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Sample records for single male talker

  1. Training-induced brain activation and functional connectivity differentiate multi-talker and single-talker speech training.

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    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M

    2018-03-10

    In second language acquisition studies, the high talker variability training approach has been frequently used to train participants to learn new speech patterns. However, the neuroplasticity induced by training is poorly understood. In the present study, native English speakers were trained on non-native pitch patterns (linguistic tones from Mandarin Chinese) in multi-talker (N = 16) or single-talker (N = 16) training conditions. We focused on two aspects of multi-talker training, voice processing and lexical phonology accessing, and used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation and functional connectivity (FC) of two regions of interest in a tone identification task conducted before and after training, namely the anterior part of the right superior temporal gyrus (aRSTG) and the posterior left superior temporal gyrus (pLSTG). The results showed distinct patterns of associations between neural signals and learning success for multi-talker training. Specifically, post-training brain activation in the aRSTG and FC strength between the aRSTG and pLSTG were correlated with learning success in the multi-talker training group but not in the single-talker group. These results suggest that talker variability in the training procedure may enhance neural efficiency in these brain areas and strengthen the cooperation between them. Our findings highlight the brain processing of newly learned speech patterns is influenced by the given training approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Distribution of Talker Variability Impacts Infants’ Word Learning

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    Carolyn Quam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infants struggle to apply earlier-demonstrated sound-discrimination abilities to later word learning, attending to non-constrastive acoustic dimensions (e.g., Hay et al., 2015, and not always to contrastive dimensions (e.g., Stager & Werker, 1997. One hint about the nature of infants’ difficulties comes from the observation that input from multiple talkers can improve word learning (Rost & McMurray, 2009. This may be because, when a single talker says both of the to-be-learned words, consistent talker’s-voice characteristics make the acoustics of the two words more overlapping (Apfelbaum & McMurray, 2011. Here, we test that notion. We taught 14-month-old infants two similar-sounding words in the Switch habituation paradigm. The same amount of overall talker variability was present as in prior multiple-talker experiments, but male and female talkers said different words, creating a gender-word correlation. Under an acoustic-similarity account, correlated talker gender should help to separate words acoustically and facilitate learning. Instead, we found that correlated talker gender impaired learning of word-object pairings compared with uncorrelated talker gender—even when gender-word pairings were always maintained in test—casting doubt on one account of the beneficial effects of talker variability. We discuss several alternate potential explanations for this effect.

  3. EFFECTS OF TALKER GENDER ON DIALECT CATEGORIZATION.

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    Clopper, Cynthia G; Conrey, Brianna; Pisoni, David B

    2005-06-01

    The identification of the gender of an unfamiliar talker is an easy and automatic process for naïve adult listeners. Sociolinguistic research has consistently revealed gender differences in the production of linguistic variables. Research on the perception of dialect variation, however, has been limited almost exclusively to male talkers. In the present study, naïve participants were asked to categorize unfamiliar talkers by dialect using sentence-length utterances under three presentation conditions: male talkers only, female talkers only, and a mixed gender condition. The results revealed no significant differences in categorization performance across the three presentation conditions. However, a clustering analysis of the listeners' categorization errors revealed significant effects of talker gender on the underlying perceptual similarity spaces. The present findings suggest that naïve listeners are sensitive to gender differences in speech production and are able to use those differences to reliably categorize unfamiliar male and female talkers by dialect.

  4. EFFECTS OF TALKER GENDER ON DIALECT CATEGORIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLOPPER, CYNTHIA G.; CONREY, BRIANNA; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the gender of an unfamiliar talker is an easy and automatic process for naïve adult listeners. Sociolinguistic research has consistently revealed gender differences in the production of linguistic variables. Research on the perception of dialect variation, however, has been limited almost exclusively to male talkers. In the present study, naïve participants were asked to categorize unfamiliar talkers by dialect using sentence-length utterances under three presentation conditions: male talkers only, female talkers only, and a mixed gender condition. The results revealed no significant differences in categorization performance across the three presentation conditions. However, a clustering analysis of the listeners’ categorization errors revealed significant effects of talker gender on the underlying perceptual similarity spaces. The present findings suggest that naïve listeners are sensitive to gender differences in speech production and are able to use those differences to reliably categorize unfamiliar male and female talkers by dialect. PMID:21423866

  5. Perceptual-Gestural (Mis)Mapping in Serial Short-Term Memory: The Impact of Talker Variability

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    Hughes, Robert W.; Marsh, John E.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the poorer serial recall of talker-variable lists (e.g., alternating female-male voices) as compared with single-voice lists were examined. We tested the novel hypothesis that this "talker variability effect" arises from the tendency for perceptual organization to partition the list into streams based on voice…

  6. Talker Variability in Audiovisual Speech Perception

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    Shannon eHeald

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition. So far, this talker-variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker’s face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker's face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target-word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker’s face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred.

  7. EFFECTS OF TALKER GENDER ON DIALECT CATEGORIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    CLOPPER, CYNTHIA G.; CONREY, BRIANNA; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2005-01-01

    The identification of the gender of an unfamiliar talker is an easy and automatic process for naïve adult listeners. Sociolinguistic research has consistently revealed gender differences in the production of linguistic variables. Research on the perception of dialect variation, however, has been limited almost exclusively to male talkers. In the present study, naïve participants were asked to categorize unfamiliar talkers by dialect using sentence-length utterances under three presentation co...

  8. Implicit Talker Training Improves Comprehension of Auditory Speech in Noise

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    Jens Kreitewolf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that listeners are better able to understand speech when they are familiar with the talker’s voice. In most of these studies, talker familiarity was ensured by explicit voice training; that is, listeners learned to identify the familiar talkers. In the real world, however, the characteristics of familiar talkers are learned incidentally, through communication. The present study investigated whether speech comprehension benefits from implicit voice training; that is, through exposure to talkers’ voices without listeners explicitly trying to identify them. During four training sessions, listeners heard short sentences containing a single verb (e.g., “he writes”, spoken by one talker. The sentences were mixed with noise, and listeners identified the verb within each sentence while their speech-reception thresholds (SRT were measured. In a final test session, listeners performed the same task, but this time they heard different sentences spoken by the familiar talker and three unfamiliar talkers. Familiar and unfamiliar talkers were counterbalanced across listeners. Half of the listeners performed a test session in which the four talkers were presented in separate blocks (blocked paradigm. For the other half, talkers varied randomly from trial to trial (interleaved paradigm. The results showed that listeners had lower SRT when the speech was produced by the familiar talker than the unfamiliar talkers. The type of talker presentation (blocked vs. interleaved had no effect on this familiarity benefit. These findings suggest that listeners implicitly learn talker-specific information during a speech-comprehension task, and exploit this information to improve the comprehension of novel speech material from familiar talkers.

  9. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

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    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Honoring Native American Code Talkers: The Road to the Code Talkers Recognition Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-420)

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    Meadows, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in North American Indian code talkers continues to increase. In addition to numerous works about the Navajo code talkers, several publications on other groups of Native American code talkers--including the Choctaw, Comanche, Hopi, Meskwaki, Canadian Cree--and about code talkers in general have appeared. This article chronicles recent…

  11. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

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    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  12. The Nationwide Speech Project: A multi-talker multi-dialect speech corpus

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    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2004-05-01

    Most research on regional phonological variation relies on field recordings of interview speech. Recent research on the perception of dialect variation by naive listeners, however, has relied on read sentence materials in order to control for phonological and lexical content and syntax. The Nationwide Speech Project corpus was designed to obtain a large amount of speech from a number of talkers representing different regional varieties of American English. Five male and five female talkers from each of six different dialect regions in the United States were recorded reading isolated words, sentences, and passages, and in conversations with the experimenter. The talkers ranged in age from 18 and 25 years old and they were all monolingual native speakers of American English. They had lived their entire life in one dialect region and both of their parents were raised in the same region. Results of an acoustic analysis of the vowel spaces of the talkers included in the Nationwide Speech Project will be presented. [Work supported by NIH.

  13. Vocal effort with changing talker-to-listener distance in different acoustic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Smits, Bertrand; Brunskog, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Talkers adjust their vocal effort to communicate at different distances, aiming to compensate for the sound propagation losses. The present paper studies the influence of four acoustically different rooms on the speech produced by 13 male talkers addressing a listener at four distances. Talkers...... raised their vocal intensity by between 1.3 and 2.2 dB per double distance to the listener and lowered it as a linear function of the quantity “room gain” at a rate of 3.6 dB/dB. There were also significant variations in the mean fundamental frequency, both across distance (3.8 Hz per double distance......) and among environments (4.3 Hz), and in the long-term standard deviation of the fundamental frequency among rooms (4 Hz). In the most uncomfortable rooms to speak in, talkers prolonged the voiced segments of the speech they produced, either as a side-effect of increased vocal intensity or in order...

  14. Effects of fundamental frequency and vocal-tract length changes on attention to one of two simultaneous talkers

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    Darwin, Christopher J.; Brungart, Douglas S.; Simpson, Brian D.

    2003-11-01

    Three experiments used the Coordinated Response Measure task to examine the roles that differences in F0 and differences in vocal-tract length have on the ability to attend to one of two simultaneous speech signals. The first experiment asked how increases in the natural F0 difference between two sentences (originally spoken by the same talker) affected listeners' ability to attend to one of the sentences. The second experiment used differences in vocal-tract length, and the third used both F0 and vocal-tract length differences. Differences in F0 greater than 2 semitones produced systematic improvements in performance. Differences in vocal-tract length produced systematic improvements in performance when the ratio of lengths was 1.08 or greater, particularly when the shorter vocal tract belonged to the target talker. Neither of these manipulations produced improvements in performance as great as those produced by a different-sex talker. Systematic changes in both F0 and vocal-tract length that simulated an incremental shift in gender produced substantially larger improvements in performance than did differences in F0 or vocal-tract length alone. In general, shifting one of two utterances spoken by a female voice towards a male voice produces a greater improvement in performance than shifting male towards female. The increase in performance varied with the intonation patterns of individual talkers, being smallest for those talkers who showed most variability in their intonation patterns between different utterances.

  15. Listening talkers produce great spectral tilt contrasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich; Heegård, Jan; Henrichsen, Peter Juel

    It is well known that the envelope of the long-term average speech spectrum flattens with vocal effort. A recent study [1] showed that content words had a flatter spectral envelope than content words at the same overall level for a specific Danish speech material. The present paper investigates...... of colored geometrical shapes taken from DanPASS [2]. The spectral tilt was gauged by calculating the band-level difference in dB between two frequency bands with pass-bands 150 to 803 Hz and 803 to 1358 Hz respectively in 5 ms intervals. This was done separately for intervals containing content words...... and function words and grouped by talker. The spectral tilt difference was then calculated as the average band-level difference for function words minus the average band-level difference for content words. This calculation was grouped per talker. For the monologues these differences ranged between 5 and 8 d...

