WorldWideScience

Sample records for single married gender

  1. Are Married Men Healthier than Single Women? A Gender Comparison of the Health Effects of Marriage and Marital Satisfaction in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woojin; Kim, Roeul

    2015-01-01

    Although Asian societies are remarkably different from Western societies in terms of sociocultural characteristics, little is known about the gender differences in the health effects of marriage and marital satisfaction in Asian countries. Using a randomly sampled dataset from the 2006 East Asian Social Survey comprising 8528 individuals from China, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea, this study performs analyses using a multivariate logistic regression model to predict the probability for a man or a woman to report poor health. Our results differ quite significantly from those of most studies focusing on Western countries. Considering marital satisfaction, there may be no health benefits from marriage for a specific gender in a given country, because the health loss associated with a dissatisfied marriage usually supersedes the health benefits from marriage. Moreover, women may reap greater health benefits from marriage than men. Additionally, those most likely to report poor health are found to be married and dissatisfied men or women, rather than never-married individuals. The present study argues the need to design and carry out a gender- and country-specific social health policy approach to target individuals suffering from poor health, thereby reducing the gender differences in health status.

  2. Are Married Men Healthier than Single Women? A Gender Comparison of the Health Effects of Marriage and Marital Satisfaction in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woojin; Kim, Roeul

    2015-01-01

    Background Although Asian societies are remarkably different from Western societies in terms of sociocultural characteristics, little is known about the gender differences in the health effects of marriage and marital satisfaction in Asian countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a randomly sampled dataset from the 2006 East Asian Social Survey comprising 8528 individuals from China, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea, this study performs analyses using a multivariate logistic regression model to predict the probability for a man or a woman to report poor health. Our results differ quite significantly from those of most studies focusing on Western countries. Considering marital satisfaction, there may be no health benefits from marriage for a specific gender in a given country, because the health loss associated with a dissatisfied marriage usually supersedes the health benefits from marriage. Moreover, women may reap greater health benefits from marriage than men. Additionally, those most likely to report poor health are found to be married and dissatisfied men or women, rather than never-married individuals. Conclusion/Significance The present study argues the need to design and carry out a gender- and country-specific social health policy approach to target individuals suffering from poor health, thereby reducing the gender differences in health status. PMID:26230841

  3. Gender-Based Violence among Married Women in Debre Tabor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-based violence is one of the major public health problems in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the perception and attitude of the community towards gender-based violence among married women in Northwest Ethiopia. A qualitative study was conducted using the purposive sampling technique for the three focus ...

  4. A closer look at gender and distress among the never married.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between gender and distress among a sample of never married and married individuals aged 18-64 years from the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households. The hypothesis that singlehood benefits women more than men in terms of economic and psychosocial resources, which then translate into lower levels of distress, was not completely supported. In general, single women and men appear more similar than different in resources, although gender differences in distress vary by age. The importance of recognizing conceptual distinctions among the single is discussed.

  5. Relationship between Gender Roles and Sexual Assertiveness in Married Women

    OpenAIRE

    Azmoude, Elham; Firoozi, Mahbobe; Sadeghi Sahebzad, Elahe; Asgharipour, Neghar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Evidence indicates that sexual assertiveness is one of the important factors affecting sexual satisfaction. According to some studies, traditional gender norms conflict with women?s capability in expressing sexual desires. This study examined the relationship between gender roles and sexual assertiveness in married women in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 women who referred to Mashhad health centers through convenient sampling in 20...

  6. Relationship between Gender Roles and Sexual Assertiveness in Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmoude, Elham; Firoozi, Mahbobe; Sadeghi Sahebzad, Elahe; Asgharipour, Neghar

    2016-10-01

    Evidence indicates that sexual assertiveness is one of the important factors affecting sexual satisfaction. According to some studies, traditional gender norms conflict with women's capability in expressing sexual desires. This study examined the relationship between gender roles and sexual assertiveness in married women in Mashhad, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 women who referred to Mashhad health centers through convenient sampling in 2014-15. Data were collected using Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Hulbert index of sexual assertiveness. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 by Pearson and Spearman's correlation tests and linear Regression Analysis. The mean scores of sexual assertiveness was 54.93±13.20. According to the findings, there was non-significant correlation between Femininity and masculinity score with sexual assertiveness (P=0.069 and P=0.080 respectively). Linear regression analysis indicated that among the predictor variables, only Sexual function satisfaction was identified as the sexual assertiveness summary predictor variables (P=0.001). Based on the results, sexual assertiveness in married women does not comply with gender role, but it is related to Sexual function satisfaction. So, counseling psychologists need to consider this variable when designing intervention programs for modifying sexual assertiveness and find other variables that affect sexual assertiveness.

  7. Married Black Men's Opinions as to Why Black Women Are Disproportionately Single: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Tera R; McElroy, Stacey E; Sheats, Kameron J; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M

    2014-03-01

    This study's purpose was to explore the reasons Black women are disproportionately single according to the unique viewpoint of married Black men. The sample comprised 52 married Black men who resided in northeast Georgia (mean age = 43). Qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010 as part of the Pathways to Marriage study. The authors analyzed the data in a collaborative fashion and utilized content analyses to explore the relationships in the data which were derived from qualitative interviews with the men. Findings on the reasons for the disproportionality of singlehood among Black women reflected these four themes: gender relations, marriage education and socialization, individual development, and a preference for gay/lesbian relationships. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

  8. “Don’t Marry, Be Happy!” – How Single Women in Malaysia View Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmawati Azman Azwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore how single women in Malaysia who have never been married view marriage and related issues. Two-hundred single women between the ages of 24 to 66 were interviewed in this study. Participants reported their view on gender and marriage (42-items, social expectations related to their marital status (12-item and their marital plan. Participants reported moderately traditional view about gender and marriage experienced some level of expectations to get married and although they generally felt positive with their current status of being single, they were still open to the idea of marriage. Ideal characteristics of a partner include kindness, sincerity, responsibility and maturity. Findings indicated realistic but open expectations related to marriage.

  9. Mental health among older married couples: the role of gender and family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sanna; Grundy, Emily

    2011-04-01

    As shared family context may be an important influence on mental health, and gender differences in mental health, in later life we investigated how gender, family-related variables and gender roles were associated with mental health in older married couples. Using data on a sample of 2,511 married couples born between 1923 and 1953 (drawn from the British Household Panel Survey) we analysed differences in the mental health of husbands and wives by fertility history, length of marriage, presence of co-resident children, reported social support, hours of household work, attitudes to gender roles and health of husband and wife. Mental health in 2001 was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Multilevel modelling was used to assess effects in husbands and wives and variations between husbands and wives. Results showed that although the mental health of married couples was correlated, wives had poorer mental health than their husbands. The gender difference was smaller in couples who lived with a child aged 16 or more (and had no younger co-resident children) and in couples in which both spouses had experienced early parenthood. The influence of individual and family characteristics on mental health also differed between husbands and wives. For husbands, early fatherhood and co-residence with a child or children aged 16 or more increased the odds of poor mental health. For wives, having had a child when aged 35 or more appeared protective while having traditional gender role attitudes increased the odds of poorer mental health. The role of family characteristics in the shared marital context has complex associations with mental health, some of which seem gender specific. Although wives express more mental distress, husbands in general show poorer mental health related to family characteristics.

  10. Married Black Men’s Opinions as to Why Black Women Are Disproportionately Single: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Tera R.; McElroy, Stacey E.; Sheats, Kameron J.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2015-01-01

    This study’s purpose was to explore the reasons Black women are disproportionately single according to the unique viewpoint of married Black men. The sample comprised 52 married Black men who resided in northeast Georgia (mean age = 43). Qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010 as part of the Pathways to Marriage study. The authors analyzed the data in a collaborative fashion and utilized content analyses to explore the relationships in the data which were derived from qualitative interviews with the men. Findings on the reasons for the disproportionality of singlehood among Black women reflected these four themes: gender relations, marriage education and socialization, individual development, and a preference for gay/lesbian relationships. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26082674

  11. Gender inequality and the risk of HIV among married couples in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, Shelah S.; Agrawal, Alpna; Singh, Kaushalendra K.; Suchindran, Chirayath M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution and determinants of HIV risks among married couples in North India. Gender inequality emerged as a potential driver of HIV risks in this region. Data collection took place in 2003 in a probability survey of 3,385 couples living in India’s most populous state – Uttar Pradesh – and Uttaranchal. Couples’ analyses utilizing generalized estimating equations showed that compared with husbands, wives were less knowledgeable about HIV (OR=0.31, 95% CI= 0.27–0....

  12. The experience of being an old never-married single: a life course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova; Manchik-Rimon, Carmit

    2014-01-01

    To explore the aging experience of the "over 60" group of singles who have never been married and have no children. How they experience their aging process in terms of their singlehood and vice versa. A qualitative-phenomenological approach was adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants aged 60 to 87. Four major themes emerged: (a) "How come I stayed single?" (b) Between loneliness, aloneness and solitude. (c) "I have to take care of myself in old age." (d) The self behind prejudices and stereotypes. As the normative expectation is to live with partners, children, and grandchildren, they need to account for their alternative choice and give meaning to being a never married single. This meaning is expressed by constructing their self-dentity and accepting their way of life.

  13. Social strain, couple dynamics and gender differences in gambling problems: evidence from Chinese married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender inequality and the risk of HIV among married couples in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Shelah S; Agrawal, Alpna; Singh, Kaushalendra K; Suchindran, Chirayath M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution and determinants of HIV risks among married couples in North India. Gender inequality emerged as a potential driver of HIV risks in this region. Data collection took place in 2003 in a probability survey of 3385 couples living in India's most populous state - Uttar Pradesh - and Uttaranchal. Couples' analyses utilizing generalized estimating equations showed that compared with husbands, wives were less knowledgeable about HIV (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.27-0.36), more likely to consider themselves at risk for infection (OR = 6.86, 95% CI = 4.65-10.13), and less likely to feel that a wife had the right to refuse sex with her husband (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.44-0.58). The proportion of husbands reporting non-marital sex in the past year was 7.1% and transactional sex in the past year, 2.2%. Among their wives, 73.4% were unaware of their husbands' non-marital sexual behaviors and only 28.9% of husbands reported condom use during their last non-marital sexual encounter. Logistic regression analyses showed that husbands' alcohol use, husbands' mobility, and urban residence were positively associated with husbands' non-marital sexual behaviors adjusting for other covariates. The data demonstrate that HIV prevention programs among couples in North India should consider both sexual risks and gender inequalities which potentially fuel HIV spread in this region.

  15. Psychosocial differences related to parenting infants among single and married mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Debra Beach; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the psychosocial factors, self-esteem, sense of mastery, life stress, and social support among first-time married and single mothers in early parenthood. A cross-sectional comparative design was used to study secondary data. A convenience sample of 80 first-time mothers completed self-report instruments on self-esteem, sense of mastery, social, and life stress at 6-8 weeks after birth. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and ANOVA. A statistically significant difference was found between married and single mothers on self esteem (F = 9.314, df = 1, p = .003) and sense of mastery (F = 4.919, df = 1, p = .030). There were no statistical differences found between married and single mothers on social support and life stress. Findings support Belsky's (1984) theoretical assertion that personal psychological resources are most indicative of successful parenting. Further, interventions directed toward enhancing single mothers' sense of mastery and self-esteem may be needed to facilitate maternal role transition.

  16. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamhanga, Tumaini M; Frumence, Gasto

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms) and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs). A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances - ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.

  17. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumaini M. Nyamhanga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania

  18. Marrying into the European family of nations: national disorder and upset gender roles in post-Communist Romanian film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent Romanian films, this article explores the distinctive post-communist concerns with national relocation in the symbolic geography of Europe. The focus on tragic comedies, an increasingly popular genre in Eastern European cinematography, foregrounds the critical usage of irony to express skepticism about the inclusive nature of geopolitical projects such as the European Union by national communities situated at its periphery. While the tragic comedies examined here are successful in challenging official narratives of European belonging, they rely on highly gendered scripts that prove more resilient to ironic reworkings. The movies resort to gendered plots and family tropes, representing Romania’s efforts to receive European recognition as attempts to “marry into” the European Union. The larger thrust of this article is to open complex notions such as “Europe,” “nation,” and “gender,” which are notoriously prone to essentialization, to a deconstructive analysis as systems of differentiation.

  19. Understanding Gender and Domestic Violence from a Sample of Married Women in Urban Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Kerley, Kent R.; Sirisunyaluck, Bangon

    2011-01-01

    There is a widespread agreement among gender and family violence investigators that gender and socioeconomic inequalities play key roles in domestic violence against women (DVAW). By integrating the concepts of gender traditionalism and decision-making power into a variety of resource-based theories, this study develops a gender perspective to…

  20. Gender and time allocation of cohabiting and married women and men in France, Italy, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne; Lesnard, Laurent; Nazio, Tiziana; Raley, Sara

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Women, who generally do more unpaid and less paid work than men, have greater incentives to stay in marriages than cohabiting unions, which generally carry fewer legal protections for individuals that wish to dissolve their relationship. The extent to which cohabitation is institutionalized, however, is a matter of policy and varies substantially by country. The gender gap in paid and unpaid work between married and cohabiting individuals should be larger in countries where cohabitation is less institutionalized and where those in cohabiting relationships have relatively fewer legal protections should the relationship dissolve, yet few studies have explored this variation. OBJECTIVE Using time diary data from France, Italy, and the United States, we assess the time men and women devote to paid and unpaid work in cohabiting and married couples. These three countries provide a useful diversity in marital regimes for examining these expectations: France, where cohabitation is most “marriage like” and where partnerships can be registered and carry legal rights; the United States, where cohabitation is common but is short-lived and unstable and where legal protections vary across states; and Italy, where cohabitation is not common and where such unions are not legally acknowledged and less socially approved than in either France or the United States. RESULTS Cohabitating men’s and women’s time allocated to market and nonmarket work is generally more similar than married men and women. Our expectations about country differences are only partially borne out by the findings. Greater gender differences in the time allocated to market and nonmarket work are found in Italy relative to either France or the U.S. PMID:25404866

  1. Gender equality and education: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing among married women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (pwomen aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, pwomen reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, pwomen reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, pwomen reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, pwomen aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, peducation and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV.

  2. Single-Gender Education: Educators' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of educator's views regarding single-gender education was the basis of this study. The significance of the intended study is to show the educator's view of single-gender education as it relates to student academic achievement and behavioral incidents. A quantitative study was conducted utilizing a sample population of regular and…

  3. The gender gap in relation to happiness and preferences in married couples after childbirth: evidence from a field experiment in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Akpalu, Bright; Mahama, Emmanuel; Ayipah, Emmanuel Kwesi; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Hodgson, Abraham; Shibanuma, Akira; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-03-15

    How does the gap in preferences between married couples affect their happiness after childbirth? Are couples that share similar preferences happier? In recent years, gender, marriage, and happiness have been considered to be key issues in public health research. Although much research has examined the happiness status of married couples, practically no study has explored the gender gap in relation to happiness and the preferences of married couples after childbirth. Therefore, our study was conducted to assess the association between the preference gap and the happiness status among married couples in the afterbirth period. We conducted a field experiment in rural communities in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana. Participants were 80 married couples who had experienced childbirth within 2 years prior to the survey. As preference indicators, we measured trust, reciprocity, altruism, and risk lovingness through an economic experiment. Then, we assessed how, for a couple, the gap between these preferences affected their happiness. Wives' happiness was positively associated with the absolute value of the gap in risk lovingness between a couple (OR = 4.83, p = 0.08), while husbands' happiness was negatively associated with the gap in trust (OR = -3.58, p = 0.04) or altruism (OR = -3.33, p = 0.02). Within a couple, wives felt greater happiness than their husbands if there was a wider gap in trust (OR = 6.22, p = 0.01), reciprocity (OR = 2.80, p = 0.01), or risk lovingness (OR = 3.81, p = 0.07). The gender gaps in the preference indicators were found to be closely associated with the happiness levels between married couples after childbirth. For the further improvement of maternal and child health, we must consider the gender gaps between couples in relation to happiness and preferences.

  4. Household Debt and Relation to Intimate Partner Violence and Husbands' Attitudes Toward Gender Norms: A Study Among Young Married Couples in Rural Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay G; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has linked economic hardship with increased intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among males. However, less is known about how economic debt or gender norms related to men's roles in relationships or the household, which often underlie IPV perpetration, intersect in or may explain these associations. We assessed the intersection of economic debt, attitudes toward gender norms, and IPV perpetration among married men in India. Data were from the evaluation of a family planning intervention among young married couples (n=1,081) in rural Maharashtra, India. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models for dichotomous outcome variables and linear regression models for continuous outcomes were used to examine debt in relation to husbands' attitudes toward gender-based norms (i.e., beliefs supporting IPV and beliefs regarding male dominance in relationships and the household), as well as sexual and physical IPV perpetration. Twenty percent of husbands reported debt. In adjusted linear regression models, debt was associated with husbands' attitudes supportive of IPV (b=0.015, p=0.004) and norms supporting male dominance in relationships and the household (b=0.006, p=0.003). In logistic regression models adjusted for relevant demographics, debt was associated with perpetration of physical IPV (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.9) and sexual IPV (AOR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1) from husbands. These findings related to debt and relation to IPV were slightly attenuated when further adjusted for men's attitudes toward gender norms. Findings suggest the need for combined gender equity and economic promotion interventions to address high levels of debt and related IPV reported among married couples in rural India.

  5. Cultural practices, gender inequality and inconsistent condom use increase vulnerability to HIV infection: narratives from married and cohabiting women in rural communities in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Ngwenya, Nomsa

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear the brunt of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and older married women and those in cohabiting relationships are regarded as the largest HIV risk group. Although preventing HIV infection in married or stable relationships is an international HIV prevention priority, little is known about the influence of sociocultural contexts on safe-sex practice by women, particularly older women in rural communities in South Africa. This study aimed to examine how older women in a rural patriarchal society negotiate safer sex within marital and long-term cohabitation relationships, and their perceptions and experiences of barriers that influence condom use. Focus group discussions were conducted with married and cohabiting women aged 40-60 years recruited from primary health facilities in a rural district in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data. We found that although women reported negotiating safe sex in their relationships, they dreaded the possible consequences of suggesting condom use with their partners. Many factors made negotiating safe sex complex for these women: living in a patriarchal society where women play no part in sexual decision making, the fear of possible consequences of insisting on condom use, women's inferior social position in marital relationships, cultural practices such as bride price, and gender inequality were the main barriers to practising safer sex. Older married and cohabiting women dreaded negotiating safer sex in this patriarchal society where women's subordination is legitimized. The findings suggest that the women were at high risk of HIV infection because of their inability to negotiate condom use, or to reject forced sex and non-consensual sex. There is a need for interventions targeting older married and cohabiting couples and key stakeholders within communities to create awareness about cultural practices and beliefs that undermine

  6. Elementary Student Perspectives on Single-Gender Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichenor, Mercedes; Tichenor, John; Piechura, Kathy; Heins, Elizabeth; MacIssac, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Interest in single-gender education has grown significantly since the U.S. Department of Education published regulations for the practice in 2006. Although research provides mixed results on the academic effectiveness of single-gender programs, many districts around the country are providing single-gender classes as a parent choice option under…

  7. Elementary Girls' Attitudes toward Mathematics in Mixed-Gender and Single-Gender Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichenor, Mercedes; Welsh, Alyssa; Corcoran, Carol; Piechura, Kathy; Heins, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    By the time girls are second graders, they may be exhibiting negative attitudes toward math (Cvencek, Meltzoff, & Greenwald, 2011). McFarland, Benson and McFarland (2011) examined girls' math achievement in single-gender and mixed-gender classrooms and suggest that single-gendered formats can help females. In this study, we compare the math…

  8. Married man

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2009, Natasha Caruana went on 80 dates with married men. She usually managed to take one or two illicit photographs with a disposable camera. A far cry from any glamorous excitement an adulterous affair might entail, her snapshots show the remnants of a cafe meal, a soiled coffee cup, the lid of a takeaway food container.Caruana stumbled upon a website that connects people seeking extramarital affairs. Fascinated by the internet’s impact on modern relationships – offline as w...

  9. [Study on the perception of gender role and decision-making regarding family affairs among married women and its impact on the utilization of perinatal care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Min; Guo, Su-Feng; Wang, Lin-Hong; Zhang, Tong; Wu, Jiu-Ling; Du, Yu-Kai; Fang, Wei-Min

    2006-09-01

    To understand the perception on roles of gender and decision-making regarding family affairs among married women and its impact on the utilization of perinatal care. Clustering sampling was conducted to select 1227 married women with at least a child aged from 0 to 7 years old, from Hebei, Hubei and Sichuan provinces. All women were interviewed using a uniform questionnaire during Nov.-Dec. 2004. The overall proportion of women who had relatively poor perception of gender role was 65.1%. 59.3% of the women agreed that "husband's health is more important than wife's in the family" versus 39.7% of interviewed women agreed that "man is more suitable for leadership than woman". In 46.2% of the families, wife and husband shared the responsibility of decision making on family affairs. In 16.2% of the families women played a decisive role, while 67.1% of interviewed women had to get the approval of her husband when spending money on daily necessities. When there were different opinions between the couples, husband usually made the final decision in 20.5% of all the families versus 17.4% of families where wife made the final decision. In total,the proportion of women who had somehow rights on family affairs was 64.1%. The coverage rate of antenatal care was 91.0%, and 65.3% women who received antenatal care got the first antenatal visit during the first trimester and the proportion of women who had at least five antenatal visits was 39.7%. The institutional delivery was 59.3% among all the women. Perception of gender role was not a predictor for antenatal care utilization, but it was predictive of institutional delivery. Education was quite a significant predictor on perinatal care utilization. Efforts should be strengthened to improve women's awareness and to increase their perception on gender role in the families so that more women could achieve quality perinatal care.

  10. Insecure attachment style as a vulnerability factor for depression: recent findings in a community-based study of Malay single and married mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2013-12-30

    The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Married Men and Couples in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Ritter, Julie; Battala, Madhusudana; Gajanan, Velhal; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Despite ongoing recommendations to increase male engagement and gender-equity (GE) counseling in family planning (FP) services, few such programs have been implemented and rigorously evaluated. This study evaluates the impact of CHARM, a three-session GE+FP counseling intervention delivered by male health care providers to married men, alone (sessions 1&2) and with their wives (session 3) in India. A two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with young married couples (N = 1081 couples) recruited from 50 geographic clusters (25 clusters randomized to CHARM and a control condition, respectively) in rural Maharashtra, India. Couples were surveyed on demographics, contraceptive behaviors, and intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes and behaviors at baseline and 9 &18-month follow-ups, with pregnancy testing at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Outcome effects on contraceptive use and incident pregnancy, and secondarily, on contraceptive communication and men's IPV attitudes and behaviors, were assessed using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Most men recruited from CHARM communities (91.3%) received at least one CHARM intervention session; 52.5% received the couple's session with their wife. Findings document that women from the CHARM condition, relative to controls, were more likely to report contraceptive communication at 9-month follow-up (AOR = 1.77, p = 0.04) and modern contraceptive use at 9 and 18-month follow-ups (AORs = 1.57-1.58, p = 0.05), and they were less likely to report sexual IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.48, p = 0.01). Men in the CHARM condition were less likely than those in the control clusters to report attitudes accepting of sexual IPV at 9-month (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.03) and 18-month (AOR = 0.51, p = 0.004) follow-up, and attitudes accepting of physical IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.02). No significant effect on pregnancy was seen. Findings demonstrate that men can be engaged in FP programming in rural

  12. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Married Men and Couples in Rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Raj

    Full Text Available Despite ongoing recommendations to increase male engagement and gender-equity (GE counseling in family planning (FP services, few such programs have been implemented and rigorously evaluated. This study evaluates the impact of CHARM, a three-session GE+FP counseling intervention delivered by male health care providers to married men, alone (sessions 1&2 and with their wives (session 3 in India.A two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with young married couples (N = 1081 couples recruited from 50 geographic clusters (25 clusters randomized to CHARM and a control condition, respectively in rural Maharashtra, India. Couples were surveyed on demographics, contraceptive behaviors, and intimate partner violence (IPV attitudes and behaviors at baseline and 9 &18-month follow-ups, with pregnancy testing at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Outcome effects on contraceptive use and incident pregnancy, and secondarily, on contraceptive communication and men's IPV attitudes and behaviors, were assessed using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Most men recruited from CHARM communities (91.3% received at least one CHARM intervention session; 52.5% received the couple's session with their wife. Findings document that women from the CHARM condition, relative to controls, were more likely to report contraceptive communication at 9-month follow-up (AOR = 1.77, p = 0.04 and modern contraceptive use at 9 and 18-month follow-ups (AORs = 1.57-1.58, p = 0.05, and they were less likely to report sexual IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.48, p = 0.01. Men in the CHARM condition were less likely than those in the control clusters to report attitudes accepting of sexual IPV at 9-month (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.03 and 18-month (AOR = 0.51, p = 0.004 follow-up, and attitudes accepting of physical IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.02. No significant effect on pregnancy was seen.Findings demonstrate that men can be engaged in FP programming in

  13. The Never-Married in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.

    1979-01-01

    Consequences of singlehood are analyzed for never-married persons. Highly-educated older women are most likely to remain single. Family background is not a predictor. Although the never-married find life more exciting than other marital statuses among younger respondents, this reverses in later life. Never-marrieds are also less happy than the…

  14. Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of Females in Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    103. Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of. Females in Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Schools in Nnewi. Education Zone. Nwosu, Eucharia Nchedo & Joachim C. Omeje ... and to assess how it differs from the same sex communication; and to ... Gender differences in communication are often the source of much.

  15. Gendered Expectations? Reconsidering Single Fathers' Child-Care Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Jennifer L.; Chalasani, Satvika

    2008-01-01

    We take a fresh look at an important question in the sociology of gender and family: Do single fathers "mother"? We add to the theoretical debate by proposing that single fathers face competing interactional pressures, to simultaneously act like mothers and men. Using nationally representative data from the American Time Use Survey 2003-2006 (N =…

  16. Gender and Leadership Styles in Single-Sex Academic Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Hanan M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between gender and female leadership styles in a single-sex academic institution in Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Essentially, a qualitative research approach that utilised a single case-study methodology was adopted. As part of this research, seven in-depth semi-structured…

  17. The Impact of the First Birth: Married and Single Women Preferring Childlessness, One Child, or Two Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Victor J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of an examination of the impact of a first child on three groups of women: voluntarily childless wives and single women wanting to remain childless; mothers of one child by choice and single women who want an only child; and two-child mothers and single women who want to have two children. (Author/BL)

  18. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women.

  19. Academic Self-Concept, Gender and Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses gender differences in academic self-concept for a cohort of children born in 1958 (the National Child Development Study). It addresses the question of whether attending single-sex or co-educational schools affected students' perceptions of their own academic abilities (academic self-concept). Academic self-concept was found…

  20. Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of Females in Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined gender differences in communication patterns of females in single-sex and mixed-sex schools. The design of the study was an ex-post facto design. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. All the population of 218 senior secondary II female students was used for the study which ...

  1. Types and Dynamics of Gendered Space: A Case of Emirati Female Learners in a Single-Gender Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeer, Gergana

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with gendered spaces as they emerge from exploring Emirati female learners' spatiality in a single-gender context. By conducting ethnographic research and utilising Lefebvre's triad of perceived, conceived and lived space for the analysis and categorisation of students' spaces, three types of gendered spaces emerged:…

  2. Racial/ethnic and gender differences among older adults in nonmonogamous partnerships, time spent single, and human immunodeficiency virus testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harawa, Nina T; Leng, Mei; Kim, Junyeop; Cunningham, William E

    2011-12-01

    A higher frequency of nonmonogamy, due in part to lower marriage prevalence, may contribute to elevated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease rates among older blacks. To examine race and gender differences in nonmonogamy, time spent single (i.e., not married or cohabiting), and HIV testing in older adults, we analyzed US population-based data from the 2005-2006 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project for 2825 heterosexual participants ages 57 to 85 years. Blacks spent greater portions of their adult lives single than did Hispanics or whites and were far more likely to report recent nonmonogamous partnerships (23.4% vs. 10.0% and 8.2%). Among individuals reporting sex in the prior 5 years, nonmonogamous partnerships were strongly associated with time spent single during the period. Control for time spent single and other covariates reduced the association of black race with nonmonogamous partnerships for men, but increased it for women. Less than 20% reported ever testing for HIV; less than 6% had been recommended testing by a provider. Testing rates, highest in black men and white women, differed little by history of nonmonogamous partnerships within gender strata. Singlehood helps to explain higher nonmonogamous partnership rates in older black men but not in older black women. Older adults rarely receive or are recommended HIV testing, a key strategy for reducing heterosexual HIV transmission.

  3. Current status of contraceptive use among rural married women in Anhui Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-J; Wang, G-Y; Shen, Q; Yu, Y-L; Sun, Y-H; Yu, G-B; Zhao, D; Ye, D-Q

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to explore the current status of married women in regard of their use of contraceptive methods (permanent methods versus non-permanent methods) and to find out factors that affect the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Anhui Province of China. Survey. Anhui, China. A total of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. All women were asked to provide detailed information by completing detailed questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence and influence factors. The total birth control rate of the sample was 95.2%. Samples choosing the permanent and nonpermanent contraceptive methods have taken up 46.7 and 48.5% respectively. Female sterilisation was the first choice with a usage rate of 43.6%, followed by intrauterine device (IUD), which was used by 41.1% of samples. Single-variable analysis showed that the choice of contraceptive methods was associated with age, education level, parity, frequency of sex intercourses in a month, contraceptive knowledge, RTI symptom and the gender of the last child of rural married women. A significant increase in contraceptive use of rural married women in Anhui Province of China. Female sterilisation and IUD still play the dominant role. Effective family planning methods should be advocated through adequate counselling on the correct use and proper management, with consideration of the background of custom and belief.

  4. Do You Want Single-Gender Science Classrooms in Your Middle Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Pauline M.; Gresham, Gloria; Leigh, Melissa M.; McCormick-Myers, Denice

    2014-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the issue of single-gender education, with advocates debating that the initiative decreases discrimination, improves educational experiences for males and females, and provides parents more choice. Opponents argue that single-gender education is a form of segregation and negates the gains that women have achieved in the area…

  5. Interpreting the relationships between single gender science classes and girls' academic motivation and interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sonya L.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how and to what extent single gender science classes affect motivation to learn scientific concepts, interest in science, and college major intent among high school and middle school girls. This study was designed to determine whether students' motivation to learn science changes when they are placed in a single gender science class. The study also measured whether the students' level of interest in science and desire to major in science changes based on their enrollment in a single gender class. Finally, the study investigated the career and college major intentions of the sample population used in the study. Girls in single gender groupings engage in more academic risk taking and participate more than girls in coeducational classes. This benefit alone responds to reform efforts and supports the abolition of gender-based obstacles. Single gender grouping could help encourage more girls to take interest in majoring in science, a field that is considered to be masculine. By increasing students' interest in science while enrolled in single gender classes, students may become more motivated to learn science. This study was conducted using seven, eighth, ninth and tenth grade girls from single sex and coeducational science classes. The students participated in 2 surveys, the Science Motivational Survey and the Test of Science Related Attitudes, at the beginning of the semester and at the end of the semester. In respect to girls in high school single gender science classes, results were contrary to recent studies that state that girls who received science education in a single gender setting have an increase in motivation and attitude towards science. The results did show that middle school girls in single gender science classes did show an increase in motivation.

  6. Expected years ever married

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Mogi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the second half of the 20th century, remarkable marriage changes were seen: a great proportion of never married population, high average age at first marriage, and large variance in first marriage timing. Although it is theoretically possible to separate these three elements, disentangling them analytically remains a challenge. Objective: This study's goal is to answer the following questions: Which of the three effects, nonmarriage, delayed marriage, or expansion, has the most impact on nuptiality changes? How does the most influential factor differ by time periods, birth cohorts, and countries? Methods: To quantify nuptiality changes over time, we define the measure 'expected years ever married' (EYEM. We illustrate the use of EYEM, looking at time trends in 15 countries (six countries for cohort analysis and decompose these trends into three components: scale (the changes in the proportion of never married - nonmarriage, location (the changes in timing of first marriage - delayed marriage, and variance (the changes in the standard deviation of first marriage age - expansion. We used population counts by sex, age, and marital status from national statistical offices and the United Nations database. Results: Results show that delayed marriage is the most influential factor on period EYEM's changes, while nonmarriage has recently begun to contribute to the change in North and West Europe and Canada. Period and cohort analysis complement each other. Conclusions: This study introduces a new index of nuptiality and decomposes its change into the contribution of three components: scale, location, and variance. The decomposition steps presented here offer an open possibility for more elaborate parametric marriage models.

  7. The Gender Role Perceptions of Male Students at a Prestigious, Single-Gender, Catholic High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Franklin T.; Austin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a data set of categorical responses measuring the gender role views of students (N = 701) from a prestigious, Midwestern, all-male, Catholic high school. Incongruence between student self-perceptions and the realities of gender role miseducation and the embracement of sexist ideology were readily apparent. Findings suggest that…

  8. Effects of Single-Gender Middle School Classes on Science Achievement and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tanisha

    Many girls continue to achieve below their male counterparts and portray negative attitudes towards science classes. Some school districts are using single-gender education as a way to shrink the gender gap in school achievement and science related attitude. The purpose of this study was to compare achievement and science-related attitudes of 7th grade girls in single-gender education to 7th grade girls in mixed-gender education. The theoretical base for this study included knowledge from brain-based learning and assimilation, accommodation and age factors of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The 12-week study included 48 7th grade girls, 21 in the single-gender classroom and 14 in each mixed-gender classroom. This quantitative randomized posttest only control group design utilized the TerraNova Science Assessment and the Test of Science Related Attitudes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed in the achievement and attitudes of girls in single and mixed-gender science classes. ANOVA analyses revealed that the girls in the single-gender classroom showed a significantly higher achievement level when compared to girls in the mixed-gender classrooms. Results showed no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The results of this study contribute to social change by raising awareness about gender issues in science achievement and attitude, addressing a deficiency in the single-gender science education literature, and assisting educational systems in decision making to address achievement gaps while moving toward adequate yearly progress and meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

  9. The Effects of Single Gender Education on Sixth through Eighth Grade Female Student Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Deanna Sherrise

    Currently, students in the United States are educated in either single or mixed gender learning environments. An achievement gap between male and female students in the area of science indicates a need for instructional strategies and environments that will address these learning needs. Single gender classrooms are one possible solution as males and females have gender differences that may contribute to the way they learn. This quantitative, causal comparative study compared the differences in the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards science achievement scores of middle school females in single and mixed gender environments in a state in the Southeastern United States. Independent samples t tests, Chi-Square Tests, and two-way ANOVA analyses determined if group differences in science achievement existed between sixth through eighth grade female students in single and mixed gender classrooms. Results of the study revealed there was no significant difference in achievement scores between the two groups. The research findings provide the stakeholders with information that can potentially influence the implementation of single gender programs to improve the achievement of female students in middle grades science. Keywords: single gender, science, female students, education

  10. Grammatical gender in the production of single words: some evidence from Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmenou, Evangelia; Bard, Ellen G; Branigan, Holly P

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of prior grammatical gender information provided by the production of a bare noun on the production of a syntactically unrelated, gender-inflected color adjective. The target language was Greek. A lexical priming task involving picture naming was employed. Participants saw a series of pictures, some in color and some in black-and-white; they had to name a black-and-white picture with the single noun (prime) and a color picture with the appropriately inflected color adjective (target). Prior gender information was shown to affect subsequent production of gender-marked words. The effect was restricted to nouns of one gender class (masculine) only. The implications of these results for the representation and processing of gender in production are discussed. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).

  11. Gender Differences among Patients with a Single Depressive Episode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    , personality traits and disorders, stressful life events, family history, and treatment response. RESULTS: Female patients showed a higher level of neuroticism and more residual anxiety symptoms after treatment of the depression. There were no gender differences in severity of depression, psychiatric co......-morbidity (including personality disorders), stressful life events prior to onset, family loading of psychiatric disorders, or treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence for a higher level of anxiety and neuroticism among females with a recent onset of depression, whereas other clinical...

  12. The Effects of Single versus Mixed Gender Treatment for Adolescent Girls with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Ross, J. Megan; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the social behavior of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in single and mixed gender treatment settings. We collected ratings of social behavior (i.e., prosocial peer interactions, assertiveness, self-management, compliance, physical aggression, relational aggression) during single and mixed…

  13. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  14. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict Among Employed Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M

    2012-03-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents. Findings indicate that single mothers feel more home-to-job conflict than single fathers, married mothers, and married fathers. Some predictors of home-to-job conflict vary by marital status and gender. Job pressure is related to home-to-job conflict more for single parents than for married parents. Age of children is related to conflict for single fathers only. Whereas an unsupportive workplace culture is related to conflict, especially for married fathers, the lack of spouses' share of domestic responsibilities is related to conflict, especially for married mothers. These findings indicate that marital status and gender create distinct contexts that shape employed parents' perceived home-to-job conflict.

  15. Sources of marital stress experienced by married people as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated sources of marital stress experienced by married people as perceived by lecturers of College of Education. Respondents were stratified into different strata of gender, age group, educational qualification and number of children, after which simple random sampling technique was used for selecting 20 ...

  16. A Single-Unit Design Structure and Gender Differences in the Swimming World Championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Svetlana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012. For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286 showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences

  17. A single-unit design structure and gender differences in the swimming world championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkar, Svetlana; Issurin, Vladimir B; Verbitsky, Oleg

    2014-09-29

    Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs) can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012). For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286) showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences.

  18. Gender Difference in Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching in the Context of Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroun, Ramzi F.; Ng, Dicky; Abdelfattah, Faisal A.; AlSalouli, Misfer S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines gender differences of teachers on their mathematical knowledge for teaching in the context of single-sex classrooms in Saudi Arabia. A translated version of the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) instrument (Learning Mathematics for Teaching [LMT], 2008) in Number and Operation Content Knowledge (CK) and Knowledge of…

  19. Physical Activity Levels in Coeducational and Single-Gender High School Physical Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, James; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of coeducational (coed) and single-gender game-play settings on the activity levels of Caucasian and African American high school physical education students. Students participated in flag football, ultimate Frisbee, and soccer units. Classes were as follows: there were two coed classes, two…

  20. Comparison of PASS Assessment Scores in Single-Gender and Heterogeneous Middle Schools in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Patricia Oxendine

    2012-01-01

    In response to the mandates of No Child Left Behind, (NCLB), educators across the country struggle to close the gaps between males and females. Some of the physiological differences existing between the male and female brain suggest support for single-gender instruction, which is on the rise within this country as well as other parts of the world.…

  1. Effect of the Sport Education Tactical Model on Coeducational and Single Gender Game Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla; Sundal, Jacqueline; Colquit, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers are faced with a decision when teaching physical activities in schools. What type of instructional model should be used, and should classes be coeducational or single gender? The current study had two purposes. The first purpose investigated the effectiveness of the sport education tactical model (SETM) during game play…

  2. Seeking Emancipation from Gender Regulation: Reflections on Home Space for a Black Woman Academic/Single Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    William-­White, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Using the work of Judith Butler on gender regulation, Black Feminist Thought (BFT), and autobiographic storytelling, this piece illustrates how essentialist notions of gender, and discourses related to gender create conflict in shaping identity construction for a Black woman academic and single mother (BWA/SM) in the United States. This piece…

  3. Disagreements among cohabiting and married couples in 22 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Van der Lippe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cross-national research suggests that married people have higher levels of well-being than cohabiting people. However, relationship quality has both positive and negative dimensions. Researchers have paid little attention to disagreements within cohabiting and married couples. Objective: This study aims to improve our understanding of the meaning of cohabitation by examining disagreements within marital and cohabiting relationships. We examine variations in couples' disagreements about housework, paid work and money by country and gender. Methods: The data come from the 2004 European Social Survey. We selected respondents living in a heterosexual couple relationship and aged between 18 and 45. In total, the study makes use of data from 22 European countries and 9,657 people. Given that our dependent variable was dichotomous, we estimated multilevel logit models, with (1 disagree and (0 never disagree. Results: We find that cohabitors had more disagreements about housework, the same disagreements about money, but fewer disagreements about paid work than did married people. These findings could not be explained by socio-economic or demographic measures, nor did we find gender or cross-country differences in the association between union status and conflict. Conclusions: Cohabiting couples have more disagreements about housework but fewer disagreements about paid work than married people. There are no gender or cross-country differences in these associations. The results provide further evidence that the meaning of cohabitation differs from that of marriage, and that this difference remains consistent across nations.

  4. The model of children's social adjustment under the gender-roles absence in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Jun; Zhang, Hailun; Wei, Bingsi; Guo, Zeyao

    2018-01-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the gender-role types and child-rearing gender-role attitude of the single-parents, as well as their children's gender role traits and family socio-economic status, on social adjustment. We recruited 458 pairs of single parents and their children aged 8-18 by purposive sampling. The research tools included the Family Socio-economic Status Questionnaire, Sex Role Scales, Parental Child-rearing Gender-role Attitude Scale and Social Adjustment Scale. The results indicated: (a) single mothers' and their daughters' feminine traits were both higher than their masculine traits, and sons' masculine traits were higher than their feminine traits; the majority gender-role type of single parents and their children was androgyny; significant differences were found between children's gender-role types depending on different raiser, the proportion of girls' masculine traits raised by single fathers was significantly higher than those who were raised by single mothers; (b) family socio-economic status and single parents' gender-role types positively influenced parental child-rearing gender-role attitude, which in turn, influenced the children's gender traits, and further affected children's social adjustment. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Seeking Emancipation from Gender Regulation: Reflections on Home space for a Black Woman Academic/ Single Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa William-­White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the work of Judith Butler on gender regulation, Black Feminist Thought (BFT, and autobiographic storytelling, this piece illustrates how essentialist notions of gender, and discourses related to gender create conflict in shaping identity construction for a Black woman academic and single mother (BWA/SM in the United States. This piece reveals complex gendered and racialized tropes related to notions of motherhood and womanhood, particularly within the author’s own family. Included here is how the author attempts to transcend these complexities in her quest for self­definition and self­actualization, unbridled by gender norms. Yet, race, gender and parental status are significant intersecting categories in identity construction, andinherent in the constructions are hegemonic discourses with which the author continues to grapple. Consequently, the struggle to transcend these forces is further complicated by the limited representation of Black women in the US academy, and by the types of academic work where they find themselves typically situated.

  6. Gender differences in patients presenting with a single depressive episode according to ICD-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2005-01-01

    .4%). In outpatient settings, women slightly more often presented with milder types of depression than with severe depression, but no gender difference was found in the severity of depressive episodes among hospitalised patients. No differences were found between genders in the prevalence of depression with vs......BACKGROUND: It is unsure whether men and women present with different subtypes of depression. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of subtypes of a single depressive episode according to ICD-10 for men and women in a nationwide sample of all patients treated in psychiatric in...

  7. Exploring the Relevance of Single-Gender Group Formation: What We Learn from a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeck, Rebecca Yvonne; Hristova, Adelina; Jablokow, Kathryn W.; Bonafini, Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exploratory study on participants' perception of the importance of single-gender grouping in a massive open online course (MOOC) delivered through the Coursera platform. Findings reveal that female and male learners' perception of single-gender grouping differs. Female students more than males indicated less…

  8. Male gender is not a risk factor for the outcome of laparoscopiccholecystectomy: A single surgeon experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulhim, Abdulmohsen A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies regarding the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy(LC) in men have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted thisprospective study to test the hypothesis that the outcome of LC is worse inmen than women. Between 1997 and 2002, a total of 391 consecutive LCs wereperformed by a single surgeon at King Fahd Hospital of the University. Wecollected and analyzed data including age, gender, body mass index (kg/m2),the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, mode of admission(elective or emergency), indication for LC (chronic or acute) cholecystitis[AC]), comorbid disease, previous abdominal surgery, conversion to opencholecystectomy, complications, operation time and length of postoperativehospital stay. Bivariate analysis showed that both genders were matched forage, ASA class and mode of admission. The incidence of AC (P=0.003) andcomobrid disease (P=0.031) were significantly higher in men. Women weresignificantly more obese than men (P<0.001) and had a higher incidence ofprevious abdominal surgery (P=0.017). There were no statistical differencesbetween genders with regards to rate of conversion (P=0.372) andcomplications (P=0.647) and operation time (P=0.063). The postoperative staywas significantly longer in men than women (P=0.001). Logistic regressionanalysis showed that male gender was not an independent predictor ofconversion (Odds ratio [or] = 0.37 and P=0.43) or complications (OR=0.42,P=0.42). Linear regression analysis showed that male gender was not anindependent predictor of the operation time, but was associated with a longerpostoperative stay (P=0.02). Male gender is not an independent risk factorfor satisfactory outcome of LC in the experience of a single surgeon. (author)

  9. Strains of singlehood in later life: do race and gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Schieman, Scott; Carr, Deborah

    2006-11-01

    Few studies have identified the distinctive aspects of singlehood that are distressing to older adults. The objectives of our study were: (a) to examine whether divorced, widowed, and never-married older adults differed in their experiences of single strain, an indicator of chronic stressors associated with being unmarried; and (b) to assess whether the marital status differences we explored varied by gender and race. Using data from a subsample of 530 unmarried older adults and ordinary least squares regression, we estimated main and interactive effects of marital status, gender, and race on single strain. Divorced and widowed persons reported higher single strain than never-married persons, although the magnitude of these effects varied considerably by race and gender. Never-married White women reported higher levels of single strain than their male counterparts. White widows and widowers exhibited higher single strain than widowed Black adults. Black women uniformly fared better than White women, whereas divorced and never-married Black men were not different from their White peers in terms of single strain. Psychological adjustment to singlehood among older adults reflects patterns of gender and race stratification and socialization over the life course.

  10. Single Stance Stability and Proprioceptive Control in Older Adults Living at Home: Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Riva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women living at home, aged 65–84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75–84 yrs. The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65–74 yrs exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling.

  11. Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Single and Recurrent Falls Among the Community-Dwelling Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mei O

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in risk factors of fall accidents among older people, and whether these factors differ between single and recurrent fallers. A total of 4,426 individuals aged ≥65 years from two large-scale health surveys provided data. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors and to determine the risk model for falling and recurrent falling in men and women separately. Three major risk factors for falling regardless of gender or fall history are fear of falling, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL, and age ≥75 years. Fear of falling remains one of the common modifiable risk factors. Among those without a fall history, the use of sedatives or tranquilizers increases the risk of falling. Regarding gender differences, ADL limitations and fear of falling appear to be stronger fall risk factors for men than for women. Among women, alcohol use and educational level are significant risk factors for falling, while loneliness is associated with recurrent falling. Men with fear of falling or ADL limitations are at higher risk to have a recurrent fall accident than women with these conditions. Having a visual impairment or living with someone is associated with recurrent falling among men. Our findings emphasize the importance of multifactorial fall interventions, taking into account a variety of subgroup characteristics such as gender and fall history.

  12. Poisoning deaths in married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virendra

    2004-02-01

    Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime.

  13. Intimacy maturity and its correlates in young married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K M; Speisman, J C; Jackson, D; Bartis, S; Costos, D

    1986-01-01

    Intimate relationships, like the individuals who participate in them, are conceived of as following developmental processes. Five dimensions of intimacy--that is, relationship orientation, caring-concern, commitment, sexuality, and communication--are identified, and an approach to assessing relationship maturity on each of these dimensions is described. In a study of 31 young married couples, scores on each dimension of intimacy maturity were analyzed in relation to gender, gender role (as assessed through an adaptation of the Bem Sex Role Inventory; Bem, 1974), and marital adjustment. There were no significant differences between husbands and wives on any of the intimacy or marital adjustment scales and only a marginal difference on one gender role scale (agency). Patterns of correlations among intimacy, marital adjustment, and gender role scores varied by gender. Not only do there appear to be two marriages (his and hers) in every marriage, but the correlates of these marriages also vary.

