thermal stability depending on the crystalline phases of the materials. The catalytic activity of these three materials for hydrocarbon conversion was investigated under a realistic feed, i.e. with hydrocarbon, oxygen, water and carbon dioxide. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the various cathodes tested in symmetric cell configuration revealed a B-site dependence of the electrode catalytic activity for oxygen reduction. High temperature (1000 °C) powder reactivity tests over a gadolinium doped-ceria (CGO) and perovskite cathode revealed excellent chemical compatibility of BSMF and CGO. Catalytic tests associated with thermal and structural characterization attest to the suitability of these materials in the single-chamber configuration.

  6. Stress analysis in bone tissue around single implants with different diameters and veneering materials: a 3-D finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Junior, Joel Ferreira; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution on bone tissue with a single prosthesis supported by implants of large and conventional diameter and presenting different veneering materials using the 3-D finite element method. Sixteen models were fabricated to reproduce a bone block with implants, using two diameters (3.75×10 mm and 5.00×10 mm), four different veneering materials (composite resin, acrylic resin, porcelain, and NiCr crown), and two loads (axial (200 N) and oblique (100 N)). For data analysis, the maximum principal stress and von Mises criterion were used. For the axial load, the cortical bone in all models did not exhibit significant differences, and the trabecular bone presented higher tensile stress with reduced implant diameter. For the oblique load, the cortical bone presented a significant increase in tensile stress on the same side as the loading for smaller implant diameters. The trabecular bone showed a similar but more discreet trend. There was no difference in bone tissue with different veneering materials. The veneering material did not influence the stress distribution in the supporting tissues of single implant-supported prostheses. The large-diameter implants improved the transference of occlusal loads to bone tissue and decreased stress mainly under oblique loads. Oblique loading was more detrimental to distribution stresses than axial loading. © 2013.

  7. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®): a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoser, Mark J; Mansukoski, Hannu K; Morrical, Scott W; Eboigbodin, Kevin E

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA). SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO) into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  8. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®: a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hoser

    Full Text Available Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA. SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  9. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry using single grains of quartz extracted from unheated materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    This work investigates the possibility of applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective dose determinations using unheated materials. It focuses on identifying materials suitable for use in assessment of doses absorbed as a consequenceof radiation accidents (i.e. accident...... that the observed variability in the data is consistent with the sum (in quadrature) of a component,which depends on the number of photons detected from each grain, and a fixed component independent of light level. Dose depth profiles through laboratory irradiated concrete bricks have successfully been measured...... of using common household and workplace chemicals, such as table salt, washing powder and water softener, in retrospective dosimetry has been investigated. It is concluded that such materials should be considered as retrospective dosimeters inthe event of a radiation accident....

  10. Single-sided magnetic resonance profiling in biological and materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Ernesto; Blümich, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Single-sided NMR was inspired by the oil industry that strived to improve the performance of well-logging tools to measure the properties of fluids confined downhole. This unconventional way of implementing NMR, in which stray magnetic and radio frequency fields are used to recover information of arbitrarily large objects placed outside the magnet, motivated the development of handheld NMR sensors. These devices have moved the technique to different scientific disciplines. The current work gives a review of the most relevant magnets and methodologies developed to generate NMR information from spatially localized regions of samples placed in close proximity to the sensors. When carried out systematically, such measurements lead to 'single-sided depth profiles' or one-dimensional images. This paper presents recent and most relevant applications as well as future perspectives of this growing branch of MRI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Faradaic current in different mullite materials. Single crystal, ceramic and cermets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata-Osoro, Gustavo; Moya, Jose S.; Pecharroman, Carlos [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC) (Spain); Morales, Miguel [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). LabCaF; Diaz, L. Antonio [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN-CSIC), Llanera (Spain); Schneider, Hartmut [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kristallographie

    2012-04-15

    Faradaic current measurements have been carried out on three different types of mullite: 2: 1 mullite single crystals (E perpendicular to c), 3: 2 ceramics and 11 % mullite/Mo composites. Measurements were carried out on very thin samples (60 {mu}m) at high voltages (500 to 1 000 V). Under these conditions, measurable currents were recorded even at room temperature. Results indicate notable differences between these three samples, which suggest that, although they share the same name and similar crystalline structure, binding energies and defect distributions seem to be very different. Finally, it has been seen that the excellent behaviour against dielectric breakdown of ceramic mullite does not hold for single crystals or mullite based cermets. (orig.)

  12. Thermal neutron detector and gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing a single material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Ashley; Burger, Arnold; Lukosi, Eric

    2017-05-02

    A combined thermal neutron detector and gamma-ray spectrometer system, including: a detection medium including a lithium chalcopyrite crystal operable for detecting thermal neutrons in a semiconductor mode and gamma-rays in a scintillator mode; and a photodetector coupled to the detection medium also operable for detecting the gamma rays. Optionally, the detection medium includes a .sup.6LiInSe.sub.2 crystal. Optionally, the detection medium comprises a compound formed by the process of: melting a Group III element; adding a Group I element to the melted Group III element at a rate that allows the Group I and Group III elements to react thereby providing a single phase I-III compound; and adding a Group VI element to the single phase I-III compound and heating; wherein the Group I element includes lithium.

  13. A useful single-solution polychrome stain for plant material...Brook Cyte-Chrome I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley L Krugman; Julia F. Littlefield

    1968-01-01

    Fresh and chemically fixed sectioned plant material can be quickly stained by applying a Brook Cyte Chrome I polychrome stain. Staining time averaged only about 10 minutes. And exact timing of staining and de-staining is not as critical as with most of the commonly used stains. The overall quality is comparable to that of the traditional stains.

  14. Single photon emitters in boron nitride: More than a supplementary material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koperski, M.; Nogajewski, K.; Potemski, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present comprehensive optical studies of recently discovered single photon sources in boron nitride, which appear in form of narrow lines emitting centres. Here, we aim to compactly characterise their basic optical properties, including the demonstration of several novel findings, in order to inspire discussion about their origin and utility. Initial inspection reveals the presence of narrow emission lines in boron nitride powder and exfoliated flakes of hexagonal boron nitride deposited on Si/SiO2 substrates. Generally rather stable, the boron nitride emitters constitute a good quality visible light source. However, as briefly discussed, certain specimens reveal a peculiar type of blinking effects, which are likely related to existence of meta-stable electronic states. More advanced characterisation of representative stable emitting centres uncovers a strong dependence of the emission intensity on the energy and polarisation of excitation. On this basis, we speculate that rather strict excitation selectivity is an important factor determining the character of the emission spectra, which allows the observation of single and well-isolated emitters. Finally, we investigate the properties of the emitting centres in varying external conditions. Quite surprisingly, it is found that the application of a magnetic field introduces no change in the emission spectra of boron nitride emitters. Further analysis of the impact of temperature on the emission spectra and the features seen in second-order correlation functions is used to provide an assessment of the potential functionality of boron nitride emitters as single photon sources capable of room temperature operation.

  15. Transformation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK surf clams (Spisula solida) for targeted production of reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; O'Neil, Alison; Hatfield, Robert G

    2013-04-01

    following incubation of incurred homogenates with optimum proportions of surf clam tissue, resulting in materials containing a large number of PSP toxins. Stability experiments provided good preliminary evidence for the stability of these targeted materials under storage conditions. The work therefore provides both additional information relating to the transformational activity in UK surf clams and highlights a good potential method for the targeted production of reference materials which include a wider range of toxins than normally present in naturally incurred shellfish. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rare-Earth Tantalates and Niobates Single Crystals: Promising Scintillators and Laser Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renqin Dou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth tantalates, with high density and monoclinic structure, and niobates with monoclinic structure have been paid great attention as potential optical materials. In the last decade, we focused on the crystal growth technology of rare-earth tantalates and niobates and studied their luminescence and physical properties. A series of rare-earth tantalates and niobates crystals have been grown by the Czochralski method successfully. In this work, we summarize the research results on the crystal growth, scintillation, and laser properties of them, including the absorption and emission spectra, spectral parameters, energy levels structure, and so on. Most of the tantalates and niobates exhibit excellent luminescent properties, rich physical properties, and good chemical stability, indicating that they are potential outstanding scintillators and laser materials.

  17. Advantages of using raw materials in low cost sustainable structural solutions for single-family buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Murta, A.; Teixeira, C.; Varum, H.; Bentes, I.; Pinto, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, the Portuguese housing building industry has been mainly fo-cused on the construction based on reinforced concrete framed structures and non-structural clay brick masonry for exterior and interior partition walls. Recently, this industry started to in-clude alternative structural materials, such as steel and timber. The earth based construction techniques and solutions still remains limited to individual cases, in which the owner and/or contractor have a particular concer...

  18. Clinical performance and material properties of single-implant overdenture attachment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabeeha, Nabeel H M; Swain, Michael V; Payne, Alan G T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of different attachment systems used for mandibular single-implant overdentures and to compare their wear/deformation features with clinical performance in patients after 1 year. Three attachment systems were evaluated: large 5.9-mm titanium nitride-coated ball attachments with plastic matrices, standard 2.25-mm uncoated titanium alloy ball attachments with Dalla Bona-type gold alloy matrices, and Locator attachments of titanium nitride-coated patrices and nylon matrices. The hardness and elastic modulus of the systems were determined using the nanoindentation technique. Twelve attachments from each system were used in 36 edentulous patients to support mandibular single-implant overdentures. After 1 year, 5 samples from each system were retrieved and evaluated for wear changes under a scanning electron microscope. The titanium nitride-coated patrices, regardless of system, appeared unchanged and did not require any maintenance. Extensive wear was evident in the uncoated titanium alloy patrices and Dalla Bona-type gold alloy matrices, resulting in high maintenance (15 activations). Minimal wear was observed in the plastic matrices with minimal maintenance (2 replacements). The Locator nylon matrices showed extensive deformation and deterioration with a substantial need for maintenance (16 replacements). The performance of the patrices was related to hardness, while that of the matrices was related to the creep response. Large ball attachment systems of titanium nitride-coated patrices and plastic matrices reflect favorable wear behavior and clinical performance. These attachments are recommended for patients receiving mandibular single-implant overdentures.

  19. The use of a single technique for the separation and determination of actinides in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camera, V.; Giubileo.

    1975-01-01

    For the radiotoxicological survey of workers exposed to different types of alpha-emitting contaminants, a procedure was developed which permits the estimate of Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm in biological samples with a single technique. The radionuclides are extracted on a column by tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and separated by elution at different pH values. Afterwards, the quantitative determinations are done by physical methods (alpha counting or spectrometry). In the case of an accident it is possible to use a simplification of the procedure (extraction in a beaker) for checks. A procedure for the rapid determination of actinides in faeces and in nasal secretions is described

  20. Fatigue resistance of 2 different CAD/CAM glass-ceramic materials used for single-tooth implant crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Yeliz; Sahin, Erdal; Gürbüz, Riza; Akça, Kivanç

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the fatigue resistance of 2 different CAD/CAM in-office monoceramic materials with single-tooth implant-supported crowns in functional area. A metal experimental model with a dental implant was designed to receive in-office CAD/CAM-generated monoceramic crowns. Laterally positioned axial dynamic loading of 300 N at 2 Hz was applied to implant-supported crowns machined from 2 different glass materials for 100,000 cycle. Failures in terms of fracture, crack formation, and chipping were macroscopically recorded and microscopically evaluated. Four of 10 aluminasilicate glass-ceramic crowns fractured at early loading cycles, the rest completed loading with a visible crack formation. Crack formation was recorded for 2 of 10 leucite glass-ceramic crowns. Others completed test without visible damage but fractured upon removal. Lack in chemical adhesion between titanium abutment and dental cement likely reduces the fatigue resistance of machinable glass-ceramic materials. However, relatively better fractural strength of leucite glass-ceramics could be taken into consideration. Accordingly, progress on developmental changes in filler composition of glass-ceramics may be promising. Machinable glass-ceramics do not possess sufficient fatigue resistance for single-tooth implant crowns in functional area.

  1. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available community. The construction industry is a significantly consumer of materials, using 50 per cent of all products produced globally. Building materials is any material which is used for a construction purpose. Many of these materials are sources from natural...

  2. Materials Chemistry Issues in the Development of a Single-Crystal Solar/Thermal Refractive Secondary Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Biering, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    A translucent crystal concentrates and transmits energy to a heat exchanger, which in turn heats a propellant gas, working gas of a dynamic power system, or a thermopile. Materials are the limiting issue in such a system. Central is the durability of the crystal, which must maintain the required chemical, physical/optical, and mechanical properties as it is heated and cooled. This report summarizes available data to date on the materials issues with this system. We focus on the current leading candidate materials, which are sapphire (Al2O3) for higher temperatures and silica (SiO2) for lower temperatures. We use data from thermochemical calculations; laboratory coupon tests with silica and sapphire; and system tests with sapphire. The required chemical properties include low-vapor pressure and interfacial stability with supporting structural materials. Optical properties such as transmittance and index of refraction must be maintained. Thermomechanical stability is a major challenge for a large, single-crystal ceramic and has been discussed in another report. In addition to the crystal, other materials in the proposed system include refractory metals (Nb, Ta, Mo, W, and Re), carbon (C), and high-temperature ceramic insulation. The major issue here is low levels of oxygen, which lead to volatile refractory metal oxides and rapid consumption of the refractory metal. Interfacial reactions between the ceramic crystal and refractory metal are also discussed. Finally, high-temperature ceramic insulating materials are also likely to be used in this system. Outgassing is a major issue for these materials. The products of outgassing are typically reactive with the refractory metals and must be minimized.

  3. Optimisation and validation of methods to assess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in archival histological material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, C N; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Overgaard, J

    2004-01-01

    only archival specimens are available. This study was conducted to validate protocols optimised for assessment of SNPs based on paraffin embedded, formalin fixed tissue samples. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 137 breast cancer patients, three TGFB1 SNPs were assessed based on archival histological specimens...... precipitation). RESULTS: Assessment of SNPs based on archival histological material is encumbered by a number of obstacles and pitfalls. However, these can be widely overcome by careful optimisation of the methods used for sample selection, DNA extraction and PCR. Within 130 samples that fulfil the criteria...

  4. Using the OSL single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol with quartz extracted from building materials in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Solongo, S.; Murray, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the application of the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol to the optically stimulated luminescence signal from quartz extracted from fired bricks acid unfired mortar in retrospective dosimetry. The samples came from a radioactive materials storage facility, with ambient...... dose rates of about 0.1 mGy/h. A detailed dose-depth profile was analysed from one brick, and compared with dose records from area TL dosemeters. Small-aliquot dose-distributions were analysed from the mortar samples; one associated with the exposed brick, and one from a remote site exposed only...

  5. Evaluation of Diffusion Coefficient in a Dextrin-Based Photo-Curable Material by Single Molecule Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Syoji; Itoh, Kou; Pramanik, Smritimoy; Kusumi, Takatsugu; Takei, Satoshi; Miyasaka, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    The translational diffusion coefficient of a perylenediimide (PDI) derivative in a dextrin-based photo-curable material was evaluated by single molecule tracking. Irradiation by UV light for 1.0 s led to a sudden decrease in the diffusion coefficients of ca. 70% of dye molecules, while that of the remaining 30% diffused as fast as in the uncured sample. The number of fast diffusing molecules decreased with increasing UV irradiation time. The diffusion coefficient decreased due to photoinduced network formation and reached a steady value after UV irradiation >8.0 s. This slow diffusion did not cease even after UV irradiation for 32 s.

  6. Investigating flow behaviors of colloidal materials at the single-particle scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chih

    My thesis work focuses on the nonlinear mechanical behaviors of colloidal suspensions at the particle-level. This work covers both quiescent and strongly sheared suspensions. For quiescent suspensions, we image their 3D structures with confocal microscopy, and implement Stress Assessment from Local Structural Anisotropy (SALSA) to visualize the stress fields in them. Unlike traditional numerical methods, SALSA takes a statistical approach converting the probability of hard-sphere Brownian collisions to stresses. This direct stress measurement allows us to quantify the particle-level stresses surrounding vacancies, dislocations, and grain boundaries in crystalline materials. To drive the suspensions away from equilibrium, we develop a confocal-rheoscope, which is able to shear and image colloidal materials simultaneously. Using this device, we investigate the nonlinear flow behavior governed by Brownian motion, shear induced diffusion, and advection, and more importantly, disentangle them. We also study particle assembly and its corresponding rheological properties under confinement. Finally, we study even more strongly sheared suspensions, in which particle dynamics are too fast to be imaged by a confocal microscope. Here, we use flow reversal rheometry to reveal the underlying mechanism of suspension shear thickening where the viscosity increases with shear rate. We show that the thickening behavior of a suspension arises from the particle contact forces rather than hydrodynamic interactions. Such findings then lead us to design a biaxial shear protocol that can tune the suspension viscosity on demand. This viscosity tuning capability is a foundational step toward using dense suspensions in 3D printing, energy storage, and robotics.

  7. Influence of Bias on the Friction Imaging of Ferroelectric Domains in Single Crystal Barium Titanate Energy Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction imaging of newlycleaved surface domains of single crystal BaTiO3 energy storage materials under both positive and negative voltage bias is investigated by scanning force microscope. When the bias was applied and reversed, three regions with different brightness and contrast in friction image indicated different response to the biases: the friction image of domain A displayed a great change in brightness while domains B and C displayed only a very small change. Possible mechanisms of the interesting phenomena originating from different static force between different charged tip and the periodical array of surface charges inside the inplane domains were proposed. These results provide a new method for the determination of the polarization direction for the domain parallel to the surface and may be useful in the investigation of ferroelectric energy storage materials, especially the relationship between the polarization direction of domain and the bias.

  8. Engineering single-molecule, nanoscale, and microscale bio-functional materials via click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Michael Angelo-Anthony

    To expand the design envelope and supplement the materials library available to biomaterials scientists, the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuCAAC) was explored as a route to design, synthesize and characterize bio-functional small-molecules, nanoparticles, and microfibers. In each engineered system, the use of click chemistry provided facile, bio-orthogonal control for materials synthesis; moreover, the results provided a methodology and more complete, fundamental understanding of the use of click chemistry as a tool for the synergy of biotechnology, polymer and materials science. Fluorophores with well-defined photophysical characteristics (ranging from UV to NIR fluorescence) were used as building blocks for small-molecule, fluorescent biosensors. Fluorophores were paired to exhibit fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) and used to probe the metabolic activity of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO). The FRET pair exhibited a significant variation in PL response with exposure to the lysate of Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10, an organism which can degrade variants of both the donor and acceptor fluorophores. Nanoparticle systems were modified via CuCAAC chemistry to carry affinity tags for CARDO and were subsequently utilized for affinity based bioseparation of CARDO from crude cell lysate. The enzymes were baited with an azide-modified carbazolyl-moiety attached to a poly(propargyl acrylate) nanoparticle. Magnetic nanocluster systems were also modified via CuCAAC chemistry to carry fluorescent imaging tags. The iron-oxide nanoclusters were coated with poly(acrylic acid-co-propargyl acrylate) to provide a clickable surface. Ultimately, alternate Cu-free click chemistries were utilized to produce biohybrid microfibers. The biohybrid microfibers were synthesized under benign photopolymerization conditions inside a microchannel, allowing the encapsulation of viable bacteria. By adjusting pre-polymer solutions and laminar flow rates within the

  9. Single Photon Counting UV Solar-Blind Detectors Using Silicon and III-Nitride Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jewell, April D.; Hennessy, John J.; Carver, Alexander G.; Jones, Todd J.; Goodsall, Timothy M.; Hamden, Erika T.; Suvarna, Puneet; Bulmer, J.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Charbon, Edoardo; Padmanabhan, Preethi; Hancock, Bruce; Bell, L. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) studies in astronomy, cosmology, planetary studies, biological and medical applications often require precision detection of faint objects and in many cases require photon-counting detection. We present an overview of two approaches for achieving photon counting in the UV. The first approach involves UV enhancement of photon-counting silicon detectors, including electron multiplying charge-coupled devices and avalanche photodiodes. The approach used here employs molecular beam epitaxy for delta doping and superlattice doping for surface passivation and high UV quantum efficiency. Additional UV enhancements include antireflection (AR) and solar-blind UV bandpass coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition. Quantum efficiency (QE) measurements show QE > 50% in the 100–300 nm range for detectors with simple AR coatings, and QE ≅ 80% at ~206 nm has been shown when more complex AR coatings are used. The second approach is based on avalanche photodiodes in III-nitride materials with high QE and intrinsic solar blindness. PMID:27338399

  10. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Nidia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. Methods The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using “reduction of the vector population” as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.. The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. Results At baseline (during the dry season a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae. After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed in 970 study

  11. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Nidia; Gramajo, Rodrigo; Escobar, Maria Cabrera; Arana, Byron; Kroeger, Axel; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Petzold, Max

    2012-10-30

    In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs) alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using "reduction of the vector population" as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods) and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices) at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material) and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.). The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. At baseline (during the dry season) a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae). After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed) in 970 study households, tropical rains occurred in the area and

  12. Eradication of large solid tumors by gene therapy with a T cell receptor targeting a single cancer-specific point mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisegang, Matthias; Engels, Boris; Schreiber, Karin; Yew, Poh Yin; Kiyotani, Kazuma; Idel, Christian; Arina, Ainhoa; Duraiswamy, Jaikumar; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Uckert, Wolfgang; Nakamura, Yusuke; Schreiber, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cancers usually contain multiple unique tumor-specific antigens produced by single amino acid substitutions (AAS) and encoded by somatic non-synonymous single nucleotide substitutions. We determined whether adoptively transferred T cells can reject large, well-established solid tumors when engineered to express a single type of T cell receptor (TCR) that is specific for a single AAS. Experimental Design By exome and RNA sequencing of an UV-induced tumor, we identified an AAS in p68 (mp68), a co-activator of p53. This AAS seemed to be an ideal tumor-specific neoepitope because it is encoded by a trunk mutation in the primary autochthonous cancer and binds with highest affinity to the MHC. A high-avidity mp68-specific TCR was used to genetically engineer T cells as well as to generate TCR-transgenic mice for adoptive therapy. Results When the neoepitope was expressed at high levels and by all cancer cells, their direct recognition sufficed to destroy intra-tumor vessels and eradicate large, long-established solid tumors. When the neoepitope was targeted as autochthonous antigen, T cells caused cancer regression followed by escape of antigen-negative variants. Escape could be thwarted by expressing the antigen at increased levels in all cancer cells or by combining T cell therapy with local irradiation. Therapeutic efficacies of TCR-transduced and TCR-transgenic T cells were similar. Conclusions Gene therapy with a single TCR targeting a single AAS can eradicate large established cancer but a uniform expression and/or sufficient levels of the targeted neoepitope or additional therapy are required to overcome tumor escape. PMID:26667491

  13. Advisory group meeting on design and performance of reactor and subcritical blanket systems with lead and lead-bismuth as coolant and/or target material. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Design and Performance of Reactor and Sub-critical Blanket Systems with Lead and Lead-Bismuth as Coolant and/or Target Material was to provide a forum for international information exchange on all the topics relevant to Pb and Pb/Bi cooled critical and sub-critical reactors. In addition, the AGM aimed at: (1) finding ways and means to improve international co-ordination efforts in this area; (2) obtaining advice from the Member States with regard to the activities to be implemented in this area by the IAEA, in order to best meet their needs; and (3) laying out the plans for an effective co-ordination and support of the R and D activities in this area. The AGM stressed that nuclear energy is a realistic solution to satisfy the energy demand, considering the limited resources of fossil fuel, its uneven distribution in the world and the impact of its use on the planet, and taking into account the expected doubling of the world population in the 21st century and tripling of the electricity demand (especially in the developing countries). However, the AGM concluded that the development of an innovative nuclear technology meeting the following requirements must be pursued: (a) deterministic exclusion of any severe accident; (b) proliferation resistance; (c) cost competitiveness with alternative energy sources; (d) sustainable fuel supply; and (e) solution of the radioactive waste management problem

  14. Single-step generation of fluorophore-encapsulated gold nanoparticle core-shell materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardar, R; Shem, P M; Pecchia-Bekkum, C; Bjorge, N S; Shumaker-Parry, J S

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple route to produce fluorophore-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a single step under aqueous conditions using the fluorophore 1-pyrenemethylamine (PMA). Different amounts of PMA were used and the resulting core-shell gold nanoparticles were analyzed using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Electron microscopy analysis shows nanoparticles consisting of a gold nanoparticle core which is encapsulated with a lower contrast shell. In the UV-visible spectra, we observed a significant red shift (37 nm) of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption maximum (λ max ) compared to citrate-stabilized AuNPs of a similar size. We attribute the prominent LSPR wavelength shift for PMA-AuNP conjugates to the increase in the local dielectric environment near the gold nanoparticles due to the shell formation. This simple, aqueous-based synthesis is a new approach to the production of fluorophore-encapsulated AuNPs that could be applicable in biological sensing systems and photonic device fabrication.

  15. Universal control and measuring system for modern classic and amorphous magnetic materials single/on-line strip testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemánek, Ivan; Havlíček, Václav

    2006-09-01

    A new universal control and measuring system for classic and amorphous soft magnetic materials single/on-line strip testing has been developed at the Czech Technical University in Prague. The measuring system allows to measure magnetization characteristic and specific power losses of different tested materials (strips) at AC magnetization of arbitrary magnetic flux density waveform at wide range of frequencies 20 Hz-20 kHz. The measuring system can be used for both single strip testing in laboratories and on-line strip testing during the production process. The measuring system is controlled by two-stage master-slave control system consisting of the external PC (master) completed by three special A/D measuring plug-in boards, and local executing control unit (slave) with one-chip microprocessor 8051, connected with PC by the RS232 serial line. The "user friendly" powerful control software implemented on the PC and the effective program code for the microprocessor give possibility for full automatic measurement with high measuring power and high measuring accuracy.

  16. Inorganic metallodielectric materials fabricated using two single-step methods based on the Tollen's process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Molly S M; Bouwman, Jason; Chen, Aiqing; Deutsch, Miriam

    2007-02-01

    Two methods for preparing polycrystalline silver shells on colloidal silica spheres are reported. These do not include the use of organic ligands or metal seeding steps and are based on the Tollen's process for silvering glass. Reaction parameters such as temperature and reactant concentrations are adjusted to slow the reaction kinetics, which we find leads to preferential silver growth on the spheres. The resulting shells are polycrystalline and granular, showing highly uniform sphere coverage. Surface morphologies range from sparsely interconnected grains for shells approximately 20 nm thick, to complete (yet porous) shells of interconnected silver clusters which are up to approximately 140 nm in thickness. The extinction spectra of the core-shell materials are markedly different from those of smooth continuous shells, showing clear evidence that the granular shell geometry influences the plasmon resonance of the composite system. Spheres coated with shells 20-40 nm thick are also suitable for colloidal crystallization. Monolayers of self-assembled spheres with long-range ordering are demonstrated.

  17. Single Photon Counting UV Solar-Blind Detectors Using Silicon and III-Nitride Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouleh Nikzad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV studies in astronomy, cosmology, planetary studies, biological and medical applications often require precision detection of faint objects and in many cases require photon-counting detection. We present an overview of two approaches for achieving photon counting in the UV. The first approach involves UV enhancement of photon-counting silicon detectors, including electron multiplying charge-coupled devices and avalanche photodiodes. The approach used here employs molecular beam epitaxy for delta doping and superlattice doping for surface passivation and high UV quantum efficiency. Additional UV enhancements include antireflection (AR and solar-blind UV bandpass coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition. Quantum efficiency (QE measurements show QE > 50% in the 100–300 nm range for detectors with simple AR coatings, and QE ≅ 80% at ~206 nm has been shown when more complex AR coatings are used. The second approach is based on avalanche photodiodes in III-nitride materials with high QE and intrinsic solar blindness.