  16. Comparison of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant users on speech recognition with competing talker, music perception, affective prosody discrimination and talker identification

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    Cullington, Helen E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Despite excellent performance in speech recognition in quiet, most cochlear implant users have great difficulty with speech recognition in noise, music perception, identifying tone of voice, and discriminating different talkers. This may be partly due to the pitch coding in cochlear implant speech processing. Most current speech processing strategies use only the envelope information; the temporal fine structure is discarded. One way to improve electric pitch perception is to utilize residual acoustic hearing via a hearing aid on the non-implanted ear (bimodal hearing). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that bimodal users would perform better than bilateral cochlear implant users on tasks requiring good pitch perception. Design Four pitch-related tasks were used: Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentences spoken by a male talker with a competing female, male, or child talker. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia. This is a music test with six subtests examining pitch, rhythm and timing perception, and musical memory. Aprosodia Battery. This has five subtests evaluating aspects of affective prosody and recognition of sarcasm. Talker identification using vowels spoken by ten different talkers (three male, three female, two boys, and two girls). Bilateral cochlear implant users were chosen as the comparison group. Thirteen bimodal and thirteen bilateral adult cochlear implant users were recruited; all had good speech perception in quiet. Results There were no significant differences between the mean scores of the bimodal and bilateral groups on any of the tests, although the bimodal group did perform better than the bilateral group on almost all tests. Performance on the different pitch-related tasks was not correlated, meaning that if a subject performed one task well they would not necessarily perform well on another. The correlation between the bimodal users' hearing threshold levels in the aided ear and their performance on these tasks was weak

  17. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

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    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…

  18. On-Line Acoustic and Semantic Interpretation of Talker Information

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    Creel, Sarah C.; Tumlin, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work demonstrates that listeners utilize talker-specific information in the speech signal to inform real-time language processing. However, there are multiple representational levels at which this may take place. Listeners might use acoustic cues in the speech signal to access the talker's identity and information about what they tend to…

  19. Attention and Word Learning in Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

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    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Montemarano, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine attention allocation in toddlers who were late talkers and toddlers with typical language development while they were engaged in a word-learning task in order to determine if differences exist. Two-year-olds who were late talkers (11) and typically developing toddlers (11) were taught twelve novel…

  20. Generalization of Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech across Talkers

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    Huyck, Julia Jones; Smith, Rachel H.; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether perceptual learning of noise-vocoded (NV) speech is specific to a particular talker or accent. Method: Four groups of listeners (n = 18 per group) were first trained by listening to 20 NV sentences that had been recorded by a talker with either the same native accent as the listeners or a different regional accent.…

  1. Comparison of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant users on speech recognition with competing talker, music perception, affective prosody discrimination, and talker identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullington, Helen E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-02-01

    Despite excellent performance in speech recognition in quiet, most cochlear implant users have great difficulty with speech recognition in noise, music perception, identifying tone of voice, and discriminating different talkers. This may be partly due to the pitch coding in cochlear implant speech processing. Most current speech processing strategies use only the envelope information; the temporal fine structure is discarded. One way to improve electric pitch perception is to use residual acoustic hearing via a hearing aid on the nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that bimodal users would perform better than bilateral cochlear implant users on tasks requiring good pitch perception. Four pitch-related tasks were used. 1. Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentences spoken by a male talker with a competing female, male, or child talker. 2. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia. This is a music test with six subtests examining pitch, rhythm and timing perception, and musical memory. 3. Aprosodia Battery. This has five subtests evaluating aspects of affective prosody and recognition of sarcasm. 4. Talker identification using vowels spoken by 10 different talkers (three men, three women, two boys, and two girls). Bilateral cochlear implant users were chosen as the comparison group. Thirteen bimodal and 13 bilateral adult cochlear implant users were recruited; all had good speech perception in quiet. There were no significant differences between the mean scores of the bimodal and bilateral groups on any of the tests, although the bimodal group did perform better than the bilateral group on almost all tests. Performance on the different pitch-related tasks was not correlated, meaning that if a subject performed one task well they would not necessarily perform well on another. The correlation between the bimodal users' hearing threshold levels in the aided ear and their performance on these tasks was weak. Although the bimodal cochlear

  2. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults With Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults With Hearing Loss.

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    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-06-01

    Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13 two-digit numbers, with alternating male and female talkers. Lists were presented in quiet as well as in stationary and speech-like noise at a signal-to-noise ratio giving approximately 90% intelligibility. Amplification compensated for loss of audibility. Seeing the talker's face improved free recall performance for the younger but not the older group. Poorer performance in background noise was contingent on individual differences in working memory capacity. The effect of seeing the talker's face did not differ in quiet and noise. We have argued that the absence of an effect of seeing the talker's face for older adults with hearing loss may be due to modulation of audiovisual integration mechanisms caused by an interaction between task demands and participant characteristics. In particular, we suggest that executive task demands and interindividual executive skills may play a key role in determining the benefit of seeing the talker's face during a speech-based cognitive task.

  3. Modeling Speech Level as a Function of Background Noise Level and Talker-to-Listener Distance for Talkers Wearing Hearing Protection Devices

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    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; Bockstael, Annelies; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.; Voix, Jérémie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the variations in speech levels with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance for talkers wearing hearing protection devices (HPDs) can aid in understanding communication in background noise. Method: Speech was recorded using an intra-aural HPD from 12 different talkers at 5 different distances in 3…

  4. Articulatory-to-Acoustic Relations in Talkers with Dysarthria: A First Analysis

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    Mefferd, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the strength of interspeaker and intraspeaker articulatory-to-acoustic relations of vowel contrast produced by talkers with dysarthria and controls. Methods: Six talkers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), six talkers with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 12 controls repeated a…

  5. Acoustic correlates of talker sex and individual talker identity are present in a short vowel segment produced in running speech.

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    Bachorowski, J A; Owren, M J

    1999-08-01

    Although listeners routinely perceive both the sex and individual identity of talkers from their speech, explanations of these abilities are incomplete. Here, variation in vocal production-related anatomy was assumed to affect vowel acoustics thought to be critical for indexical cueing. Integrating this approach with source-filter theory, patterns of acoustic parameters that should represent sex and identity were identified. Due to sexual dimorphism, the combination of fundamental frequency (F0, reflecting larynx size) and vocal tract length cues (VTL, reflecting body size) was predicted to provide the strongest acoustic correlates of talker sex. Acoustic measures associated with presumed variations in supralaryngeal vocal tract-related anatomy occurring within sex were expected to be prominent in individual talker identity. These predictions were supported by results of analyses of 2500 tokens of the /epsilon/ phoneme, extracted from the naturally produced speech of 125 subjects. Classification by talker sex was virtually perfect when F0 and VTL were used together, whereas talker classification depended primarily on the various acoustic parameters associated with vocal-tract filtering.

  6. Talker- and language-specific effects on speech intelligibility in noise assessed with bilingual talkers: Which language is more robust against noise and reverberation?

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    Hochmuth, Sabine; Jürgens, Tim; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Investigate talker- and language-specific aspects of speech intelligibility in noise and reverberation using highly comparable matrix sentence tests across languages. Matrix sentences spoken by German/Russian and German/Spanish bilingual talkers were recorded. These sentences were used to measure speech reception thresholds (SRTs) with native listeners in the respective languages in different listening conditions (stationary and fluctuating noise, multi-talker babble, reverberated speech-in-noise condition). Four German/Russian and four German/Spanish bilingual talkers; 20 native German-speaking, 10 native Russian-speaking, and 10 native Spanish-speaking listeners. Across-talker SRT differences of up to 6 dB were found for both groups of bilinguals. SRTs of German/Russian bilingual talkers were the same in both languages. SRTs of German/Spanish bilingual talkers were higher when they talked in Spanish than when they talked in German. The benefit from listening in the gaps was similar across all languages. The detrimental effect of reverberation was larger for Spanish than for German and Russian. Within the limitations set by the number and slight accentedness of talkers and other possible confounding factors, talker- and test-condition-dependent differences were isolated from the language effect: Russian and German exhibited similar intelligibility in noise and reverberation, whereas Spanish was more impaired in these situations.

  7. Pragmatic Functions of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

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    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Kaufman, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    Toddlers who are "late talkers" demonstrate reduced expressive vocabulary in the absence of physical, social, cognitive, or sensory impairment; they are usually identified at age 2, when they produce fewer than 50 words and do not combine words (Rescorla, 1989). This study analyzed spontaneous language samples of 10 late talking toddlers and 11…

  8. Investigating the Narrative Skills of Late Talkers Through Sequential Picture Stories

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    Saeed Mehrpour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the oral narrative skills of late talkers mostly caused by mental disorders while they try to comprehend a wordless sequential picture story to create and narrate the relevant story. Methods: To this end, 15 (10 male and 5 female participants were who were the students of a specialized school for physically and mentally retarded students selected based on the purposive sampling. They were the students of grade one with the age ranging between 6 to 13 years old. All of them had language delay which was caused by mental disorder. Their narrations were observed and recorded in a semi natural setting by the researchers canducted and their speech therapist (ST. Results: Based on the data collected from the interview by the researcher, it was concluded that most of the students were not able to keep the sequence while narrating the picture story. Discussion: With regard to syntactic patterns, all of the sentences were holophrastic or two-word utterances bearing a simple structure although some exceptions were identified. An element which was mostly seen in late talkers was their inability to name the objects because of their restricted lexicon therefore they compensated trying to define the function of the word they tried to utter.

  9. Talker and background noise specificity in spoken word recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Angela; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that listeners are sensitive to changes in the indexical (talker-specific) characteristics of speech input, suggesting that these signal-intrinsic features are integrally encoded in memory for spoken words. Given that listeners frequently must contend with concurrent environmental noise, to what extent do they also encode signal-extrinsic details? Native English listeners’ explicit memory for spoken English monosyllabic and disyllabic words was assessed as a fu...

  10. Talker and background noise specificity in spoken word recognition memory

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    Angela Cooper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has demonstrated that listeners are sensitive to changes in the indexical (talker-specific characteristics of speech input, suggesting that these signal-intrinsic features are integrally encoded in memory for spoken words. Given that listeners frequently must contend with concurrent environmental noise, to what extent do they also encode signal-extrinsic details? Native English listeners’ explicit memory for spoken English monosyllabic and disyllabic words was assessed as a function of consistency versus variation in the talker’s voice (talker condition and background noise (noise condition using a delayed recognition memory paradigm. The speech and noise signals were spectrally-separated, such that changes in a simultaneously presented non-speech signal (background noise from exposure to test would not be accompanied by concomitant changes in the target speech signal. The results revealed that listeners can encode both signal-intrinsic talker and signal-extrinsic noise information into integrated cognitive representations, critically even when the two auditory streams are spectrally non-overlapping. However, the extent to which extra-linguistic episodic information is encoded alongside linguistic information appears to be modulated by syllabic characteristics, with specificity effects found only for monosyllabic items. These findings suggest that encoding and retrieval of episodic information during spoken word processing may be modulated by lexical characteristics.

  11. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels…

  12. Talker Identification across Source Mechanisms: Experiments with Laryngeal and Electrolarynx Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K.; Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine listeners' ability to learn talker identity from speech produced with an electrolarynx, explore source and filter differentiation in talker identification, and describe acoustic-phonetic changes associated with electrolarynx use. Method: Healthy adult control listeners learned to identify…

  13. Otitis Media and Speech/Language Development in Late-Talkers.

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    Paul, Rhea; And Others

    This study examines otitis media as a possible factor associated with increased risk for communicative handicap in a group of children with a possible vulnerability for language delay: "late-talkers." Speech and language outcomes at ages 3 and 4 were examined in 28 late talkers and 24 children with normal language development. Late…

  14. When it is apt to adapt: Flexible reasoning guides children's use of talker identity and disfluency cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Justine M; Chambers, Craig G; Graham, Susan A

    2018-03-01

    An eye-tracking methodology was used to examine whether children flexibly engage two voice-based cues, talker identity and disfluency, during language processing. Across two experiments, 5-year-olds (N = 58) were introduced to two characters with distinct color preferences. These characters then used fluent or disfluent instructions to refer to an object in a display containing items bearing either talker-preferred or talker-dispreferred colors. As the utterance began to unfold, the 5-year-olds anticipated that talkers would refer to talker-preferred objects. When children then encountered a disfluency in the unfolding description, they reduced their expectation that a talker was about to refer to a preferred object. The talker preference-related predictions, but not the disfluency-related predictions, were attenuated during the second half of the experiment as evidence accrued that talkers referred to dispreferred objects with equal frequency. In Experiment 2, the equivocal nature of talkers' referencing was made more apparent by removing neutral filler trials, where objects' colors were not associated with talker preferences. In this case, children ceased making all talker-related predictions during the latter half of the experiment. Taken together, the results provide insights into children's use of talker-specific cues and demonstrate that flexible and adaptive forms of reasoning account for the ways in which children draw on paralinguistic information during real-time processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-08-01

    To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Male infertility: An audit of 70 cases in a single centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E.A. Jeje

    2016-07-25

    Jul 25, 2016 ... Male infertility: An audit of 70 cases in a single centre. E.A. Jejea, T.O. Alabia, R.W. ... Objectives: To audit the aetiology, treatment and predictors of outcome in infertile men who attended urology clinic of a private hospital in ..... Ethics Committee of Lagoon Hospital Limited, Apapa, Lagos. Conflict of interest.