  14. Gender differences in the mental health of single parents: New Zealand evidence from a household panel survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Sunny; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Carter, Kristie; Signal, Louise

    2014-05-01

    In many countries single parents report poorer mental health than partnered parents. This study investigates whether there are gender differences in the mental health of single parents in New Zealand (and whether any gender difference varies with that among partnered parents), and examines key social and demographic mediators that may account for this difference. We used data on 905 single parents and 4,860 partnered parents from a New Zealand household panel survey that included the Kessler-10 measure of psychological distress. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate both interactions of gender and parental status, and confounding or mediation by other covariates. High/very high levels of psychological distress were reported by 15.7 % of single mothers and 9.1 % of single fathers, and 6.1 % of partnered mothers and 4.1 % of partnered fathers. In an Ordinary Least Squares regression of continuous K10 scores on gender, parental status and the interaction of both (plus adjustment for ethnicity, number of children and age), female single parents had a 1.46 higher K10 score than male single parents (95 % CI 0.48-2.44; 1.46). This difference was 0.98 (95 % CI -0.04 to 1.99) points greater than the gender difference among partnered parents. After controlling for further confounding or mediating covariates (educational level, labour force status and socioeconomic deprivation) both the gender difference among single parents (0.38, -0.56 to 1.31) and the interaction of gender and parental status (0.28 greater gender difference among single parents, -0.69 to 1.65) greatly reduced in magnitude and became non-significant, mainly due to adjustment for individual socioeconomic deprivation. The poorer mental health of single parents remains an important epidemiological phenomenon. Although research has produced mixed findings of the nature of gender differences in the mental health of single parents, our research adds to the increasing evidence that it is single

  15. Frequency and characteristics of induced abortion among married and single women in São Paulo, Brazil Aborto provocado: sua dimensão e características entre mulheres solteiras e casadas da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca de Souza e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, aimed at estimating the frequency of induced abortion among women 15 to 49 years of age. The objective was to characterize the occurrence of induced abortion by comparing the ideal number of children, age, and contraceptive use between married and single women. Based on random sampling, 1,749 interviews were held, including 764 married women, 658 single women, and 327 with other marital status. The analysis included: mean number of abortions per woman by analysis of variance and proportions of abortions and pregnancy, using the chi-square test. The mean abortion rate for married women (45 per thousand did not differ statistically from that of single women. However, the pregnancy rate was much lower in single women, and when single women became pregnant they used abortion more frequently; while fewer than 2% of pregnancies in married women ended in induced abortions, among single women the abortion rate exceeded 18%. Therefore, the priority in the reproductive health field should be to invest in the supply and dissemination of appropriate contraceptive methods for women's early sexually active life.Apresenta-se uma pesquisa realizada na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, para dimensionar o aborto provocado entre mulheres de 15 a 49 anos. O objetivo é caracterizar a ocorrência do aborto provocado analisando o número ideal de filhos, idade e uso de contraceptivos comparando-se as casadas e solteiras. Mediante sorteio aleatório foram realizadas 1.749 entrevistas, sendo 764 com mulheres casadas, 658 com solteiras e 327 de outras categorias maritais. A análise inclui: a média de abortos por mulher, por meio de análise de variância e proporções de aborto e de gestação, usando-se o teste do qui-quadrado. Verificou-se que a média de abortos, 45 por mil, por mulheres casadas não difere da das solteiras. No entanto, as solteiras engravidam numa escala muito menor e, ao

  16. The Masculinities with Which They Enter: A Phenomenological Study of Precollege Gender Socialization in Single-Sex High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folan, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    This research contributes to a body of literature that looks for effective responses to the gendered performance gap, the research into the effects of single-sex education, and the social construction of masculinities. This qualitative inquiry focuses on a bounded group of male students who graduated from New England single-sex high schools and…

  17. The Meaning of "Being Single" for Mormon College-Age Single Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Darrington, Jana

    2003-01-01

    This study researched the meaning of being single among 24 college-age adults of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (i.e., Mormons). It examined influences on the construction of meanings of singlehood, gender patterns regarding the meaning of singlehood, and pressures on L.D.S. singles to date and marry. The most important finding was that positive attitudes toward singlehood are more prevalent than negative or ambivalent attitudes. Families, as gate-keepers and transmitters ...

  18. Aborto induzido: uma comparação entre mulheres casadas e solteiras residentes na cidade de São Paulo em 2008 Induced abortion: a comparison between married and single women residing in the city of São Paulo in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca de Souza e Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a associação entre ter realizado algum aborto provocado e estado civil (ser solteira ou legalmente casada em mulheres residentes no município de São Paulo. A presente análise é derivada de um inquérito populacional maior sobre aborto realizado em 2008. Aqui enfocamos o subgrupo de 389 mulheres entre 15 e 49 anos, solteiras ou casadas legalmente. Recorreu-se à análise de regressão logística para avaliar a associação entre ter realizado aborto ou não e estado conjugal, controlando-se por idade, escolaridade, renda, número de nascidos vivos, uso de métodos contraceptivos e aceitação da prática do aborto. Ser solteira foi a única característica associada à recorrência ao aborto provocado; isto é, diante de uma gravidez as solteiras têm quatro vezes mais chances de aborto do que as casadas (OR=3,9; p=0,009.The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between having had an induced abortion and marital status (being single or legally married in women residing in the city of São Paulo. This analysis is derived from a broader population survey on abortion conducted in 2008. In this study we focus on the subset of 389 single and legally married women between 15 and 49 years of age. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between induced abortion and being single or married, monitoring age, education, income, number of live births, contraceptive use and acceptance of the practice of abortion. Being single was the only characteristic associated with having had an induced abortion, in other words, when faced with a pregnancy single women were four times more likely to have an abortion than married women (OR=3.9; p=0.009.

  19. Differences between previously married and never married 'gay' men: family background, childhood experiences and current attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J

    2004-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature on the development of sexual orientation, little is known about why some gay men have been (or remain) married to a woman. In the current study, a self-selected sample of 43 never married gay men ('never married') and 26 gay men who were married to a woman ('previously married') completed a self-report questionnaire. Hypotheses were based on five possible explanations for gay men's marriages: (a) differences in sexual orientation (i.e., bisexuality); (b) internalized homophobia; (c) religious intolerance; (d) confusion created because of childhood/adolescent sexual experiences; and/or (e) poor psychological adjustment. Previously married described their families' religious beliefs as more fundamentalist than never married. No differences were found between married' and never married' ratings of their sexual orientation and identity, and levels of homophobia and self-depreciation. Family adaptability and family cohesion and the degree to which respondents reported having experienced child maltreatment did not distinguish between previously married and never married. The results highlight how little is understood of the reasons why gay men marry, and the need to develop an adequate theoretical model.

  20. Relationships between happiness and gender, age and marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Alarcón

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research examines the relationships between happiness and variables of gender, age and marital status as well as the degrees of happiness most frequently experienced by people. The sample was constituted by 163 males and females, between the ages of 20 and 60 years, single and married, and from middle class strata. They were administered the Scale of Satisfaction with Life, developed by Diener, with and added item to measure the degrees of happiness. There is no significan! statistically difference between genders; according to age the only significan contras! was between 30 and 50 years, with the notation that the highest means corresponded to ages 50 and 60 years old; married people were found to be happier than single ones. In general, the majority reported feeling happy, the other degrees contained very few frecuencies.

  1. The Girl George Peabody Almost Married.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1994-01-01

    One of a collection of articles on George Peabody, self-made millionaire and educational philanthropist, tells the story of the woman Peabody nearly married when he was 42. The woman chose to marry someone else rather than him. Though he was silent on the matter, out of his pain grew his great philanthropy. (SM)

  2. Awareness of Contraceptive Methods amongst Married Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is our opinion therefore, that the relevant authorities take advantage of such level of awareness amongst married men to initiate programs that would educate them about the significance of responsible parenthood, particularly on how it applies to Nigeria. Key Words: Family planning, Population, Married Men, Awareness, ...

  3. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Edirne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…

  4. 女性軍訓教官的職場困境:以已婚育有子女者為例的性別分析 Gender Study of Married Female Military Instructors’ Work Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    楊櫻華 Ying-Hua Yang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available 本研究以「女性軍訓教官」的工作經驗為主,透過訪談八位女性軍訓教官,探討其在職場上因「性別」因素所造成之困境。綜合分析結果發現,女教官進入校園服務必須面臨的職場困境有下列三項:傳統性別角色的侷限、就業歧視、升遷的限制等。其中升遷限制除了性別歧視及制度設計因素外, 父權社會結構因素亦造成女教官自我設限,降低追求成就之動機。 This qualitative research focuses on female military instructors’ work experiences. Through interviews, the researchers investigated the impacts of “gender” on work experiences and career development of female military instructors. The research findings are as follows. Most of the female military instructors must contend with the problem of discrimination in their workplace. Their promotion is also affected by gender stereotyped and gender role ideology. In addition, the researchers also found that the interviewees have also been confined by themselves psychologically. The researchers finally suggest that more institutional design to improve the discriminatory work conditions is needed.

  5. 女性軍訓教官的職場困境:以已婚育有子女者為例的性別分析 A Gender Study of Married Female Military Instructors’ Work Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    楊櫻華 Ying-Hua Yang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究以「女性軍訓教官」的工作經驗為主,透過訪談八位女性軍訓教官,探討其在職場上因「性別」因素所造成之困境。綜合分析結果發現,女教官進入校園服務必須面臨的職場困境有下列三項:傳統性別角色的侷限、就業歧視、升遷的限制等。其中升遷限制除了性別歧視及制度設計因素外,父權社會結構因素亦造成女教官自我設限,降低追求成就之動機。 This qualitative research focuses on female military instructors’ work experiences. Through interviews, the researchers investigated the impacts of “gender” on work experiences and career development of female military instructors. The research findings are as follows. Most of the female military instructors must contend with the problem of discrimination in their workplace. Their promotion is also affected by gender stereotyped and gender role ideology. In addition, the researchers also found that the interviewees have also been confined by themselves psychologically. The researchers finally suggest that more institutional design to improve the discriminatory work conditions is needed.

  6. Comparison of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, D E; Al-Khashan, H I; Mishriky, A M

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia. The study objective was to compare vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Royal Guard primary health care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a consecutive sample of 50 Saudi married couples attending the center without complaints related to vitamin D deficiency. Data were collected through an interview questionnaire addressing the risk factors and dietary habits. Quantitative determination of total 25-hydroxy vitamin D in blood was done by Electro-Chemical Luminescence assay. Fieldwork was carried out from December 2010 to January 2011. Men had higher sun exposure (P = 0.001), more use of light clothes at home (P = 0.002) and more intake of milk (P = 0.023) and soft drinks (P = 0.001). Vitamin D was higher in men with mean difference about 9 nmol/l (P milk as statistically significant positive independent predictors of vitamin D level, adjusted for factors as age, sun exposure, clothing, skin color, BMI, soft drinks and animal protein intake. Vitamin D deficiency is very high among Saudi married couples, especially wives. Female gender is an independent predictor of lower vitamin D level, in addition to sedentary lifestyle and low milk consumption. There is a need to revise the levels set for the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in the study region.

  7. The Relationship between Correlates of Effective Schools and Social Emotional Learning within Single Gender Schools Serving Boys of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Curt R.

    2013-01-01

    Urban school districts throughout the United States are creating single gender classrooms or schools to improve student achievements for their lowest performing subgroups (Noguera, 2009). It is hoped that separating the sexes will improve domains such as discipline, attendance and academic performance, while decreasing the dropout rate. If single…

  8. Getting ready for the marriage market? The association between divorce risks and investments in attractive body mass among married Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, Petter; Nystedt, Paul; Lindgren, Björn

    2007-07-01

    This article explores to what extent married middle-aged individuals in Europe are governed by the risk of experiencing divorce, when shaping their physical appearance. The main result is that divorce risks, proxied by national divorce rates, are negatively connected to body mass index (BMI) among married individuals but unrelated to BMI among singles. Hence, it seems that married people in societies where divorce risks are high are more inclined to invest in their outer appearance. One interpretation is that high divorce rates make married people prepare for a potential divorce and future return to the marriage market.

  9. Influence of gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling on students' enjoyment and achievement in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-11-01

    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) show that there are still marked differences between the achievement and attitude of male and female students in Irish mathematics classrooms. This paper examines the influence of gender in more detail and also investigates the impact of single-sex or co-educational schooling. This is a follow on study which further analyses data collected by the authors when they designed a pedagogical framework and used this to develop, implement and evaluate a teaching intervention in four second-level Irish schools. The aim of this pedagogical framework was to promote student interest in the topic of algebra through effective teaching of the domain. This paper further analyses the quantitative data collected and investigates whether there were differences in students' enjoyment and achievement scores based on their gender and whether they attended single-sex or co-educational schools.

  10. A Comparison of Single-Gender Classes and Traditional, Coeducational Classes on Student Academic Achievement, Discipline Referrals, and Attitudes toward Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Debra Messenger

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in single gender education. Emerging science has proven that boys and girls learn differently. This study compared fifth grade single-gender classes to fifth grade traditional, coeducational classes in the same urban middle school. The following were compared: students' academic achievement;…

  11. Housework: Cause and consequence of gender ideology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Daniel L; Lynch, Jamie L

    2013-11-01

    Nearly all quantitative studies examining the association between the division of housework and gender ideology have found that gender egalitarianism results in less housework for wives, more for husbands, and more equal sharing of housework by couples. However, a few studies suggest housework has a nontrivial influence on gender ideology. An overreliance on single-direction, single-equation regression models and cross-sectional data has limited past research from making strong claims about the causal relationship between gender ideology and housework. We use data on married couples from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households and nonrecursive simultaneous equation models to assess the causal relationship between housework and gender ideology. Results show a mutual and reciprocal relationship between the division of housework and gender ideology for both husbands' and wives'. Reciprocity is strongest for husbands while for wives the relationship is partially indirect and mediated through their husbands' gender ideologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender-Based Violence among Married Women in Debre Tabor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Pan African University Life and Earth Science Institute (PAULESI), University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria1, .... organizations. Sexual violence, especially verbal harassments and unwanted intentional body contacts with women are considered as part of social life. Indeed, in .... results in poor confidence and low self-esteem. In.

  13. The age structures and marital status differences of married and not married male suicide rates: 12 developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    Male suicide rates, circa 1960, specific to age and marital status for 12 developed countries show married men with lower suicide rates than not married men. This results in differences in the age structures of married and not married suicide rates. We test three explanations of lower married than not married suicide rates: 1) Gibbs and Martin's (1964) marital status integration hypothesis; 2) marital status differences in norms regarding the acceptability of suicide; and 3) Durkheim's societal integration theory. All three explanations are supported by multivariate regressions. The strongest support is for societal integration. The models explain over 80% of the variance in both married and not married male age-specific suicide rates. These regression equations generate predicted suicide rates and these predicted rates are then used to see if they account for the observed age structures of married and not married men. They do in 19 of 24 tests.

  14. Teachers' implementation of gender-inclusive instructional strategies in single-sex and mixed-sex science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lesley H.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2002-09-01

    Debate continues over the benefits, or otherwise, of single-sex classes in science and mathematics, particularly for the performance of girls. Previous research and analyses of the circumstances surrounding the implementation of single-sex classes warn that the success of the strategy requires due consideration of the nature of the instructional environment for both boys and girls, together with appropriate support for the teachers involved. This article reports the circumstances under which teachers were able to implement gender-inclusive strategies in single-sex science classes in coeducational high schools and documents some of the difficulties faced. The study was part of the Single-Sex Education Pilot Project (SSEPP) in ten high schools in rural and urban Western Australia. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered during the project from teachers, students and classroom observations. Overall, it was apparent that single-sex grouping created environments in which teachers could implement gender-inclusive science instructional strategies more readily and effectively than in mixed-sex settings. Teachers were able to address some of the apparent shortcomings of the students' previous education (specifically, the poor written and oral communication of boys and the limited experience of girls with 'hands-on' activities and open-ended problem solving). Further, in same-sex classrooms, sexual harassment which inhibited girls' learning was eliminated. The extent to which teachers were successful in implementing gender-inclusive instructional strategies, however, depended upon their prior commitment to the SSEPP as a whole, and upon the support or obstacles encountered from a variety of sources, including parents, the community, students, and non-SSEPP teachers.

  15. Polygyny, reproductive success and child health in rural Ethiopia: why marry a married man?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Mace, Ruth

    2007-03-01

    This study examines the reproductive success of men and women in rural Ethiopia as a function of their marital status, specifically by comparing polygamously and monogamously married individuals. In line with predictions from evolutionary theory, polygamy is beneficial to male reproductive success (i.e. producing larger numbers of surviving offspring). The success of polygamously married females depends on wife rank: the first wives of polygamous husbands do better than monogamously married women and much better than second or third wives. These effects are mirrored in child nutritional status: the children of second and third wives have lower weight for height. Due to potential, largely unmeasurable differences in marriageability (quality) between individuals, it was not possible to support a model of either resource-holding polygyny combined with female choice or female coercion into unwanted marriages. First wives of polygamously married men marry at a younger age and attract a higher brideprice, suggesting that both the males and females in the marriage are likely to be of higher quality (due to wealth, family status or some other factor such as beauty). Unions that end up monogamous are likely to be between slightly lower quality individuals; and second and third wives, who marry at the oldest ages and attract the lowest brideprice, may be 'making the best of a bad job'. The relatively long gap between first and second marriages may mean that first wives of highly marriageable males can enjoy considerable reproductive success before their husbands marry again.

  16. Spousal violence and pregnancy termination among married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data on spousal violence among ever married women was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The outcome variable is pregnancy termination. The explanatory variables were the type of spousal violence experienced by the women in the last 12 months preceding the survey.

  17. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

  18. Gender effects on tail damage development in single- or mixed-sex groups of weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Hartog, den L.A.; Kemp, B.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    While extensive research on tail biting among pigs has focused on external factors (e.g., enrichment material), limited research has been conducted on internal factors (e.g., gender, breed or age), which may affect the predisposition of piglets to start tail biting. Furthermore, to test internal or

  19. Controlling for Prior Attainment Reduces the Positive Influence that Single-Gender Classroom Initiatives Exert on High School Students' Scholastic Achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Charlotte R; Kaye, Linda K; Qureshi, Adam W; Heim, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Research points to the positive impact that gender-segregated schooling and classroom initiatives exert on academic attainment. An evaluation of these studies which reveal positive effects highlights, however, that students are typically selectively assigned to single- or mixed-gender instructional settings, presenting a methodological confound. The current study controls for students' prior attainment to appraise the efficacy of a single-gender classroom initiative implemented in a co-educational high school in the United Kingdom. Secondary data analysis (using archived data) was performed on 266 middle-ability, 11-12 year-old students' standardized test scores in Languages (English, foreign language), STEM-related (Mathematics, Science, Information and Communication Technology), and Non-STEM subjects (art, music, drama). Ninety-eight students (54, 55% female) were taught in single-gender and 168 (69, 41% female) in mixed-gender classrooms. Students undertook identical tests irrespective of classroom type, which were graded in accordance with U.K national curriculum guidelines. Controlling for students' prior attainment, findings indicate that students do not appear to benefit from being taught in single-gender relative to mixed-gender classrooms in Language and STEM-related subjects. Young women benefitted from being taught in mixed-gender relative to single-gender classes for Non-STEM subjects. However, when prior ability is not controlled for, the intervention appears to be effective for all school subjects, highlighting the confounding influence of selective admissions. These findings suggest that gender-segregated classroom initiatives may not bolster students' grades. It is argued that studies that do not control for selection effects may tell us little about the effectiveness of such interventions on scholastic achievement.

  20. Dipyridamole thallium-201 single-photon emission tomography in aortic stenosis: gender differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rask, L.P.; Karp, K.H.; Eriksson, N.P.; Mooe, T.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish the gender-specific normal limits of thallium-201 distribution in patients with aortic stenosis and to apply these normal limits in a larger group of patients with aortic stenosis to obtain the sensitivity and specificity for coexisting CAD. A low-dose dipyridamole protocol was used (0.56 mg/kg during 4 min). Thallium was injected 2 min later and tomographic imaging was performed. Following image reconstruction a basal, a mid-ventricular and an apical short-axis slice were selected. The highest activity in each 6 segment was normalised to the maximal activity of each slice. The normal uptake for patients with aortic stenosis was obtained from ten men and ten women with aortic stenosis and a normal coronary angiography. Eighty-nine patients were prospectively evaluated. An area reduction of at least 75% in a coronary artery was considered to be a significant coronary lesion and was found in 57 (64%) patients. With gender-specific curves (-2.5 SD) sensitivity for detecting CAD was 100% and specificity was 75% in men, while sensitivity was 61% and specificity 64% in women. It is concluded that the gender-specific normal distribution of 201 Tl uptake in patients with aortic stenosis, using dipyridamole SPET, yields a high sensitivity and specificity for coronary artery lesions in men but a lower sensitivity and specificity in women with aortic stenosis. (orig./MG)

  1. Education and family bias: an approach to the vulnerability of married women in Spain, 2005-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. CAÑADA VICINAY

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of education in labor inequality based on gender, age and marital status in Spain in the period 2005q1-2012q4 with individual data from the EPA. The axes of inquiry are twofold: 1st crosssectional approach to family bias expressed in the job profiles of cycle life, occupational segregation, concentration of employment in occupational groups and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses; and 2nd longitudinal treatment with sliding panel of family interference in the market status of married women by age and educational level. Cross-sectional analysis shows negative associations between marriage-education in both sexes and between education and participation in women by comparison with men, jointly with large gender segregation in married women suggests that they support a family specific bias which hinders its market presence. The individual perception of family interference confirms this fact as they are married women who suffer mainly from the problems of work-family conciliation, even younger than 44 years where they are more educated than their husbands and gender equality is a social value settled. The longitudinal analysis quantifies, with multinomial Logit estimates, the disadvantage of married women to participate into the market in terms of the entry barrier for inactive wives and the premature withdrawal for occupied ones due to problems of work-family reconciliation. In short, family responsibilities leave off the market to married women, regardless of age and education.

  2. Evaluation of a Reproductive Health Program to Support Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few reproductive health programs are targeted to married adolescent girls. This study measures changes associated with a program for married adolescent girls and a parallel husbands' program, in rural Ethiopia. The married girls' program provided information on communication, self-esteem, reproductive health and ...

  3. Self-Rated Health Trajectories among Married Americans: Do Disparities Persist over 20 Years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terceira A. Berdahl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand self-rated health (SRH trajectories by social location (race/ethnicity by gender by social class among married individuals in the United States. We estimate multilevel models of SRH using six observations from 1980 to 2000 from a nationally representative panel of married individuals initially aged 25–55 (Marital Instability Over the Life Course Study. Results indicate that gender, race/ethnicity, and social class are associated with initial SRH disparities. Women are less healthy than men; people of color are less healthy than whites; lower educated individuals are less healthy than higher educated individuals. Women’s health declined slower than men’s but did not differ by race/ethnicity or education. Results from complex intersectional models show that white men with any college had the highest initial SRH. Only women with any college had significantly slower declines in SRH compared to white men with any college. For married individuals of all ages, most initial SRH disparities persist over twenty years. Intersecting statuses show that education provides uneven health benefits across racial/ethnic and gender subgroups.

  4. Antenatal care among currently married women in Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Chauhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the utilization of antenatal care (ANC services among currently married women in Rajasthan. Methods: The data have been extracted from District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3 which was conducted during 2007-2008, all over India. A total of 12 458 currently married women in the age group of 15-49 were taken as the sample for the study. Cross tabulation and binary logistic regression method were applied to determine the factors influencing ANC. Results: Out of 12 458 respondents, 43.4 percent women not received even a single ANC during their pregnancy period. 45.1 percent of the women not received tetanus toxoid injection and 13.0 percent of the women not received Iron folic acid tablets during their pregnancy period. Only 6.6 percent of women fulfilled the minimum recommendation with regard ANC services. Conclusions: The study points to the avenues through which policy makers can formulate and implement policies on a realistic basis by identifying critical variables and target groups for effective utilisation of ANC.

  5. Gender and Race in the Timing of Requests for Ethics Consultations: A Single-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Bethany; Gorka, Christine; Miller, Keith; Pointer, Carolyn A; Hinze, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Clinical ethics consultants are expected to "reduce disparities, discrimination, and inequities when providing consultations," but few studies about inequities in ethics consultation exist.1 The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if there were racial or gender differences in the timing of requests for ethics consultations related to limiting treatment, and (2) if such differences were found, to identify factors associated with that difference and the role, if any, of ethics consultants in mitigating them. The study was a mixed methods retrospective study of consultation summaries and hospital and ethics center data on 56 age-and gender-matched Caucasian and African American Medicare patients who received ethics consultations related to issues around limiting medical treatment in the period 2011 to 2014. The average age of patients was 70.9. Consultation requests for females were made significantly earlier in their stays in the hospital (6.57 days) than were consultation requests made for males (16.07 days). For African American patients, the differences in admission-to-request intervals for female patients (5.93 days) and male patients (18.64 days) were greater than for Caucasian male and female patients. Differences in the timing of a consultation were not significantly correlated with the presence of an advance directive, the specialty of the attending physician, or the reasons for the consult request. Ethics consultants may have mitigated problems that developed during the lag in request times for African American males by spending more time, on average, on those consultations (316 minutes), especially more time, on average, than on consultations with Caucasian females (195 minutes). Most consultations (40 of 56) did result in movement toward limiting treatment, but no statistically significant differences were found among the groups studied in the movement toward limiting treatment. The average number of days from consult to discharge or death were

  6. Deconstructing family meals: Do family structure, gender and employment status influence the odds of having a family meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mienah Z; Alcalá, Héctor E; Albert, Stephanie L; Fischer, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    We assessed the odds of having a family dinner by parental gender, family structure and parental employment. This study used data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) (2006-2008). Multivariate analyses assessed the odds of two outcomes among parents: 1) eating at all with children and 2) having a family dinner. Single men had lower odds of eating at all with children and eating a family dinner in comparison to partnered/married males. Partnered/married women had increased odds of eating at all with children and eating a family dinner compared to their partnered/married male counterparts. While single women had increased odds of eating at all with children compared to partnered/married males, no difference was detected in the odds of having a family dinner. Among dual-headed households, women had lower odds of eating a family dinner when both parents were employed compared a dual-headed household with employed male/non-employed female. There were no differences among men regardless of their employment status or that of their partner/spouse. Family structure, parental gender and employment status all influence the odds of having a family dinner. Future research on family meals should consider all of these factors to better understand trends and disparities across household compositions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Extending the moral economy beyond households: Gendered livelihood strategies of single migrant women in Accra, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufuor, T.; Niehof, A.; Sato, C.; Horst, van der H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights how single migrant women (SMW) from rural northern Ghana generate livelihoods through the adoption of both market and non-market based strategies by extending and then prioritising moral obligations to community members beyond their immediate households instead of focusing on

  8. The Relationship between Self-efficacy and Marital Satisfaction among Married Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mashal pour fard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study was designed and conducted to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and marital satisfaction among married and single students. Materials and Methods The sample of this study consisted of 50 married students of Payame Noor University in IZEH city, South West of Iran; then simple random sampling method was used to select samples. To measure self-efficacy questionnaire Scherer and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire was used. Data were analyses using SPSS-20. Results The mean age of students were 23 + 0.739 years. In terms of demographic characteristics, 50% of the study population were women and 50% were men. Results showed thatthere was a significant negative correlation between self-efficacy and marital satisfaction of male students (r= - 0.55 and P=0.001, respectively. Also, there was a significant negative correlation between self-efficacy and marital satisfaction in married women students (r= -0.47 and P=0.001, respectively. Conclusion The root of many marital problems, including divorce, the factors they are directly or indirectly marital satisfaction. Therefore, considering these variables can be important to prevent disputes in married life and many negative consequences for physical and mental health will bring the couple and their children that can affect the beneficial aspects of married life.

  9. Bone-anchored hearing implants in single-sided deafness patients: Long-term use and satisfaction by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Hubert T; Nelissen, Rik C; Kramer, Sophia E; Cremers, Cor W R J; Snik, Ad F M; Hol, Myrthe K S

    2015-12-01

    To examine the long-term satisfaction and possible effects of gender in patients with single-sided deafness (SSD) who underwent bone-anchored hearing implant (BAHI) surgery. Retrospective case-control study. All (n = 145) consecutive SSD patients fitted with a BAHI between January 2001 and October 2011 were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB), the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired (CPHI), and the SSD questionnaire. Twenty-three of the 135 responding patients (17%) reported discontinuation of the device over an average follow-up time of 61.7 months. No significant differences were found in the degree of disability or coping between men and women, according to the APHAB and CPHI scores. Improvement in quality of life and appreciation of the BAHI were not affected by gender, age, directional hearing ability, and handling of the device. The appearance of the device positively affected their appreciation. At the mean follow-up time of 117 months, 69.2% was using their BAHI. In the domains background noise, reverberant surroundings, and aversion to sounds, the mean APHAB scores were significantly changed at 3 months, 1 year, and 10 years after implantation. Our study examined the results of BAHI use in SSD patients over a relatively long follow-up period, with an average of 5 years. The majority of users (83%) were satisfied with the device. No significant gender differences were in terms of reported appreciation, hearing disability, or coping with a BAHI. 3b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. The impact of family status on gender identity and on sex-typing of household tasks in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    2005-06-01

    The author examined differences in sex-typing of household tasks (adult gender roles and children's chores) and differences in gender identity among adult Israelis. The author compared 2 groups of participants: single people without children (single-family participants; n = 62) and married people with children (full-family participants; n = 62). Regarding sex-typing of household tasks and direct assessments of masculine and feminine identity, there were no differences between single-family participants and full-family participants. However, family status affected self-assessments of gender identity that were based on cultural definitions of masculine and feminine attributes. Furthermore, correlations between direct assessments of gender identity and sex-typing of household tasks differed according to family status.

  11. Community Influences on Married Women's Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of disadvantaged or deprived community on individuals' health risk-behaviors is increasingly being documented in a growing body of literature. However, little is known about the effects of community characteristics on women's sexual attitudes and behaviors. To examine community effects on married women's safer sex negotiation attitudes, we analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys on a sample of 15,134 married women in 600 communities. We estimated two multilevel logistic regression models. Model 1, which included only individual-level variables, showed that women's autonomy/empowerment, age, and HIV knowledge had significant associations with their safer sex negotiation attitudes. We did not find any socioeconomic status gradient in safer sex negotiation attitudes at the individual level. Adding community-level variables in Model 2 significantly improved the fit of the model. Strikingly, we found that higher community-level poverty was associated with greater positive safer sex negotiation attitudes. Prevailing gender norms and overall women's empowerment in the community also had significant effects. While research on community influences calls for focusing on disadvantaged communities, our research highlights the importance of not underestimating the challenges that married women in economically privileged communities may face in negotiating safer sex. To have sufficient and equitable impact on married women's sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health promotion policies and programs need to be directed to women in wealthier communities as well.

  12. Risky sexual behavior among married alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie H; Fals-Stewart, William; Fincham, Frank D

    2008-04-01

    The current study explored whether the wives of men entering alcoholism treatment are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) exposure as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. The extramarital relationships of married alcoholic men entering outpatient treatment (n = 125) were compared with those of a demographically matched community sample of nonalcoholic married men (n = 125). The proportion of alcoholic men who reported 1 or more extramarital affairs in the previous year (14%) was significantly higher than that of the community sample (4%). Additionally, only 2 alcoholic husbands and 1 nonalcoholic husband reported that his wife was aware of the extramarital relationship. For both groups, none of the men who engaged in extramarital relationships reported consistent use of condoms when having sexual intercourse with their wives or with their extramarital partners. These results suggest that wives of alcoholic men are unknowingly placed at risk for indirect exposure to STIs as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. Thus, infidelity in treatment-seeking alcohol-abusing men represents a significant public health issue. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Sexual abuse experienced by married Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, A M; El-Dien Ibrahim, M; Eldesoky, M M; Aly, O M; El-Sayd Mohamed Hassan, M

    2007-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of sexual abuse (SA) and associated factors among married women in Lower Egypt. A cross-sectional clinic- and hospital-based survey was designed for married women aged between 16 and 49 years. The study was conducted with 936 women from the Dakahlia Governorate, which is considered representative of Lower Egypt. Data were collected by personal interview using a questionnaire. The response rate was 93.6%. The most commonly reported frequency of sexual intercourse was 2 to 4 times per week. More than one-third of the women (36.2%) thought this was too frequent, and 11.5% reported being sexually abused in addition to other sexual problems. The educational level of the women; the presence of genital mutilation; parity, especially for those who had more than 5 deliveries; number of gynecologic visits; and history of gynecologic interventions were significantly or highly significantly associated with SA. The husbands' educational level and age were highly significantly correlated with their wives reporting SA, particularly when the men were illiterate or were smokers or drug users. The study's findings demonstrate an immediate need for the prevention of SA in Lower Egypt.

  14. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana; Christensen, Kaare; Gatz, Margaret; Johnson, Wendy; Kaprio, Jaako; Korhonen, Tellervo; Niederheiser, Jenae; Petersen, Inge; Rose, Richard J; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-10-14

    From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage as a source of resources that are associated with subjective health.

  15. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana

    2016-01-01

    genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance......From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate...... in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage...

  16. Married women's decision making power on modern contraceptive use in urban and rural southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Tizta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in developing countries are either under collective decision making with their partners or completely rely on the male partner's decision on issues that affect their reproductive live. Identifying the major barriers of married women's decision making power on contraceptive use has significant relevance for planning contextually appropriate family planning interventions. The objective of this study was to determine current modern contraceptive practices and decision making power among married women in Tercha Town and surrounding rural areas of Dawro zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based comparative cross-sectional design with both quantitative and Qualitative study has been employed in March and April 2010. The respondents were 699 married women of child bearing age from urban and rural parts of Dawro zone. After conducting census, we took the sample using simple random sampling technique. Results Current modern contraceptive use among married women in the urban was 293 (87.5% and 243 (72.8% in rural. Married women who reside in urban area were more likely to decide on the use of modern contraceptive method than rural women. Having better knowledge about modern contraceptive methods, gender equitable attitude, better involvement in decisions related to children, socio-cultural and family relations were statistically significant factors for decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the urban setting. Better knowledge, fear of partner's opposition or negligence, involvement in decisions about child and economic affairs were statistically significant factors for better decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the rural part. Conclusions High level of current modern contraceptive practice with reduced urban-rural difference was found as compared to regional and national figures. Urban women had better power to make decisions on modern

  17. Voices of successful science teachers in an urban diverse single gender girls' school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhan, Jyoti

    This research study was conducted as a qualitative case study of four successful science teachers of female students in a diverse, title 1, urban, public girls' school. The study was designed to hear the 'muted' voices of successful science teachers concerning their beliefs and practices when they effectively provide learning opportunities for female students of color in their classrooms. Ethic of Care, equity pedagogy and culturally responsive pedagogy, created the theoretical framework for interpretation of the powerful narratives and storytelling that influenced this group of successful teachers. Data were collected by conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Constant comparative method and narrative analysis were used to code and categorize the data. Analysis was conducted after each interview to discover emergent themes. Teachers conducted member checks throughout the process. The findings from the study yielded the following: (1) teachers had a passion for science and incorporated ongoing scientific developments and real-life examples and applications in their teaching, (2) teachers adopted a caring, concerned, and student-centered approach to teaching, (3) teachers acknowledged certain benefits to a single-sex girls education which included fewer distractions, increased confidence and comfort level of students, (5) teachers built relationships with students that encouraged students to engage with rigorous course content and meet higher expectations for performance. Themes that emerged included: care, culturally responsive pedagogy and culturally relevant curriculum.

  18. Effects of single-gender mathematics classrooms on self-perception of mathematical ability and post secondary engineering paths: an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, D.; Jacobs, B.

    2010-08-01

    This study focused on a population of female engineering students, probing the influences of their secondary school experience on their choice to pursue an engineering course of study at university. The motivating question is: Do unique opportunities exist in an all-female secondary school mathematics classroom, which impact a young woman's self-perception of her mathematics ability as well as promote a positive path towards an engineering-based university major? Using both qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments, this study examined a sample of Australian engineering students enrolled at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). Demographic statistics show that 40% of UTS' female engineering student population attended a single-gender secondary school, indicating a potential influence of school type (single-gender) on engineering enrolment patterns. Female students were primarily motivated to pursue a post secondary engineering path because of a self-belief that they are good at mathematics. In contrast, male students were more influenced by positive male role models of family members who are practising engineers. In measures of self- perception of mathematical skill and ability, female students from single-gender schools outscored their male engineering counterparts. Additionally, female students seem to benefit from verbal encouragement, contextualisation, same gender problem-solving groups and same gender classroom dynamics.

  19. Pension plan participation among married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushi, Irena; Iams, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    We present descriptive statistics on pension participation and types of pensions among married couples, using data from the 1996/2008 Panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation and Social Security administrative records. Previous research has focused on pension coverage by marital status, but has not examined couples as a unit. Because couples usually share income, viewing them as a unit provides a better picture of potential access to income from retirement plans. Our analysis compares 1998 and 2009 data because substantial changes occurred in the pension landscape over this decade that could have influenced the prevalence of different pension plans, although we observe modest changes in participation rates and types of plans over the period. We find that in 20 percent of couples, neither spouse participated in a pension plan; in 10 percent, the wife was the only participant; and in 37 percent, the husband was the only participant.

  20. Are you Wo(man enough to get married?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiurma M. P. Allagan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian marriage states that marriage is physical and spiritual relationship between a man and a woman as husband and wife in order to create an eternal happy family based on the Almighty God. This definition reflects that the marriage in Indonesia must be between heterosexual couple. However, a question appears as to whether a man or a woman mentioned thereof is included a man and a woman who were, hermaphrodite, intersex, or nowadays known as person with Disorder of Sexual Development (DSD? The case of AH whereby his marriage is cancelled by the Supreme Court in 2014 for he is not considered as a man, is confirming that this question is important to value the capacity of a person to marry. This writing will apply normative research as well as literature research method upon the positive rules and regulations. The decisions of district courts upon the revision or change of gender and its legal basis will be analysed and be the topic of discussion. Comparison will be applied to compare the marriage requirements between Indonesian Law, Singapore Law and Hong Kong Law. The results of analyse and discussion will be the closure of the writing, as conclusions and advise, if any.

  1. Gender Gap in Maths Test Scores in South Korea and Hong Kong: Role of Family Background and Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo Hwan; Law, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In many industrialised societies, women remain underrepresented in the sciences, which can be predicted by the gender gap in math achievement at school. Using PISA 2006 data, we explore the role of family background and single-sex schooling in girls' disadvantage in maths in South Korea and Hong Kong. This disadvantage is found to be associated…

  2. Gender and the Reproductive Rights of Tarok Women in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated how unequal gender relations inhibit the attainment of women's reproductive rights. It examined whether women can choose if and when to marry, who to marry/have sex with, ability to negotiate sex with spouse, and their access to family planning. Based on theoretical orientation from ...

  3. All Shook Up: Sexuality of Mid- to Later Life Married Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Amy C; Umberson, Debra

    2012-06-01

    The authors integrate theoretical work on the performance of gender with a life course perspective to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 17 long-term married couples. The findings indicated that couples' sexual experiences are characterized by change over time, yet that change is shaped by the intersection of gender and age. Midlife couples (ages 50 - 69) were distressed by changes in their sex lives likely because they impede couples from performing gendered sexuality. The source of this distress stems from age-related physical changes; however, it manifests in different ways for husbands and wives. In contrast, later life couples (ages 70 - 86) were more likely to emphasize the importance of emotional intimacy over sex as they age. Marital sex is a source of conflict for many midlife couples because of husbands' and wives' incongruent experiences, but later life husbands and wives tend to have more congruent experiences of marital sex.

  4. Improved HIV awareness and perceived empowerment to negotiate safe sex among married women in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coninck, Zaake; Feyissa, Ibrahim A; Ekström, Anna Mia; Marrone, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    The HIV prevalence rate in Ethiopia for married (or cohabiting) women is 3 times that found amongst women who have never been married. While marriage used to be seen as a protective factor against HIV, evidence suggests that this is no longer necessarily the case. This study analyses the trend and socio-demographic determinants of HIV awareness and safe sex negotiation among married women in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2011. Data from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2005 and in 2011 were analysed. Socio-demographic variables as well as 'survey year' were selected to assess their interaction with selected HIV awareness and safe sex negotiation indicators. Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were computed. A significant increase in knowledge of HIV and ability to negotiate safer sex occurred between 2005 and 2011 reflecting a positive trend in gender empowerment amongst married Ethiopian women. Some of these advancements were striking, for instance respondents were 3.6 times more likely to have "Heard of AIDS" in 2011 than in 2005. HIV awareness and safer sex negotiation were significantly associated with higher education, higher socioeconomic status, those who had heard of HIV, those of the Orthodox Christian faith, and (to some extent) those living in rural areas. HIV awareness has increased significantly in Ethiopia over the last decade but married women are still disproportionately susceptible to HIV. Community programmes, already effective in Ethiopia, also need to target this vulnerable sub-group of women.

  5. Improved HIV awareness and perceived empowerment to negotiate safe sex among married women in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaake De Coninck

    Full Text Available The HIV prevalence rate in Ethiopia for married (or cohabiting women is 3 times that found amongst women who have never been married. While marriage used to be seen as a protective factor against HIV, evidence suggests that this is no longer necessarily the case. This study analyses the trend and socio-demographic determinants of HIV awareness and safe sex negotiation among married women in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2011.Data from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2005 and in 2011 were analysed. Socio-demographic variables as well as 'survey year' were selected to assess their interaction with selected HIV awareness and safe sex negotiation indicators. Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were computed.A significant increase in knowledge of HIV and ability to negotiate safer sex occurred between 2005 and 2011 reflecting a positive trend in gender empowerment amongst married Ethiopian women. Some of these advancements were striking, for instance respondents were 3.6 times more likely to have "Heard of AIDS" in 2011 than in 2005. HIV awareness and safer sex negotiation were significantly associated with higher education, higher socioeconomic status, those who had heard of HIV, those of the Orthodox Christian faith, and (to some extent those living in rural areas.HIV awareness has increased significantly in Ethiopia over the last decade but married women are still disproportionately susceptible to HIV. Community programmes, already effective in Ethiopia, also need to target this vulnerable sub-group of women.

  6. Perceptions and Use of Contraception among Married Males in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study findings highlight the importance of improved reproductive health education, and access to reproductive health services for married couples. Furthermore, research is needed to better understand married male involvement and their support of family planning both within marriage and in non-marriage relationships.

  7. Taiwanese Married Women's Lived Experience of Zen Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hsin-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Due to the impact of Confucianism on Taiwanese society, Taiwanese married women play multiple family roles including being a daughter-in-law, wife, mother, and working woman. Having to play multiple roles usually brings Taiwanese married women burdens and stress. It is reported that Zen meditation improves people's physical and mental wellbeing.…

  8. Forced Sex among Married or Steady Partners in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    A woman who only produces female children experiences abuse from her husband and mother- in-law because as a married woman, she is not living up to her social-familial obligation. This wife/daughter-in-law experiences failure in a paradox: she desires to be a 'good' married wife, but she is unable to produce a son so ...

  9. A STUDY OF THE ASPIRATIONS OF MARRIED WOMEN COLLEGE GRADUATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYON, RHEE

    THE PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO DETERMINE WHAT HAPPENS TO CAREER AMBITIONS AFTER THE COLLEGE GIRL MARRIES, WHETHER INTERESTS AND AMBITIONS CHANGE IN SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS DURING MARRIAGE, AND IN WHAT WAYS MARRIED WOMEN WITH CAREER AMBITIONS DIFFER FROM THOSE WITH NONE. RESPONDENTS TO A FORCED-CHOICE QUESTIONNAIRE WERE 310 MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN…

  10. 29 CFR 1604.4 - Discrimination against married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.4 Discrimination against married women. (a) The Commission has determined... applicable to married men is a discrimination based on sex prohibited by title VII of the Civil Rights Act... a discrimination based on sex. (b) It may be that under certain circumstances, such a rule could be...

  11. Using Marital Status and Continuous Marital Satisfaction Ratings to Predict Depressive Symptoms in Married and Unmarried Women With Systemic Sclerosis: A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Brooke; Rice, Danielle B; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D

    2016-08-01

    Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as satisfied versus unsatisfied, which reduces statistical power and does not generate clinically useful information on mental health across the satisfaction spectrum. Our objective was to demonstrate a novel regression approach to evaluate mental health in women with systemic sclerosis (SSc), comparing married and unmarried women, accounting for continuously measured marital satisfaction. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and marital satisfaction with the Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7. A single multiple linear regression model was used to predict CES-D scores from marital status and, among married women, continuously measured marital satisfaction, controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Of 725 women, 494 (68%) were married or living as married. On average, married women had mean CES-D scores that were 2.0 points (0.19 SDs) lower than unmarried women (P = 0.013). Among married women, a 1.0 SD increase in marital satisfaction was associated with a 2.2 point (0.21 SDs) decrease in CES-D scores (P marital satisfaction scores were below the 19th percentile had greater predicted depressive symptoms than unmarried women. Married women's predicted CES-D scores ranged from 6.7 points lower to 6.9 points higher than those of unmarried women, depending on marital satisfaction. Comparisons of mental health in married and unmarried patients with rheumatic diseases should include continuously measured marital satisfaction. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Sexual coercion of married women in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual coercion is an important public health issue due to its negative association with social and health outcomes. The paper aims to examine the prevalence of sexual coercion perpetrated by husbands on their wives in Nepal and to identify the characteristics associated with this phenomenon. Methods The data used in this paper comes from a cross-sectional survey on "Domestic Violence in Nepal" carried out in 2009. A total of 1,536 married women were interviewed and associations between sexual coercion and the explanatory variables were assessed via bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. Logistic regression was then applied to assess the net effect of several independent variables on sexual coercion. Results Overall, about three in five women (58% had experienced some form of sexual coercion by their husbands. Logistic regression analysis found that the literacy status of women, decision-making power regarding their own health care, husband-wife age differences, alcohol consumption by the husband, and male patriarchal control all had significant associations with women's experience of sexual coercion. Literate women had 28% less chance (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.72 of experiencing sexual coercion by their husbands than did illiterate women. Women who made decisions jointly with their husbands with regard to their own health care were 36% less likely (aOR = 0.64 to experience sexual coercion than those whose health care was decided upon by their mothers/fathers-in-law. On the other hand, women whose husbands were 5 or more years older than they were more likely to report sexual coercion (aOR = 1.33 than were their counterparts, as were women whose husbands consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.27. Furthermore, women who experienced higher levels of patriarchal control from their husbands were also more likely to experience sexual coercion by their husbands (aOR = 7.2 compared to those who did not face such control. Conclusion The

  13. Sexual coercion of married women in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh; Tamang, Jyotsna

    2010-10-28

    Sexual coercion is an important public health issue due to its negative association with social and health outcomes. The paper aims to examine the prevalence of sexual coercion perpetrated by husbands on their wives in Nepal and to identify the characteristics associated with this phenomenon. The data used in this paper comes from a cross-sectional survey on "Domestic Violence in Nepal" carried out in 2009. A total of 1,536 married women were interviewed and associations between sexual coercion and the explanatory variables were assessed via bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. Logistic regression was then applied to assess the net effect of several independent variables on sexual coercion. Overall, about three in five women (58%) had experienced some form of sexual coercion by their husbands. Logistic regression analysis found that the literacy status of women, decision-making power regarding their own health care, husband-wife age differences, alcohol consumption by the husband, and male patriarchal control all had significant associations with women's experience of sexual coercion. Literate women had 28% less chance (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.72) of experiencing sexual coercion by their husbands than did illiterate women. Women who made decisions jointly with their husbands with regard to their own health care were 36% less likely (aOR = 0.64) to experience sexual coercion than those whose health care was decided upon by their mothers/fathers-in-law. On the other hand, women whose husbands were 5 or more years older than they were more likely to report sexual coercion (aOR = 1.33) than were their counterparts, as were women whose husbands consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.27). Furthermore, women who experienced higher levels of patriarchal control from their husbands were also more likely to experience sexual coercion by their husbands (aOR = 7.2) compared to those who did not face such control. The study indicates that sexual coercion among married women is

  14. The effects of husband's alcohol consumption on married women in three low-income areas of Greater Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marlene J; Kremelberg, David; Dwivedi, Purva; Verma, Supriya; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S K

    2010-08-01

    Gender-based violence rooted in norms, socialization practices, structural factors, and policies that underlie men's abusive practices against married women in India is exacerbated by alcohol. The intersection of domestic violence, childhood exposure to alcohol and frustration, which contribute to drinking and its consequences including forced sex is explored through analysis of data obtained from 486 married men living with their wives in a low-income area of Greater Mumbai. SEM shows pathways linking work-related stress, greater exposure to alcohol as a child, being a heavy drinker, and having more sexual partners (a proxy for HIV risk). In-depth ethnographic interviews with 44 married women in the study communities reveal the consequences of alcohol on women's lives showing how married women associate alcohol use and violence with different patterns of drinking. The study suggests ways alcohol use leads from physical and verbal abuse to emotional and sexual violence in marriage. Implications for gendered multi-level interventions addressing violence and HIV risk are explored.