  18. Histopathological Alterations after Single Epidural Injection of Ropivacaine, Methylprednizolone Acetate, or Contrast Material in Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Vlachodimitropoulos, Demetrios; Soultanis, Konstantinos; Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Kelekis, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The consequences from the injection of different types of drugs in the epidural space remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that localized inflammation, fibrosis, and arachnoiditis can complicate sequential epidural blockades, or even epidural contrast injection. We investigate the in vivo effect of epidural injections in the epidural space in an animal model. Materials and Methods: A group of ten male adult pigs, five punctures to each at distinct vertebral interspaces under general anesthesia, were examined, testing different drugs, used regularly in the epidural space (iopamidol, methylprednisolone acetate, ropivacaine). Each site was marked with a percutaneous hook wire marker. Histological analysis of the epidural space, the meninges, and the underlying spinal cord of the punctured sites along with staining for caspase-3 followed 20 days later. Results: The epidural space did not manifest adhesions or any other pathology, and the outer surface of the dura was not impaired in any specimen. The group that had the contrast media injection showed a higher inflammation response compared to the other groups (P = 0.001). Positive staining for caspase-3 was limited to <5% of neurons with all substances used. Conclusion: No proof of arachnoiditis and/or fibrosis was noted in the epidural space with the use of the above-described drugs. A higher inflammation rate was noted with the use of contrast media.

  19. Slow-muon study of quaternary solar-cell materials: Single layers and p -n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, H. V.; Vilão, R. C.; Vieira, R. B. L.; Gil, J. M.; Weidinger, A.; Sousa, M. G.; Teixeira, J. P.; da Cunha, A. F.; Leitão, J. P.; Salomé, P. M. P.; Fernandes, P. A.; Törndahl, T.; Prokscha, T.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.

    2018-02-01

    Thin films and p -n junctions for solar cells based on the absorber materials Cu (In ,G a ) Se2 and Cu2ZnSnS4 were investigated as a function of depth using implanted low energy muons. The most significant result is a clear decrease of the formation probability of the Mu+ state at the heterojunction interface as well as at the surface of the Cu (In ,G a ) Se2 film. This reduction is attributed to a reduced bonding reaction of the muon in the absorber defect layer at its surface. In addition, the activation energies for the conversion from a muon in an atomiclike configuration to a anion-bound position are determined from temperature-dependence measurements. It is concluded that the muon probe provides a measurement of the effective surface defect layer width, both at the heterojunctions and at the films. The CIGS surface defect layer is crucial for solar-cell electrical performance and additional information can be used for further optimizations of the surface.

  20. The new target chamber at LIPSION: The new translation stage and goniometer and the new irradiation platform for single cell experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Charlotta; Petriconi, Silvio; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman

    2007-01-01

    A new target chamber as well as a new 7-axes translation stage with goniometer will shortly be implemented at the LIPSION nanoprobe in Leipzig. This new stage should enable linear motion as well as rotary motion with high precision, positioning accuracy and repeatability. These different features have been investigated online as well as offline, with encouraging results. Along with the new equipment, new software is also being developed, to provide stage control running over network. These software developments, including a graphical user interface, will also be described. As part of the new target chamber, a new external beam facility and irradiation platform for single ion experiments on single living cells is being assembled. A detailed description of the new cell irradiation platform, including beam extraction, new cell dishes, and cell recognition aspects will be given. It will be shown that the possibility of offline cell recognition, possibly using a differential interference contrast microscope, is an option

  1. Meaurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in quasi-elastic region from the reaction {sup 3}He{up_arrow}(e,e')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yawei [Rutgers

    2013-10-01

    A measurement of the inclusive target single-spin asymmetry has been performed using the quasi-elastic {sup 3}He{up_arrow}(e,e') reaction with a vertically polarized {sup 3}He target at Q{sup 2} values of 0.13, 0.46 and 0.97 GeV{sup 2}. This asymmetry vanishes under the one photon exchange assumption. But the interference between two-photon exchange and one-photon exchange gives rise to an imaginary amplitude, so that a non-zero A{sub y} is allowed. The experiment, conducted in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory in 2009, used two independent spectrometers to simultaneously measure the target single-spin asymmetry. Using the effective polarization approximation, the neutron single-spin asymmetries were extracted from the measured {sup 3}He asymmetries. The measurement is to establish a non-vanishing A{sub y}. Non-zero asymmetries were observed at all Q{sup 2} points, and the overall precision is an order of magnitude improved over the existing proton data. The data provide new constraints on Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) models and new information on the dynamics of the two-photon exchange process.

  2. Development of a method to extract and purify target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step: online hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography and countercurrent chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Min; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Guo, Xin; Hu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Pure compounds extracted and purified from natural sources are crucial to lead discovery and drug screening. This study presents a novel two-dimensional hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBAC) and high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) for extraction and purification of target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step. The EBAC and HSCCC were hyphenated via a six-port injection valve as an interface. Fractionation of ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Rhizoma coptidis was performed on the hyphenated system to verify its efficacy. An amount each of 52.9 mg of salvianolic acid B and 2.1 mg of rosmarinic acid was obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza by the two-dimensional system in a single step. The purities of the targets were over 96% of salvianolic acid B and 74% of rosmarinic acid. An amount each of 4.6 mg of coptisine and 4.1 mg of berberine was obtained from Rhizoma coptidis each with 98% and 82% purity, respectively. The processing time was nearly 50% that of the multi-step method. These results indicate that the present method is a rapid and green way to harvest targets from medicinal plants in a single step. PMID:24588208

  3. Compatibility of the repairable-conditionally repairable, multi-target and linear-quadratic models in converting hypofractionated radiation doses to single doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiromitsu; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Toshito, Toshiyuki; Akagi, Takashi; Otsuka, Shinya; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the applicability of the repairable-conditionally repairable (RCR) model and the multi-target (MT) model to dose conversion in high-dose-per-fraction radiotherapy in comparison with the linear-quadratic (LQ) model. Cell survival data of V79 and EMT6 single cells receiving single doses of 2-12 Gy or 2 or 3 fractions of 4 or 5 Gy each, and that of V79 spheroids receiving single doses of 5-26 Gy or 2-5 fractions of 5-12 Gy, were analyzed. Single and fractionated doses to actually reduce cell survival to the same level were determined by a colony assay. Single doses used in the experiments and surviving fractions at the doses were substituted into equations of the RCR, MT and LQ models in the calculation software Mathematica, and each parameter coefficient was computed. Thereafter, using the coefficients and the three models, equivalent single doses for the hypofractionated doses were calculated. They were then compared with actually-determined equivalent single doses for the hypofractionated doses. The equivalent single doses calculated using the RCR, MT and LQ models tended to be lower than the actually determined equivalent single doses. The LQ model seemed to fit relatively well at doses of 5 Gy or less. At 6 Gy or higher doses, the RCR and MT models seemed to be more reliable than the LQ model. In hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, the LQ model should not be used, and conversion models incorporating the concept of the RCR or MT models, such as the generalized linear-quadratic models, appear to be more suitable.

  4. Preconceptual design of a Long-Pulse Spallation Source (LPSS) at the LANSCE Facility: Target system, facility, and material handling considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.F.

    1995-12-01

    This report provides a summary of a preconceptual design study for the proposed Long-Pulse Spallation. Source (LPSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The LPSS will use a 0.8-MW proton beam to produce neutrons from a tungsten target. This study focuses on the design of the target station and changes to the existing building that would be made to accommodate the LPSS. The LPSS will provide fifteen flight paths to neutron scattering instruments. In addition, options for generating ultracold neutrons, pions, and muons will be available. Flight-energy, forward-scattered neutrons on the downstream side of the target will also be available for autoradiography studies. A Target Test Bed (TTB) is also proposed for full-beam tests of component materials and advanced spallation neutron sources. The design allows for separation of the experiment hall from the beam line, target, and flight paths. The target and moderator systems and the systems/components to be tested in the TTB will be emplaced and removed separately by remotely operated, shielded equipment. Irradiated materials will be transported to a hot cell adjacent to the target chamber for testing by remotely operated instruments. These tests will provide information about how materials properties are affected by proton and neutron beams

  5. Mitigation of Critical Single Point Failure (SPF) Material - Laminac 4116 Binder Replacement Program for Parachute and Cluster Stars Illuminant Compositions for Hand Held Signals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lakshminarayanan, G. R; Chen, Gary; Ames, Richard; Lee, Wai T; Wejsa, James L

    2006-01-01

    Laminac 4116 binder has been identified as a single point failure (SPF) material since it is being produced by only one company and there is a possibility that the company may discontinue production due to low product demand...

  6. The role of prosthetic abutment material on the stress distribution in a maxillary single implant-supported fixed prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Hugo Eduardo, E-mail: hugo.e.peixoto@hotmail.com [Implantology Team, Latin American Institute of Research and Education in Dentistry, Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Bordin, Dimorvan, E-mail: dimorvan_bordin@hotmail.com [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Del Bel Cury, Altair A., E-mail: altcury@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Silva, Wander José da, E-mail: wanderjose@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Faot, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.faot@gmail.com [Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Gonçalves Chaves, 457, 2nd floor, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul 96015-560 (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the influence of abutment's material and geometry on stress distribution in a single implant-supported prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional models were made based on tomographic slices of the upper middle incisor area, in which a morse taper implant was positioned and a titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrN) universal abutments was installed. The commercially available geometry of titanium (T) and zirconia (Z) abutments were used to draw two models, TM1 and ZM1 respectively, which served as control groups. These models were compared with 2 experimental groups were the mechanical properties of Z were applied to the titanium abutment (TM2) and vice versa for the zirconia abutment (ZM2). Subsequently, loading was simulated in two steps, starting with a preload phase, calculated with the respective friction coefficients of each materials, followed by a combined preload and chewing force. The maximum von Mises stress was described. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA that considered material composition, geometry and loading (p < 0.05). Results: Titanium and zirconia abutments showed similar von Mises stresses in the mechanical part of the four models. The area with the highest concentration of stress was the screw thread, following by the screw body. The highest stress levels occurred in screw thread was observed during the preloading phase in the ZM1 model (931 MPa); and during the combined loading in the TM1 model (965 MPa). Statistically significant differences were observed for loading, the material × loading interaction, and the loading × geometry interaction (p < 0.05). Preloading contributed for 77.89% of the stress (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences to the other factors (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The screw was the piece most intensely affected, mainly through the preload force, independent of the abutment's material. - Highlights: • The abutment's screw was the most impaired piece of the

  7. Evaluation of single and dual siRNAs targeting rabies virus glycoprotein and nucleoprotein genes for inhibition of virus multiplication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Chetan D; Singh, Niraj K; Sonwane, Arvind A; Pawar, Sachin S; Mishra, B P; Chaturvedi, V K; Saini, Mohini; Singh, R P; Gupta, Praveen K

    2013-11-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein (G) and nucleoprotein (N) genes were evaluated as antiviral agents against rabies virus in vitro in BHK-21 cells. To select effective siRNAs targeting RV-G, a plasmid-based transient co-transfection approach was used. In this, siRNAs were expressed as short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), and their ability to inhibit RV-G gene expression was evaluated in cells transfected with a plasmid expressing RV-G. The nine different siRNAs designed to target RV-G exhibited varying degrees of knockdown of RV-G gene expression. One siRNA (si-G7) with considerable effect in knockdown of RV-G expression also demonstrated significant inhibition of RV multiplication in BHK-21 cells after in vitro challenge with the RV Pasteur virus-11 (PV-11) strain. A decrease in the number of fluorescent foci in siRNA-treated cells and a reduction (86.8 %) in the release of RV into infected cell culture supernatant indicated the anti-rabies potential of siRNA. Similarly, treatment with one siRNA targeting RV-N resulted in a decrease in the number of fluorescent foci and a reduction (85.9 %) in the release of RV. As a dual gene silencing approach where siRNAs targeting RV-G and RV-N genes were expressed from single construct, the anti-rabies-virus effect was observed as an 87.4 % reduction in the release of RV. These results demonstrate that siRNAs targeting RV-G and N, both in single and dual form, have potential as antiviral agent against rabies.

  8. Ion-beam modification of 2-D materials - single implant atom analysis via annular dark-field electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangert, U., E-mail: Ursel.Bangert@ul.ie [Department of Physics, School of Sciences & Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Stewart, A.; O’Connell, E.; Courtney, E. [Department of Physics, School of Sciences & Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Ramasse, Q.; Kepaptsoglou, D. [SuperSTEM Laboratory, STFC Daresbury Campus, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Hofsäss, H.; Amani, J. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-PLatz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Tu, J.-S.; Kardynal, B. [Peter Grünberg Institut 9, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Functionalisation of two-dimensional (2-D) materials via low energy ion implantation could open possibilities for fabrication of devices based on such materials. Nanoscale patterning and/or electronically doping can thus be achieved, compatible with large scale integrated semiconductor technologies. Using atomic resolution High Angle Annular Dark Field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy supported by image simulation, we show that sites and chemical nature of individual implants/ dopants in graphene, as well as impurities in hBN, can uniquely and directly be identified on grounds of their position and their image intensity in accordance with predictions from Z-contrast theories. Dopants in graphene (e.g., N) are predominantly substitutional. In other 2-Ds, e.g. dichalcogenides, the situation is more complicated since implants can be embedded in different layers and substitute for different elements. Possible configurations of Se-implants in MoS{sub 2} are discussed and image contrast calculations performed. Implants substituting for S in the top or bottom layer can undoubtedly be identified. We show, for the first time, using HAADF contrast measurement that successful Se-integration into MoS{sub 2} can be achieved via ion implantation, and we demonstrate the possibility of HAADF image contrast measurements for identifying impurities and dopants introduced into in 2-Ds. - Highlights: • Ion implantation of 2-dimensional materials. • Targeted and controlled functionalisation of graphene and 2-D dichalcocenides. • Atomic resolution High Angle Dark Field scanning transmission electron microscopy. • Determination of atomic site and elemental nature of dopants in 2-D materials. • Quantitative information from Z-contrast images.

  9. Defining the risk of toxicity in phase I oncology trials of novel molecularly targeted agents: A single-center experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Background: Phase I oncology trials are designed to define the maximum tolerated dose and toxicity of new drugs. This study aims to define the risk of toxicity in phase I trials of novel molecularly targeted agents (MTA), as this therapeutic approach is becoming increasingly relevant. Methods: We

  10. Defining the risk of toxicity in phase I oncology trials of novel molecularly targeted agents : a single centre experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molife, L R; Alam, S; Olmos, D; Puglisi, M; Shah, K; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Trani, L; Tjokrowidjaja, A; de Bono, J S; Banerji, U; Kaye, S B

    BACKGROUND: This study defined the risk of serious toxicity in phase I trials of molecularly targeted agents (MTA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of toxicity data from patients treated in phase I trials of MTAs was carried out to define the rate of treatment-related grade 3/4 toxic

  11. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Neighborhood-targeted and case-triggered use of a single dose of oral cholera vaccine in an urban setting: Feasibility and vaccine coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lucy A; Rumunu, John; Jamet, Christine; Kenyi, Yona; Lino, Richard Laku; Wamala, Joseph F; Mpairwe, Allan M; Muller, Vincent; Llosa, Augusto E; Uzzeni, Florent; Luquero, Francisco J; Ciglenecki, Iza; Azman, Andrew S

    2017-06-01

    In June 2015, a cholera outbreak was declared in Juba, South Sudan. In addition to standard outbreak control measures, oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was proposed. As sufficient doses to cover the at-risk population were unavailable, a campaign using half the standard dosing regimen (one-dose) targeted high-risk neighborhoods and groups including neighbors of suspected cases. Here we report the operational details of this first public health use of a single-dose regimen of OCV and illustrate the feasibility of conducting highly targeted vaccination campaigns in an urban area. Neighborhoods of the city were prioritized for vaccination based on cumulative attack rates, active transmission and local knowledge of known cholera risk factors. OCV was offered to all persons older than 12 months at 20 fixed sites and to select groups, including neighbors of cholera cases after the main campaign ('case-triggered' interventions), through mobile teams. Vaccination coverage was estimated by multi-stage surveys using spatial sampling techniques. 162,377 individuals received a single-dose of OCV in the targeted neighborhoods. In these neighborhoods vaccine coverage was 68.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 64.0-73.7) and was highest among children ages 5-14 years (90.0%, 95% CI 85.7-94.3), with adult men being less likely to be vaccinated than adult women (Relative Risk 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68-0.96). In the case-triggered interventions, each lasting 1-2 days, coverage varied (range: 30-87%) with an average of 51.0% (95% CI 41.7-60.3). Vaccine supply constraints and the complex realities where cholera outbreaks occur may warrant the use of flexible alternative vaccination strategies, including highly-targeted vaccination campaigns and single-dose regimens. We showed that such campaigns are feasible. Additional work is needed to understand how and when to use different strategies to best protect populations against epidemic cholera.

  13. Wear resistance of thick diamond like carbon coatings against polymeric materials used in single screw plasticizing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzenbacher, G.; Liu, K.; Forsich, C.; Heim, D.

    2015-05-01

    Wear on the screw and barrel surface accompany polymer single screw plasticizing technology from the beginning. In general, wear on screws can be reduced by using nitrided steel surfaces, fused armour alloys on the screw flights and coatings. However, DLC-coatings (Diamond Like Carbon) comprise a number of interesting properties such as a high hardness, a low coefficient of friction and an excellent corrosion resistance due to their amorphous structure. The wear resistance of about 50 µm thick DLC-coatings against polyamide 6.6, polybutylene terephthalate and polypropylene is investigated in this paper. The tribology in the solids conveying zone of a single screw extruder until the beginning of melting is evaluated using a pin on disc tribometer and a so called screw tribometer. The polymeric pins are pressed against coated metal samples using the pin on disc tribometer and the tests are carried out at a defined normal force and sliding velocity. The screw tribometer is used to perform tribological experiments between polymer pellets and rotating coated metal shafts simulating the extruder screw. Long term experiments were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the DLC-coating. A reduction of the coefficient of friction can be observed after a frictional distance of about 20 kilometers using glass fibre reinforced polymeric materials. This reduction is independent on the polymer and accompanied by a black layer on the wear surface of the polymeric pins. The DLC-coated metal samples show an up to 16 µm deep wear track after the 100 kilometer test period against the glass fiber filled materials only.

  14. CLoNe is a new method to target single progenitors and study their progeny in mouse and chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, Fernando; Vasistha, Navneet A; Begbie, Jo; Molnár, Zoltán

    2014-04-01

    Cell lineage analysis enables us to address pivotal questions relating to: the embryonic origin of cells and sibling cell relationships in the adult body; the contribution of progenitors activated after trauma or disease; and the comparison across species in evolutionary biology. To address such fundamental questions, several techniques for clonal labelling have been developed, each with its shortcomings. Here, we report a novel method, CLoNe that is designed to work in all vertebrate species and tissues. CLoNe uses a cocktail of labelling, targeting and transposition vectors that enables targeting of specific subpopulations of progenitor types with a combination of fluorophores resulting in multifluorescence that describes multiple clones per specimen. Furthermore, transposition into the genome ensures the longevity of cell labelling. We demonstrate the robustness of this technique in mouse and chick forebrain development, and show evidence that CLoNe will be broadly applicable to study clonal relationships in different tissues and species.

  15. An MRI-visible non-viral vector bearing GD2 single chain antibody for targeted gene delivery to human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Pang

    Full Text Available The neural ganglioside GD2 has recently been reported to be a novel surface marker that is only expressed on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells within normal marrow. In this study, an MRI-visible, targeted, non-viral vector for effective gene delivery to human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was first synthesized by attaching a targeting ligand, the GD2 single chain antibody (scAbGD2, to the distal ends of PEG-g-PEI-SPION. The targeted vector was then used to condense plasmid DNA to form nanoparticles showing stable small size, low cytotoxicity, and good biocompatibility. Based on a reporter gene assay, the transfection efficiency of targeting complex reached the highest value at 59.6% ± 4.5% in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which was higher than those obtained using nontargeting complex and lipofectamine/pDNA (17.7% ± 2.9% and 34.9% ± 3.6%, respectively (P<0.01. Consequently, compared with the nontargeting group, more in vivo gene expression was observed in the fibrotic rat livers of the targeting group. Furthermore, the targeting capacity of scAbGD2-PEG-g-PEI-SPION was successfully verified in vitro by confocal laser scanning microscopy, Prussian blue staining, and magnetic resonance imaging. Our results indicate that scAbGD2-PEG-g-PEI-SPION is a promising MRI-visible non-viral vector for targeted gene delivery to human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

  16. Inexpensive Home-Made Single Wavelength Ellipsometer (λ = 633 nm) for Measuring the Optical Constant of Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, L. Z.; Megasari, K.; Suharyadi, E.; Anugraha, R.; Abraha, K.; Santoso, I.

    2017-05-01

    Inexpensive home-made Single wavelength Ellipsometry with RAE (Rotating Analyser Ellipsometer) configuration has been developed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is an optical measurement technique which is based on the measurement of the change of the phase difference (Δ) and the amplitude ratio (ψ) between p and s linear polarized of reflected (or transmitted) light. Our RAE configuration system composed of polarizer, sample, analyzer, detector, and He-Ne laser (λ = 633 nm) that acted as the monochromatic light source. To test the reliability of our SE system, we measure the optical constant of Au bulk and Cr (30 nm thick) film. The optical constant and the thickness were extracted by employing the pseudo-dielectric function and numerical inversion which is based on the secant method, the ψ and Δ of our SE data which is modelled by Fresnel equation. From the extraction using the secant method we obtain the optical constant of the Au bulk sample with n = 0.11 to 0.22 and k = 3.26 to 3.37 which is close to that of using pseudo-dielectric method. We obtain the same result for Cr film with n = 3.66 to 3.81 and k = 5.32 to 5.38 which is close to the result from reference. These results show that our inexpensive home-made Single wavelength Ellipsometry instrument and the extraction method are reliable for determining the optical constant of nanostructured materials.

  17. Characterization of the solid, airborne materials created when UF6 reacts with moist air flowing in single-pass mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, P.W.

    1985-10-01

    A series of experiments has been performed in which UF 6 was released into flowing air in order to characterize the solid particulate material produced under non-static conditions. In two of the experiments, the aerosol was allowed to stagnate in a static chamber after release and examined further but in the other experiments characterization was done only on material collected a few seconds after release. Transmission electron microscopy and mass measurement by cascaded impactor were used to characterize the aerosol particles which were usually single spheroids with little agglomeration in evidence. The goal of the work is to determine the chemistry and physics of the UF 6 -atmospheric moisture reaction under a variety of conditions so that information about resulting species and product morphologies is available for containment and removal (knockdown) studies as well as for dispersion plume modeling and toxicology studies. This report completes the milestone for reporting the information obtained from releases of UF 6 into flowing rather than static air. 26 figs., 3 tabs

  18. On-site detection of Phytophthora spp.—single-stranded target DNA as the limiting factor to improve on-chip hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenkbier, Lydia; Pollok, Sibyll; Popp, Jürgen; Weber, Karina; König, Stephan; Wagner, Stefan; Werres, Sabine; Weber, Jörg; Hentschel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We report on a lab-on-a-chip approach for on-site detection of Phytophthora species that allows visual signal readout. The results demonstrate the significance of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) generation in terms of improving the intensity of the hybridization signal and to improve the reliability of the method. Conventional PCR with subsequent heat denaturation, sodium hydroxide-based denaturation, lambda exonuclease digestion and two asymmetric PCR methods were investigated for the species P. fragariae, P. kernoviae, and P. ramorum. The positioning of the capture probe within the amplified yeast GTP-binding protein (YPT1) target DNA was also of interest because it significantly influences the intensity of the signal. Statistical tests were used to validate the impact of the ssDNA generation methods and the capture-target probe position. The single-stranded target DNA generated by Linear-After-The-Exponential PCR (LATE-PCR) was found to produce signal intensities comparable to post-PCR exonuclease treatment. The LATE-PCR is the best method for the on-site detection of Phytophthora because the enzymatic digestion after PCR is more laborious and time-consuming. (author)

  19. Impact of prosthetic material on mid- and long-term outcome of dental implants supporting single crowns and fixed partial dentures: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Ayash, Samir; Strasding, Malin; Rücker, Gerta; Att, Wael

    The impact of prosthetic material selection on implant survival is not clear. The current criteria for choosing a prosthetic material seem to be based on clinician preferences. This systematic review aims to evaluate the impact of restorative materials on the mid- and long-term survival of implants supporting single crowns and fixed partial dentures. Hand and MEDLINE searches were performed to identify relevant literature for single crowns (SC) and fixed partial dentures (FPD). Further inclusion criteria were a mean follow-up period of at least 3 years, the inclusion of at least 10 patients in a relevant study cohort, and a clear description of prosthesis type and prosthetic material. A total of 63 studies for the SC group and 11 studies for the FPD group were included. Full arch restorations were not included. The materials utilised in the SC group were metal-ceramic (precious and non-precious), lithium-disilicate, veneered zirconia, veneered alumina, and nanoceramics. The materials used in the FPD group were metal-ceramic (precious), veneered titanium, metal-resin (precious), and veneered zirconia. No significant impact on the prosthetic material relating to mid- or long-term implant survival was identified. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences between the survival rates of the dental prostheses made from different materials (SC and FPD group). Single crowns made of nanoceramics showed a higher risk for decementation relative to other materials (0.80, 95% CI [0.67; 0.89]; P prosthetic material selection has no influence on mid- and long-term survival of implants restored with single crowns and fixed partial dentures. Similarly, the prosthetic material seems to have no significant impact on prosthetic survival rates. Further research is required to provide more evidence regarding the impact of the prosthetic material on long-term outcome. Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  20. Influence of the effectiveness of raw materials on the reliability of thermoelectric cooling devices. Part I: single-stage TEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaikov V. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the reliability of information systems depends on the reliability improvement of their component elements, including cooling devices, providing efficiency of thermally loaded components. Thermoelectric devices based on the Peltier effect have significant advantages compared with air and liquid systems for thermal modes of the radio-electronic equipment. This happens due to the absence of moving parts, which account for the failure rate. The article presents research results on how thermoelectric efficiency modules affect the failure rate and the probability of non-failure operation in the range of working temperature of thermoelectric coolers. The authors investigate a model of relative failure rate and the probability of failure-free operation single-stage thermoelectric devices depending on the main relevant parameters: the operating current flowing through the thermocouple and resistance, temperature changes, the magnitude of the heat load and the number of elements in the module. It is shown that the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of the primary material for a variety of thermocouple temperature changes causes the following: maximum temperature difference increases by 18%; the number of elements in the module decreases; cooling coefficient increases; failure rate reduces and the probability of non-failure operation of thermoelectric cooling device increases. Material efficiency increase by 1% allows reducing failure rate by 2,6—4,3% in maximum refrigeration capacity mode and by 4,2—5,0% in minimal failure rate mode when temperature difference changes in the range of 40—60 K. Thus, the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of initial materials of thermocouples can significantly reduce the failure rate and increase the probability of failure of thermoelectric coolers depending on the temperature difference and the current operating mode.

  1. Asteroseismology of OB stars with hundreds of single snapshot spectra (and a few time-series of selected targets)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón-Díaz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Imagine we could do asteroseismology of large samples of OB-type stars by using just one spectrum per target. That would be great! But this is probably a crazy and stupid idea. Or maybe not. Maybe we have the possibility to open a new window to investigate stellar oscillations in massive stars that has been in front of us for many years, but has not attracted very much our attention: the characterization and understanding of the so-called macroturbulent broadening in OB-type stars.

  2. Selection and Characterization of Single Chain Antibody Fragments Specific for Hsp90 as a Potential Cancer Targeting Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Petters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins play an essential role in facilitating malignant transformation and they have been recognized as important factors in human cancers. One of the key elements of the molecular chaperones machinery is Hsp90 and it has recently become a target for anticancer therapeutic approaches. The potential and importance of Hsp90-directed agents becomes apparent when one realizes that disruption of Hsp90 function may influence over 200 oncogenic client proteins. Here, we described the selection and characterization of Hsp90-specific antibody fragments from commercially available Tomlinson I and J phage display libraries. The affinities of Hsp90-binding scFv variants were measured using SPR method. Then, based on the best clone selected, we performed the affinity maturation procedure and obtained valuable Hsp90-specific clones. The selected binders were expressed and applied for immunostaining, ELISA and SPR analysis using model cancer cell lines. All performed experiments confirmed the ability of selected antibodies to interact with the Hsp90. Therefore, the presented Hsp90-specific scFv, might be a starting point for the development of a novel antibody-based strategy targeting cancer.