  17. Health, drugs and service use among deprived single men: comparing (subgroups) of single male welfare recipients against employed single men in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamann, T.C.; de Wit, M.A.S.; Cremer, S.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To aid public health policy in preventing severe social exclusion (like homelessness) and promoting social inclusion (like labour market participation), we aimed to quantify (unmet) health needs of an expectedly vulnerable population on which little was known about: single male welfare

  18. Selective cortical representation of attended speaker in multi-talker speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgarani, Nima; Chang, Edward F

    2012-05-10

    Humans possess a remarkable ability to attend to a single speaker's voice in a multi-talker background. How the auditory system manages to extract intelligible speech under such acoustically complex and adverse listening conditions is not known, and, indeed, it is not clear how attended speech is internally represented. Here, using multi-electrode surface recordings from the cortex of subjects engaged in a listening task with two simultaneous speakers, we demonstrate that population responses in non-primary human auditory cortex encode critical features of attended speech: speech spectrograms reconstructed based on cortical responses to the mixture of speakers reveal the salient spectral and temporal features of the attended speaker, as if subjects were listening to that speaker alone. A simple classifier trained solely on examples of single speakers can decode both attended words and speaker identity. We find that task performance is well predicted by a rapid increase in attention-modulated neural selectivity across both single-electrode and population-level cortical responses. These findings demonstrate that the cortical representation of speech does not merely reflect the external acoustic environment, but instead gives rise to the perceptual aspects relevant for the listener's intended goal.

  19. Single coronary artery; extremely rare coronary anomaly successfully treated surgically in young adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, A R

    2010-05-01

    Single coronary artery arising from aortic root, is a rare congenital anomaly. A 30-year-old male presented with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complaining of chest pain and raised troponin levels. Emergency angiography showed no coronary lesions but both left and right coronary arteries arising from single ostium. Patient was operated electively and perioperative findings confirmed the diagnosis of single coronary artery, as left coronary artery after taking origin from right sinus of valsalva runs through the septum, before dividing into left anterior descending and circumflex branches. The single coronary ostium opened with a slit like incision over the course of left main coronary, making the size of ostium three to four times bigger than the native one. In addition left internal mammary artery was harvested and grafted to the left anterior descending branch distally. Patient made successful recovery. Four months follow up dobutamine stress echo showed no inducible ischemia.

  20. Effects of Hearing Loss and Cognitive Load on Speech Recognition with Competing Talkers

    OpenAIRE

    Meister, Hartmut; Schreitmüller, Stefan; Ortmann, Magdalene; Rählmann, Sebastian; Walger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Everyday communication frequently comprises situations with more than one talker speaking at a time. These situations are challenging since they pose high attentional and memory demands placing cognitive load on the listener. Hearing impairment additionally exacerbates communication problems under these circumstances. We examined the effects of hearing loss and attention tasks on speech recognition with competing talkers in older adults with and without hearing impairment. We hypothesized tha...

  1. Effects of hearing loss and cognitive load on speech recognition with competing talkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut eMeister

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Everyday communication frequently comprises situations with more than one talker speaking at a time. These situations are challenging since they pose high attentional and memory demands placing cognitive load on the listener. Hearing impairment additionally exacerbates communication problems under these circumstances. We examined the effects of hearing loss and attention tasks on speech recognition with competing talkers in older adults with and without hearing impairment. We hypothesized that hearing loss would affect word identification, talker separation and word recall and that the difficulties experienced by the hearing impaired listeners would be especially pronounced in a task with high attentional and memory demands. Two listener groups closely matched regarding their age and neuropsychological profile but differing in hearing acuity were examined regarding their speech recognition with competing talkers in two different tasks. One task required repeating back words from one target talker (1TT while ignoring the competing talker whereas the other required repeating back words from both talkers (2TT. The competing talkers differed with respect to their voice characteristics. Moreover, sentences either with low or high context were used in order to consider linguistic properties. Compared to their normal hearing peers, listeners with hearing loss revealed limited speech recognition in both tasks. Their difficulties were especially pronounced in the more demanding 2TT task. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanisms, different error sources, namely having misunderstood, confused, or omitted words were investigated. Misunderstanding and omitting words were more frequently observed in the hearing impaired than in the normal hearing listeners. In line with common speech perception models it is suggested that these effects are related to impaired object formation and taxed working memory capacity (WMC. In a post hoc analysis the

  2. Effects of Hearing Loss and Cognitive Load on Speech Recognition with Competing Talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Hartmut; Schreitmüller, Stefan; Ortmann, Magdalene; Rählmann, Sebastian; Walger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Everyday communication frequently comprises situations with more than one talker speaking at a time. These situations are challenging since they pose high attentional and memory demands placing cognitive load on the listener. Hearing impairment additionally exacerbates communication problems under these circumstances. We examined the effects of hearing loss and attention tasks on speech recognition with competing talkers in older adults with and without hearing impairment. We hypothesized that hearing loss would affect word identification, talker separation and word recall and that the difficulties experienced by the hearing impaired listeners would be especially pronounced in a task with high attentional and memory demands. Two listener groups closely matched for their age and neuropsychological profile but differing in hearing acuity were examined regarding their speech recognition with competing talkers in two different tasks. One task required repeating back words from one target talker (1TT) while ignoring the competing talker whereas the other required repeating back words from both talkers (2TT). The competing talkers differed with respect to their voice characteristics. Moreover, sentences either with low or high context were used in order to consider linguistic properties. Compared to their normal hearing peers, listeners with hearing loss revealed limited speech recognition in both tasks. Their difficulties were especially pronounced in the more demanding 2TT task. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanisms, different error sources, namely having misunderstood, confused, or omitted words were investigated. Misunderstanding and omitting words were more frequently observed in the hearing impaired than in the normal hearing listeners. In line with common speech perception models, it is suggested that these effects are related to impaired object formation and taxed working memory capacity (WMC). In a post-hoc analysis, the listeners were further

  3. Language exposure facilitates talker learning prior to language comprehension, even in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Adults show a native language advantage for talker identification, which has been interpreted as evidence that phonological knowledge mediates talker learning. However, infants also show a native language benefit for talker discrimination, suggesting that sensitivity to linguistic structure due to systematic language exposure promotes talker learning, even in the absence of functional phonological knowledge or language comprehension. We tested this hypothesis by comparing two groups of English-monolingual adults on their ability to learn English and French voices. One group resided in Montréal with regular exposure to spoken French; the other resided in Storrs, Connecticut and did not have French exposure. Montréal residents showed faster learning and better retention for the French voices compared to their Storrs-residing peers. These findings demonstrate that systematic exposure to a foreign language bolsters talker learning in that language, expanding the gradient effect of language experience on talker learning to perceptual learning that precedes sentence comprehension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Single Whole-Body Cryostimulation Procedure versus Single Dry Sauna Bath: Comparison of Oxidative Impact on Healthy Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sutkowy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n=10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years and a single WBC procedure (n=15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years. In the subjects’ blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer and blood plasma (TBARSpl were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  5. Modeling Speech Level as a Function of Background Noise Level and Talker-to-Listener Distance for Talkers Wearing Hearing Protection Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; Bockstael, Annelies; MacDonald, Ewen

    2017-01-01

    -to-listener distance, and background noise level for occluded talkers could eventually be incorporated with radio protocols to transmit verbal communication only to an intended set of listeners within a given spatial range—this range being dependent on the changes in speech level and background noise level....

  6. Single-layer tungsten oxide as intelligent photo-responsive nanoagents for permanent male sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Xianjun; Ran, Xiang; Ju, Enguo; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    Permanent male sterilization has been recognized as useful tools for the development of neuter experimental animals and fattening livestock, as well as efficient control of pet overpopulation. Traditional routes such as surgical ways, chemical injections, and anti-fertility vaccines have addressed these crucial problems with idea outcomes. However, these routes usually bring out serious pain and infection towards animals, as well as induce long-term adverse reaction and immune suppression. Thus, a convenient, but non-surgical strategy for male sterilization under a mild manner is highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate a novel platform for male sterilization by using single-layer WO2.72 nanosheets as smart photo-responsive sterilants. Upon a 980 nm irradiation, these nanoagents can possess intrinsic NIR-induced hyperthermia and sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen due to the cooperation of photothermal and photodynamic effects. Mechanism of cellular injury can be attributed to the denaturation of protein and apoptosis-related death. Moreover, long-term toxicity and possible metabolism route after testicular injection are discussed, indicating the neglectable systemic toxicity and high bio-compatibility of our nanoagents. Overall, our strategy can extremely overcome the shortcomings in various routine routes and suggest the new biological application of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of a single dose of morphine on muscle fatigue indices in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amiresmaili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Endogenous opioids and addictive opiate drugs change many body functions. . Previous studies have referred to the effects of morphine on smooth and pulmonary muscles ., but the  effects of opioids on skeletal muscles is not known well. Thus, the current study aimed at assessing the effect of a single dose of morphine on muscle fatigue in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats weighing 220-270 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: control (the mice were kept in their cages and received food and water, morphine receiving group, fatigue group (the mice in this group were kept running on  a treadmill . for120 minutes at a rate of 20 meters per minute, and morphine plus fatigue group. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were obtained from the corner of their eyes and were sent to the laboratory for measurement of muscle fatigue indexes including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phosphokinase (CPK. Results: Administration of morphine to the fatigue group decreased running time compared with the control group (P=0.009. Furthermore, administration of morphine to the fatigue group significantly increased serum levels of LDH (P=0.009 and CPK (P=0.008. Conclusion: The present study showed that administration of a single dose of morphine in rats increases muscle fatigue biomarkers (LDH, CPK.

  8. The effect of varying talker identity and listening conditions on gaze behavior during audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Julie N; Paré, Martin; Munhall, Kevin G

    2008-11-25

    During face-to-face conversation the face provides auditory and visual linguistic information, and also conveys information about the identity of the speaker. This study investigated behavioral strategies involved in gathering visual information while watching talking faces. The effects of varying talker identity and varying the intelligibility of speech (by adding acoustic noise) on gaze behavior were measured with an eyetracker. Varying the intelligibility of the speech by adding noise had a noticeable effect on the location and duration of fixations. When noise was present subjects adopted a vantage point that was more centralized on the face by reducing the frequency of the fixations on the eyes and mouth and lengthening the duration of their gaze fixations on the nose and mouth. Varying talker identity resulted in a more modest change in gaze behavior that was modulated by the intelligibility of the speech. Although subjects generally used similar strategies to extract visual information in both talker variability conditions, when noise was absent there were more fixations on the mouth when viewing a different talker every trial as opposed to the same talker every trial. These findings provide a useful baseline for studies examining gaze behavior during audiovisual speech perception and perception of dynamic faces.

  9. Object name learning and object perception: a deficit in late talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan S; Smith, Linda B

    2005-02-01

    Two experiments examined the relation between early object name learning and the ability to represent objects by their abstract shapes. In Experiment 1, two-year-old children with productive vocabularies in the bottom 20th percentile--'late talkers'--were compared with (1) same-age children with larger vocabularies, and (2) younger children matched for productive vocabulary, on their ability to recognize named common objects. Object categories were represented two ways: by lifelike, perceptually rich toys, and by grey caricatures of those objects' abstract shapes. All 3 groups recognized lifelike objects equally well. Both typically-developing control groups were better than late talkers at recognizing shape caricatures of objects whose names they knew. In Experiment 2, late talkers and age-matched controls identified named objects represented by lifelike toys and by duplicates of those toys covered in grey textured paint. Age-matched controls knew more of the object names overall, but both they and the late talkers performed equally well on both kinds of test objects. Thus, late talkers had some difficulty in Experiment 1 recognizing objects from abstract shape cues, but no difficulty in Experiment 2 when the shape cues were realistic. The findings imply a relation between the growth of productive vocabulary and the emergence of the ability to represent object categories by abstract shape.