  15. Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations.

  16. Impact of the spread of mass education on married women's experience with domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J; Axinn, William G; Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the association between mass education and married women's experience with domestic violence in rural Nepal. Previous research on domestic violence in South Asian societies emphasizes patriarchal ideology and the widespread subordinate status of women within their communities and families. The recent spread of mass education is likely to shift these gendered dynamics, thereby lowering women's likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Using data from 1775 currently married women from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, we provide a thorough analysis of how the spread of mass education is associated with domestic violence among married women. The results show that women's childhood access to school, their parents' schooling, their own schooling, and their husbands' schooling are each associated with their lower likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Indeed, husbands' education has a particularly strong, inverse association with women's likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. These associations suggest that the proliferation of mass education will lead to a marked decline in women's experience with domestic violence in Nepal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of the Spread of Mass Education on Married Women’s Experience with Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.; Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between mass education and married women’s experience with domestic violence in rural Nepal. Previous research on domestic violence in South Asian societies emphasizes patriarchal ideology and the widespread subordinate status of women within their communities and families. The recent spread of mass education is likely to shift these gendered dynamics, thereby lowering women’s likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Using data from 1,775 currently married women from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, we provide a thorough analysis of how the spread of mass education is associated with domestic violence among married women. The results show that women’s childhood access to school, their parents’ schooling, their own schooling, and their husbands’ schooling are each associated with their lower likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Indeed, husbands’ education has a particularly strong, inverse association with women’s likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. These associations suggest that the proliferation of mass education will lead to a marked decline in women’s experience with domestic violence in Nepal. PMID:26463551

  18. Married women's negotiation for safer sexual intercourse in Kenya: Does experience of female genital mutilation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiangnan; Sano, Yujiro; Kansanga, Moses; Baada, Jemima; Antabe, Roger

    2017-12-01

    Married women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is important for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. Yet, its relationship to female genital mutilation is rarely explored, although female genital mutilation has been described as a social norm and marker of womanhood that can control women's sexuality. Drawing on the social normative influence theory, this study addressed this void in the literature. We analysed data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey using logistic regression. Our sample included 8,602 married women. Two indicators of safer sex, namely the ability to refuse sex and the ability to ask for condom use, were explored. We found that women who had undergone genital mutilation were significantly less likely to report that they can refuse sex (OR=0.87; pnegotiate for safer sex through gendered socialization and expectations. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. For instance, culturally sensitive programmes are needed that target both married women who have undergone genital mutilation and their husbands to understand the importance of safer sexual practices within marriage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Marital Satisfaction and Sexual Satisfaction in Married Men in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Premarital sex in big cities like Tehran, has increased significantly and could also have an impact on future relations people after marriage. The main objective of this study was to compare marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction in married men with and without a history of premarital sex.Materials and Methods: This research was causal-comparative. The population of this study consists of all married men less than 45 years in Tehran. 144 married men in Tehran were selected by convenience sampling method. To collect the data, Kansas marital satisfaction and Enrich sexual satisfaction subscale were used. Independent sample t test were used for data analysis.  Results: The results showed that marital satisfaction in married men with a history of premarital sex other than with current wife with a mean (SD 15.6 (4.1 is less than men with no history of 17.6 (3.5 (P<0.01. Sexual satisfaction in married men with a history of premarital sex other than with current wife with a mean (SD 31.4 (6.9 is less than men with no history of 33.7 (5.4 (P<0.01. Marital and sexual satisfactions among married men with and without a history of sex with current partner were similar.Conclusion: This research suggests that married men with a premarital sexual history with other partners, have lower marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction

  20. Professional health care use and subjective unmet need for social or emotional problems: a cross-sectional survey of the married and divorced population of Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colman Elien

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high mental health care consumption rates of divorced singles may constitute a heavy burden on the public health care system. This raises the question of whether their higher health care use stems from a greater need, or whether there are other factors contributing to these high consumption rates. We examine both health care use and subjective unmet need (perceiving a need for care without seeking it because of social or emotional problems of the divorced singles, the repartnered divorcees, and the married. Moreover, we investigate how health care use and subjective unmet need relate to each other. Methods We conduct several gender specific logistic regressions employing data from the Divorce in Flanders Survey (N men = 2884; N women = 3317. Results Results show that the divorced singles have more contact with professional health care providers (general practitioners, psychiatrists, and psychologists because of social or emotional problems, and more often perceive unmet needs. The higher health care use rates and greater subjective unmet needs can largely be attributed to higher levels of depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, we find that non-frequent health care users more often perceive a subjective unmet need than frequent health care users and those who have not contacted any health care provider. Conclusion The single divorced consult health care providers more often because of social or emotional problems and they also perceive unmet needs more often.

  1. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2011-12-16

    In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women's human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on 'universal human rights' are often removed from the reality of adolescent women's everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women's understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and 'rights' exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married

  2. HIV and domestic violence: intersections in the lives of married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Gender inequality is driving two distinct yet interlinked epidemics among women in India: HIV and AIDS and domestic violence. As domestic violence is increasingly recognized and HIV infection expands, policy and programs do not reflect the interlinked risks and consequences in married women's lives. This article seeks to establish the nexus between HIV and AIDS and domestic violence and identify potential areas for a state-led response. In a health and human rights approach, it assesses women's vulnerability to each epidemic at the individual, societal, and program levels to analyze direct and underlying factors that determine women's risk. Three areas are identified as opportunities for an integrated response: strengthen HIV and domestic violence strategies and address their overlap; mainstream gender; and improve data and research.

  3. Barriers to use contraceptive methods among rural young married couples in Maharashtra, India: Qualitative findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghule, Mohan; Raj, Anita; Palaye, Prajakta; Dasgupta, Anindita; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Battala, Madhusudana; Balaiah, Donta

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In rural India contraceptive use remains uncommon among newly married couples. non-use in rural young couples contributes to higher fertility rates. Objectives To identify barriers of spacing contraceptive use among young married couples in rural Maharashtra. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with husbands (N=30), wives (N=20), and village health providers (N=12); additionally, 3 focus groups were conducted with mothers of husbands (N= 42 focused on understanding contraceptive use and barriers. Interviews and focus groups ranged in length from 90–120 minutes. Detailed notes taken during interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach and the data was analysed using atlas-ti software. Results Major barriers to spacing contraception are: pro-natal social norms, pregnancy expectations early in marriage, to produce multiple sons, limited access to modern spacing contraceptives, family resistance to adopt contraceptives, lack of husband’s involvement on family planning issues, myths, misconceptions, perceived side effects and negative attitudes toward specific contraceptives. Conclusion Findings highlight the intersection of norms against spacing contraception, traditional gender ideologies and lack of male involvement as major barriers to the use of contraception. Male oriented outreach programmes on family planning. Promoting gender equity should be made through health programme deliveries with special focus in rural areas. PMID:29430437

  4. Association between intimate partner violence and mental health among Korean married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gum Ryeong; Park, Eun-Ja; Jun, Jina; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2017-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has only attracted limited attention in Korea despite numerous studies in Western countries that indicate IPV is associated with depressive symptoms. This study examined the association of IPV with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation as moderated by the perceived gender roles of married women in South Korea. We analyzed a data set of 4659 married females from the 8th wave of the Korea Welfare Panel Study. Participants were categorized into three groups of non-IPV, non-physical IPV, and physical IPV. The presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation was then used to predict mental health outcomes. Logistic regression helped to investigate the association of IPV and mental health. Furthermore, an interactive regression of IPV and perceived gender roles was also done. Each type of IPV (non-physical and physical) was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (Odds ratios [ORs]: 1.65 and 4.34; 95% confidence interval [CIs]: 1.28-2.13 and 2.71-7.28, respectively) and suicidal ideation (ORs: 1.40 and 3.84; 95% CIs: 1.06-1.85 and 2.32-6.36, respectively) after adjusting for covariates. In addition, women who experienced IPV and reported having traditional gender roles were also more likely to report depressive symptoms (OR: 4.59; 95% CI: 2.90-7.28) and suicidal ideation (OR: 7.28; 95% CI: 3.56-14.87). Research findings indicate an increasingly marked pattern of work-family conflict in regard to the relationship between traditional gender roles and the effect of IPV on the mental health of women. Policy efforts are needed to reduce IPV as a mental health risk factor and address paternalistic traditions deeply rooted in Korean society that place women in an inferior family status. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Marrying Up by Marrying Down: Status Exchange between Social Origin and Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Christine R.; Zeng, Zhen; Xie, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Intermarriage plays a key role in stratification systems. Spousal resemblance reinforces social boundaries within and across generations, and the rules of intermarriage govern the ways that social mobility may occur. We examine intermarriage across social origin and education boundaries in the United States using data from the 1968–2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our evidence points to a pattern of status exchange—that is, persons with high education from modest backgrounds tend to marry those with lower education from more privileged backgrounds. Our study contributes to an active methodological debate by pinpointing the conditions under which the results pivot from evidence against exchange to evidence for exchange and advances theory by showing that the rules of exchange are more consistent with the notion of diminishing marginal utility than the more general theory of compensating differentials. PMID:28066795

  6. "The Royal We": Gender Ideology, Display, and Assessment in Wedding Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Aine M.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; Walker, Alexis J.

    2008-01-01

    Family rituals provide a rich context in which to study the relation between ideology and action. Guided by the gender perspective, this article analyzes the experiences of 21 newly married heterosexual couples who described how they planned their weddings. The interplay among gender ideology, gender display, and gender assessment differed across…

  7. THE CONSTRUCTION OF URBAN SINGLE CAREER WOMAN IN INDONESIAN CHICK LIT, JODOH MONICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny M. Djundjung

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The text of urban single career women in Jodoh Monica is constructed to be negative and unfavorable as opposed to the text of married women, which is positive and favorable. The construction of both texts is based on a patriarchal ideology that is deeply rooted in every aspect of Indonesian family and social lives that Monica, the protagonist in Jodoh Monica, takes a subject position in this the patriarchal discourse of gender role. The text of urban single career woman in Jodoh Monica seeks to conform rather than challenge the patriarchal ideology.

  8. The educational homogamy gap between married and cohabiting couples in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel; McCaa, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The explosive expansion of non-marital cohabitation in Latin America since the 1970s has led to the narrowing of the gap in educational homogamy between married and cohabiting couples (what we call "homogamy gap") as shown by our analysis of 29 census samples encompassing eight countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico and Panama ( N = 2,295,160 young couples). Most research on the homogamy gap is limited to a single decade and a small group of developed countries (the United States, Canada, and Europe). We take a historical and cross-national perspective and expand the research to a range of developing countries, where since early colonial times traditional forms of cohabitation among the poor, uneducated sectors of society have coexisted with marriage, although to widely varying degrees from country to country. In recent decades, cohabitation is emerging in all sectors of society. We find that among married couples educational homogamy continues to be higher than for those who cohabit, but in recent decades the difference has narrowed substantially in all countries. We argue that assortative mating between cohabiting and married couples tend to be similar when the contexts in which they are formed are also increasingly similar.

  9. The educational homogamy gap between married and cohabiting couples in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel; McCaa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The explosive expansion of non-marital cohabitation in Latin America since the 1970s has led to the narrowing of the gap in educational homogamy between married and cohabiting couples (what we call “homogamy gap”) as shown by our analysis of 29 census samples encompassing eight countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico and Panama (N = 2,295,160 young couples). Most research on the homogamy gap is limited to a single decade and a small group of developed countries (the United States, Canada, and Europe). We take a historical and cross-national perspective and expand the research to a range of developing countries, where since early colonial times traditional forms of cohabitation among the poor, uneducated sectors of society have coexisted with marriage, although to widely varying degrees from country to country. In recent decades, cohabitation is emerging in all sectors of society. We find that among married couples educational homogamy continues to be higher than for those who cohabit, but in recent decades the difference has narrowed substantially in all countries. We argue that assortative mating between cohabiting and married couples tend to be similar when the contexts in which they are formed are also increasingly similar. PMID:25506110

  10. Does gender impact on female doctors'experiences in the training and practice of surgery? A single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoetok, F; Van Wyk, J M; Madiba, T E

    2017-09-01

    Surgery has been identified as a male-dominated specialty in South Africa and abroad. This study explored how female registrars perceived the impact of gender on their training and practice of surgery. A self-administered questionnaire was used to explore whether females perceived any benefits to training in a male-dominated specialty, their choice of mentors and the challenges that they encountered during surgical training. Thirty-two female registrars participated in the study. The respondents were mainly South African (91%) and enrolled in seven surgical specialties. Twenty-seven (84%) respondents were satisfied with their training and skills development. Twenty-four (75%) respondents had a mentor from the department. Seventeen (53%) respondents perceived having received differential treatment due to their gender and 25 (78.2%) thought that the gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of the guidance received in surgery. Challenges included physical threats to female respondents from patients and disrespect, emotional threats and defaming statements from male registrars. Additional challenges included time-constraints for family and academic work, poor work-life balance and being treated differently due to their gender. Seventeen (53%) respondents would consider teaching in the Department of Surgery. Generally, females had positive perceptions of their training in Surgery. They expressed concern about finding and maintaining a work-life balance. The gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of the training but 'bullying' from male peers and selected supervisors occurred. Respondents will continue to recommend the specialty as a satisfying career to young female students.

  11. Internet Pornography Consumption and Relationship Commitment of Filipino Married Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racidon P. Bernarte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet pornography has many adverse effects, especially to the relationship commitment. The use of pornography directly correlates to a decrease in sexual intimacy. Hence, this might lead to weakening of the relationship of their partner. To find out the relevance of the claim, the researchers aimed to explore the relationship of Internet pornography consumption to the relationship commitment of married individuals in the Philippines. Different factors such as level of satisfaction, investment, quality of alternatives, relationship stability and viewing habits were also considered in determining the relationship of watching online pornography and the relationship commitment of Filipino married individuals. The study used the descriptive-correlational design. A self-administered survey was distributed to 400.It is revealed that Internet pornography consumption has an adverse effect on the relationship commitment of married Filipino couples. Furthermore, watching porn online weakened the relationship commitment that leads to an unstable relationship. This investigation found out that internet pornography consumption has a nominal negative effect on the relationship commitment of Filipino married individuals. It is proven on this study that internet pornography consumption can weaken the relationship commitment of married individuals thus, it promotes knowledge about numerous effect of it, negatively and even positively. This paper also contributes to pornography related researches on the country which can give further awareness about the said area.

  12. Marital and Parental Satisfaction of Married Physicians with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, Carole M; Moonesinghe, Kushan; Allen, Walter; Gelberg, Lillian

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate personal and professional factors associated with marital and parental satisfaction of physicians. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS A survey was sent to equal numbers of licensed male and female physicians in a Southern California county. Of 964 delivered questionnaires, 656 (68%) were returned completed. Our sample includes 415 currently married physicians with children, 64% male and 36% female. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Ratings of marital and parental satisfaction were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, 5 being extremely satisfied. Prevalence of work and home life factors was also evaluated. The mean score for marital satisfaction was 3.92 (range 1.75–5.0). Approximately half of the physicians reported high levels of marital satisfaction (63% of male physicians and 45% of female physicians). The gender difference disappeared after adjusting for age differences. Two factors were associated with high marital satisfaction: a supportive spouse (odds ratio [OR] 10.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 40.08) and role conflict (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42, 0.88). The mean score for parental satisfaction was 3.43 (range 1.0–5.0), and approximately two thirds of both male and female physicians reported at least moderate levels of parental satisfaction. The major factors associated with parental satisfaction were a supportive spouse (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.32, 3.80), role conflict (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.23, 0.53), salaried practice setting (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), marriage to a spouse working in a profession (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), and marriage to a spouse working as a homemaker (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.20, 4.56). Number of hours worked was not found to be related to either satisfaction score, but rather to an intervening variable, role conflict. CONCLUSIONS For physicians with children, our study indicates that minimizing the level of role conflict and having a supportive spouse are associated with higher levels of marital and

  13. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  14. Early Women, Late Men: Timing Attitudes and Gender Differences in Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Keera; Thornton, Arland; Mitchell, Colter; Young-DeMarco, Linda; Ghimire, Dirgha J

    2017-10-01

    Around the world, women marry earlier than men, but it is not well understood why this gender gap exists. Using panel data collected in Nepal, the authors investigate whether attitudes about marital timing held by unmarried youth and their parents account for women marrying earlier than men. They also examine whether the influence of timing attitudes differs by gender. On average, unmarried youth and their parents viewed 20 to 25 as acceptable ages for women to marry, while ages 23 to 30 were appropriate for men. In turn, women entering the acceptable marriage age range earlier than men accounted for a third of the gender gap in marital timing. The influence of youth and parents' timing attitudes did differ by gender, but only at the extreme. When they were much too young for marriage, both genders were less likely to marry, but this dampening effect was substantially larger for women.

  15. Prevalence of Genital Prolapse among Married Women in Southern Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to estimate the prevalence of genital prolapse among married women of Udupi taluk, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1256 married women using a structured questionnaire. Women were interviewed in their residence using the Manipal Pelvic Floor Dysfunction screening questionnaire. Result: The mean age of the women participated in this study was 42.3±12.2. The overall prevalence of genital prolapse found in this study was 2% (n=25. Thirty-two percent (n=8 of the women with prolapse had symptoms of urinary incontinence. An association was reported between the age and the genital prolapse. Conclusion: This study shows a 2% (n=25 prevalence of genital prolapse in married women of Udupi Taluk.

  16. Never Quit: The Complexities of Promoting Social and Academic Excellence at a Single-Gender School for Urban African American Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon C. James

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the experiences of urban African American males at a first year single-gender charter school in the Southern region of the United States. The present case study was based on interviews and focus groups with parents, teachers, students, and the school administrator, and a participant observation of Excel Academy [pseudonym]. The findings of this study suggest that there were four critical instructional complexities that emerged: expectations dissonance, disguised engagement, differential engagement, and expectations overload. Remarkably, these issues were being addressed by a school value created by students and institutionalized by teachers--To Never Quit. Recommendations to address each instructional complexity are explored.

  17. Does Gender Influence Electroconvulsive Therapy Sessions Required across Psychiatric Diagnoses? A 5-Year Experience from a Single Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Harshini; Subramanian, Karthick; Menon, Vikas; Kattimani, Shivanand

    2017-01-01

    Context: There is a paucity of systematic data reflecting the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) from developing countries. Aim: We aimed to identify the number of ECT sessions required to yield response and gender diffeferences in the number of sessions across various diagnostic categories. Setting and Design: A record-based study from a teaching cum tertiary care hospital in South India. Subjects and Methods: Case records of patients who received modified ECT from January 2011 to January 2016 were reviewed. The sociodemographic details and ECT-related data were collected. Psychiatric diagnoses were ascertained as per the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Among 148 patients, 82 (55.4%) had mood disorder (bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder), 43 (29.1%) had schizophrenia, and 22 (14.9%) had other acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPDs). Patients with mood disorders, schizophrenia, and other ATPD received 7.3 (± 3.8), 9.7 (± 6.1), and 5.4 (± 2.0) ECT sessions, respectively, to achieve response. There was no gender difference in the number of sessions received. Conclusion: Our findings show that number of ECT sessions required to yield response may be disorder-specific. Gender does not influence the ECT dose requirement. Variations in ECT parameters across settings may limit the generalizability of results. PMID:28694625

  18. Autonomy and Reproductive Rights of Married Ikwerre Women in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Wangmo, Tenzin; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2017-06-01

    A woman's lack of or limited reproductive autonomy could lead to adverse health effects, feeling of being inferior, and above all being unable to adequately care for her children. Little is known about the reproductive autonomy of married Ikwerre women of Rivers State, Nigeria. This study demonstrates how Ikwerre women understand the terms autonomy and reproductive rights and what affects the exercise of these rights. An exploratory research design was employed for this study. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to conduct thirty-four in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions with purposively sampled educated, semi-educated, and uneducated Ikwerre women in monogamous or polygynous marriages. The collected data was analysed qualitatively with MAXQDA 11 using open and axial coding. The interviews and focus group responses reveal a low level of awareness of autonomy and reproductive rights amongst the Ikwerre women in Nigeria. While some educated women were aware of their reproductive rights, cultural practices were reported to limit the exercise of these rights. Participants reported that Ikwerre culture is a patriarchal one where married women are expected to submit and obey their husbands in all matters; and a good married woman according to Ikwerre standard is one who complies with this culture. Women's refusal of sexual advances from their husbands is described as not being acceptable in this culture; and hence rape in marriage is not recognized in Ikwerre culture. Education and awareness creation on the importance of women's reproductive autonomy could improve their reproductive rights and autonomy in marital settings. Overcoming the patriarchal aspects of Ikwerre culture-for example, the greater value placed on male children than female children and treating women as incompetent individuals-is necessary to promote gender equality as well as help improve women's reproductive autonomy.

  19. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR EXTRAMARITAL AFFAIRS AS PERCEIVED BY MARRIED ADULTS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Ogwokhademhe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates factors responsible for extramarital affairs as perceived by married adults in Lagos metropolis. Extramarital affair has been described by many authors and scholars and has been identified as one of the causes of marital problem. Descriptive survey method was employed for this study and the population is all married adults in Lagos metropolis. A total number of 200 respondents were randomly selected in Lagos metropolis and a self developed instrument titled “Factors Responsible for Extramarital Affairs Questionnaire” (FAREAQ was used to collect relevant data from the respondents. Collected data were analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive static was employed for the personal data and research question and inferential statistic was used to analyze the hypotheses generated for the study. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level. The major finding of the study revealed that “sex related factor” was perceived by married adults in Lagos metropolis to be the highest factor responsible for extramarital affair. Gender, age, religion and educational qualification of the factors responsible for extra marital affairs while family type of the respondents did not influence their perception. Implications of the findings to guidance and counselling therefore is that counselling (Guidance services should be extended to families so as to educate parents on the effects of extramarital affair on marriage and on the children and also for counsellors to emphasize the effectiveness of “sex” in marital relationship. Based on the findings of the study, it was therefore recommended that counsellors should organize continuously on the mass media enlightenment programme on the various factors responsible for extramarital affairs so that couples can learn and work on themselves to secure their marriage.

  20. Economic Strain and Subjective Well-Being in Married Couples With Children: A Dyadic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialena Kostouli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this dyadic study was to investigate whether the economic strain (i.e., perceived deterioration of the financial situation and difficulty to respond to family obligations experienced by married couples with children relates to their satisfaction with life, and whether marital satisfaction and parental self-efficacy mediate this relationship. To this end, we took both actor (i.e., partners' economic strain was expected to relate to their own life satisfaction via their own marital satisfaction and parental self-agency, as well as partner (i.e., partners' economic strain was expected to relate to their spouses' life satisfaction via their spouse's marital satisfaction and parental self-agency effects into account. A total of 134 married couples with children participated in the study. Dyadic analyses revealed that wives’ perceived difficulty to respond to family obligations related to their husbands’ life satisfaction, via their husbands’ parental self-agency. Moreover, annual family income related negatively to wives’ life satisfaction, via wives’ difficulty to respond to their family obligations. In addition, husbands’ deterioration of their financial situation related negatively to their life satisfaction, via their marital satisfaction. Last but not least, husbands’ deterioration of their financial situation related negatively to their wives’ marital satisfaction and parental self-agency. These findings have important implications for counseling because they suggest that married couples' subjective well-being suffers in times of financial turmoil, while gender differences determine the psychological processes through which economic strain relates to husbands' and wives' life satisfaction.

  1. Wife Abuse and Its Affecting Factors among the Married Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Shams-Esfandabad; Sousan Emami-Pour; Seyyed Jalal Sadrosadat

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The incindence of wife abuse and its impacts on psychological as well as physical health of the women and in its ultimate negative effects on the health of the family have been presented in many researches. The purpose of the present study was to investigate physical and psychological wife abuse among the married women living in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Study sample (N=1000) consisted of two group of married women (18-45 years): those who did not refere to domestic curts (n...

  2. What Do Married Couples Think About Induced Abortion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Sevgül; Kısa, Sezer

    2017-11-17

    This study examined the opinions of married couples concerning induced abortion in a sample of 674 married couples obtaining services at a large obstetrical/gynecological outpatient service. Although approximately half of the sample were not using birth control, a similar percentage felt that curettage (selective abortion) should never be performed. A larger percentage felt that selective abortion is a sin and should be banned. Sex differences in attitudes were minimal. Couples may benefit from a birth control education program in a hospital that is designed to cover abortion in order to provide accurate information in a more professional environment.

  3. Effects of Gender, Age, and Education on Assertiveness in a Nigerian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…

  4. An examination of single-gender and coeducational classes: Their impact on the academic achievement of middle school students enrolled in mathematics and science at selected schools in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeanette H.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the academic performance of students enrolled in coeducational instruction and single-gender instruction. Within this framework, the researcher examined class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity using the sixth grade CRCT scores of selected students in the areas of mathematics and science. The fifth-grade mathematics and science scores for the same population were used to control for prior knowledge. This study examined the academic achievement of students based on class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity in relation to academic achievement. The study included the CRCT scores for mathematics and science of 6th-grade students at the middle school level who were tested during the 2007--2008 school year. Many studies conducted in the past have stressed females performed better in mathematics and science, while others have stated males performed better in the same areas. Yet, other studies have found conflicting results. A large Australian study (1996), compared the academic performance of students at single-gender and coeducational schools. The conclusion of this study indicated that both males and females who were educated in single-gender classrooms scored significantly higher than did males and females in coeducational classes. A study conducted by Graham Able (2003) documented superior academic performance of students in single-gender schools, after controlling for socioeconomic class and other variables. Able's most significant finding was that the advantage of single-gender schooling was greater for males in terms of academic results than for females. This directly contradicted the educational myth that males performed better in classrooms if females were present. The sample in this study consisted of CRCT scores for 304 sixth-grade students from four different middle schools. Due to the racial composition of the sample, the study only focused on black and white students. School 1 and School 2 involved single-gender

  5. Best single-slice location to measure visceral adipose tissue on paediatric CT scans and the relationship between anthropometric measurements, gender and VAT volume in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Michelle; Ryan, John; Foley, Shane

    2015-10-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a significant risk factor for obesity-related metabolic diseases. This study investigates (1) the best single CT slice location for predicting total abdominal VAT volume in paediatrics and (2) the relationship between waist circumference (WC), sagittal diameter (SD), gender and VAT volume. A random sample of 130 paediatric abdomen CT scans, stratified according to age and gender, was collected. Three readers measured VAT area at each intervertebral level between T12 and S1 using ImageJ analysis (National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD) software by thresholding -190 to -30 HU and manually segmenting VAT. Single-slice VAT measurements were correlated with total VAT volume to identify the most representative slice. WC and SD were measured at L3-L4 and L4-L5 slices, respectively. Regression analysis was used to evaluate WC, SD and gender as VAT volume predictors. Interviewer and intraviewer reliability were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.99). Although VAT measured at multiple slices correlated strongly with abdominal VAT, only one slice in females at L2-L3 and two slices in males at L1-L2 and L5-S1 were strongly correlated across all age groups. Linear regression analysis showed that WC was strongly correlated with VAT volume (beta = 0.970, p VAT measurements are highly reproducible. Measurements performed at L2-L3 in females and L1-L2 or L5-S1 in males were most representative of VAT. WC is indicative of VAT. VAT should be measured at L2-L3 in female children and at either L1-L2 or L5-S1 in males. WC is a strong indicator of VAT in children.

  6. Gender and Decision Making Pertaining to the Control over Ones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated gender and decision making pertaining to the control over ones body within established union in Nigeria. The study is a survey design with a sample of 500 married people who were randomly selected. A questionnaire titled Gender and Decision-Making Questionnaire (GDMG) was administered to ...

  7. Migration, Gender and Social Justice : Connecting Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migration, Gender and Social Justice : Connecting Research and Practice Networks. Gender equality in migration as a policy objective requires an understanding of the ... Claiming migrants' rights in Costa Rica through constitutional law. Dossiers. Protecting rights and reducing stigma against Vietnamese women married ...

  8. Source of information on family planning among married men in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population in Nigeria is turning into an issue that needs public alertness. Informing men on family planning services and contraceptives is extremely necessary. For this will promote more favorable attitudes and increase their involvement. This study aimed at investigating the source of family planning information for married ...

  9. Household unemployment and the labour supply of married women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Walker, Ian

    1997-01-01

    A recent reform to the UK Unemployment Insurance (UI) system has reduced the duration of entitlement from 12 to 6 months. The UI and welfare systems interact in the UK in such a way that exhaustion of UI for married individuals has potentially large disincentive effects on the labour supply of sp...

  10. Biting the forbidden apple: Unmasking the strategies that married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indepth interviews were carried out with six married women who were involved in extra marital affairs with other men and these took place on a face to face basis. Goffman's dramaturgical theory and Michel Foucault's concept of the gaze and the African concept of Ubuntu are the sociological lenses which were used to ...

  11. Factors Influencing the Choice of Contraceptives among the Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was a retrospective review of the records of the family planning clinic of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo. These were new clients coming for the first time to the family planning clinic of the institution from January, 2001 to December, 2006. A total of 1355 married women were ...

  12. Patterns of aphrodisiac herbs usage as expressed by married adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual dysfunction is one of the problems predisposing marriages to marital instability. In order to ameliorate this problem, many married people usually results to the use of aphrodisiac herbs. Paucity of empirical studies on aphrodisiac herbs usage has necessitated the study of the patterns of aphrodisiac herbs usage as ...

  13. Debt Change and Marital Satisfaction Change in Recently Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Although recently married couples report debt as one of their top concerns, research has not measured how debt changes relate to changes in their marital satisfaction. Further, the mechanisms that link debt and marital satisfaction are unknown. Findings using the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,078 couples) demonstrated that…

  14. Birth interval and its predictors among married women in Dabat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-30

    Birth intervals (time between two successive live births) if short are associated with diverse complications. We assessed birth interval and its predictors among 613 married women who gave birth from January 1 to December 30, 2008. Data were collected in April 2012. Life table and Kaplan-Meier curve were used to ...

  15. Forced Sex among Married or Steady Partners in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Researchers were trained to ask probing questions and use active listening techniques because the interviews .... Ordinarily a married woman is not supposed to ask for sex directly: I am not a prostitute...he would think I ... legs: I tell my wife that sexual intercourse is a major contract I have with her. I force my wife to have sex ...

  16. Determinants of condom use among currently married men in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV is one of the leading health threats and cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Among many preventive measures, condom use is the most effective methods of preventing HIV. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with condom use among currently married men in Zambia. Secondary data from ...

  17. Married Couples in Assisted Living: Adult Children's Experiences Providing Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Candace L.

    2012-01-01

    Being married in later life often prevents relocation to long-term care settings, but couples do relocate to these environments. Typically, this transition does not mark the end of support provided by families, especially adult children. Little is known about children's experiences providing support in care settings when both parents are involved.…

  18. Significant Elements in the Relationship of Long-Married Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William L.

    1979-01-01

    A descriptive study of factors in the lifestyle of 50 couples married an average of 55.5 years and an average age of 79 years provided data for this report. Independence, commitment, companionship, and qualities of caring were significant elements in these long-lasting marriages. (Author)

  19. Married and Unmarried Cohabitation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Paul C.; Spanier, Graham B.

    1980-01-01

    Adults living with unrelated adults of the opposite sex are contrasted with married couples living together. Couples living together without marriage are most likely to be residing in large metropolitan areas, and are characterized by relatively low income levels and high unemployment. The increase in adults living with an unrelated person of the…

  20. Causes of Sexual Dysfunction among Married Women as Expressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the causes of sexual dysfunction among married women as expressed by nurses in health institutions in Kwara State. A total of 210 Nurses from the General Hospitals in Ilorin, Lafiagi and Offa representing the three senatorial districts in Kwara State participated in the study. The instrument used to ...

  1. Coparenting and Father Involvement in Married and Unmarried Coresident Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl

    2011-01-01

    Children can benefit from involved fathers and cooperative parents, a benefit which may be particularly important to the growing population of children born to unmarried parents. This study observes father involvement and coparenting in 5,407 married and unmarried cohabiting couples with a 2-year-old child in the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  2. Ndeutala Hishongwa's Marrying Apartheid: women as part of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being the first novel in English written by a black Namibian woman, Ndeutala Hishongwa's Marrying Apartheid (1986) represents a turning point within the history of Namibian literature. This novel shows new and important aspects in the Namibian women's liberation struggle, for Hishongwa presents a black woman as the ...

  3. HIV prevention awareness and practices among married couples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we explored the level of awareness and practice on HIV prevention among married couples from selected communities in. Malawi. Methods ... The problem with this approach is that it ignores the dynamic nature of sexual behavior, which means that HIV risk reduction is not fully controlled by either partner8.

  4. [Illness Experience of Married Korean Women with Epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Young Min; Joung, Woo Joung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the illness experience of married Korean women with epilepsy. Data were collected during 2015~2016 through individual in-depth interviews with 12 married women with epilepsy. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological analysis to uncover the meaning of the illness experience of the participants. The study results showed that the illness experience of married Korean women with epilepsy was clustered into a specific description of situated structure and a general description of situated structure. Six themes from 20 meaning units were identified: 1) Undermined self-esteem with stigma of being epileptic; 2) Limited social interaction; 3) Suffering sorrow as a 'disqualified being'; 4) Shuttling back and forth across the boundary between healthy and epileptic; 5) Desperate struggle to meet the expectation of given role; 6) Self-empowering through self-restriction and realization. The findings from this study show that both the enacted and felt stigma of epilepsy impact on the life of married Korean women with epilepsy. Although the participants face social and interpersonal restriction and prejudices, they try their best to fulfill their role rather than to be cared for as patients. As the stigma and hardships of the participants are related to lack of knowledge, health professionals should focus not just on clinical intervention but also on providing targeted educational programs and counseling for these women to dispel the stigma of the disease and to increase their quality of life. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  5. 28 CFR 551.13 - Application to marry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS Marriages of Inmates § 551.13 Application to marry. (a) A federal inmate confined in a Bureau... the Administrative Remedy Procedure. (c) All expenses of the marriage (for example, a marriage license) shall be paid by the inmate, the inmate's intended spouse, the inmate's family, or other appropriate...

  6. Pathways to Marriage: Learning for Married Life in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Michele; And Others

    In 1993-94, a random sample of 547 individuals authorized to perform marriages in Australia (marriage celebrants) and 560 couples from across Australia who had married in 1993 were surveyed regarding their views of premarriage education (PME) and the factors enhancing/inhibiting participation in PME programs (PMEPs). Of the marriage celebrants,…

  7. Contraceptive practice among married market men in Nigeria | Orji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Until recently, family planning researchers and service providers had focused almost exclusively on women. Men are often seen as uncooperative and uninterested in family planning or reproductive health. Objective: To investigate the contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice among married market men.

  8. Delivery Site Preferences and Associated Factors among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity must address societal and cultural factors that affect women's health and their access to services. There was no research conducted previously on delivery site preferences and associated factors among married women of child bearing age in the study area.

  9. Effect of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of ebastine after single and repeated dosing in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatagi, S; Gillen, M; Aubeneau, M; Jan, C; Pandit, B; Jensen, B K; Rhodes, G

    2001-03-01

    Ebastine is a potent and selective H1-receptor antagonist indicated for allergic rhinitis which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism by CYP3A4 to form an active metabolite, carebastine. The purpose of the study was to determine age- and gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of ebastine and carebastine. The upper recommended oral dose of 20 mg once daily was administered to 12 healthy young (22 to 38 years) and 12 healthy elderly (50 to 92 years; 8 m and 4 f) subjects for 5 days. Plasma concentrations of ebastine and carebastine were determined for 24 hours following the initial dose on Day 1 and for 72 hours following the dose on Day 5 using a sensitive LC/MS/MS assay. The minimum quantifiable limit (MQL) for the assay was 0.05 ng/ml and 1.0 ng/ml for ebastine and carebastine, respectively. Mean area under the curve and Cmax values on Day 1 and Day 5 were similar for ebastine but approximately doubled for carebastine due to its longer half-life. Mean carebastine concentrations were approximately 10 to 20 fold higher than mean ebastine concentrations. For young subjects, the mean (%CV) ebastine t(1/2) was 5.76 (28.47) h and 20.38 (46.19) h on Day 1 and Day 5, respectively. Similarily, for young subjects, the mean (%CV) for carebastine t(1/2) was 7.03 (23.21) h and 26.12 (23.39) h on Day 1 and Day 5, respectively. This apparent prolongation of t(1/2) was probably due to lack of proper estimation of terminal half-life on Day 1 as fewer samples were collected for a shorter duration on Day 1. Using a multicomparison test for Cmin values, it was determined that steady state conditions were achieved by Day 5 for both age groups for ebastine and in young subjects for carebastine. The variability in ebastine pharmacokinetic parameters was higher than carebastine. A 50% increase in ebastine AUC(0-24) and Cmax values in elderly subjects, with no changes in t(1/2), could be explained by either increased absorption of ebastine in elderly subjects or due to a

  10. Do co-residence and intentions make a difference? Relationship satisfaction in married, cohabiting, and living apart together couples in four countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui-o Tai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large body of research has compared relationship satisfaction and quality in cohabiting versus married relationships. Despite increased recognition of couples in living apart together (LAT relationships, very little research has examined the experiences of couples in LAT relationships compared to co-residential unions. Objective: Our aim is to develop knowledge about the experiences of different union types by investigating relationship satisfaction of people in LAT, cohabiting, and marital relationships. We differentiate those with intentions to marry for cohabiters, and those with intentions to marry or live together in LAT relationships. We also examine differences by gender and country. Methods: Using data from Wave 1 of the Generations and Gender Survey in France, Germany, Australia, and Russia (n = 9,604, OLS regressions are estimated to investigate a differences in relationship satisfaction across relationship types, and b across countries. Results: Married people have the highest levels of relationship satisfaction. People in non-marital unions with intentions to marry or live together are significantly more satisfied than those without marriage or cohabitation intentions. Those in LAT relationships with no intentions to live together have the lowest levels of relationship satisfaction. There is evidence of cross-national variation with differences in relationship satisfaction by union type most pronounced in Australia and Russia. Gender differences are found with women reporting lower levels of relationship satisfaction than men. Conclusions: LAT relationships are qualitatively different to co-residential unions. It is important to further develop our understanding of the experiences of couples in these relationships.

  11. From vigilance to violence: mate retention tactics in married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-02-01

    Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples.

  12. Research priorities on ending child marriage and supporting married girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi

    2015-09-03

    Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.

  13. Sexual dysfunction among married couples living in Kumasi metropolis, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Woode Eric; Gyasi-Sarpong Christian K; Owiredu William KBA; Amidu Nafiu; Quaye Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexuality and its manifestation constitute some of the most complex of human behaviour and its disorders are encountered in community. Sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in women than in men. While studies examining sexual dysfunction among males and females in Ghana exist, there are no studies relating sexual problems in males and females as dyadic units. This study therefore investigated the prevalence and type of sexual disorders among married couples. Method The stud...

  14. Sexual dysfunction among married couples living in Kumasi metropolis, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woode Eric

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexuality and its manifestation constitute some of the most complex of human behaviour and its disorders are encountered in community. Sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in women than in men. While studies examining sexual dysfunction among males and females in Ghana exist, there are no studies relating sexual problems in males and females as dyadic units. This study therefore investigated the prevalence and type of sexual disorders among married couples. Method The study participants consisted of married couples between the ages of 19 and 66 living in the province of Kumasi, Ghana. Socio-demographic information and Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS questionnaires were administered to 200 couples who consented to take part in the study. All 28 questions of the GRISS are answered on a five-point (Likert type scale from "always", through "usually', "sometimes", and "hardly ever", to "never". Responses are summed up to give a total raw score ranging from 28-140. The total score and subscale scores are transformed using a standard nine point scale, with high scores indicating greater problems. Scores of five or more are considered to indicate SD. The study was conducted between July and September 2010. Results Out of a total of 200 married couples, 179 completed their questionnaires resulting in a response rate of 89.5%. The mean age of the participating couples as well as the mean duration of marriage was 34.8 ± 8.6 years and 7.8 ± 7.6 years respectively. The husbands (37.1 ± 8.6 were significantly older (p Conclusion The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in married couples is comparable to prevalence rates in the general male and female population and is further worsened by duration of marriage. This could impact significantly on a couple's self-esteem and overall quality of life.

  15. Understanding the Relationships between Gender Inequitable Behaviours, Childhood Trauma and Socio-Economic Status in Single and Multiple Perpetrator Rape in Rural South Africa: Structural Equation Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape.1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape. We used multinomial to compare the characteristics of men who reported rape perpetration at baseline. We used structural equation modelling (SEM to examine pathways to rape perpetration.76.1% of young men had never raped, 10.0% had perpetrated SPR and 13.9% MPR. The factors associated with both MPR and SPR (compared to never having raped were indicators of socio-economic status (SES, childhood trauma, sexual coercion by a woman, drug and alcohol use, peer pressure susceptibility, having had transactional sex, multiple sexual partners and being physically violent towards a partner. The SEM showed the relationship between SES and rape perpetration to be mediated by gender inequitable masculinity. It was complex as there was a direct path indicating that SES correlated with the masculinity variable directly such that men of higher SES had more gender inequitable masculinities, and indirect path mediated by peer pressure resistance indicated that the former pertained so long as men lacked peer pressure resistance. Having a higher SES conveyed greater resistance for some men. There was also a path mediated through childhood trauma, such that men of lower SES were more likely to have a higher childhood trauma exposure and this correlated with a higher likelihood of having the gender inequitable masculinity (with or without the mediating effect of peer pressure resistance.Both higher and lower socio-economic status were associated with raping. Prevention of rape

  16. Understanding the Relationships between Gender Inequitable Behaviours, Childhood Trauma and Socio-Economic Status in Single and Multiple Perpetrator Rape in Rural South Africa: Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively) and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape. Method 1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape. We used multinomial to compare the characteristics of men who reported rape perpetration at baseline. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine pathways to rape perpetration. Results 76.1% of young men had never raped, 10.0% had perpetrated SPR and 13.9% MPR. The factors associated with both MPR and SPR (compared to never having raped) were indicators of socio-economic status (SES), childhood trauma, sexual coercion by a woman, drug and alcohol use, peer pressure susceptibility, having had transactional sex, multiple sexual partners and being physically violent towards a partner. The SEM showed the relationship between SES and rape perpetration to be mediated by gender inequitable masculinity. It was complex as there was a direct path indicating that SES correlated with the masculinity variable directly such that men of higher SES had more gender inequitable masculinities, and indirect path mediated by peer pressure resistance indicated that the former pertained so long as men lacked peer pressure resistance. Having a higher SES conveyed greater resistance for some men. There was also a path mediated through childhood trauma, such that men of lower SES were more likely to have a higher childhood trauma exposure and this correlated with a higher likelihood of having the gender inequitable masculinity (with or without the mediating effect of peer pressure resistance). Discussion Both higher and lower socio-economic status were associated with raping

  17. Understanding the Relationships between Gender Inequitable Behaviours, Childhood Trauma and Socio-Economic Status in Single and Multiple Perpetrator Rape in Rural South Africa: Structural Equation Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively) and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape. 1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape. We used multinomial to compare the characteristics of men who reported rape perpetration at baseline. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine pathways to rape perpetration. 76.1% of young men had never raped, 10.0% had perpetrated SPR and 13.9% MPR. The factors associated with both MPR and SPR (compared to never having raped) were indicators of socio-economic status (SES), childhood trauma, sexual coercion by a woman, drug and alcohol use, peer pressure susceptibility, having had transactional sex, multiple sexual partners and being physically violent towards a partner. The SEM showed the relationship between SES and rape perpetration to be mediated by gender inequitable masculinity. It was complex as there was a direct path indicating that SES correlated with the masculinity variable directly such that men of higher SES had more gender inequitable masculinities, and indirect path mediated by peer pressure resistance indicated that the former pertained so long as men lacked peer pressure resistance. Having a higher SES conveyed greater resistance for some men. There was also a path mediated through childhood trauma, such that men of lower SES were more likely to have a higher childhood trauma exposure and this correlated with a higher likelihood of having the gender inequitable masculinity (with or without the mediating effect of peer pressure resistance). Both higher and lower socio-economic status were associated with raping. Prevention of rape perpetration must

  18. Contraceptive practices among adolescent married women in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotishikha Nanda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the contraceptive practices among adolescent married women of Tamil Nadu state, India. Methods: We used the data of District Level Household Survey-Reproductive Child Health (DLHS-RCH, Round-II which was conducted in two phases (phase-I during 2002-2003 and phase-II during 2003–2004 in Tamil Nadu. The data consist of 25 522 ever-married women. Results: About 92 percent of the subjects are not currently using any of the contraceptive methods. In terms of social characteristics of married women, who were currently using or not using any one of the family planning methods, caste is found to be highly significant (P<0.000. In economic characteristics per cent of using contraception is considerably higher in the women with medium standard of living. Difference between number of children ever born, gravida and using of contraception methods is highly significant (P<0.000. Conclusions: Study is indicative of implementation of new programme, which may increase awareness about family planning programme in Tamil Nadu state.

  19. Modern social life and never-married women's health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrapan Tamdee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the health problems of never-married women as they relate to modern social life. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 45 never-married women aged 30–50 working or living in Bangkok and having health problems. It was found that never-married women in this modern era have experienced a variety of illnesses, such as “office syndrome” symptoms, chronic illnesses, and psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Their social life resulted from the response to the context of modernity and was made through careful thought and deliberation. Whichever choice of social life they make, the consequences may lead them to a state of illness, distress, anxiety, and paranoia. These choices involve work, living conditions/environments, and intimacy aspects of their modern social life. This is the result of procuring by “husky modernity” which seems to be merely a “husk” or superficial modernization and changes so rapidly, but there is no core and it is full of double standards of traditional and new norms that have mixed together and fight against each other. Supporting health-related knowledge and information exchange within the network coupled with experience sharing essential for living in the modern society will enable them to sensibly decide on a path to good health.

  20. Drive to Marry and Social Prescription in Chinese Online Daters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rense Lange

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals’ eagerness or desire to get married was investigated in a sample of online daters in China (n = 3,389 using a 6-item version of the Drive to Marry (DTM Scale, which was modified with new questions about normative pressures to marry given the cultural emphasis on social prescription in Eastern versus Western culture. The questionnaire items conformed to a unidimensional Rasch scale with interval-level measurement, although two themes seemed inherent to DTM – positive feelings of excitement or anticipation and negative feelings of urgency or desperation. Consistent with previous theory and research, women exhibited stronger DTM than men and normative pressures resulted in greater perceived DTM. Finally, significant response biases by sex were found, indicating that men and women differ in their qualitative experience of DTM. The results offer a preliminary cross-cultural validation and perspective on DTM and expand the present conceptualization and measurement of the construct to guide future research and theory-building.