  3. Molecular diagnostics of a single drug-resistant multiple myeloma case using targeted next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeda H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Ikeda,1 Kazuya Ishiguro,1 Tetsuyuki Igarashi,1 Yuka Aoki,1 Toshiaki Hayashi,1 Tadao Ishida,1 Yasushi Sasaki,1,2 Takashi Tokino,2 Yasuhisa Shinomura1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, 2Medical Genome Sciences, Research Institute for Frontier Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Abstract: A 69-year-old man was diagnosed with IgG λ-type multiple myeloma (MM, Stage II in October 2010. He was treated with one cycle of high-dose dexamethasone. After three cycles of bortezomib, the patient exhibited slow elevations in the free light-chain levels and developed a significant new increase of serum M protein. Bone marrow cytogenetic analysis revealed a complex karyotype characteristic of malignant plasma cells. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of this patient, we sequenced for mutations in the entire coding regions of 409 cancer-related genes using a semiconductor-based sequencing platform. Sequencing analysis revealed eight nonsynonymous somatic mutations in addition to several copy number variants, including CCND1 and RB1. These alterations may play roles in the pathobiology of this disease. This targeted next-generation sequencing can allow for the prediction of drug resistance and facilitate improvements in the treatment of MM patients. Keywords: multiple myeloma, drug resistance, genome-wide sequencing, semiconductor sequencer, target therapy

  4. M13 phage-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as nanoprobes for second near-infrared window fluorescence imaging of targeted tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hyunjung; Ghosh, Debadyuti; Ham, Moon-Ho; Qi, Jifa; Barone, Paul W; Strano, Michael S; Belcher, Angela M

    2012-03-14

    Second near-infrared (NIR) window light (950-1400 nm) is attractive for in vivo fluorescence imaging due to its deep penetration depth in tissues and low tissue autofluorescence. Here we show genetically engineered multifunctional M13 phage can assemble fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and ligands for targeted fluorescence imaging of tumors. M13-SWNT probe is detectable in deep tissues even at a low dosage of 2 μg/mL and up to 2.5 cm in tissue-like phantoms. Moreover, targeted probes show specific and up to 4-fold improved uptake in prostate specific membrane antigen positive prostate tumors compared to control nontargeted probes. This M13 phage-based second NIR window fluorescence imaging probe has great potential for specific detection and therapy monitoring of hard-to-detect areas. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Potent and selective antisense oligonucleotides targeting single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the Huntington disease gene / allele-specific silencing of mutant huntingtin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Jeffrey B; Warby, Simon C; Southwell, Amber L

    2011-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG-expansion in the huntingtin gene (HTT) that results in a toxic gain of function in the mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT). Reducing the expression of mHTT is therefore an attractive therapy for HD. However, wild......-type HTT protein is essential for development and has critical roles in maintaining neuronal health. Therapies for HD that reduce wild-type HTT may therefore generate unintended negative consequences. We have identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) targets in the human HD population for the disease...

  6. Total cross-sections for single electron capture from H, He and H2 targets by impact of Be4+ and B5+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busnengo, H.F.; Rivarola, R.D.; Universidad Nacional de Rosario; Rosario Univ. Nacional

    1996-01-01

    Single electron capture from H, He and H 2 targets by impact of Be 4+ and B 5+ projectiles is studied for intermediate and high collision energies. Total cross-sections are calculated using the continuum distorted wave-eikonal final state model. Theoretical results corresponding to capture to selective final bound states and to all final states are presented for impact energies ranging from 50 keV/amu to 3 MeV/amu. A comparison with available experimental data is also shown. (orig.)

  7. Correlation filter design using a single cluttered training image for detecting a noisy target in a nonoverlapping scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-González, Pablo Mario; Kober, Vitaly

    2010-08-01

    Classical correlation filters for object detection and location estimation are designed under the assumption that the shape and intensity values of the object of interest are explicitly known. In this work we assume that the target is given at unknown coordinates in a reference image with a cluttered background corrupted by additive noise. We consider the nonoverlapping signal model for both the reference image and the input scene. Optimal correlation filters, with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and peak-to-output energy, for object detection and location estimation are derived. Estimation techniques are proposed for the parameters required for filter design. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed filters are presented and compared with those of common correlation filters.

  8. Post hoc interlaboratory comparison of single particle ICP-MS size measurements of NIST gold nanoparticle reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Petersen, Elijah J; Possolo, Antonio; Winchester, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    Single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) is an emerging technique that enables simultaneous measurement of nanoparticle size and number quantification of metal-containing nanoparticles at realistic environmental exposure concentrations. Such measurements are needed to understand the potential environmental and human health risks of nanoparticles. Before spICP-MS can be considered a mature methodology, additional work is needed to standardize this technique including an assessment of the reliability and variability of size distribution measurements and the transferability of the technique among laboratories. This paper presents the first post hoc interlaboratory comparison study of the spICP-MS technique. Measurement results provided by six expert laboratories for two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) gold nanoparticle reference materials (RM 8012 and RM 8013) were employed. The general agreement in particle size between spICP-MS measurements and measurements by six reference techniques demonstrates the reliability of spICP-MS and validates its sizing capability. However, the precision of the spICP-MS measurement was better for the larger 60 nm gold nanoparticles and evaluation of spICP-MS precision indicates substantial variability among laboratories, with lower variability between operators within laboratories. Global particle number concentration and Au mass concentration recovery were quantitative for RM 8013 but significantly lower and with a greater variability for RM 8012. Statistical analysis did not suggest an optimal dwell time, because this parameter did not significantly affect either the measured mean particle size or the ability to count nanoparticles. Finally, the spICP-MS data were often best fit with several single non-Gaussian distributions or mixtures of Gaussian distributions, rather than the more frequently used normal or log-normal distributions.

  9. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle T.; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer® CM 825, Visioscan® VC 98 and Cutometer® dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter® MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. Results: The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter® readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. Conclusion: The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel. PMID:24991119

  10. Continuum dislocation-density based models for the dynamic shock response of single-crystal and polycrystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscher, Darby

    2017-06-01

    The dynamic thermomechanical responses of polycrystalline materials under shock loading are often dominated by the interaction of defects and interfaces. For example, polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) can initiate under weak shock impacts whose energy, if distributed homogeneously throughout the material, translates to temperature increases that are insufficient to drive the rapid chemistry observed. In such cases, heterogeneous thermomechanical interactions at the mesoscale (i.e. between single-crystal and macroscale) lead to the formation of localized hot spots. Within metals, a prescribed deformation associated with a shock wave may be accommodated by crystallographic slip, provided a sufficient population of mobile dislocations is available. However, if the deformation rate is large enough, there may be an insufficient number of freely mobile dislocations. In these cases, additional dislocations may be nucleated, or alternate mechanisms (e.g. twinning, damage) activated in order to accommodate the deformation. Direct numerical simulation at the mesoscale offers insight into these physical processes that can be invaluable to the development of macroscale constitutive theories, if the mesoscale models adequately represent the anisotropic nonlinear thermomechanical response of individual crystals and their interfaces. This talk will briefly outline a continuum mesoscale modeling framework founded upon local and nonlocal variations of dislocation-density based crystal plasticity theory. The nonlocal theory couples continuum dislocation transport with the local theory. In the latter, dislocation transport is modeled by enforcing dislocation conservation at a slip-system level through the solution of advection-diffusion equations. The configuration of geometrically necessary dislocation density gives rise to a back-stress that inhibits or accentuates the flow of dislocations. Development of the local theory and application to modeling the explosive molecular crystal

  11. Toxicokinetics and toxicological effects of single oral dose of fumonisin B1 containing Fusarium verticillioides culture material in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkin, P; Direito, G; Simas, M M S; Mallmann, C A; Corrêa, B

    2010-05-14

    Toxicokinetics and the toxicological effects of culture material containing fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) were studied in male weaned piglets by clinical, pathological, biochemical and sphingolipid analyses. The animals received a single oral dose of 5 mg FB(1)/kg of body weight, obtained from Fusarium verticillioides culture material. FB(1) was detected by HPLC in plasma collected at 1-h intervals up to 6h and at 12-h intervals up to 96 h. FB(1) eliminated in feces and urine was quantified over a 96-h period and in liver samples collected 96 h post-intoxication. Blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the experiment to determine serum enzyme activity, total bilirubin, cholesterol, sphinganine (Sa), sphingosine (So) and the Sa/So ratio. FB(1) was detected in plasma between 30 min and 36 h after administration. The highest concentration of FB(1) was observed after 2 h, with a mean concentration of 282 microg/ml. Only 0.93% of the total FB(1) was detected in urine between 75 min and 41 h after administration, the highest mean concentration (561 microg/ml) was observed during the interval after 8 at 24 h. Approximately 76.5% of FB(1) was detected in feces eliminated between 8 and 84 h after administration, with the highest levels observed between 8 and 24 h. Considering the biochemical parameters, a significant increase only occurred in cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. In plasma and urine, the highest Sa and Sa/So ratios were obtained at 12 and 48 h, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Single step hydrothermal synthesis of carbon nanodot decorated V2O5 nanobelts as hybrid conducting material for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Remya

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanodot (C-dot) decorated V2O5 (C-dot@V2O5) nanobelts are synthesized by single step, low cost hydrothermal route at low temperature by using V2O5 and glucose as precursors. We have not added any extra organic solvents or surfactants which are commonly used for the preparation of different nanostructures of V2O5. Electron microscopy analyses demonstrate that C-dot is entrapped inside V2O5 nanobelts which in turn enhance the conductivity and ion propagation property of this composite material. The C-dot@V2O5 nanobelts exhibit an excellent three electrode electrochemical performance in 1 M Na2SO4 and which showed a specific capacitance of 270 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, which is 4.5 times higher than the pristine V2O5 electrode. The electrochemical energy storage capacity of this hybrid is investigated towards solid state supercapacitor application also for the first time by employing electrophoretically deposited C-dot as the counter electrode and Li based gel as the electrolyte. The hybrid material delivers an energy density of 60 W h kg-1 and a reasonably high power density of 4.1 kW kg-1 at 5 A g-1 and good cycling stability and capacitance retention of about 87% was observed even after 5000 cycles. Above mentioned results clearly show that C-dot embedded hybrid, nanostructured transition metal oxides has great potential towards fabrication of electrodes for energy storage devices.

  13. Spiral-type heteropolyhedral coordination network based on single-crystal LiSrPO4: implications for luminescent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun Che; Shen, Chin-Chang; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2013-11-04

    Novel structures of luminescent materials, which are used as light sources for next-generation illumination, are continuously being improved for use in white-light-emitting diodes. Activator-doped known structures are reported as habitual down-conversion phosphors in solid-state lightings and displays. Consequently, the intrinsic qualities of the existent compounds produce deficiencies that limit their applications. Herein we report a spiral-network single-crystal orthophosphate (LiSrPO4) prepared in a platinum crucible with LiCl flux through crystal-growth reactions of SrCl2 and Li3PO4 in air. It crystallizes in a hexagonal system with a=5.0040(2) and c=24.6320(16) Å, V=534.15(5) Å(3), and Z=6 in the space group P6(5). The unit cell is comprised of LiO4 and PO4 tetrahedrons that form a three-dimensional LiPO4(2-) anionic framework with a helical channel structure along the c axis in which the Sr(2+) cation is accommodated. The optical band gap of this composition is about 3.65 eV, as determined by using UV/Vis absorption and diffuse reflection spectra. We used the crystal-growth method to synthesize blue- and red-emitting crystals that exhibited pure color, low reabsorption, a large Stokes shift, and efficient conversion of ultraviolet excitation light into visible light. Emphasis was placed on the development of gratifying structure-related properties of rare-earth luminescent materials and their applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Control of established colon cancer xenografts using a novel humanized single chain antibody-streptococcal superantigen fusion protein targeting the 5T4 oncofetal antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelcey G Patterson

    Full Text Available Superantigens (SAgs are microbial toxins that cross-link T cell receptors with major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II molecules leading to the activation of large numbers of T cells. Herein, we describe the development and preclinical testing of a novel tumor-targeted SAg (TTS therapeutic built using the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SpeC SAg and targeting cancer cells expressing the 5T4 tumor-associated antigen (TAA. To inhibit potentially harmful widespread immune cell activation, a SpeC mutation within the high-affinity MHC-II binding interface was generated (SpeCD203A that demonstrated a pronounced reduction in mitogenic activity, yet this mutant could still induce immune cell-mediated cancer cell death in vitro. To target 5T4+ cancer cells, we engineered a humanized single chain variable fragment (scFv antibody to recognize 5T4 (scFv5T4. Specific targeting of scFv5T4 was verified. SpeCD203A fused to scFv5T4 maintained the ability to activate and induce immune cell-mediated cytotoxicity of colorectal cancer cells. Using a xenograft model of established human colon cancer, we demonstrated that the SpeC-based TTS was able to control the growth and spread of large tumors in vivo. This required both TAA targeting by scFv5T4 and functional SAg activity. These studies lay the foundation for the development of streptococcal SAgs as 'next-generation' TTSs for cancer immunotherapy.

  15. Peptide Mediated In Vivo Tumor Targeting of Nanoparticles through Optimization in Single and Multilayer In Vitro Cell Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the interface between nanoparticles (NPs and the biological environment at various levels should be considered for improving delivery of NPs to the target tumor area. For NPs to be successfully delivered to cancer cells, NPs needs to be functionalized for circulation through the blood vessels. In this study, accumulation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs was first tested using in vitro monolayer cells and multilayer cell models prior to in vivo models. A diameter of 10 nm sized GNP was selected for this study for sufficient penetration through tumor tissue. The surfaces of the GNPs were modified with PEG molecules, to improve circulation time by reducing non-specific uptake by the reticuloendothelial system (RES in animal models, and with a peptide containing integrin binding domain, RGD (arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid, to improve internalization at the cellular level. A 10–12% accumulation of the injected GNP dose within the tumor was observed in vivo and the GNPs remained within the tumor tissue up to 72 h. This study suggests an in vitro platform for optimizing the accumulation of NP complexes in cells and tissue structures before testing them in animal models. Higher accumulation within the tumor in vivo upon surface modification is a promising outcome for future applications where GNPs can be used for drug delivery and radiation therapy.

  16. Phase change material for thermotherapy of Buruli ulcer: a prospective observational single centre proof-of-principle trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Junghanss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is an infection of the subcutaneous tissue leading to chronic necrotizing skin ulcers. The causative pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, grows best at 30 degrees C-33 degrees C and not above 37 degrees C. We explored the safety, tolerability and efficacy of phase change material (PCM, a novel heat application system for thermotherapy of BU. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective observational single centre proof-of-principle trial in Ayos/Cameroon, six laboratory reconfirmed patients with ulcerative Buruli lesions received 28-31 (ulcers 2 cm days of thermotherapy with the PCM sodium acetate trihydrate as heat application system. This PCM is widely used in commercial pocket heat pads, it is easy to apply, rechargeable in hot water, non-toxic and non-hazardous to the environment. All patients enrolled in the trial completed treatment. Being completely mobile during the well-tolerated heat application, acceptability of the PCM bandages was very high. In patients with smaller ulcers, wounds healed completely without further intervention. Patients with large defects had skin grafting after successful heat treatment. Heat treatment was not associated with marked increases in local inflammation or the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue. One and a half years after completion of treatment, all patients are relapse-free. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our reusable PCM-based heat application device appears perfectly suited to treat BU in endemic countries with limited resources and infrastructure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN88392614.

  17. An Air-Stable DPP-thieno-TTF Copolymer for Single-Material Solar Cell Devices and Field Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Sasikumar; Cortizo-Lacalle, Diego; Rossbauer, Stephan; Hunter, Simon; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L; Inigo, Anto R; Lane, Paul A; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Skabara, Peter J

    2015-12-30

    Following an approach developed in our group to incorporate tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) units into conjugated polymeric systems, we have studied a low band gap polymer incorporating TTF as a donor component. This polymer is based on a fused thieno-TTF unit that enables the direct incorporation of the TTF unit into the polymer, and a second comonomer based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) molecule. These units represent a donor-acceptor copolymer system, p(DPP-TTF), showing strong absorption in the UV-visible region of the spectrum. An optimized p(DPP-TTF) polymer organic field effect transistor and a single material organic solar cell device showed excellent performance with a hole mobility of up to 5.3 × 10(-2) cm(2)/(V s) and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.3%, respectively. Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices of p(DPP-TTF) blended with phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) exhibited a PCE of 1.8%.

  18. Single-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with polytyrosine: A new material for the development of NADH-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguílaz, Marcos; Gutierrez, Fabiana; González-Domínguez, Jose Miguel; Martínez, María T; Rivas, Gustavo

    2016-12-15

    We report for the first time the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) covalently functionalized with polytyrosine (Polytyr) (SWCNT-Polytyr) as a new electrode material for the development of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-based biosensors. The oxidation of glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with SWCNT-Polytyr at potentials high enough to oxidize the tyrosine residues have allowed the electrooxidation of NADH at low potentials due to the catalytic activity of the quinones generated from the primary oxidation of tyrosine without any additional redox mediator. The amperometric detection of NADH at 0.200V showed a sensitivity of (217±3)µAmM(-1)cm(-2) and a detection limit of 7.9nM. The excellent electrocatalytic activity of SWCNT-Polytyr towards NADH oxidation has also made possible the development of a sensitive ethanol biosensor through the immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) via Nafion entrapment, with excellent analytical characteristics (sensitivity of (5.8±0.1)µAmM(-1)cm(-2), detection limit of 0.67µM) and very successful application for the quantification of ethanol in different commercial beverages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Haemodynamic consequences of targeted single- and dual-site right ventricular pacing in adults with congenital heart disease undergoing surgical pulmonary valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plymen, Carla M.; Finlay, Malcolm; Tsang, Victor; O'leary, Justin; Picaut, Nathalie; Cullen, Shay; Walker, Fiona; Deanfield, John E; Hsia, T.Y.; Bolger, Aidan P.; Lambiase, Pier D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to create an epicardial electroanatomic map of the right ventricle (RV) and then apply post-operative-targeted single- and dual-site RV temporary pacing with measurement of haemodynamic parameters. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an established treatment for symptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. In congenital heart disease, RV dysfunction is a common cause of morbidity—little is known regarding the potential benefits of CRT in this setting. Methods and results Sixteen adults (age = 32 ± 8 years; 6 M, 10 F) with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and repaired tetralogy of Fallot (n = 8) or corrected congenital pulmonary stenosis (n = 8) undergoing surgical pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) for pulmonary regurgitation underwent epicardial RV mapping and haemodynamic assessment of random pacing configurations including the site of latest RV activation. The pre-operative pulmonary regurgitant fraction was 49 ± 10%; mean LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) 85 ± 19 mL/min/m2 and RVEDV 183 ± 89 mL/min/m2 on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The mean pre-operative QRS duration is 136 ± 26 ms. The commonest site of latest activation was the RV free wall and DDD pacing here alone or combined with RV apical pacing resulted in significant increases in cardiac output (CO) vs. AAI pacing (P < 0.01 all measures). DDDRV alternative site pacing significantly improved CO by 16% vs. AAI (P = 0.018), and 8.5% vs. DDDRV apical pacing (P = 0.02). Conclusion Single-site RV pacing targeted to the region of latest activation in patients with RBBB undergoing PVR induces acute improvements in haemodynamics and supports the concept of ‘RV CRT’. Targeted pacing in such patients has therapeutic potential both post-operatively and in the long term. PMID:25371427

  20. Murine CR1/2 targeted antigenized single-chain antibody fragments induce transient low affinity antibodies and negatively influence an ongoing immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechl, József; Molnár, Eszter; Szekeres, Zsuzsanna; Isaák, Andrea; Papp, Krisztián; Balogh, Péter; Erdei, Anna

    2007-01-01

    We have generated a single-chain antibody which recognizes murine CR1/2 and carries a genetically fused influenza hemagglutinin derived peptide. Theoretically such a construct is able to crosslink the B cell antigen receptor and CR1/2 on peptide specific B cells. The construct was able to reach its CR1/2 positive target cells, yet intraperitoneal delivery of the construct elicited an IgM response only slightly exceeding that induced by the free peptide. Providing T cell help by the injection of peptide specific lymphocytes did not alter the response in essence, that is anti-peptide IgG was not detectable even after booster immunizations. When used as a booster vaccine following injection of the peptide in adjuvant, the construct even inhibited the development of IgG1 and IgG3 anti-peptide antibodies. These data indicate that although targeting of antigen to CR1/2 on B cells can enhance transient proliferation or differentiation of antigen specific B cells it cannot induce strong, longlasting humoral immune responses. Furthermore, CR1/2 targeting constructs may negatively influence an ongoing immune reaction.

  1. Perturbation of discrete sites on a single protein domain with RNA aptamers: targeting of different sides of the TATA-binding protein (TBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmura, Ken I; Shi, Hua; Hirayoshi, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Control of interactions among proteins is critical in the treatment of diseases, but the specificity required is not easily incorporated into small molecules. Macromolecules could be more suitable as antagonists in this situation, and RNA aptamers have become particularly promising. Here we describe a novel selection procedure for RNA aptamers against a protein that constitutes a single structural domain, the Drosophila TATA-binding protein (TBP). In addition to the conventional filter partitioning method with free TBP as target, we performed another experiment, in which the TATA-bound form of TBP was targeted. Aptamers generated by both selections were able to bind specifically to TBP, but the two groups showed characteristics which were clearly different in terms of their capability to compete with TATA-DNA, their effects on the TATA-bound form of TBP, and their effects on in vitro transcription. The method used to generate these two groups of aptamers can be used with other targets to direct aptamer specificity to discrete sites on the surface of a protein.

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN ABSORBED DOSES IN TARGET ORGANS IN PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHY, USING SINGLE EMULSION AND DOUBLE EMULSION FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Talaeipour

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe use of panoramic radiography, due to its numerous advantages, is increasing. Radiographic films used in this technique are of double emulsion (DE type which are used with intensifying screens. Single emulsion (SE films can also be used. The purpose of this study was to determine the exposure parameters to achieve an appropriate optical density in these two types of films, and to estimate under such parameters, radiation doses to mandibular bone marrow (MBM, thyroid gland and parotid gland. This study was performed through a tissue equivalent phantom. First, with various tube voltage and tube current, 128 radiographs were taken of phantom with these two types of films. After examining the optical densities, the exposure parameters under which both films have the same density, were determined. Then, phantom again was exposed and MBM, thyroid gland and parotid gland absorbed doses were measured, using TLDs. It was demonstrated that: 1 SE films, in order to provide appropriate optical density, require two times radiation in comparison with double emulsion film; 2 using SE films increases MBM dose, up to 2-2.5 times, thyroid gland dose up to 1.7-2 times and parotid gland dose up to 1.3 times, in comparison with DE films; 3 in DE films, under lower exposure parameters and desirable processing, MBM dose up to 3.5 times, thyroid gland dose up to 1.5 times and parotid gland dose up to 2.5 times will increase. Considering that the risk of radiation induced cancers increases with repeated radiation doses, using SE films is not recommended.

  3. Pulsed irradiation improves target selectivity of infrared laser-evoked gene operator for single-cell gene induction in the nematode C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Toyoda, Naoya; Takagi, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Methods for turning on/off gene expression at the experimenter's discretion would be useful for various biological studies. Recently, we reported on a novel microscope system utilizing an infrared laser-evoked gene operator (IR-LEGO) designed for inducing heat shock response efficiently in targeted single cells in living organisms without cell damage, thereby driving expression of a transgene under the control of a heat shock promoter. Although the original IR-LEGO can be successfully used for gene induction, several limitations hinder its wider application. Here, using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a subject, we have made improvements in IR-LEGO. For better spatial control of heating, a pulsed irradiation method using an optical chopper was introduced. As a result, single cells of C. elegans embryos as early as the 2-cell stage and single neurons in ganglia can be induced to express genes selectively. In addition, the introduction of site-specific recombination systems to IR-LEGO enables the induction of gene expression controlled by constitutive and cell type-specific promoters. The strategies adopted here will be useful for future applications of IR-LEGO to other organisms.

  4. A 3-year prospective study of implant-supported, single-tooth restorations of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic materials in patients with tooth agenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Worsaae, Nils; Schiødt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this clinical study was to describe outcome variables of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic implant-supported, single-tooth restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 59 patients (mean age: 27.9 years) with tooth agenesis and treated with 98 implant-supported single...... abutment materials. The frequency of biological complications was higher at restorations with all-ceramic restorations than metal-ceramic crowns. Loss of retention, which was only observed at metal-ceramic crowns, was the most frequent technical complication, and the marginal adaptations of all-ceramic...... restoration materials were registered. After 3 years, the patient-reported outcome variables at different restoration materials were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: The biological outcomes at the zirconia and metal abutments were comparable. All-ceramic crowns demonstrated better colour match...

  5. High-Frequency Jet Ventilation for Complete Target Immobilization and Reduction of Planning Target Volume in Stereotactic High Single-Dose Irradiation of Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Lung Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Peter; Kraus, Hans-Joerg; Muehlnickel, Werner; Sassmann, Volker; Hering, Werner; Strauch, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of complete target immobilization by means of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV); and to show that the saving of planning target volume (PTV) on the stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) under HFJV, compared with SBRT with respiratory motion, can be predicted with reliable accuracy by computed tomography (CT) scans at peak inspiration phase. Methods and Materials: A comparison regarding different methods for defining the PTV was carried out in 22 patients with tumors that clearly moved with respiration. A movement span of the gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined by fusing respiration-correlated CT scans. The PTV enclosed the GTV positions with a safety margin throughout the breathing cycle. To create a PTV from CT scans acquired under HFJV, the same margins were drawn around the immobilized target. In addition, peak inspiration phase CT images (PIP-CTs) were used to approximate a target immobilized by HFJV. Results: The resulting HFJV-PTVs were between 11.6% and 45.4% smaller than the baseline values calculated as respiration-correlated CT-PTVs (median volume reduction, 25.4%). Tentative planning by means of PIP-CT PTVs predicted that in 19 of 22 patients, use of HFJV would lead to a reduction in volume of ≥20%. Using this threshold yielded a positive predictive value of 0.89, as well as a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.5. Conclusions: In all patients, SBRT under HFJV provided a reliable immobilization of the GTVs and achieved a reduction in PTVs, regardless of patient compliance. Tentative planning facilitated the selection of patients who could better undergo radiation in respiratory standstill, both with greater accuracy and lung protection.

  6. Single-step preparation of TiO2/MWCNT Nanohybrid materials by laser pyrolysis and application to efficient photovoltaic energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Lin, Yaochen; Pinault, Mathieu; Filoramo, Arianna; Fabert, Marc; Ratier, Bernard; Bouclé, Johann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie

    2015-01-14

    This paper presents the continuous-flowand single-step synthesis of a TiO2/MWCNT (multiwall carbon nanotubes) nanohybrid material. The synthesis method allows achieving high coverage and intimate interface between the TiO2particles and MWCNTs, together with a highly homogeneous distribution of nanotubes within the oxide. Such materials used as active layer in theporous photoelectrode of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells leads to a substantial performance improvement (20%) as compared to reference devices.