  10. Male gender is not a risk factor for the outcome of laparoscopiccholecystectomy: A single surgeon experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulhim, Abdulmohsen A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies regarding the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy(LC) in men have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted thisprospective study to test the hypothesis that the outcome of LC is worse inmen than women. Between 1997 and 2002, a total of 391 consecutive LCs wereperformed by a single surgeon at King Fahd Hospital of the University. Wecollected and analyzed data including age, gender, body mass index (kg/m2),the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, mode of admission(elective or emergency), indication for LC (chronic or acute) cholecystitis[AC]), comorbid disease, previous abdominal surgery, conversion to opencholecystectomy, complications, operation time and length of postoperativehospital stay. Bivariate analysis showed that both genders were matched forage, ASA class and mode of admission. The incidence of AC (P=0.003) andcomobrid disease (P=0.031) were significantly higher in men. Women weresignificantly more obese than men (P<0.001) and had a higher incidence ofprevious abdominal surgery (P=0.017). There were no statistical differencesbetween genders with regards to rate of conversion (P=0.372) andcomplications (P=0.647) and operation time (P=0.063). The postoperative staywas significantly longer in men than women (P=0.001). Logistic regressionanalysis showed that male gender was not an independent predictor ofconversion (Odds ratio [or] = 0.37 and P=0.43) or complications (OR=0.42,P=0.42). Linear regression analysis showed that male gender was not anindependent predictor of the operation time, but was associated with a longerpostoperative stay (P=0.02). Male gender is not an independent risk factorfor satisfactory outcome of LC in the experience of a single surgeon. (author)

  11. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence study of aniracetam after single-dose administration in healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Feng, Shu-Dan; Zhang, Zun-Jian; Chen, Yun

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of aniracetam (CAS 72432-10-1) in Chinese healthy male volunteers was investigated for the first time. Twenty male volunteers were enrolled into this open, randomized, single blind two-sequence, two-period crossover study. Under fasting conditions, each subject received a single oral dose of 400 mg (2 x 200 mg/capsule) aniracetam as a test or reference formulation with a 3-day washout period between the two preparations. The plasma concentrations of aniracetam were analyzed by a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the test and reference formulations were estimated as follows: The maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 8.75 +/- 7.82 and 8.65 +/- 8.70 ng/mL, Tmax were 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.4 +/- 0.1 h, and plasma elimination half-lives (t(1/2)) were 0.47 +/- 0.16 and 0.49 +/- 0.24 h, respectively. The AUC(0-t) values demonstrated nearly identical bioavailability of aniracetam from the examined formulations. AUC(0-2.5) values were 4.53 +/- 6.62 and 4.76 +/- 6.65 ng h/mL, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity) were 4.62 +/- 6.66 and 4.85 +/- 6.71 ng h/mL for the test and reference formulation, respectively. No statistical differences were observed for Cmax, and AUC(0-infinity) for aniracetam. The 90% confidence limits calculated for AUC and Cmax of aniracetam were within the standard bioequivalence range (80%-125% for AUC and Cmax). Therefore, the aniracetam test formulation can be regarded as bioequivalent to the aniracetam reference formulation.

  12. Peripheral hearing loss reduces the ability of children to direct selective attention during multi-talker listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emma; Kitterick, Padraig T; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2017-07-01

    Restoring normal hearing requires knowledge of how peripheral and central auditory processes are affected by hearing loss. Previous research has focussed primarily on peripheral changes following sensorineural hearing loss, whereas consequences for central auditory processing have received less attention. We examined the ability of hearing-impaired children to direct auditory attention to a voice of interest (based on the talker's spatial location or gender) in the presence of a common form of background noise: the voices of competing talkers (i.e. during multi-talker, or "Cocktail Party" listening). We measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG) when children prepared to direct attention to the spatial location or gender of an upcoming target talker who spoke in a mixture of three talkers. Compared to normally-hearing children, hearing-impaired children showed significantly less evidence of preparatory brain activity when required to direct spatial attention. This finding is consistent with the idea that hearing-impaired children have a reduced ability to prepare spatial attention for an upcoming talker. Moreover, preparatory brain activity was not restored when hearing-impaired children listened with their acoustic hearing aids. An implication of these findings is that steps to improve auditory attention alongside acoustic hearing aids may be required to improve the ability of hearing-impaired children to understand speech in the presence of competing talkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. He Said, She Said: Effects of Bilingualism on Cross-Talker Word Recognition in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine effects of bilingual language input on infant word segmentation and on talker generalization. In the present study, monolingually and bilingually exposed infants were compared on their abilities to recognize familiarized words in speech and to maintain generalizable representations of familiarized…

  14. The development of language-specific and language-independent talker processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Susannah V; Schwartz, Richard G

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to investigate how differences in language ability relate to differences in processing talker information in the native language and an unfamiliar language by comparing performance for different ages and for groups with impaired language. Three groups of native English listeners with typical language development (TLD; ages 7-9, ages 10-12, adults) and 2 groups with specific language impairment (SLI; ages 7-9, ages 10-12) participated in the study. Listeners heard pairs of words in both English and German (unfamiliar language) and were asked to determine whether the words were produced by the same or different talkers. In English, talker discrimination improved with age. In German, performance improved with age for the school-age children but was worse for adult listeners. No differences were found between TLD and SLI children. These results show that as listeners' language skills develop, there is a trade-off between more general perceptual abilities useful for processing talker information in any language and those that are relevant to their everyday language experiences and, thus, tied to the phonology. The lack of differences between the children with and without language impairments suggests that general auditory processing may be intact in at least some children with SLI.

  15. Talker-specific learning in amnesia: Insight into mechanisms of adaptive speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Alison M; Duff, Melissa C; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    A hallmark of human speech perception is the ability to comprehend speech quickly and effortlessly despite enormous variability across talkers. However, current theories of speech perception do not make specific claims about the memory mechanisms involved in this process. To examine whether declarative memory is necessary for talker-specific learning, we tested the ability of amnesic patients with severe declarative memory deficits to learn and distinguish the accents of two unfamiliar talkers by monitoring their eye-gaze as they followed spoken instructions. Analyses of the time-course of eye fixations showed that amnesic patients rapidly learned to distinguish these accents and tailored perceptual processes to the voice of each talker. These results demonstrate that declarative memory is not necessary for this ability and points to the involvement of non-declarative memory mechanisms. These results are consistent with findings that other social and accommodative behaviors are preserved in amnesia and contribute to our understanding of the interactions of multiple memory systems in the use and understanding of spoken language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Speaking rate effects on articulatory pattern consistency in talkers with mild ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefferd, Antje S; Pattee, Gary L; Green, Jordan R

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated speaking rate effects on articulatory pattern consistency in talkers with mild amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to better understand speech rate declines during the early stages of speech deterioration. Eight talkers with mild ALS and 11 controls repeated a sentence at their typical rate, an accelerated rate, and a reduced rate. Lip and jaw movements were captured using a 3-D motion capture system. Results showed that talkers with ALS produced more consistent articulatory patterns during typical speech than did controls. Further, rate reduction resulted in diminished pattern consistency in both groups. Fast speech also elicited less consistent articulatory patterns in talkers with ALS. Controls, by contrast, tended to produce more consistent patterns during fast speech. Relatively inconsistent patterns during fast speech suggest that ALS may negatively affect articulatory control when the speech motor system operates near its performance limit. Relatively consistent patterns during typical speech indicate a successful adaption to disease-related articulatory deficits. Rate reduction does not appear to benefit articulatory stability during early stages of speech decline.

  17. Speaking Rate Effects on Articulatory Pattern Variability in Talkers with Mild ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Green, Jordan R.; Pattee, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Articulatory pattern variability describes the movement consistency across several repetitions of the same utterance. This study investigated speaking rate effects on articulatory pattern variability in talkers with mild ALS. Fast speech was used to differentiate disease-related and compensatory motor performance changes. Slow speech was used to evaluate therapeutic benefits. Methods Eight talkers with mild ALS and eleven controls participated in this study. Participants produced five repetitions of “Buy Bobby a puppy” at their typical rate, as fast as possible, and at a slow rate. Lower lip and jaw movements were captured using a motion capture system. Results Talkers with ALS tended to be more variable than controls during fast speech. During typical speech, however, talkers with ALS demonstrated significantly lower articulatory pattern variability than controls. Slow speech elicited elevated levels of articulatory pattern variability in both groups. Conclusions Increased variability during fast speech suggests that ALS negatively affects the ability to produce highly consistent articulatory movements; however, decreased variability during typical speech indicates a successful adaption to disease-related articulatory limitations. Findings of slow speech did not support the use of rate reductions to enhance this aspect of articulatory performance during the early stages of the ALS. PMID:24724615

  18. Pragmatic Functions in Late Talkers: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Kliment, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed spontaneous language samples of three-year-olds with a history of expressive language delay (late talkers) and age-matched controls using Dore's Conversational Acts analysis (1978) and Mean Length of Utterance (MLU; Brown, 1973). Differences were observed between groups in utterances classified as organizational device and…

  19. Informational interference from a competing talker: a thought-provoking but elusive construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdés-Laribi, Huarda; Wendt, Dorothea; MacDonald, Ewen

    marked when participants’ own processing demands are increased, as with non-native listeners. Using a speeded picture selection task, we assessed native and non-native listeners’ understanding of subject-relative (simple) and object-relative (complex) sentences, played against a competing talker vs...

  20. Selective Attention to a Talker's Mouth in Infancy: Role of Audiovisual Temporal Synchrony and Linguistic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Tift, Amy H.; Minar, Nicholas J.; Lewkowicz, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that infants shift their attention from the eyes to the mouth of a talker when they enter the canonical babbling phase after 6 months of age. Here, we investigated whether this increased attentional focus on the mouth is mediated by audio-visual synchrony and linguistic experience. To do so, we tracked eye gaze in 4-,…

  1. Audio-visual speech intelligibility benefits with bilateral cochlear implants when talker location varies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoesel, Richard J M

    2015-04-01

    One of the key benefits of using cochlear implants (CIs) in both ears rather than just one is improved localization. It is likely that in complex listening scenes, improved localization allows bilateral CI users to orient toward talkers to improve signal-to-noise ratios and gain access to visual cues, but to date, that conjecture has not been tested. To obtain an objective measure of that benefit, seven bilateral CI users were assessed for both auditory-only and audio-visual speech intelligibility in noise using a novel dynamic spatial audio-visual test paradigm. For each trial conducted in spatially distributed noise, first, an auditory-only cueing phrase that was spoken by one of four talkers was selected and presented from one of four locations. Shortly afterward, a target sentence was presented that was either audio-visual or, in another test configuration, audio-only and was spoken by the same talker and from the same location as the cueing phrase. During the target presentation, visual distractors were added at other spatial locations. Results showed that in terms of speech reception thresholds (SRTs), the average improvement for bilateral listening over the better performing ear alone was 9 dB for the audio-visual mode, and 3 dB for audition-alone. Comparison of bilateral performance for audio-visual and audition-alone showed that inclusion of visual cues led to an average SRT improvement of 5 dB. For unilateral device use, no such benefit arose, presumably due to the greatly reduced ability to localize the target talker to acquire visual information. The bilateral CI speech intelligibility advantage over the better ear in the present study is much larger than that previously reported for static talker locations and indicates greater everyday speech benefits and improved cost-benefit than estimated to date.

  2. Auditory sensory memory and language abilities in former late talkers: a mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossheinrich, Nicola; Kademann, Stefanie; Bruder, Jennifer; Bartling, Juergen; Von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated whether (a) a reduced duration of auditory sensory memory is found in late talking children and (b) whether deficits of sensory memory are linked to persistent difficulties in language acquisition. Former late talkers and children without delayed language development were examined at the age of 4 years and 7 months using mismatch negativity (MMN) with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 500 ms and 2000 ms. Additionally, short-term memory, language skills, and nonverbal intelligence were assessed. MMN mean amplitude was reduced for the ISI of 2000 ms in former late talking children both with and without persistent language deficits. In summary, our findings suggest that late talkers are characterized by a reduced duration of auditory sensory memory. However, deficits in auditory sensory memory are not sufficient for persistent language difficulties and may be compensated for by some children.