  1. Factors Related to Intention to Undergo Female Sterilization Among Married Women in Rural Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Adhish; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Pitikultang, Supachai

    2016-03-01

    Sterilization is most widely used fertility regulation method in Nepal. However, prevalence of uptake of female sterilization in central hilly region is less than the national average. The objective of the study was to explore the number and factors related to intention of married women to undergo female sterilization in rural Kathmandu which lies within central hilly region. This is a community based cross-sectional survey research conducted in rural area of Kathmandu valley. Two hundred and forty currently married women with at least one child of any age were interviewed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. More than four-fifth of the respondents intended to undergo sterilization. Almost two-third of them wanted to limit their family size by taking this option. More than one-third of women not-intending to undergo sterilization feared weakness after sterilization. Age of the respondents, duration of marriage, and number of living children were significantly associated with intention to undergo sterilization. 15-24 years age group were six times more likely to have the intention for sterilization (OR 6.79, CI 2.28-20.19) compared to age 35 years and above group. Mothers with less than 3 living children are about three times more likely to have the intention to undergo sterilization (OR 2.87, CI 1.3-6.33) compared to women with more than 2 living children. Women married for 6 to 10 years were three times more likely to have the intention (OR 3.0, CI 1.09-8.27). However, gender of the living children was not associated with intention to undergo sterilization. There were significant numbers of women intending to undergo sterilization. Age of the mother, number of living children and the duration of marriage were found to be significantly influencing the intention to undergo sterilization. However, as intention refers to future plan, the respondents' intention may change over time. The national family planning program also needs to identify the key factors in

  2. Factors Related to Intention to Undergo Female Sterilization Among Married Women in Rural Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Pitikultang, Supachai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sterilization is most widely used fertility regulation method in Nepal. However, prevalence of uptake of female sterilization in central hilly region is less than the national average. The objective of the study was to explore the number and factors related to intention of married women to undergo female sterilization in rural Kathmandu which lies within central hilly region. Materials and Methods: This is a community based cross-sectional survey research conducted in rural area of Kathmandu valley. Two hundred and forty currently married women with at least one child of any age were interviewed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Results: More than four-fifth of the respondents intended to undergo sterilization. Almost two-third of them wanted to limit their family size by taking this option. More than one-third of women not-intending to undergo sterilization feared weakness after sterilization. Age of the respondents, duration of marriage, and number of living children were significantly associated with intention to undergo sterilization. 15-24 years age group were six times more likely to have the intention for sterilization (OR 6.79, CI 2.28-20.19) compared to age 35 years and above group. Mothers with less than 3 living children are about three times more likely to have the intention to undergo sterilization (OR 2.87, CI 1.3-6.33) compared to women with more than 2 living children. Women married for 6 to 10 years were three times more likely to have the intention (OR 3.0, CI 1.09-8.27). However, gender of the living children was not associated with intention to undergo sterilization. Conclusion: There were significant numbers of women intending to undergo sterilization. Age of the mother, number of living children and the duration of marriage were found to be significantly influencing the intention to undergo sterilization. However, as intention refers to future plan, the respondents’ intention may change over time. The national family

  3. When being a girl matters less: accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single-sex and coeducational classes and its impact on students' physics-related self-concept of ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Hannover, Bettina

    2008-06-01

    Establishing or preserving single-sex schooling has been widely discussed as a way of bringing more girls into the natural sciences. We test the assumption that the beneficial effects of single-sex education on girls' self-concept of ability in masculine subjects such as physics are due to the lower accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single-sex classes. N=401 eighth-graders (mean age 14.0 years) from coeducational comprehensive schools. Random assignment of students to single-sex vs. coeducational physics classes throughout the eighth grade. At the end of the year, students' physics-related self-concept of ability was measured using a questionnaire. In a subsample of N=134 students, the accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge during physics classes was assessed by measuring latencies and endorsement of sex-typed trait adjectives. Girls from single-sex physics classes reported a better physics-related self-concept of ability than girls from coeducational classes, while boys' self-concept of ability did not vary according to class composition. For both boys and girls, gender-related self-knowledge was less accessible in single-sex classes than in mixed-sex classes. To the extent that girls' feminine self-knowledge was relatively less accessible than their masculine self-knowledge, their physics-related self-concept of ability improved at the end of the school year. By revealing the importance of the differential accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single- and mixed-sex settings, our study clarifies why single-sex schooling helps adolescents to gain a better self-concept of ability in school subjects that are considered inappropriate for their own sex.

  4. Optimal taxation of married couples with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen

    2007-01-01

    The literature suggests that the concern for economic efficiency calls for individual-based taxation of married couples with a higher rate on the primary earner. This paper reconsiders the choice of tax unit in the Becker model of household production. In the absence of restrictions on the use...... of commodity taxes, efficient taxation requires joint taxation of the family. In the presence of restricted commodity taxation, the income tax should compensate for the erroneous commodity taxes. In this case, individual taxation is typically optimal, but not necessarily with a higher rate on primary earners...

  5. Sterilisation of married couples: husband versus wife sterilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, G

    1998-01-01

    Sterilisation has been increasing in the United States in recent decades. Using the National Survey of Families and Households, this paper examines sterilisation among married couples using event history techniques, viewing husband and wife sterilisation as competing risks. Wives are more likely to experience sterilisation and at shorter durations of marriage. Number of children has a curvilinear effect on sterilisation, increasing and then decreasing its likelihood. Wives who are older than their husbands are more likely to get sterilised themselves. Black and Hispanic husbands are more likely to undergo sterilisation.

  6. Money Marries Money - Intergenerational Top Household Income Mobility in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar; Munk, Martin David

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their spouses’ incomes. At the....... At the top of the income distribution we find a correlation of 0.763 between father and mother’s pooled income and that of their son and daughter-in-law’s pooled income, which indicates that money marries money....

  7. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  8. Gender Differences in Perception of Contraception Alternatives by Never-Married College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Robert J.; Gold, Robert S.

    A study examined the perceptions of college students regarding 10 contraceptive methods, including the condom, douche, oral contraceptive, withdrawal, diaphragm, female sterilization, spermicidal foam, rhythm, male sterilization, and intrauterine device. A total of 285 females and 316 males responded to a questionnaire which had students rank each…

  9. Targeting married women in microfinance programmes: transforming or reinforcing gender inequalities? : evidence from Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, H.

    2010-01-01

    With the expansion of microfinance programmes in the low-income countries, millions of
    poor women in these countries have been able to access microfinancial services,
    particularly microcredit and savings. The provision of microfinance services to women has
    been largely premised on

  10. Targeting married women in microfinance programmes: transforming or reinforcing gender inequalities? : evidence from Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, H.

    2010-01-01

    With the expansion of microfinance programmes in the low-income countries, millions of poor women in these countries have been able to access microfinancial services, particularly microcredit and savings. The provision of microfinance services to women has been largely premised on the assumption

  11. Work-Life Balance among Married Women Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N Krishna; Vranda, M N; Ahmed, Atiq; Nirmala, B P; Siddaramu, B

    2010-07-01

    Family-work conflict (FWC) and work-family conflict (WFC) are more likely to exert negative influences in the family domain, resulting in lower life satisfaction and greater internal conflict within the family. Studies have identified several variables that influence the level of WFC and FWC. Variables such as the size of family, the age of children, the work hours and the level of social support impact the experience of WFC and FWC. However, these variables have been conceptualized as antecedents of WFC and FWC; it is also important to consider the consequences these variables have on psychological distress and wellbeing of the working women. to study various factors which could lead to WFC and FWC among married women employees. The sample consisted of a total of 90 married working women of age between 20 and 50 years. WFC and FWC Scale was administered to measure WFC and FWC of working women. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Carl Pearson's Correlation was used to find the relationship between the different variables. The findings of the study emphasized the need to formulate guidelines for the management of WFCs at organizational level as it is related to job satisfaction and performance of the employees.

  12. Experiences and views of married women about domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Rukiye; Celik, Sevilay Senol; Çetin, Merve; Soydan, Gamze

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the experiences and views of married women about the topic of domestic violence. This research was planned as a mixed methods study with an in-depth interview and descriptive approach. The study was conducted between November 2011 and December 2012 with 24 married women living in Ankara, Turkey. Two main data-collection tools were used in the study: the "Personal Information Form" and the "In-depth Interview Questionnaire." Data of this study were evaluated by content analysis. A majority of the participants (83.3%) stated that they had been exposed to domestic violence that had been committed primarily by their husbands. The actual reasons for the violence were reported to be such factors as "financial problems and lack of education and love and respect between the couples." It was determined that as the victims became more desperate, they turned to reading of the Koran, prayer, and smoking. Domestic violence adversely affects the physical and mental health of individuals, families, and the entire community. Therefore, it will take a community effort to address the causes of domestic violence and to create viable solutions that will improve the health of everyone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Sexual dysfunction among married couples living in Kumasi metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidu, Nafiu; Owiredu, William K B A; Gyasi-Sarpong, Christian K; Woode, Eric; Quaye, Lawrence

    2011-03-02

    Sexuality and its manifestation constitute some of the most complex of human behaviour and its disorders are encountered in community. Sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in women than in men. While studies examining sexual dysfunction among males and females in Ghana exist, there are no studies relating sexual problems in males and females as dyadic units. This study therefore investigated the prevalence and type of sexual disorders among married couples. The study participants consisted of married couples between the ages of 19 and 66 living in the province of Kumasi, Ghana. Socio-demographic information and Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) questionnaires were administered to 200 couples who consented to take part in the study. All 28 questions of the GRISS are answered on a five-point (Likert type) scale from "always", through "usually', "sometimes", and "hardly ever", to "never". Responses are summed up to give a total raw score ranging from 28-140. The total score and subscale scores are transformed using a standard nine point scale, with high scores indicating greater problems. Scores of five or more are considered to indicate SD. The study was conducted between July and September 2010. Out of a total of 200 married couples, 179 completed their questionnaires resulting in a response rate of 89.5%. The mean age of the participating couples as well as the mean duration of marriage was 34.8 ± 8.6 years and 7.8 ± 7.6 years respectively. The husbands (37.1 ± 8.6) were significantly older (p marriage life poses about 10 times significant risk of developing SD compared to 1-6 years of married life among the wives (OR: 10.8; CI: 1.1 - 49.1; p = 0.04). The total scores (6.0) as well as the percentage above the cut-off (59.2) obtained by the husbands compared to the total score (6.2) and the percentage above cut-off (61.5) obtained by the wives, indicates the likely presence of sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of impotence and premature

  14. Parenthood and Psychological Well-Being among the Formerly Married: Are Children the Primary Source of Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Compared impact of parenthood on well-being of formerly married men and women to that of married men and women. Found parenting more strongly related to well-being of men than women, parenting had more impact on formerly married than married, and negative effect of divorce on mental health seemed to be largely explained by effects of parenting.…

  15. Suicide in married couples in Sweden: Is the risk greater in same-sex couples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Andersson, Gunnar; Dalman, Christina; Cochran, Susan; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2016-07-01

    Minority sexual orientation is a predictor of suicide ideation and attempts, though its association with suicide mortality is less clear. We capitalize on Sweden's extensively linked databases, to investigate whether, among married individuals, same-sex marriage is associated with suicide. Using a population-based register design, we analyzed suicide risk among same-sex married women and men (n = 6456), as compared to different-sex married women and men (n = 1181723) in Sweden. We selected all newly partnered or married individuals in the intervening time between 1/1/1996 and 12/31/2009 and followed them with regard to suicide until 12/31/2011. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The risk of suicide was higher among same-sex married individuals as compared to different-sex married individuals (IRR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.5-4.8), after adjustment for time at risk and socioeconomic confounding. Sex-stratified analyses showed a tentatively elevated risk for same-sex married women (IRR 2.5, 95 % CI 0.8-7.7) as compared to different-sex married women. Among same-sex married men the suicide risk was nearly three-fold greater as compared to different-sex married (IRR 2.895 % CI 1.5-5.5). This holds true also after adjustment for HIV status. Even in a country with a comparatively tolerant climate regarding homosexuality such as Sweden, same-sex married individuals evidence a higher risk for suicide than other married individuals.

  16. The Disappearing Gender Gap: The Impact of Divorce, Wages, and Preferences on Education Choices and Women's Work. NBER Working Paper No. 17508

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Raquel; Wong, Joyce Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Women born in 1935 went to college significantly less than their male counterparts and married women's labor force participation (LFP) averaged 40% between the ages of thirty and forty. The cohort born twenty years later behaved very differently. The education gender gap was eliminated and married women's LFP averaged 70% over the same ages. In…

  17. Vulnerability, life events and depression amongst Moslem Malaysian women: comparing those married and those divorced or separated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2011-09-01

    The experiences of married and single mothers were compared in an investigation of psychosocial vulnerability, stress and depression in a community-based study of Moslem mothers in Malaysia. For the first time, a model of vulnerability-provoking agent originally developed by Brown et al. in the UK was tested in a Malaysian context. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the district of Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Of the 1,200 women approached from membership of community associations, 1,002 (84%) completed the questionnaires. Severe life events Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Brugha and Cragg in Acta Psychiatr Scand 82:77-81, 1990) and psychosocial vulnerability (VDQ) (Moran et al. in Br J Clin Psychol 40:411-427, 2001) were used to measure vulnerability factors. Depression was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) (Havenaar et al. in Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 43:209-215, 2008). Single mothers had significantly higher rates of depression than those married (60.5 vs. 39.5%), as well as higher rates of severe life events and Negative Elements in Close Relationships (lack of support and conflict with children). However, married mothers had greater Negative Evaluation of Self. The two vulnerability factors were correlated to each other and to severe life events and social adversity. Logistic regression showed an interaction between severe life events in the material and relationship domains and joint vulnerability for depression outcome. The results are discussed in relation to the low recognition of psychosocial risks for depression in single mothers in Malaysia, as well as lack of appropriate services.

  18. Frequency of Anaemia in Married Women in Jutial, Gilgit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, U.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of anaemia in married women in Jutial, and to find out the relationship of risk factors of anaemia with levels of anaemia. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Household survey carried out in Jutial, Gilgit 1st February 2008 to 30th April 2009. Patients and Method: Interview administered questionnaire along with blood sample collection using sterilized disposable syringes was used in this study on a total of 382 randomly selected, willing, married, non-pregnant, non-lactating women with one or more children. Results were considered significant if r-value was more than 0.5 with p-value less than 0.05. Results: Clinical analysis of the blood samples showed that the average haemoglobin (Hb) level was 12.8 g/dl. According to WHO standards, no woman had severe anaemia with Hb level below 7 g/dl. Majority of the women (77.5%) had normal Hb >= 12 g/dl. The calculated anaemia frequency of 22.5% was found to be little lower than that of national anaemia frequency of around 29 to 33%. Conclusion: Frequency of anaemia 22.5% can be attributed to good education system in Northern Area and the awareness of people towards health concerns. Another reason can be the initiatives by different NGOs working in the area specially Aga Khan Foundation to eradicate anaemia by developing a vast network of health facilities. Further research on the native foods, their extract nutritional values / iron contents and any special foods at higher altitudes may be more than 1500 meters can open new horizon to our understanding of anaemia in the northern areas. (author)

  19. Wife Abuse and Its Affecting Factors among the Married Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shams-Esfandabad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incindence of wife abuse and its impacts on psychological as well as physical health of the women and in its ultimate negative effects on the health of the family have been presented in many researches. The purpose of the present study was to investigate physical and psychological wife abuse among the married women living in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Study sample (N=1000 consisted of two group of married women (18-45 years: those who did not refere to domestic curts (n= 800, and those who had problem with their husbands and therefore refered to domestic curts (n=200. Moffir et al. (15 Questionnaire has been applied. Results: Data analysis revealed that: psychological and physical wife abuse among subjects in the first group were 87/9 and 47/9 respectively. Psychological and physical wife abuse among subjects in the second group were 99/5 and 91 respectively. Wife abuse was significantly related to the age of the couples and duration of their marriage the older the couples and the longer the marriage, the higher the wife abuse. There was a significant negative relationship between education of the couples and wife abuse. The higher the education, the lesser the wife abuse. Those husbands who consumed alcohol or drug, abused their wives significantly more than those husbands who did not consume alcohol or drug. Husbands with psychological problems abused their wives significantly more than husbands without psychological problems. Psychological and physical wife abuse among the subjects in the second group were higher than psychological and physical wife abuse among the subjects in the first group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that there are relationships among the variables of age, education, alcohol or drug consumption, husbands psychological disorders and wife abuse. Legislation of a low wich forbids husbands to abuse their wives and increament of the general knowledge about wife abuse by means of mass media may have

  20. Gender Asymmetry in Family Migration: Occupational Inequality or Interspousal Comparative Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shauman, Kimberlee A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gender inequality in the determinants of job-related long-distance migration among married dual-earner couples during the 1980s and 1990s. The analysis tested the structural explanation, which attributes gender asymmetry in family migration to structural inequality in the labor market, and the comparative advantage explanation…

  1. Gender-dependent and age-of-onset-specific association of the rs11675434 single-nucleotide polymorphism near TPO with susceptibility to Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Aleksander; Szymański, Konrad; Jurecka-Lubieniecka, Beata; Pawlak-Adamska, Edyta; Kula, Dorota; Miśkiewicz, Piotr; Bolanowski, Marek; Płoski, Rafał; Bossowski, Artur; Daroszewski, Jacek; Jarząb, Barbara; Bednarczuk, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The role of TPO gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to Graves' disease (GD) remains unclear. However, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near TPO have been recently associated with serum levels of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody in two independent genome-wide association studies. Moreover, we have observed a strong association between the rs11675434 SNP located near TPO and the presence of clinically evident Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The aim of the current study was to reevaluate and dissect this association in an extended group of 1231 well-characterized patients with GD (1043 adults and 188 children) and 1130 healthy controls from the Polish Caucasian population, considering possible gender-dependent and age-of-onset-specific effects of the studied SNP. We found that the T allele of rs11675434 was significantly more frequent in GD patients with than without GO (odds ratio (OR)=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05-1.51, P=0.012), which was consistent with our previous findings. Further analyses performed in subgroups of patients showed that the association with GO was significant in adult patients with age of GD onset ⩾45 years (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.03-1.75, P=0.031), but not in children and adolescents or adult patients with earlier onset of the disease (OR=1.72, 95% CI=0.77-3.84, P=0.18 and OR=1.05, 95% CI=0.79-1.40, P=0.75, respectively). Moreover, a strong association with GO was present in males (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.40-3.02, P=0.0002), whereas it was absent in females (OR=1.10, 95% CI=0.90-1.35, P=0.35). The results of our study further suggest that rs11675434 SNP located near TPO is associated with the development of GO, especially in males and patients with later age of GD onset.

  2. Gender Ideologies, Marital Roles, and Marital Quality in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Lai, Shu-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    This study uses the multidimensional measures included in the 1996 Taiwan Social Change Survey to examine the effects of gender ideologies and marital role sharing on marital quality among married Taiwanese men and women as reporting spouses. The authors' quantitative analyses indicate that (a) there is little direct relationship between gender…

  3. Women's Family Power and Gender Preference in Minya, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    Structural and ideational theories are adapted to explore the influence of women's resources and ideational exposures on their family power and gender preferences in Minya, Egypt. Data from a household survey of 2,226 married women aged 15-54 years show that residence with marital kin decreases women's family power. Women in endogamous marriages…

  4. Migration, Gender and Social Justice : Connecting Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Internal migration in India : addressing gendered vulnerabilities and access to rights. Download PDF. Briefs. From temporary work to irregular status : the transition and experiences of Senegalese migrant women in Spain. Download PDF. Briefs. Protecting rights and reducing stigma against Vietnamese women married ...

  5. Managing organisational change: the "gendered" organisation of space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, A M

    1997-02-01

    Although the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) maintains a strong commitment to gender equity in its anti-poverty programs, a conservative external environment often impedes efforts to make its organizational structure consistent with this commitment. For example, BRAC's approach to organizing its field operations has been to abolish the distinction between home and office. BRAC's female employees live with male colleagues in their rural offices, travel long distances on bicycles and motorcycles, and reject the sari--practices that are antithetical to the prevailing culture and place tremendous pressure on these field workers. The high work intensity, need to work beyond normal business hours, and lack of on-site child care subjects married female employees to hostility from their husbands and relatives. Single female employees are often regarded as unmarriagable because of their divergent life-styles. Although BRAC makes provisions for employees to take leave for family responsibilities, staff who access this benefit are viewed as more committed to family than their work. The sexual activities of female--but not male--employees are scrutinized. Despite these contradictions, BRAC's innovative arrangements model a new form of gender relations in rural areas. BRAC is enabling its young women employees to postpone marriage and demonstrate a nontraditional role. The extent to which BRAC should take responsibility for compensating for the constraints imposed on women by patriarchy remains problematic. Working conditions could be improved, however, by allowing women to be near their families, domesticating the work environment, and respecting women's personal lives.

  6. Assortative mating among Dutch married and cohabiting same-sex and different-sex couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, C.M.C.; Kalmijn, M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared male and female same-sex and different-sex couples in the Netherlands with respect to age and educational homogamy. Because many same-sex couples in the Netherlands are married, differences between married and cohabiting couples were analyzed for all 3 groups. Analyses of data

  7. Taxation of Spouses: A Cross-Country Study of the Effects on Married Women's Labour Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callan, Tim; Dex, Shirley; Smith, Nina

    1999-01-01

    of married women if the households were taxed by either separate or split taxation principles, as in Britain and Ireland, respectively. The results show that the design of the tax scheme is highly important for the economic incentives that married women face and their resulting labour supply behaviour....

  8. Do the Married Really Live Longer? The Role of Cohabitation and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drefahl, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that married women and men experience the lowest mortality. Legal marital status, however, does not necessarily reflect today's social reality because individuals are classified as never married, widowed, or divorced even when they are living with a partner. Denmark is one of the forerunners of developments in…

  9. Never Married Elderly as a Social Type: Re-evaluating Some Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Uses data from two studies to reevaluate some images about the never married elderly. Data suggest that never married elderly are not necessarily socially isolated, may experience some loneliness, do not have uniform attitude concerning possibility of marriage, and suffer from the effects of loss in late life. (Author/NB)

  10. Rural and urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan: determinants of their physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Walter; Shiao, Wen-Been; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2013-12-01

    Different geographical areas with unique social cultures or societies might influence immigrant health. This study examines whether health inequities and different social factors exist regarding the health of rural and urban married Asian immigrants. A survey was conducted on 419 rural and 582 urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan in 2009. Whereas the descriptive results indicate a worse mental health status between rural and urban married Asian immigrants, rural married immigrants were as mentally healthy as urban ones when considering different social variables. An analysis of regional stratification found different social-determinant patterns on rural and urban married immigrants. Whereas social support is key for rural immigrant physical and mental health, acculturation (i.e., language proficiency), socioeconomics (i.e., working status), and family structure (the number of family members and children living in the family) are key to the mental health of urban married immigrants in addition to social support. This study verifies the key roles of social determinants on the subjective health of married Asian immigrants. Area-differential patterns on immigrant health might act as a reference for national authorities to (re)focus their attention toward more area-specific approaches for married Asian immigrants.

  11. Married...with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Married...with Food Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Photo: ... married life together and a common problem—severe food allergies. NIH MedlinePlus magazine’s Naomi Miller caught up with ...

  12. Attitudes of 110 married men towards family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, J T

    1980-09-01

    A study was conducted at the Army Garrison Hospital at Port Dickson in Peninsular Malaysia to determine the attitudes of 110 married men towards family planning. The sample included 80 Malays and 30 Indians who are army personnel attending the hospital either for medical treatment or a check-up. The study instrument was a pre-tested questionnarie administered by 2 male nurses during the November-December 1975 period. 76 of the respondents were between the ages of 20-34 years. 81 of the respondents had been married for a duration of up to 11 years. A breakdown by religion showed that 80 were Muslims, 25 were Hindus, and 5 were Christians, the latter being all Roman Catholics. All of the respondents were able to read and write in at least 1 language, 36 had had schooling varying from standard 1-6, 40 had had schooling varying between Form 1-Form 3, and 34 had had schooling varying from Form 4-to either Malaysian Certificate of Education Level or Higher School Certificate Level. 103 of the respondents approved of family planning, and of these 63 had always felt this way in the past. 6 respondents indicated that they had not thought about family planning in the past. 87 respondents did not approve of the practice of family planning before having the 1st child. Only 7 of 80 Malays in contrast to 16 of 30 Indian respondents -- a significant difference -- approved of family planning before the 1st child. 89 of the 110 respondents had discussed family planning with their wives; 21 respondents had not. 93 respondents disapproved of induced abortion; 17 approved of it. Only 3 of 80 Malay respondents approved induced abortion, but 14 of 30 Indian respondents indicated approval. 98 of the respondents indicated that they were interested in learning more about family planning, and 96 approved of their wife practicing family planning. 56 respondents were practicing family planning, and 20 indicated that they would do so in the future. 6 said they would not practice family

  13. Marital power process of Korean men married to foreign women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyoung; Park, Gyeong Sook; Windsor, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This study explored how Korean men married to migrant women construct meaning around married life. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 10 men who had had been married to migrant women for ≥ 2 years. Data collection and analysis were performed concurrently using a grounded theory approach. The core category generated was the process of sustaining a family unit. The men came to understand the importance of a distribution of power within the family in sustaining the family unit. Constituting this process were four stages: recognizing an imbalance of power, relinquishing power, empowering, and fine-tuning the balance of power. This study provides important insight into the dynamics of marital power from men's point of view by demonstrating a link between the way people adjust to married life and the process by which married couples adjust through the distribution and redistribution of power. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. ‘Are you married to a Maasai?’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the dynamics of ‘cultural difference’. It is based on the fieldwork among a group of Danish seniors at a three-week adult education course entitled ‘Global Citizenship’ in Tanzania with the Danish NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke. The article analyses encounters between the Danes...... and their Tanzanian teachers. The article explores the training centre Danish, which hosted the course, as a chronotope in which ‘being Danish’ holds special meaning, and analyses how gender became a lens for depicting culture. The article concludes that normative hierarchical positionalities of gender equality vs...

  15. The communication of emotion during conflict in married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated emotion during interpersonal conflicts between mates. It addressed questions about how clearly couples express emotion (encoding), how accurately they recognize each other's emotion (decoding), and how well they distinguish between types of negative emotion. It was theorized that couples express and perceive both: (a) event-specific emotions, which are unique to particular people on particular occasions, and (b) contextual-couple emotions, which reflect the additive effect of emotions across different events and across both partners. Eighty-three married couples engaged in a series of two conflict conversations. Self-report ratings, observer ratings, and partner ratings were used to assess two types of negative emotion: hard emotion (e.g., angry or annoyed) and soft emotion (e.g., sad or hurt). Couples were reasonably accurate in encoding, decoding, and in distinguishing between types of emotion. Emotion expression was strongly associated with general levels of contextual-couple emotion summed across two conversations, whereas emotion perception was more closely tied to specific events. Hard emotion was readily perceived when it was overtly expressed, and soft emotion could sometimes be recognized even when it was not expressed clearly. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. The Survival of Spouses Marrying Into Longevity-Enriched Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob K; Elo, Irma T; Schupf, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    be expected to have better health than the background population due to shared family environment with the longevity-enriched family members and due to assortative mating. METHODS: A Danish cohort study of 5,363 offspring of long-lived siblings, born 1917-1982, and 4,498 "first spouses" of these offspring...... deaths and 502 offspring spouse deaths were observed. Compared with the background population, the hazard ratio for male offspring was 0.44 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38-0.50) and for female offspring it was 0.57 (95% CI: 0.49-0.66). For male spouses, the hazard ratio was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.......59-0.74), whereas for female spouses it was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.54-0.76). Sensitivity analyses in restricted samples gave similar results. CONCLUSION: The mortality for ages 20-69 years of spouses marrying into longevity-enriched families is substantially lower than the mortality in the background population, although...

  17. Prediction of domestic violence against married women in southwestern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirli, Gulsen O; Sonmez, Yonca; Sezik, Mekin

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of, and independent risk factors for various domestic violence categories among married women of reproductive age in southwestern Turkey. The present cross-sectional study included 260 randomly selected women registered to a family physician in the district of Gönen, Isparta. During home visits between October 1 and December 31, 2012, the women completed a questionnaire that included between four and eight questions for each violence category (physical, verbal, economic, emotional, and sexual) to assess the lifetime presence of domestic violence. Logistic regression models with backward elimination were constructed to define independent risk factors for domestic violence. In total, 176 (67.7%) women reported any type of domestic violence at least once in their lifetime. Verbal/psychological abuse was the most frequent type (reported by 121 [46.5%] women). Living in a village, young age (19-29 years) of the husband, adolescent age (violence. Attention should be given to area of residence, age of both partners at marriage, adolescent marriage, and husband characteristics during screening for domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

  19. Physical domestic violence against married women by their intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender based violence is very common in our environment supported by religious and cultural considerations and often justified by women. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the pattern of physical violence in the home among intimate partners with a view to ascertain the magnitude of the ...

  20. Married to the Military: The Employment and Earnings of Military Wives Compared With Those of Civilian Wives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosek, James

    2002-01-01

    .... Today's military is a military of families. About half of active-duty members are married as they enter their fifth year of service, and about three-fourths are married as they enter their tenth year of service...

  1. Gender dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001527.htm Gender dysphoria To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gender dysphoria occurs when there is a conflict between ...

  2. Acceptability and use of emergency contraception among married women in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Shankar, Mridula; Sreevathsa, Anuradha; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2013-04-01

    To assess knowledge, acceptability, and use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECs) among lower-income married women in Bangalore, India. EC counseling and supplies were offered to 322 women aged 18-25 years participating in a longitudinal reproductive health study. Participants completed interviews at enrollment and were followed for 1 year. EC acceptability and use were assessed, and factors associated with use were identified. 206/320 (64.4%) participants did not desire pregnancy but only 46/321 (14.3%) used an intrauterine device or contraceptive pills. Only 25 (7.8%) had heard of ECs. Overall, 123 (38.2%) participants requested advance provisions of ECs after counseling. Over a year, 37/263 (14.1%) women used ECs, usually within 3 days of unprotected sex (33 [89.2%]), and 32 (86.5%) took both pills together or 1 day apart. Thirty-six (97.3%) felt glad and 31 (83.8%) were relieved after taking ECs. Twenty-five (67.6%) women who used ECs sought permission from their husbands. The only factor associated with EC use was couples' pregnancy intentions (odds ratio 4.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-15.58; P≤0.01). Indian women with access to ECs generally used them correctly and found them acceptable. Efforts to expand EC knowledge and access should be coupled with efforts to promote gender equality in the reproductive sphere. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge of Married Women in Kohgilouyeh & Boyerahmad Urban Areas on AIDS and Sexualy Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Goshtasbi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Sexualy transmitted infections (STIs and AIDS are the most common diseases worldwide. Women are more affected by STIs and AIDS due to gender-related factors such as biological, cultural and so on. This study was conducted to investigate knowledge about AIDS and STIs among married women in Kohgilouyeh & BoyerAhmad Province/Iran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban areas of Kohgilouyeh and Boyerahmad province. Using stratifed cluster sampling, a valid questionnaire covering demographic variables and items related to knowledge about AIDS and STIs was administered to 1379 women covered by the urban PHC clinics. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 33.3 (SD=±9.3. Most were household (%85 and the mean level of their formal education was 7.2 years (SD=±4.8. The results also showed that women had the most knowledge with the statements that "using condom protects against AIDS" (%63.9 and "asymptomatic persons would be as AIDS vectors" (%65.1. There was a significant relation between education and recognizing AIDS as a sexualy transmitted infection (p=0.004. Albeit, women were poorly familiar with the STIs, the most knowledge was found with gonorrhea (%40.5 and the least with chlamydia (%12.2. The most knowledge was observed with the statements that "STIs would induce PID in women" and "using condom protects against all the venereal diseases" (both %61.1. A significant corelation was found between education and job and fimiliarity with STIs (p<0.001. Conclusion: Findings showed limited knowledge on sexualy transmitted infections and fairely good knowledge on AIDS. There is need for the promotion of women's knowledge in sexual health field.

  4. Using marital status and continuous marital satisfaction ratings to predict depressive symptoms in married and unmarried women with systemic sclerosis: A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, B.; Rice, D.B.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Steele, R.J.; Hagedoorn, M.; Hudson, M.; Baron, M.; Thombs, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as

  5. Using Marital Status and Continuous Marital Satisfaction Ratings to Predict Depressive Symptoms in Married and Unmarried Women With Systemic Sclerosis : A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, Brooke; Rice, Danielle B.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    Objective. Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as

  6. Differences in Perceived Competence and Physical Activity Levels during Single-Gender Modified Basketball Game Play in Middle School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Menno; Haerens, Leen; Cardon, Greet; Borghouts, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Creating environments in physical education (PE) that foster perceived competence and physical activity during gender-mixed game play lessons is a challenge, especially with adolescent girls. This study is a small experiment in one PE lesson that aimed to increase the perceived competence and in-class physical activity in girls, by applying a…

  7. Differences in perceived competence and physical activity levels during single-gender modified basketball game play in middle school physical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Lars B. Borghouts; Greet Cardon; drs Menno Slingerland; Leen Haerens

    2013-01-01

    Creating environments in physical education (PE) that foster perceived competence and physical activity during gender-mixed game play lessons is a challenge, especially with adolescent girls. This study is a small experiment in one PE lesson that aimed to increase the perceived competence and

  8. Gender education of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    ILYIN G.L.; SALIMULLINA A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The article in question sets out the concept of gender education of pre-school children in relation to such concepts as gender and sexual development. The differences in features of development of children of different sex are singled out.

  9. Observed Hostility and Dominance as Mediators of the Relationship between Husbands' Gender Role Conflict and Wives' Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty married couples participated in a study of the effects of husbands' gender role conflict on outcomes for wives. Hypothesized relationships between husbands' gender role conflict and wives' marital adjustment and depressive symptoms were supported. Hostile and dominant behaviors were recorded by outside raters viewing videotaped segments of…

  10. Gender differences in academic surgery, work-life balance, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Dadrie; Fecher, Alison M; Dolejs, Scott C; Yoder, Joseph; Schmidt, C Maximillian; Couch, Marion E; Ceppa, DuyKhanh P

    2017-10-01

    An increasing number of women are pursuing a career in surgery. Concurrently, the percentage of surgeons in dual-profession partnerships is increasing. We sought to evaluate the gender differences in professional advancement, work-life balance, and satisfaction at a large academic center. All surgical trainees and faculty at a single academic medical center were surveyed. Collected variables included gender, academic rank, marital status, family size, division of household responsibilities, and career satisfaction. Student t-test, Fisher's exact test, and chi-square test were used to compare results. There were 127 faculty and 116 trainee respondents (>80% response rate). Respondents were mostly male (77% of faculty, 58% of trainees). Women were more likely than men to be married to a professional (90% versus 37%, for faculty; 82% versus 41% for trainees, P working full time (P working spouse and to be primarily responsible for managing their households. Additional consideration for improvement in recruitment and retention strategies for surgeons might address barriers to equalizing these gender disparities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gayle Patrice

    The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.

  12. Feeding her children, but risking her health: the intersection of gender, household food insecurity and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A; Lippert, Adam M

    2012-06-01

    This paper investigates one explanation for the consistent observation of a strong, negative correlation in the United States between income and obesity among women, but not men. We argue that a key factor is the gendered expectation that mothers are responsible for feeding their children. When income is limited and households face food shortages, we predict that an enactment of these gendered norms places mothers at greater risk for obesity relative to child-free women and all men. We adopt an indirect approach to study these complex dynamics using data on men and women of childrearing age and who are household heads or partners in the 1999-2003 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We find support for our prediction: Food insecure mothers are more likely than child-free men and women and food insecure fathers to be overweight or obese and to gain more weight over four years. The risks are greater for single mothers relative to mothers in married or cohabiting relationships. Supplemental models demonstrate that this pattern cannot be attributed to post-pregnancy biological changes that predispose mothers to weight gain or an evolutionary bias toward biological children. Further, results are unchanged with the inclusion of physical activity, smoking, drinking, receipt of food stamps, or Women, Infants and Children (WIC) nutritional program participation. Obesity, thus, offers a physical expression of the vulnerabilities that arise from the intersection of gendered childcare expectations and poverty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Short-Term Acceptability of the Woman’s Condom among Married Couples in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Woman’s Condom, a second-generation female condom designed for acceptability, is poised for introduction in China. Method. This single-arm study was conducted among 60 couples in China in 2010 to assess acceptability of the Woman’s Condom. Results. Male participants reported that ease of handling, inserting, and removing the device improved significantly from first to fourth use. Female and male participants reported that comfort during insertion, feel of lubricant during insertion, comfort/fit of outer ring during use, and overall comfort improved significantly from first to fourth use. Further, at fourth use, female participants reported significant improvement in the comfort of the feel of the condom material and lubricant. Female and male participants reported that satisfaction with stability and sensation during sex and ability to achieve orgasm improved significantly from first to fourth use. At fourth use, female participants reported statistically significant improvement in sensation compared to using nothing. A majority of participants (78% stated that they would use the Woman’s Condom in the future, primarily due to its dual protection profile. Conclusion. This study has shown that, in China, the Woman’s Condom appears to be acceptable to married couples. User experience contributes to improvement in many aspects of device acceptability.

  14. Comparison of Relationship with In-laws in Iranian Married Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مونا چراغی

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare women and men in relationship with in-laws. There fore a questionnaire was developed and administered to 735 married people (385 women, 350 men. Participants were selected through accessible sampling method from six populated cities of Iran. Results showed significant difference between men and women in estimation of in-laws role and proportion in marital conflicts (U= 5.832, P<.001, offending in-laws during the marital conflicts (U=5.851, P<.001, informing in-laws about marital conflicts (= 18.256, P<.003 and amount of visits and phone calls with them. Women's relationship with their in-laws were worse than men's (U= 5.71, P<.001 and they reported less satisfaction in comparison with men (t=-5.46, P<.001. Women believed more than men that their in-laws have irrational expectations of them (=5.04, P<.002. In comparison with men, women felt unhappier about the presence of their in-laws were at their life (U=6.009, P<.003, and reported more conflicts with them. Women and men reported different ways of conflict resolution with in-laws. In case of conflict with in-laws, women preferred to show no reaction, decrease the number of visits and ask their husbands to act as an intermediary. Men stated that in case of conflict with in-laws they would prefer to neglect it or discuss about it with in-laws directly. But women and men had more desirable relationship with their mother and sister in-laws. Besides, in both genders it was more probable to have undesirable relationship with mother and sister or brother in-laws from the opposite sex of their spouse. Father in-laws were the last one whom participants had desirable or undesirable relationships with. Lastly women had worse relationship with their in-laws than men that can be explained from psychological, sociological and cultural points of view. Considering the role of relationship with in-laws in success or failure of marriage in Iran it is necessary to

  15. Changing attitudes toward marriage and single life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A; Freedman, D

    1982-01-01

    Attitudes about the primacy of marriage as a way of life have changed markedly over the past two decades. The legitimacy of singleness as a life-style is increasingly recognized by young people and their parents; most Americans no longer regard getting married as necessarily better than remaining single and do not disapprove of those who eschew marriage. Although most young people interviewed in the 1980 Study of American Families say that they would be bothered at least a little by failure to marry, relatively few say they would be greatly bothered by that outcome. It is somewhat surprising that the mothers of these young people also report fairly evenhanded attitudes regarding marriage for their children, suggesting that the younger generation will probably not experience much parental pressure to marry. Although the imperative to marry has weakened and the perceived advantages of marriage as compared to single life have declined, marriage continues to be valued by the majority of young Americans as shown in several studies of attitudes toward marriage. More than 90 percent expect to marry and there has been almost no decline in that proportion since 1960. What is more, despite the high levels of divorce, most young people say that they expect their marriages to be lasting. What has changed about marriage plans has been the rising age at which young people, especially young women, expect to marry--an expectation reflected in the increasing age at which Americans are actually marrying. There also seems to be a widespread desire not to let marriage interfere with education and to obtain some work experience before marriage. Marriage continues to be more important to young women than young men, despite recent trends toward more egalitarian sex roles. There is some evidence that experience with divorce increases negative attitudes about marriage and favorable ones about singleness as a way of life.

  16. Depression and aggression in never-married men in China: a growing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xudong; Yan, Zheng; Hesketh, Therese; Therese, Hesketh

    2013-07-01

    China has the highest excess of male births in the world at 118 to every 100 female, with a current excess of 20 million men of reproductive age. The impact on the psychological well-being of the large numbers of men who will never marry is unclear. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that older never-married men are more predisposed to depression, low self-esteem and aggression. The study was a cross-sectional survey using a self-completion questionnaire conducted in high sex ratio rural areas of Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. The tools used were the Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and the Bryant-Smith Aggression questionnaire. A total of 1,059 never-married men and 1,066 married men aged 30-40 completed questionnaires. Never-married men were financially poorer and had lower education levels than married ones. After adjusting for age, education and income, never-married men were significantly more likely to have lower self-esteem scores (P < 0.001), higher depression scores (P < 0.001), higher aggression scores (P < 0.001) and were more likely to have suicidal thoughts or wishes (P < 0.001) than married men. The high prevalence of severe depression and suicide ideation in these men is of particular concern. In rural China mental health services are currently very sparse, but rural doctors could be trained to use a check score to identify severe depression, and refer as appropriate to specialist services.

  17. Improving ability of married women to prevent reproductive tract infections in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li Rong; Zhao, Hong; Wang, He Ping; Li, Yai; Niu, Jing Ping; Su, Ke Jian; Mao, Hui Qing; Yang, Hua; Wei, Chang Nian; Ueda, Atsushi

    2006-09-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate and analyze the status of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in married women in rural western China, and to develop effective strategies for improving the ability of married women to prevent RTIs in this region. We conducted in-depth interviews of 142 married women from four villages in three townships. Two questionnaires were used to gather data on married women's health care status, family income, knowledge about RTIs, relevant behaviors, and attitudes toward RTIs. Descriptive, parallel, and logistic regression analyses and the Chi-square test were applied to analyze the relationships between basic conditions and several influential factors. Over 80% of the respondents were of limited income and had with poor knowledge of and a lack of experience in preventing RTIs. Some 83.3% of the married women had experienced menstrual irregularities; 70.3% of those interviewed had experienced malodorous vaginal discharge with or without perineal itching. It was found that 80.7% of the interviewees did not have good personal hygiene habits in daily living regarding RTIs. It was found that the prevalence of RTIs was lower in women who had accurate information about RTIs. Most married women lacked basic knowledge of ways to prevent RTIs, and this, together with the limited support of the health care system and the absence of medical insurance schemes, was responsible for the observed high prevalence of RTIs. There is an urgent need to improve the capability of married women in rural China to prevent RTIs, and it is important to find effective ways to prevent these diseases. Three health promotion strategies are presently being implemented to prevent RTIs and to build capacity for disease prevention among married women in rural western China.

  18. Gendered globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position o...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  19. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    , there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  20. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    four selfrepot questionnaires. The childhood attachment was measured by Attachment History Paragraphs (Granqvist & Kirkpatrick, 2004, adult attachment was measured by The Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 and satisfaction in marriage was measuredby two measures: Quality Marriage Index (Norton, 1983 and Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (Schumm, Bollman, & Jurich, 1997.The research sample consisted of 78 heterosexual married couple, together 156 people. The average length of marriages is 20.76 years. Participants were instructed to complete the questionnaires independently. The relations between variables were examined by correlation analysis and cluster analysis. People with a secure attachment style and their partners were most satisfied with their marriages. Our study showed relation between dismissive attachment style and low level of marital satisfaction for the individual, and for the partner of the examined one. The results of our study did not suggest any relationship between childhood attachment and marital satisfaction. The results indicate that secure attachment style is related to higher level of relationship satisfaction, in spite of stressful situation or demanding changes which are occurring in marriage. People with insecure attachment style devote a lot of effort to reinforce marital and couple relationship stability during difficult situations in relationship. Connection between marital satisfaction and childhood attachment has not been proven. The reason may be that childhood attachment is not always totally stable and it can be changed by life experience or personal characteristics of the individual. Our research confirmed that attachment is related to satisfaction in marriage. Research of relationship between attachment and factors affecting marriage is very beneficial, because new finding in this topic can help in clinical practice.

  1. Gender identity disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    De Gascun, C

    2006-05-01

    Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is a relatively rare condition of atypical gender development in which there is a psychological perception of self as masculine or feminine which is incongruent with ones phenotype. GID replaced the term Transsexualism in DSM-IV in 1994. The demographics of GID in Ireland have not been established. Since 2000 we have received 52 referrals of individuals with confirmed GID to our endocrine service for consideration for hormonal treatment (HT). Of the 52 patients 45 have male to female (MTF) GID (mean age 38.9 years) and 7 have female to male (FTM) GID (mean age 30.7 years). The age at presentation in this group is approximately 9 years older than in international series for both MTF (39 years v 30yrs) and FTM (31 yrs v 22yrs). The karyotype where analysed has been normal for their phenotypic sex. Twenty-three of the patients had received HT prior to attending our clinic that in only one case had been prescribed by a specialist. A number of patients had obtained HT via the internet or from overseas sources without medical review. Eighteen of the patients have been or are married and 14 of the group have children. The scale of referrals confirms that GID exists in the Irish population to a significant degree. Thus an appropriate care pathway for people with the condition needs to be established. This will facilitate optimum medical management of the patient group and a coherent approach to the many difficult social issues faced individuals with this disorder.

  2. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  3. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families......Values and practices regarding sex and gender are among the most fundamental constituents of a society?s symbolic system as well as of an individual?s self. Gendered ways of behavior are symbolic markers of ethnicity, both in a process of labeling from the outside and in the construction...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  4. Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemers, Naomi

    2018-01-04

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes. Empirical studies show that gender stereotypes affect the way people attend to, interpret, and remember information about themselves and others. Considering the cognitive and motivational functions of gender stereotypes helps us understand their impact on implicit beliefs and communications about men and women. Knowledge of the literature on this subject can benefit the fair judgment of individuals in situations where gender stereotypes are likely to play a role.

  5. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  6. Changes in gender discrimination after death: evidence from a cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L

    Information on tombstones from a large cemetery in New York State were analyzed for gender discrimination. Criteria for gender bias were indications of familial relationships, absence of surnames, and absence of maiden names combined with surname for married women. Overall, females were far more likely to be identified in terms of familial relationships and were far less likely to have their married surname included on their gravestone. However, when the data were divided into 50 year epochs, it was apparent that identification of women in terms of familial relationships had become far less common and indication of surnames had become more common over the last 150 years. There was also a slight trend for women to have both their maiden and surnames on their grave markers.

  7. Differences in dietary patterns of nonsmoking adults married to smokers vs. nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, J S; Taylor, C A; Booth, C L

    2001-01-01

    To compare dietary intakes of nonsmoking adults married to smokers or nonsmokers. Respondents to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994 to 1996 (response rate = 76.1% for 2 days of dietary intake). Nonsmoking adults aged 18 and older were grouped according to the smoking status of their spouse. In-home interviews in all 50 states and Washington, D.C. The selected sample included 757 men and 754 women who were married to nonsmokers, and 197 men and 262 women who were married to smokers. Selected demographic variables, food group servings, food energy, and densities of selected nutrients were compared using chi 2 and analysis of covariance. Men and women married to smokers had greater (p cheese and table sweeteners (p < or = .05). Nonsmoking men and women who were married to smokers had compromised dietary intakes. Nonsmoking men whose wives smoked, in particular, had unhealthy diets due to elevated intakes of fat and cholesterol and low intakes of vitamin A, calcium, and fiber. Health professionals should continue to provide tobacco cessation instruction and dietary guidance, but also be aware of at-risk patients' immediate family members who likely share an increased risk of disease because of poor diet quality and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

  8. Marrying women 15 years younger maximized men's evolutionary fitness in historical Sami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Samuli; Lummaa, Virpi; Jokela, Jukka

    2008-02-23

    Most men marry younger women. This has been attributed to men selecting young women due to their high reproductive value and women preferring older men due to their wealth and high social status. Such mate preferences have been suggested to be adaptive, but despite a flourishing number of studies on the mate selection patterns themselves, little is still known of their actual fitness consequences. We examined how the age difference between spouses who married only once affected their lifetime reproductive success in historical monogamous Sami populations. We found that men maximized their fitness by marrying women approximately 15 years younger and vice versa. However, most couples failed to marry optimally. Only 10% of marriages fell within the optimal parental age difference, suggesting that cultural and ecological constraints for maximizing fitness were considerable. Those who succeeded in marrying optimally were the most preferred partners: young women and old men. Our findings indicate that, in Sami, parental age difference was under natural and sexual selection, as suggested by evolutionary theory.