  7. Relating mechanical properties and chemical bonding in an inorganic-organic framework material: a single-crystal nanoindentation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin Chong; Furman, Joshua D; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2009-10-14

    We report the application of nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy to establish the fundamental relationships between mechanical properties and chemical bonding in a dense inorganic-organic framework material: Ce(C(2)O(4))(HCO(2)), 1. Compound 1 is a mixed-ligand 3-D hybrid which crystallizes in an orthorhombic space group, in which its three basic building blocks, i.e. the inorganic metal-oxygen-metal (M-O-M) chains and the two organic bridging ligands, (oxalate and formate) are all oriented perpendicular to one another. This unique architecture enabled us to decouple the elastic and plastic mechanical responses along the three primary axes of a single crystal to understand the contribution associated with stiff vs compliant basic building blocks. The (001)-oriented facet that features rigid oxalate ligands down the c-axis exhibits the highest stiffness and hardness (E approximately 78 GPa and H approximately 4.6 GPa). In contrast, the (010)-oriented facet was found to be the most compliant and soft (E approximately 43 GPa and H approximately 3.9 GPa), since the formate ligand, which is the more compliant building block within this framework, constitutes the primary linkages down the b-axis. Notably, intermediate stiffness and hardness (E approximately 52 GPa and H approximately 4.1 GPa) were measured on the (100)-oriented planes. This can be attributed to the Ce-O-Ce chains that zigzag down the a-axis (Ce...Ce metal centers form an angle of approximately 132 degrees) and also the fact that the 9-coordinated CeO(9) polyhedra are expected to be geometrically more compliant. Our results present the first conclusive evidence that the crystal orientation dominated by inorganic chains is not necessarily more robust from the mechanical properties standpoint. Rigid organic bridging ligands (such as oxalate), on the other hand, can be used to produce greater stiffness and hardness properties in a chosen crystallographic orientation. This study demonstrates that

  8. Microscopic Examination of Cold Spray Cermet Sn+In2O3 Coatings for Sputtering Target Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Winnicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-pressure cold spraying is a newly developed technology with high application potential. The aim of this study was to investigate potential application of this technique for producing a new type of transparent conductive oxide films target. Cold spraying technique allows the manufacture of target directly on the backing plate; therefore the proposed sputtering target has a form of Sn+In2O3 coating sprayed onto copper substrate. The microstructure and properties of the feedstock powder prepared using three various methods as well as the deposited ones by low-pressure cold spraying coatings were evaluated, compared, and analysed. Produced cermet Sn+In2O3 targets were employed in first magnetron sputtering process to deposit preliminary, thin, transparent conducting oxide films onto the glass substrates. The resistivity of obtained preliminary films was measured and allows believing that fabrication of TCO (transparent conducting oxide films using targets produced by cold spraying is possible in the future, after optimization of the deposition conditions.

  9. Quantitative Single-Particle Digital Autoradiography with α-Particle Emitters for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy using the iQID Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Brian W.; Frost, Sophia; Frayo, Shani; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Santos, E. B.; Jones, Jon C.; Green, Damian J.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, B. M.

    2015-07-01

    Abstract Alpha emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm) causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with alpha emitters may inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. For accurate dosimetry in alpha-RIT, tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed dose to targeted and non-targeted cells, especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, iQID (ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector), for use in alpha-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection technology that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/X-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs recent advances in CCD/CMOS cameras and computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, we evaluated this system’s characteristics for alpha particle imaging including measurements of spatial resolution and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 (211At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ~20 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the alpha particle background was measured at a rate of (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10–4 cpm/cm2 (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of multiple tissue sections was performed using a large-area iQID configuration (ø 11.5 cm

  10. Plant virus-resembling optical nano-materials conjugated with anti-EGFR for targeted cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sharad; Wilder, Hailey; Rao, A. L. N.; Vullev, V. I.; Anvari, Bahman

    2012-03-01

    We recently reported the construction of a new type of optically active nano-particles composed of genome-depleted plant infecting brome mosaic virus (BMV) doped with indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA-approved chromophore . We refer to these constructs as optical viral ghosts (OVGs) since only the capsid protein (CP) subunits of BMV remain to encapsulate ICG. Herein, we covalently conjugated the surface of OVGs with anti-epidermal growth factor receptors (anti-EGFR) to target cancerous human bronchial epithelial cells (C-HBECs) in-vitro. Our preliminary results demonstrate the utility of conjugated OVGs for targeted imaging of cancer cells.

  11. Correction: Challenge in optoelectronic duplex switches: a red emission large-size single crystal and a unidirectional flexible thin film of a hybrid multifunctional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Zhang, Wan-Ying; Chen, Cheng; Ye, Qiong; Fu, Da-Wei

    2018-02-20

    Correction for 'Challenge in optoelectronic duplex switches: a red emission large-size single crystal and a unidirectional flexible thin film of a hybrid multifunctional material' by Xiao Zhu et al., Dalton Trans., 2018, DOI: 10.1039/c7dt04489e.

  12. Measurement of single-spin azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive electroproduction of pions and kaons on a longitudinally polarised deuterium target

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERMES Collaboration; Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Ammosov, V. V.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, H.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Baturin, V.; Baumgarten, C.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bernreuther, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brack, J.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capitani, G. P.; Chiang, H. C.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Court, G. R.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; de Leo, R.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Ely, J.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Felawka, L.; Fox, B.; Franz, J.; Frullani, S.; Gärber, Y.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garutti, E.; Gaskell, D.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Graw, G.; Grebeniouk, O.; Greeniaus, L. G.; Haeberli, W.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Heesbeen, D.; Henoch, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hillenbrand, A.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Iarygin, G.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Königsmann, K.; Kolster, H.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Lindemann, T.; Lipka, K.; Lorenzon, W.; Ma, B.-Q.; Makins, N. C. R.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Menden, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Orlandi, G.; Potashov, S.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Scarlett, C.; Schäfer, A.; Schill, C.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Schwind, A.; Seidl, R.; Seibert, J.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Simani, M. C.; Sinram, K.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stewart, J.; Stösslein, U.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Tessarin, S.; Thomas, E.; Tkabladze, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Urciuoli, G. M.; van der Nat, P.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van de Vyver, R.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Visser, J.; Vogel, C.; Vogt, M.; Volmer, J.; Weiskopf, C.; Wendland, J.; Wilbert, J.; Wise, T.; Yen, S.; Yoneyama, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zohrabian, H.; Zupranski, P.

    2003-06-01

    Single-spin asymmetries have been measured for semi-inclusive electroproduction of π+, π-, π0 and K+ mesons in deep-inelastic scattering off a longitudinally polarised deuterium target. The asymmetries appear in the distribution of the hadrons in the azimuthal angle /φ around the virtual photon direction, relative to the lepton scattering plane. The corresponding analysing powers in the /sinφ moment of the cross section are /0.012+/-0.002(stat.)+/-0.002(syst.) for π+, /0.006+/-0.003(stat.)+/-0.002(syst.) for π-, /0.021+/-0.005(stat.)+/-0.003(syst.) for π0 and /0.013+/-0.006(stat.)+/-0.003(syst.) for K+. The /sin2φ moments are compatible with zero for all particles.

  13. Dose painting to treat single-lobe prostate cancer with hypofractionated high-dose radiation using targeted external beam radiation: Is it feasible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Arya; Westerly, David C.; Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Ryan, Nicole; Raben, David

    2015-01-01

    Targeted focal therapy strategies for treating single-lobe prostate cancer are under investigation. In this planning study, we investigate the feasibility of treating a portion of the prostate to full-dose external beam radiation with reduced dose to the opposite lobe, compared with full-dose radiation delivered to the entire gland using hypofractionated radiation. For 10 consecutive patients with low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer, 2 hypofractionated, single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were designed. The first plan (standard hypofractionation regimen [STD]) included the entire prostate gland, treated to 70 Gy delivered in 28 fractions. The second dose painting plan (DP) encompassed the involved lobe treated to 70 Gy delivered in 28 fractions, whereas the opposing, uninvolved lobe received 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Mean dose to the opposing neurovascular bundle (NVB) was considerably lower for DP vs STD, with a mean dose of 53.9 vs 72.3 Gy (p < 0.001). Mean penile bulb dose was 18.6 Gy for DP vs 19.2 Gy for STD (p = 0.880). Mean rectal dose was 21.0 Gy for DP vs 22.8 Gy for STD (p = 0.356). Rectum V 70 (the volume receiving ≥70 Gy) was 2.01% for DP vs 2.74% for STD (p = 0.328). Bladder V 70 was 1.69% for DP vs 2.78% for STD (p = 0.232). Planning target volume (PTV) maximum dose points were 76.5 and 76.3 Gy for DP and STD, respectively (p = 0.760). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using VMAT for partial-lobe prostate radiation in patients with prostate cancer involving 1 lobe. Partial-lobe prostate plans appeared to spare adjacent critical structures including the opposite NVB

  14. Quantitative targeted and retrospective data analysis of relevant pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins in bakery products by liquid chromatography-single-stage Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Emiliano; Commissati, Italo; Gritti, Elisa; Catellani, Dante; Suman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In addition to 'traditional' multi-residue and multi-contaminant multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometric techniques devoted to quantifying a list of targeted compounds, the global food industry requires non-targeted methods capable of detecting other possible potentially hazardous compounds. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a single-stage Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC-HRMS Exactive™-Orbitrap Technology) was successfully exploited for the complete selective and quantitative determination of 33 target compounds within three major cross categories (pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins) in bakery matrices (specifically milk, wheat flour and mini-cakes). Resolution was set at 50 000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) to achieve the right compromise between an adequate scan speed and selectivity, allowing for the limitations related to the necessary generic sample preparation approach. An exact mass with tolerance of 5 ppm and minimum peak threshold of 10 000 units were fixed as the main identification conditions, including retention time and isotopic pattern as additional criteria devoted to greatly reducing the risk of false-positive findings. The full validation for all the target analytes was performed: linearity, intermediate repeatability and recovery (28 analytes within 70-120%) were positively assessed; furthermore, limits of quantification between 5 and 100 µg kg(-1) (with most of the analytes having a limit of detection below 6 µg kg(-1)) indicate good performance, which is compatible with almost all the regulatory needs. Naturally contaminated and fortified mini-cakes, prepared through combined use of industrial and pilot plant production lines, were analysed at two different concentration levels, obtaining good overall quantitative results and providing preliminary indications of the potential of full-scan HRMS cluster analysis. The effectiveness of this analytical approach was also tested in

  15. Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry in Deep-Inelastic Scattering from the Reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katich, Joseph; Qian, Xin; Zhao, Yuxiang; Allada, Kalyan; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Averett, Todd; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Bradshaw, Elliott; Bosted, Peter; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei; Chirapatpimol, Khem; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Cornejo, Juan; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; Deconinck, Wouter; De Jager, Cornelis; De Leo, Raffaele; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Ding, Huaibo; Dolph, Peter; Dutta, Chiranjib; Dutta, Dipangkar; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gilad, Gilad; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Golge, Serkan; Guo, Lei; Hamilton, David; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jijun; Huang, Min; Ibrahim Abdalla, Hassan; Iodice, Mauro; Jin, Ge; Jones, Mark; Kelleher, Aidan; Kim, Wooyoung; Kolarkar, Ameya; Korsch, Wolfgang; LeRose, John; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Y; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Long, Elena; Lu, Hai-jiang; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; McNulty, Dustin; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nanda, Sirish; Narayan, Amrendra; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Oh, Yoomin; Osipenko, Mikhail; Parno, Diana; Peng, Jen-chieh; Phillips, Sarah; Posik, Matthew; Puckett, Andrew; Qiang, Yi; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Ransome, Ronald; Riordan, Seamus; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Schulte, Elaine; Shahinyan, Albert; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Sirca, Simon; Stepanyan, Stepan; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tang, Liguang; Tobias, William; Urciuoli, Guido; Vilardi, Ignazio; Wang, Kebin; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Z; Yuan, Lulin; Zhan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, Bo; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zong, Xing

    2014-07-01

    We report the first measurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in deep-inelastic scattering from the inclusive reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X on a 3He gas target polarized normal to the lepton plane. Assuming time-reversal invariance, this asymmetry is strictly zero in the Born approximation. The experiment, conducted at Jefferson Lab using a 5.89 GeV electron beam, covers a range of 1.72 GeV, which is non-zero at the 2.75sigma level. Theoretical calculations, which assume two-photon exchange with quasi-free quarks, predict a neutron asymmetry of O(10−4) when both photons couple to one quark, and O(10−2) for the photons coupling to different quarks. Our measured asymmetry agrees both in sign and magnitude with the prediction that uses input based on the Sivers transverse momentum distribution obtained from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  16. Qualitative Sybr Green real-time detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for target-site resistance in insect pests: the example of Myzus persicae and Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggioni, V; Chiesa, O; Panini, M; Mazzoni, E

    2017-02-01

    Chemical insecticides have been widely used to control insect pests, leading to the selection of resistant populations. To date, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have already been associated with insecticide resistance, causing reduced sensitivity to many classes of products. Monitoring and detection of target-site resistance is currently one of the most important factors for insect pest management strategies. Several methods are available for this purpose: automated and high-throughput techniques (i.e. TaqMan or pyrosequencing) are very costly; cheaper alternatives (i.e. RFLP or PASA-PCRs) are time-consuming and limited by the necessity of a final visualization step. This work presents a new approach (QSGG, Qualitative Sybr Green Genotyping) which combines the specificity of PASA-PCR with the rapidity of real-time PCR analysis. The specific real-time detection of Cq values of wild-type or mutant alleles (amplified used allele-specific primers) allows the calculation of ΔCqW-M values and the consequent identification of the genotypes of unknown samples, on the basis of ranges previously defined with reference clones. The methodology is applied here to characterize mutations described in Myzus persicae and Musca domestica and we demonstrate it represents a valid, rapid and cost-effective technique that can be adopted for monitoring target-site resistance in field populations of these and other insect species.

  17. Identification of Five Novel Salmonella Typhi-Specific Genes as Markers for Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever Using Single-Gene Target PCR Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xin Goay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi causes typhoid fever which is a disease characterised by high mortality and morbidity worldwide. In order to curtail the transmission of this highly infectious disease, identification of new markers that can detect the pathogen is needed for development of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. In this study, genomic comparison of S. Typhi with other enteric pathogens was performed, and 6 S. Typhi genes, that is, STY0201, STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, were found to be specific in silico. Six PCR assays each targeting a unique gene were developed to test the specificity of these genes in vitro. The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of each assay were determined using 39 S. Typhi, 62 non-Typhi Salmonella, and 10 non-Salmonella clinical isolates. The results showed that 5 of these genes, that is, STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, demonstrated 100% sensitivity (39/39 and 100% specificity (0/72. The detection limit of the 5 PCR assays was 32 pg for STY0322, 6.4 pg for STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, and 1.28 pg for STY0307. In conclusion, 5 PCR assays using STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021 were developed and found to be highly specific at single-gene target resolution for diagnosis of typhoid fever.

  18. Targeted gene expression without a tissue-specific promoter: creating mosaic embryos using laser-induced single-cell heat shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, M. S.; Kose, H.; Chiba, A.; Keshishian, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a method to target gene expression in the Drosophila embryo to a specific cell without having a promoter that directs expression in that particular cell. Using a digitally enhanced imaging system to identify single cells within the living embryo, we apply a heat shock to each cell individually by using a laser microbeam. A 1- to 2-min laser treatment is sufficient to induce a heat-shock response but is not lethal to the heat-shocked cells. Induction of heat shock was measured in a variety of cell types, including neurons and somatic muscles, by the expression of beta-galactosidase from an hsp26-lacZ reporter construct or by expression of a UAS target gene after induction of hsGAL4. We discuss the applicability of this technique to ectopic gene expression studies, lineage tracing, gene inactivation studies, and studies of cells in vitro. Laser heat shock is a versatile technique that can be adapted for use in a variety of research organisms and is useful for any studies in which it is desirable to express a given gene in only a distinct cell or clone of cells, either transiently or constitutively, at a time point of choice.

  19. Characterization of Small Focal Renal Lesions: Diagnostic Accuracy with Single-Phase Contrast-enhanced Dual-Energy CT with Material Attenuation Analysis Compared with Conventional Attenuation Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Daniele; Davis, Drew; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Patel, Bhavik; Gupta, Rajan T; Mileto, Achille; Nelson, Rendon C

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To determine whether single-phase contrast material-enhanced dual-energy material attenuation analysis improves the characterization of small (1-4 cm) renal lesions compared with conventional attenuation measurements by using histopathologic analysis and follow-up imaging as the clinical reference standards. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, 136 consecutive patients (95 men and 41 women; mean age, 54 years) with 144 renal lesions (111 benign, 33 malignant) measuring 1-4 cm underwent single-energy unenhanced and contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen. For each renal lesion, attenuation measurements were obtained; attenuation change of greater than or equal to 15 HU was considered evidence of enhancement. Dual-energy attenuation measurements were also obtained by using iodine-water, water-iodine, calcium-water, and water-calcium material basis pairs. Mean lesion attenuation values and material densities were compared between benign and malignant renal lesions by using the two-sample t test. Diagnostic accuracy of attenuation measurements and dual-energy material densities was assessed and validated by using 10-fold cross-validation to limit the effect of optimistic bias. Results By using cross-validated optimal thresholds at 100% sensitivity, iodine-water material attenuation images significantly improved specificity for differentiating between benign and malignant renal lesions compared with conventional enhancement measurements (93% [103 of 111]; 95% confidence interval: 86%, 97%; vs 81% [90 of 111]; 95% confidence interval: 73%, 88%) (P = .02). Sensitivity with iodine-water and calcium-water material attenuation images was also higher than that with conventional enhancement measurements, although the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT with material attenuation analysis improves specificity for

  20. Single Targeted Exon Mutation Creates a True Congenic Mouse for Competitive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: The C57BL/6-CD45.1STEM Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois E. Mercier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Defining the molecular regulators of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs requires in vivo functional analyses. Competitive bone marrow transplants (BMTs compare control and test HSPCs to demonstrate the functional role of a genetic change or chemical perturbation. Competitive BMT is enabled by antibodies that specifically recognize hematopoietic cells from congenic mouse strains due to variants of the cell surface protein CD45, designated CD45.1 and CD45.2. The current congenic competitor strain, B6.SJL-Ptprca Pepcb/BoyJ (CD45.1, has a substantial inherent disadvantage in competition against the C57BL/6 (CD45.2 strain, confounding experimental interpretation. Despite backcrossing, the congenic interval over which the B6.SJL-Ptprca Pepcb/BoyJ strain differs is almost 40 Mb encoding ∼300 genes. Here, we demonstrate that a single amino acid change determines the CD45.1 epitope. Further, we report on the single targeted exon mutant (STEM mouse strain, CD45.1STEM, which is functionally equivalent to CD45.2 cells in competitive BMT. This strain will permit the precise definition of functional roles for candidate genes using in vivo HSPC assays.

  1. Autonomous wireless radar sensor mote integrating a Doppler radar into a sensor mote and its application in surveillance and target material classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan; Khan, Muhammad M. R.; McCracken, Ernest; Wang, Lan; Kozma, Robert

    2011-09-01

    An autonomous wireless sensor network that consists of different types of sensor modalities is a topic of intense research due to its versatility and portability of applications. Typical autonomous sensor networks commonly include passive sensor nodes such as infrared, acoustic, seismic, and magnetic. However, fusion of another active sensor such as Doppler radar in the integrated sensor network may offer powerful capabilities for many different sensing and classification tasks. In this work, we demonstrate the design and implementation of an autonomous wireless sensor network integrating a Doppler sensor into wireless sensor node with commercial off the shelf components. Then we demonstrate two applications of the newly integrated radar mote in a wireless sensor network environment where other sensor motes are supporting the integrated radar mote for autonomous triggering and data collection. At first we use the integrated system to detect the range and velocity of a toy train effectively to demonstrate its capability as a surveillance tool. Then we classify different types of non-conducting target materials based on their reflected signal response to newly built radar mote. Different types of materials can usually affect the amount of energy reflected back to the source of an electromagnetic wave. For investigating this observation we simulate models for the reflectivity of different homogeneous non-conducting materials using a mathematical model and later classify the types of target materials using real experimental data collected through our autonomous radar-mote sensor network.

  2. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Brian W., E-mail: brian.miller@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 and College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85719 (United States); Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C.; Orozco, Johnnie J. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 (United States); Green, Damian J.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, Brenda M. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 and Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fisher, Darrell R. [Dade Moeller Health Group, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −4} cpm/cm{sup 2} (40 mm diameter detector area

  3. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W; Frost, Sofia H L; Frayo, Shani L; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C; Green, Damian J; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Orozco, Johnnie J; Press, Oliver W; Pagel, John M; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2015-07-01

    Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50-80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ((211)At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10(-4) cpm/cm(2) (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of multiple tissue sections was

  4. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.; Heilmeier, H.; Bringezu, S.

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of

  5. Effects of stereo-regularity on the single-chain mechanics of polylactic acid and its implications on the physical properties of bulk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Qian, Lu; Qian, Hu-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Cui, Shuxun

    2017-10-05

    The material properties of polylactic acid (PLA) are largely determined by its stereo-regularity (tacticity). To find out the origin at the molecular level, the single-chain mechanics of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) and poly-d,l-lactide (PDLLA) were comparatively investigated by single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM). At a low concentration, PLLA adopted a random-coil conformation in a good solvent. At a high concentration, however, the PLLA chain can be induced into a helix, which consumed additional energy during unfolding by further stretching. Due to the random arrangement of l- and d-repeating units in the PDLLA chain, PDLLA adopts a random-coil conformation at all concentrations. The difference in single-chain mechanics of PLLA and PDLLA at high concentrations may be the cause of their different macroscopic properties. This is the first report to reveal the stereo-regularity-dependent mechanics of a polymer at the single-molecule level, which may help to bridge the gap between understanding single-molecule and materials properties.

  6. Natural products as starting materials for development of second-generation SERCA inhibitors targeted towards prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul; Jensen, Anne-Marie Lund; Møller, Jesper Vuust

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the binding of the 8-O-N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-12-aminododecanoyl derivative of 8-O-debutanoylthapsigargin to the target molecule, the SERCA pump, has revealed the importance of the length and flexibility of the side chain attached to O-8. Based on the analysis a series of analogues ...... to the 2-unsubstituted analogue trilobolide has been constructed and shown to be equipotent with thapsigargin as SERCA inhibitors. Only the 12-Boc-aminododecaonoyl derivative, however, was found to be apoptotic...

  7. Integrated molecular targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors and destruction of breast cancer cells using single wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Ning [Delaware MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Lu Shaoxin [Delaware MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Wickstrom, Eric [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Panchapakesan, Balaji [Delaware MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2007-08-08

    Molecular targeting and photodynamic therapy have shown great potential for selective cancer therapy. We hypothesized that monoclonal antibodies that are specific to the IGF1 receptor and HER2 cell surface antigens could be bound to single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in order to concentrate SWCNT on breast cancer cells for specific near-infrared phototherapy. SWCNT functionalized with HER2 and IGF1R specific antibodies showed selective attachment to breast cancer cells compared to SWCNT functionalized with non-specific antibodies. After the complexes were attached to specific cancer cells, SWCNT were excited by {approx}808 nm infrared photons at {approx}800 mW cm{sup -2} for 3 min. Viability after phototherapy was determined by Trypan blue exclusion. Cells incubated with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids were still alive after photo-thermal treatment due to the lack of SWNT binding to the cell membrane. All cancerous cells treated with IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody/SWCNT hybrids and receiving infrared photons showed cell death after the laser excitation. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that all the cells treated with SWCNT/IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody complex were completely destroyed, while more than 80% of the cells with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids remained alive. Following multi-component targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors, integrated photo-thermal therapy in breast cancer cells led to the complete destruction of cancer cells. Functionalizing SWCNT with antibodies in combination with their intrinsic optical properties can therefore lead to a new class of molecular delivery and cancer therapeutic systems.

  8. Pre-targeted immunodetection in glioma patients: tumour localization and single-photon emission tomography imaging of [[sup 99m]Tc ]PnAO-biotin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, G. (INB-CNR, Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Magnani, P. (INB-CNR, Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Zito, F. (INB-CNR, Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Lucignani, G. (INB-CNR, Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Sudati, F. (INB-CNR, Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Truci, G. (Div. of Neurology, Milan Univ. (Italy) Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Motti, E. (Div. of Neurosurgery, Milan Univ. (Italy) Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Terreni, M. (Dept. of Pathology, Scientific Inst. H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)); Pollo, B. (Dept. of Pathology, Scientific Inst. G. Besta, Milan (Italy)); Giovanelli, M. (Div. of Neurosurgery, Milan

    1994-04-01

    We have developed a three-step pre-targeting method using the avidin-biotin system. The rationale of this technique consists in vivo labelling of biotinylated MoAbs targeted onto tumour deposits, when most of the unbound antibodies have been cleared from the bloodstream as avidin-bound complexes. The anti-tenascin MoAb BC2, specific for the majority of gliomas, was biotinylated and 1 mg was administered i.v. in 20 patients with histologically documented cerebral lesions. After 24-36 h, 5 mg avidin was injected i.v. followed 24 h later by a third i.v. injection of 0.2 mg PnAO-biotin labelled with 15-20 mCi technetium-99m. No evidence of toxicity was observed. Whole-body biodistribution was measured at 20 min, 3 h and 5 h post-injection. [[sup 99m]Tc]PnAO-biotin had a fast blood clearance and was primarily excreted through the biliary system. A dedicated single-photon emission tomography system was used to acquire brain tomographic images 1-2 h after the administration of [[sup 99m]Tc]PnAO-biotin. Tumours were detected in 15/18 glioma patients with a tumour to non-tumour ratio of up 14:1. This three-step method, based on the sequential adminsitration of anti-tenascin MoAb BC2, avidin and [[sup 99m]Tc]PnAO-biotin, can support computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with glioma. (orig./MG)

  9. CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing of a single regulatory element nearly abolishes target gene expression in mice--brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu; Slivano, Orazio J; Christie, Christine K; Cheng, Albert W; Miano, Joseph M

    2015-02-01

    To ascertain the importance of a single regulatory element in the control of Cnn1 expression using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) genome editing. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to produce 3 of 18 founder mice carrying point mutations in an intronic CArG box of the smooth muscle cell-restricted Cnn1 gene. Each founder was bred for germline transmission of the mutant CArG box and littermate interbreeding to generate homozygous mutant (Cnn1(ΔCArG/ΔCArG)) mice. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed dramatic reductions in Cnn1 mRNA and CNN1 protein expression in Cnn1(ΔCArG/ΔCArG) mice with no change in other smooth muscle cell-restricted genes and little evidence of off-target edits elsewhere in the genome. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed a sharp decrease in binding of serum response factor to the mutant CArG box. Loss of CNN1 expression was coincident with an increase in Ki-67 positive cells in the normal vessel wall. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing of a single CArG box nearly abolishes Cnn1 expression in vivo and evokes increases in smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis. This facile genome editing system paves the way for a new generation of studies designed to test the importance of individual regulatory elements in living animals, including regulatory variants in conserved sequence blocks linked to human disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Preparation of multishell ICF target plastic-foam cushion materials by thermally induced phase-inversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.; Moreno, D.K.; Marsters, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Homogenous, low-density plastic foams for ICF targets have been prepared by thermally induced phase inversion processes. Uniform, open cell foams have been obtained by the rapid freezing of water solutions of modified cellulose polymers with densities in the range of 5 mg/cm 3 to 0.7 mg/cm 3 and respective average cell sizes of 2 to 40 micrometers. In addition, low-density, microcellular foams have been prepared from the hydrocarbon polymer poly(4-methyl-l-pentene) via a similar phase inversion process using homogenous solutions in organic solvents. These foams have densities from 2 to 5 mg/cm 3 and average cell sizes of 20 micrometers. The physical-chemical aspects of the thermally induced phase inversion process is presented

  11. Single crystal neutron diffraction studies on ferroelectric materials. A review on neutron diffraction works made using the 4-circle diffractometer at KUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yutaka; Mitani, Shigeshi; Shibuya, Iwao

    1994-01-01

    Summary is made on the single crystal neutron diffraction works carried out over the past 30 years using 4-circle neutron diffractometer installed at B-3 beam hole of the Kyoto University Reactor. Subjects dealt with are studies on structure determinations and investigations on phase transition mechanism in various ferroelectric materials and related substances. New applications are also introduced on neutron diffraction method for investigating molecular dynamics and behavior of hydrogens in crystals. (author) 83 refs

  12. Development of technique for high-pressure single-crystal neutron scattering and its application to studies of magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osakabe, Toyotake

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new high-pressure apparatus for single-crystal magnetic neutron diffraction under 10 GPa is described. First, new hybrid-anvil, which is composed of an opposed pair of a supported SiC anvil and a tungsten carbide (WC) anvil with a center-dimpled culet, is introduced. Next, results of an investigation of pressure-transmitting media are shown. The hydrostaticity of the media is essential for the single-crystal diffraction experiments. Finally, a thermal neutron focusing device with a lot of curved supermirrors is shown. The device can compensate weak magnetic signals from tiny samples in high-pressure cells. As examples of the studies using the apparatus, the high-pressure single-crystal magnetic neutron diffraction experiments on 4f-electron systems PrFe 4 P 12 and HoB 2 C 2 are taken up. (author)

  13. Single site-specific integration targeting coupled with embryonic stem cell differentiation provides a high-throughput alternative to in vivo enhancer analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Wilkinson

    2013-10-01

    Comprehensive analysis of cis-regulatory elements is key to understanding the dynamic gene regulatory networks that control embryonic development. While transgenic animals represent the gold standard assay, their generation is costly, entails significant animal usage, and in utero development complicates time-course studies. As an alternative, embryonic stem (ES cells can readily be differentiated in a process that correlates well with developing embryos. Here, we describe a highly effective platform for enhancer assays using an Hsp68/Venus reporter cassette that targets to the Hprt locus in mouse ES cells. This platform combines the flexibility of Gateway® cloning, live cell trackability of a fluorescent reporter, low background and the advantages of single copy insertion into a defined genomic locus. We demonstrate the successful recapitulation of tissue-specific enhancer activity for two cardiac and two haematopoietic enhancers. In addition, we used this assay to dissect the functionality of the highly conserved Ets/Ets/Gata motif in the Scl+19 enhancer, which revealed that the Gata motif is not required for initiation of enhancer activity. We further confirmed that Gata2 is not required for endothelial activity of the Scl+19 enhancer using Gata2−/− Scl+19 transgenic embryos. We have therefore established a valuable toolbox to study gene regulatory networks with broad applicability.