  3. Individual differences in learning talker categories: the role of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Susannah V

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the question of how an auditory category is learned by having school-age listeners learn to categorize speech not in terms of linguistic categories, but instead in terms of talker categories (i.e., who is talking). Findings from visual-category learning indicate that working memory skills affect learning, but the literature is equivocal: sometimes better working memory is advantageous, and sometimes not. The current study examined the role of different components of working memory to test which component skills benefit, and which hinder, learning talker categories. Results revealed that the short-term storage component positively predicted learning, but that the Central Executive and Episodic Buffer negatively predicted learning. As with visual categories, better working memory is not always an advantage. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Male infertility: An audit of 70 cases in a single centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Jeje

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Varicocoele represents the most common treatable cause of male factor infertility and treatment is accompanied with improved seminal fluid parameters as well pregnancy rate. Post-treatment sperm concentration and motility were the only factors that could predict the possibility of achieving pregnancy.

  5. The Gender Role Perceptions of Male Students at a Prestigious, Single-Gender, Catholic High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Franklin T.; Austin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a data set of categorical responses measuring the gender role views of students (N = 701) from a prestigious, Midwestern, all-male, Catholic high school. Incongruence between student self-perceptions and the realities of gender role miseducation and the embracement of sexist ideology were readily apparent. Findings suggest that…

  6. The Effects of Single-Sex Mathematics Classrooms on African American Males in the Ninth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner-Simmons, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Research indicated that educators must consider socio-ecological accommodations because not all students learn in cooperative groups. Students must be taught how to discover the process of learning and to apply knowledge to real life situations. Gurian and Ballew (2003) identified differences in the male and female brain and the differences in how…

  7. Male Fertility and Reduction in Semen Parameters: A Single Tertiary-Care Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Milardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infertility is both a clinical and a public problem, affecting the life of the couple, the healthcare services, and social environment. Standard semen analysis is the surrogate measure of male fertility in clinical practice. Objective. To provide information about the relationship between semen parameters and spontaneous conception. Methods. We evaluated retrospectively 453 pregnancies that occurred among 2935 infertile couples evaluated at an infertility clinic of a tertiary-care university hospital, between 2004 and 2009. Results. Normal semen analysis was present only in 158 patients; 295 subfertile patients showed alterations in at least one seminal parameter. A reduction in all seminal parameters was observed in 41 patients. Etiological causes of male infertility were identified in 314 patients. Conclusion. Our data highlights the possibility of a spontaneous conception with semen parameters below WHO reference values. Therefore, we support the importance of defining reference values on a population of fertile men. Finally, we analyzed the related ethical issues.

  8. Clinical outcome of 36 male patients with primary urethral carcinoma. A single center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyavihally, Y.B.; Tongaonkar, H.B.; Srivastava, S.K.; Mahantshetty, U.; Kumar, P.; Raibhattanavar, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was retrospective analysis of male urethral carcinoma to assess the best therapeutic approach to the management of this tumor. A review of 36 cases of male urethral carcinoma diagnosed and treated at our center was performed. Clinical features, treatment modality and outcomes were analysed. The overall median survival time was 55.16 months. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rate for the cohort was 49% and 23%, respectively. The 5-year survival is 67% for low-stage versus 33% for high-stage tumors and is significantly different (P=0.001). The survival was 72% for tumors of the distal urethra versus 36% for tumors of the proximal, with a P-value of 0.02. The tumor location and clinicopathological stage were the most important predictors of the disease-free and overall survival. Multimodal approach is necessary for achieving local control especially for proximal and higher stage tumors. (author)

  9. Talker-identification training using simulations of binaurally combined electric and acoustic hearing: generalization to speech and emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Vidya; Luo, Xin; Iler Kirk, Karen

    2012-04-01

    Understanding speech in background noise, talker identification, and vocal emotion recognition are challenging for cochlear implant (CI) users due to poor spectral resolution and limited pitch cues with the CI. Recent studies have shown that bimodal CI users, that is, those CI users who wear a hearing aid (HA) in their non-implanted ear, receive benefit for understanding speech both in quiet and in noise. This study compared the efficacy of talker-identification training in two groups of young normal-hearing adults, listening to either acoustic simulations of unilateral CI or bimodal (CI+HA) hearing. Training resulted in improved identification of talkers for both groups with better overall performance for simulated bimodal hearing. Generalization of learning to sentence and emotion recognition also was assessed in both subject groups. Sentence recognition in quiet and in noise improved for both groups, no matter if the talkers had been heard during training or not. Generalization to improvements in emotion recognition for two unfamiliar talkers also was noted for both groups with the simulated bimodal-hearing group showing better overall emotion-recognition performance. Improvements in sentence recognition were retained a month after training in both groups. These results have potential implications for aural rehabilitation of conventional and bimodal CI users.

  10. Reconstructive surgery for male stress urinary incontinence: Experiences using the ATOMS system at a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause, Jens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose possible success-driven solutions for problem and complication rates encountered with the ATOMS sling system, based on first-hand experience; and to provide possible actual alternative scenarios for the treatment of male . Patients and methods: During the defined period (between 4/2010 and 04/2014, 36 patients received ATOMS system implants at our clinic. We collected pre- and post-operative evaluation data using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ SF. As an expansion of the questionnaire, we added questions about post-operative perineal pain, the general satisfaction with the results of the intervention and willingness to recommend the operation to a best friend. Results: Our data shows a relatively high explantation rate, but a surprisingly high patient satisfaction rate. Explantation was required mainly due to late onset infections or other symptomatic factors. Compared to other studies early onset infections were rare. Conclusion: A non-invasive, uncomplicated adjustable system to alleviate male stress urinary incontinence remains a challenge. Although there are various systems available for the treatment of male stress urinary incontinence, it seems that despite the advantages of the ATOMS system, an artificial sphincter system may pose more advantages based on our experience, understanding and knowledge of its well-documented long-term solutions and problems.

  11. Rural Mid-Life Single Adult Families: Male/Female Similarities and Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingren, Herbert G.; And Others

    The study examined data from rural midlife singles concerning: (1) their socio-demographic characteristics; (2) their life satisfactions and happiness with their rural lifestyle; (3) their self-image and self-esteem; (4) their coping strategies; and (5) their social support systems. Subjects were 76 men and 149 women between the ages of 35 and 59…

  12. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Perceived Sentence Clarity for Young Adults with Normal Hearing and Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus; Morgan, Shae D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine talker differences for subjectively rated speech clarity in clear versus conversational speech, to determine whether ratings differ for young adults with normal hearing (YNH listeners) and older adults with hearing impairment (OHI listeners), and to explore effects of certain talker characteristics…

  13. Influence of stuttering variation on talker group classification in preschool children: Preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of 17 3- to 5-year-old CWS and 9 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no statistically significant between-group difference in chronological age (CWS: M = 45.53 months, SD = 8.32; CWNS: M = 47.67 months, SD = 6.69). All participants had speech, language, and hearing development within normal limits, with the exception of stuttering for CWS. Both talker groups participated in a series of speaking samples that varied by: (a) conversational partner [parent and clinician], (b) location [home and clinic], and (c) context [conversation and narrative]. The primary dependent measures for this study were the number of stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD) per total number of spoken words [%SLD] and the ratio of SLD to total disfluencies (TD) [SLD/TD]. Results indicated that significant variability of stuttering did not exist as a result of conversational partner or location. Changes in context, however, did impact the CWS, who demonstrated higher SLD/TD in the conversation sample versus a narrative sample. Consistent with hypotheses, CWS and CWNS were accurately identified as stutterers and nonstutterers, respectively, regardless of changes to conversational partner, location or context for the overall participant sample. Present findings were taken to suggest that during assessment, variations in stuttering frequency resulting from changes in conversational partner, location or context do not significantly influence the diagnosis of stuttering, especially for children not on the talker group classification borderline between CWS and CWNS. PMID:19167719

  14. Transnational Debts: The Cultural Memory of Navajo Code Talkers in World War II

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    Birgit Däwes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Even 70 years after it ended, World War II continues to endure in the global imagination. In the United States, images of the “Good War” prevail, and memories of the soldiers have been widely translated into displays of national heroism and glorification. At the same time, the celebratory narrative of national unity and democratic triumph is undercut by the counter-histories and experiences of the 44,000 Native American soldiers who served in this war. Their experiences and memories—in oral histories, interviews, as well as in fiction and film—challenge the narrative of a glorious nation in unison, especially in light of the historical conflicts between American nationalism and Native American political sovereignty. This paper investigates the specific memorial debt owed to the Navajo Code Talkers of World War II. Focusing on John Woo’s film Windtalkers (2002, Joseph Bruchac’s novel Code Talker (2005, and Chester Nez’s memoir Code Talker (2011, I will inquire into the field of tension between tribal, national, and transnational identities and explore the ways in which these tensions are negotiated at different sites of commemoration, especially in contrast to the distorted, consumer-oriented memory produced by the Hollywood industry. Through codes of orality, communal identity, and historicity, I argue, counter-strategies of narrating and remembering World War II not only decisively shape a revisionist writing of recent history and enrich the multicultural narrative of ‘America’ by Indigenous voices, but they also substantially contribute to current debates about transnational American identities.

  15. Penile and Testicular Measurements in Male Neonates and Infants: Single Center Egyptian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Adel A; Erfan, Adel A; Elrifaey, Shaymaa M; Gamal, Rasha M; Harakan, Ahmed I

    2017-11-16

    Universal reference values of penile length, circumferences and testicular volume in newborns and infants are inappropriate to be used in variable ethnic backgrounds. The aim of this prospective study was to establish normal reference values for stretched penile length, penile circumference and testicular volume for Egyptian newborn and infants. This observational cross-sectional study included 1850 healthy male full term newborn and infants applied for routine check-up, aged 0 -24 months, the newborn and infants were recruited from Tanta University Hospital in the period from July 2015 to January 2017. Penile length, penile circumference, testicular volume, weight, length and occipito-frontal circumference were measured. The studied infants were divided into five groups. Group I: 1-4 weeks, the mean penile length was 3.51 ± 0.49 cm, penile circumference was 3.95 ± 0.48 cm, and testicular size was (right 1.81 ± 0.44 cm and left 1.67 ± 0.47 cm). Group II: > 1-6 months age, the mean penile length was 3.99 ± 0.46 cm, penile circumference was 4.10 ± 0.38 cm, and testicular size was (right 2.10 ± 0.33 cm and left 2.04 ± 0.27 cm). Group III: >6-12 months age, the mean penile length was 4.45 ± 0.48 cm, penile circumference was 4.21 ± 0.33 cm, and testicular size was (right 2.13 ± 0.33 cm and left 2.06 ± 0.28 cm). Group IV: >12-18 months age, the mean penile length was 4.55 ± 0.54 cm, penile circumference was 4.28 ± 0.32 cm, and testicular size was (right 2.12 ± 0.33 cm and left 2.09 ± 0.32 cm). Group V: >18-24 months age, the mean penile length was 4.89 ± 0.63 cm, penile circumference was 4.45 ± 0.33 cm, and testicular size was (right 2.28 ± 0.45 cm and left 2.25 ± 0.45 cm). There were significant positive correlations between penile length, penile circumference, left and right testicular volumes with each other and also with all other anthropometric measures including: weight, height and head circumference. The age-related values of penile and

  16. Results of single and repeat dose studies of the oral matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat in healthy male volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Andrew W; Brown, Peter D; Moore, Jeff; Galloway, W Alan; Cornish, Alan G; Lenehan, Terence J; Lynch, Kevin P

    1998-01-01

    Aims To assess the tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile of single and repeat doses of the oral matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat in healthy male volunteers. Methods A total of 31 subjects participated in two placebo-controlled, rising-dose studies. The first study assessed the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of single doses of marimastat of 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg. In the second study, continuous dosing over 6.5 days with three incremental dose levels of 50, 100 and 200 mg twice daily was assessed. Full pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained on days 0 and 6, and trough concentrations were measured on all days. For each pharmacokinetic profile in the studies, summary measures including Cmax, tmax, elimination half-life and AUC were calculated. Urinary drug weights were also measured. All adverse events were documented, and haematological and biochemical variables, vital signs and ECGs were monitored throughout the study. Results Peak plasma concentrations were observed at 1.5–3 h for all subjects at all doses. Peak levels were approximately proportional to dose, as was drug exposure as calculated by AUC. Data from both studies indicate that the terminal elimination half-life is of the order of 8–10 h, and that there is no unexpected drug accumulation. Marimastat was well-tolerated, with adverse effects being mild and occurring with similar frequency to placebo. Small but reversible elevations in liver transaminases were noted with repeat dosing of marimastat, the most significant of these occurring at a dose of 200 mg twice daily. Conclusion Single and repeat oral doses of marimastat in healthy male subjects appear to be well-tolerated. The drug is rapidly absorbed with high peak levels achieved. It has a terminal elimination half-life of 8–10 h which would support twice daily dosing in further clinical trials. PMID:9489589