  9. Gender Differences in the Structure of Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Christopher R; Marcus, Katherine; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E

    2018-03-22

    Marriages consist of shared experiences and interactions between husbands and wives that may lead to different impressions of the quality of the relationship. Few studies, unfortunately, have tested gender differences in the structure of marital quality, and even fewer studies have evaluated whether genetic and environmental influences on marital quality differ across gender. In this study, we evaluated gender differences in the structure of marital quality using independent samples of married male (n = 2406) and married female (n = 2215) participants from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States who provided ratings on twenty-eight marital quality items encompassing six marital quality constructs. We further explored gender differences in genetic and environmental influences on marital quality constructs in a subsample of 491 pairs of twins. Results suggest partial metric invariance across gender but structural variability in marital quality constructs. Notably, correlations between constructs were stronger in women than men. Results also support gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on different aspects of marital quality. We discuss that men and women may approach and react to marriage differently as the primary reason why we observed differences in the structure of marital quality.

  10. Inclusive Growth and Gender Inequality in Asia's Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana; Zveglich, Jr., Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines gender inequality in labor markets in Asia and the Pacific, with a focus on the structural drivers of women's labor force participation. Demographic survey data indicate that in Asia's lower-income countries, economic necessity is an important push factor behind women's employment. Also, being married and having young children both reduce the likelihood that a woman is employed. In a separate analysis for Taipei,China, this disincentive effect from young children on women'...

  11. Premarital mental disorders and physical violence in marriage: cross-national study of married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua; Petukhova, Maria; Fayyad, John; Green, Jennifer Greif; Kola, Lola; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J; Tsang, Adley; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Tomov, Toma; Kessler, Ronald C

    2011-10-01

    Mental disorders may increase the risk of physical violence among married couples. To estimate associations between premarital mental disorders and marital violence in a cross-national sample of married couples. A total of 1821 married couples (3642 individuals) from 11 countries were interviewed as part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Sixteen mental disorders with onset prior to marriage were examined as predictors of marital violence reported by either spouse. Any physical violence was reported by one or both spouses in 20% of couples, and was associated with husbands' externalising disorders (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). Overall, the population attributable risk for marital violence related to premarital mental disorders was estimated to be 17.2%. Husbands' externalising disorders had a modest but consistent association with marital violence across diverse countries. This finding has implications for the development of targeted interventions to reduce risk of marital violence.

  12. True Love Waits: Do Southern Baptists? Premarital Sexual Behavior Among Newly Married Southern Baptist Sunday School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet E.; Weathersbee, Byron

    2011-01-01

    This study measures premarital sex prevalence, sources of sex education, and support for secular sex education among 151 newly married young adults surveyed at 9 Texas Southern Baptist churches. More than 70% of respondents reported having had premarital vaginal or oral sex, but more than 80% regretted premarital sex. The proportion of premarital sex exceeded 80% in 6 of 9 churches, among men and women married after age 25 and women married before age 21. School sex education was the only sou...

  13. Gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sean R; Russell, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria is the distress or discomfort that may occur when a person's biological sex and gender identity do not align. The true prevalence of gender dysphoria is unknown in Australia because of varying definitions, different cultural norms and paucity of data. Individuals who identify as transgender are vulnerable, and have higher rates of discrimination, depression and suicidality, compared with the general population. The aim of this article is to familiarise general practitioners (GPs) with the principles of transgender care so they may provide a safe and supportive environment for patients presenting with concerns. It is important to have a basic understanding of how to conduct an initial consultation of gender dysphoria even if it is an uncommon presentation in general practice. Management should be individualised and may involve a combination of social work, education, counselling, hormone therapy and surgery.

  14. A social work study on measuring the impact of gender and marital status on stress: A case study of hydro-power employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Iravani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study performs an empirical survey to measure the impact of stress among people with various gender and marital status in a hydropower unit located in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study performs the survey among all 81 people who were working for customer service section of this company and consists of two parts, in the first part; we gather all private information such as age, gender, education, job experience, etc. through seven important questions. In the second part of the survey, there were 66 questions, which included all the relevant factors impacting employees' stress. We implement two Levin and t-student tests to see whether gender or marital status has any meaningful influences on creating stress among people. The results indicate that gender has no meaningful impact on creating stress among employees who worked for this hydro plant except difficulty of job conditions. The other findings of this paper is that stress posed from management team had different impacts on employees with various marital status but there were no meaningful differences between married and single couples in terms of other factors posing stress such as unsuitable working conditions, fear of job stability or difficulty of job conditions.

  15. Differences in the Household Composition of Elders by Age, Gender, and Area of Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Raymond T.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined age, gender, and area-of-residence differences in household type and generational composition. Majority of elders lived in some form of family household; most prevalent were two-person, married-couple-only households at ages 65-79, one-person households at ages 80-89, and 2-generation households at ages 90+. Overall, elders were more…

  16. Interactive Effects of Gender Ideology and Age at First Marriage on Women's Marital Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon N.; Greenstein, Theodore N.

    2004-01-01

    A sample of ever-married women from the NLSY79 is analyzed to examine the effects of age at first marriage and gender ideology on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption. The authors hypothesize that age at first marriage will have no effect on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption for non-traditional women, but that there…

  17. Waiting to Be Asked: Gender, Power, and Relationship Progression among Cohabiting Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of young married Americans lived with their spouses before the wedding, and many cohabited with partners they did not wed. Yet little is known about how cohabitating relationships progress or the role gender norms play in this process. This article explores how cohabiting partners negotiate relationship progression, focusing on…

  18. Gender Differences in Remarriage after Divorce in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Laurel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated gender differences in the likelihood of remarriage after divorce in Japan and the United States. Compared the sex ratio of the currently divorced with the sex ratio of the currently married to suggest that Japanese women are disproportionately disadvantaged by divorce, relative to American White women of the same age. (TE)

  19. Men's perpetration of intimate partner violence in Vietnam: gendered social learning and the challenges of masculinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Higgins, E.M.; VanderEnde, K.E.; Krause, K.H.; Tran, H.M.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Using the survey responses of 522 married men (eighteen to fifty-one years) in Vietnam, we explored how gendered social learning in boyhood and challenges to men’s expected status in marriage may increase the risk that men perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) against their wives. Over

  20. The increasing mortality advantage of the married: The role played by education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Kravdal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In several European countries the excess mortality of nonmarried people relative to the married has increased. In this study we describe in detail the increasing mortality advantage of the married in Norway and investigate the extent to which changes in educational composition of marital-status groups can account for this increasing mortality gap. Methods: Using register data for the entire population of Norway, we estimated discrete-time hazard models for mortality at age 50-89 in years 1975-2008. We also estimated one-year death probabilities by age, period, marital status, education, and spouse's education. These were used to calculate period-specific age-standardized death probabilities for marital-status categories and hypothetical versions of these, assuming constant death probabilities in each educational group in each marital-status category or constant educational distributions. Hypothetical and observed versions were then compared. Results: The mortality of nonmarried people relative to married people increased sharply over the years 1975-2008. During the first part of this period, mortality was constant or even increasing among the never-married, who at the end of the period could be considered as lagging 30 years behind the married. Educational patterns have changed markedly, but this explains only up to 5Š of the increasing mortality disadvantage of the never-married. Educational changes have contributed more to the growing disadvantage of the widowed, while the picture is more mixed for the divorced. Conclusions: Contribution: We demonstrate that there has been a large widening in the marital-status differences in mortality in Norway since the 1970s and that little of this difference can be attributed to changes in educational distributions.

  1. HIV sero-discordance among married HIV patients initiating anti-retroviral therapy in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tam, Vu; Cuong, Do Duy; Alfven, Tobias; Phuc, Ho Dang; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hoa, Nguyen Phuong; Diwan, Vinod; Larsson, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    In many countries in Asia, the HIV epidemic is in a concentrated phase, with high prevalence in certain risk groups, such as men who inject drugs. There is also a rapid increase of HIV among women. The latter might be due to high levels of sero-discordant couples and increasing transmission from male to female partners over time. All adult married patients initiating antiretroviral treatment at four out-patient clinics in Quang Ninh province in north-eastern Vietnam between 2007 and 2009 were asked to participate in the study. Clinical information was extracted from patients' records, and a structured questionnaire was used to collect social, demographic and economic data. Two hundred eighty-eight married patients for whom information on the HIV status of their spouse was available were included in the study. Overall, the sero-discordance rate was 58%. The sero-discordance rate was significantly higher among married males, 71% had spouses not infected, than married females, of whom 18% had spouses not infected. Other factors associated with a high rate of sero-discordance were injection drug use (IDU) history, tuberculosis (TB) history and the availability of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) in residential locations. High sero-concordance was associated with college/university education. The sero-discordance was significantly higher among married males than married females. Other factors also related to high sero-discordance were history of IDU, history of TB and the availability of VCT in residential locations. In contrast, college/university education and female sex were significantly related to low sero-discordance. To contain the increasing HIV prevalence among women, measures should be taken to prevent transmission among sero-discordant couples. Trial registration NCT01433601.

  2. Risk factors associated with current intimate partner violence at individual and relationship levels: a cross-sectional study among married rural migrant women in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaowen; Lou, Chaohua

    2017-04-05

    To identify individual and relationship risk factors associated with current intimate partner violence (IPV) against married rural migrant women in Shanghai, China. Cross-sectional survey. Two subdistricts of one administrative district, Shanghai, China. A total of 958 married rural migrant women of reproductive age were selected using a community-based two-stage cluster sampling method in April and May of 2010. Data were collected using a modified questionnaire based on an instrument from the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% CI from a multivariable logistic regression model were estimated to identify individual and relationship risk factors associated with different types of violence in the past 12 months. Women's low financial autonomy was associated with all types of violence (AORs ranged from 1.98 to 7.89, p6, pemployment status at an individual level, quarrelling with husband and history of husband beaten by family members at a relationship level were identified as the most robust risk factors for IPV among married rural migrant women. Efforts to prevent IPV among this population should be made to involve both women and their husbands, with a focus on improving financial autonomy and employment status of women, promoting problem-solving and interaction skills of the couples and changing their knowledge and attitudes towards gender norms and IPV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. The Impact on New Hampshire's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad; Kukura, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This analysis, co-authored by the Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies (IGLSS) and UCLA’s Williams Project on Sexual Orientation Law and Public Policy, estimates the impact of allowing same-sex couples to marry on New Hampshire’s state budget. Using the best data available, we estimate that allowing same-sex couples to marry will result in a net gain of approximately $500,000 each year for the State. This net impact will be the result of savings in expenditures on state means-teste...

  4. Maternal Intuition of Fetal Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McFadzen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fetal gender speculation is a preoccupation of many expecting parents, and pregnant women commonly profess to intuitively know the gender of their unborn babies. This study objectively compared pregnant mothers’ perceptions of fetal gender to sonographically proven gender determinations. Also, success rates from previously published studies, noninvasive prenatal testing and a myriad of gender determination methods were observed and reported for context. Methods: All pregnant women presenting for second-trimester screening ultrasound (at 17–23 weeks gestation in the obstetrics department of a single health center were asked to participate. A medical sonographer described the ultrasound examination, obtained appropriate consent and medical history. Each mother was asked if she had any perception as to the fetal gender and her answer documented. Mothers who had foreknowledge of fetal gender were excluded. Frequencies of actual gender were compared with observed frequencies of the maternal prediction using chi-squared test. Results: Approximately 40% (n = 411 of our study population (N = 1,026 indicated having an intuition or perception of fetal gender. These women correctly predicted the gender of their babies 51% of the time (P = 0.6571. Women who expressed a “strong” degree of intuition (n = 53 fared better, accurately predicting fetal gender at a rate of 62%, though the difference in this smaller subcohort also failed to demonstrate statistical significance (P = 0.0741. Conclusions: Intuition of fetal gender is professed by almost half of mothers though, when present, is no better at accurately predicting fetal gender than flipping a coin.

  5. Education and Income Imbalances Among Married Couples in Malawi as Predictors for Likelihood of Physical and Emotional Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnes, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a social and public health problem that is prevalent across the world. In many societies, power differentials in relationships, often supported by social norms that promote gender inequality, lead to incidents of intimate partner violence. Among other factors, both a woman's years of education and educational differences between a woman and her partner have been shown to have an effect on her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner abuse. Using the 2010 Malawian Demographic and Health Survey data to analyze intimate partner violence among 3,893 married Malawian women and their husbands, this article focuses on understanding the effect of educational differences between husband and wife on the likelihood of physical and emotional abuse within a marriage. The results from logistic regression models show that a woman's level of education is a significant predictor of her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence by her current husband, but that this effect is contingent on her husband's level of education. This study demonstrates the need to educate men alongside of women in Malawi to help decrease women's risk of physical and emotional intimate partner violence.

  6. New Estimates of Labour Supply Elasticities for Married Women in Canada 1996–2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dostie, Benoit; Kromann, Lene

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we estimate income and substitution labour supply and participation elasticities for Canadian married women using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics 1996–2005. We use the Canadian Tax and Credit Simulator (CTaCS) and detailed information on the structure of income...

  7. The rights of a Florida wife: slavery, U.S. expansion, and married women's property law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laurel A

    2010-01-01

    Civil law rules were adopted in Florida that granted married women property rights long before legal reforms occurred in northern states. This article analyzes white wives' property and law in Florida between 1820 and 1860. Initially, married women's property rights were inadvertently protected by treaty law and limited to women who married before 1818. Wives' right to own separate property in Florida was subsequently reconfirmed in statute and extended to include later marriages. In contrast, nonwhites generally lost the rights and property they had enjoyed under Spain's civil law in the same period. This contrast reveals that in Florida (and other southern borderlands) it was not concern for women, or simply legal precedent, but the desire to incorporate new territory and expand slavery that influenced the development of marital property law. This challenges previous histories, which have excluded the earlier acts in the Southern borderlands and emphasized those passed in the Northeast beginning in the late 1840s. While those later acts were influenced by the early woman's rights movement and by concern for families reduced to poverty during the rise of market capitalism, this case study indicates that expansion of United States territory and slavery were responsible for the earlier married women's property rights in southern borderland territories such as Florida.

  8. Responses to a happily married other : The role of relationship satisfaction and social comparison orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.

    2006-01-01

    A study among 103 married individuals examined how the responses to a story about an individual with a happy marriage that was characterized by either high or low effort were moderated by relationship satisfaction and social comparison orientation (SCO). As individuals were higher in SCO, the

  9. Exclusion and renewal : identity and Jewishness in Franz Kafka's "The Metamorphosis" and David Vogel's Married Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Francina Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    In this study I explore literary structures of identity-formation in the works of assimilated/acculturated Jewish writers: Kafka’s novella “The Metamorphosis” (“Die Verwandlung”, 1912) and David Vogel’s Hebrew novel Married Life. 1929) These authors wrote their works when the failure of Jewish

  10. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Status among Ever-Married and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used logistic regression to analyze the 2,830 ever-married or cohabitating women who also answered the violence and spousal traits questionnaire as well as provided blood samples. The logistic regression revealed that women who had experienced any type of intimate partner violence (odds ratio=1.29, ...

  11. The Power and Limits of Marriage: Married Gay Men's Family Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocobock, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Same-sex marriage has received much scholarly attention in the United States in the past decade. Yet we know little about how same-sex couples experience marriage. In this article, I present findings from in-depth interviews with 32 legally married gay men in Iowa. I focus on their experiences with families of origin and investigate the…

  12. 20 CFR 416.1826 - Showing that you are not married when you apply for SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Showing that you are not married when you apply for SSI. 416.1826 Section 416.1826 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... used on mail for each of you? (iv) Who owns or rents the place where you live? (v) Do any deeds, leases...

  13. Induced abortion patterns and determinants among married women in China: 1979 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuntong

    2014-05-01

    China has launched the one-child policy to control its rapidly expanding population since 1979. Local governments, tasked with limiting regional birth rates, commonly imposed induced abortions. After 1994, China's family planning policy was relatively loosened and mandatory induced abortion gradually gave way to client-centered and informed-choice contraceptive policy and the "Compensation" Fee policy. This study assesses trends in and determinants of induced abortion among married women aged 20-49 in China from 1979 to 2010, using data from national statistics and nationally representative sample surveys. The incidence of induced abortions among married women aged 20-49 began to decrease in the mid-1990s. The induced abortion rate reached its highest level in the early 1980s (56.07%) and its lowest level in the 2000s (18.04%), with an average annual rate of 28.95% among married women 20-49 years old. The likelihood of a pregnant woman undergoing an induced abortion during this period depended not only on individual characteristics (including ethnicity, age, education level, household registration, number of children, and sex of children), but also on the stringency of the family planning policy in place. The less stringent the family planning policy, the less likely married women were to undergo an induced abortion. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 'I thought if I marry the prophet I would not die': The significance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sample comprised women (N = 35) who had married by 2012 while participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects of school support on HIV-related risk. The RCT sample was identified in 2007 as all female sixth graders in 25 rural eastern Zimbabwe primary schools whose parents, one or ...

  15. Predictors of condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyediran, Kolawole Azeez; Feyisetan, Oluwadaisi Isaac; Akpan, Toyin

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the factors that influence condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. Such information can help improve the design of a prevention programme for young never-married, especially, males to reduce their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS transmission. Data were derived from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Analysis of data was restricted to 827 males aged 15-24 years, who had never married or lived together with a woman. Both descriptive and analytical methods were used for assessing the net effects of socioeconomic factors on condom-use. The analysis used logistic regression models for determining the predictors of sexual behaviour and condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. About 43% of the study population was sexually experienced, and the use of a condom remained low. One in five reported the use of a condom at sexual debut. Level of education, place of residence in childhood, urban/rural region, religious affiliation, economic status index, and exposure to mass media were associated with sexual experience and use of protective measures. Economic status index and mass-media exposure were associated with the use of a condom by the respondents during their last sex encounter. About two-fifths (43%) of the young unmarried Nigerian men were sexually experienced but the condom-use remained low, thus making this sub-group of Nigerian population highly vulnerable to STIs, including HIV/AIDS.

  16. Adult children's relationships with married parents, divorced parents, and stepparents: biology, marriage or residence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2013-01-01

    The author compared the strength of the relationships that adult children have with different types of parents: biological parents who remained married, stepparents, and biological parents who divorced. He analyzed Dutch life history data containing detailed measures of living arrangements and used

  17. Past-Year Sexual Inactivity among Older Married Persons and Their Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Amelia; DeLamater, John

    2013-01-01

    Family scholars have focused on the onset of sexual activity early in the life course, but little is known about the cessation of sexual activity in relationships in later life. We use event-history analysis techniques and logistic regression to identify the correlates of sexual inactivity among older married men and women. We analyze data for…

  18. The Effect of Children and Employment on the Mental Health of Married Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Walter R.; Geerken, Michael R.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses data which indicate that the main reason married women tend to be in poorer mental health than men is because of the roles they typically occupy. The kinds of demands found in the home and associated with children create stress in the spouse (usually the wife) responsible for meeting these demands. (Author/GC)

  19. Using a Structural Equation Model to Examine Factors Affecting Married Individuals' Sexual Embarrassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Eyup; Arici, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the effects of levels of sexual awareness, sexual courage, and sexual self-disclosure on sexual embarrassment. Data was collected from 336 married individuals, who have students in the Sultangazi District of Istanbul. According to the structural equation model (SEM), sexual self-disclosure, directly, and sexual courage…

  20. Religion, Pledging, and the Premarital Sexual Behavior of Married Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2008-01-01

    Social scientists know little about the effect of religion and abstinence pledging on premarital sex beyond adolescence. Evidence from a sample of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,079) reveals that premarital sex is widespread even among religious Americans and abstinence pledgers. Nevertheless,…

  1. 20 CFR 416.1821 - Showing that you are married when you apply for SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... person of the opposite sex and you both lead people to believe you are married. However, if we have... evidence of your marriage. The rules on deeming parental income are in §§ 416.1165 and 416.1166. The rules on deeming of parental resources are in § 416.1202. (c) Evidence of marriage. If paragraph (a) or (b...

  2. The Development of Marital Tension: Implications for Divorce among Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S.; Wan, Wylie H.; Orbuch, Terri L.; Antonucci, Toni C.

    2017-01-01

    Marriages are often characterized by their positive and negative features in terms of whether they elicit feelings of satisfaction and happiness or conflict and negativity. Although research has examined the development of marital happiness, less is known about the development of negativity among married couples. We examined how marital tension…

  3. Transactional Analysis and Gestalt Therapy Used in Conjunction with Group Counseling for Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, P. Joe; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of combining Transactional Analysis and Gestalt therapy with group counseling for married couples. Six treatment couples and 12 control group members were pre/post administered the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale to assess changes in the level of their self-esteem. There were some significant results. (Author/JEL)

  4. Factors associated with sexual behavior and attitudes of never-married rural Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarabhakdi, P

    1999-07-01

    This study examined the factors associated with sexual behavior and attitudes of never-married youth in Thailand. Data obtained from 577 never married males and 517 never married females aged 15-24 years were analyzed. Multivariate analyses using a logistic regression revealed that there was a difference in male-female sexual attitudes and behavior bearing important consequences. More than half of the Thai male adolescents were sexually active and the majority of their sexual encounters appeared to be with commercial sex workers. In contrast, the majority of young sexually active Thai female adolescents engaged in sexual acts with their boyfriends. The results suggested that although family variables had no effect on never-married youths' sexual behaviors, it had an influence in the formation of their attitudes. The factors that were most likely to affect the probability of having premarital sex were related to loosening constraints, especially parental and community control. In terms of cultural norms pertaining to sexuality in Thailand, differences in attitude and behavior between males and females can be explained by the impact of early socialization on the patterns of sexual behavior. Young women in this study expressed more nonpermissive attitudes about premarital sexuality and had much lower rates not only of sexual intercourse but also of all types of sex-related behaviors compared to their male counterparts.

  5. Trait hostility is associated with systemic inflammation in married couples: An actor-partner analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, T.W.; Uchino, B.N.; Bosch, J.A.; Kent, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Trait anger and hostility predict the development of coronary heart disease, and systemic inflammation may partly mediate this association. In a sample of 94 middle-aged and older married couples, we replicate research showing a within individuals (i.e., actor effect) association of trait hostility

  6. Family Disruption and Intergenerational Reproduction: Comparing the Influences of Married Parents, Divorced Parents, and Stepparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2015-06-01

    The transmission of individual characteristics and behaviors across generations has frequently been studied in the social sciences. For a growing number of children, however, the biological father was present in the household for only part of the time; and for many children, stepfathers were present. What are the implications of these changes for the process of intergenerational transmission? To answer this question, this article compares intergenerational transmission among married, divorced, and stepparents. Two forms of reproduction are studied: educational attainment and church attendance. For education, divorced fathers were as influential as married fathers, whereas stepfathers were less influential. For church attendance, married fathers were most influential, divorced fathers were least influential, and stepfathers were in between. Divorced mothers, in contrast, appeared to be more influential than married mothers. These findings lend negative support for the social capital hypothesis and positive support for notions of value socialization. The strong role of the divorced father for educational transmission is consistent with genetic processes and hypotheses about early advantages.

  7. Gender and the Neighborhood Location of Mixed-Race Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Steven; Ellis, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Gender asymmetry in mixed-race heterosexual partnerships and marriages is common. For instance, black men marry or partner with white women at a far higher rate than white men marry or partner with black women. This article asks if such gender asymmetries relate to the racial character of the neighborhoods in which households headed by mixed-race couples live. Gendered power imbalances within households generally play into decisions about where to live or where to move (i.e., men typically benefit more than women), and we find the same in mixed-race couple arrangements and residential attainment. Gender interacts with race to produce a measurable race-by-gender effect. Specifically, we report a positive relationship between the percentage white in a neighborhood and the presence of households headed by mixed-race couples with a white male partner. The opposite holds for households headed by white-blacks and white-Latinos if the female partner is white; they are drawn to predominantly nonwhite neighborhoods. The results have implications for investigations of residential location attainment, neighborhood segregation analysis, and mixed-race studies. PMID:23073752

  8. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...

  9. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... the particular social situation of the young people of immigrant origin. The feelings of obligations and debt toward the parents are strong, as well as the adherence to traditional family values. Still there is clearly a tendency that ideas about individual rights, such as women?s and children?s rights to decide...

  10. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT AND ASPIRATIONS OF UNDERGRADUATE MARRIED STUDENTS AS COMPARED TO UNDERGRADUATE UNMARRIED STUDENTS, WITH ANALYSIS OF CERTAIN ASSOCIATED VARIABLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHILMAN, CATHERINE S.; MEYER, DONALD L.

    A COMPARISON WAS MADE OF THE ACHIEVEMENTS AND ASPIRATIONS OF UN DERGRADUATE MARRIED STUDENTS WITH THOSE OF UNDERGRADUATE UNMARRIED STUDENTS. THE STUDY OBJECTIVES WERE (1) TO DETERMINE TO WHAT EXTENT MARRIED MEN AND WOMEN UNDERGRADUATE COLLEGE STUDENTS DIFFER FROM UNMARRIED STUDENTS IN ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, STATED ATTITUDES TOWARD THEIR EDUCATION…

  11. The Effects of Training Married Men about Premenstrual Syndrome by Pamphlets and Short Messages on Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad ali; Karimiankakolaki, Zohreh; Bokaie, Mahshid; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Gerayllo, Sakineh

    2014-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), which includes physical, psychological and emotional symptoms that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, has a negative impact on the quality of the relationship among married couples. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of educating married men by two methods, pamphlet and short…

  12. Marital Stress and Extraversion Personality as Predicators of Job Satisfaction among Married Women Teachers in Enugu, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elom, Sampson Omena; Egba, Nwamaka A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated marital stress and extraversion personality as predictors of job satisfaction among married women teachers in Enugu, Nigeria. One hundred and eighty eight married women teachers in Enugu, Nigeria participated in the study. Three instruments were used to gather information in this study. They included marital stress inventory…

  13. Reproductive behavior of newly married women in rural Punjab, India: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, little is known about the reproductive behavior during earlier years of married life of women, when they are more vulnerable to reproductive ill health and early child bearing with very few interventions available. Objective: The objective of this study is to follow a cohort of newly married women immediately after marriage until their first pregnancy outcome to gain an insight into their reproductive behavior so that important opportunities could be identified for intervention. Subjects and Methods: A community-based longitudinal study was carried out in 15 villages of Ludhiana District under the Rural Health Training Centre of Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab. All marriages of the male residents that took place in these villages from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2013 were enrolled. Thus, a cohort of 195 newly married women was identified over a period of 1 year and followed every month till first pregnancy outcome. The analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Results: Mean age at marriage for newly married women was 22.9 ± 3.0 years. Majority of them conceived within 1st year of marriage (79.5% while 10.8% of women did not conceive till the end of follow-up period. Mean age at first pregnancy was 23.4 ± 3.1 years with mean interval between marriage and first pregnancy of 5.4 ± 6.1 months. Nearly, three-fourth of pregnancies resulted in live births while adverse pregnancy outcome including still births and abortions was seen in 15.9% of the study cohort. Conclusions: Overall findings indicate optimistic picture for married young women, but critical opportunities should be utilized to promote health of these women in a journey toward safe motherhood.

  14. Reproductive behavior of newly married women in rural Punjab, India: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anurag; Satija, Mahesh; Sharma, Sarit; Singh, Surinderpal; Girdhar, Sangeeta

    2017-01-01

    In India, little is known about the reproductive behavior during earlier years of married life of women, when they are more vulnerable to reproductive ill health and early child bearing with very few interventions available. The objective of this study is to follow a cohort of newly married women immediately after marriage until their first pregnancy outcome to gain an insight into their reproductive behavior so that important opportunities could be identified for intervention. A community-based longitudinal study was carried out in 15 villages of Ludhiana District under the Rural Health Training Centre of Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab. All marriages of the male residents that took place in these villages from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2013 were enrolled. Thus, a cohort of 195 newly married women was identified over a period of 1 year and followed every month till first pregnancy outcome. The analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Mean age at marriage for newly married women was 22.9 ± 3.0 years. Majority of them conceived within 1 st year of marriage (79.5%) while 10.8% of women did not conceive till the end of follow-up period. Mean age at first pregnancy was 23.4 ± 3.1 years with mean interval between marriage and first pregnancy of 5.4 ± 6.1 months. Nearly, three-fourth of pregnancies resulted in live births while adverse pregnancy outcome including still births and abortions was seen in 15.9% of the study cohort. Overall findings indicate optimistic picture for married young women, but critical opportunities should be utilized to promote health of these women in a journey toward safe motherhood.

  15. Understanding patterns of contraceptive use among never married Mexican American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-marital fertility differs considerably by race, ethnicity, and nativity. These differences arise largely from racial and ethnic disparities in contraceptive practices. Empirical work has not assessed the relative importance of the various mechanisms proposed to account for racial, ethnic, and nativity differences in contraceptive behavior among never married women. Objective: Our objective is to describe racial, ethnic, and nativity disparities in contraceptive practices and determine the relative importance of the various mechanisms proposed to explain those disparities among never married, non-cohabiting women. Methods: Pooling data from the 2006‒2010 and 2011‒2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG, we compare the age- and parity-standardized patterns of contraceptive use among never married, non-cohabiting Mexican immigrants, US-born Mexican Americans, Blacks, and Whites. We also examine the extent to which socioeconomic characteristics, access to family planning, and attitudes towards family life give rise to group differences in patterns of contraceptive use. Results: Never married, non-cohabiting Whites are more likely than their minority counterparts to use very effective methods of contraception. Socioeconomic disparities explain some of the group differences in contraceptive practice. Differing levels of access to family planning also explain a significant portion of the difference in contraceptive practice between Whites and Mexican immigrants. Conclusions: Policies aimed at alleviating socioeconomic inequality and differential access to family planning services may be effective at reducing disparities in contraceptive use between White and non-White never married, non-cohabiting women, especially White/Mexican-immigrant differences.

  16. The compositional and institutional sources of union dissolution for married and unmarried parents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura; Edin, Kathryn

    2013-10-01

    Unmarried parents have less stable unions than married parents, but there is considerable debate over the sources of this instability. Unmarried parents may be more likely than married parents to end their unions because of compositional differences, such as more disadvantaged personal and relationship characteristics, or because they lack the normative and institutional supports of marriage, thus rendering their relationships more sensitive to disadvantage. In this article, we evaluate these two sources of union instability among married, cohabiting, and dating parents following the birth of a shared child, using five waves of longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Using discrete-time event history models, we find that demographic, economic, and relationship differences explain more than two-thirds of the increased risk of dissolution for unmarried parents relative to married parents. We also find that differential responses to economic or relationship disadvantage do not explain why unmarried parents are more likely to end their unions than married parents.

  17. Gender differences in pension wealth: estimates using provider data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R W; Sambamoorthi, U; Crystal, S

    1999-06-01

    Information from pension providers was examined to investigate gender differences in pension wealth at midlife. For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women. Differences in wages, years of job tenure, and industry between men and women accounted for most of the gender gap in pension wealth on the current job. Less than one third of the wealth difference could not be explained by gender differences in education, demographics, or job characteristics. The less-advantaged employment situation of working women currently in midlife carries over into worse retirement income prospects. However, the gender gap in pensions is likely to narrow in the future as married women's employment experiences increasingly resemble those of men.

  18. Gendering Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Morokvašić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration patterns, migration discourse and underlying representations, migrants’ experiences, obligations and duties as well as the expectations relative to their migration are gendered. Since the pioneering feminist migration scholars’ questioning of men as a universal reference and the invisibility of women or their stereotypical representations as dependents in the mainstream production of knowledge on migration, the scholarship has evolved considerably. It is argued in the paper that the ongoing process of cross-fertilization of developments in two separate epistemologies, each initially questioning monolithic and essentialist visions of a “migrant” on one hand and a “woman” on the other, produced a fecund subfield of research “migration and gender”. The paper provides an insight into this, reviewing work on the issues related to gendering different phases of migration. Bridging migration and gender brought to the top of research agendas issues that used to be on the margins, creating new visibilities but leaving out other gendered dimensions of complex realities of migrant experience.

  19. Gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    Although women make up 77% of the healthcare workforce, gender inequality remains a problem in the NHS, and women continue to be under-represented at senior levels. For example, only 37% of the members of clinical commissioning group governing bodies are women.

  20. Interpreting Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Nicholson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author deconstructs dominant understandings of two concepts central to feminist analysis itself: gender and woman. Much of post-1960s feminist scholarship has relied on the distinction between “sex” and gender. Although this distinction has served many useful purposes (particularly that of allowing feminists to challenge biological determinism, it has also enabled feminists to preserve a type of dualistic thinking about women's identity. It has allowed feminists to think of differences among women as separable from that which women share. The author argues that this polar framework has enabled feminists to stress the deep differences between women's and men's culture-generated experiences. But, because the polar framework of contemporary society is neither completely stable or hegemonic nor links perfectly male and female experiences with male and female identified bodies, employing it as an unquestioned element of one's analysis also leads to problems. This framework falls to capture the gender deviance of many of us, reinforces cultural stereotypes of the meaning of female and male experience, and acts politically to suppress modes of being that challenge gender dualisms.

  1. "Even Though I Am Married, I Have a Dream": Constructing L2 Gendered Identities through Narratives of Departure and Arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroir, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a multiple case study to show how 3 women constructed meaning around the processes of L2 learning and migration and (re)constructed identities through their participation in new communities of practice (CoPs). Data sources include formal classroom observations, in-depth interviews, and the participants'…

  2. 123I-5-I-R91150, a new single-photon emission tomography ligand for 5-HT2A receptors: influence of age and gender in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeken, C.; D'haenen, H.; Flamen, P.; Bossuyt, A.; Mertens, J.; Terriere, D.; Chavatte, K.; Boumon, R.

    1998-01-01

    5-HT 2A receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and in the therapeutic effect of the so-called atypical antipsychotics. Recently, a new radioiodinated ligand with high affinity and selectivity for serotonin 5-HT 2A receptors, 123 iodinated 4-amino-N-1-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)propyl-4-methyl-4-piperidinyl] 5-iodo-2-methoxybenzamide ( 123 I-5-I-R91150), has been developed and has been shown to be suitable for single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. In this study the influence of age and gender on the ligand binding was investigated in normal volunteers. One hundred and fifty MBq of 123 I-5-I-R91150 was administered to 26 normal volunteers (13 females and 13 males) with an age range of 23-60 years. SPET imaging was performed with a triple-headed gamma camera. For semi-quantitative analysis, ratios of ligand binding in different regions of interest to the binding in the cerebellum were calculated. Mean ratios of 1.7 were obtained. No gender difference was demonstrated. 5-HT 2A binding was shown to decline with age. Over an age range of 40 years a reduction in ligand binding of 42%±7% was found. These results are in agreement with in vitro and positron emission tomography findings of a decline in 5-HT 2A receptor binding with age. The findings confirm the suitability of 123 I-5-I-R91150 for SPET imaging of 5-HT 2A receptors, and highlight the necessity for age-matched controls in clinical studies. (orig.)

  3. Bad marriage, broken heart? Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  4. Gender and the reproductive rights of Tarok women in central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisaremi, Titilayo Cordelia; Alubo, Ogoh

    2012-03-01

    The study investigated how unequal gender relations inhibit the attainment of women's reproductive rights. It examined whether women can choose if and when to marry, who to marry/have sex with, ability to negotiate sex with spouse, and their access to family planning. Based on theoretical orientation from gender-sexuality framework, this paper employed the qualitative research design. The main respondents were female and male of various sociodemographic groups who were engaged through in-depth interviews and focus group discussion sessions. Findings show wide scale abuses of Tarok women's reproductive rights. Most of these abuses may be traced to traditional male-centred socio-cultural structures and patriarchy that help guarantee the immunity of male violators. It is concluded that in the context of unequal gender relations and dominance of patriarchy, the attainment of women's reproductive rights is a major challenge which has profound implications for life and death.

  5. Gender norms and family planning decision-making in Tanzania: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney R. Schuler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Experience suggests that the incorporation of gender approaches into family planning (FP and reproductive health (RH programs may increase their impact and sustainability, but further work is needed to examine the interactions between gender norms and family planning and to incorporate this understanding into behavior change communication (BCC in specific social contexts. We conducted open-ended, in-depth interviews with 30 young currently married men, 30 young married women and 12 older people who influenced FP decisions. Six focus group interviews were also conducted. The interviews focused on the role of gender norms in reproductive decision-making and contraceptive use among young married men and women in Tanzania. The findings suggest that gender factors, such as men’s dominance in decision-making do function as barriers to the use of modern contraceptives, but that fear of side effects, by both men and women, may be even more important deterrents. Results from this research will inform the development of BCC interventions to be tested in a subsequent intervention study in which gender factors and poor information about contraceptive methods will be addressed.

  6. The gender divide in urban China: Singlehood and assortative mating by age and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Qian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chinese media labels highly educated, urban women who are still single in their late 20s as "leftover ladies". We investigate whether indeed highly educated women are less likely to marry than their less-educated counterparts, and how assortative mating patterns by age and education play a role in singleness. Methods: We use data from the urban samples of the Chinese General Social Surveys in the 2000s. In the analysis we calculate marriage rates to examine the likelihood of entry into marriage, and then apply log-linear models to investigate the assortative mating patterns by age and education. Results: We find that as education increases, the likelihood of marriage increases among men but decreases among women, especially among those over age 30. The results from log-linear models reveal that more marriages involve better-educated, older men and less-educated, younger women. Conclusions: We argue that persistent traditional gender roles, accompanied by the rapid rise in women's education, contribute to low marriage rates among older, highly educated women.

  7. Living alone: exploring variations in single motherhood and child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two specifications were fitted to analyze the effect of single mother characteristics on child health using binomial logistic regression. The result of unadjusted and adjusted models indicates that never married, cohabiting, are important correlates of child health. When adjusted for covariates, the effect of single motherhood on ...

  8. The relationship between sex life satisfaction and job stress of married nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiu-Hui; Lung, For-Wey; Lee, Pei-Rong; Kao, Wei-Tsung; Lee, Yu-Lan

    2012-08-19

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among work stress, sex life satisfaction, and mental health of married nurses. Demographic information, work stress, sex life satisfaction, sexual desire and mental health measured using the Chinese Health Questionnaire, data were collected from 100 married nurses in Taiwan. Sex life satisfaction and age were negatively correlated, but sex life satisfaction and sexual desire were positively correlated. The mental health of over-committed nursing staff was not affected. Higher reward for effort was positively correlated with sex life satisfaction. No matter whether job stress was high or low, receiving a higher reward for effort led to better sex life satisfaction, which had a satisfying positive effect on the nurses' lives. To improve nursing care quality at the hospital, nursing administrators should assist nurses in confronting work stress via positive adjustment, which is associated with the nurses' sexual harmony, and quality of life.

  9. Mental and physical effects of Tanshin funin, posting without family, on married male workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadaira, Hiroto; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Matsubara, Toh

    2006-03-01

    This paper investigates the effects of tanshin funin, a posting without family, on the health of married male workers. A prospective study using the pair-matched method was performed. One hundred and twenty-nine married male tanshin funin workers in their 40s and 50s and as many matched workers living with their family (regular workers) participated. Fewer tanshin funin workers took breakfast everyday (OR=3.3, phealth problems, namely headache (OR=4.7, p=0.013) and gastric/duodenal ulcers (OR=8.7, pmental stress were thus important effects of tanshin funin. Tanshin funin workers should be provided with health and lifestyle education programs and mental health care before and during tanshin funin. Doctors and nurses in the healthcare departments of companies should play a leading role.

  10. Moving from ambivalence to certainty: older same-sex couples marry in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Áine M

    2013-06-01

    A qualitative study, within a life course perspective, explored the transition into marriage for mid- to later-life same-sex couples. Twenty individuals (representing 11 couples) were interviewed - 12 lesbians, seven gay men, and one bisexual man. At the time of their marriages, participants were between 42 and 72 years old (average age: 54) and had been with their partners from six months to 19 years (average: 7.5 years). Three processes highlighted the ways in which these same-sex couples' experiences of deciding to marry were influenced by their life course experiences. First, individuals had to integrate marriage into their psyches (integration). Second, they had to consider why they would marry their specific partner (rationale). Third, the study participants demonstrated how their experiences of wedding planning and their wedding characteristics were imbued with intentionality as a result of lifetime experiences of homophobia and/or heterosexism (intentionality).

  11. Effects of Health Status and Health Behaviors on Depression Among Married Female Immigrants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung A; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; An, Jisook

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of health status and health behaviors on depression in married female immigrants in South Korea. Sampling 316 immigrant women from the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and other Asian countries, a cross-sectional research design was used with self-report questionnaires that assessed sociodemographic characteristics, health status, health behaviors, and depression. There were significant differences in stillbirth experience, induced abortion, morbidity, perceived health status, meal skipping, and physical activity between depressed and nondepressed immigrant women. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, stillbirth experience, poorer perceived health status, more meal skipping, and less physical activity were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Both health status and health behaviors had significant impacts on depression, suggesting that development of nursing interventions and educational programs should be targeted towards improving maternal health, healthy lifestyle, and subjective health perception to promote married female immigrants' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sexting Among Married Couples: Who Is Doing It, and Are They More Satisfied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Brandon T; Drouin, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of sexting (i.e., sending sexual messages via mobile phones) within a sample of married/cohabiting couples (180 wives and 175 husbands). Married adults do sext each other, but it is much less common than within young adult relationships, and consists mainly of sexy or intimate talk (29% reported engaging in sexy talk with partners) rather than sexually explicit photos or videos (12% reported sending nude or nearly-nude photos). Sending sexy talk messages was positively related to relationship satisfaction only among those with high levels of avoidance, and sending sexually explicit pictures was related to satisfaction for men, and for women with high levels of attachment anxiety. Additionally, sending sexually explicit pictures was related to greater ambivalence among both men and women. These findings support and extend previous research with young adults.

  13. Retirement coordination among married couples: An analysis using Swedish administrative registers from 1990–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Kridahl, Linda; Kolk, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The study examines how married couples’ age differences influence retirement coordination in Sweden. High-quality longitudinal administrative registers allow us to study all marital opposite-sex and same-sex couples in Sweden in relation to labor market outcomes. With means of regression analysis, we find that the likelihood of couples retiring close in time decreases as their age difference increases but that age differences have a similar effect on retirement coordination for couples with l...

  14. Study of factors affecting contraceptive use among married women of reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bhandari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of contraception can prevent pregnancies related complication and helps in improving the women’s health and quality of their lives. Objective To explore reproductive characteristics among married women of reproductive age. To find out method of contraceptive use and side effects among married women of reproductive age. To uncover factors related to contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age. Methods This cross-sectional was carried out among (369 married couples of reproductive age group in ward number 5, 6 and 7 of Dhulikhel Municipality using purposive sampling. Those who fell in between the age group of (14-49 years and willing to participate were included and pregnant women were excluded from the study. Questionnaire was used to obtain informations. Results Among 369(81.3% of the respondents of reproductive age were using a modern contraceptive method. Regarding education 331(89.5% of women’s and 352(95.1% of husbands were literate and 275(91.6% of women were found to be involved in decision making and had good inter-spousal communication that is 280(93.3%. Among the temporary method of family planning, Depo-Provera was the choice 150(54.5% of contraceptive method. Conclusion The present study put more emphasis on increase in women’s literacy, women’s involvement in decision making and inter-spousal communication which helps to promote the effective use of contraceptive methods. As women play an important role in the decision making, women should be included in all aspects of reproductive health and family planning programs. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-4, 24-29 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i4.10233

  15. Comparison of Marital Satisfaction in Married Women in Consideration of Premarital Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    حدیث میرزایی; علی فتحی آشتیانی; علی اکبر سلیمانی; نوید یوسفی

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to compare marital satisfaction in different groups of women according to premarital relationships. The sample of this subsequent and comparative study includes 197 women who have been married for 2 to 5 years. According to the findings of this research, there was a significant difference in marital satisfaction (which were gained via ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale) between groups, in a way that satisfaction was from highest to lowest in the following order: non-sexual ...

  16. Premarital Heterosexual Relationships and its Association with Marital Satisfaction among Married College Students in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    فریده خلج‌آبادی فراهانی; علی زاده‌محمدی

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing trends towards premarital heterosexual relationships among youth and marital dissatisfaction among couples, few studies have examined the association between these two phenomena. This paper aims to assess the relationship between experience or premarital heterosexual relationships (both friendship & sexual) with marital satisfaction. This paper is based on the survey data of a mix method study conducted in 2011-2012. In this paper, 299 married college students, both males a...

  17. Factors Related to Intention to Undergo Female Sterilization Among Married Women in Rural Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhungana, Adhish; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Pitikultang, Supachai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sterilization is most widely used fertility regulation method in Nepal. However, prevalence of uptake of female sterilization in central hilly region is less than the national average. The objective of the study was to explore the number and factors related to intention of married women to undergo female sterilization in rural Kathmandu which lies within central hilly region. Materials and Methods: This is a community based cross-sectional survey research conducted in rural area o...

  18. Concurrent sexual partnerships among married Zimbabweans – implications for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugweni E

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Esther Mugweni,1 Stephen Pearson,2 Mayeh Omar2 1UCL Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, 2The Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Background: Concurrent sexual partnerships play a key role in sustaining the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe. Married couples are at an increased risk of contracting HIV from sexual networks produced by concurrent sexual partnerships. Addressing these partnerships is an international HIV prevention priority. Methods: Our qualitative study presents the socioeconomic factors that contribute to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships among married people in Zimbabwe. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008 to understand the organizations of concurrent sexual partnerships. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Results: Our study indicates that relationship dissatisfaction played a key role in the engagement of concurrent sexual partnerships. Depending on the source of the dissatisfaction, there were four possible types of concurrent sexual relationships that were formed: sex worker, casual partner, regular girlfriend or informal polygyny which was referred to as “small house”. These relationships had different levels of intimacy, which had a bearing on practicing safer sex. Participants described three characteristics of hegemonic masculinity that contributed to the sources of dissatisfaction leading to concurrent sexual activity. Similarly, various aspects of emphasized femininity were described as creating opportunities for the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. Economic status was also listed as a factor that contributed to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships. Conclusion: Marital dissatisfaction was indicated as a contributing factor to the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. There were several

  19. Labor Supply of Japanese Married Women: Sensitivity Analysis and a New Estimate

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 新吾; 川出, 真澄; 加藤, 竜太

    2009-01-01

    We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature on the labor supply of Japanese married women using the Japanese Panel Survey of Consumers. We first conduct a detailed sensitivity analysis of the estimates of the wage elasticity to various economic and statistical assumptions used in the past studies. We then provide a new estimate of the labor supply model that simultaneously controls for wage endogeneity, sample selection into labor force as well as the possibly endogenous se...

  20. Mortality among married older adults in the suburbs of Beirut: estimates from offspring data

    OpenAIRE

    Sibai, AM; Kanaan, MN; Chaaya, M; Campbell, OMR

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Countries in transition are characterized generally by poor statistical infrastructures and a dearth of vital information. In this study we use offspring data to examine mortality trends in married older men and women through a multipurpose household survey conducted in 2002 in the suburbs of Beirut, Lebanon. The country had been ravaged by war for almost 16 years. METHODS: A random sample of 1520 respondents, with either or both parents surviving their 65th birthday, provided info...