  14. HSA-based multi-target combination therapy: regulating drugs' release from HSA and overcoming single drug resistance in a breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yi; Zhang, Zhenlei; Li, Dongyang; Zhao, Lei; Cai, Meiling; Sun, Zhewen; Li, Yongping; Zhang, Yao; Khan, Hamid; Sun, Hongbing; Wang, Tao; Liang, Hong; Yang, Feng

    2018-11-01

    Multi-drug delivery systems, which may be promising solution to overcome obstacles, have limited the clinical success of multi-drug combination therapies to treat cancer. To this end, we used three different anticancer agents, Cu(BpT)Br, NAMI-A, and doxorubicin (DOX), to build human serum albumin (HSA)-based multi-drug delivery systems in a breast cancer model to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of overcoming single drug (DOX) resistance to cancer cells in vivo, and to regulate the drugs' release from HSA. The HSA complex structure revealed that NAMI-A and Cu(BpT)Br bind to the IB and IIA sub-domain of HSA by N-donor residue replacing a leaving group and coordinating to their metal centers, respectively. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra demonstrated that one DOX molecule is conjugated with lysine of HSA by a pH-sensitive linker. Furthermore, the release behavior of three agents form HSA can be regulated at different pH levels. Importantly, in vivo results revealed that the HSA-NAMI-A-Cu(BpT)Br-DOX complex not only increases the targeting ability compared with a combination of the three agents (the NAMI-A/Cu(BpT)Br/DOX mixture), but it also overcomes DOX resistance to drug-resistant breast cancer cell lines.

  15. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Positron Emission Tomography Imaging and Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma: New Multimodal Fluorinated and Iodinated Radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonial, A.; Papon, J.; Bayle, M.; Vidal, A.; Auzeloux, Ph.; Rbah, L.; Bonnet-Duquennoy, M.; Miot-Noirault, E.; Galmier, M.J.; Borel, M.; Madelmont, J.C.; Moins, N.; Chezal, J.M.; Kuhnast, B.; Boisgard, R.; Dolle, F.; Tavitian, B.; Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B.; Askienazy, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a series of 14 new iodinated and fluorinated compounds offering both early imaging ( 123 I, 124 I, 18 F) and systemic treatment ( 131 I) of melanoma potentialities. The biodistribution of each 125 I-labeled tracer was evaluated in a model of melanoma B16F0-bearing mice, using in vivo serial γ scintigraphic imaging. Among this series, [ 125 I]56 emerged as the most promising compound in terms of specific tumoral uptake and in vivo kinetic profile. To validate our multimodality concept, the radiosynthesis of [ 18 F]56 was then optimized and this radiotracer has been successfully investigated for in vivo PET imaging of melanoma in B16F0- and B16F10-bearing mouse model. The therapeutic efficacy of [ 131 I]56 was then evaluated in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F0 melanoma, and a significant slow down in tumoral growth was demonstrated. These data support further development of 56 for PET imaging ( 18 F, 124 I) and targeted radionuclide therapy ( 131 I) of melanoma using a single chemical structure. (authors)

  16. Development of an enhanced bovine viral diarrhea virus subunit vaccine based on E2 glycoprotein fused to a single chain antibody which targets to antigen-presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Andrea; Malacari, Darío A; Pérez Aguirreburualde, María S; Bellido, Demian; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María J; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important cause of economic losses worldwide. E2 is an immunodominant protein and a promising candidate to develop subunit vaccines. To improve its immunogenicity, a truncated E2 (tE2) was fused to a single chain antibody named APCH, which targets to antigen-presenting cells. APCH-tE2 and tE2 proteins were expressed in the baculovirus system and their immunogenicity was firstly compared in guinea pigs. APCH-tE2 vaccine was the best one to evoke a humoral response, and for this reason, it was selected for a cattle vaccination experiment. All the bovines immunized with 1.5 μg of APCH-tE2 developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies against BVDV up to a year post-immunization, demonstrating its significant potential as a subunit vaccine. This novel vaccine is undergoing scale-up and was transferred to the private sector. Nowadays, it is being evaluated for registration as the first Argentinean subunit vaccine for cattle. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of an entomopathogenic fungi target integument protein, Bombyx mori single domain von Willebrand factor type C, in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, F; Lu, A; Yuan, Y; Huang, W; Beerntsen, B T; Huang, J; Ling, E

    2017-06-01

    The insect cuticle works as the first line of defence to protect insects from pathogenic infections and water evaporation. However, the old cuticle must be shed in order to enter the next developmental stage. During each ecdysis, moulting fluids are produced and secreted into the area among the old and new cuticles. In a previous study, the protein Bombyx mori single domain von Willebrand factor type C (BmSVWC; BGIBMGA011399) was identified in the moulting fluids of Bo. mori and demonstrated to regulate ecdysis. In this study we show that in Bo. mori larvae, BmSVWC primarily locates to the integument (epidermal cells and cuticle), wing discs and head. During the moulting stage, BmSVWC is released into the moulting fluids, and is then produced again by epidermal cells after ecdysis. Fungal infection was shown to decrease the amount of BmSVWC in the cuticle, which indicates that BmSVWC is a target protein of entomopathogenic fungi. Thus, BmSVWC is mainly involved in maintaining the integrity of the integument structure, which serves to protect insects from physical damage and pathogenic infection. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Influence of restorative materials on color of implant-supported single crowns in esthetic zone: A spectrophotometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M., Peng; W.-J., Zhao; M., Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Restorations of 98 implant-supported single crowns in anterior maxillary area were divided into 5 groups: zirconia abutment, titanium abutment, and gold/gold hue abutment with zirconia coping, respectively, and titanium abutment with metal coping as well as gold/gold hue abutment with metal copin...

  19. A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys based on nonlocal damage and viscoplastic material behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, B. T.; Hackl, K.

    2014-07-01

    A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys is developed, which includes constitutive laws for nonlocal damage and viscoplasticity. It is based on a variational formulation, employing potentials for free energy, and dissipation originating from plasticity and damage. Evolution equations for plastic strain and damage variables are derived from the well-established minimum principle for the dissipation potential. The model is capable of describing the different stages of creep in a unified way. Plastic deformation in superalloys incorporates the evolution of dislocation densities of the different phases present. It results in a time dependence of the creep rate in primary and secondary creep. Tertiary creep is taken into account by introducing local and nonlocal damage. Herein, the nonlocal one is included in order to model strain localization as well as to remove mesh dependence of finite element calculations. Numerical results and comparisons with experimental data of the single crystal superalloy LEK94 are shown.

  20. Materials process and applications of single grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Beizhan; Zhou Difan; Xu Kun; Hara, Shogo; Tsuzuki, Keita; Miki, Motohiro; Felder, Brice; Deng Zigang [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology (TUMSAT), 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Izumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: izumi@kaiyodai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology (TUMSAT), 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2012-11-20

    This paper reviews recent advances in the melt process of (RE)-Ba-Cu-O [(RE)BCO, where RE represents a rare earth element] single grain high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), bulks and its applications. The efforts on the improvement of the magnetic flux pinning with employing the top-seeded melt-growth process technique and using a seeded infiltration and growth process are discussed. Which including various chemical doping strategies and controlled pushing effect based on the peritectic reaction of (RE)BCO. The typical experiment results, such as the largest single domain bulk, the clear TEM observations and the significant critical current density, are summarized together with the magnetization techniques. Finally, we highlight the recent prominent progress of HTS bulk applications, including Maglev, flywheel, power device, magnetic drug delivery system and magnetic resonance devices.

  1. Materials process and applications of single grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beizhan; Zhou, Difan; Xu, Kun; Hara, Shogo; Tsuzuki, Keita; Miki, Motohiro; Felder, Brice; Deng, Zigang; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the melt process of (RE)-Ba-Cu-O [(RE)BCO, where RE represents a rare earth element] single grain high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), bulks and its applications. The efforts on the improvement of the magnetic flux pinning with employing the top-seeded melt-growth process technique and using a seeded infiltration and growth process are discussed. Which including various chemical doping strategies and controlled pushing effect based on the peritectic reaction of (RE)BCO. The typical experiment results, such as the largest single domain bulk, the clear TEM observations and the significant critical current density, are summarized together with the magnetization techniques. Finally, we highlight the recent prominent progress of HTS bulk applications, including Maglev, flywheel, power device, magnetic drug delivery system and magnetic resonance devices.

  2. Elemental Characterization of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Certified Reference Material by Neutron and Prompt gamma Activation Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Bennett, J. W.; Oflaz, R.; Paul, R. L.; De Nadai Fernandes, E. A.; Kubešová, Marie; Bacchi, M. A.; Stopic, A. J.; Sturgeon, R. E.; Grinberg, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 7 (2015), s. 3699-3705 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Neutron Activation Analyses * nanotechnology * Carbon nanotubes * Chemical activation * Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCN) Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.886, year: 2015

  3. An interdimensional correlation framework for real-time estimation of six degree of freedom target motion using a single x-ray imager during radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Bertholet, J.; Kim, J.-H.; O'Brien, R.; Booth, J. T.; Poulsen, P. R.; Keall, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that intrafraction tumour motion monitoring needs to include both 3D translations and 3D rotations. Presently, methods to estimate the rotation motion require the 3D translation of the target to be known first. However, ideally, translation and rotation should be estimated concurrently. We present the first method to directly estimate six-degree-of-freedom (6DoF) motion from the target’s projection on a single rotating x-ray imager in real-time. This novel method is based on the linear correlations between the superior-inferior translations and the motion in the other five degrees-of-freedom. The accuracy of the method was evaluated in silico with 81 liver tumour motion traces from 19 patients with three implanted markers. The ground-truth motion was estimated using the current gold standard method where each marker’s 3D position was first estimated using a Gaussian probability method, and the 6DoF motion was then estimated from the 3D positions using an iterative method. The 3D position of each marker was projected onto a gantry-mounted imager with an imaging rate of 11 Hz. After an initial 110° gantry rotation (200 images), a correlation model between the superior-inferior translations and the five other DoFs was built using a least square method. The correlation model was then updated after each subsequent frame to estimate 6DoF motion in real-time. The proposed algorithm had an accuracy (±precision) of  -0.03  ±  0.32 mm, -0.01  ±  0.13 mm and 0.03  ±  0.52 mm for translations in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions respectively; and, 0.07  ±  1.18°, 0.07  ±  1.00° and 0.06  ±  1.32° for rotations around the LR, SI and AP axes respectively on the dataset. The first method to directly estimate real-time 6DoF target motion from segmented marker positions on a 2D imager was devised. The algorithm was evaluated using 81

  4. Chemistry and physics of a single atomic layer: strategies and challenges for functionalization of graphene and graphene-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Zheng, Yue Bing; Zhao, Feng; Li, Shoujian; Gao, Xingfa; Xu, Bingqian; Weiss, Paul S; Zhao, Yuliang

    2012-01-07

    Graphene has attracted great interest for its superior physical, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties that enable a wide range of applications from electronics to nanoelectromechanical systems. Functionalization is among the significant vectors that drive graphene towards technological applications. While the physical properties of graphene have been at the center of attention, we still lack the knowledge framework for targeted graphene functionalization. In this critical review, we describe some of the important chemical and physical processes for graphene functionalization. We also identify six major challenges in graphene research and give perspectives and practical strategies for both fundamental studies and applications of graphene (315 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  5. Identification of Splice Variants, Targeted MicroRNAs and Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the BOLA-DQA2 Gene in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qinlei; Huang, Jinming; Ju, Zhihua; Li, Qiuling; Li, Liming; Wang, Changfa; Sun, Tao; Wang, Lingling; Hou, Minghai

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 2, also named BOLA-DQA2, belongs to the Bovine Leukocyte Antigen (BOLA) class II genes which are involved in the immune response. To explore the variability of the BOLA-DQA2 gene and resistance to mastitis in cows, the splice variants (SV), targeted microRNAs (miRNAs), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in this study. A new SV (BOLA-DQA2-SV1) lacking part of exon 3 (195 bp) and two 3′-untranslated regions (UTR) (52 bp+167 bp) of the BOLA-DQA2 gene was found in the healthy and mastitis-infected mammary gland tissues. Four of 13 new SNPs and multiple nucleotide polymorphisms resulted in amino acid changes in the protein and SNP (c. +1283 C>T) may affect the binding to the seed sequence of bta-miR-2318. Further, we detected the relative expressions of two BOLA-DQA2 transcripts and five candidated microRNAs binding to the 3′-UTR of two transcripts in the mammary gland tissues in dairy cattle by using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that expression of the BOLA-DQA2-SV1 mRNA was significantly upregulated 2.67-fold (pmastitis-infected mammary tissues (n=5) compared with the healthy mammary gland mammary tissues (n=5). Except for bta-miR-1777a, miRNA expression (bta-miR-296, miR-2430, and miR-671) was upregulated 1.75 to 2.59-fold (pmastitis cows. Our findings reveal that BOLA-DQA2-SV1 may play an important role in the mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Whether the SNPs affect the structure of the BOLA-DQA2 gene or association with mastitis resistance is unknown and warrants further investigation. PMID:22084936

  6. Identification of singles bar as a direct transcriptional target of Drosophila Myocyte enhancer factor-2 and a regulator of adult myoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Tonya M; Fremin, Brayon J; Cripps, Richard M

    2015-05-15

    In Drosophila, myoblast fusion is a conserved process in which founder cells (FCs) and fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fuse to form a syncytial muscle fiber. Mutants for the myogenic regulator Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) show a failure of myoblast fusion, indicating that MEF2 regulates the fusion process. Indeed, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that several genes involved in myoblast fusion are bound by MEF2 during embryogenesis. Of these, the MARVEL domain gene singles bar (sing), is down-regulated in MEF2 knockdown pupae, and has five consensus MEF2 binding sites within a 9000-bp region. To determine if MEF2 is an essential and direct regulator of sing during pupal muscle development, we identified a 315-bp myoblast enhancer of sing. This enhancer was active during myoblast fusion, and mutation of two MEF2 sites significantly decreased enhancer activity. We show that lack of sing expression resulted in adult lethality and muscle loss, due to a failure of fusion during the pupal stage. Additionally, we sought to determine if sing was required in either FCs or FCMs to support fusion. Interestingly, knockdown of sing in either population did not significantly affect fusion, however, knockdown in both FCs and FCMs resulted in muscles with significantly reduced nuclei numbers, provisionally indicating that sing function is required in either cell type, but not both. Finally, we found that MEF2 regulated sing expression at the embryonic stage through the same 315-bp enhancer, indicating that sing is a MEF2 target at both critical stages of myoblast fusion. Our studies define for the first time how MEF2 directly controls fusion at multiple stages of the life cycle, and provide further evidence that the mechanisms of fusion characterized in Drosophila embryos is also used in the formation of the more complex adult muscles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural insight of dopamine β-hydroxylase, a drug target for complex traits, and functional significance of exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Kapoor

    Full Text Available Human dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH is an important therapeutic target for complex traits. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have also been identified in DBH with potential adverse physiological effect. However, difficulty in obtaining diffractable crystals and lack of a suitable template for modeling the protein has ensured that neither crystallographic three-dimensional structure nor computational model for the enzyme is available to aid rational drug design, prediction of functional significance of SNPs or analytical protein engineering.Adequate biochemical information regarding human DBH, structural coordinates for peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase and computational data from a partial model of rat DBH were used along with logical manual intervention in a novel way to build an in silico model of human DBH. The model provides structural insight into the active site, metal coordination, subunit interface, substrate recognition and inhibitor binding. It reveals that DOMON domain potentially promotes tetramerization, while substrate dopamine and a potential therapeutic inhibitor nepicastat are stabilized in the active site through multiple hydrogen bonding. Functional significance of several exonic SNPs could be described from a structural analysis of the model. The model confirms that SNP resulting in Ala318Ser or Leu317Pro mutation may not influence enzyme activity, while Gly482Arg might actually do so being in the proximity of the active site. Arg549Cys may cause abnormal oligomerization through non-native disulfide bond formation. Other SNPs like Glu181, Glu250, Lys239 and Asp290 could potentially inhibit tetramerization thus affecting function.The first three-dimensional model of full-length human DBH protein was obtained in a novel manner with a set of experimental data as guideline for consistency of in silico prediction. Preliminary physicochemical tests validated the model. The model confirms, rationalizes and

  8. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents.

  9. Use of Modulus Mapping Technique to Investigate Cross-sectional Material Properties of Extracted Single Human Trabeculae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej; Kytýř, Daniel; Zlámal, Petr; Doktor, Tomáš; Šepitka, J.; Lukeš, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2012), s. 442-445 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : modulus mapping * trabecular bone * nanoindentation * micromechanical testing Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2012 http://www.chemicke-listy.cz/common/content-issue_s3-volume_106-year_2012.html

  10. Challenge in optoelectronic duplex switches: a red emission large-size single crystal and a unidirectional flexible thin film of a hybrid multifunctional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Zhang, Wan-Ying; Chen, Cheng; Ye, Qiong; Fu, Da-Wei

    2018-02-13

    Photoelectric dual-function features in bulk crystals or flexible thin films make them excellent candidates for important and thriving applications in storage, sensing and other information fields. Based on superior advantages such as easy and environmentally friendly processing, mechanical flexibility, and ability to fabricate films and bulk single crystals; we designed a type of molecular material with a photoelectric multi-function switch, [N(NH 2 CH 2 CH 2 ) 3 ] 2 Mn 2 Cl 12 (compound 1), which exhibits intriguing temperature-dependent dielectric and red emission switchable characteristics. This material perfectly explains the advantages of molecular materials, while 1 can also be used to fabricate a transparent unidirectional film with ultra-flexibility. Moreover, this material shows the highest record in signal contrast of ∼5 (exceeding all the known molecular materials/crystalline switches, revealing its potential to obtain high-efficiency signal-to-noise ratio), sensitive dielectric bi-stability, and excellent switching anti fatigue. These features give it a high application value in integrated circuits, optoelectronic seamless integration devices and flexible multifunctional devices.

  11. Effect of the purity of starting materials on the growth and properties of potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals – A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, P., E-mail: rajeshp@ssn.edu.in [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110 (India); Charoen In, Urit [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand); Manyum, Prapun [School of Physics and NANOTEC-SUT Center of Excellence on Advanced Functional Nanomaterials, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Muang 30000 (Thailand); Ramasamy, P. [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Bulk size KDP crystal has been grown with higher growth rate. • Systematic study on the effect of starting materials has been done. • Crystalline perfection is maintained in the entire crystal. - Abstract: A systematic study on the effect of purity of starting materials on the growth and properties of potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals is crucial for the future study of the material for nonlinear optical applications. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals were grown using high pure (99.999%) and ordinary (99.9%) starting raw materials using slow cooling method in identical conditions. Their optical transparency and crystalline perfection are studied by UV and high resolution X-ray diffraction analyses respectively. The results are checked with the help of etching analyses. The full width at half maximum is 8″ which is close to that expected from the plane wave theory of dynamical X-ray diffraction for an ideally perfect crystal. Results of those studies are correlated with each other. The quantitative results show that the raw material plays an important role in the growth of good quality crystals.

  12. Determination of Aloin A and Aloin B in Aloe vera Raw Materials and Finished Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paula N; Yu, Ronan; Kuan, Chiow Hui; Finley, Jamie; Mudge, Elizabeth M; Dentali, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) was conducted on an HPLC method for the detection and quantification of aloin A and aloin B in Aloe vera raw materials and finished products. An extraction procedure using sonication with an acidified solvent was used for solid test materials while liquid test materials only required dilution, if necessary, prior to filtration and analysis. Separation was achieved using a fused core C18 column in 18 min under isocratic elution conditions allowing for a single analyte (aloin A) calibration curve to quantify both aloins. Adequate chromatographic resolution (Rs ≥ 1) was achieved for aloin A and aloin B. The calibration curves for aloin A exhibited coefficients of determination (r(2)) of ≥ 99.9% over the linear range of 0.3-50 μg/mL. The LOD values were 0.092 and 0.087 μg/mL, and LOQ 0.23 and 0.21 μg/mL for aloin A and aloin B, respectively. Repeatability studies were performed on nine test materials on each of 3 separate days, with five of the test materials determined to be above the LOQ having repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranging from 0.61 to 6.30%. Method accuracy was determined through a spike recovery study on both liquid and solid matrixes at three different levels: low, medium, and high. For both aloins, the recovery in the liquid matrix ranged from 92.7 to 106.3% with an RSDr of 0.15 to 4.30%, while for the solid matrix, the recovery ranged from 84.4 to 108.9% with an RSDr of 0.23 to 3.84%. Based on the results of the SLV study, it is recommended that this method be evaluated for reproducibility through a collaborative study.

  13. High magnetic field trapping in monolithic single-grain YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) bulk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Xue, Y. Y.; Ramirez, D.; Huang, Z. J.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Results of our study on high magnetic field trapping in unirradiated, high quality monolithic single-grain YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) disks are reported. A record high 4 T trapped field at the surface of the unirradiated disks is observed. However, below 11 K, large flux avalanches caused by thermal instability severely limit the remnant trapped field. Therefore, flux avalanche, rather than Jc x d, dictates the maximum trapped field at low temperatures. To overcome this problem, a strong high temperature superconductor trapped field magnet is proposed. A novel application of the avalanche effect is also mentioned.

  14. Growth, crystalline perfection, spectral and optical characterization of a novel optical material: l-tryptophan p-nitrophenol trisolvate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, N.; Srividya, J.; Mohana, J.; Anbalagan, G.

    2015-03-01

    l-tryptophan p-nitrophenol trisolvate (LTPN), an organic nonlinear optical material was synthesized using ethanol-water mixed solvent and the crystals were grown by a slow solvent evaporation method. The crystal structure and morphology were studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the LTPN crystal was analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. The molecular structure of the crystal was confirmed by observing the various characteristic functional groups of the material using vibrational spectroscopy. The cut-off wavelength, optical transmission, refractive index and band gap energy were determined using UV-visible data. The variation of refractive index with wavelength shows the normal behavior. The second harmonic generation of the crystal was confirmed and the efficiency was measured using Kurtz Perry powder method. Single and multiple shot methods were employed to measure surface laser damage of the crystal. The photoluminescence spectral study revealed that the emission may be associated with the radiative recombination of trapped electrons and holes. Microhardness measurements revealed that LTPN belongs to a soft material category.

  15. Measurements of the elastic stiffness constants of single-crystal SmCo5 and of liquid-phase sintered SmCo5 permanent magnet material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The five elastic stiffness constants were determined for both single-crystal SmCo 5 and for the commercially processed liquid-phase sintered (LPS) SmCo 5 permanent magnet material. The LPS material is an aligned polycrystalline aggregate of SmCo 5 crystallites oriented so that their magnetically easy c axes are approximately parallel. The elastic constants were obtained from the velocities of propagation of ultrasound in various directions in samples of known thickness and density. For the single crystal, the room-temperature values of the constants (in units of 10 12 dyn/cm 2 ) are c 11 =1.968 +- 2%, c 12 =1.032 +- 4%, c 13 =1.049 +- 4%, c 33 =2.398 +- 2%, and c 44 =0.483 +- 2%, and for the LPS permanent magnet material, c 11 =1.330 +- 2%, c 12 =0.616 +- 5%, c 13 =0.485 +- 5%, c 33 =1.659 +- 2%, and c 44 =0.419 +- 2%. The decrease in elastic constants in SmCo 5 relative to cobalt can be related qualitatively to a corresponding decrease in the number of nearest-neighbor cobalt bonds in SmCo 5

  16. Influence of Restorative Materials on Color of Implant-Supported Single Crowns in Esthetic Zone: A Spectrophotometric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Jie; Hosseini, Mandana; Zhou, Wen-Juan; Xiao, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Restorations of 98 implant-supported single crowns in anterior maxillary area were divided into 5 groups: zirconia abutment, titanium abutment, and gold/gold hue abutment with zirconia coping, respectively, and titanium abutment with metal coping as well as gold/gold hue abutment with metal coping. A reflectance spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the color difference between the implant crowns and contralateral/neighboring teeth, as well as the color difference between the peri-implant soft tissue and the natural marginal mucosa. The mucosal discoloration score was used for subjective evaluation of the esthetic outcome of soft tissue around implant-supported single crowns in the anterior zone, and the crown color match score was used for subjective evaluation of the esthetic outcome of implant-supported restoration. ANOVA analysis was used to compare the differences among groups and Spearman correlation was used to test the relationships. A gold/gold hue abutment with zirconia coping was the best choice for an esthetic crown and the all-ceramic combination was the best for peri-implant soft tissue. Significant correlation was found between the spectrophotometric color difference of peri-implant soft tissue and mucosal discoloration score, while no significant correlation was found between the total spectrophotometric color difference of implant crown and crown color match score. PMID:29349075

  17. Influence of Restorative Materials on Color of Implant-Supported Single Crowns in Esthetic Zone: A Spectrophotometric Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Restorations of 98 implant-supported single crowns in anterior maxillary area were divided into 5 groups: zirconia abutment, titanium abutment, and gold/gold hue abutment with zirconia coping, respectively, and titanium abutment with metal coping as well as gold/gold hue abutment with metal coping. A reflectance spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the color difference between the implant crowns and contralateral/neighboring teeth, as well as the color difference between the peri-implant soft tissue and the natural marginal mucosa. The mucosal discoloration score was used for subjective evaluation of the esthetic outcome of soft tissue around implant-supported single crowns in the anterior zone, and the crown color match score was used for subjective evaluation of the esthetic outcome of implant-supported restoration. ANOVA analysis was used to compare the differences among groups and Spearman correlation was used to test the relationships. A gold/gold hue abutment with zirconia coping was the best choice for an esthetic crown and the all-ceramic combination was the best for peri-implant soft tissue. Significant correlation was found between the spectrophotometric color difference of peri-implant soft tissue and mucosal discoloration score, while no significant correlation was found between the total spectrophotometric color difference of implant crown and crown color match score.

  18. Correction: Koush, Y.; Elliott, M.A. and Mathiak, K. Single Voxel Proton Spectroscopy for Neurofeedback at 7 Tesla. Materials 2011, 4, 1548–1563

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Koush

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the published manuscript “Koush, Y.; Elliott, M.A. and Mathiak, K. Single Voxel Proton Spectroscopy for Neurofeedback at 7 Tesla. Materials 2011, 4, 1548-1563”, all estimates of T2* from the single voxel spectroscopy data were overestimated by a factor of 4. This was due to an incorrectly assumed four-fold lower sampling rate. The focus of the manuscript is on the relative changes in T2* with BOLD activation, and not on the absolute values. Therefore, none of the central claims are affected, but the scaling in most of the figures needs to be adjusted. The authors would like to make the following corrections to their published paper.