  17. Continuing evidence for poorer treatment outcomes for single male patients: Retreatment data from RTOG 97-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; DeSilvio, Michelle; Hartsell, William; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Coyne, James; Scarantino, Charles; JanJan, Nora

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The specific aim of this study was to evaluate outcome differences by gender and partner status for patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 97-14. Methods and Materials: RTOG 97-14 randomized patients with metastatic breast or prostate cancer to bone to receive 8 Gy in 1 fraction or 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Retreatment rates and overall survival were made based upon gender, marital status, and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS). The cumulative incidence method was used to estimate retreatment time at 36 months from enrollment, and Gray's test was used to test for treatment differences within the same groupings. Marital status, gender, KPS, and treatment were variables tested in a univariate Cox model evaluating the time to retreatment. Results: Married men and women and single women receiving 30 Gy had significantly longer time to retreatment, p = 0.0067, p = 0.0052, and p = 0.0009 respectively. We failed to show a difference in retreatment rates over time in single men receiving either 30 Gy or 8 Gy. Univariate analysis of the entire group determined patients receiving 30 Gy in 10 fractions significantly less likely to receive retreatment, p < 0.0001, with a trend toward single patients less likely to be re-treated, p = 0.07. Conclusion: Non-disease-related variables, such as social support, might influence the results of clinical trials with subjective endpoints such as retreatment rates. The statistically nonsignificant difference in the 36-month retreatment rates observed in single male patients receiving 8 Gy may be a result of inadequate social support systems in place to facilitate additional care. Patients receiving 8 Gy in a single fraction had significantly higher retreatment rates compared with patients receiving 30 Gy in 10 fractions

  18. Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.

  19. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Predictors of Expressive-Language Outcomes among Late Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Evelyn L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the literature on predictors of outcomes among late talkers using systematic review and meta-analysis methods. We sought to answer the question: What factors predict preschool-age expressive-language outcomes among late-talking toddlers? Method: We entered carefully selected search terms into the…

  20. You talkin' to me? Communicative talker gaze activates left-lateralized superior temporal cortex during perception of degraded speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Jasmin, Kyle; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Josephs, Oliver J; Calder, Andrew J; Jessop, Rosemary; Lawson, Rebecca P; Spielmann, Mona; Scott, Sophie K

    2017-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies of speech perception have consistently indicated a left-hemisphere dominance in the temporal lobes' responses to intelligible auditory speech signals (McGettigan and Scott, 2012). However, there are important communicative cues that cannot be extracted from auditory signals alone, including the direction of the talker's gaze. Previous work has implicated the superior temporal cortices in processing gaze direction, with evidence for predominantly right-lateralized responses (Carlin & Calder, 2013). The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the lateralization of responses to talker gaze differs in an auditory communicative context. Participants in a functional MRI experiment watched and listened to videos of spoken sentences in which the auditory intelligibility and talker gaze direction were manipulated factorially. We observed a left-dominant temporal lobe sensitivity to the talker's gaze direction, in which the left anterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus and temporal pole showed an enhanced response to direct gaze - further investigation revealed that this pattern of lateralization was modulated by auditory intelligibility. Our results suggest flexibility in the distribution of neural responses to social cues in the face within the context of a challenging speech perception task. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment

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    Bishop Dorothy VM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average. The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29% met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI at 4 years of age, and a further two (8% had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14% met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8% had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay.

  2. The Impact of Single-Sex Education on Male and Female Gains in Mathematics and Reading at the Elementary Level in a Selected School in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The gender gap in achievement and the increasing awareness of differences between male and female cognitive development have ignited a growing interest in single-sex education. No Child Left Behind legislation and amendments to Title IX legislation have increased the number of schools in America offering single-sex education. This 2-year…

  3. Clinical Efficacy of a Single Two Gram Dose of Azithromycin Extended Release for Male Patients with Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Ito, Shin; Iwasawa, Akihiko; Hiyama, Yoshiki; Uehara, Teruhisa; Ichihara, Koji; Hashimoto, Jiro; Masumori, Naoya; Sunaoshi, Kenichi; Takeda, Koichi; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Hosobe, Takahide; Goto, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Hidenori; Onodera, Shoichi

    2014-04-02

    To clarify the clinical efficacy of a single oral 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release for heterosexual male patients with urethritis, and the current antimicrobial sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to azithromycin, a prospective clinical trial was conducted from 2011-2013. In patients with gonococcal urethritis, the eradication rate was 90.9% (30 of 33). The susceptibility rates of isolated Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, cefixime and azithromycin were 100%, 100%, 95.3% (41/43) and 37.2% (16/43), respectively. In the patients with nongonococcal urethritis, the eradication rate was 90.0% (45 of 50). The microbiological eradication rates for the pathogens were 90.9% (30/33) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 91.5% (43/47) for Chlamydia trachomatis, 71.4% (5/7) for Mycoplasma genitalium, and 100% (13/13) for Ureaplasma urealyticum. The main adverse event was diarrhea and its manifestation rate was 35.2% (32 of 120). The symptom of diarrhea was mostly temporary and resolved spontaneously. The conclusion was that the treatment regimen with a single oral 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release would be effective for patients with urethritis. However, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium should be carefully monitored because of possible treatment failure.

  4. Clinical Efficacy of a Single Two Gram Dose of Azithromycin Extended Release for Male Patients with Urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takahashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the clinical efficacy of a single oral 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release for heterosexual male patients with urethritis, and the current antimicrobial sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to azithromycin, a prospective clinical trial was conducted from 2011–2013. In patients with gonococcal urethritis, the eradication rate was 90.9% (30 of 33. The susceptibility rates of isolated Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, cefixime and azithromycin were 100%, 100%, 95.3% (41/43 and 37.2% (16/43, respectively. In the patients with nongonococcal urethritis, the eradication rate was 90.0% (45 of 50. The microbiological eradication rates for the pathogens were 90.9% (30/33 for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 91.5% (43/47 for Chlamydia trachomatis, 71.4% (5/7 for Mycoplasma genitalium, and 100% (13/13 for Ureaplasma urealyticum. The main adverse event was diarrhea and its manifestation rate was 35.2% (32 of 120. The symptom of diarrhea was mostly temporary and resolved spontaneously. The conclusion was that the treatment regimen with a single oral 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release would be effective for patients with urethritis. However, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium should be carefully monitored because of possible treatment failure.

  5. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Tedizolid Phosphate After Single-dose Administration in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun; Kim, Anhye; Lee, SeungHwan; Choi, Sung-Hak; Lee, Dae Young; Song, Ji-Su; Lee, Howard; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-09-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a next-generation oxazolidinone prodrug that is transformed into the active moiety tedizolid. Its indication is acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although tedizolid phosphate has been marketed in Korea, no data on the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties or tolerability of tedizolid phosphate in Korean subjects are available. This study was designed to evaluate the PK properties, oral bioavailability, and tolerability with a single-dose oral and intravenous administration of tedizolid phosphate in healthy Korean male subjects. A block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study was conducted in 3 groups (200, 400, and 600 mg; 10 subjects in each group). In the second part of the study, subjects from the 200-mg group received administration orally and intravenously (1-hour infusion) via 2-way crossover for the evaluation of absolute bioavailability. There was a 7-day washout period between treatments in the absolute bioavailability part of the study. Serial blood samples for PK analysis were collected for up to 72 hours. Tolerability was assessed by analysis of adverse events. Thirty healthy Korean subjects completed the study and were included in the PK and tolerability analyses. Tedizolid phosphate was rapidly converted into tedizolid. After a single oral dose, the T max of tedizolid was observed to be 1.5 to 2.5 hours, and the plasma concentration-time curve of tedizolid showed a 2-phase elimination pattern, with a half-life of ~11 hours. Dose-dependent increases were observed in the AUC last value (29,441-78,062 μg · h/L) and in the C max value ( 2679-6980 μg/L) with the administration of tedizolid phosphate 200 to 600 mg PO. The absolute bioavailability of tedizolid was 95.2% (90% CI, 92.7%-97.8%) in the 200-mg administration group. There were no serious adverse events or clinically significant changes in the

  6. Second-language experience and speech-in-noise recognition: effects of talker-listener accent similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Melanie; Iverson, Paul; Huckvale, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Previous work has shown that the intelligibility of speech in noise is degraded if the speaker and listener differ in accent, in particular when there is a disparity between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) accents. This study investigated how this talker-listener interaction is modulated by L2 experience and accent similarity. L1 Southern British English, L1 French listeners with varying L2 English experience, and French-English bilinguals were tested on the recognition of English sentences mixed in speech-shaped noise that was spoken with a range of accents (French, Korean, Northern Irish, and Southern British English). The results demonstrated clear interactions of accent and experience, with the least experienced French speakers being most accurate with French-accented English, but more experienced listeners being most accurate with L1 Southern British English accents. An acoustic similarity metric was applied to the speech productions of the talkers and the listeners, and significant correlations were obtained between accent similarity and sentence intelligibility for pairs of individuals. Overall, the results suggest that L2 experience affects talker-listener accent interactions, altering both the intelligibility of different accents and the selectivity of accent processing. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  7. Single-dose, randomized crossover comparisons of different-strength imatinib mesylate formulations in healthy Korean male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Park, Shin Jung; Kim, Chin; Park, Ji-Young

    2013-10-01

    Imatinib mesylate is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 different strengths of the imatinib formulation containing 100 mg (reference) and 400 mg (test) to satisfy the regulatory requirement for marketing. A single-center, randomized, single-dose, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence, comparative crossover study with a 14-day washout period was conducted in 30 healthy male volunteers. Plasma samples for the drug analysis were collected up to 72 hours after drug treatment. Participants received either the reference (4 tablets of 100-mg imatinib) or the test (1 tablet of 400-mg imatinib) formulation during the first period and the alternative formulation during the second period. The safety profiles and tolerability of the 2 formulations were also assessed based on physical examinations, laboratory tests, a 12-lead ECG, and vital signs. Thirty participants were initially enrolled; their mean (SD) age, height, weight, and body mass index were 24.9 (2.0) years (range, 23-30 years), 174 (5) cm (range, 164-185 cm), 69.9 (2.0) kg (range, 54.1-87.4 kg), and 23.0 (2.0) kg/m(2) (range, 18.5-26.9 kg/m(2)); 28 healthy participants completed both treatment periods. Two subjects did not complete the study because they withdrew consent for personal reasons. The observed mean (SD) Cmax, AUC0-last, and AUC0-∞ values for the reference formulation were 1792 (357) ng/mL, 28,485 (6274) ng · h/mL, and 29,079 (6371) ng · h/mL, respectively. Corresponding values for the test formulation were 1710 (312) ng/mL, 27,222 (4624) ng · h/mL , and 27,872 (4751) ng · h/mL. The geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) between the 2 formulations at the 400-mg dose of imatinib were 0.9579 (0.9054-1.0136) for Cmax, 0.9652 (0.9174-1.0155) for AUC0-last, and 0.9679 (0.9203-1.0179) for AUC0-∞, respectively. During the study period, 6 adverse events (3 for the reference and 3 for the test

  8. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive review of…

  9. Five-year experience with the adjustable transobturator male system for the treatment of male stress urinary incontinence: a single-center evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlstädt, Sandra; Friedl, Alexander; Mohammed, Nasreldin; Schumann, André; Weigand, Karl; Kawan, Felix; Göllert, Christian; Kahlert, Christin; Theil, Gerit; Fischer, Kersten; Fornara, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We report on our 5-year experience with the adjustable transobturator male system (ATOMS ®, A.M.I., Feldkirch, Austria). Between 10-2009 and 10-2014, 54 patients received an ATOMS. The mean follow-up of this retrospective observational trial was 27.5 ± 18.4 (2.3-59) months. Within each follow-up, the following were evaluated: micturition protocol, 24-h pad count, uroflowmetry and residual volume. Statistical analysis was performed with SigmaPlot ® 11.0, p safty pad"/day), while 29.6 % achieved at least an "improvement" of about more than 50 % (1-2 pads/day), which corresponds to an overall success rate of 77.7 %. The mean number of pads/day decreased from 7.7 to 1.6. Regarding the initial degree of SUI, patients with mild or moderate incontinence had a significantly better outcome (p = 0.002, 95 % CI 0.9066 to 2.760). Postoperative complications were scaled according to the Clavien classification, in which we have seen 4 grade I-, 1 grade IIIa- and 9 grade IIIb-complications (overall 25.9 %). The evaluation of quality of life by ICIQ-SF showed a significant improvement (p = 0.0001, 95 % CI -14.56 to -11.75). The treatment of male SUI using the ATOMS incontinence system achieved the best results in patients with mild and moderate incontinence. For severe incontinent patients, the system represents an efficient alternative.