  1. [Psycho-social factors of sexual failure among newly married Uyghur young males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkin, Ashim; Hamrajan, Memtili; Kadirjan, Mijit; Adil, Eli; Elijan, Abdureshit; Ibrahim, Ubul; Abdulla, Tursun; Hasanjan, Abdurehim; Turgun, Hekim; Eli, Ablet; Eset, Metmusa

    2016-08-01

    To study the psycho-social risk factors of sexual failure among newly married young males in the Uyghur population. We conducted a paired case control study of 186 newly married Uyghur young males (aged 17-30 [23.4±2.9] yr) with sexual failure and another 186 (aged 18-34 [24.0±3.1] yr) with no such problem as controls. We performed a logistic regression analysis on the possible psycho-social risk factors of this condition. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of sexual failure among the newly married men included personality (OR=0.271, 95% CI 0.176-0.420), income (OR=0.391, 95% CI 0.264-0.580), history of masturbation (OR=0.824, 95% CI 0.710-0.956), premarital sex (OR=0.757, 95% CI 0.677-0.847), sense of obligation (OR=1.756, 95% CI 1.157-2.693), equality of the social status (OR=0.574, 95% CI 0.435-0.756), degree of mutual care (OR=1.605, 95% CI 1.268-2.032), female's psychological obstacle (OR=2.832, 95% CI 1.221-6.569), and religion (OR=0.643, 95% CI 0.472-0.967). There was a statistical significance in the correlation between these factors and sexual failure in the newly married males (all Ppsycho-social factors, which necessitates sexual education among young males and particularly pre-marriage sexual education and psychological guide among both males and females.

  2. Efficacy and tolerability of a single-pill combination of telmisartan 80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg according to age, gender, race, hypertension severity, and previous antihypertensive use: planned analyses of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dingliang Zhu,1 Harold Bays,2 Pingjin Gao,1 Michaela Mattheus,3 Birgit Voelker,3 Luis M Ruilope4 1Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Inc, Louisville, KY, USA; 3Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany; 4Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain Background: The purpose of this work was to describe the efficacy and safety of a telmisartan 80 mg + hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (T80/H25 single-pill combination therapy in patients with moderate-severe hypertension (mean seated trough cuff systolic blood pressure [BP] ≥ 160 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥ 100 mmHg in specific patient subpopulations. Methods: This was a planned analysis of a double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group trial that demonstrated the superiority of a single-pill combination of T80/H25 versus T80 monotherapy in terms of systolic BP change from baseline to week 7. Subpopulations included older (aged ≥ 65 years versus younger, gender, race, hypertension severity, and prior antihypertensive therapy. Endpoints were change from baseline in mean seated trough cuff systolic and diastolic BP, proportion of patients achieving their BP goal (systolic/diastolic BP 30 mmHg and >40 mmHg. Results: Across all subgroups, the T80/H25 single-pill combination provided consistently greater systolic and diastolic BP reductions than T80 and more patients had systolic BP reductions of >30 mmHg. In the T80 and T80/H25 groups, BP control was achieved in 34.1% and 48.8% of men, 35.5% and 62.7% of women, 34.5% and 56.6% of Asians, 22.6% and 38.6% of blacks, 36.7% and 57.8% of whites, 36.9% and 57.5% of patients < 65 years, 29.3% and 49.3% ≥65 years, 44.2% and 66.2% of those with grade 2 hypertension, 20.4% and 39.4% of those with grade 3 hypertension, 38.9% and 53.2% of previously untreated patients, 38.1% and 62.5% of patients previously treated with one antihypertensive, and 29.7% and 48.9% of patients

  3. Gender differences in worry during medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Grant D; Kemmelmeier, Markus; Dupey, Peggy

    2013-09-01

    This research examined worry in medical students at various stages of training with reference to worries related to academic and clinical training, finances and relationships with peers. The study focused on gender differences in worries, testing the notion that being married or being in a long-term or cohabitating relationship with a partner would be linked to increased worry among women, but decreased worry among men. Additional goals included examining the relationship between worry and the seeking of counselling, and investigating the disadvantage for medical students associated with living with parents. Data collected serially on class cohorts at one western US medical school yielded 868 responses from medical students, which were analysed using general linear models, generalised linear models and generalised estimation equations. Among four types of worry, academic and financial worries were similarly dominant (p Gender differences were qualified by marital status (p = 0.007). Being married was linked to higher levels of academic and financial worry among women, whereas for men marriage was linked to lower academic, but higher financial worry (p academic and financial stress represent the greatest sources of worry in medical students. It also represents the first research to demonstrate higher levels of worry in male than female medical students, which may be evidence of women's increased representation in the medical school population. These data also support the persistence of traditional gender roles in the marriages of medical students; marriage is related to an increased psychological burden in women in comparison with men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Consent and coercion: examining unwanted sex among married young women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhya, K G; Haberland, Nicole; Ram, F; Sinha, R K; Mohanty, S K

    2007-09-01

    Although there is a growing body of research examining the issue of nonconsensual sex among adolescents, few studies have looked at coerced sex within marriage in settings where early marriage is common, or at sex that may not be perceived as forced, but that is unwanted. A cross-sectional study, using both survey research and in-depth interviews, was conducted among 1,664 married young women in Gujarat and West Bengal, India. Descriptive data and multinomial logistic regression were used to identify the prevalence and risk factors for occasional and frequent unwanted sex. Qualitative data were analyzed to examine the context in which unwanted sex takes place. Twelve percent of married young women experienced unwanted sex frequently; 32% experienced it occasionally. The risk of experiencing unwanted sex was lower among women who knew their husband fairly well at the time of marriage, regularly received support from their husband in conflicts with other family members or lived in economically better-off households. Frequent unwanted sex was associated with not yet having had a child or having become pregnant, with lower education and with agreeing with norms that justify wife beating. For married young women, sex is not always consensual or wanted. Further research is required to determine the effects of unwanted sex on sexual and reproductive health outcomes and to help programs develop the best strategies for dealing with coerced sex within marriage.

  5. Educational Status of the Married Women and Their Participation at Household Decision Making in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sanjoy Kumar; Howlader, Hasan; Nahar, Nasrin

    2012-11-01

    The key focus of this study is to explain the level of education of married women and their participation in decision making process at different arena of rural household. To find out the nature of the reality, survey research design was used for this study. The study was conducted at Maharajpur, one of the unions of Jhenidah district in Bangladesh in 2011. The respondents of the study consisted of 120 married women who were purposively selected from the study area. Data were collected through direct interview method using an interview schedule. Data were shown on univariate, as well as bivariate statistical tables and then analyzed. The study reveals that a significant percent (93.3) of higher level of education completed women had their consent of getting married whereas no consent was made by illiterate women. In the same way 46.7 percent higher level of education completed women had high level of purchasing power in compare to illiterate (.0%) and primary (14.6%) level completed women for the same level of purchasing. In the political decision making 86.7 percent higher level of education completed women had own consent to vote for election in contrast to 77.8 percent illiterate and 70.7 percent primary level completed women were influenced by their husband to decide voting.

  6. Training Needs Assessment to Design Empowerment Programs for Preventing Domestic Violence Against Iranian Married Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kianfard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The World Health Organization declared violence against women a top priority for health and emphasized the importance of the world's attention to the prevention and control programs. This study was conducted aimed to identify the training needs of married women referring to health centers in Ahvaz with the objective of enabling the design of a program to prevent violence. Methodology: This sectional study consisted of two qualitative and quantitative studies. In qualitative study, the opinions of 30 married women residing in Ahvaz were collected and analyzed in four focus group discussions. using a validated and reliable questionnaire, the knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and performance of 320 married women in area of domestic violence were identified Findings: 79% of the women surveyed had adequate awareness about violence against women. 34% of the target group in the field of domestic violence against women has had the right attitude and more than 80% of them stated that violence by men is considered inevitable and natural. 89% of the target group expressed lack of efficacy for the prevention of domestic violence against women. The findings also suggest that there is significant relationship between education and early marriage with violent behavior. Conclusion: providing proper education and awareness to women and group discussion and clarification in order to change attitudes and increase efficacy in abused women against domestic violence are the necessary strategies which result in changing attitudes of women and increasing empowerment of women against domestic violence.

  7. Premarital mental disorders and physical violence in marriage: cross-national study of married couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua; Petukhova, Maria; Fayyad, John; Green, Jennifer Greif; Kola, Lola; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J.; Tsang, Adley; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Tomov, Toma; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental disorders may increase the risk of physical violence among married couples. Aims To estimate associations between premarital mental disorders and marital violence in a cross-national sample of married couples. Method A total of 1821 married couples (3642 individuals) from 11 countries were interviewed as part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Sixteen mental disorders with onset prior to marriage were examined as predictors of marital violence reported by either spouse. Results Any physical violence was reported by one or both spouses in 20% of couples, and was associated with husbands' externalising disorders (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). Overall, the population attributable risk for marital violence related to premarital mental disorders was estimated to be 17.2%. Conclusions Husbands' externalising disorders had a modest but consistent association with marital violence across diverse countries. This finding has implications for the development of targeted interventions to reduce risk of marital violence. PMID:21778172

  8. Sexual behavior of married Iranian women, attending taleghani public health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Somayeh; Seddigh, Sedighe; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Khansari, Seyed Mehdi Hasanzadeh; Khodakarami, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    Sexual practices as an important aspect of reproductive health have many physical and psychological effects on people's lives, there is limited evidence on such practices and their pattern among Iranian women. Hence we aimed to determine different types of sexual practices among 19-45 year old married Iranian women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 married women, aged 19-45 years, attending Taleghani Public Health Center for annual gynecologic examination during November 2008 to May 2009 using convenient sampling. The participants were enquired about their experience regarding different types of sex, as well as their views and feelings about such practices, using an anonymous questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 34 years. All had ever experienced vaginal sex and 50.9% reported ever experience of other types of sex (non-vaginal), as well. Due to some stigma attached to non-vaginal sexual practices among women in Iran, the feelings of women with regard to different sexual practices were also examined in this paper. This study showed that non-vaginal sex among women is considerable and because of less favourable views of women towards such practices, it seems that these practices might have psychologically impacts on women's life. Hence, counseling and educational programs designed for married men and women can include some factual information about different types of sex.

  9. Who marries and when? Age at first marriage in the United States: 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Paula; McGill, Brittany; Chandra, Anjani

    2009-06-01

    During the latter half of the 20th century, there were notable increases in the age at first marriage among Americans and related increases in the proportion of unmarried and never-married adults. Research finds that, in comparison with unmarried persons, married persons tend to exhibit greater physical, emotional, and economic wellbeing, although the association may vary by outcome, sex, and other factors. Children in households with two married parents differ from those in other types of households on measures such as child achievement, but the causal processes are complex. Given the potential benefits of marriage, concerns over a decline in marriage have prompted a great deal of attention as well as investment in marriage promotion programs, such as the Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy Marriage Initiative. This report highlights what we know about the incidence and timing of first marriage among women and men 15-44 years of age in the United States, based on data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) conducted in 2002.

  10. Factors associated with receiving Pap tests among married immigrant women of Vietnamese origin in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fang-Hsin; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Lin, Miao-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors associated with Pap testing among married immigrant women of Vietnamese origin residing in Taiwan, including demographics, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of Pap tests, fatalism, attitudes toward cervical cancer, and barriers to receiving Pap tests. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. Data were collected from July 2012 to January 2013. Participants were recruited through snowball sampling in two communities in Southern Taiwan. A total of 451 married immigrant women of Vietnamese origin aged 30 years and over were invited to participate in the study and 427 participated. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Participants with no children were significantly less likely to have received a Pap test (odds ratio = 0.278, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.135-0.569); each additional point of knowledge about Pap tests increased the likelihood of having a Pap test by 19% (odds ratio = 1.190, 95% CI = 1.093-1.297), and each additional point in barriers to receiving Pap tests decreased the chances of having received a Pap test (odds ratio = 0.714, 95% CI = 0.637-0.800). The results can provide governments with a reference for developing policies for cervical cancer prevention among married immigrant Vietnamese women.

  11. Before and After "I Do": Marriage Processes for Mid-Life Gay and Lesbian Married Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley-Smith, Emma R; Reczek, Corinne

    2018-04-03

    This qualitative study examines how mid-life gay and lesbian married individuals articulate their decision to marry. Using 2013 data from 30 mid-life couples in Massachusetts, this study challenges previous literature that conceptualized marriage as entirely positive or negative for same-sex individuals. Mid-life individuals' unique social and historical context influence their experiences of marriage, as mid-life individuals have witnessed the rise and feasibility of marriage equality, have formed relationships outside of the bounds of marriage, and have been in committed relationships long before they married. Using the framework of ambivalence, our findings provide three main contributions to the literature. First, we show that marital ambivalence is a common experience in our sample. Second, we detail how marital ambivalence is indicative of the age, life-course stage, and length of relationship for mid-life lesbian and gay individuals. Third, we explore ambivalence at the level of the relationship, not just as an individual experience. This study provides new insight into how sexuality shapes both intimate relationship dynamics as well as the effect of same-sex marriage on LGBT communities and identities.

  12. The effect of marriage counseling on the knowledge of the married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahraman Mahmoodi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the reproductive system, significance of benefiting from the contraceptive methods and selection of the suitable contraceptive method during the first years of the marital life are of the main health issues. This study was conducted in order to determine the effect of the counseling on the reproduction and sexual health of the married couples. This pre and post partial experimental study was done on 40 couple participating at the pre marriage counseling classes selected by the improbable simple method. The data collection tool was questionnaire designed by the family planning office of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran and its validity and durability were confirmed. It comprised two individual and questions of knowledge assay sections filled before and after counseling by showing film and giving lecture. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS-11.5 software using the descriptive statistics and index of distribution and paired t-test. The study subjects, mean score of awareness at pre and post counseling increased to 2.4, which was statistically significant (P<0.0001. The obtained data of the present study showed that counseling and instruction improve the level of awareness among the participants. Therefore, it is concluded that, it is possible to increase the level of knowledge and awareness on the married life among the marriage candidates, which is very helpful in their long lasting married life by applying the correct method of instruction and proper counseling.

  13. Challenging assumptions about women's empowerment: social and economic resources and domestic violence among young married women in urban South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Rathod, Sujit; Falle, Tina; Pande, Rohini P; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2009-04-01

    Although considerable research has documented the widespread prevalence of spousal violence in India, little is known about specific risk or protective factors. This study examines the relationships between factors that are often considered to be social and economic resources for women and recent occurrence of domestic violence. Data were collected from 744 young married women in slum areas of Bangalore, India. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with having been hit, kicked or beaten by one's husband in the past 6 months. Over half (56%) of the study participants reported having ever experienced physical domestic violence; about a quarter (27%) reported violence in the past 6 months. In a full multivariable model, women in 'love' marriages (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5) and those whose families were asked for additional dowry after marriage (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.4) were more likely to report domestic violence. Women who participated in social groups (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.4) and vocational training (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.7-5.8) were also at higher risk. Efforts to help women empower themselves through vocational training, employment opportunities and social groups need to consider the potential unintended consequences for these women, such as an increased risk of domestic violence. The study findings suggest that the effectiveness of anti-dowry laws may be limited without additional strategies that mobilize women, families and communities to challenge the widespread acceptance of dowry and to promote gender equity. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the complex causal relationships between 'love' marriages and domestic violence.

  14. Gender and international clinician educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Dora J; Archuleta, Sophia; Ibrahim, Halah; Shah, Nina G; Al-Mohammed, Ahmed Ali; Cofrancesco, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    To describe gender differences of international clinician educators (CEs) and leaders, and CEs' perceptions by gender of preparation, roles, rewards and factors affecting job satisfaction and retention in emerging international competency-based residency programmes. Cross-sectional surveys of CEs and leadership were conductedJune 2013-June 2014 at institutions that had adopted competency-based graduate medical education and were accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-International. 274 (76.3%) of 359 eligible participants responded; 69 (25.2%) were female. Two (18%) of 11 chief executive officers and 1 (9%) of 11 chief medical officers were women. Female CEs were younger, more likely to be single and childless. They were less likely to hold academic appointments, despite no gender differences in length of time at current institution or in current position. A greater proportion of female CEs felt they were 'never' rewarded by academic promotion. Satisfaction rates were similar between the genders. Single female CEs were five times as likely to report being 'extremely likely' to stay in the country. Female CEs with children gender gap in appointment and advancement. Stakeholders at international programmes need to develop contextualised strategies to expand entry and decrease attrition of women into CE tracks, and promote gender equity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Continuing evidence for poorer treatment outcomes for single male patients: Retreatment data from RTOG 97-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; DeSilvio, Michelle; Hartsell, William; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Coyne, James; Scarantino, Charles; JanJan, Nora

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The specific aim of this study was to evaluate outcome differences by gender and partner status for patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 97-14. Methods and Materials: RTOG 97-14 randomized patients with metastatic breast or prostate cancer to bone to receive 8 Gy in 1 fraction or 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Retreatment rates and overall survival were made based upon gender, marital status, and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS). The cumulative incidence method was used to estimate retreatment time at 36 months from enrollment, and Gray's test was used to test for treatment differences within the same groupings. Marital status, gender, KPS, and treatment were variables tested in a univariate Cox model evaluating the time to retreatment. Results: Married men and women and single women receiving 30 Gy had significantly longer time to retreatment, p = 0.0067, p = 0.0052, and p = 0.0009 respectively. We failed to show a difference in retreatment rates over time in single men receiving either 30 Gy or 8 Gy. Univariate analysis of the entire group determined patients receiving 30 Gy in 10 fractions significantly less likely to receive retreatment, p < 0.0001, with a trend toward single patients less likely to be re-treated, p = 0.07. Conclusion: Non-disease-related variables, such as social support, might influence the results of clinical trials with subjective endpoints such as retreatment rates. The statistically nonsignificant difference in the 36-month retreatment rates observed in single male patients receiving 8 Gy may be a result of inadequate social support systems in place to facilitate additional care. Patients receiving 8 Gy in a single fraction had significantly higher retreatment rates compared with patients receiving 30 Gy in 10 fractions

  16. [Gender mainstreaming and nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2011-12-01

    Gender mainstreaming is one of the most important strategies in promoting global gender equality. The Taiwan government launched policies on gender mainstreaming and gender impact assessment in 2007 in response to strong public and academic advocacy work. With rising awareness of gender issues, nursing professionals in Taiwan should keep pace with global trends and become actively involved in advancing gender-mainstreaming policies. This article shows that nursing professionals should prepare themselves by cultivating gender competence, understanding gender-related regulations, recognizing the importance of gender impact assessment implementation, integrating gender issues into nursing education, conducting gender-related research and participating in decision-making processes that promote gender mainstreaming. Nursing professionals should enhance their knowledge and understanding of gender mainstreaming-related issues and get involved in the gender-related decision-making process in order to enhance gender awareness and women's health and further the professional development of nurses.

  17. Gender differences in socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and psychiatric diagnosis in/of suicide attempters in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ana; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Peralta-Jiménez, Yesenia; Juárez-Rojop, Isela; Pool-García, Sherezada; Velázquez-Sánchez, Martha Patricia; López-Narváez, Lilia; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as psychiatric diagnoses to identify gender differences in patients with attempted suicide in a Mexican population. Between September 2010 and September 2012, 140 suicide attempts were documented in the Department of Psychiatry at the General Hospital of Comalcalco (Hospital General de Comalcalco in Spanish) in Tabasco, Mexico. Diagnoses were established using the DSM-IV questionnaire in which Axis I and II were considered. The Suicide Intent Scale was also applied. In our sample, 63.6% were females and 36.4% males. With regard to socio-demographic characteristics, the predominant marital status in males was single, and in females married (χ2=5.93, df=2, p=0.05). In occupation the male group was mainly unemployed and housewife in females (χ2=55.51, df=4, psuicide attempt are different by gender in the Mexican population. Interventions are necessary for the development of prevention strategies that may lead to a reduction in suicidal behaviour. These preventive activities should consider the occupation for the female group and consumption of alcohol, cannabis or tobacco in the male group.

  18. Gender Identity in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Karimi, Sakineh; Shirazi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Sex assignment in infancy for patients with disorder of sex development (DSD) is a challenging problem. Some of the patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have DSD that may affect their gender identity. The study aimed to assess gender identity in patients with CAH. In this study, 52 patients with CAH, including 22 prepubertal children and 30 adolescents and adults, were assessed using two separate gender identity questionnaires for children and adults based on the criteria of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition. In the children group, compatibility was seen between gender identity and rearing gender. In the adult group, there were three cases of mismatching between gender identity and sex assignment composed of two females with poor control and one male with good control with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). Three girls with 11-hydroxylase deficiency (11-OHD) were reared as boy. Two of them with late diagnosis at 5 and 6 years of age had pseudoprecocious puberty. Parents and children did not accept to change the gender. One of them is 36 years old now, is depressed and unsatisfied with her gender, another girl is still child and has male sexual identity. One girl with 11-OHD and early diagnosis at birth with Prader 5 virilization but with good hormonal control was changed to female gender at 12 years of age when female sexual characteristics appeared; she is 34-years-old now, married, and with two children, and she is satisfied with her gender. In patients with CAH, gender identity disorder is a rare finding. Hormonal control, social, familial, and religious beliefs have impacts on gender identity of these patients.

  19. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94.3-97.4). Alcohol

  20. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  1. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in self-dissociation, sexual intimacy and alexithymia of married women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Farshchian Yazdiand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article aimed to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in self-dissociation, sexual intimacy and alexithymia among married women. This research was a semi-experimental study (pretest-posttest design with unequal control group. The target population included all the married women who referred to psychological services clinics in Mashhad. The research sample comprised 30 of these married women (15 people in the experimental group and 15 people in the control group who were selected voluntarily and through available sampling method. For data collection, Self-Dissociation Questionnaire by Oppenheimer and Estrogel (1999, Halbert Sexual Desire Inventory (1992 and Toronto Alexithymia Scale were used. To analyze the data, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was applied. The results obtained from data analysis demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy leads to reduced self-dissociation and alexithymia and increased sexual intimacy among married women in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.05.

  2. Differences in the assessment of attachment style, general self-image and hardiness in married and divorced women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Poljanec

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and find differences in attachment style, the general self-image and hardiness in married and divorced women. The sample consisted of 102 participants: 40 married women attending Relational Family Therapy (RDT Marriage Crisis Counselling Groups; 26 divorced women attending RDT Divorcee Groups; and 28 married and 8 divorced women who did not attend the groups mentioned. The participants completed a modified questionnaire for assessing self-image (Musitu, Garcia,,Gutierrez, Krajnc in Pečjak, 1998, Kobasa's hardiness questionnaire (Kobasa in Maddi, 1979, as cited in Lamovec, 1994b, and Bartholomew's attachment style questionnaire (Bartholomew in Horowitz, 1991, as cited in Kobal, 2001. Married women not attending the mentioned groups had a better family self-image than divorced women who attended RDT Divorcee Groups, and furthermore, women not attending the mentioned groups had a better general self-image than women attending the groups.

  3. Always single and single again women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K G; Moon, S

    1997-04-01

    What is it like to be a single woman today? Are the experiences of women who have always been single different from those who find themselves single again after having been married? How can family therapists promote the development of single women both individually and relationally? The purpose of this phenomenological, multiple-case study was to investigate perceptions of being single among heterosexual single women between the ages of 30 and 65. Nine focus group interviews and a semistructured, mailed questionnaire were used to collect the data. Constant comparative analyses were used to develop the findings. The findings were organized around the most salient theme that emerged from the analyses: single women have unresolved or unrecognized ambivalences about being single. This overarching theme was supported by three subassertions: (a) single women are aware of both the advantages and the drawbacks of being single; (b) single women are ambivalent about the reasons for their singleness; (c) although content with being single, many women simultaneously experience feelings of loss and grief. Implications for the clinical practice of family therapy and future research on single women are discussed.

  4. TRAILING GENDER STEREOTYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Sekhar P M; J. Parameswari

    2017-01-01

    A gender stereotype is a kind of over generalization about characteristics, attributes and differences on the basis of gender. Gender stereotypes construct certain gender roles. A gender role is a behavior learned by a person as desirable, acceptable appropriate, to their gender, determined by the prevailing cultural norms. In society, the gender role continues through generation. There are certain factors which help to transmit these roles. This conceptual paper will try to explain the role ...

  5. The Effectiveness of Group Therapy based on Reality Therapy on Rebuild of Relationship Beliefs in Working Married Women of Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    لیلا رمزی اسلامبولی; احمد علیپور; زهره سپهری شاملو; حسین زارع

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of group therapy based on reality therapy on relationship beliefs in working married women. This study was a quasi-experimental one with pretest-posttest, followup design with control group. Ninety one female married employees of Mashhad participated in this study with sampling in access and completed Relationship Beliefs Inventory. Thirty persons with higher scores randomly allocated in experimental and control groups (each gr...

  6. The Effects of Life Skills Training on Marital Satisfaction of Married Women: A Case Study in Dogonbadan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    A Abbasi; N Jalilpour; A Kamkar; Gh Zadehbaghri; F Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Successful family relationships and marital satisfaction largely depends on couples’ awareness of their marital or parental roles. Marital relations training could provide adaptation with expected roles for both husband and wife. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of life skills training on marital satisfaction in married women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study which was carried out in 2010 examined fifty married women ...

  7. A Comparison of the Household Work of Married Females: The Mid-1920s and the Late 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, W. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Revised estimates of the time married women spent in household work were made using data from the 1920s and 1960s. Results showed an overall decline from 7.35 hours per day in the 1920s to 6.31 hours in 1967-68. Household work by full-time homemakers declined by 7.5% to 6.84 hours per day; employed married women's household work declined to 5.13…

  8. The effects of marriage and separation on the psychotropic medication use of non-married cohabiters: a register-based longitudinal study among adult Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-11-01

    Non-marital cohabitation has become increasingly common and is suggested to offer similar mental-health benefits as marriage does. We studied levels and changes in cohabiters' mental health five years before and five years after entering into marriage or separating, and compared long-term non-married and married cohabiters. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics, excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to non-marital transition and gender, using register data on 189,394 Finns aged 25 to 64. Similar levels of psychotropic-medication use were found among individuals in long unions that continued throughout the follow-up and were non-marital, marital, or changed from non-marital to marital. Among men and women who separated from longer cohabiting unions of more than five years, however, an increase in medication prevalence was observed immediately before separation, followed by a similar decline after separation. At the time of separation the level of medication use was 9.9 per cent (95% CI = 8.7 - 11.3) among men and 15.7 per cent (95% CI = 14.2 - 17.4) among women compared to 4.3 per cent (95% CI = 3.7 - 5.0) and 8.0 per cent (95% CI = 7.2 - 9.0), respectively, among those who cohabited continuously. No changes in medication use were observed before or after separation among those leaving shorter cohabiting unions of less than five years. Among those marrying following shorter cohabiting unions a positive effect of approaching marriage was observed only among women. Compared to continuous cohabiters, the level of medication use was higher among men and women separating from both short-term and long-term cohabiting unions five years before separation. This selective effect suggests that cohabiters with mental-health problems might benefit from relationship counselling. In a long-term stable union it seems to matter little for mental health whether the union is marital or non

  9. Is Working Risky or Protective for Married Adolescent Girls in Urban Slums in Kenya? Understanding the Association between Working Status, Savings and Intimate-Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthengi, Eunice; Gitau, Tabither; Austrian, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that women's empowerment, though beneficial in many aspects, can also increase the risk of intimate-partner violence (IPV). This study seeks to examine the association between work and experience of physical violence among married adolescents, and to understand the impact of access to independent financial resources on this risk. Authors draw on the asset-building framework and the ecological model. The data is from a baseline survey of girls aged 15-19 residing in urban slums in four cities and towns in Kenya (Nairobi, Thika, Nakuru and Kisumu). The analytic sample is 452 married girls. Logistic regression is used to examine associations between working status, savings and experience of IPV in the previous six months, controlling for other factors. This is complemented by content analysis of in-depth interviews with 32 adolescent girls and 16 young men. Compared to girls who did not work, working with no regular savings was significantly associated with greater odds (OR = 1.96, p<0.01) of experiencing IPV. There was no difference between girls who did not work and those who worked but had regular savings. Qualitative findings indicate savings decrease girls' dependency on men and allow them to leave abusive partners. Findings imply that in these communities with patriarchal gender norms and high levels of poverty, female employment and financial conflicts can be triggers of violence in marriages. On the other hand, girls' management of and access to independent financial resources through savings can potentially help to reduce this risk.

  10. Gender matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda

    with a wage increase of 7–22 per cent for female workers only, depending on the analytical approach taken. We also show evidence that the wage increase is associated only with on-the-job training and that lower ability workers are more likely to be trained. Our findings indicate that, at least in Viet Nam......, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...

  11. Group Couples' Intervention to Improve Sexual Health Among Married Women in a Low-Income Community in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Shubhada; Schensul, Stephen L; Hallowell, Benjamin D; Brault, Marie A; Nastasi, Bonnie K

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a group couples' intervention focused on improving women's sexual health as a component of a multilevel community, clinical, and counseling intervention project conducted in association with a gynecological service in a municipal urban health center in a low-income community in Mumbai, India. The group couples' intervention involved four single-gender and two mixed-gender sessions designed to address the dynamics of the marital relationship and establish a more equitable spousal relationship as a means to improve women's sexual and marital health. Involvement of men presented a major challenge to couple's participation. For those couples that did participate, qualitative findings revealed significant changes in couple and family relations, sexual health knowledge, and emotional well-being. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. Factors influencing family planning practice among reproductive age married women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Myo Min; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Nanthamongkokchai, Sutham

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors that influence the family planning practice among married, reproductive age women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 284 married, reproductive age women using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through questionnaire interviews during February and March 2012 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. The proportion of families practicing family planning was 74.7%, contraceptive injection being the most commonly used method. The factors influencing family planning practice were attitude towards family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The women with a positive attitude toward family planning practiced family planning 3.7 times more than women who had a negative attitude. If family planning services were available for 24 hours, then women would practice 3.4 times more than if they were not available for 24 hours. When women got fair to good support from health workers, they practiced 15.0 times more on family planning and 4.3 times more who got fair to good support from partners and friends than women who got low support. The factors influencing family planning practice of married, reproductive age women were attitude toward family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The findings suggest that empowerment of health workers, training of volunteers, pharmacists and contraceptive drug providers, encouraging inter-spousal communication, and peer support, as well as an integrated approach to primary health care in order to target different populations to change women's attitudes on family planning, could increase family planning practice among Myanmar women.

  13. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini M Bhattathiry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP, which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of "unmet need for FP" and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.

  14. Determinants of Maternity Care Services Utilization among Married Adolescents in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Singh, Lucky

    2012-01-01

    Background Coupled with the largest number of maternal deaths, adolescent pregnancy in India has received paramount importance due to early age at marriage and low contraceptive use. The factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescents in rural India are poorly discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the data from third wave of National Family Health Survey (2005–06), available in public domain for the use by researchers, this paper examines the factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescent women (aged 15–19 years) in rural India. Three components of maternal healthcare service utilization were measured: full antenatal care, safe delivery, and postnatal care within 42 days of delivery for the women who gave births in the last five years preceding the survey. Considering the framework on causes of maternal mortality proposed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994), selected socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors influencing outcome events were included as the predictor variables. Bi-variate analyses including chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion, and logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on selected outcomes were applied. Findings indicate the significant differences in the use of selected maternal healthcare utilization by educational attainment, economic status and region of residence. Muslim women, and women belonged to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes are less likely to avail safe delivery services. Additionally, adolescent women from the southern region utilizing the highest maternal healthcare services than the other regions. Conclusions The present study documents several socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting the utilization of maternal healthcare services among rural adolescent women in India. The ongoing healthcare programs should start targeting household

  15. Motherhood in childhood: addressing reproductive health hazards among adolescent married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Shraboni

    2016-05-04

    In India, due to the high prevalence of child marriage, most adolescent pregnancies occur within marriage. Pregnancy and childbirth complications are among the leading causes of death in girls aged 15 to 19 years. Hence, adolescent pregnancy is a serious health threat to young women in India. The study focuses on the level and trends of adolescent pregnancy rate (per thousand currently married adolescent women) in India in the last two decades, based on cross-sectional data from three different periods, DLHS-1 (1998-99), DLHS-2 (2002-04) and DLHS-3 (2007-08). Further, the determinants of adolescent pregnancy and its effects are analyzed using the DLHS-3 data, which used a multi-stage stratified systematic sampling design. The sample size of this study was 18,709 pregnancies that occurred to 14,006 currently married adolescent (15-19 years) women. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to examine the association between pregnancy outcomes (live birth vs. abortion/stillbirth) and health complications with socioeconomic variables and maternal-child health (MCH) service utilization. During the periods of 1998-99, 2002-04 and 2007-08, the rate of adolescent pregnancy was 427, 467 and 438 respectively. In 2007-08, the proportion of live births (vs. stillbirth or abortion) was significantly higher among older adolescents aged 18-19 years (OR = 1.25, 95 % CI (1.08-1.44), p family planning services and safe abortion and delivery advice; tetanus toxoid and iron/folic acid for those married adolescents who do become pregnant could improve health outcomes.

  16. Negotiation for safer sex among married women in Cambodia: the role of women's autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Mengieng; Boateng, Godfred O; Armah, Frederick A; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Luginaah, Isaac; Kuuire, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Negotiating safer sex among married women has been identified as an important determinant of vulnerability or resilience to new HIV infections. Using the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data of 2010, this paper examined negotiation for safer sex among 11,218 married women in the context of Cambodia's highly touted reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The results from a complementary log-log regression model indicate that wealthier and highly educated married women were more likely to report that they can refuse sexual intercourse and ask their husbands to use a condom. Interestingly, while women who were fully involved in decision-making on their own health care were 19% more likely to refuse sex, they were 14% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom, compared with their counterparts who were not involved in this decision-making. Women who were partially involved in decision-making on family visits were 17% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom compared with those who were not involved. In this context, involvement in decision-making may have translated into trust and risk compensation. Those who believed in HIV transmission myths were less likely to negotiate safer sex relative to their counterparts who did not hold such myths to be true. Women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is, therefore, a function of their autonomy in terms of their full participation in decision-making in health care, household expenditure and mobility. Policy implications of the capacity of women to negotiate for safer sex are delineated.

  17. Work-Life Spillover and Job Satisfaction of Married/partnered Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Amelink, Catherine T.

    Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to analyze questionnaire data gathered from married or partnered, tenured and tenure-track faculty at a research university to identify personal, institutional, and nonwork factors that explain perceptions about work-life spillover and, secondly, the relationship of spillover, personal, institutional, and nonwork factors to overall job satisfaction. A combination of personal and environmental climate variables explained 48% of the variance in work-life spillover and 60% of the variance in job satisfaction. A direct, positive relationship was found between work-life spillover and job satisfaction. Findings challenge conceptions of work-life spillover as a negative dimension of faculty life.

  18. Effects of a Program to Improve Mental Health Literacy for Married Immigrant Women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Jung

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate a mental health improvement program for the acculturative stress and mental health literacy of married immigrant women using bilingual gatekeepers. Bilingual gatekeepers were recruited from multicultural centers and trained to provide 8-week structured mental health improvement services to the women in the experimental group using a mental health improvement guidebook developed by the authors in 8 different languages. The program was effective in improving mental health and mental health literacy scores as well as reducing the degree of acculturative stress. This study offers a model of effective mental healthcare for multicultural communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Longitudinal Study of Stress, Social Support, and Depression In Married Arab Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen; Uddin, Nizam; Blbas, Hazar

    2017-01-01

    Using a stress and social support framework, this study explored the trajectory of depression in 388 married Arab immigrant women. The women provided three panels of data approximately 18 months apart. Depression at Time 3 was regressed on Time 1 depression, socio-demographic variables, and rate of change over time in stress and social support. The regression model was significant and accounted for 41.16% of the variation in Time 3 depression scores. Time 1 depression, English reading ability, husband’s employment status, and changes over time in immigration demands, daily hassles, and social support from friends were associated with Time 3 Depression. PMID:27791495

  20. Work disincentive effects of taxes among Danish married men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    1997-01-01

    of a backward bending labour supply curve. The inclusion of nonparticipants in the estimations increases the labour supply elasticities considerably. Finally, we simulate the labour supply responses of a few recently proposed tax reforms, among these an earned-income-tax-credit (EITC).......In this paper the labour supply for Danish married men and women are estimated, using the piecewise linear Hausman model approach to account for non-linearities in taxes. The model takes the joint decision of participation and hours into account as well as measurement errors and unobserved...

  1. Demand for modern family planning among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Regassa Feyissa

    Full Text Available People living with HIV (PLHIV have diverse family planning (FP needs. Little is reported on FP needs among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the demand for modern FP among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 married women living with HIV selected from Nekemte Referral Hospital and Health Center, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia. Convenience sampling of every other eligible patient was used to recruit respondents. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. We first calculated frequency and percentage of unmet need, met need and total demand by each explanatory variable, and performed chi-squared testing to assess for differences in groups. We then fitted logistic regression models to identify correlates of unmet need for modern FP at 95% CL.The proportion of respondents with met need for modern FP among married women living with HIV was 61.6% (30.7% for spacing and 30.9% for limiting. Demand for family planning was reported in 77.0% (38.2% for spacing and 38.8% for limiting, making unmet need for modern FP prevalent in 15.4% (7.5% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting. Whereas age 25-34 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR (95% confidence interval (CI = .397 (.204-.771] was protective against unmet need for modern FP, not having knowledge of MTCT [AOR (95% CI = 2.531 (1.689-9.290] and not discussing FP with a partner [AOR (95% CI = 3.616(1.869-6.996] were associated with increased odds of unmet need for modern FP.There is high unmet need for modern FP in HIV-positive married women in western Ethiopia. Health care providers and program managers at a local and international level should work to satisfy the unmet need for modern family planning.

  2. Should we get married? The effect of parents' marriage on out-of-wedlock children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shirley H; Heiland, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Using a representative sample of children all born to unwed parents drawn from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and a potential outcome approach to account for self-selection into marriage, we investigate whether marriage after childbearing has a causal effect on early child development. Comparing children with similar background characteristics and parental mate-selection patterns who differ only in terms of whether their parents marry after childbirth, we find that marriage after childbirth significantly increases a child's early cognitive performance but there is no evidence that it affects child asthma risk or behavioral outcomes.

  3. Demand for modern family planning among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Melka, Alemu Sufa

    2014-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have diverse family planning (FP) needs. Little is reported on FP needs among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the demand for modern FP among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 married women living with HIV selected from Nekemte Referral Hospital and Health Center, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia. Convenience sampling of every other eligible patient was used to recruit respondents. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. We first calculated frequency and percentage of unmet need, met need and total demand by each explanatory variable, and performed chi-squared testing to assess for differences in groups. We then fitted logistic regression models to identify correlates of unmet need for modern FP at 95% CL. The proportion of respondents with met need for modern FP among married women living with HIV was 61.6% (30.7% for spacing and 30.9% for limiting). Demand for family planning was reported in 77.0% (38.2% for spacing and 38.8% for limiting), making unmet need for modern FP prevalent in 15.4% (7.5% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting). Whereas age 25-34 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = .397 (.204-.771)] was protective against unmet need for modern FP, not having knowledge of MTCT [AOR (95% CI) = 2.531 (1.689-9.290)] and not discussing FP with a partner [AOR (95% CI) = 3.616(1.869-6.996)] were associated with increased odds of unmet need for modern FP. There is high unmet need for modern FP in HIV-positive married women in western Ethiopia. Health care providers and program managers at a local and international level should work to satisfy the unmet need for modern family planning.

  4. An Evaluation of the Tax-Transfer Treatment of Married Couples in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    This paper presents an evaluation of the tax-transfer treatment of married couples in 15 EU countries using the EUROMOD microsimulation model. First, we show that many tax-transfer schemes in Europe feature negative jointness defined as a situation where the tax rate on one person depends...... countries. Finally, we consider the tax-transfer implications of marriage and estimate the so-called marriage penalty. For most countries, we find large marriage penalties at the bottom of the distribution driven primarily by features of the transfer system....

  5. An Evaluation of the Tax-Transfer Treatment of Married Couples in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the tax-transfer treatment of married couples in 15 EU countries using the EUROMOD microsimulation model. First, we show that many tax-transfer schemes in Europe feature negative jointness defined as a situation where the tax rate on one person depends...... countries. Finally, we consider the tax-transfer implications of marriage and estimate the so-called marriage penalty. For most countries, we find large marriage penalties at the bottom of the distribution driven primarily by features of the transfer system....

  6. Facial trauma as physical violence markers against elderly Brazilians: A comparative analysis between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Rayanne Izabel Maciel; de Macedo Bernardino, Ítalo; Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Bento, Patricia Meira; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of elderly Brazilians with injuries resulting from physical violence and identify victimization differences. A descriptive and exploratory study was conducted involving the analysis of medico-legal and social records of 259 elderly victims of physical violence treated at an Institute of Forensic Medicine and Dentistry over four years (from January 2008 to December 2011). The forensic service database was evaluated by researchers properly trained and calibrated to perform this function between January and March 2013. Socio-demographic variables of victims, aggression characteristics, aggressor's profile and types of lesions were evaluated. Descriptive and multivariate statistics using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) were performed. The prevalence of facial trauma was 42.9%. Based on the MCA results, two groups with different victimization profiles were identified: married men aged 70-79 years, victims of community violence at night, suffering facial injuries; and single, widowed or separated women aged 60-69 years, victims of domestic violence during the day, suffering trauma in other areas of the body. The results suggest that there is a high prevalence of facial injuries among elderly Brazilians victims of physical violence and there are important differences related to victimization characteristics according to gender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A social work study on impact of gender, marital status and employment status on internet addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, internet has penetrated into people’s personal lives, significantly. People communicate with each other through internet facilities such as email services, social web pages, etc. Internet has influenced so much of our lives that many people get addicted and it has become a serious issue among different societies. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find the relationship of three issues of age, gender and employment status on internet addiction behavior. The survey selects 190 men and 160 women from a city of NajafAbad located in province of Esfahan, Iran and a questionnaire consists of 35 questions are distributed among them. The survey uses Chi-Square statistics to examine the effects of three mentioned factors and the results indicate that internet addiction is more among singles than married (Chi-Square=19.94. The survey also indicates that internet addition is more on men than women do (Chi-Square=6.64. However, our survey does not find any evidence to believe job employment has any impact on internet addiction.

  8. Single Motherhood, Living Arrangements, and Time With Children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Park, Hyunjoon; Iwasawa, Miho; Zhou, Yanfei

    2014-08-01

    The authors examined relationships between single parenthood and mothers' time with children in Japan. Using data from the 2011 National Survey of Households with Children (N = 1,926), they first demonstrate that time spent with children and the frequency of shared dinners are significantly lower for single mothers than for their married counterparts. For single mothers living alone, less time with children reflects long work hours and work-related stress. Single mothers coresiding with parents spend less time with children and eat dinner together less frequently than either married mothers or their unmarried counterparts not living with parents, net of (grand)parental support, work hours, income, and stress. The findings suggest that rising divorce rates and associated growth in single-mother families may have a detrimental impact on parents' time with children in Japan and that the relatively high prevalence of intergenerational coresidence among single mothers may do little to temper this impact.

  9. INFLUENCES OF GENDER IDEOLOGY AND HOUSEWORK ALLOCATION ON WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT OVER THE LIFE COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Mick

    2008-03-01

    The study investigates the influences of women's attitudes about gender and couples' housework allocation patterns on women's employment status and work hours across the life course. The influence of these factors on the employment characteristics of continuously married women is investigated at four time points: 1977, 1980, 1985, and 1993. Data come from the Intergenerational Panel Study of Parents and Children and the analysis sample includes 556 continuously married women. Findings from structural equation, fixed effects, and tobit models offer consistent evidence of long-term positive influences of women's egalitarian gender ideology and men's participation in routine housework on women's labor force participation. The results provide support for hypotheses based on the notion of lagged adaptation.

  10. Intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue among married rural-to-urban migrant workers, the largest group of internal migrants in China. This study aims to explore the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhejiang province in China between July 2015 and April 2016, and a total of 1,744 married rural-to-urban migrant workers ultimately took part in the study. Conflict Tactics Scales and several short demographic questions were applied. Data were principally analyzed with logistic regression. Results The majority of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were middle-aged couples with a low education level and a relatively long-term duration of migration in fixed migrant cities. Nearly 45% of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months. The joint occurrence of multiple forms of violence is the most commonly reported features of intimate partner violence, especially three overlapping patterns of intimate partner violence. Some individual (education and age, relationship (marital satisfaction, premarital sex and extramarital affairs and social (duration of migration and number of migratory cities factors of the respondents, were negatively or positively associated with intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers. Conclusion The results indicated that one out of two married rural-to-urban migrant workers experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months in China. Accordingly, there is an obvious demand of intervention and treatment activities to prevent and reduce the occurrence of intimate partner violence among the millions of migrant workers in China.

  11. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    長坂, 達彦; ナガサカ, タツヒコ; Tatsuhiko, Nagasaka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  12. The Multiplicity of Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Lea

    2015-01-01

    people could quickly sum up the full pallet of meanings that comes with these gender categories. What does it mean to be a man or a woman? Is your sex/gender best captured by your biology (genitalia, hormones and chromosomes), your gender identity (the gender you perceive yourself to be) or your gender...... expression (how you chose to express your gender in clothes, jewelry, gestures, tone of voice)? Many people go through life never making those nuanced gender distinctions. However, where you situated yourself on the different gendered spectrums can have a significant effect on your life and well-being....

  13. A study to assess the domestic violence in mental illness & normal married women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Srivastava, Indira Sharma, Anuradha Khanna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence against women is the most pervasive human rights violation in the world today. According to UNiTE to End Violence against Women (2009 by UN Women, In the United States, one-third of women murdered each year are killed by intimate partners. In South Africa, a woman is killed every 6 hours by an intimate partner. The Objective: To assess the magnitude and causes of domestic violence with mental illness & normal women. Material & Methods: The sample of study comprised of 50 women with mental illness and 50 normal women. Mental illness patients diagnosed according to with Axis one psychiatric Disorder DSM IV-TR, who were selected from the Psychiatry OPD and ward of the S.S. Hospital, BHU and normal women were be selected from the accompany with patients of Sir Sunder Lal Hospital. The patients were assessed on the structured questionnaire on Domestic Violence. Results – The domestic violence present in married women with mental illness was 72% and normal women were 36%. Perceived causes of domestic violence in married women with mental illness were more compared to those with normal women. The health care personnel should be given an opportunity to update their knowledge regarding domestic violence and there is need education for domestic violence and cessation, so that they can help the women to protect/prevent domestic violence.

  14. Correlates of domestic violence experience among recently-married women residing in slums in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokhe, Ameeta S; Iyer, Sandhya R; Kolhe, Ambika R; Dhayarkar, Sampada; Paranjape, Anuradha; Del Rio, Carlos; Stephenson, Rob; Sahay, Seema

    2018-01-01

    The high risk of experiencing domestic violence (DV) among married women in India who reside in slum communities underscores the need for effective, evidence-based, and culturally-tailored primary prevention. To inform such DV primary prevention strategies for this population, we herein aimed to identify correlates of DV experience in early marriage. Utilizing a cross-sectional design, potential correlates of DV experience were explored among a geographically-clustered random sample of 100 recently-married women residing in slums in Pune, India. In multivariable regression, DV experience was associated with less educational attainment by the participant's spouse (standardized β = -0.281, p = 0.004), less satisfaction of the spouse's family with the maanpaan (wedding-related gifts provided by the bride's family) they received at the time of marriage (standardized β = -0.298, p<0.001), poorer conflict negotiation skills (standardized β = -0.308, p<0.001), and greater acknowledgement of DV occurrence in family and friends (standardized β = 0.436, p<0.001). These correlates suggest strategies that could be incorporated into future DV primary prevention interventions for this vulnerable population (i.e. promoting completion of formal education of boys alongside girls, mitigating causes of familial dowry harassment, improving conflict negotiation skills, and challenging norms surrounding DV).