  19. Toward single-material multilayer interference mid-infrared filters with sub-wavelength structures for cryogenic infrared astronomical missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makitsubo, Hironobu; Wada, Takehiko; Mita, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    We are trying to develop high performance mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) optical filters with mechanical strength and robustness for thermal cycling toward cryogenic infrared astronomical space missions. Multilayer interference filters enable us to design a wide variety of spectral response by controlling refractive index and thickness of each layer, however, in longer MIR and FIR (30-300μm) wavelength regions, there are a few optical materials known to have both good transparency and physical robustness, which makes difficult to realize high performance filters because of limited refractive index values. It is also difficult to deposit thick layers required for MIR/FIR multilayer filters by conventional method. Furthermore, multilayer interference filters are realized by thin film coatings having different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), which makes filters fragile for thermal cycling. To clear these problems, we introduce sub-wavelength structures (SWS) for controlling the refractive index. Then, only one material is necessary for fabricating filters, which enables us to fabricate filters with mechanical strength and robustness for thermal cycling. In 30-300μm wavelength regions silicon is very suitable for filter material because not only silicon has little absorption and physical robustness but also SWS are easily fabricated by micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. As a first step, we have fabricated anti-reflection SWS layer on silicon wafers to demonstrate the refractive index control by simple SWS (periodic cylindrical holes on a silicon wafer). Comparing measured transmittance with both effective medium approximation (EMA) theory and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) simulation, we confirm that the refractive control of SWS layer is verified.

  20. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  1. Biomechanical characteristics of single-row repair in comparison to double-row repair with consideration of the suture configuration and suture material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, M H; Buchhorn, G H; Spahn, G; Poppendieck, B; Schultz, W; Klinger, H-M

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the time zero mechanical properties of single- versus double-row configuration for rotator cuff repair in an animal model with consideration of the stitch technique and suture material. Thirty-two fresh-frozen sheep shoulders were randomly assigned to four repair groups: suture anchor single-row repair coupled with (1) braided, nonabsorbable polyester suture sized USP No. 2 (SRAE) or (2) braided polyblend polyethylene suture sized No. 2 (SRAH). The double-row repair was coupled with (3) USP No. 2 (DRAE) or (4) braided polyblend polyethylene suture No. 2 (DRAH). Arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches were used (single-row) and combined with medial horizontal mattress stitches (double-row). Shoulders were cyclically loaded from 10 to 180 N. Displacement to gap formation of 5- and 10-mm at the repair site, cycles to failure, and the mode of failure were determined. The ultimate tensile strength was verified in specimens that resisted to 3,000 cycles. DRAE and DRAH had a lower frequency of 5- (P = 0.135) and 10-mm gap formation (P = 0.135). All DRAE and DRAH resisted 3,000 cycles while only three SRAE and one SRAH resisted 3,000 cycles (P 0.05). Double-row suture anchor repair with arthroscopic Mason-Allen/medial mattress stitches provides initial strength superior to single-row repair with arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches under isometric cyclic loading as well as under ultimate loading conditions. Our results support the concept of double-row fixation with arthroscopic Mason-Allen/medial mattress stitches in rotator cuff tears with improvement of initial fixation strength and ultimate tensile load. Use of new polyblend polyethylene suture material seems not to increase the initial biomechanical aspects of the repair construct.

  2. Single component Mn-doped perovskite-related CsPb2ClxBr5-x nanoplatelets with a record white light quantum yield of 49%: a new single layer color conversion material for light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Xu, Shuhong; Shao, Haibao; Li, Lang; Cui, Yiping; Wang, Chunlei

    2017-11-09

    Single component nanocrystals (NCs) with white fluorescence are promising single layer color conversion media for white light-emitting diodes (LED) because the undesirable changes of chromaticity coordinates for the mixture of blue, green and red emitting NCs can be avoided. However, their practical applications have been hindered by the relative low photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) for traditional semiconductor NCs. Though Mn-doped perovskite nanocube is a potential candidate, it has been unable to realize a white-light emission to date. In this work, the synthesis of Mn-doped 2D perovskite-related CsPb 2 Cl x Br 5-x nanoplatelets with a pure white emission from a single component is reported. Unlike Mn-doped perovskite nanocubes with insufficient energy transfer efficiency, the current reported Mn-doped 2D perovskite-related CsPb 2 Cl x Br 5-x nanoplatelets show a 10 times higher energy transfer efficiency from perovskite to Mn impurities at the required emission wavelengths (about 450 nm for perovskite emission and 580 nm for Mn emission). As a result, the Mn/perovskite dual emission intensity ratio surprisingly elevates from less than 0.25 in case of Mn-doped nanocubes to 0.99 in the current Mn-doped CsPb 2 Cl x Br 5-x nanoplatelets, giving rise to a pure white light emission with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.35, 0.32). More importantly, the highest PL QY for Mn-doped perovskite-related CsPb 2 Cl x Br 5-x nanoplatelets is up to 49%, which is a new record for white-emitting nanocrystals with single component. These highly luminescent nanoplatelets can be blended with polystyrene (PS) without changing the white light emission but dramatically improving perovskite stability. The perovskite-PS composites are available not only as a good solution processable coating material for assembling LED, but also as a superior conversion material for achieving white light LED with a single conversion layer.

  3. New automatic combustion method for the liquid scintillation assay of tritium and carbon-14 in singly or doubly labelled organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gacs, I.; Dobis, E.; Dombi, S.; Payer, K.; Oetvoes, L. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia Koezponti Kemiai Kutato Intezete, Budapest); Vargay, Z. (CHINOIN Gyogyszer es Vegyeszeti Termekek Gyara Rt., Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    An automatic, rapid combustion method has been developed for the determination of tritium and /sup 14/C in singly or doubly labelled organic materials by liquid scintillation counting. The sample is burned in a stream of oxygen. The water formed and its tritium content are retained from the gas stream in an absorber containing a small amount of diethylene-glycol monoethyl ether. Radioactive carbon dioxide, if included in the combustion products, is transferred into 3-methoxypropylamine. The final solutions ready for counting are obtained in less than three minutes. Quantitative collection recoveries for both tritium and /sup 14/C are achieved and no cross-contamination occurs.

  4. A New Analytical Subthreshold Behavior Model for Single-Halo, Dual-Material Gate Silicon-on-Insulator Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Te-Kuang

    2008-11-01

    On the basis of the exact solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation, a new analytical subthreshold behavior model consisting of the two-dimensional potential, threshold voltage, and subthreshold current for the single-halo, dual-material gate (SHDMG) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is developed. The model is verified by the good agreement with a numerical simulation using the device simulator MEDICI. The model not only offers a physical insight into device physics but is also an efficient device model for the circuit simulation.

  5. Correlations between fracture load of zirconia implant supported single crowns and mechanical properties of restorative material and cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Nadja; Märtin, Sabrina; Fischer, Jens

    2017-11-23

    Zirconia implants that were restored with veneered zirconia displayed severe chipping rates of the restorations in clinical studies. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture load of different zirconia implant supported monolithic crown materials (zirconia, alumina, lithium disilicate, feldspar ceramic and polymer-infiltrated ceramic) cemented with various cements (Harvard LuteCem SE, Harvard Implant Semi-permanent, Multilink Automix, VITA Adiva F-Cem). Flexural strength and fracture toughness of crown materials and compressive strength of the cements were measured. Fracture load values of crowns fabricated from lithium disilicate, feldspar ceramic and polymer-infiltrated ceramic were increased when cement with high compressive strength was used. Fracture loads for zirconia and alumina crowns were not influenced by the cement. Flexural strength and fracture toughness of the ceramics correlated linearly with the respective fracture load when using adhesive cement with high compressive strength. To achieve sufficient fracture load values, cementation with adhesive cement is essential for feldspar and polymer-infiltrated ceramic.

  6. Investigation of the Effect of Material on Undamped Free Vibration of Cantilever Beams with Uniform Single Surface Crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufazzal, Sameera; Muzakkir, S. M.; Zakir Jafri, Hasan

    2017-08-01

    Crack detection in structures is a critical area of research where the developments have been made out since decades. Various techniques are available for early identification and quantification of cracks to predict and prevent the unexpected sudden failure of structure and ensure uninterrupted service. Use of vibration analysis for detecting crack is one of the widely used techniques which offer lots of advantages over other like it is easier and less costly method and can be used for inaccessible components. The present work attempts to use modal analysis through FEA to investigate the effect of crack on natural frequency of vibration in beams of different materials, for three different crack location. From the result, it has been inferred that among Structural Steel (SS), Aluminium alloy (Al) and Gray Cast Iron (CI), the natural frequency is highest for Al beam and lowest for CI beam. Introduction of crack reduces the natural frequency of vibration, however, the effect of crack location on frequency is not uniform for different modes. Also, the trend is similar in beams of all the materials.

  7. Calcination and solid state reaction of ceramic-forming components to provide single-phase superconducting materials having fine particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Emerson, James E.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1992-01-01

    An improved method for the preparation of single phase, fine grained ceramic materials from precursor powder mixtures where at least one of the components of the mixture is an alkali earth carbonate. The process consists of heating the precursor powders in a partial vacuum under flowing oxygen and under conditions where the partial pressure of CO.sub.2 evolved during the calcination is kept to a very low level relative to the oxygen. The process has been found particularly suitable for the preparation of high temperature copper oxide superconducting materials such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x "123" and YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.4 O.sub.8 "124".

  8. Combination of thermal and electric properties' measurement techniques in a single setup suitable for radioactive materials in controlled environments and based on the 3ω approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K.; Gofryk, K.

    2018-04-01

    We have designed and developed a new experimental setup, based on the 3ω method, to measure thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of a variety of samples in a broad temperature range (2-550 K) and under magnetic fields up to 9 T. The validity of this method is tested by measuring various types of metallic (copper, platinum, and constantan) and insulating (SiO2) materials, which have a wide range of thermal conductivity values (1-400 W m-1 K-1). We have successfully employed this technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of two actinide single crystals: uranium dioxide and uranium nitride. This new experimental approach for studying nuclear materials will help us to advance reactor fuel development and understanding. We have also shown that this experimental setup can be adapted to the Physical Property Measurement System (Quantum Design) environment and/or other cryocooler systems.

  9. Predictive DFT-based approaches to charge and spin transport in single-molecule junctions and two-dimensional materials: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Su Ying; Khoo, Khoong Hong

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: The emerging field of flexible electronics based on organics and two-dimensional (2D) materials relies on a fundamental understanding of charge and spin transport at the molecular and nanoscale. It is desirable to make predictions and shine light on unexplained experimental phenomena independently of experimentally derived parameters. Indeed, density functional theory (DFT), the workhorse of first-principles approaches, has been used extensively to model charge/spin transport at the nanoscale. However, DFT is essentially a ground state theory that simply guarantees correct total energies given the correct charge density, while charge/spin transport is a nonequilibrium phenomenon involving the scattering of quasiparticles. In this Account, we critically assess the validity and applicability of DFT to predict charge/spin transport at the nanoscale. We also describe a DFT-based approach, DFT+Σ, which incorporates corrections to Kohn-Sham energy levels based on many-electron calculations. We focus on single-molecule junctions and then discuss how the important considerations for DFT descriptions of transport can differ in 2D materials. We conclude that when used appropriately, DFT and DFT-based approaches can play an important role in making predictions and gaining insight into transport in these materials. Specifically, we shall focus on the low-bias quasi-equilibrium regime, which is also experimentally most relevant for single-molecule junctions. The next question is how well can the scattering of DFT Kohn-Sham particles approximate the scattering of true quasiparticles in the junction? Quasiparticles are electrons (holes) that are surrounded by a constantly changing cloud of holes (electrons), but Kohn-Sham particles have no physical significance. However, Kohn-Sham particles can often be used as a qualitative approximation to quasiparticles. The errors in standard DFT descriptions of transport arise primarily from errors in the Kohn-Sham energy levels

  10. Influence of the microstructure of a diamond-containing composite material on the tool cutting ability when grinding a diamond single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kuzei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the methods of electronic scanning microstructure and X-ray analysis, the influence of the structure of diamond-containing composite materials on the cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond single crystals has been studied. It is shown that the use of an oxide-hydroxide glass with a spreading temperature of 570–590 K as a precursor of the binder leads to the formation of melt films on the surface of silicon carbide and diamond particles at 600–630 K and the glass content in the batch is 10 vol. %. The conversion of oxidehydroxide glass films to oxide films proceeds at 700–775 K during the sintering of the composite material. Depending on the volume content of the glass in the charge, the porosity of the compact, three types of structure of composite materials are distinguished: a volumetric skeleton of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with pores at the sites of multiple compounds; a frame made of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with glass pores in places of multiple connections; a matrix of glass and the particles of diamond, silicon carbide and pores located in it. The maximum cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond is provided by a composite material with a structure of the first type.

  11. Evaluation of effectiveness of intraoral delivery tip on single step impressions using monophase and two-phase impression materials: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: The precise fit of prosthesis depends on the impression materials and the technique used. Addition silicone impression materials being the user-friendly material are used in monophase and two-phase techniques. Considering the paucity of data on the effectiveness of intraoral delivery tip (IODT on void, tear and bubble formation using monophase impression technique in stock tray and two-phase impression technique in custom tray the present study was initiated. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients requiring single complete veneer crowns were enrolled. Monophase and two-phase impressions with and without IODT were made. Evaluation of the impression were made for tears, voids, and bubbles and alpha, beta, delta scores were given. Results: A significant reduction in the total number of voids was observed with two-phase technique either with or without IODT. No significant differences were observed in the proportion of overall evaluation into alpha, beta and delta between monophase and two-phase with and without IODT. No significant association was seen in the overall evaluation between the two groups (monophase and two-phase as compared using Chi-square test for independency and a trend in association between overall evaluation as tested using Chi-square for linear trend analysis. Conclusion: Two-phase impression technique with the use of IODT produced decreased number of voids.

  12. Effective material parameter retrieval for thin sheets: Theory and application to graphene, thin silver films, and single-layer metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassin, Philippe, E-mail: tassin@ameslab.gov [Ames Laboratory - U.S. DOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Koschny, Thomas, E-mail: koschny@ameslab.gov [Ames Laboratory - U.S. DOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Soukoulis, Costas M., E-mail: soukoulis@ameslab.gov [Ames Laboratory - U.S. DOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Institute of Electronic Structure and Lasers (IESL), FORTH, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2012-10-15

    An important tool in the field of metamaterials is the extraction of effective material parameters from simulated or measured scattering parameters of a sample. Here we discuss a retrieval method for thin-film structures that can be approximated by a two-dimensional scattering sheet. We determine the effective sheet conductivity from the scattering parameters and we point out the importance of the magnetic sheet current to avoid an overdetermined inversion problem. Subsequently, we present two applications of the sheet retrieval method. First, we determine the effective sheet conductivity of thin silver films and we compare the resulting conductivities with the sheet conductivity of graphene. Second, we apply the method to a cut-wire metamaterial with an electric dipole resonance. The method is valid for thin-film structures such as two-dimensional metamaterials and frequency-selective surfaces and can be easily generalized for anisotropic or chiral media.

  13. Designing Single-Ion Magnets and Phosphorescent Materials with 1-Methylimidazole-5-carboxylate and Transition-Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valdivia, Antonio A; Seco, Jose M; Cepeda, Javier; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio

    2017-11-20

    Detailed structural, magnetic, and photoluminescence (PL) characterization of four new compounds based on 1-methylimidazole-5-carboxylate (mimc) ligand and transition metal ions, namely [Ni(mimc) 2 (H 2 O) 4 ] (1), [Co(μ-mimc) 2 ] n (2), {[Cu 2 (μ-mimc) 4 (H 2 O)]·2H 2 O} n (3), and [Cd(μ-mimc) 2 (H 2 O)] n (4) is reported. The structural diversity found in the family of compounds derives from the coordination versatility of the ligand, which coordinates as a terminal ligand to give a supramolecular network of monomeric entities in 1 or acts as a bridging linker to build isoreticular 2D coordination polymers (CPs) in 2-4. Magnetic direct-current (dc) susceptibility data have been measured for compounds 1-3 to analyze the exchange interactions among paramagnetic centers, which have been indeed supported by calculations based on broken symmetry (BS) and density functional theory (DFT) methodology. The temperature dependence of susceptibility and magnetization data of 2 are indicative of easy-plane anisotropy (D = +12.9 cm -1 , E = +0.5 cm -1 ) that involves a bistable M s = ±1/2 ground state. Alternating-current (ac) susceptibility curves exhibit field-induced single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior that occurs below 14 K, which is characterized by two spin relaxation processes of distinct nature: fast relaxation of single ions proceeding through multiple mechanisms (U eff = 26 K) and a slow relaxation attributed to interactions along the polymeric crystal building. Exhaustive PL analysis of compound 4 in the solid state confirms low-temperature phosphorescent green emission consisting of radiative lifetimes in the range of 0.25-0.43 s, which explains the afterglow observed during about 1 s after the removal of the UV source. Time-dependent DFT and computational calculations to estimate phosphorescent vertical transitions have been also employed to provide an accurate description of the PL performance of this long-lasting phosphor.

  14. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two phase. 11. meeting of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) Working Group. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Working Material includes the papers presented at the International Meeting 'Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two-phase', which was held 5-9 July 2004 at the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky, in Obninsk near Moscow. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss new results obtained in the field of liquid metal coolant and to recommend the lines of further general physics and applied investigations, with the purpose of validating existing and codes under development for liquid metal cooled advanced and new generation nuclear reactors. Most of the contributions present results of experimental and numerical investigations into velocity, temperature and heat transfer in fuel subassemblies of fast reactors cooled by sodium or lead. In the frame of the meeting a benchmark problem devoted to heat transfer in the model subassembly of the fast reactor BREST-OD-300 was proposed. Experts from 5 countries (Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Republic of Korea, and Russia) took part in this benchmark exercise. The results of the benchmark calculations are summarized in the Working Material. The results of hydrodynamic studies of pressure head chambers and collector systems of liquid metal cooled reactors are presented in a number of papers. Also attention was given to the generalization of experimental data on hydraulic losses in the pipelines in case of mutual influence of local pressure drops, and to the modeling of natural convection in the fuel subassemblies and circuits with liquid metal cooling. Special emphasis at the meeting was placed on thermal hydraulics issues related to the development and design of target systems, such as heat removal in the target unit of the cascade subcritical reactor cooled by liquid salt; the target complex MK-1 for accelerator driven systems cooled by eutectic lead-bismuth alloy; and the test

  15. A single reflection approach to HCPV: Very high concentration ratio and wide acceptance angles using low cost materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardis, Davide

    2012-10-01

    The Italian engineering company Becar (Beghelli SpA group) presents its latest HCPV module currently sold under the brand name "Life Tree". The module is characterized by an efficiency of 26% that is in line with systems having higher complexity. The high efficiency and flexibility of the system are reached thanks to the single reflection scheme of the optical system. The module characterized by high acceptance angles comprises a metalized plastic primary reflector and a secondary optical element. The latter being a crucial technical feature of the Becar's system. This secondary optic element has been developed and manufactured by the German group Evonik Industries, which markets the product under the trade name SAVOSIL(TM). This technology, compared to other optics available in the market, offer high transparency in the whole solar spectrum and it is manufactured with an innovative sol-gel process that guarantees a precision in the micron range, at a fraction of the other approaches cost . Those two important features boost the light harvesting power of the Beghelli's systems. The article shows also the results of extensive in-field tests carried out to confirm reliability, performance and easy maintenance of the system.

  16. Growth and characterization of a single crystal of Urea Adipic acid (UAA) - A third order nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, A.; Krishnan, C.; Selvarajan, P.

    2014-03-01

    An organic single crystal of Urea Adipic acid (UAA) was successfully grown in methanol solvent by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature (30 °C). The structure of grown crystal was elucidated from the X-ray diffraction study and it belongs to monoclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P21/c. The optical transmission spectrum of UAA has been recorded and its theoretical calculations were carried out to determine the linear optical constants such as linear absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index and reflectance etc. The third-order nonlinearities of UAA crystal have been investigated by Z-scan method. The values of nonlinear refractive index (n2), the absorption coefficient (β) and third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) are found to be the order of 0.96 × 10-10 cm2/W, 1.248 × 10-4 cm/W and 6.44 × 10-8 esu respectively. Fourier Transform Infra Red and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the intermolecular interactions present in the UAA sample. The dielectric and mechanical measurements of the title compound are also reported.

  17. Growth and characterization of a single crystal of Urea Adipic acid (UAA)--a third order nonlinear optical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, A; Krishnan, C; Selvarajan, P

    2014-03-25

    An organic single crystal of Urea Adipic acid (UAA) was successfully grown in methanol solvent by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature (30 °C). The structure of grown crystal was elucidated from the X-ray diffraction study and it belongs to monoclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P21/c. The optical transmission spectrum of UAA has been recorded and its theoretical calculations were carried out to determine the linear optical constants such as linear absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index and reflectance etc. The third-order nonlinearities of UAA crystal have been investigated by Z-scan method. The values of nonlinear refractive index (n2), the absorption coefficient (β) and third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ((3))) are found to be the order of 0.96×10(-10) cm(2)/W, 1.248×10(-4) cm/W and 6.44×10(-8) esu respectively. Fourier Transform Infra Red and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the intermolecular interactions present in the UAA sample. The dielectric and mechanical measurements of the title compound are also reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on interaction of a high heat flux plasma beam with material targets and the recent status of the development of CIMPLE-PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aomoa, N.; Sarmah, T.; Kakati, M.; Satpati, B.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma fusion promises supply of abundant clean energy sustainably from a practically inexhaustible source of fuel in near future. For success of the most recent and important ITER fusion experiments, it is critically important to understand how plasma in that device with extreme unprecedented ion (10 24 m -2 s -1 ) and heat (1-10MW/m 2 ) flux density will interact with their immediate material walls, particularly in the Divertor region of the Tokamak fusion machines. The CPP-IPR Magnetised Plasma Experiment for Plasma Surface lnteraction or CIMPLE-PSl device is now in active state of development and should be commissioned by early 2016. This will be used for exploration of vital plasma surface interaction issues of importance to the plasma fusion community and also may be used as a test bed for material testing under extreme environment. The initial experiments shall concentrate on maximizing the ion fluence during interaction with a tungsten target with controlled temperature, while surface morphological changes will be thoroughly investigated along with their hydrogen absorption properties

  19. Single agent- and combination treatment with two targeted suicide gene therapy systems is effective in chemoresistant small cell lung cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Signe R; Christensen, Camilla L; Sehested, Maxwell

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional targeted suicide gene (SG) therapy driven by the insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1) promoter makes it possible to target suicide toxin production and cytotoxicity exclusively to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells and tumors. It remains to be determined whether acquired chemoresistance......, as observed in the majority of SCLC patients, desensitizes SCLC cells to INSM1 promoter-driven SG therapy....

  20. Growth, optical, thermal, mechanical and dielectric studies of sodium succinate hexahydrate (β phase) single crystal: A promising third order NLO material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageshwari, P. S. Latha; Priya, R.; Krishnan, S.; Joseph, V.; Das, S. Jerome

    2016-11-01

    A third order nonlinear optical (NLO)single crystals of sodium succinate hexahydrate (SSH) (β phase) has been grown by a slow evaporation growth technique using aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The lattice parameters and morphology of SSH were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. SSH crystallizes in centrosymmetric monoclinic system with space group P 21 / c and the crystalline purity was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The UV-vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the crystal is transparent in the entire visible region. The recorded FT-IR spectrum verified the presence of various functional groups in the material. NMR analysis of the grown crystal confirms the structural elucidation and detects the major and minor functional groups present in the title compound. ICP-OES analysis proved the presence of sodium in SSH. TG-DTA/DSCanalysis was used to investigate the thermal stability of the material. The dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss of SSH were carried out as a function of frequency for different temperatures and the results were discussed. The mechanical stability was evaluated from Vicker's microhardness test. The third order nonlinear optical properties of SSH has been investigated employing Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of the residual nuclide production in 40-2600 MeV proton-irradiated thin targets of ads structure materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Yu.E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Belonozhenko, A.A.; Borovlev, S.P.; Butko, M.A.; Florya, S.N.; Pavlov, K.V.; Rogov, V.I.; Tikhonov, R.S.; Titarenko, A.Yu.; Zhivun, V.M.

    2011-10-01

    The Project is aimed at experimental and theoretical studying the independent and cumulative yields of residual radioactive nuclei produced in high-energy proton-irradiated structure materials intended for constructing the high-power Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) with a high-current proton accelerator. The Project is an extension of the researches carried out earlier under the ISTC Projects #017, #839, and #2002 which provided more 10000 residual nuclide production cross sections mainly in materials intended to use as target materials of the ADS. This Project includes 57 measurement runs carried out using the 97 targets made only of the ADS structural materials of both monoisotopic ( 56 Fe, 93 Nb, 181 Ta) and natural ( nat Cr, nat Ni, nat W) compositions within minutely fractionated proton energy range, namely, at 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, 0.15, 0.25, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.6GeV. All the targets were irradiated using the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron. The experimental nuclide yields are determined by the direct γ-spectrometry and α-spectrometry methods. As a result, 3839 cumulative and independent yields of residual β-radioactive product nuclei with lifetimes range from 6 minutes to 10 years as well as 12 cumulative yields of α- radioactive 148 Gd whose lifetime is 74.6 years have been measured. Besides, the cross sections for the 27 Al(p,x) 22 Na , 27 Al(p,x) 24 Na and 27 Al(p,x) 7 Be monitor reactions have been measured at the same proton energies with the use of the current transformer technique. The γ-spectrometer resolution is 1.8 keV in the 1332 keV 60 Co γ-line. The experimental γ-spectra were processed by the GENIE2000 code. The γ-lines were identified, and the cross sections calculated, by the ITEP-developed SIGMA code using the PCNUDAT database. The proton fluence was monitored by the 27 Al(p,x) 22 Na reaction. Measurement data have been compared with the calculation results of the BERTINI and ISABEL models of MCNPX code, CEM03.02, INCL 4.2, INCL4

  2. Expression of inulinase gene in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica and single cell oil production from inulin-containing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Hai; Cui, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Madzak, Catherine

    2010-11-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica ACA-DC 50109 has been reported to be an oleaginous yeast and significant quantities of lipids were accumulated inside the yeast cells. In this study, the INU1 gene encoding exo-inulinase cloned from Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 6556 was ligated into the expression plasmid pINA1317 and expressed in the cells of the oleaginous yeast. The activity of the inulinase with 6 × His tag secreted by the transformant Z31 obtained was found to be 41.7U mL(-1) after cell growth for 78 h. After optimization of the medium and cultivation conditions for single cell oil production, the transformant could accumulate 46.3% (w/w) oil from inulin in its cells and cell dry weight was 11.6 g L(-1) within 78 h at the flask level. During the 2-L fermentation, the transformant could accumulate 48.3% (w/w) oil from inulin in its cells and cell dry weight was 13.3 g L(-1) within 78 h while the transformant could accumulate 50.6% (w/w) oil from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in its cells and cell dry weight was 14.6 g L(-1) within 78 h. At the end of fermentation, most of the added sugar was utilized by the transformant cells. Over 91.5% of the fatty acids from the transformant cultivated in the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubercles was C(16:0), C(18:1) and C(18:2), especially C(18:1) (58.5%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiplex T-RFLP allows for increased target number and specificity: detection of Salmonella enterica and six species of Listeria in a single test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey N Elliott

    Full Text Available A multiplex T-RFLP test was developed to detect and identify Salmonella enterica and all six species of Listeria inoculated into milk at minimal levels. Extensive in silico analysis was used to design a fifteen-primer, six-amplimer methodology and in vitro application showed target organism DNA, when amplified individually, yielded the predicted terminal restriction fragments (TRFs following digestion. Non-target organisms were either not-amplified or yielded TRFs which did not interfere with target identification. Multiple target DNA analysis gave over 86% detection of total TRFs predicted, and this was improved to over 90% detection of total TRFs predicted when only two target DNA extracts were combined analysed. Co-inoculation of milk with five strains each of the target species of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes, along with five strains of the non-target species E. coli was followed by enrichment in SEL medium for M-TRFLP analysis. This allowed for detection of both target species in all samples, with detection of one S. enterica and two Listeria TRFs in all cases, and detection of a second S. enterica TRF in 91% of cases. This was from an initial inoculum of <5 cfu per 25 ml milk with a background of competing E. coli present, and gave a result from sampling of under 20 hours. The ability to increase target species number without loss of sensitivity means that extensive screening can be performed at reduced cost due to a reduction in the number of tests required.