  10. Influence of hearing loss on children’s identification of spondee words in a speech-shaped noise or a two-talker masker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibold, Lori J.; Hillock-Dunn, Andrea; Duncan, Nicole; Roush, Patricia A.; Buss, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This study compared spondee identification performance in presence of speech-shaped noise or two competing talkers across children with hearing loss and age-matched children with normal hearing. The results showed a greater masking effect for children with hearing loss compared to children with normal hearing for both masker conditions. However, the magnitude of this group difference was significantly larger for the two-talker compared to the speech-shaped noise masker. These results support the hypothesis that hearing loss influences children’s perceptual processing abilities. PMID:23492919

  11. The influence of lexical characteristics and talker accent on the recognition of English words by speakers of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kiyoko; Munson, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Whether or not the influence of listeners' language proficiency on L2 speech recognition was affected by the structure of the lexicon was examined. This specific experiment examined the effect of word frequency (WF) and phonological neighborhood density (PND) on word recognition in native speakers of English and second-language (L2) speakers of English whose first language was Japanese. The stimuli included English words produced by a native speaker of English and English words produced by a native speaker of Japanese (i.e., with Japanese-accented English). The experiment was inspired by the finding of Imai, Flege, and Walley [(2005). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 896-907] that the influence of talker accent on speech intelligibility for L2 learners of English whose L1 is Spanish varies as a function of words' PND. In the currently study, significant interactions between stimulus accentedness and listener group on the accuracy and speed of spoken word recognition were found, as were significant effects of PND and WF on word-recognition accuracy. However, no significant three-way interaction among stimulus talker, listener group, and PND on either measure was found. Results are discussed in light of recent findings on cross-linguistic differences in the nature of the effects of PND on L2 phonological and lexical processing.

  12. Expression patterns of sex-determination genes in single male and female embryos of two Bactrocera fruit fly species during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J L; Riegler, M; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A

    2014-12-01

    In tephritids, the sex-determination pathway follows the sex-specific splicing of transformer (tra) mRNA, and the cooperation of tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) to effect the sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx), the genetic double-switch responsible for male or female somatic development. The Dominant Male Determiner (M) is the primary signal that controls this pathway. M, as yet uncharacterized, is Y-chromosome linked, expressed in the zygote and directly or indirectly diminishes active TRA protein in male embryos. Here we first demonstrated the high conservation of tra, tra-2 and dsx in two Australian tephritids, Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera jarvisi. We then used quantitative reverse transcription PCR on single, sexed embryos to examine expression of the key sex-determination genes during early embryogenesis. Individual embryos were sexed using molecular markers located on the B. jarvisi Y-chromosome that was also introgressed into a B. tryoni line. In B. jarvisi, sex-specific expression of tra transcripts occurred between 3 to 6 h after egg laying, and the dsx isoform was established by 7 h. These milestones were delayed in B. tryoni lines. The results provide a time frame for transcriptomic analyses to identify M and its direct targets, plus information on genes that may be targeted for the development of male-only lines for pest management. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Male Heads of Family in Single-Parent Households: Men Adaptations to the Needs of Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Cano Rodas

    2016-01-01

    The experience of the head of a single-parent home has led interviewed parents to modify the exercise of their masculinity regarding communication, relationships, the manner to express affection and the everyday performance with their children, accepting the new family role by associating it with the responsibility of raising and caring for the children

  14. An Open-label, Single-dose, Pharmacokinetic Study of Factor VIII Activity After Administration of Moroctocog Alfa (AF-CC) in Male Chinese Patients With Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhong; Wu, Runhui; Hu, Pei; Sun, Feifei; Xu, Lihong; Liang, Yali; Nepal, Sunil; Qu, Peng Roger; Huard, Francois; Korth-Bradley, Joan M

    2017-07-01

    Hemophilia A represents up to 80% of all hemophilia cases in China. In patients with this condition, bleeding can be prevented and controlled by administering clotting factor VIII (FVIII). Since their initial availability, recombinant FVIII products have undergone several iterations to enhance their safety. Moroctocog alfa albumin-free cell culture (AF-CC) is among the third generation of recombinant FVIII products and received regulatory approval in China in August 2012. The present study characterizes the single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of FVIII activity (FVIII:C) after administration of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) in male Chinese patients with hemophilia A. This multicenter, open-label, single-dose study enrolled 13 male Chinese patients diagnosed with severe hemophilia A (FVIII:C hemophilia A. The pharmacokinetic profile in older patients was similar to that previously reported with recombinant FVIII products in studies with a predominantly white population; younger patients had reduced exposure to FVIII:C. The single doses of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) were well tolerated; 2 cases of transient, low-titer FVIII inhibitor development were observed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02461992. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults with Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Method: Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13…

  16. Glimpsing Speech in the Presence of Nonsimultaneous Amplitude Modulations from a Competing Talker: Effect of Modulation Rate, Age, and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Bologna, William J.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how listeners process acoustic cues preserved during sentences interrupted by nonsimultaneous noise that was amplitude modulated by a competing talker. Method: Younger adults with normal hearing and older adults with normal or impaired hearing listened to sentences with consonants or vowels replaced with noise…

  17. Speech recognition in one- and two-talker maskers in school-age children and adults: Development of perceptual masking and glimpsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Emily; Leibold, Lori J.; Porter, Heather L.; Grose, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Children perform more poorly than adults on a wide range of masked speech perception paradigms, but this effect is particularly pronounced when the masker itself is also composed of speech. The present study evaluated two factors that might contribute to this effect: the ability to perceptually isolate the target from masker speech, and the ability to recognize target speech based on sparse cues (glimpsing). Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were estimated for closed-set, disyllabic word recognition in children (5–16 years) and adults in a one- or two-talker masker. Speech maskers were 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL), and they were either presented alone or in combination with a 50-dB-SPL speech-shaped noise masker. There was an age effect overall, but performance was adult-like at a younger age for the one-talker than the two-talker masker. Noise tended to elevate SRTs, particularly for older children and adults, and when summed with the one-talker masker. Removing time-frequency epochs associated with a poor target-to-masker ratio markedly improved SRTs, with larger effects for younger listeners; the age effect was not eliminated, however. Results were interpreted as indicating that development of speech-in-speech recognition is likely impacted by development of both perceptual masking and the ability recognize speech based on sparse cues. PMID:28464682

  18. Is the Good-Imitator-Poor-Talker Profile Syndrome-Specific in Down Syndrome?: Evidence from Standardised Imitation and Language Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, M.; Feys, H.; De Weerdt, W.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of the Down syndrome (DS) behavioural phenotype during early development may be of great importance for early intervention. The main goal of this study was to investigate the good-imitator-poor-talker developmental profile in DS at preschool age. Twenty children with Down syndrome (DS; mean nonverbal mental age NMA 1 y10 m) and 15…

  19. Receptive Vocabulary, Cognitive Flexibility, and Inhibitory Control Differentially Predict Older and Younger Adults' Success Perceiving Speech by Talkers with Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvalson, Erin M.; Lansford, Kaitlin L.; Fedorova, Valeriya; Fernandez, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has demonstrated equivocal findings related to the effect of listener age on intelligibility ratings of dysarthric speech. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms that support younger and older adults' perception of speech by talkers with dysarthria. Method: Younger and older adults identified…

  20. Data for increase of Lymantria dispar male survival after topical application of single-stranded RING domain fragment of IAP-3 gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V.; Laikova, Kateryna V.; Zaitsev, Aleksei S.; Gushchin, Vladimir A.; Skorokhod, Oleksii A.

    2016-01-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled “The RING for gypsy moth control: topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide” [1]. This article reports on significantly higher survival of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar male individuals in response to topical application of single-stranded DNA, based on RING (really interesting new gene) domain fragment of LdMNPV (L. dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene and acted as DNA insecticide. PMID:27054151

  1. Never Quit: The Complexities of Promoting Social and Academic Excellence at a Single-Gender School for Urban African American Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon C. James

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the experiences of urban African American males at a first year single-gender charter school in the Southern region of the United States. The present case study was based on interviews and focus groups with parents, teachers, students, and the school administrator, and a participant observation of Excel Academy [pseudonym]. The findings of this study suggest that there were four critical instructional complexities that emerged: expectations dissonance, disguised engagement, differential engagement, and expectations overload. Remarkably, these issues were being addressed by a school value created by students and institutionalized by teachers--To Never Quit. Recommendations to address each instructional complexity are explored.

  2. Welfare of entire males and females in organic pig production when reared in single-sex groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    90 min in total. Number of skin lesions and prevalence of lameness and general debility were assessed for each animal. The mean aggression levels were 4.3 interactions per animal per hour during ‘roughage provision’ and 1.9 during ‘post-roughage provision’, with no difference between genders......In the 25 EU countries more than 100 million male piglets are castrated each year. Castration is particularly problematic in organic pig production because it conflicts with the high welfare and other ethical standards associated with this system of animal production. The objective...... kg. Behaviour observations was made in two different periods, ‘roughage provision’ with observation of aggressive interactions lasting 30 min, and ‘post-roughage provision’ with observations of aggressive interactions, number of mountings and number of active animals in intervals of 15 min, lasting...

  3. o-Toluidine blood protein adducts: HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection after a single dose in the adult male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheever, K.L.; DeBord, G.D.; Swearengin, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) adducts of the suspect human carcinogen o-toluidine (OT) were quantified in blood samples collected from rats after a single i.p. injection. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of Hb-adducted [ 14 C]OT followed by extraction with ethylacetate resulted in recovery of 66% of the bound radioactivity. HPLC analysis revealed a single radiolabeled peak which was identified as OT by GC-MS. In subsequent experiments the Hb and Alb adduct levels were determined by HPLC analysis of this split product using fluorescence detection. 4-Ethylaniline was used as internal standard. The detection limit for OT was approximately 450 pg/injection of 5 pmol. mg Hb. Mean adduct levels for Hb increased rapidly over the first 4 hr with the highest (ng/mg Hb ± SD) 3.7 ± 0.5 detected 24 hr after OT (50 mg/kg body wt). In contrast, adduct levels for pooled Alb samples increased from 0.7 ng/mg Alb at 2 hr to 2.5 ng/mg Alb at 4 hr, but were not detectable 24 hr after OT (50 mg/kg body wt). In contrast, adduct levels for pooled Alb samples increased from 0.7 ng/mg Alb at 2 hr to 2.5 ng/mg Alb at 4 hr, but were not detectable 24 hr after dosing. Hb adducts showed a linear relationship for OT doses of 10, 20, 40, 50, and 100 mg/kg body wt. The Hb adduct t 1/2 (11.2 days) was determined after a single 100 mg/kg OT dose. Hb adduct levels were quantifiable (1.3 ± 0.2 ng/mg Hb) by HPLC/fluorescence 28 days after 100 mg/kg OT

  4. ACUTE EFFECT OF A SINGLE HIGH-FAT MEAL ON FOREARM BLOOD FLOW, BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE IN HEALTHY MALE ASIANS AND CAUSASIANS: A PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Chumjit; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Shavlik, David; Remigio, Wilton; Montgomery, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that ingestion of a single high-fat (HF) meal causes postprandial lipemia and produces a reduced brachial artery blood flow response to vascular occlusion in Caucasians. However, the forearm BF response to occlusion in Caucasian and Asian populations after a single HF meal has not been compared. Eleven healthy male Asians, mean age 26.4 (±4.2) years, height 174.2 (±7.4) cm, and weight 73.8 (±5.7) kg and eight Caucasians, mean age 26.8 (±4.6) years, height 182.9 (±5.9) cm, and weight 82.8 (±4.8) kg were studied. A randomized cross-over study design was used with a HF (50.1 g total fat) or low-fat (LF) (5.1 g total fat) test meal 1 week apart. Forearm blood flow was measured over a 2-minute period following a 4-minute occlusion (FBFO) at 2 and 4 hours following ingestion of a test meal. This study found that FBFO was significantly attenuated in Asians (19.3%; p=0.09) compared to Caucasians after the ingestion of a HF meal. When comparing LF vs HF meals in Asians, the FBFO were 336.9 ml/100 ml tissue/minute and 240.8 ml/100 ml tissue/minute, respectively (p=0.02), whereas in Caucasians, the FBFO were 344.8 ml/100 ml tissue/minute and 287.4 ml/100 ml tissue/minute, respectively. It appears Asians have a more sensitive response to a single HF meal which may be explained, in part, by genotypic variation. These findings suggest that a single HF meal may contribute to the detrimental effects on vascular health in Asian males and raises speculation regarding the cumulative impact of a chronic HF diet in this population. PMID:20578534

  5. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Prabhat K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals.