  15. Sexual Satisfaction Concept Analysis in Iranian Married Women: A Hybrid Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekta, Zohre Parsa; Raisi, Firoozeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Shahvari, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexual satisfaction is considered to be a sexual right and an important component of sexual health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to clarify the meaning and the nature of sexual satisfaction in Iranian married women, and to provide a cultural-based definition of it. Method: Sexual satisfaction was examined in three phases by the Hybrid Model of concept analysis: (1) the theoretical phase; (2) the fieldwork phase and (3) the analytical phase. Hybrid concept analysis method was chosen because its inclusion of married women’s perspectives enriches the limits of sexual health search literature. Result: The critical attributes of sexual satisfaction were investigated. They included ‘two-dimensional structure’, ‘an affective response’, ‘a means to achieve marital satisfaction’, ‘unique’, ‘a concept based on expectations’ and ‘a concept on shadow of values’. Conclusion: The concept analysis of sexual satisfaction showed some of the attributes and antecedents for this concept that, have not been mentioned in the literature. PMID:26153166

  16. Contraceptive use and preferences of young married women in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulaseedharan, Jissa Vinoda

    2018-01-01

    As in other states of India, female sterilization is the most widely used contraceptive method in Kerala where women have higher levels of education compared to most other states in India. This paper describes the use and preferences of contraceptive methods among young married women in Trivandrum district, Kerala, India. A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out among 203 young married women (18-28 years) during January-March 2015 using multistage cluster sampling method. Statistical analysis was mainly descriptive, and chi-squared test was used to test the statistical significance of the relationship between sociodemographic factors and contraceptive use. The average age at marriage for women was 21.3 years, and 23% of women had more than one child. Current use of any contraceptive methods was 58%. Female sterilization was preferred by 13% and it was significantly higher among women aged 25-28 years than in those aged 18-24 years (20% vs 2.6%, p marriage and childbirth. Women empowerment, proper information and assuring availability and accessibility to different methods can gradually change the dominant preference for female-oriented permanent method of contraception.

  17. The Comparison of Sex Education with and without Religious Thoughts in Sexual Function of Married Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Yousefzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: One of the most important events in human life is marriage. Sexual satisfaction is one of the effective factors in a successful marriage. Accordingly, sexual health education is necessary. Sex education should be in line with the cultural, religious, and social infrastructures of the society. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of sex education with and without religious teachings on sexual performance of married women. Methods: This clinical trial with a pretest-posttest design was performed in four health centers that were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling, in 2013. A total of 64 women were chosen with regard to the inclusion criteria, such as formal marriage and first marriage, age of marriage ≥ 1, married life with husband, monogamous marriage, and participating in training sessions (sexual health education and sexual health based on religious teachings that were held for six weeks. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI and a demographic characteristics form were used to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient in SPSS, version 16. Results: In the intervention group, the mean score of Female Sexual Function Index was significantly different before and after the training program (P=0.03. The subgroups of sexual desire, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction in the intervention group and subgroups of arousal and sexual satisfaction in the control group were significantly different after the intervention (P

  18. AGE AT MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY PATTERN OF ADOLESCENT MARRIED WOMEN IN RURAL BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Ahmed

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in two purposively selected rural areas of Faridpur district - Alfadanga and Boalmari. The objectives were to find out the age at marriage and fertility pattern amongst the adolescent married women residing in the study areas. A total of 426 women were selected purposively and interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Most (97.2% were in the age group of 15-19 years, being married by 15.5 ± 1.5 years. Although 57.5% had a secondary level education, almost all (97% were found to be housewives. Monthly income was between Taka 2001-4000 in 41.3% of the households. Regarding fertility pattern, 19% of the adolescent women were found to be pregnant at the time of survey. The total fertility rate (TFR among this age group was estimated to be 2.6 per woman. To help improve the situation, awareness on the negative consequences of early marriage and consequent childbearing needs to be created not only among the young adolescent girls but should be targeted towards their parents too. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2007; 1(2: 9-12

  19. The shadow of silence on the sexual rights of married Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali; Abbasi, Mahmoud; Lottes, Ilsa

    2015-01-01

    There has been a recent shift in the field of sexual health, representing a move away from biomedical concerns to sexual rights frameworks. However, few studies on sexuality are based on a rights framework. The unspoken nature of sexuality in Iranian culture has led to a lack of national studies on the topic. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of married Iranian women on sexual rights in their sexual relationships. In this grounded theory study, 37 participants (25 married women, 5 husbands, and 7 midwives) were selected. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed through open, axial, and selective coding using MAXQDA software version 2007. The analysis revealed the core category of "sexual interaction in the shadow of silence." The interrelated categories subsumed under the core category included adopting a strategy of silence, trying to negotiate sex, seeking help, and sexual adjustment. The silence originating from women's interactions with their families and society, from girlhood to womanhood, was identified as the core concept in Iranian women's experiences of sexual rights. A focus on husbands' roles seems salient because they can direct or alter some learned feminine roles, especially silence regarding sexual matters, which then affects the realization of women's sexual rights.

  20. Factors associated with misconceptions about HIV transmission among ever-married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Hoque, Nazrul; Chowdhury, Md Rocky Khan; Hossain, Md Sabbir

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic continues to be associated with misconceptions and misinformed opinions, which increase the risk of HIV transmission. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the determinant factors among different socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting misconceptions about HIV transmission among ever-married women in Bangladesh. Data and necessary information of 9,272 ever-married women were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Three types of misconceptions were considered. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were used as the statistical tools to determine the factors affecting misconceptions about HIV transmission. The results revealed that misconceptions are more prevalent among women who are older, less educated, have husbands who are less educated, live in rural areas, have poor economic conditions, and have less access to mass media. The respondent's age, education, husband's education, place of residence, wealth index, and exposure to mass media are significantly associated with the misconceptions. Finally, logistic regression analysis identified age, education, place of residence, wealth index, and exposure to mass media as significant predictors. Because socioeconomic factors are the key determinants of misconceptions about HIV transmission, intervention programs should be aimed at HIV prevention via education and awareness programs to reduce misconceptions as important parts of the prevention strategy.

  1. Childcare by grandparents in married and cohabiting couples: evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggiolaro, Silvia

    2017-08-07

    The process of union formation and the context of childrearing have profoundly changed with the spread of cohabitation in the last few decades. It is only recently that some attention has been paid to the implications of these changes for family ties. This study considers, with reference to Italy, a specific relationship between individuals in couples and their family of origin - childcare by grandparents. The aim of the paper is twofold. First, we investigate whether children of cohabiting couples are cared for by their grandparents to a lower extent compared to children of married couples. Second, the current study examines whether potential differences decrease over time. The data used are from two rounds of cross-sectional and nationally representative survey conducted in Italy in 2003 and in 2009. Our results show that in 2003 both in the provision and the intensity of grandparents' childcare, children of cohabiting parents were less likely to have their grandparents involved than children of married parents. However, the differences between marriages and cohabitations disappear in recent years. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  2. Interpersonal conflict and referrals to counseling among married soldiers following return from deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Johnson, Ruby E

    2012-10-01

    Deployment represents a significant potential strain on military families. The impact of postdeployment stresses may be increased if family coping resources are diminished by returning service members' physical injuries, mental health issues, or substance abuse. This article examines the health and mental health correlates of self-reported concerns regarding interpersonal conflict among married soldiers following return from deployment and the likelihood that soldiers acknowledging such concerns are referred to counseling services. Among 20,166 married Army soldiers completing Post-Deployment Health Reassessments, 18% reported having experienced serious interpersonal conflict with their spouse, family members, close friends, or coworkers. Results indicate that interpersonal conflict was more common among those who reported health problems, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol abuse. Among soldiers reporting interpersonal conflict and not already receiving services, 11% were referred to service. Findings support the need to communicate with soldiers and their spouses about the availability of services following return from deployment and to continue efforts to reduce stigma associated with seeking treatment.

  3. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Health Literacy Levels of Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiraki, Zeliha; Yılmaz, Medine

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this descriptive and relational study is to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer knowledge and self-efficacy and health literacy levels of married women aged 18-65 years. The study sample consisted of 400 married women (18-65 years old) who presented to a family health center. Independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics; dependent variables were cancer knowledge, self-efficacy, and health literacy level. Of the participants, 67% had a Pap smear. The participants' median knowledge score was 13 (min-max = 1-21). As the age increased, so did the knowledge score (p = 0.001). The secondary school graduates had the lowest knowledge level (p = 0.009). The participants' self-efficacy level was moderate (83.18 ± 7.70). As the educational status increased, so did their self-efficacy. Of the participants, 55.2% had a health literacy level of 7th-8th grade. The health literacy level was lower among the literate, primary school graduate, and advanced-age participants (p = 0.000). Increases in the self-efficacy and health literacy levels of the participants positively affected their knowledge status. The participants' cervical cancer and Pap smear screening knowledge levels increased as their self-efficacy levels increased. The literate or primary school graduate participants had the self-efficacy and health literacy levels.

  4. Empowerment, partner's behaviours and intimate partner physical violence among married women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwagala, Betty; Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen

    2013-12-01

    There is dearth of knowledge and research about the role of empowerment, partners' behaviours and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) among married women in Uganda. This paper examined the influence of women's empowerment and partners' behaviours on IPPV among married women in Uganda. The 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used, selecting a weighted sample of 1,307 women in union considered for the domestic violence module. Cross tabulations (chi-square tests) and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPPV. The prevalence of IPPV among women in union in Uganda is still high (41%). Women's occupation was the only measure of empowerment that was significantly associated with IPPV, where women in professional employment were less likely to experience IPPV. Women from wealthy households were less likely to experience IPPV. IPPV was more likely to be reported by women who had ever had children and witnessed parental IPPV. IPPV was also more likely to be reported by women whose husbands or partners: accused them of unfaithfulness, did not permit them to meet female friends, insisted on knowing their whereabouts and sometimes or often got drunk. Women who were afraid their partners were also more likely to report IPPV. In the Ugandan context, women's empowerment as assessed by the UDHS has limited mitigating effect on IPPV in the face of partners' negative behaviours and history of witnessing parental violence.

  5. Empowerment, partner’s behaviours and intimate partner physical violence among married women in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is dearth of knowledge and research about the role of empowerment, partners’ behaviours and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) among married women in Uganda. This paper examined the influence of women’s empowerment and partners’ behaviours on IPPV among married women in Uganda. Methods The 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used, selecting a weighted sample of 1,307 women in union considered for the domestic violence module. Cross tabulations (chi-square tests) and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPPV. Results The prevalence of IPPV among women in union in Uganda is still high (41%). Women’s occupation was the only measure of empowerment that was significantly associated with IPPV, where women in professional employment were less likely to experience IPPV. Women from wealthy households were less likely to experience IPPV. IPPV was more likely to be reported by women who had ever had children and witnessed parental IPPV. IPPV was also more likely to be reported by women whose husbands or partners: accused them of unfaithfulness, did not permit them to meet female friends, insisted on knowing their whereabouts and sometimes or often got drunk. Women who were afraid their partners were also more likely to report IPPV. Conclusion In the Ugandan context, women’s empowerment as assessed by the UDHS has limited mitigating effect on IPPV in the face of partners’ negative behaviours and history of witnessing parental violence. PMID:24289495

  6. Individual consequences of having work and family roles simultaneously in Iranian married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Ebadi, Abbas; Mohammadi, Eesa; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Bagherzadeh, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Because of the paucity of studies about the consequences of women's work and family responsibilities in Iran, in the present study the authors used a qualitative approach to begin to provide in-depth answers to the following question: What are the consequences of having work and family responsibilities in Iranian married women? Data were obtained from 29 participants using individual in-depth interviews conducted with 17 participants in addition to two focus groups (n = 6 per group), all conducted in the second half of 2014. All of the participants were Iranian nationals, married, and held a full-time job outside the home. Five main themes were derived from the study: "promotion of self-esteem and social status," "facing difficulties," "effort and dedication," "unfulfilled needs and non-optimal health," and "restless mind." Participants reported achieving a number of advantages for themselves and their families as a result of working outside the home; but, they also had many problems with the potential to impair various health aspects, including physical, reproductive, and mental health. Thus, it is important for Iranian health-care providers to consider the effect of the work-family interference on women.

  7. Development and validation of the Domestic Violence Questionnaire in married women aged 18-55 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indu, P V; Remadevi, S; Vidhukumar, K; Anilkumar, T V; Subha, N

    2011-07-01

    Intimate partner violence against women is seen in all cultures. It has wide-ranging effects on the physical and psychological health of women. In the local language, available questionnaires are either too exhaustive or inadequate to assess domestic violence comprehensively. To develop a Domestic Violence Questionnaire in Malayalam and validate it for married women aged 18-55 years in the local population. Descriptive study - Validation of questionnaire. A 29-item questionnaire, to identify domestic violence over the past 1 year, was developed in the local language, by selecting items from two other questionnaires and based on expert opinion. Item reduction was done after pilot testing. Then, this 25-item questionnaire was administered to 276 married women aged 18-55 years. Reliability and validity were estimated. Factor analysis was done for item reduction. Poor-loading, wrong-loading and cross-loading items were removed from the questionnaire. Taking the subjective perception of the participants regarding themselves experiencing domestic violence as the gold standard, a Receiver Operator Characteristic curve was drawn to decide the cut-off score with optimum sensitivity and specificity. The final questionnaire had 20 items - 13 items for psychological and 7 items for physical violence. Internal consistency reliability was 0.92. At a cut-off score of 5, sensitivity was 89.5% and specificity 87.2%. The Domestic Violence Questionnaire in Malayalam has adequate psychometric properties to identify intimate partner violence against women in the local population.

  8. The Shadow of Silence on the Sexual Rights of Married Iranian Women

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    Roksana Janghorban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent shift in the field of sexual health, representing a move away from biomedical concerns to sexual rights frameworks. However, few studies on sexuality are based on a rights framework. The unspoken nature of sexuality in Iranian culture has led to a lack of national studies on the topic. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of married Iranian women on sexual rights in their sexual relationships. In this grounded theory study, 37 participants (25 married women, 5 husbands, and 7 midwives were selected. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed through open, axial, and selective coding using MAXQDA software version 2007. The analysis revealed the core category of “sexual interaction in the shadow of silence.” The interrelated categories subsumed under the core category included adopting a strategy of silence, trying to negotiate sex, seeking help, and sexual adjustment. The silence originating from women’s interactions with their families and society, from girlhood to womanhood, was identified as the core concept in Iranian women’s experiences of sexual rights. A focus on husbands’ roles seems salient because they can direct or alter some learned feminine roles, especially silence regarding sexual matters, which then affects the realization of women’s sexual rights.

  9. Determinants of Early Marriage from Married Girls’ Perspectives in Iranian Setting: A Qualitative Study

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    Simin Montazeri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early marriage is a worldwide problem associated with a range of health and social consequences for teenage girls. Designing effective health interventions for managing early marriage needs to apply the community-based approaches. However, it has received less attention from policymakers and health researchers in Iran. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore determinants of early marriage from married girls’ perspectives. The study was conducted from May 2013 to January 2015 in Ahvaz, Iran. A purposeful sampling method was used to select fifteen eligible participants. Data were collected through face-to-face, semistructured interviews and were analyzed using the conventional content analysis approach. Three categories emerged from the qualitative data including “family structure,” “Low autonomy in decision-making,” and “response to needs.” According to the results, although the participants were not ready to get married and intended to postpone their marriage, multiple factors such as individual and contextual factors propelled them to early marriage. Given that early marriage is a multifactorial problem, health care providers should consider a multidimensional approach to support and empower these vulnerable girls.

  10. Evaluation of Relationship Between Mental Health and Marital Satisfaction in Male Married Students

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    Forogh Riahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Marital satisfaction is a multidimensional concept and depends on many factors including general health. As educated males have an effective role in the productive activities, it is essential to present some appropriate perspectives in the field of their mental health and marital satisfaction. Objectives The current study aimed at investigating the association between mental health and marital satisfaction in married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Methods The study sample consisted of 100 married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences selected through the convenience sampling method. The data were gathered using the ENRICH marital satisfaction inventory and the general health questionnaire, and analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient by SPSS version 16. Results In 25% of the subjects, scores of physical function was higher than the cutoff point.The anxiety, social function, depression, and general health scores of 30%, 45%, 19%, and 44% of the subjects were higher than the cutoff point, respectively. There was significant association between marital satisfaction of the students and physical symptoms (r = -0.51, anxiety (r = -0.49, social performance (r = -0.34, depression (r = -0.33, and total score of mental health (r = -0.53. Conclusions Prevention and intervention efforts can focus on how mental health problems can trigger interpersonal relationship and vice versa.

  11. Son preference and sterilization use among young married women in two slums in Bengaluru city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmeades, Jeffrey; Pande, Rohini Prabha; Falle, Tina; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which women’s sterilisation decisions are influenced by the combination of a preference for male children and a desire for smaller family size among young married women in two urban slums in Bengaluru, India. While both son preference and an emphasis on sterilisation are well-known demographic characteristics of most south-Asian countries, relatively little research has been conducted that links the two. We take advantage of a longitudinal survey of 416 unsterilised married women aged 16–25 to explore how having sons and the number of children influence a woman’s sterilisation decision. Discrete-time event-history techniques are used to estimate two models: the first examines the effect of having sons and number of children separately, and the second examines them in combination in the form of an interaction. The results suggest sterilization is motivated by son preference mainly at lower parities (three or fewer children) and by concerns about family size at higher parities. Understanding how sterilisation and other reproductive behaviours are influenced by the interaction of family size and sex preferences will help policymakers and programmers to meet the needs of women while continuing to address discriminatory behaviour against females. PMID:21218299

  12. Determinants of Early Marriage from Married Girls' Perspectives in Iranian Setting: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Simin; Gharacheh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Alaghband Rad, Javad; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Early marriage is a worldwide problem associated with a range of health and social consequences for teenage girls. Designing effective health interventions for managing early marriage needs to apply the community-based approaches. However, it has received less attention from policymakers and health researchers in Iran. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore determinants of early marriage from married girls' perspectives. The study was conducted from May 2013 to January 2015 in Ahvaz, Iran. A purposeful sampling method was used to select fifteen eligible participants. Data were collected through face-to-face, semistructured interviews and were analyzed using the conventional content analysis approach. Three categories emerged from the qualitative data including "family structure," "Low autonomy in decision-making," and "response to needs." According to the results, although the participants were not ready to get married and intended to postpone their marriage, multiple factors such as individual and contextual factors propelled them to early marriage. Given that early marriage is a multifactorial problem, health care providers should consider a multidimensional approach to support and empower these vulnerable girls.

  13. ‘It is not expected for married couples’: a qualitative study on challenges to safer sex communication among polygamous and monogamous partners in southeastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtenga, Sally Mmanyi; Geubbels, Eveline; Tanner, Marcel; Merten, Sonja; Pfeiffer, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    Background Behavioral change approaches for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in Tanzania encourage married partners to observe safe sex practices (condom use, avoidance of, or safe sex with multiple partners). To implement this advice, partners need to communicate with each other about safer sex, which is often challenging. Although social-structural factors are crucial in understanding sexual behavior, only a few studies focus on understanding safer sex dialogue in a broader social context. Design Drawing on the WHO-Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (WHO-CSDH) framework, this study explored key social-structural constructs for studying health in the context of improving safer sex dialogue between polygamous and monogamous partners. Twenty-four in-depth interviews (IDIs) and six focus group discussions (FGDs) with 38 men and women aged 18–60 years were conducted in Ifakara town located in Kilombero district, Tanzania. The study was nested within the community health surveillance project MZIMA (Kiswahili: ‘being healthy’). Partners’ experiences of safer sex dialogue in polygamous and monogamous relations were investigated and the challenges to safer sex dialogue explored. Results The study revealed that open safer sex dialogue in marriage is limited and challenged by social norms about marriage (a view that safer sex dialogue imply that partners are ‘not really’ married); marital status (a belief that safer sex dialogue is not practical in polygamous marriages, the elder wife should be exempted from the dialogue since she is at lower risk of engaging in extramarital affairs); relationship quality (marital conflicts, extramarital affairs, trust, and sexual dissatisfaction); and gender power relations (the notion that females’ initiative to discuss condom use and HIV couple counseling and testing may lead to conflict or divorce). Conclusions Implementing safer sex practices requires interventions beyond promotion messages. HIV

  14. ‘It is not expected for married couples’: a qualitative study on challenges to safer sex communication among polygamous and monogamous partners in southeastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Mmanyi Mtenga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behavioral change approaches for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention in Tanzania encourage married partners to observe safe sex practices (condom use, avoidance of, or safe sex with multiple partners. To implement this advice, partners need to communicate with each other about safer sex, which is often challenging. Although social-structural factors are crucial in understanding sexual behavior, only a few studies focus on understanding safer sex dialogue in a broader social context. Design: Drawing on the WHO-Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (WHO-CSDH framework, this study explored key social-structural constructs for studying health in the context of improving safer sex dialogue between polygamous and monogamous partners. Twenty-four in-depth interviews (IDIs and six focus group discussions (FGDs with 38 men and women aged 18–60 years were conducted in Ifakara town located in Kilombero district, Tanzania. The study was nested within the community health surveillance project MZIMA (Kiswahili: ‘being healthy’. Partners’ experiences of safer sex dialogue in polygamous and monogamous relations were investigated and the challenges to safer sex dialogue explored. Results: The study revealed that open safer sex dialogue in marriage is limited and challenged by social norms about marriage (a view that safer sex dialogue imply that partners are ‘not really’ married; marital status (a belief that safer sex dialogue is not practical in polygamous marriages, the elder wife should be exempted from the dialogue since she is at lower risk of engaging in extramarital affairs; relationship quality (marital conflicts, extramarital affairs, trust, and sexual dissatisfaction; and gender power relations (the notion that females’ initiative to discuss condom use and HIV couple counseling and testing may lead to conflict or divorce. Conclusions: Implementing safer sex practices requires interventions beyond promotion

  15. [What worries Hungarian men? Characteristics of masculine gender role stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susánszky, Anna; Susánszky, Eva; Kopp, Mária

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of stress associated with male gender role and its relationship to health and to risk behaviours among Hungarian men. The present analysis is based on data of the Hungarostudy 2006 survey. Forty-one percent of the participants were men. Eighty nine percent of the male respondents completed the Eisler-Skidmore Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale; data of 1764 persons were analyzed. Anxiety about sexual performance, breadwinner role, and appearance (i.e. tradition factor) causes a much greater burden of stress than anxiety about changing gender relationships (i.e. modernization factor). With the increase of age, stress caused by traditional role expectations significantly decreases; tensions caused by women's dominance and by situations which demand emotional response and empathy are the highest among middle aged men. Traditional gender role stress is more prevalent among pensioners than among economically active men; stress caused by the modernization of masculine gender role particularly afflicts unemployed men. Married men are to the least extent troubled by female dominance and difficulties in expressing emotions. Of the two dimensions analyzed here (tradition and modernization) only the values on the tradition factor were related to health status, psychological wellbeing, and frequency of smoking. Modernization of gender roles represents only a small--if any--stressor in the life of Hungarian men; on the other hand, unsuccessful adaptation to traditional role expectations highly increases the burden of stress and is closely related to smoking.

  16. Changing norms about gender inequality in education: Evidence from Bangladesh

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    Niels-Hugo Blunch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While norms are important for educational attainment, especially in the developing world, there are relatively few studies on this topic. This paper, which explores attitudes toward gender equality in education among Bangladeshis, should therefore be of interest to both academics and policymakers. Objective: In this paper, we seek to identify which factors affect the norms regarding the education of girls and boys, as well as of women and men, across two cohorts of married women in Bangladesh. In particular, we look at the relative importance of an individual woman's own educational background and those of her spouse and other family members in shaping her attitudes toward gender equality in education. Methods: We analyze a rich household dataset for Bangladesh from the World Bank Survey on Gender Norms in Bangladesh, which was conducted in 2006. We use linear probability models to examine the determinants of gender education norms. We also decompose the intergenerational gender norms gap using the Oaxaca-Blinder composition (total and detailed, taking into account several technical issues related to the computation of standard errors and the use of dummy variables in detailed decompositions. Results: Education norms were found to differ substantially across cohorts, with women from the younger cohort expressing far more positive views than older female respondents regarding education for both girls and women. The effect of education on norms could be found among both the respondents and their husbands, as well as among the older women in the household. This suggests that educational norms are shared both within married couples and across generations. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the far-reaching changes in female education in Bangladesh have had equally far-reaching effects on the perceived value of education for girls relative to education for boys.

  17. Gender inequality : Behind maternal mortality in Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia: Towards a gender audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaluchu, F.

    2018-01-01

    Singling out Nias Island in North Sumatra Indonesia as the research location, this research attempts to analyze local aspects pertaining to gender inequality in the context of maternal health in Indonesia. This research aims to portray the presence of gender inequality in Nias, and how it affects

  18. Gender, Social Networks, and Stroke Preparedness in the Stroke Warning Information and Faster Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Tracy E; Roberts, Eric T; Kuczynski, Heather; Goldmann, Emily; Parikh, Nina S; Boden-Albala, Bernadette

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on the association between social networks and stroke preparedness as measured by emergency department (ED) arrival within 3 hours of symptom onset. As part of the Stroke Warning Information and Faster Treatment study, baseline data on demographics, social networks, and time to ED arrival were collected from 1193 prospectively enrolled stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients at Columbia University Medical Center. Logistic regression was conducted with arrival to the ED ≤3 hours as the outcome, social network characteristics as explanatory variables, and gender as a potential effect modifier. Men who lived alone or were divorced were significantly less likely to arrive ≤3 hours than men who lived with a spouse (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: .31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .15-0.64) or were married (aOR: .45, 95% CI: .23-0.86). Among women, those who lived alone or were divorced had similar odds of arriving ≤3 hours compared with those who lived with a spouse (aOR: 1.25, 95% CI: .63-2.49) or were married (aOR: .73, 95% CI: .4-1.35). In patients with stroke/TIA, living with someone or being married improved time to arrival in men only. Behavioral interventions to improve stroke preparedness should incorporate gender differences in how social networks affect arrival times. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender and Women's Reproductive Health

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    Aygul Akyuz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: According to the “rights to equality” in reproductive and sexual rights, “no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status” In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are responsible for the provision of services to individuals equally and should maintain equality rights. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of gender on the reproductive health of women and utilization of reproductive health services. METHODS: The study population consisted of 250 married women at their reproductive ages of 15 to 49, who applied to the obstetrics and gynecology service of a university hospital and a gynecology clinic of a training hospital dedicated to obstetrics and gynecology between 1 February 2007 and 30 April 2007. The data collection form was developed by researchers after evaluation of the relevant literature which relevance of gender discrimination could show where the questions. RESULTS: 52% of Women’ have graduated from primary school. Education levels of women with men (her husband between level of education is statistically significant difference, and women were receive less education than men (her husband (²=34.231, p<0.001. The study was determined that women who received training secondary school and above, worked and decision maker to domestic that they get prenatal care of a high percentage and deliver their babies in the hospital with the aid of a health care professional, and they go to medical center from gynecological problems and they need to obtain permission from their husbands in order to seek aid at a medical center of a low percentage (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Women's reproductive health, gender discrimination status

  20. Gender and Behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender ...

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of contraceptive discontinuation and switching among Bangladeshi married women of reproductive age

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    Mahumud RA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashidul Alam Mahumud,1 Md Golam Hossain,2 Abdur Razzaque Sarkar,1 Md Nurul Islam,2 Md Ripter Hossain,2 Aik Saw,3 Jahangir AM Khan1,4 1Health Economics and Financing Research Group, Center for Equity and Health Systems, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence for Research and Learning, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Adjunct Faculty, Health Economics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Contraceptive discontinuation is a worldwide incident that may be connected with low incentive to avoid pregnancy. Contraceptive discontinuation highly contributes to unplanned pregnancy and unwanted births.Objectives: The objective of this study was to observe the prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive methods among Bangladeshi married women. In addition, the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive discontinuation and switching were assessed.Methods: Secondary cross-sectional data was used in this study. A total of 16,273 married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age (15–49 years were considered in the present study, from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. Logistic regression models were used to determine the relationships between key sociodemographic factors and user status.Results: The prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive method among women were 38.4% and 15.4%, respectively. The logistic regression model demonstrated that women in early reproductive years (25–29 years and 30–34 years significantly more often (odds ratio [OR] =0.84 and 0.71, respectively discontinued use of contraceptives. Significantly higher rates of discontinuation were pronounced among women who

  2. Wealth, wages and wedlock : Explaining the college gender gap reversal

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    Reijnders, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    We study the role of changes in the wage structure and expectations about marriage in explaining the college gender gap reversal. With strongly diminishing marginal utility of wealth and in the presence of a gender wage gap, single women have a greater incentive than single men to invest in

  3. Sexual and Reproductive Health Education Needs, Gender Roles Attitudes and Acceptance of Couple Violence According to Engaged Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fusun; Kok, Gulsah; Guvenc, Gulten; Ozdemir, Funda; Gonenc, Ilknur Munevver; Hicyilmaz, Basak Demirtas; Sezer, Neslihan Yılmaz

    2018-04-01

    This descriptive study was aimed to evaluate the attitudes of the engaged men and women who are of legal age to marry towards gender roles and acceptance of couple violence, and determine their sexual/reproductive health education needs. It was conducted in two marriage registry offices in Ankara, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 740 participants. Data were collected by using semi-structured form, Gender Roles Attitude Scale and Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale. It was found that the engaged couples had educational needs concerning sexual/reproductive health; socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, residence, and income level created significant differences in the attitudes related to accepting gender roles and violence; and having an egalitarian attitude towards gender roles decreased the rate of accepting violence between the couples. Results indicate that premarital counseling is a promising strategy to support engaged couples' sexual/reproductive health needs, and increase their awareness about gender based couple violence in communities.

  4. Sexual dysfunction among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong: prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-03-01

    Although female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a serious public health issue endangering women's well-being, systematic research on FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese women in Hong Kong is quite scarce. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences of FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong. This study was based on a community-based survey across Hong Kong conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong in 2012 with 1,518 married women aged 21-49 years. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition classification was adopted to assess FSD. It was found that 25.6% of the married women surveyed reported at least one form of sexual dysfunction and that the prevalence of six domains of sexual dysfunction was as follows: 10.6% for lack of interest in sex, 10.5% for not finding sex pleasurable, 9.3% for lubrication difficulties, 8.8% for inability to achieve orgasm, 8.8% for orgasm delay, and 8.4% for physical pain during sex. Multivariate analyses showed that low education and income, average or poor health, lower frequency of sex, abortion history, traditional attitudes toward sex, and marital dissatisfaction are all significant risk factors for different components of FSD. It was also been found that four domains of FSD (the exceptions being orgasm delay and physical pain during sex) have severe consequences for married women's life satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. The prevalence of FSD is lower among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong than among women in the United States and some Asian countries. The risk factors associated with FSD include sociodemographic factors, physical health, sexual experience and attitudes, and relationship factors. FSD has significant consequences for married women's life quality. These findings have great implications for FSD prevention and relevant service delivery. © 2014 International Society for Sexual

  5. "Who am I? Where am I?" Experiences of married young women in a slum in Islamabad, Pakistan

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    Johansson Eva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, 16% of the women aged 15–19 years are married. Many get married shortly after they attain menarche. This study explores the preparedness for and actual experiences of married life (inter-spousal relationship, sexual activity and pregnancy among adolescent women. Methods Among married adolescent women residing in a slum of Islamabad ten were selected with the help of a community health worker and interviewed qualitatively till saturation was reached. They were interviewed three times at different occasions. Narrative structuring was used to explore how the participants represented their background, social situation, decision making and spousal communication and how they explained, understood and managed married life and bore children. Results Two categories identifying the respondents as either submissive-accepting or submissive-victims emerged. The married young women who belonged to the accepting group lived under compromised conditions but described themselves as satisfied with their situation. They were older than the other group identifying themselves as victims. However, none of the respondents felt prepared for marriage. Women belonging to the victimized group experienced physical and verbal abuse for their inability to cope with the duties of a wife, caretaker of the home and bearer of children. Their situation was compounded by the power dynamics within the household. Conclusion Knowledge about sexuality could prepare them better for the future life and give them more control of their fertility. Adolescent development and life skills education need to be addressed at a national level. There is need for innovative interventions to reach out and provide support to young women in disadvantaged homes.

  6. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

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    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the basic principles of gender philosophy applying methodological tools of communicative pragmatics; to demonstrate how gender construct can provide gender humanism formation as one of the ideals of democratic society; to specify gender glossary terms such as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice”. Methodology. In order to investigate a theoretical framework in feminist philosophy, methodological tools of communicative pragmatics and discursive ethics that were elaborated by modern German philosophers J. Habermas, K.-O. Apel for analyzing ethical gender principles and their legitimation ways have been used in this research. Scientific novelty. Based on methodological differences in concepts of J. Habermas and K.-O. Apel, two opposite approaches to gender concept analysis – rational and pragmatic (Habermas and transcendental conceptual (K.-O. Apel have been found out. The article helps to specify the framework of categories and concepts. According to the legitimation way of gender ethical theory it was discovered that such notions as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice” do not have the same meanings. According to the analysis of communicative action program and consensus, the “gender equality” concept by Habermas is an artificial social construct that is methodologically grounded in cognitivism and diminishes the possibilities of gender values legitimation. According to K.-O. Apel, the concept of “gender justice” is based on transcendental moral and ethical sense of opposite genders unity and does not discharge unequal distribution of responsibilities and any invasion as well as represents certain extent of their difference. Conclusions. Fast growing gender changes in the society face ageold drawbacks of moral and spiritual principles of communities, taking into account social and cultural, national and gender identity. Thorough understanding of

  7. Gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence among South African adults.

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    Gass, Jesse D; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-09-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, the authors examine data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis include (a) demographic factors, (b) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders), and (c) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are high among both genders, women are significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence are similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men are more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women are more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration include exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators are more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult-onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators include low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence is witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims are low income and lack of closeness to a primary female

  8. Domestic violence among ever married women of reproductive age group in a slum area of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Abhik; Mallik, Sarmila; Sanyal, Debasish; Dasgupta, Samir; Pal, Dipak; Mukherjee, Anindya

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence has serious impact on women's health and well-being. A nationwide survey conducted in India observed that 37.2% of women experienced violence after marriage. To assess the prevalence of domestic violence among the ever married women in reproductive age group and to find out the types of domestic violence and factors associated with it. The study was a community based cross-sectional study, conducted in a slum area of Kolkata. Overall prevalence of domestic violence was 54%, of which 41.9% suffered from both current and lifetime physical and psychological violence. Presence of property, higher per capita income and social support were protective factors against domestic violence, whereas alcohol addiction and multiple sex partners were the important contributory factors for it. The study recommended more social support, awareness and income generation for women in the slum areas.

  9. Predicting sexual infidelity in a population-based sample of married individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Chatav, Yael

    2007-06-01

    Predictors of 12-month prevalence of sexual infidelity were examined in a population-based sample of married individuals (N = 2,291). Predictor variables were organized in terms of involved-partner (e.g., personality, religiosity), marital (e.g., marital dissatisfaction, partner affair), and extradyadic (e.g., parenting) variables. Annual prevalence of infidelity was 2.3%. Controlling for marital dissatisfaction and demographic variables, infidelity was predicted by greater neuroticism and lower religiosity; wives' pregnancy also increased the risk of infidelity for husbands. In comparison, self-esteem and partners' suspected affair were predictive of infidelity when controlling for demographic variables but were not uniquely predictive of infidelity when also controlling for marital dissatisfaction. Religiosity and wives' pregnancy moderated the association between marital dissatisfaction and infidelity.

  10. Informal Care and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From Chinese Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Na; Fan, Hongli; Coyte, Peter C

    2015-10-16

    Data were used from the 1991-2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the influence of informal care on labor market outcomes for married women of working aged, with emphasis on caregiving intensity. After accounting for potential endogeneity between caregiving and labor force participation (LFP) through simultaneous equations modeling, caregivers who provided more than 15 or 20 hr of caregiving per week were 4.5-7.7% less likely to be LFPs. Intensive caregivers who remained working had significantly lower (4.97-7.20) weekly hours of work. The significant positive effect of informal care on LFP only existed in the rural sample, and these women also had much lower hours of work than their urban counterparts. Opportunities exist for policy interventions that target intensive caregivers in order to allow them to balance both work and caregiving. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Occupational Skills and Labour Market Progression of Married Immigrant Women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adserà, Alícia; Ferrer, Ana

    2016-04-01

    We use the confidential files of the 1991-2006 Canadian Census, combined with information from O*NET on the skill requirements of jobs, to explore whether immigrant women behave as secondary workers, remaining marginally attached to the labour market and experiencing little career progression over time. Our results show that the current labour market patterns of female immigrants to Canada do not fit this profile, as previous studies found, but rather conform to patterns recently exhibited by married native women elsewhere, with rising participation and wage progression. At best, only relatively uneducated immigrant women in unskilled occupations may fit the profile of secondary workers, with slow skill mobility and low-status job-traps. Educated immigrant women, on the other hand, experience skill assimilation over time: a reduction in physical strength and an increase in analytical skills required in their jobs relative to those of natives.

  12. Mothering and acculturation: experiences during pregnancy and childrearing of Filipina mothers married to Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uayan, Maria Luisa Tumandao; Kobayashi, Sayuri; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Haruna, Megumi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2009-06-01

    This study aims to describe the lived experiences of Filipina mothers married to Japanese during pregnancy and childrearing. Eight focus group interviews (FGI) were conducted among 39 Filipino mothers who are currently residing in Japan to obtain significant information with regard to their pregnancy and childrearing experiences. Content analysis was used to extract relevant themes that will describe the experiences of this group of migrant mothers. The findings revealed three major themes: 1) cultural barriers during pregnancy and childrearing; 2) mothering at the different stages of childrearing; and 3) positive adjustments to a new role in a new environment. The establishment of means of communication with migrant mothers effectively enabling them to understand important information for promoting healthy pregnancy and childrearing is strongly recommended. Provision of school information in the English language and enhancing the resilient character of the Filipina are important strategies in promoting positive pregnancy and childrearing experiences among Filipina migrant mothers.

  13. Gender fairness within the Force Concept Inventory

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    Adrienne Traxler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the test structure of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI has largely ignored gender, and research on FCI gender effects (often reported as “gender gaps” has seldom interrogated the structure of the test. These rarely crossed streams of research leave open the possibility that the FCI may not be structurally valid across genders, particularly since many reported results come from calculus-based courses where 75% or more of the students are men. We examine the FCI considering both psychometrics and gender disaggregation (while acknowledging this as a binary simplification, and find several problematic questions whose removal decreases the apparent gender gap. We analyze three samples (total N_{pre}=5391, N_{post}=5769 looking for gender asymmetries using classical test theory, item response theory, and differential item functioning. The combination of these methods highlights six items that appear substantially unfair to women and two items biased in favor of women. No single physical concept or prior experience unifies these questions, but they are broadly consistent with problematic items identified in previous research. Removing all significantly gender-unfair items halves the gender gap in the main sample in this study. We recommend that instructors using the FCI report the reduced-instrument score as well as the 30-item score, and that credit or other benefits to students not be assigned using the biased items.

  14. Gender fairness within the Force Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Adrienne; Henderson, Rachel; Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay; Papak, Alexis; Lindell, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Research on the test structure of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has largely ignored gender, and research on FCI gender effects (often reported as "gender gaps") has seldom interrogated the structure of the test. These rarely crossed streams of research leave open the possibility that the FCI may not be structurally valid across genders, particularly since many reported results come from calculus-based courses where 75% or more of the students are men. We examine the FCI considering both psychometrics and gender disaggregation (while acknowledging this as a binary simplification), and find several problematic questions whose removal decreases the apparent gender gap. We analyze three samples (total Npre=5391 , Npost=5769 ) looking for gender asymmetries using classical test theory, item response theory, and differential item functioning. The combination of these methods highlights six items that appear substantially unfair to women and two items biased in favor of women. No single physical concept or prior experience unifies these questions, but they are broadly consistent with problematic items identified in previous research. Removing all significantly gender-unfair items halves the gender gap in the main sample in this study. We recommend that instructors using the FCI report the reduced-instrument score as well as the 30-item score, and that credit or other benefits to students not be assigned using the biased items.

  15. Domestic Violence as a Risk Factor for Attempted Suicide in Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indu, Pankajakshan Vijayanthi; Remadevi, Sivaraman; Vidhukumar, Karunakaran; Shah Navas, Peer Mohammed; Anilkumar, Thekkethayyil Viswanathan; Subha, Nanoo

    2017-08-01

    High rates of suicide attempts and domestic violence (DV) in women of reproductive age group have been reported from South India, but the association between them was not studied. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess whether DV is a risk factor for attempted suicide in married women of reproductive age group. A hospital-based case-control study with 77 incident cases of attempted suicide in married women of the age group of 18 to 45 years and 153 controls belonging to the same age group, without history of suicide attempt, was undertaken over a period of 6 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done. The crude odds ratio (cOR) for DV was found to be 6.15 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = [2.95, 12.82], p value = .0001). Other statistically significant risk factors included younger age group (below 30 years); gross family income > Rs. 5,000; higher occupational status of spouse; having poor social support; having a family history of psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and suicide/suicide attempt; higher impulsiveness scores; having higher scores of stressful life events over the past 12 months, and alcohol use disorder in husband. Islamic faith was found to be a significant protective factor. On logistic regression, DV was found to be an independent risk factor for attempted suicide in this study population (adjusted OR = 3.79, 95% CI = [1.35, 10.62], p value = .011). Age groups, stressful life events, impulsiveness, and alcohol use disorder in husband were the confounders adjusted for in logistic regression along with other significant risk and protective factors. Significant dose-response relationship was also observed between DV and attempted suicide. In accordance with the stress-diathesis model for suicidal behavior, DV is found to be a stressor which precipitates suicide attempt in those with diathesis like family history of psychiatric disorders. Clinical, research, and policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AND RTI AMONG EVER-MARRIED WOMEN IN RURAL SLUM

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    Sadhana Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Considering huge burden of RTI across community based study settings- either iatrogenic or endogenous and not necessarily sexually transmitted, menstrual hygiene practices by reproductive age group women have documented evidence of being a key determinant/ predictor of RTI and bear causal association with key Socio-demographic attributes. This is more so in view of vulnerability to health risk, access to treatment and reduced economical choice for a marginal & disadvantaged population like the ‘in-migrants/itinerants. Objectives: 1. To study menstrual hygiene practices of ever-married ‘in-migrant’ women from Dehradun as a key determinant of reproductive health needs. 2. To establish causal association between menstrual hygiene practices and (i key socio-demographic attributes & (ii RTI. Methodology: An observational (cross-sectional study was designed with a probability sample from 5033 ever-married women from 06 ‘make-shift settlements’/slums along immediate precincts i.e 50 meters into the mainland from the banks of rivers ‘Chandrabhaga’, ‘Ganga’, ‘Song’ and ‘Rispana’- all in the district of Dehradun. Result& Conclusion: The present study findings revealed that as key determinant of reproductive health needs, menstrual hygiene practices of the study population bore significant statistical association with their (i literacy status or education (ii religion (iii key reproductive tract infection symptoms and (iv socio-economic status. The findings reinforced the felt need to address knowledge, attitude and practices of the disadvantaged study population by appropriate behaviour change communication, build community & provider capacity and strategies to deliver services at such resource - poor setting keeping in view the four A’s of primary health care.

  17. Married Men’s Involvement in Family Planning – A Study from Coastal Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    B, Unnikrishnan; Mithra, Prasanna P; Kumar, Nithin; Holla, Ramesh; Raina, Vishal; Hashim, Hisham; Singh, Prakhar

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the years, India has emerged as one of the most populous countries in the world, next only to China. Unregulated fertility can compromise the economic development and political stability of a country. Family planning was always thought to be a woman’s prerogative, especially in a male dominant society like India. Consequently, most of the studies on family planning focused on women as the subject of interest. Purpose To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of family planning amongst men who have been married for at least five years. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the teaching hospitals of Kasturba Medical College (Manipal University), Mangalore; India among 156 men who had been married for at least five years. They were selected using non-random sampling method and were interviewed using a pretested semi structured validated questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Results Overall, 75.6% were aged between 26 and 34 years, 41.7% had one child, 92.3% subjects from upper and 86.9% from lower socio-economic status were aware about the male family planning services available in the market. Most husbands preferred that their spouse should be sterilized (53.8%). Family planning methods were actively practiced by 71.2 %. Conclusion Most of the studies on family planning have focused mainly on females. This study throws light on the male perspective of family planning. Our study subjects were well aware about various family planning services and their attitude towards family planning was favorable, but the number of men practicing family planning was not high. PMID:26023572

  18. Married Men's Involvement in Family Planning - A Study from Coastal Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Rekha; B, Unnikrishnan; Mithra, Prasanna P; Kumar, Nithin; Holla, Ramesh; Raina, Vishal; Hashim, Hisham; Singh, Prakhar

    2015-04-01

    Over the years, India has emerged as one of the most populous countries in the world, next only to China. Unregulated fertility can compromise the economic development and political stability of a country. Family planning was always thought to be a woman's prerogative, especially in a male dominant society like India. Consequently, most of the studies on family planning focused on women as the subject of interest. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of family planning amongst men who have been married for at least five years. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the teaching hospitals of Kasturba Medical College (Manipal University), Mangalore; India among 156 men who had been married for at least five years. They were selected using non-random sampling method and were interviewed using a pretested semi structured validated questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Overall, 75.6% were aged between 26 and 34 years, 41.7% had one child, 92.3% subjects from upper and 86.9% from lower socio-economic status were aware about the male family planning services available in the market. Most husbands preferred that their spouse should be sterilized (53.8%). Family planning methods were actively practiced by 71.2 %. Most of the studies on family planning have focused mainly on females. This study throws light on the male perspective of family planning. Our study subjects were well aware about various family planning services and their attitude towards family planning was favorable, but the number of men practicing family planning was not high.

  19. Contraceptive practices among married women of reproductive age in Bangladesh: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Fauzia Akhter; Robertson, Yolande; Chowdhuri, Sabiha; Sarker, Bidhan Krishna; Reichenbach, Laura; Somrongthong, Ratana

    2017-06-06

    Bangladesh has experienced a sevenfold increase in its contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in less than forty years from 8% in 1975 to 62% in 2014. However, despite this progress, almost one-third of pregnancies are still unintended which may be attributed to unmet need for family planning and discontinuation and switching of methods after initiation of their use. We conducted an extensive literature review on contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in Bangladesh. A total of 263 articles were identified through database search and after final screening ten articles were included in this synthesis. Findings showed that method discontinuation and switching, method failure, and method mix may offset achievements in the CPR. Most of the women know of at least one contraceptive method. Oral pill is the most widely used (27%) method, followed by injectables (12.4%), condoms (6.4%), female sterilization (4.6%), male sterilization (1.2%), implants (1.7%), and IUDs (0.6%). There has been a decline in the use of long acting and permanent methods over the last two decades. Within 12 months of initiation, the rate of method discontinuation particularly the short-acting methods remain high at 36%. It is important to recognize the trends as married Bangladeshi women, on average, wanted 1.6 children, but the rate of actual children was 2.3. A renewed commitment from government bodies and independent organizations is needed to implement and monitor family planning strategies in order to ensure the adherence to and provision of the most appropriate contraceptive method for couples.