  4. Determination of synephrine in bitter orange raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M; Hildreth, Jana

    2007-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantify synephrine in bitter orange raw material, extracts, and dietary supplements. Single-laboratory validation has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection/limit of quantification (LOQ), ruggedness, and linearity for p-synephrine and 5 other biogenic amines: octopamine, phenylephrine (m-synephrine), tyramine, N-methyltyramine, and hordenine, which may be present in bitter orange. p-Synephrine was found to be the primary biogenic amine present in all materials tested, accounting for >80% of the total biogenic amine content in all samples except a finished product. Repeatability precision for synephrine was between 1.48 and 3.55% RSD. Synephrine recovery was between 97.5 and 104%. The minor alkaloids were typically near the LOQ of the method (300-900 microg/g) in the test materials, and between-day precision for the minor compounds was poor because interferences could sometimes be mistakenly identified as one of the minor analytes. Recoveries of the minor components ranged from 99.1 to 103% at approximately 6000 microg/g spike level, to 90.7 to 120% at 300 microg/g spike level.

  5. Application of synchrotron radiation to analyze the precipitation in ODS materials before irradiation in Fe-9%Cr single grain of powder and consolidated Fe-18%Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechade, J.-L., E-mail: jean-luc.bechade@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Menut, D., E-mail: denis.menut@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lescoat, M.-L., E-mail: marie-laure.lescoat@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sitaud, B., E-mail: bruno.sitaud@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Division Experiences, Ligne de MARS, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin BP48, 91 192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Schlutig, S., E-mail: sandrine.schlutig@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Division Experiences, Ligne de MARS, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin BP48, 91 192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Solari, P.L., E-mail: pier-lorenzo.solari@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Division Experiences, Ligne de MARS, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin BP48, 91 192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Llorens, I., E-mail: isabelle.llorens@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Division Experiences, Ligne de MARS, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin BP48, 91 192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Hermange, H., E-mail: herve.hermange@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Division Experiences, Ligne de MARS, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin BP48, 91 192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2012-09-15

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) materials are candidates for structural components of GEN IV and fusion reactors. These materials are reinforced by nano-oxides (size of the smallest <3 nm) and the excellent mechanical properties obtained with such materials have to be kept in service. The aim of this paper is to present the capabilities of the synchrotron radiation to finely characterize the dispersion of second phases in ODS steels (Fe-9%Cr single grain of powder and consolidated Fe-18%Cr) and to study the precipitation mechanisms. This paper illustrates the results from first analyses performed on various unirradiated ODS steels elaborated at CEA using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Multi-Analysis on Radioactive Sample (MARS) beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. The complementarities of both techniques, XRD and XAS, especially well appropriated to structural and local environment analyses for nano particles are presented. Results obtained with synchrotron radiation are also enriched by comparison with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations performed on similar samples.

  6. A Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of the Dies Affected by Tray Type, Material Viscosity, and Pouring Sequence of Dual and Single Arch Impressions- An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Poonam R; Kulkarni, Rahul S; Shah, Rupal J; Chhajlani, Rahul; Saklecha, Bhuwan; Maru, Kavita

    2017-04-01

    The clinician's skill, impression techniques, and materials play a very important role in recording fine details in an impression for accuracy of fixed partial denture prosthesis. Impression of prepared teeth and of the opposing arch can be recorded simultaneously by dual-arch trays, while the full arch metal trays are used for impressions of prepared teeth in one arch. To measure and compare the accuracy of working dies made from impressions with metal and plastic dual arch trays and metal full arch trays, for two viscosities of impression material and by changing the sequence of pour of working and non-working sides. A balanced design with independent samples was used to study the three variables (tray type, impression material viscosity, and pouring sequence). An impression made by dual arch trays and single arch trays were divided in to three groups (Group A-plastic dual arch tray, Group B-metal dual arch tray, Group C-full arch metal stock tray). Out of these three groups, two groups (Group A and B) were subdivided in to four subgroups each and one group (Group C) was subdivided in to two subgroups. A sample size of 30 was used in each subgroup yielding a total 300 impressions in three groups or ten subgroups. Impressions were made of a machined circular stainless steel die. All three dimensions (Occlusogingival, Mesiodistal, and Buccolingual) of the working dies as well as stainless steel standard die were measured three times, and the mean was used for the three standard sample values to which all working dies means were compared. Statistical analysis used for this study was a 3-factor analysis of variance with hypothesis testing at α =0.05. With respect to the selection of impression material viscosity statistically significant differences were found in the dies for the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. Metal dual arch trays were slightly more accurate in the mesiodistal dimension in comparison to the plastic trays in reference of tray selection and

  7. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  8. Nonlinear Localization due to a Double Negative Defect Layer in a One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Containing Single Negative Material Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Munazza Zulfiqar; Abdullah, Tariq

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of introducing a defect layer in a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing single negative material layers on the transmission properties. The width of the defect layer is taken to be the same or smaller than the period of the structure. Different cases of the defect layer being linear or nonlinear and double positive or double negative are discussed. It is found that only a nonlinear double negative layer gives rises to a localized mode within the zero-φ eff gap in this kind of structure. It is also shown that the important characteristics of the nonlinear defect mode such as its frequency, its FWHM and the threshold of the associated bistability can be controlled by changing the widths of the defect layer and the host layers

  9. Determination of catechins and caffeine in camillia sinensis raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by HPLC-uv: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed to quantify seven catechins and caffeine in green tea (Camillia sinensis) raw material and powdered extract, and dietary supplements containing green tea extract. The method utilizes RP HPLC with a phenyl-based stationary phase and gradient elution. Detection is by UV absorbance. The total run time, including column re-equilibration, is 13 min. Single-laboratory validation (SLV) has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ, ruggedness, and linearity for (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, and (+)-gallocatechin, as well as caffeine. Repeatability precision and recovery results met AOAC guidelines for SLV studies for all catechins and caffeine down to a level of approximately 20 mg/g. Finished products containing high concentrations of minerals require the use of EDTA to prevent decomposition of the catechins.

  10. Investigations of nuclei-products formation in target and construction materials of electro-nuclear installations irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 130 MeV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Y.E.; Karpihin, E.I.; Smolyakov, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Different versions of installations for transmutation or incineration of actinides and long-lived fission products are being considered nowadays; the source of neutrons in these installations is supposed to be a nuclon-meson cascade arising under interaction of 0.8--1.5 GeV proton beam and the substance of a target. ''Heavy'' materials: eutectics of lead and bismuth or tangsten, are supposed to be used as targets. In correspondence with this, measurements of the cross sections of spallation of nuclides of these materials under impact of the protons of different energies are going on in ITEP. Nuclides used as construction materials for the accelerator are also being measured. Numerical simulation of experimental results with utilization of the codes HETC, INUCLE, CEM95 capable to calculate the process of nuclon- meson cascade in the investigated targets is being carried out

  11. CuLi2Sn and Cu2LiSn: Characterization by single crystal XRD and structural discussion towards new anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fürtauer, Siegfried; Effenberger, Herta S.; Flandorfer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The stannides CuLi 2 Sn (CSD-427095) and Cu 2 LiSn (CSD-427096) were synthesized by induction melting of the pure elements and annealing at 400 °C. The phases were reinvestigated by X-ray powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Within both crystal structures the ordered CuSn and Cu 2 Sn lattices form channels which host Cu and Li atoms at partly mixed occupied positions exhibiting extensive vacancies. For CuLi 2 Sn, the space group F-43m. was verified (structure type CuHg 2 Ti; a=6.295(2) Å; wR 2 (F²)=0.0355 for 78 unique reflections). The 4(c) and 4(d) positions are occupied by Cu atoms and Cu+Li atoms, respectively. For Cu 2 LiSn, the space group P6 3 /mmc was confirmed (structure type InPt 2 Gd; a=4.3022(15) Å, c=7.618(3) Å; wR 2 (F²)=0.060 for 199 unique reflections). The Cu and Li atoms exhibit extensive disorder; they are distributed over the partly occupied positions 2(a), 2(b) and 4(e). Both phases seem to be interesting in terms of application of Cu–Sn alloys as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • First single crystal investigation of CuLi 2 Sn and Cu 2 LiSn clarifies contradictions from literature. • Lithium atoms are ordered in channels, which is interesting for application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. • Structural relationships to binary Cu–Sn-phases are shown. • Close structural relationship between both ternary phases exists

  12. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E; Engelhard, Mark H; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2015-11-01

    The development of highly efficient catalysts is critical for the practical application of lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Nanosheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 (ZCO) microspheres and thin films grown in situ on single-walled carbon nanotube (ZCO/SWCNT) composites as high-performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries are reported. The in situ grown ZCO/SWCNT electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of the oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during the charging process, and led to longer cycling stability. These results indicate that in situ grown ZCO/SWCNT composites can be used as highly efficient air electrode materials for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The enhanced catalytic activity displayed by the uniformly dispersed ZCO catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire further development of other catalyzed electrodes for Li-O2 batteries and other applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Determination of Single Sugars, Including Inulin, in Plants and Feed Materials by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Refraction Index Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Weiß

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The exact and reliable detection of sugar monomers and fructans provides important information for the evaluation of carbohydrate metabolism in plants and animals. Using the HPLC method; a large number of samples and single sugars; with both high sensitivity and selectivity; may be analysed. It was shown that the described method—using a Nucleosil column loaded with Pb2+ ions; a refractive index detector (RID; and HPLC-grade water as the eluent—gives precise and reproducible results regarding the detection of individual sugars in extracts of plants and feed materials. The method can be applied for the detection of sucrose; maltose; lactose; xylose; glucose; galactose; arabinose; fructose; ribose; and mannitol. Furthermore; depending on the plant material; the sugars verbascose; stachyose; and raffinose can be separated. The peaks were well resolved and the reproducibility of the analysis; with 94–108% of recovery (RC and relative standard deviation (RSD of up to 5%; was very good. The method was successfully applied to a variety of green forages and samples of sugar beet pulp silages. It is also possible to determine fructan with inulin as a standard; together with the other sugars; or alone by a different protocol and column.

  14. Random Splicing of Several Exons Caused by a Single Base Change in the Target Exon of CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Gene Knockout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Kapahnke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9 system is widely used for genome editing purposes as it facilitates an efficient knockout of a specific gene in, e.g. cultured cells. Targeted double-strand breaks are introduced to the target sequence of the guide RNAs, which activates the cellular DNA repair mechanism for non-homologous-end-joining, resulting in unprecise repair and introduction of small deletions or insertions. Due to this, sequence alterations in the coding region of the target gene frequently cause frame-shift mutations, facilitating degradation of the mRNA. We here show that such CRISPR/Cas9-mediated alterations in the target exon may also result in altered splicing of the respective pre-mRNA, most likely due to mutations of splice-regulatory sequences. Using the human FLOT-1 gene as an example, we demonstrate that such altered splicing products also give rise to aberrant protein products. These may potentially function as dominant-negative proteins and thus interfere with the interpretation of the data generated with these cell lines. Since most researchers only control the consequences of CRISPR knockout at genomic and protein level, our data should encourage to also check the alterations at the mRNA level.

  15. A single point in protein trafficking by Plasmodium falciparum determines the expression of major antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes targeted by human antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jo-Anne; Howell, Katherine B; Langer, Christine; Maier, Alexander G; Hasang, Wina; Rogerson, Stephen J; Petter, Michaela; Chesson, Joanne; Stanisic, Danielle I; Duffy, Michael F; Cooke, Brian M; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Bull, Peter C; Marsh, Kevin; Fowkes, Freya J I; Beeson, James G

    2016-11-01

    Antibodies to blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum play a pivotal role in human immunity to malaria. During parasite development, multiple proteins are trafficked from the intracellular parasite to the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs). However, the relative importance of different proteins as targets of acquired antibodies, and key pathways involved in trafficking major antigens remain to be clearly defined. We quantified antibodies to surface antigens among children, adults, and pregnant women from different malaria-exposed regions. We quantified the importance of antigens as antibody targets using genetically engineered P. falciparum with modified surface antigen expression. Genetic deletion of the trafficking protein skeleton-binding protein-1 (SBP1), which is involved in trafficking the surface antigen PfEMP1, led to a dramatic reduction in antibody recognition of IEs and the ability of human antibodies to promote opsonic phagocytosis of IEs, a key mechanism of parasite clearance. The great majority of antibody epitopes on the IE surface were SBP1-dependent. This was demonstrated using parasite isolates with different genetic or phenotypic backgrounds, and among antibodies from children, adults, and pregnant women in different populations. Comparisons of antibody reactivity to parasite isolates with SBP1 deletion or inhibited PfEMP1 expression suggest that PfEMP1 is the dominant target of acquired human antibodies, and that other P. falciparum IE surface proteins are minor targets. These results establish SBP1 as part of a critical pathway for the trafficking of major surface antigens targeted by human immunity, and have key implications for vaccine development, and quantifying immunity in populations.

  16. A 3-year prospective study of implant-supported, single-tooth restorations of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic materials in patients with tooth agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Worsaae, Nils; Schiødt, Morten; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to describe outcome variables of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic implant-supported, single-tooth restorations. A total of 59 patients (mean age: 27.9 years) with tooth agenesis and treated with 98 implant-supported single-tooth restorations were included in this study. Two patients did not attend baseline examination, but all patients were followed for 3 years. The implants supported 52 zirconia, 21 titanium and 25 gold alloy abutments, which retained 64 all-ceramic and 34 metal-ceramic crowns. At baseline and 3-year follow-up examinations, the biological outcome variables such as survival rate of implants, marginal bone level, modified Plaque Index (mPlI), modified Sulcus Bleeding Index (mBI) and biological complications were registered. The technical outcome variables included abutment and crown survival rate, marginal adaptation of crowns, cement excess and technical complications. The aesthetic outcome was assessed by using the Copenhagen Index Score, and the patient-reported outcomes were recorded using the OHIP-49 questionnaire. The statistical analyses were mainly performed by using mixed model of ANOVA for quantitative data and PROC NLMIXED for ordinal categorical data. The 3-year survival rate was 100% for implants and 97% for abutments and crowns. Significantly more marginal bone loss was registered at gold-alloy compared to zirconia abutments (P = 0.040). The mPlI and mBI were not significantly different at three abutment materials. The frequency of biological complications was higher at restorations with all-ceramic restorations than metal-ceramic crowns. Loss of retention, which was only observed at metal-ceramic crowns, was the most frequent technical complication, and the marginal adaptations of all-ceramic crowns were significantly less optimal than metal-ceramic crowns (P = 0.020). The professional-reported aesthetic outcome demonstrated significantly superior colour match of all-ceramic over metal

  17. Functionalized polymeric nanoparticles loaded with indocyanine green as theranostic materials for targeted molecular near infrared fluorescence imaging and photothermal destruction of ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Baharak; Guerrero, Yadir; Bacon, Danielle; Kundra, Vikas; Vullev, Valentine I; Anvari, Bahman

    2014-09-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the deadliest malignancy of the female reproductive system. The ability to identify and destroy all ovarian tumor nodules may have a termendous impact on preventing tumor recurrence, and patient survival. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a nano-structured system for combined near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) over-expression, as a biomarker of ovarian cancer cells, and photothermal destruction of these cells in vitro. The nano-structured system consists of the near infrared dye, indocyanine green (ICG), encapsulated within poly(allylamine) hydrochloride chains cross-linked ionically with sodium phosphate. The surface of the construct is functionalized by covalently attached polyethylene glycol, and monoclonal antibodies against HER2 using reducitve amination methods. We use dynamic light scattering, and absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy for phyiscal characterization of the constructs. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy are used to investigate molecular targeting and imaging capabilities of the constructs against SKOV3 and OVCAR3 ovarian cancer cell lines, which have relatively high and low expression levels of the HER2 receptor, respectively. Continuous NIR laser irradiation at 808 nm is used to investigating the utility of the constructs in mediating photothermal destruction of SKOV3 cells. Flow cytometry results indicate that the functionalized nano-constructs are more effective in targeting the HER2 receptor than non-encapsulated ICG and non-functionlaized constructs (P functionalized constructs in NIR imaging of HER2 overexpression. The functionalized nano-constructs are also capable of inducing a significantly greater increase in photothermal destruction of SKOV3 cells than free ICG and non-functionalized constructs (P functionalized with the monoclonal antibodies, as thernaostic materials for targted molecular NIR imaging of

  18. Non-targeted screening for contaminants in paper and board food-contact materials using effect-directed analysis and accurate mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtström, Linda; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Trier, Xenia; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Granby, Kit; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Driffield, Malcolm; Højslev Petersen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Due to large knowledge gaps in chemical composition and toxicological data for substances involved, paper and board food-contact materials (P&B FCM) have been emerging as a FCM type of particular concern for consumer safety. This study describes the development of a step-by-step strategy, including extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, tentative identification of relevant substances and in vitro testing of selected tentatively identified substances. As a case study, we used two fractions from a recycled pizza box sample which exhibited aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity. These fractions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers (QTOF MS) in order tentatively to identify substances. The elemental composition was determined for peaks above a threshold, and compared with entries in a commercial mass spectral library for GC-MS (GC-EI-QTOF MS) analysis and an in-house built library of accurate masses for substances known to be used in P&B packaging for UHPLC-QTOF analysis. Of 75 tentatively identified substances, 15 were initially selected for further testing in vitro; however, only seven were commercially available and subsequently tested in vitro and quantified. Of these seven, the identities of three pigments found in printing inks were confirmed by UHPLC tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ MS/MS). Two pigments had entries in the database, meaning that a material relevant accurate mass database can provide a fast tentative identification. Pure standards of the seven tentatively identified substances were tested in vitro but could not explain a significant proportion of the AhR-response in the extract. Targeted analyses of dioxins and PCBs, both well-known AhR agonists, was performed. However, the dioxins could explain approximately 3% of the activity observed in the pizza box extract indicating that some very AhR active substance(s) still remain to be

  19. Long-Gradient Separations Coupled with Selected Reaction Monitoring for Highly Sensitive, Large Scale Targeted Protein Quantification in a Single Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Tujin; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Gao, Yuqian; Zhao, Rui; He, Jintang; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Chaochao; Chambers, Justin L.; Moore, Ronald J.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Liu, Alvin Y.; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2013-10-01

    Long-gradient separations coupled to tandem MS were recently demonstrated to provide a deep proteome coverage for global proteomics; however, such long-gradient separations have not been explored for targeted proteomics. Herein, we investigate the potential performance of the long-gradient separations coupled with selected reaction monitoring (LG-SRM) for targeted protein quantification. Direct comparison of LG-SRM (5 h gradient) and conventional LC-SRM (45 min gradient) showed that the long-gradient separations significantly reduced background interference levels and provided an 8- to 100-fold improvement in LOQ for target proteins in human female serum. Based on at least one surrogate peptide per protein, an LOQ of 10 ng/mL was achieved for the two spiked proteins in non-depleted human serum. The LG-SRM detection of seven out of eight endogenous plasma proteins expressed at ng/mL or sub-ng/mL levels in clinical patient sera was also demonstrated. A correlation coefficient of >0.99 was observed for the results of LG-SRM and ELISA measurements for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in selected patient sera. Further enhancement of LG-SRM sensitivity was achieved by applying front-end IgY14 immunoaffinity depletion. Besides improved sensitivity, LG-SRM offers at least 3 times higher multiplexing capacity than conventional LC-SRM due to ~3-fold increase in average peak widths for a 300-min gradient compared to a 45-min gradient. Therefore, LG-SRM holds great potential for bridging the gap between global and targeted proteomics due to its advantages in both sensitivity and multiplexing capacity.

  20. Identification of singles bar as a direct transcriptional target of Drosophila Myocyte enhancer factor-2 and a regulator of adult myoblast fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti, Tonya M.; Fremin, Brayon J.; Cripps, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila, myoblast fusion is a conserved process in which founder cells (FCs) and fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fuse to form a syncytial muscle fiber. Mutants for the myogenic regulator Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) show a failure of myoblast fusion, indicating that MEF2 regulates the fusion process. Indeed, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that several genes involved in myoblast fusion are bound by MEF2 during embryogenesis. Of these, the MARVEL domain gene singles bar ...

  1. CsSnI3: Semiconductor or metal? High electrical conductivity and strong near-infrared photoluminescence from a single material. High hole mobility and phase-transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In; Song, Jung-Hwan; Im, Jino; Androulakis, John; Malliakas, Christos D; Li, Hao; Freeman, Arthur J; Kenney, John T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-05-23

    CsSnI(3) is an unusual perovskite that undergoes complex displacive and reconstructive phase transitions and exhibits near-infrared emission at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical studies of CsSnI(3) have been limited by the lack of detailed crystal structure characterization and chemical instability. Here we describe the synthesis of pure polymorphic crystals, the preparation of large crack-/bubble-free ingots, the refined single-crystal structures, and temperature-dependent charge transport and optical properties of CsSnI(3), coupled with ab initio first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In situ temperature-dependent single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal the origin of polymorphous phase transitions of CsSnI(3). The black orthorhombic form of CsSnI(3) demonstrates one of the largest volumetric thermal expansion coefficients for inorganic solids. Electrical conductivity, Hall effect, and thermopower measurements on it show p-type metallic behavior with low carrier density, despite the optical band gap of 1.3 eV. Hall effect measurements of the black orthorhombic perovskite phase of CsSnI(3) indicate that it is a p-type direct band gap semiconductor with carrier concentration at room temperature of ∼ 10(17) cm(-3) and a hole mobility of ∼585 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The hole mobility is one of the highest observed among p-type semiconductors with comparable band gaps. Its powders exhibit a strong room-temperature near-IR emission spectrum at 950 nm. Remarkably, the values of the electrical conductivity and photoluminescence intensity increase with heat treatment. The DFT calculations show that the screened-exchange local density approximation-derived band gap agrees well with the experimentally measured band gap. Calculations of the formation energy of defects strongly suggest that the electrical and light emission properties possibly result from Sn defects in the crystal structure, which arise

  2. Detection of explosives and other illicit materials by a single nanosecond neutron pulses - Monte-Carlo simulations of the detection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklaszewski, R.; Drozdowicz, K.; Wiacek, U.; Dworak, D.; Gribkov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of a single-pulse Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Investigation System (NINIS) intended for interrogation of hidden objects (explosives and other illicit materials) by means of measuring elastically scattered neutrons is presented in this paper. The method is based on the well know fact that nuclide-specific information is present in the scattered neutron field. The method uses very bright neutron pulses having duration of the order of few nanoseconds, generated by a dense plasma focus (DPF) devices filled with a pure deuterium or deuterium-tritium mixture as a working gas. Very short duration of the neutron pulse, its high brightness and mono-chromaticity allow to use the time-of-flight method with bases of about few meters to distinguish signals from neutrons scattered by different elements. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations of the scattered neutron field from several compounds (explosives and everyday use materials) are presented in the paper. The MCNP5 code has been used to get information on the angular and energy distributions of the neutrons scattered by the above mentioned compounds assuming the initial neutron energy equal to 2.45 MeV (D-D). A new input has been elaborated that allows the modelling of not only a spectrum of the neutrons scattered at different angles but also their time history from the moment of generation up to detection. Such an approach allows getting approximate signals as registered by scintillator + photomultiplier probes placed at various distances from the scattering object, demonstrating a principal capability of the method to identify an elemental content of the inspected objects. Preliminary results of the MCNP modelling of the interrogation process of the airport luggage containing several illicit objects are presented as well. (authors)

  3. Single-spin asymmetry in electro-production of {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} pairs from a transversely polarized proton target at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiao-Rui

    2008-10-15

    In this thesis, the measurement of an azimuthal amplitude of the asymmetry in the lepto-production of {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} pairs at the HERMES experiment is reported. The experiment was carried out at DESY in Germany, utilizing the longitudinally polarized 27.6 GeV electron/positron beam of the HERA storage ring in combination with a longitudinally or transversely polarized gaseous target internal to the beam pipe. For the present measurement, the transversely polarized proton target was used and the beam polarization was averaged out in order to measure the asymmetry A{sub UT}. A Ring Imaging Cerenkov (RICH) detector allows the precise identification of pions, kaons and protons over essentially the entire momentum range of the experiment. The asymmetry A{sub UT} for {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} pair production was measured for the first time in the world by HERMES. The amplitudes are extracted as functions of different kinematic variables, which can facilitate the comparison with the theoretical models and the extraction of transversity with combination of the measurement of the dihadron fragmentation function. (orig.)

  4. Single-dose safety and pharmacokinetic evaluation of fluorocoxib A: pilot study of novel cyclooxygenase-2-targeted optical imaging agent in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekanova, Maria; Uddin, Md Jashim; Legendre, Alfred M; Galyon, Gina; Bartges, Joseph W; Callens, Amanda; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated preclinical single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and specific uptake of the new optical imaging agent fluorocoxib A in dogs. Fluorocoxib A, N-[(5-carboxy-X-rhodaminyl)but-4-yl]-2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetamide, selectively binds and inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in many cancers. Safety pilot studies were performed in research dogs following intravenous (i.v.) administration of 0.1 and 1  mg/kg fluorocoxib A. Blood and urine samples collected three days after administration of each dose of fluorocoxib A revealed no evidence of toxicity, and no clinically relevant adverse events were noted on physical examination of exposed dogs over that time period. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed in additional research dogs from plasma collected at several time points after i.v. administration of fluorocoxib A using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The pharmacokinetic studies using 1  mg/kg showed a peak of fluorocoxib A (92±28  ng/ml) in plasma collected at 0.5 h. Tumor specific uptake of fluorocoxib A was demonstrated using a dog diagnosed with colorectal cancer expressing COX-2. Our data support the safe single-dose administration and in vivo efficacy of fluorocoxib A, suggesting a high potential for successful translation to clinical use as an imaging agent for improved tumor detection in humans.

  5. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-10-12

    Although lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have great potential to be used as one of the next generation energy storage systems due to their ultrahigh theoretical specific energy, there are still many significant barriers before their practical applications. These barriers include electrolyte and electrode instability, poor ORR/OER efficiency and cycling capability, etc. Development of a highly efficient catalyst will not only enhance ORR/OER efficiency, it may also improve the stability of electrolyte because the reduced charge voltage. Here we report the synthesis of nano-sheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 spheres/single walled carbon nanotubes (ZCO/SWCNTs) composites as high performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries. The ZCO catalyzed SWCNTs electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during charge processes, and led to more stable cycling stability. These results indicate that ZCO/SWCNTs composite can be used as highly efficient air electrode for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The highly enhanced catalytic activity by uniformly dispersed ZnCo2O4 catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire

  6. Magnetic Material Assessment of a Novel Ultra-High Step-Up Converter with Single Semiconductor Switch and Galvanic Isolation for Fuel-Cell Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel step-up converter is proposed, which has the particular features of single semiconductor switch, ultra-high conversion ratio, galvanic isolation, and easy control. Therefore, the proposed converter is suitable for the applications of fuel-cell power system. Coupled inductors and switched capacitors are incorporated in the converter to obtain an ultra-high voltage ratio that is much higher than that of a conventional high step-up converter. Even if the turns ratio of coupled inductor and duty ratio are only to be 1 and 0.5, respectively, the converter can readily achieve a voltage gain of up to 18. Owing to this outstanding performance, it can also be applied to any other low voltage source for voltage boosting. In the power stage, only one active switch is used to handle the converter operation. In addition, the leakage energy of the two couple inductors can be totally recycled without any snubber, which simplifies the control mechanism and improves the conversion efficiency. Magnetic material dominates the conversion performance of the converter. Different types of iron cores are discussed for the possibility to serve as a coupled inductor. A 200 W prototype with 400 V output voltage is built to validate the proposed converter. In measurement, it indicates that the highest efficiency can be up to 94%.