  20. Family planning knowledge, attitude and practice among married couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

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    Tizta Tilahun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from March to May 2010 among 854 married couples using a multi-stage sampling design. Quantitative data based on semi-structured questionnaires was triangulated with qualitative data collected during focus group discussions. We compared proportions and performed logistic regression analysis. RESULT: The concept of family planning was well known in the studied population. Sex-stratified analysis showed pills and injectables were commonly known by both sexes, while long-term contraceptive methods were better known by women, and traditional methods as well as emergency contraception by men. Formal education was the most important factor associated with better knowledge about contraceptive methods (aOR = 2.07, p<0.001, in particular among women (aOR(women = 2.77 vs. aOR(men = 1.49; p<0.001. In general only 4 out of 811 men ever used contraception, while 64% and 43% females ever used and were currently using contraception respectively. CONCLUSION: The high knowledge on contraceptives did not match with the high contraceptive practice in the study area. The study demonstrates that mere physical access (proximity to clinics for family planning and awareness of contraceptives are not sufficient to ensure that contraceptive needs are met. Thus, projects aiming at increasing contraceptive use should contemplate and establish better counseling about contraceptive side effects and method switch. Furthermore in all family planning

  1. Domestic violence and its impact on married women's health in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Zeinab Emam M; Al-Muhaideb, Nouriah S; Hadish, Nina F; Ismail, Faten I; Al-Qeamy, Fatema M

    2011-06-01

    To identify the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Al-Ahsa, and its impact on married women's health. This study is a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted from January to June 2010 in Al-Ahsa oasis in the Eastern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It included 2000 ever-married women, 15-60 years old, and selected by a 2-stage proportionate cluster random sample. Data was gathered through structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 15. The prevalence of lifetime DV was 39.3%, 35.9% for mental, 17.9% for physical, and 6.9% for sexual violence. Lower rates of recent (within one month prior to the interview) violence were encountered, that is: overall (32.7%); mental (29.1%); physical (22.8%); and sexual (11.8%). Eleven percent of women were beaten, and 7% were kicked on the abdomen during pregnancy. Lifetime violence was significantly associated with perceived bad general health, disease, abortion, hemorrhage, and body mass index. Recent violence increased the number of doctor visits, and the odds of feeling dizzy (OR=1.93), vaginal bleeding (OR=1.83), movement and activity problems, pain, taking drugs (OR=1.95), and stress significantly during the last 4 weeks before the interview. A large proportion of women tolerated violence without seeking help (41.4%). Common reactions included complaining to own family, treating the perpetrator violently, and complaining to a friend. We found that DV is prevalent in Al-Ahsa. We recommend awareness programs aiming at educating current and future couples, and proper training of health care providers in assisting the cases of DV.

  2. A national survey of attitudes toward intimate partner violence among married women in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan: Implications for health prevention and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manisha; Childress, Saltanat

    2017-04-01

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) can affect the prevalence of IPV, response of victims' to IPV (e.g., whether to seek help), and the response of professionals (e.g., police, social workers, health care professionals) to IPV. Knowledge about IPV-related attitudes is essential for developing effective social work and violence-related programs. Using data from the 2005-2006 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, this study examines attitudes toward IPV and socio-demographic predictors of these attitudes among married women in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Women were asked whether they approved of a husband beating his wife: if she goes out without telling him, neglects their children, argues, refuses to have sex, and burns food. The prevalence of IPV acceptance for at least one of the five reasons varied from 12.3% in Kazakhstan to 45.3% in Kyrgyzstan and 74.5% in Tajikistan. Women who were less educated, members of Asian ethnic groups, resided in middle-class urban areas, and lived in specific regions were more likely to accept IPV. Few age differences that emerged indicated that young women were more approving of IPV. Proactive efforts are needed to confront attitudes about gender roles and IPV in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

  3. Relative Employment, Gender Beliefs, and Intimate Partner Coercion and Violence Against New Mothers Across Marital and Residential Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Rena C

    2017-06-01

    This research builds on prior studies of intimate partner victimization by examining the impact of women's and men's relative employment, gender traditionalism, and gender distrust on coercive control and physical victimization among married, cohabiting, and noncohabiting couples with infants. It merges feminist approaches that emphasize the gendered meaning of work, power, and violence with prior insights regarding differences in levels of intimate violence across family forms. Specifically, this research recognizes that there is variation across married, cohabiting, and dating contexts in the symbolic meaning of work, the salience of traditionalism, and the tenuous status of relationships that may activate gender distrust in the production of compensatory violence and control. Logistic regression models using baseline and Year 1 Fragile Families and Child Well-Being data ( n = 2,337) indicate that the predictors of coercive control differ across couple types, with the relative odds of coercion higher among couples in which only the woman is employed, but only when cohabiting. Consistent with expectations, men's gender traditionalism increases coercive control, but only in the context of marriage. Relative employment and gender beliefs did not predict physical victimization among any couple types, but a moderating effect of men's gender distrust on women's sole employment was identified, such that status inconsistency in employment increases the relative odds of physical victimization only when the male partner is distrustful of women.

  4. Gender Stereotyping in Family

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    Muhammad Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping and gender role development is one of the debatable concerns to sociologists especially those who are interested in sociology of gender. This study attempts to investigate the role of family inculcating gender stereotyping in Pakhtun culture and its impact on gender role development conducted in public-sector universities of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 24 respondents consisting male and female students and teachers (8 samples from each university through purposive sampling technique was selected from three universities in the region, that is, University of Malakand, University of Swat, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sharingal (main campus. The collected information has been analyzed qualitatively where primary information has been linked with secondary data for further elaboration and attainment of grounded facts. The study reveals that gender stereotyping and gender role formation are sociocultural and relational constructs, which are developed and inculcated in the institutional network, social interaction, and social relationships especially in family. The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation.

  5. Gender scripts and age at marriage in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sonalde; Andrist, Lester

    2010-08-01

    Research on marriage in developing countries has been somewhat narrow in scope because of both conceptual and data limitations. While the feminist literature recognizes marriage as a key institutional site for the production and reproduction of gender hierarchies, little is known about the processes through which this relationship operates. This article uses data from the newly collected India Human Development Survey 2005 for 27,365 ever-married women aged 25-49 to explore ways in which different dimensions of gender in Indian society shape the decisions regarding age at marriage. We explore the impact of three dimensions of gender: (1) economic factors, such as availability of wage employment, dowry expectations, and wedding expenses; (2) indicators offamilial empowerment, such as women s role in household decision making and access to and control over resources; and (3) markers of gender performance, such as observance of purdah and male-female separation in the household. Results from hierarchical linear models confirm the importance of markers of gender performance but fail to demonstrate a large role for economic factors and familial empowerment.

  6. Family-Work Conflict and Type-E Personality as Stress Inducers in Married Female Nigerian University Administrators

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    Shobola, A. A.; Nwoha, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This piece of article is culled from a larger study. The study investigated the relationship between family-work conflict, Type-E personality and stress in married female Nigerian University Administrators. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The sample consisted of 800 female administrators in the senior cadre of executive/administrative…

  7. Exploring the linkage between exposure to mass media and HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Boateng, Godfred O; Kuuire, Vincent Z; Boamah, Sheila; Kwon, Eugena

    2016-01-01

    Although HIV testing is critical to the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, utilization rate of HIV testing services among married women and men remains low in Ghana. Mass media, as a tool to increase overall HIV testing turnouts, has been considered one of the important strategies in promoting and enhancing behavioural changes related to HIV/AIDS prevention. Using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, the current study examines the relationship between levels of exposure to print media, radio, and television and the uptake of HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana. Results show that HIV testing is more prevalent among married women than their male counterparts. We also find that higher levels of exposure to radio is associated with HIV testing among women, while higher levels of exposure to print media and television are associated with HIV testing among men. Implications of these findings are discussed for Ghana's HIV/AIDS strategic framework, which aims to expanding efforts at dealing with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Specifically, it is important for health educators and programme planners to deliver HIV-related messages through television, radio, and print media to increase the uptake of HIV testing particularly among married women and men in Ghana.

  8. Social and Emotional Loneliness Among Divorced and Married Men and Women : Comparing the Deficit and Cognitive Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, Pearl A.; Fokkema, Tineke

    2007-01-01

    Data from the 1998 survey “Divorce in the Netherlands” (N = 2,223) are used to analyze differences in loneliness among divorced and married men and women. The results indicate that it makes sense to distinguish social from emotional loneliness. This is consistent with the deficit perspective, which

  9. Social and emotional loneliness among divorced and married men and women: comparing the deficit and cognitive perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, P.A.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the 1998 survey “Divorce in the Netherlands” (N = 2,223) are used to analyze differences in loneliness among divorced and married men and women. The results indicate that it makes sense to distinguish social from emotional loneliness. This is consistent with the deficit perspective, which

  10. A Study of Gender Performativity in Virginia Woolf’s Orlando: A Mocking Biography

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    Moslehi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at concentrating on Judith Butler’s theory of gender as performance and how Virginia Woolf challenges the assumptions of heterosexuality in Virginia Woolf’s Orlando (1992. Woolf rebels against the traditional view of gender as two separate categories by presenting Orlando as an androgynous and bisexual character. Orlando’s transformation from male to female and exhibition of the characteristics of both feminist and masculinity expose how gender norms are socially instituted. Woolf portrays Orlando’s attraction to both men and women. He/she loves Sasha regardless of what changes her body undergoes, but he/she marries Shelmerdine because he/she is bisexual. Woolf also shows clothing as signifiers of the social construction of gender and how characters flout this convention by using cross dressing.

  11. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection on gender role attitudes?

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    Kana Fuse

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to a noticeable daughter preference over the past few decades. This emergence of daughter preference is surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals' gender preferences are shaped by their gender role attitudes and evaluate whether daughter preference is a reflection of convergence or a persistent divergence in gender roles in Japan. METHODS I use data from the Single Persons subset of the 11th Japanese National Fertility Survey conducted by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research in 1997. Using multinomial logistic regression, I estimate the relationship between Japanese singles' gender role attitudes and their type of gender preference for children. RESULTS Findings suggest that the effect of gender role attitudes on one's child gender preference differs for men and women. Overall, while daughter preference is associated with nontraditional gender role attitudes for men, daughter preference is associated with traditional attitudes for women. CONCLUSIONS Traditionalism is still driving gender preference, though in a different way for men and women. Emerging daughter preference may not simply be a reflection of improvements in women's status, but in fact it is likely that persistent divergence in gender roles remain in Japan.

  12. Gender, Discourse, and "Gender and Discourse."

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    Davis, Hayley

    1997-01-01

    A critic of Deborah Tannen's book "Gender and Discourse" responds to comments made about her critique, arguing that the book's analysis of the relationship of gender and discourse tends to seek, and perhaps force, explanations only in those terms. Another linguist's analysis of similar phenomena is found to be more rigorous. (MSE)

  13. Knowledge and Attitude of Married Women in the Reproductive Age Group Regarding Emergency Contraception in Selected Rural Areas of Udupi District

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    Preethi Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted pregnancy is still a major problem in the modern world despite the widely available contraception services. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge and attitude of married women in the reproductive age group regarding emergency contraception in selected rural areas of Udupi district, India. Material and Methods: The study group comprised of 350 married women in the reproductive age group residing in rural areas of Udupi district, India. A structured questionnaire and an attitude scale were used to assess the knowledge and the attitude. Results: Majority, 69.1% of the married women belonged to Hindu religion, 46.9% had an educational qualification of 10th standard and below. About 13.1% of the married women had undergone abortion. Nearly 96.9% of the married women had heard about emergency contraceptives and only 2% of the married women had used emergency contraceptive pills. About 63.7% out of 339 married women had got information about emergency contraceptive pills from health personnel and about 77.7% from television. Majority 84% had poor knowledge on emergency contraception. About 99.7% had favourable attitude on the use of emergency contraceptives. There was a significant association between knowledge scores and selected variable like education, knowledge and the attitude scores had a correlation. Conclusion: The study identifies the knowledge and attitude of the rural married women regarding emergency contraception, hence to help them to plan future pregnancies and prevent any unwanted or unintended pregnancies.

  14. Levels, trends and reasons for unmet need for family planning among married women in Botswana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letamo, Gobopamang; Navaneetham, Kannan

    2015-03-31

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to estimate the prevalence of unmet need for family planning among married women using Botswana Family Health Survey 2007 data and (2) to identify risk factors for unmet need for family planning among married women. This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to provide a snapshot of health issues in Botswana. Nationally representative population survey data. 2601 married or in union women aged 15-49 years who participated in the 2007 Botswana Family Health Survey were included in the analysis. Unmet need for family planning, which was defined as the percentage of all fecund married women who are not using a method of contraception even though they do not want to get pregnant. Married women who had unmet need for family planning were 9.6% in 2007. Most of the unmet need was for limiting (6.7%) compared to spacing (2.9%). Unmet need for family planning was more likely to be among women whose partners disapproved of family planning, non-Christians, had one partner and had never discussed family planning with their partner. Women of low parity, aged 25-34 years, and greater exposure to mass media, were less likely to have experienced unmet need. The patterns and magnitude of covariates differed between unmet need for limiting and for spacing. The prevalence of unmet need for family planning was low in Botswana compared to other sub-Saharan African countries. The findings from this study reemphasise the importance of women's empowerment and men's involvement in women's sexual and reproductive healthcare needs and services. Different approaches are needed to satisfy the demand for family planning for spacing and limiting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. The mental health of married immigrant women in South Korea and its risk and protective factors: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeeun; Park, Subin

    2018-02-01

    Married immigrant women in South Korea undergo a wide array of psychosocial challenges in the process of adapting to a new culture and marriage with a Korean husband. For an integrative understanding of women's mental health status and to determine the key risk and protective factors, we systematically reviewed empirical articles about the mental health of married immigrant women. We searched and reviewed articles from nine online databases: PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Embase, DBpia, KISS, KMbase, KoreaMed and RISS, which were published up until January 2017. We identified 38 quantitative studies that examined psychiatric symptoms and pertinent factors for this population. The relative risks of psychiatric symptoms among married immigrant women varied across diverse samples. We summarized the associated factors existing prior to and after marriage migration that may moderate their mental health consequences. We identified five key risk factors: acculturative stress, country of origin, family stress, domestic violence and extended family structure, and two protective factors: social support and marriage satisfaction, which were consistently supported by the included studies. With the paucity of prospective studies, longitudinal research is needed that addresses the long-term processes of married immigrant women's psychological adaptation and the underlying risk and protective factors at diverse settlement phases. Furthermore, we suggest that future research should focus on how women's personal attributes interact with macro-level, socio-cultural contexts, including familial relationship and the community social-support system. Future evidence-based policy and interventions should comprehensively address married immigrant women's socio-cultural, economic and mental health needs.

  16. Improved survival for elderly married glioblastoma patients. Better treatment delivery, less toxicity, and fewer disease complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putz, Florian; Goerig, Nicole; Knippen, Stefan; Gryc, Thomas; Semrau, Sabine; Lettmaier, Sebastian; Fietkau, Rainer [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Putz, Tobias [University of Bamberg, Professorship of Demography, Bamberg (Germany); Eyuepoglu, Ilker; Roessler, Karl [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Marital status is a well-described prognostic factor in patients with gliomas but the observed survival difference is unexplained in the available population-based studies. A series of 57 elderly glioblastoma patients (≥70 years) were analyzed retrospectively. Patients received radiotherapy or chemoradiation with temozolomide. The prognostic significance of marital status was assessed. Disease complications, toxicity, and treatment delivery were evaluated in detail. Overall survival was significantly higher in married than in unmarried patients (median, 7.9 vs. 4.0 months; p = 0.006). The prognostic significance of marital status was preserved in the multivariate analysis (HR, 0.41; p = 0.011). Married patients could receive significantly higher daily temozolomide doses (mean, 53.7 mg/m{sup 2} vs. 33.1 mg/m{sup 2}; p = 0.020), were more likely to receive maintenance temozolomide (45.7 % vs. 11.8 %; p = 0.016), and had to be hospitalized less frequently during radiotherapy (55.0 % vs. 88.2 %; p = 0.016). Of the patients receiving temozolomide, married patients showed significantly lower rates of hematologic and liver toxicity. Most complications were infectious or neurologic in nature. Complications of any grade were more frequent in unmarried patients (58.8 % vs. 30.0 %; p = 0.041) with the incidence of grade 3-5 complications being particularly elevated (47.1 % vs. 15.0 %; p = 0.004). We found poorer treatment delivery as well as an unexpected severe increase in toxicity and disease complications in elderly unmarried glioblastoma patients. Marital status may be an important predictive factor for clinical decision-making and should be addressed in further studies. (orig.) [German] Fuer verheiratete Patienten mit malignen Gliomen ist ein verbessertes Gesamtueberleben gut beschrieben. Die zugrunde liegenden Mechanismen konnten bislang jedoch in den verfuegbaren bevoelkerungsbezogenen Arbeiten nicht erklaert werden. Eine Serie von 57 aelteren Patienten mit

  17. Gender-Biased Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ruth Palombo

    2001-01-01

    Looks at how gender shapes the way humans learn from biological and sociological perspectives. Indicates that teachers interact more frequently with males and that trainers should try to overcome gender bias. Suggests that discrimination persists in adult education. (JOW)

  18. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    This research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness and Gender attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to answer the question about the correlation between gender and leadership effectiveness...

  19. The gender divide in urban China: Singlehood and assortative mating by age and education

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Qian; Zhenchao Qian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Chinese media labels highly educated, urban women who are still single in their late 20s as "leftover ladies". We investigate whether indeed highly educated women are less likely to marry than their less-educated counterparts, and how assortative mating patterns by age and education play a role in singleness. Methods: We use data from the urban samples of the Chinese General Social Surveys in the 2000s. In the analysis we calculate marriage rates to examine the likelihood of ent...

  20. The semiotics of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, J

    1992-01-01

    The semiotics of gender are investigated in this article for the purpose of exploring the way that deep unconscious motives in relationship to cultural biases give rise to gender concepts. Theories of semiotic processes, including Jacques Lacan's concept of the psychoanalytic signifier, are explained briefly and applied to the signs of gender. The article concludes that gender concepts develop out of biology, unconscious feelings, and social patterning, and are not given, natural, and irrevocable.

  1. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Spielmann, Christian; Busse, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  2. Delusions of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Overgaard, Anne Cecilie; Nielsen, Simone Barnekow; Joensen, Saskia van Dam; Arabi, Sara Albu

    2015-01-01

    This project strives to examine how gender is established in children. Throughout the project, we have taken into consideration what roles society and biological determinism play in the establishment of gender. Furthermore, the project examines how gender performativity and societal influence can help us get a better picture of the gender establishment. The paper is written as a philosophical discussion with a point of departure in experimental psychologist Cordelia Fine’s book ‘Delusions of ...

  3. Contraceptive use and preferences of young married women in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulaseedharan JV

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jissa Vinoda Thulaseedharan Achutha Menon Center for Health Science Studies (AMCHSS, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST, Trivandrum, Kerala, India Background: As in other states of India, female sterilization is the most widely used contraceptive method in Kerala where women have higher levels of education compared to most other states in India. This paper describes the use and preferences of contraceptive methods among young married women in Trivandrum district, Kerala, India.Subjects and methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out among 203 young married women (18–28 years during January–March 2015 using multistage cluster sampling method. Statistical analysis was mainly descriptive, and chi-squared test was used to test the statistical significance of the relationship between sociodemographic factors and contraceptive use.Results: The average age at marriage for women was 21.3 years, and 23% of women had more than one child. Current use of any contraceptive methods was 58%. Female sterilization was preferred by 13% and it was significantly higher among women aged 25–28 years than in those aged 18–24 years (20% vs 2.6%, p<0.001. Female sterilization was significantly lower among women with higher levels of education than in women with an education level of plus two or below (5.8% vs 19%, p=0.006. Women were mostly in favor of female sterilization (91%, and a significantly lower proportion of highly educated women preferred female sterilization than women with an education of 12 years or below (85% vs 95.7%, p=0.008. Conclusion: A considerable number of females in the age group 25–28-years opting for sterilization and the unique preference for female sterilization when the family size is complete show the predominant reliance on female sterilization among young women. Higher education delays sterilization in young women due to delayed marriage and childbirth. Women

  4. Correlates of unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant married women in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonthorndhada Kusol

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women living in every country, irrespective of its development status, have been facing the problem of unintended pregnancy. Unintended pregnancy is an important public health issue in both developing and developed countries because of its negative association with the social and health outcomes for both mothers and children. This study aims to determine the prevalence and the factors influencing unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant married women in Nepal. Methods This paper reports on data drawn from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS which is a nationally representative survey. The analysis is restricted to currently pregnant married women at the time of survey. Association between unintended pregnancy and the explanatory variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of several independent variables on unintended pregnancy. Results More than two-fifth of the currently pregnant women (41% reported that their current pregnancy was unintended. The results indicate that age of women, age at first marriage, ideal number of children, religion, exposure to radio and knowledge of family planning methods were key predictors of unintended pregnancy. Experience of unintended pregnancy augments with women's age (odds ratio, 1.11. Similarly, increase in the women's age at first marriage reduces the likelihood of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio, 0.93. Those who were exposed to the radio were less likely (odds ratio, 0.63 to have unintended pregnancy compared to those who were not. Furthermore, those women who had higher level of knowledge about family planning methods were less likely to experience unintended pregnancy (odds ratio, 0.60 compared to those having lower level of knowledge. Conclusion One of the important factors contributing to high level of maternal and infant mortality is unintended pregnancy. Programs should aim to reduce

  5. The labor supply and fertility behavior of married women: a three-period model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, E; Nerlove, M

    1981-01-01

    By emphasizing the importance of dividing the family life cycle into various stages for the analysis of fertility and female labor supply, this discussion adds to the literature on female time allocation. This is a period analysis in which the life cycle is divided into 3 stages: the pre-1st birth interval, the childrearing stage, and a final period that begins when all the children have reached school age. As far as is known, this study is the first about life cycle phenomenon in which life cycle stage is distinguished by the presence and age of children. Previous studies represent life cycle stage by age, usually of the mother. The presence and age of children, at least with regard to female labor supply decisions, is considered as a more signifiant indicator of where a family is in its life cycle. A 3-period theoretical model is presented for the analysis of fertility behavior, female investment in human capital, labor supply, and wages. This gives a general framework within which to analyze the interactions among these various aspects of family decision making. Several simplifying assumptions are made in order to reduce the problem to manageable proportions. The focal point of the model is the wife; the possible endogeneity of many of the husband's actions is neglected. Data from the 1973 National Survey of Family Growth were used to examine empirically the determinants of fertility and female work. The sample was restricted in several ways. Only women who were formally married, with at least 1 child, and in the 3rd stage of the life cycle at the time of the survey were considered. All of those cases in which the wife had been married more than once, as well as those in which twins or adopted children were reported, were eliminated. The sample size was 1485. The results show that the influence of exogenous variables on the female labor supply varied substantially among the life cycle stages. The husband's income has no impact on the wife's market work in the

  6. Gender: a battlefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the campaign against gender studies and LGBT rights conducted in France and Italy by the Catholic Church together with traditionalist movements and conservative politicians. They accuse that which they call the "gender theory" of corrupting the youth and undermining the traditional family as well as sexual customs and gender identities.

  7. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  8. Intersectionality, Diversity and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2016-01-01

    In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive......’ debates about gender and diversity within the national and transnational European Polity....

  9. Medical students' gender awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2008-01-01

    Gender awareness in medicine consists of two attitudinal components: gender sensitivity and gender-role ideology. In this article, the development of a scale to measure these attitudes in Dutch medical students is described. After a pilot study and a feasibility study, 393 medical students in The

  10. Language, gender and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić-Antić Jelena B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender studies or gender theories became an integrated part of high education curriculum in majority of countries in the Western Europe. Research in the area of gender studies is a part of various scientific disciplines. Beside sociolinguistics, gender theories are a part of anthropology, sociology, cognitive linguistics and other sciences. The amount of attention and space dedicated to gender studies in Serbia is still quite inadequate, but the number of researchers in various scientific disciplines interested in gender theories increases each day. Informing about the trends and accomplishments in the area of gender studies in general, from a number of works by foreign and domestic authors, the emphasize of research presented in this paper is particularly on the relation between language and gender, as well as on the issue dealing with the integration of gender studies in the university curriculum. The aim of the sociolinguistic qualitative research analyzed herewith, was to investigate in a specific environment and conditions, the genuine attitude of a group of students regarding language and gender disparity in Serbian language, as well as their attitude and interest when it comes to gender studies becoming an integrated part of university curriculum. Having in mind that this group of students does not have a formal knowledge in the area of gender studies, their answers will without a doubt be a product of a specific language ideology and dominant cultural model to which all these young people are being exposed.

  11. The Embryology of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    More than 50 years after the appearance of the term "gender" in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The…

  12. ‘I thought if I marry the prophet I would not die’: The significance of religious affiliation on marriage, HIV testing, and reproductive health practices among young married women in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallfors, Denise Dion; Iritani, Bonita J.; Zhang, Lei; Hartman, Shane; Luseno, Winnie K.; Mpofu, Elias; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examines the association between religious affiliation and reasons for marriage, perceived church attitudes, and reproductive health-seeking behaviors, including HIV testing, among young women in eastern rural Zimbabwe. The sample comprised women (N = 35) who had married by 2012 while participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects of school support on HIV-related risk. The RCT sample was identified in 2007 as all female sixth graders in 25 rural eastern Zimbabwe primary schools whose parents, one or both, had died (N = 328). In our previous RCT analyses, we found that participants who affiliated with an Apostolic church were more than four times more likely to marry than those from non-Apostolic churches and that control group participants were twice as likely to marry as those in the intervention group. Other studies had found that marriage greatly increased the odds of HIV infection among adolescent women. Given the link between Apostolic affiliation and marriage, we conducted semi-structured interviews to explore type of marriage, reasons for marrying, church affiliation and attitudes, family planning, HIV testing, schooling, and family life. We were interested in differences, as perceived by our sample of young married women congregants, among Apostolic sects and other denominations in their attitudes about marriage and health-seeking behaviors. We were also interested in the influence of church affiliation on intervention participants’ decision to marry, since they had comprehensive school support and education is highly valued in Zimbabwe, but costly and often out of financial reach. Interviews were conducted from October 2012 through November 2013; data were analyzed using a general inductive approach. We found that pressure or perceived deception for coitus or marriage was reported only by intervention participants affiliated with Apostolic denominations. Other reasons for marriage were similar between

  13. ‘I thought if I marry the prophet I would not die’: The significance of religious affiliation on marriage, HIV testing, and reproductive health practices among young married women in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dion Hallfors

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the association between religious affiliation and reasons for marriage, perceived church attitudes, and reproductive health-seeking behaviors, including HIV testing, among young women in eastern rural Zimbabwe. The sample comprised women (N = 35 who had married by 2012 while participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT to test the effects of school support on HIV-related risk. The RCT sample was identified in 2007 as all female sixth graders in 25 rural eastern Zimbabwe primary schools whose parents, one or both, had died (N = 328. In our previous RCT analyses, we found that participants who affiliated with an Apostolic church were more than four times more likely to marry than those from non-Apostolic churches and that control group participants were twice as likely to marry as those in the intervention group. Other studies had found that marriage greatly increased the odds of HIV infection among adolescent women. Given the link between Apostolic affiliation and marriage, we conducted semi-structured interviews to explore type of marriage, reasons for marrying, church affiliation and attitudes, family planning, HIV testing, schooling, and family life. We were interested in differences, as perceived by our sample of young married women congregants, among Apostolic sects and other denominations in their attitudes about marriage and health-seeking behaviors. We were also interested in the influence of church affiliation on intervention participants’ decision to marry, since they had comprehensive school support and education is highly valued in Zimbabwe, but costly and often out of financial reach. Interviews were conducted from October 2012 through November 2013; data were analyzed using a general inductive approach. We found that pressure or perceived deception for coitus or marriage was reported only by intervention participants affiliated with Apostolic denominations. Other reasons for marriage were

  14. Relationship between early maladaptive schemas and safe communications in married students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mahmoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemata are patterns or profound themes which include memories, excitements, cognitions and physical emotions which are formed in childhood or adolescence, sustain in journey of life. This study aimed to investigate relationship between early maladaptive schemas and safe communications in students. 226 married students (113 women and 113 men in 23-33 age range were selected and filled young schema questionnaire - short form with 75 items and 14 sub-scales and scale of safe communications including religious attitudes, efforts to improve relations and emotional relationship. Results indicated that there is significant negative relationship between early maladaptive schemas and total score of safe communications. As well as all aspects of early maladaptive schemas (except loss and disease vulnerability and sacrifice have significant negative correlation with emotional relationship aspect and all aspects of early maladaptive schemas (except suffering and sacrifice aspect have significant negative correlation with religious attitude. Moreover, all aspects of early maladaptive schemas (except loss and disease vulnerability and sacrifice have significant negative correlation with effort to improve relations aspect. This study showed that early maladaptive schemas affect safe communications between couples in adulthood.

  15. Unmet need for contraception among married women in an urban area of Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahiya Sulthana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Unmet need for contraception remains a national problem. The study was conducted in an urban area of Puducherry, India, among the eligible couples to assess the unmet need for contraception and to determine the awareness and pattern of use of contraceptives along with the socio-demographic factors associated with the unmet needs for contraception. Methods: This cross-sectional study included eligible couples with married women in age group of 15-45 yr as the study population (n=267. Probability proportional to size sampling followed by systematic random sampling was used. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect data from the respondents. Double data entry and validation of data was done. Results: Unmet need for contraception was 27.3 per cent (95% CI: 22.3-33; unmet need for spacing and limiting was 4.9 and 22.5 per cent, respectively. Among those with unmet need (n=73, 50 per cent reported client related factors (lack of knowledge, shyness, etc.; and 37 per cent reported contraception related factors (availability, accessibility, affordability, side effects as a cause for unmet need. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed a high unmet need for contraception in the study area indicating towards a necessity to address user perspective to meet the contraception needs.

  16. The changing patterns of abortion among married women in China, 1984-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoying; Pang, Lihua; Tellier, Siri; Tan, Lingfang; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Yukun; Wei, Jihong

    2013-01-01

    To identify changing levels and patterns of abortion in China among married women, and the determinants of these changes. Based on data from four nationwide surveys conducted by the Chinese National Population and Family Planning Commission in 1988, 1997, 2001 and 2006, this paper analyzed abortion rates by age, residence, and education. To minimize recall error, only the pregnancy history of the 5-10 years before the survey was used. Overall abortion levels in China fluctuated in the period 1970-1990, but declined markedly after 1991. The profile of women resorting to abortion has shifted from older, rural, less educated women, toward younger, urban, more educated women, at a rate beyond the change in composition of the population as a whole. Young, urban, educated women are also the demographic group more likely to employ "user controlled", short term methods. The findings are consistent with a gradual shift in the Chinese family planning programme, increasingly meeting the principles of the International Conference on Population and Development, which calls for making contraception accessible, and thereby helping women avoid recourse to abortion. Future reproductive health programmes should allow women more autonomy in socio-economic factors affecting their reproductive health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting marital satisfaction on the basis of early maladaptive schema in married women, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seyed Esmaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemes are cognitive, emotional and self-injurious patterns repeated throughout the life. Family is a natural social system in which couples have major role in the all of stages of its development, and many factors play a role in their marital satisfaction. Marital satisfaction is adopting expectations of couples of marital life. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between early maladaptive scheme with marital satisfaction and identification of predicting factors on marital satisfaction. This was a correlational cross-sectional method study. The population includes all married female persons referring to Tehran municipal regions. We used early maladaptive schemas questionnaire and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire for evaluation in participants. Descriptive tests, Pearson correlation test, T-Test, One Way ANOVA Test and Multivariate Regression Test were used for description and analysis of data. The mean age of samples in this study was 31.60±5.12 years old. There was significant relationship between age with Dependence/Incompetence (P=0.033, Self-sacrifice (P=0.010, Entitlement/Grandiosity (P=0.042, Impaired autonomy and performance (P=0.019, Abandonment/Instability (P=0.007. Linear regression analysis showed emotional deprivation and unrelenting standards/hypocriticalness subscales can predict marital satisfaction adversely. They can predict significantly 26% of marital satisfaction changes (P<0.001. we concluded that early maladaptive schema can predict the marital satisfaction negatively and of important role in its improvement or regression.

  18. Extradyadic sex and union dissolution among young adults in opposite-sex married and cohabiting unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Wenger, Marin R.; Kreager, Derek A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates extradyadic sex (EDS) among contemporary opposite-sex married and cohabiting young adults and examines how EDS is associated with union dissolution. By analyzing data from 8301 opposite-sex spouses and cohabiters in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we estimate the prevalence of self-reported EDS, reports of partners’ EDS, and reports of mutual EDS (i.e., both partners’ engagement in EDS). Roughly 1 in 4 respondents reported that either they, their partner or both engaged in EDS. Young men were more likely than women to self-report EDS, while young women were more likely to report partners’ EDS. Relative to no EDS, partners’ EDS was associated with union dissolution, but self-reported EDS and mutual EDS were not. A partner’s EDS was also associated with union dissolution relative to self-reported EDS. Associations between a partner’s EDS and dissolution were consistent among spouses and cohabiters and among men and women. PMID:28126106

  19. Liberty, Equality and the Right to Marry under the Fourteenth Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loveland Ian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The legitimacy of recent judgments in the Supreme Court, lower federal courts and State courts which have extended the scope of the Due Process and/or Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment has been a fiercely contested controversy in legal and political circles in the USA. The controversy has been especially sharp in relation to the question of same sex marriage, and specifically whether it is within State competence to refuse to allow same sex couples to marry under State law. This paper explores that legitimation controversy through a multi-contextual analysis of the Supreme Court’s starkly divided judgment in Obergefell v Hodges (2015, in which a bare majority of the Court concluded that a State ban on same sex marriage was incompatible with the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This paper critiques both the majority and dissenting opinions, and suggests that while one might applaud the substantive conclusion the Court has reached, the reasoning offered by the majority suffers from several obvious weaknesses both in narrow doctrinal terms and from the broader perspective of safeguarding the Court from well-founded criticism that it is overstepping the bounds of its legitimate constitutional role.

  20. Do public health services in Egypt help young married women exercise their reproductive rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Tawab, Nahla; Rabie, Tamer; Boehmova, Zuzana; Hawkins, Loraine; Saher, Sally; El Shitany, Atef

    2015-08-01

    To assess supply and demand of family planning services from a reproductive rights perspective among young married women (YMW) in Egypt. Data sources related to family planning included structured interviews with service providers (n=216); an inventory of equipment and supplies (n=40); exit interviews with YMW (n=147); and focus group discussions (n=12) with YMW, husbands, and mothers and/or mothers in law. YMW, husbands and mothers in law were not necessarily related. Although family planning services were readily available and affordable, YMW had limited access to information and services. Shortfalls were noted regarding respect for privacy, choice of family planning method, access to fertility services, and premarital counseling. Few YMW had sufficient autonomy to make informed reproductive decisions. Effective accountability mechanisms and processes for redress were also lacking. Implementation of a rights-based approach and structural changes to family planning service delivery are recommended to empower YMW in Egypt to demand and exercise their reproductive rights. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Reproductive health and HIV awareness among newly married Egyptian couples without formal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Wael F; Gamaleldin, Sameh F; Abdelmoty, Hatem I; Raslan, Ayman N; Fouda, Usama M; Mohesen, Mohamed N; Youssef, Mohamed A F M

    2014-09-01

    To assess awareness of several reproductive health and HIV issues and to determine the sources of reproductive health knowledge. A cross-sectional survey of 150 randomly recruited, newly married couples without formal education attending gynecology or andrology outpatient clinics in Cairo, Egypt, was conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. Participants were interviewed separately and asked to respond to a semi-structured questionnaire on reproductive health and HIV awareness. Most participants had not received premarital counseling or undergone premarital testing. Awareness about HIV was relatively high: 117 (78.0%) women and 128 (85.3%) men had heard of HIV and had some awareness of the modes of HIV transmission. Only 24 (16.0%) women had ever used a condom compared with 36 (24.0%) men. Only two men out of the 150 couples questioned were aware of the free HIV hotline. Television and friends were the main sources of reproductive health knowledge. Routine premarital counseling and testing by reproductive health, gynecology, and andrology specialists need to be enforced. Mass media is an essential source of knowledge about HIV and reproductive health. Premarital, reproductive health, and HIV education programs need to be improved. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Marital Satisfaction in Married Women in Consideration of Premarital Relationship

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    حدیث میرزایی

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to compare marital satisfaction in different groups of women according to premarital relationships. The sample of this subsequent and comparative study includes 197 women who have been married for 2 to 5 years. According to the findings of this research, there was a significant difference in marital satisfaction (which were gained via ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale between groups, in a way that satisfaction was from highest to lowest in the following order: non-sexual relationship with future husband, non-sexual relationship with different person, without premarital relationship, sexual relationship with future husband, and sexual relationship with different person. Also, in all subscales of marital satisfaction (including personal issues, marital communication, conflict resolution, financial management, leisure activities, sex, marriage and children, family and friends, and religious orientation the group with non-sexual relationship with future husband recorded higher marks. Analysis showed that having non-sexual relationship with future husband companies with more marital satisfaction. On the other side, having sexual relationship with husband or a different person was associated with lower marital satisfaction.

  3. Why did passion wane? A qualitative study of married women's attributions for declines in sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Karen E; Meana, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of sexual desire complaints in women have led a number of researchers and theorists to argue for a reconceptualization of female sexual desire that deemphasizes the drive model and places more focus on relational factors. Lacking in this effort has been a critical mass of qualitative research that asks women to report on their causal attributions for low desire. In this study, the authors conducted open-ended interviews with 19 married women who had lost desire in their marriage and asked what causal attributions they made for their loss of sexual desire and what barriers they perceived to be blocking its reinstatement. Three core themes emerged from the data, all of which represented forces dragging down on sexual desire in the present sample: (a) institutionalization of the relationship, (b) over-familiarity, and (c) the de-sexualization of roles in these relationships. Interpersonal and intrapersonal sexual dynamics featured more prominently than did relationship problems in women's attributions. The authors discuss the results in terms of clinical implications in the psychosocial component of treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

  4. Individual and provincial characteristics associated with reproductive behavior of married women in Iran (2011

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    Serajeddin Mahmoudiani-Gilan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fertility in the current situation is the most important determinant of a country's population increase rate. Iran's fertility rate has declined since the mid 1981’s, and has reached a relative stability below the replacement level in recent years. However, the fertility levels are different among provinces in the country. Methods: The present study investigated the reproductive behavior of women at both individual and provincial levels, so the two-level model was used. Data were adapted from the census in 2011 and Demographic and Health Surveys in 2010. The statistical population of the study was the 15-49 year-old married women in Iran and the study sample included 299,539 woman of the statistical population. Results: The results showed significant differences among the provinces in terms of the variance of the number of children born alive. Residence, employment status and educational status had significant effects on the number of children born. Moreover, the two-level variables (The mean age of women in the first marriage, contraception prevalence and development level by province had a significant effect on the slope of education and employment status. Conclusion: A convergence of fertility behavior has been initiated in the Iranian women, and the difference between some provinces is influenced by the development level of the given provinces. Other variables (such as education and employment status that affect women’s reproductive behavior are influenced by the development level of the province.

  5. Feminist Refiguring of La Malinche in Sandra Cisneros’ Never Marry A Mexican

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    Dian Natalia Sutanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La Malinche, the mistress of Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés, has evolved from a historical figure into Mexican national myth that connotes all the negative aspects of woman’s sexuality in Mexican and Mexican-American Culture. Sandra Cisneros in her Never Marry A Mexican reinterpretsLa Malinchein a more positive light and points out how women sexuality can be the site for women empowerment.By drawing on insights from feminist theories on motherhood, marriage, and incest taboo, this study identifies the way Cisneros revises the negative image of La Malinche as a dupe, passive and submissive mistress. This study identifies that Cisneros has created a strong protagonist character named Clemencia, who exerts her subjectivity and claims for her sexual agency totransgress patriarchal construction of woman passive sexuality, imposition of maternal identity as asexual mother and taboo on incestuous relationship. Cisneros’s La Malinche is no longer depicted as the victim duped by the patriarchy, but as the survivor who is able to preserve her sense of herself in the dominating patriarchal world.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180103

  6. Influences of gender identity on children's maltreatment of gender-nonconforming peers: a person × target analysis of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, Rachel E; Cooper, Patrick J; Perry, David G

    2014-05-01

    We investigated whether gender identity influences preadolescents' tendency to single out gender-atypical peers for abuse. Data were gathered from 195 boys and girls (M age = 10.1 years) in the fall and spring of a school year. Children self-reported multiple dimensions of gender identity (intergroup bias, felt pressure for gender differentiation, felt gender typicality, gender contentedness); peers assessed each other's social behavior (gender nonconformity, aggression toward each classmate). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how children's attacks on gender-nonconforming peers (relative to their attacks on other peers) changed over the school year depending on their gender identity. There was modest support for the hypothesis that overconfident, arrogant gender identity promotes abuse of gender-atypical peers but considerable support for the hypothesis that insecure, self-questioning gender identity fosters this tendency. Implications for issues central to contemporary personality theory (e.g., Person × Situation interaction) are discussed. New and somewhat surprising information about the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of gender-nonconforming preadolescents is provided.

  7. On gender and writing On gender and writing

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    Arnold Gordenstein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction to this collection of 22 essays on gender and writing the editor confesses: I was never interested in including articles which would attack the idea of whether gender and the writing process had anything in common. I wasn't interested in anyone who held an 'androgyny' view of the writing process or in anyone who had anti-feminist views. The people I asked were all people who had something positive to say about how they saw gender and the writing process coming together in their work. (p.9 Consequently one finishes this book with the impression that almost all these writers know one another and share views on politics, literature and sex. The largest group of essays is from single mothers or gay women who write fiction, theater or poetry. Of the 22 writers almost all are British, all but 3 1/2 are female (the half because he "shares" a doubled personality with his wife, all but a few speak of being formed by the turbulent 1960's. In the introduction to this collection of 22 essays on gender and writing the editor confesses: I was never interested in including articles which would attack the idea of whether gender and the writing process had anything in common. I wasn't interested in anyone who held an 'androgyny' view of the writing process or in anyone who had anti-feminist views. The people I asked were all people who had something positive to say about how they saw gender and the writing process coming together in their work. (p.9 Consequently one finishes this book with the impression that almost all these writers know one another and share views on politics, literature and sex. The largest group of essays is from single mothers or gay women who write fiction, theater or poetry. Of the 22 writers almost all are British, all but 3 1/2 are female (the half because he "shares" a doubled personality with his wife, all but a few speak of being formed by the turbulent 1960's.

  8. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  9. When Being a Girl Matters Less: Accessibility of Gender-Related Self-Knowledge in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes and Its Impact on Students' Physics-Related Self-Concept of Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Hannover, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Background: Establishing or preserving single-sex schooling has been widely discussed as a way of bringing more girls into the natural sciences. Aims: We test the assumption that the beneficial effects of single-sex education on girls' self-concept of ability in masculine subjects such as physics are due to the lower accessibility of…

  10. A People Extra: North Dakota and United States Situational Issues Related to and Influences upon--Families (Single Persons, Single Parents, Parent-Child, Married).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Univ., Fargo. Dept. of Agriculture and Applied Science.

    Situational issues related to families and influences upon families in North Dakota and the United States are briefly outlined in these fact sheets. Contents specifically concern (1) outbound migration from North Dakota and transition of rural families from farming; (2) suicide in North Dakota and the nation; (3) child care issues, such as child…

  11. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  12. Never Marry a Woman with Big Feet : Women in Proverbs from Around the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Mineke

    2006-01-01

    Winner of the Dutch 2005 Eureka! prize for best non-fiction title The jury about the book: "A revealing and at the same time extraordinarily funny book" In cultures all over the globe, sex and gender issues have been expressed in proverbs, the world's smallest literary genre. This irresistible book

  13. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opportunities for everyone. Here are some ideas: Children's books or puzzles showing men and women in non- ... Additional Information & Resources: Gender Non-Conforming & Transgender Children​ Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Teens: Facts for Teens and ...

  14. Wealth Index association with gender issues and the reproductive health of Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mustafa

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the association of the Wealth Index of married women in Egypt with a number of gender and reproductive health issues found in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey. The data from a subsample of 5249 currently married women from a total of 19,474 was examined using logistic regression analysis. The women's lowest wealth quintile predicted the intention to continue female genital cutting for their daughters, exposure to physical and sexual marital violence, not being empowered in household decisions, having a higher number of children, having an unintended last child, mothers' maltreatment of their children, the perception of a lack of health-care providers or drugs as an obstacle to receiving care, and not being covered by health insurance. The association of poverty with the aforementioned adverse health outcomes are discussed. Physicians should understand the effect of poverty on health and endeavour to influence policy-makers to reduce the poverty burden on health.

  15. Individual versus Household Migration Decision Rules: Gender and Marital Status Differences in Intentions to Migrate in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubhaju, Bina; De Jong, Gordon F

    2009-03-01

    This research tests the thesis that the neoclassical micro-economic and the new household economic theoretical assumptions on migration decision-making rules are segmented by gender, marital status, and time frame of intention to migrate. Comparative tests of both theories within the same study design are relatively rare. Utilizing data from the Causes of Migration in South Africa national migration survey, we analyze how individually held "own-future" versus alternative "household well-being" migration decision rules effect the intentions to migrate of male and female adults in South Africa. Results from the gender and marital status specific logistic regressions models show consistent support for the different gender-marital status decision rule thesis. Specifically, the "maximizing one's own future" neoclassical microeconomic theory proposition is more applicable for never married men and women, the "maximizing household income" proposition for married men with short-term migration intentions, and the "reduce household risk" proposition for longer time horizon migration intentions of married men and women. Results provide new evidence on the way household strategies and individual goals jointly affect intentions to move or stay.

  16. Stress, Social Resources, and Depression among Never-Married and Divorced Rural Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A.

    2006-01-01

    While the impact of single parenting on women and children has long been a concern, very little research has focused on single parents living in rural areas. Based on a probability sample of 508 single mothers aged 18-39 living in rural Northern New England, the present study: (1) examines the impact of several domains of stress on mothers'…

  17. Gender-Related Differences in Individuals Seeking Treatment for Kleptomania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. Method From 2001 to 2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment to identify gender-related differences. Results Men and women both showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared to affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% compared to 25.9%; p=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 compared to 14 years; p=.001), steal household items (pdisorder (p=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (pdisorder (p=.018). Conclusions Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations. PMID:18323758

  18. Women at risk: Gender inequality and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Pamela C; Odimegwu, Clifford O; Ntoimo, Lorretta F C; Muchiri, Evans

    2017-04-01

    Gender inequality has been documented as a key driver of negative health outcomes, especially among women. However, studies have not clearly examined the role of gender inequality in maternal health in an African setting. Therefore, the authors of this study examined the role of gender inequality, indicated by lack of female autonomy, in exposing women to maternal health risk. Data were obtained from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey on a weighted sample of 3,906 married or partnered women aged 15-49 years. Multivariable analyses revealed that low autonomy in household decision power was associated with maternal health risk (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.52, p < .001). Autonomy interacted with household wealth showed that respondents who were in the wealthier households and had low autonomy in household decision power (OR = 2.03, p < .05) were more likely to be exposed to maternal health risk than their counterparts who had more autonomy. Efforts to lower women's exposure to maternal mortality and morbidity in Zambia should involve interventions to alter prevailing gender norms that limit women's active participation in decisions about their own health during pregnancy and delivery.

  19. Gender-related differences in individuals seeking treatment for kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N

    2008-03-01

    Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. From 2001--2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics, including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment, to identify gender-related differences. Men and women showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared with affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% vs 25.9%; P=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 vs 14 years of age; P=.001), steal household items (PKleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations.

  20. The gendered workplaces of women garment workers in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Başak

    2017-10-01

    Drawing on 20 semi-structured interviews with women garment workers in a low-income neighbourhood of Istanbul, and observations in the ateliers where they worked, this article examines their work experiences in the gendered and sexualised work atmosphere of garment workshops. There are three interrelated levels upon which the gender-related issues emerge in women garment workers' stories. The first set of discourses portrays young female garment workers in highly sexualised terms, and the second concerns the use of kinship vocabulary and avoidance of impersonal work relationships. That is, women workers' experiences in capitalist production sites were trivialised and regulated through the sexualisation of their bodies and the deployment of kinship idioms while addressing their role at the workplace. The third level analyses women's submissive, subversive or contradictory responses to these gendered disciplinary techniques and representations, i.e. the construction of their subjectivities. These three levels point to two things: first, cultural presumptions about marriage, women's sexuality and reproductive cycles are materialised at the workplace. Second, gendered instantiations of these presumptions in a specific work environment are both informed by their familial roles (such as daughter, wife, mother, widowed) and inform their future reproductive preferences (whether they marry, have a child, get a divorce, etc.). This article shows how the ways in which women's difference is construed and acted upon in the garment industry are inseparable from women's reproductive decisions.