  7. Determination of Mitragynine inMitragyna speciosaRaw Materials and Finished Products by Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Elizabeth M; Brown, Paula N

    2017-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a tree indigenous to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used in herbal formulations because they contain indole alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxy (7-OH) mitragynine. An HPLC method was developed, optimized, and validated using single-laboratory validation guidelines to quantify mitragynine in kratom raw materials and finished products. The method optimization evaluated several extraction parameters including solvent type, solvent volume, time, and extraction method. The separation of the mitragynine alkaloids was achieved in 18 min with a fused-core C18 EVO column using gradient separation with ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9.5) and acetonitrile. The calibration range for mitragynine was 1.0-500 μg/mL with correlation coefficients of ≥99.9% throughout method development and validation. The method detection limit and LOQ were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/mL, respectively for mitragynine. Eight test samples were obtained to evaluate method repeatability. RSDr ranged from 0.4 to 1.0%, whereas intermediate precision ranged from 3.7 to 7.3%, with HorRat values from 0.68 to 1.96. 7-OH mitragynine was below the LOQ for all samples, therefore, spikes repeatability sample RSD values were Kratom Working Group.

  8. Synthesis, transfer printing, electrical and optical properties, and applications of materials composed of self-assembled, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pint, Cary L.

    Super growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has emerged as a unique method for synthesizing self-assembled, pristine, aligned SWNT materials composed of ultra-long (millimeter-long) nanotubes. This thesis focuses on novel routes of synthesizing such self-assembled SWNTs and the challenges that arise in integrating this material into next-generation applications. First of all, this work provides unique insight into growth termination of aligned SWNTs, emphasizing the mechanism that inhibits the growth of infinitely long nanotubes. Exhaustive real-time growth studies, combined with ex-situ and in-situ TEM characterization emphasizes that Ostwald ripening and subsurface diffusion of catalyst particles play a key role in growth termination. As a result, rational steps to solving this problem can enhance growth, and may ultimately lead to the meter or kilometer-long SWNTs that are necessary for a number of applications. In addition, other novel synthesis routes are discussed, such as the ability to form macroscopic fibrils of SWNTs, called "flying carpets" from 40 nm thick substrates, and the ability to achieve supergrowth of SWNTs that are controllably doped with nitrogen. In the latter case, molecular heterojunctions of doped and undoped sections in a single strand of ultralong SWNTs are demonstrated Secondly, as supergrowth is conducted on alumina coated SiO2 substrates, any applications will require that one can transfer the SWNTs to host surfaces with minimal processing. This work demonstrates a unique contact transfer route by which both patterned arrays of SWNTs, or homogenous SWNT carpets, can be transferred to any host surface. In the first case, the SWNTs are grown vertically aligned, and transferred in patterns of horizontally aligned SWNT. This transfer process relies on simple water-vapor etching of amorphous carbons at the catalyst following growth, and strong van der Waals adhesion of the high surface-area SWNT to host surfaces (gecko effect

  9. Beyond nearly zero-energy buildings: Experimental investigation of the thermal indoor environment and energy performance of a single-family house designed for plus-energy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    A detached, one-story, single-family house in Denmark was operated with different heating and cooling strategies for 1 year. The strategies compared during the heating season were floor heating without ventilation, floor heating supplemented by warm air heating (ventilation system), and floor...... heating with heat recovery from exhaust air. During the cooling season, the house was cooled by floor cooling and was ventilated mechanically. Air and globe (operative, when applicable) temperatures at different heights at a central location were recorded. The thermal indoor environment, local thermal...... discomfort and overheating were evaluated based on EN 15251 (2007), EN ISO 7730 (2005), and DS 469 (2013), respectively. Energy performance was evaluated based on the energy production and HVAC system energy use. The thermal indoor environment during the heating season was satisfactory...

  10. Isotope research materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Preparation of research isotope materials is described. Topics covered include: separation of tritium from aqueous effluents by bipolar electrolysis; stable isotope targets and research materials; radioisotope targets and research materials; preparation of an 241 Am metallurgical specimen; reactor dosimeters; ceramic and cermet development; fission-fragment-generating targets of 235 UO 2 ; and wire dosimeters for Westinghouse--Bettis

  11. Single cell imprinting on the surface of Ag-ZnO bimetallic nanoparticle modified graphene oxide sheets for targeted detection, removal and photothermal killing of E. Coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ekta; Patra, Santanu; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2017-03-15

    A very cost-effective, fast, sensitive and specific imprinted polymer modified electrochemical sensor for the targeted detection, removal and destruction of Escherichia coli bacteria was developed onto the surface of Ag-ZnO bimetallic nanoparticle and graphene oxide nanocomposite. The nanocomposite played a dual role in this work, as a platform for imprinting of bacteria as well as a participated in their laser-light induced photo killing. In terms of sensing, our proposed sensor can detect E. Coli as few as 10CFUmL -1 and capture 98% of bacterial cells from their very high concentrated solution (10 5 CFUmL -1 ). Similarly to the quantitative detection, we have also investigated the quantitative destruction of E. Coli and found that 16.0cm 2 area of polymer modified glass plate is sufficient enough to kill 10 5 CFUmL -1 in the small time span of 5 minutes. The obtained results suggest that our proposed sensor have potential to serve as a promising candidate for specific and quantitative detection, removal as well as the destruction of a variety of bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tuning the electrocrystallization parameters of semiconducting Co[TCNQ]2-based materials to yield either single nanowires or crystalline thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafady, Ayman; Bond, Alan M; Bilyk, Alexander; Harris, Alexander R; Bhatt, Anand I; O'Mullane, Anthony P; De Marco, Roland

    2007-02-28

    Electrocrystallization of single nanowires and/or crystalline thin films of the semiconducting and magnetic Co[TCNQ]2(H2O)2 (TCNQ=tetracyanoquinodimethane) charge-transfer complex onto glassy carbon, indium tin oxide, or metallic electrodes occurs when TCNQ is reduced in acetonitrile (0.1 M [NBu4][ClO4]) in the presence of hydrated cobalt(II) salts. The morphology of the deposited solid is potential dependent. Other factors influencing the electrocrystallization process include deposition time, concentration, and identity of the Co2+(MeCN) counteranion. Mechanistic details have been elucidated by use of cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, and galvanostatic methods together with spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results provide direct evidence that electrocrystallization takes place through two distinctly different, potential-dependent mechanisms, with progressive nucleation and 3-D growth being controlled by the generation of [TCNQ]*- at the electrode and the diffusion of Co2+(MeCN) from the bulk solution. Images obtained by scanning electron microscopy reveal that electrocrystallization of Co[TCNQ]2(H2O)2 at potentials in the range of 0.1-0 V vs Ag/AgCl, corresponding to the [TCNQ]0/*- diffusion-controlled regime, gives rise to arrays of well-separated, needle-shaped nanowires via the overall reaction 2[TCNQ]*-(MeCN)+Co2+(MeCN)+2H2O right harpoon over left harpoon {Co[TCNQ]2(H2O)2}(s). In this potential region, nucleation and growth occur at randomly separated defect sites on the electrode surface. In contrast, at more negative potentials, a compact film of densely packed, uniformly oriented, hexagonal-shaped nanorods is formed. This is achieved at a substantially increased number of nucleation sites created by direct reduction of a thin film of what is proposed to be cobalt-stabilized {(Co2+)([TCNQ2]*-)2} dimeric anion. Despite the potential-dependent morphology of the electrocrystallized Co[TCNQ]2(H2O)2

  13. Adapting to the global shortage of cholera vaccines: targeted single dose cholera vaccine in response to an outbreak in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lucy A; Rumunu, John; Jamet, Christine; Kenyi, Yona; Lino, Richard Laku; Wamala, Joseph F; Mpairwe, Allan M; Ciglenecki, Iza; Luquero, Francisco J; Azman, Andrew S; Cabrol, Jean-Clement

    2017-04-01

    Shortages of vaccines for epidemic diseases, such as cholera, meningitis, and yellow fever, have become common over the past decade, hampering efforts to control outbreaks through mass reactive vaccination campaigns. Additionally, various epidemiological, political, and logistical challenges, which are poorly documented in the literature, often lead to delays in reactive campaigns, ultimately reducing the effect of vaccination. In June 2015, a cholera outbreak occurred in Juba, South Sudan, and because of the global shortage of oral cholera vaccine, authorities were unable to secure sufficient doses to vaccinate the entire at-risk population-approximately 1 million people. In this Personal View, we document the first public health use of a reduced, single-dose regimen of oral cholera vaccine, and show the details of the decision-making process and timeline. We also make recommendations to help improve reactive vaccination campaigns against cholera, and discuss the importance of new and flexible context-specific dose regimens and vaccination strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Single CRISPR-Cas9 Deletion Strategy that Targets the Majority of DMD Patients Restores Dystrophin Function in hiPSC-Derived Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Courtney S; Hicks, Michael R; Ermolova, Natalia V; Nakano, Haruko; Jan, Majib; Younesi, Shahab; Karumbayaram, Saravanan; Kumagai-Cresse, Chino; Wang, Derek; Zack, Jerome A; Kohn, Donald B; Nakano, Atsushi; Nelson, Stanley F; Miceli, M Carrie; Spencer, Melissa J; Pyle, April D

    2016-04-07

    Mutations in DMD disrupt the reading frame, prevent dystrophin translation, and cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9 platform applicable to 60% of DMD patient mutations. We applied the platform to DMD-derived hiPSCs where successful deletion and non-homologous end joining of up to 725 kb reframed the DMD gene. This is the largest CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion shown to date in DMD. Use of hiPSCs allowed evaluation of dystrophin in disease-relevant cell types. Cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle myotubes derived from reframed hiPSC clonal lines had restored dystrophin protein. The internally deleted dystrophin was functional as demonstrated by improved membrane integrity and restoration of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miR31 was reduced upon reframing, similar to observations in Becker muscular dystrophy. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a single CRISPR pair to correct the reading frame for the majority of DMD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Syntrophic interactions and mechanisms underpinning anaerobic methane oxidation: targeted metaproteogenomics, single-cell protein detection and quantitative isotope imaging of microbial consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphan, Victoria Jeanne [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences

    2014-11-26

    Syntrophy and mutualism play a central role in carbon and nutrient cycling by microorganisms. Yet, our ability to effectively study symbionts in culture has been hindered by the inherent interdependence of syntrophic associations, their dynamic behavior, and their frequent existence at thermodynamic limits. Now solutions to these challenges are emerging in the form of new methodologies. Developing strategies that establish links between the identity of microorganisms and their metabolic potential, as well as techniques that can probe metabolic networks on a scale that captures individual molecule exchange and processing, is at the forefront of microbial ecology. Understanding the interactions between microorganisms on this level, at a resolution previously intractable, will lead to our greater understanding of carbon turnover and microbial community resilience to environmental perturbations. In this project, we studied an enigmatic syntrophic association between uncultured methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria. This environmental archaeal-bacterial partnership represents a globally important sink for methane in anoxic environments. The specific goals of this project were organized into 3 major tasks designed to address questions relating to the ecophysiology of these syntrophic organisms under changing environmental conditions (e.g. different electron acceptors and nutrients), primarily through the development of microanalytical imaging methods which enable the visualization of the spatial distribution of the partners within aggregates, consumption and exchange of isotopically labeled substrates, and expression of targeted proteins identified via metaproteomics. The advanced tool set developed here to collect, correlate, and analyze these high resolution image and isotope-based datasets from methane-oxidizing consortia has the potential to be widely applicable for studying and modeling patterns of activity and interactions across a broad range of

  16. Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry Ayn in the Deep Inelastic Region from the Reaction 3He(e,e')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katich, Joseph [Coll. of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A first measurement of the inclusive target single-spin asymmetry, Any, has been performed in deep-inelastic scattering of electrons from a 3He target polarized normal to the electron scattering plane. This asymmetry is void of contributions at the Born level, and thus is a direct observable for two-photon physics. The experiment was performed in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility from October 2008 through early February 2009. The measurement is the first from a polarized neutron target. The final overall precision is several times better than previously existing SLAC proton data, and significantly extends the kinematic range over which the asymmetry has been measured. The asymmetry was measured at five kinematic points in the deep inelastic scattering region covering Q2 = 1 - 3 GeV2 and xB = 0.16 to 0.41. The asymmetry varied from 0.006 to 0.071 with astatistical precision at the 10-2 level.

  17. Single-stranded DNA aptamer targeting and neutralization of anti-D alloantibody: a potential therapeutic strategy for haemolytic diseases caused by Rhesus alloantibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinze; Wu, Fan; Wang, Manni; Zhuang, Naibao; Zhou, Huayou; Xu, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Rhesus (Rh) D antigen is the most important antigen in the Rh blood group system because of its strong immunogenicity. When RhD-negative individuals are exposed to RhD-positive blood, they may produce anti-D alloantibody, potentially resulting in delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions and Rh haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn, which are difficult to treat. Inhibition of the binding of anti-D antibody with RhD antigens on the surface of red blood cells may effectively prevent immune haemolytic diseases. In this study, single-stranded (ss) DNA aptamers, specifically binding to anti-D antibodies, were selected via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technology. After 14 rounds of selection, the purified ssDNA was sequenced using a Personal Genome Machine system. Haemagglutination inhibition assays were performed to screen aptamers for biological activity in terms of blocking antigen-antibody reactions: the affinity and specificity of the aptamers were also determined. In addition to high specificity, the aptamers which were selected showed high affinity for anti-D antibodies with dissociation constant (K d ) values ranging from 51.46±14.90 to 543.30±92.59 nM. By the combined use of specific ssDNA aptamer 7 and auxiliary ssDNA aptamer 2, anti-D could be effectively neutralised at low concentrations of the aptamers. Our results demonstrate that ssDNA aptamers may be a novel, promising strategy for the treatment of delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions and Rh haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn.

  18. Long-rod projectiles against oblique targets: analysis and design recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, D.M.; McMaster, W.H.; Wilkins, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Computer calculations provide an understanding of impact phenomena associated with long rod penetrators striking targets at oblique angles. The rod and target material behaviors are described by elastic-plastic work-hardening constitutive models. Ductile fracture is simulated by setting all tensile and shear stresses to zero when the calculated plastic deformation reaches a critical value. The important penetration material properties to defeat a given target are identified. There is no single material property of overriding importance; a combination of properties is required for an efficient penetrator. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effects of ductility and toughness on penetration performance. Recommendations for possible improvement are suggested

  19. ROS-Responsive Mitochondria-Targeting Blended Nanoparticles: Chemo- and Photodynamic Synergistic Therapy for Lung Cancer with On-Demand Drug Release upon Irradiation with a Single Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Caixia; Yang, Yuming; Zhang, Chunlei; Alfranca, Gabriel; Cheng, Shangli; Ma, Lijun; Liu, Yanlei; Zhi, Xiao; Ni, Jian; Jiang, Weihua; Song, Jie; de la Fuente, Jesús M.; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria in cancer cells maintain a more negative membrane potential than normal cells. Mitochondria are the primary source of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are necessary for photodynamic therapy. Thus, the strategy of targeting mitochondria can maximize the photodynamic therapeutic efficiency for cancer. Here we report, for the first time, synthesis of a new mitochondria-targeting drug delivery system, ZnPc/CPT-TPPNPs. To synthesize this novel compound, polyethylene glycol was functionalized with thioketal linker-modified camptothecin (TL-CPT) and triphenylphosphonium to form the block copolymer, TL-CPT-PEG1K-TPP. The ZnPc/CPT-TPPNPs was constructed for delivery of the photosensitizer Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) by blending the block copolymer TL-CPT-PEG1K-TPP with 1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)] (DSPE-PEG).Triphenylphosphine can accumulate selectively several hundred-fold within mitochondria. The thioketal linker is ROS-responsive and CPT can be released upon ROS cleavage. We also show that the ZnPc loaded in ZnPc/CPT-TPPNPs absorbed the 633 nm laser to produce ROS, which could be utilized both in photodynamic therapy and to cleave the thioketal linker thereby releasing camptothecin for chemotherapy. Thus, the mitochondria-targeting nanoparticles could elevate photodynamic therapeutic efficacy. Our results showed that surface modification of the nanoparticles with triphenylphosphine cations facilitated efficient subcellular delivery of the photosensitizer to mitochondria. The nanoparticles had a good ROS-responsive effect to release CPT, which could transfer to the nucleus and interfere with DNA replication as a topoisomeraseⅠinhibitor. Thus, the blended nanoparticles provide a new promising approach as a mitochondria-targeting ROS-activated chemo- and photodynamic therapy with a single light source for lung cancer. PMID:27877240

  20. Cryogenic target design considerations for the production of [18F]fluoride from enriched [18O]carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzbakht, M L; Schlyer, D J; Fowler, J S

    1999-10-01

    Four cryogenic target designs are described for the production of fluorine-18 in the chemical form of fluoride using oxygen-18-enriched carbon dioxide gas utilizing the (18)O(p,n)18F nuclear reaction. The targets are conical in shape and made of copper or silver and the carbon dioxide is frozen into the cone at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Three of the targets (2 copper and 1 silver) have four cooling fins extending radially and are different lengths, and one target has only a single heat sink at the rear of the cone. The targets with four cooling fins could be run with 17.4 MeV protons incident on the target material at a beam current of 25 microA with no detectable volatilization of the target material, although yields did decrease slightly when compared with lower current runs. The target with the single cooling block showed volatilization at about 8 microA. The two copper targets of different lengths did not show a difference in the volatilization of the target material at the beam current limit of our cyclotron (25 microA). The shorter target did maintain production with a lower amount of gas frozen into the target, while the longer target maintained production at higher beam currents. Targets of this type are compatible with low energy, high current accelerators because very thin windows may be used.

  1. Comparison of single-agent chemotherapy and targeted therapy to first-line treatment in patients aged 80 years and older with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang QQ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Qianqian Zhang,1 Zhehai Wang,2 Jun Guo,2 Liyan Liu,2 Xiao Han,2 Minmin Li,1 Shu Fang,1 Xiang Bi,1 Ning Tang,1 Yang Liu1 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, University of Jinan, 2Department of Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare single-agent chemotherapy with targeted therapy in initial treatment and to explore a better choice of treatment for patients aged 80 years and older with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC.Patients and methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for 136 patients aged 80 years and older who were cytopathologically diagnosed and staged as advanced (stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. The patient population was divided into two treatment groups: 78 patients were allocated to the chemotherapy group (group A, pemetrexed or gemcitabine or docetaxel as a single agent, and 60 patients were allocated to another group and received epidermal growth factor-receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (group B, erlotinib or gefitinib as a single agent. The primary end points were overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS, and the secondary end points were response rate, disease-control rate, safety, and quality of life.Results: In group A and group B, respectively, the median PFS was 2 versus 4 months (P=0.013, and the median OS was 8 versus 16 months (P=0.025. The 1- and 2-year survival rates of the two groups were 23.7% (group A, 18 of 76 versus 76.7% (group B, 46 of 60 and 13.2% (group A, ten of 76 versus 10% (group B, six of 60, respectively. The response rate and disease-control rate were 28.9% versus 36.7% (P=0.39 and 57.9% versus 76.7% (P=0.022 in group A and group B, respectively.Conclusion: Elders aged 80 years and over with advanced NSCLC in group B had longer PFS and OS compared with group A. It was well tolerated in group B because of the mild adverse effects. Targeted therapy can be

  2. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  3. Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis discloses the dynamics of the DNA-topoisomerase II (Top2) interaction in the presence of TOP2-targeting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Chen; Lee, Chun-Ying; Hsieh, Tao-Shih

    2017-07-28

    Topoisomerases play crucial roles in DNA replication, transcription, and recombination. For instance, topoisomerase II (Top2) is critically important for resolving DNA tangles during cell division, and as such, it is a broad anticancer drug target. Top2 regulates DNA topology by transiently breaking one double-stranded DNA molecule (cleavage), allowing a second double strand to pass through the opened DNA gate (opening), and then closing the gate by rejoining the broken ends. Drugs that modulate Top2 catalysis may therefore affect enzymatic activity at several different steps. Previous studies have focused on examining DNA cleavage and ligation; however, the dynamic opening and closing of the DNA gate has been less explored. Here, we used the single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) method to observe the open and closed state of the DNA gate and to measure dwell times in each state. Our results show that Top2 binds and bends DNA to increase the energy transfer efficiency ( E FRET ), and ATP treatment further induces the fluctuation of E FRET , representing the gate opening and closing. Additionally, our results demonstrate that both types of Top2-targeting anticancer drugs, the catalytic inhibitor dexrazoxane (ICRF187) and mechanistic poison teniposide (VM26), can interfere with DNA gate dynamics and shorten the dwell time in the closed state. Moreover, Top2 bound to the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate exhibits altered DNA gate dynamics, but the DNA gate appears to open and close even after N-gate closure. In summary, we have utilized single-molecule detection to unravel Top2 DNA gate dynamics and reveal previously unknown effects of Top2 drugs on these dynamics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Optimization of the testing volumes with respect to neutron flux levels in the two-target high flux D-Li neutron source for the international fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, W.P.; Varsamis, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    An economic and fusion-relevant source of high-energy neutrons is an essential element in the fusion nuclear technology and development program. This source can be generated by directing a high energy deuteron beam onto a flowing liquid lithium target, producing neutrons via the D-Lithium stripping reaction. Previous work on this type of source concentrated on a design employing one deuteron beam of modest amperage. This design was shown to have a relatively small testing volume with high flux gradients and was therefor considered somewhat unattractive from a materials testing standpoint. A design using two lithium targets and two high-amperage beams has recently been proposed. This two beam design has been examined in an effort to maximize the test volume while minimizing the flux gradients and minimizing the effect of radiation damage on one target due to the other. A spatial, energy and angle dependent neutron source modeling the D-Lithium source was developed. Using this source, a 3-dimensional map of uncollided flux within the test volume was calculated. The results showed that the target separation has little effect on the available experimental volume and that a testing volume of ∼35 liters is available with a volume averaged flux above 10 14 n/cm 2 /s. The collided flux within the test volume was then determined by coupling the source model with a Monte Carlo code. The spectral effects of the high-energy tail in the flux were examined and evaluated as to possible effects on materials response. Calculations comparing the radiation damage to materials from the D-Lithium source to that cause by a standard DT fusion first-wall neutron flux spectrum showed that the number of appm and dpa, as well as the ratio appm/dpa and dpa/MW/m 2 are within 30% for the two sources. 8 refs., 8 figs

  5. Solid Polarized Targets and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    Examples are given of dynamically polarized targets in use today and how the subsystems have changed to meet the needs of todays experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on target materials such as ammonia and lithium deuteride. Recent polarization studies of irradiated materials such as butanol, deuterated butanol, polyethylene, and deuterated polyethylene are presented. The operation of two non-DNP target systems as well as applications of traditional DNP targets are briefly discussed

  6. Measurement of Single Spin Asymmetry in 3He↑(e, e'K±)X from a Transversely Polarized 3He Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuxiang [Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei (China)

    2015-05-01

    Spin-dependent observables are a powerful tool to probe the internal structure of the nucleon and to study the dynamics of the strong interaction. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure has provided us with many exciting and often surprising results. The so-called "spin crisis" in the 1980s revealed the limitation of naive quark-parton models and led to a worldwide effort to study the nucleon spin structure. However, this effort has been focused mainly on the nucleon's longitudinal spin structure. Recently, when the pioneer work revealed the significant role that transverse spin plays in understanding the full structure of the nucleon and in understanding the dynamics of the strong interaction, the study of the transverse spin structure became the new focus of the worldwide effort. Jefferson Lab (JLab) is located at Newport News, VA, US. It is equipped with the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF) and four experimental halls: A, B, C and D. The accelerator can provide a continuous electron beam (2 ns beam bunch) with high polarization (up to ~ 90%) and high current (up to ~ 200μA) for fixed target experiments in all experimental halls. Hall A consists of two standard high-resolution spectrometers (HRS): left HRS (LHRS) and right HRS (RHRS). Another spectrometer, the BigBite spectrometer, can be installed on request by certain experiments. The experiment E06-010 ("Transversity Experiment") at JLab Hall A is the first measurement of the transverse spin structure of the neutron using a transversely polarized 3He target and a 5.89 GeV incident electron beam. The experiment measured target single spin asymmetries (SSA) and beam-target double-pin asymmetries (DSA) in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) processes. It also collected inclusive hadron (pion, kaon and proton) production data parasitically. The scattered electrons were detected in the BigBite spectrometer with

  7. Non-targeted screening for contaminants in paper and board food-contact materials using effect-directed analysis and accurate mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtström, Linda; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Trier, Xenia

    2016-01-01

    were commercially available and subsequently tested in vitro and quantified. Of these seven, the identities of three pigments found in printing inks were confirmed by UHPLC tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ MS/MS). Two pigments had entries in the database, meaning that a material relevant accurate mass...

  8. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  9. The Sinuous Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Aloins and Aloin-Emodin in Aloe Vera Raw Materials and Finished Products Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, David; Ritruthai, Vicha; Babajanian, Silva; Gao, Quanyin; Ingle, Prashant; Chang, Peter; Swanson, Gary

    2017-05-01

    A single-laboratory validation study is described for a method of quantitative analysis of aloins (aloins A and B) and aloe-emodin in aloe vera raw materials and finished products. This method used HPLC coupled with UV detection at 380 nm for the aloins and 430 nm for aloe-emodin. The advantage of this test method is that the target analytes are concentrated from the sample matrix (either liquid or solid form) using stepwise liquid-liquid extraction (water-ethyl acetate-methanol), followed by solvent evaporation and reconstitution. This sample preparation process is suitable for different forms of products. The concentrating step for aloins and aloe-emodin has enhanced the method quantitation level to 20 parts per billion (ppb). Reversed-phase chromatography using a 250 × 4.6 mm column under gradient elution conditions was used. Mobile phase A is 0.1% acetic acid in water and mobile phase B is 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile. The HPLC run starts with a 20% mobile phase B that reaches 35% at 13 min. From 13 to 30 min, mobile phase B is increased from 35 to 100%. From 30 to 40 min, mobile phase B is changed from 100% back to the initial condition of 20% for re-equilibration. The flow rate is 1 mL/min, with a 100 μL injection volume. Baseline separation (Rs > 2.0) for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin was observed under this chromatographic condition. This test method was validated with raw materials of aloe vera 5× (liquid) and aloe vera 200× (powder) and finished products of aloe concentrate (liquid) and aloe (powder). The linearity of the method was studied from 10 to 500 ppb for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin, with correlation coefficients of 0.999964, 0.999957, and 0.999980, respectively. The test method was proven to be specific, precise, accurate, rugged, and suitable for the intended quantitative analysis of aloins and aloe-emodin in raw materials and finished products. The S/N for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin at 10 ppb level were 12, 10, and 8

  11. EURISOL-DS multi-MW target unit: Neutronics performance and shielding assessment, dose rate and material activation calculations for the MAFF configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Romanets, Y; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Goncalves, I F; Tecchio, L; Kharoua, C; Vaz, P; Ene, D; David, J C; Rocca, R; Negoita, F

    2010-01-01

    One of the objectives of the EURISOL (EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam) Design Study consisted of providing a safe and reliable facility layout and design for the following operational parameters and characteristics: (a) a 4 MW proton beam of 1 GeV energy impinging on a mercury target (the converter); (b) high neutron fluxes (similar to 3 x 10(16) neutrons/s) generated by spallation reactions of the protons impinging in the converter and (c) fission rate on fissile U-235 targets in excess of 10(15) fissions/s. In this work, the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes MCNPX (Pelowitz, 2005) and FLUKA (Vlachoudis, 2009; Ferrari et al., 2008) were used to characterize the neutronics performance and to perform the shielding assessment (Herrera-Martinez and Kadi, 2006; Cornell, 2003) of the EURISOLTarget Unit and to provide estimations of dose rate and activation of different components, in view of the radiation safety assessment of the facility. Dosimetry and activation calculations were perfor...

  12. Single layers of WS2 nanoplates embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sunmoon; Jung, Ji-Won; Kim, Il-Doo