  6. Comparison of the single dose pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of two novel oral formulations of dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU): a potential oral, male contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, R; Page, S T; Swerdloff, R S; Liu, P Y; Amory, J K; Leung, A; Hull, L; Blithe, D; Christy, A; Chao, J H; Bremner, W J; Wang, C

    2017-03-01

    Dimethandrolone (DMA, 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone) has both androgenic and progestational activities, ideal properties for a male hormonal contraceptive. In vivo, dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU) is hydrolyzed to DMA. We showed previously that single oral doses of DMAU powder in capsule taken with food are well tolerated and effective at suppressing both LH and testosterone (T), but absorption was low. We compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two new formulations of DMAU, in castor oil and in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), with the previously tested powder formulation. DMAU was dosed orally in healthy adult male volunteers at two academic medical centers. For each formulation tested in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 10 men received single, escalating, oral doses of DMAU (100, 200, and 400 mg) and two subjects received placebo. All doses were evaluated for both fasting and with a high fat meal. All three formulations were well tolerated without clinically significant changes in vital signs, blood counts, or serum chemistries. For all formulations, DMA and DMAU showed higher maximum (p food, but only the SEDDS formulation was effectively suppressed serum T when given fasting. We conclude that while all three formulations of oral DMAU are effective and well tolerated when administered with food, DMAU in oil and SEDDS increased conversion to DMA, and SEDDS may have some effectiveness when given fasting. These properties might be advantageous for the application of DMAU as a male contraceptive. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Influence of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin following intravenous and oral administration of a 400 mg single dose to healthy males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stass, H; Kubitza, D; Möller, J-G; Delesen, H

    2005-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the extent to which enterohepatic recycling circulation contributes to moxifloxacin bioavailability in healthy, males by administration of activated charcoal and to evaluate the efficacy of activated charcoal administration in decreasing systemic concentrations of moxifloxacin in the event of overdose. Methods Nine healthy males, mean age 34 years (range 23–45 years) participated in a single centre, randomized, nonplacebo-controlled, three way crossover study. The pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in plasma and urine were determined for up to 96 h following a 400 mg single dose randomly administered on three separate occasions with a minimum washout phase of 1 week. Treatment A was 400 mg moxifloxacin IV as a 1 h infusion, treatment B was 400 mg moxifloxacin IV as a 1 h infusion with oral activated charcoal (5 g directly before the start of the infusion, 5 g immediately after the end of the infusion, and 10 g at 2, 4 and 8 h after the start of the infusion), treatment C was 400 mg oral moxifloxacin with activated charcoal (10 g 15 min before and at 2, 4 and 8 h after drug administration). The subjects underwent a series of clinical and laboratory tests. Results Single 400 mg doses of moxifloxacin (PO and/or IV) were safe and well tolerated. The bioavailability of moxifloxacin was significantly decreased when given with charcoal (AUC = 35.5 (IV reference) vs 5.40 (PO) vs 28.5 (IV) mg l−1 h). Concurrently peak concentrations were lowered Cmax = 3.38 (IV reference) vs 0.62(PO) vs 2.97 (IV) mg l−1) by approximately 85% (P activated charcoal may be useful in treating moxifloxacin overdose by preventing its absorption. PMID:15842551

  8. Hockey Concussion Education Project, Part 1: Susceptibility-weighted imaging study in male and female ice hockey players over a single season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Karl G.; Pasternak, Ofer; Fredman, Eli; Preciado, Ronny I.; Koerte, Inga K.; Sasaki, Takeshi; Mayinger, Michael; Johnson, Andrew M.; Holmes, Jeffrey D.; Forwell, Lorie; Skopelja, Elaine N.; Shenton, Martha E.; Echlin, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Object Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is a commonly occurring sports-related injury, especially in contact sports such as hockey. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which are small, hypointense lesions on T2*-weighted images, can result from TBI. The authors use susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to automatically detect small hypointensities that may be subtle signs of chronic and acute damage due to both subconcussive and concussive injury. The goal was to investigate how the burden of these hypointensities change over time, over a playing season, and postconcussion, compared with subjects who did not suffer a medically observed and diagnosed concussion. Methods Images were obtained in 45 university-level adult male and female ice hockey players before and after a single Canadian Interuniversity Sports season. In addition, 11 subjects (5 men and 6 women) underwent imaging at 72 hours, 2 weeks, and 2 months after concussion. To identify subtle changes in brain tissue and potential CMBs, nonvessel clusters of hypointensities on SWI were automatically identified and a hypointensity burden index was calculated for all subjects at the beginning of the season (BOS) and the end of the season (EOS), in addition to postconcussion time points (where applicable). Results A statistically significant increase in the hypointensity burden, relative to the BOS, was observed for male subjects at the 2-week postconcussion time point. A smaller, nonsignificant rise in the burden for all female subjects was also observed within the same time period. The difference in hypointensity burden was also statistically significant for men with concussions between the 2-week time point and the BOS. There were no significant changes in burden for nonconcussed subjects of either sex between the BOS and EOS time points. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the burden between male and female subjects in the nonconcussed group at both the BOS and EOS time

  9. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Speech production in noise with varying talker-to-listener distance has been well studied for the open ear condition. However, occluding the ear canal can affect the auditory feedback and cause deviations from the models presented for the open-ear condition. Communication is a main...... concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise...... in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  10. The long persistence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts in vivo: kinetic study following single and multiple exposures in male ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Xue, Junyi; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge

    2017-02-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants are widespread in the world and the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that PA-derived DNA adducts can potentially be a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In order to validate the use of these PA-derived DNA adducts as a biomarker, it is necessary to understand the basic kinetics of the PA-derived DNA adducts formed in vivo. In this study, we studied the dose-dependent response and kinetics of PA-derived DNA adduct formation and removal in male ICR mice orally administered with a single dose (40 mg/kg) or multiple doses (10 mg/kg/day) of retrorsine, a representative carcinogenic PA. In the single-dose exposure, the PA-derived DNA adducts exhibited dose-dependent linearity and persisted for up to 4 weeks. The removal of the adducts following a single-dose exposure to retrorsine was biphasic with half-lives of 9 h (t 1/2α ) and 301 h (~12.5 days, t 1/2β ). In the 8-week multiple exposure study, a marked accumulation of PA-derived DNA adducts without attaining a steady state was observed. The removal of adducts after the multiple exposure also demonstrated a biphasic pattern but with much extended half-lives of 176 h (~7.33 days, t 1/2α ) and 1736 h (~72.3 days, t 1/2β ). The lifetime of PA-derived DNA adducts was more than 8 weeks following the multiple-dose treatment. The significant persistence of PA-derived DNA adducts in vivo supports their role in serving as a biomarker of PA exposure.

  11. Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics covary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. Spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers’ voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children’s utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers’ utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Exp. 1a) or amount of speech-language training (Exp. 1b) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Exp. 3 trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally-modified and unmodified speech. Results Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusions Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work. PMID:23275414

  12. Contribution of low-frequency harmonics to Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and six-talker babble background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Azimi, Behnam; Bhandary, Moulesh; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and multi-talker babble conditions for normal-hearing listeners. Tone identification was measured with speech stimuli and stimuli with low and/or high harmonics that were embedded in three Mandarin vowels with two fundamental frequencies. There were six types of stimuli: all harmonics (All), low harmonics (Low), high harmonics (High), and the first (H1), second (H2), and third (H3) harmonic. Results showed that, for quiet conditions, individual harmonics carried frequency contour information well enough for tone identification with high accuracy; however, in noisy conditions, tone identification with individual low harmonics (e.g., H1, H2, and H3) was significantly lower than that with the Low, High, and All harmonics. Moreover, tone identification with individual harmonics in noise was lower for a low F0 than for a high F0, and was also dependent on vowel category. Tone identification with individual low-frequency harmonics was accounted for by local signal-to-noise ratios, indicating that audibility of harmonics in noise may play a primary role in tone identification.

  13. Delinquency in incarcerated male adolescents is associated with single parenthood, exposure to more violence at home and in the community, and poorer self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan

    2013-10-28

    To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children's stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P=0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P=0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI=1.03-1.16, P>0.002). Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents.

  14. Genetic injury in hybrid male mice exposed to low doses of /sup 60/CO. gamma. -rays or fission neutrons. 1. Response to single doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, D.; Carnes, B.A.; Farrington, B.H.; Lee, C.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1984-11-01

    Young adult male B6CF/sub 1/ mice were exposed to single whole body doses of fission neutrons or /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays. Postspermatogonial dominant lethal injury, incidence of reciprocal chromosome translocations induced in spermatogonia, incidence of abnormal epididymal sperm 4-6 weeks after exposure, and testis weight loss 3-6 weeks after exposure were all measured. Significant effects were seen at 1 and 2.5 rad of neutrons consistent with extrapolation from higher doses, with the exception of dominant lethal mutations, which occurred in significant excess of expectation. Dose-response functions were linear or linear-quadratic, depending upon end point, radiation quality, and dose range. For translocation frequencies, the D/sup 2/ term was negative for neutron and positive for ..gamma..-ray irradiations. RBE values varied with dose and end point. For testis weight loss and abnormal sperm over the full dose range, the RBEs were between 5 and 6. They were between 7 and 9 at lower doses (< 10 rad) for translocations. RBEs for postimplantation and total dominant lethal rates were 5-6 above 10 rad and 10-14 below 10 rad. The RBEs for preimplant losses were between 15 and 25 above 10 rad and possibly higher below 10 rad, although the data are statistically 'noisy'.

  15. Costs of switching auditory spatial attention in following conversational turn-taking

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Gaven; Carlile, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Following a multi-talker conversation relies on the ability to rapidly and efficiently shift the focus of spatial attention from one talker to another. The current study investigated the listening costs associated with shifts in spatial attention during conversational turn-taking in 16 normally-hearing listeners using a novel sentence recall task. Three pairs of syntactically fixed but semantically unpredictable matrix sentences, recorded from a single male talker, were presented concurrently...

  16. Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Single and Multiple Oral Doses of an Omega-3-Carboxylic Acid Formulation in Healthy Male Japanese Subjects: A Phase 1 Single-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yoshinori; Nilsson, Catarina; Shimada, Hitoshi; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka

    2018-02-01

    OM3-CA (omega-3-carboxylic acids) is a complex mixture of omega-3 carboxylic acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is approved in the United States for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. As part of its clinical development in Japan, we performed a phase 1 study to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics after single and multiple doses of OM3-CA in healthy male Japanese subjects. Eighteen Japanese subjects were allocated to receive 2 or 4 g/day OM3-CA, or placebo (n = 6 per group). In addition, 6 white subjects received 4 g/day OM3-CA. The primary objective was to determine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. Plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were adjusted for baseline values for pharmacokinetic analysis. Overall, OM3-CA was well tolerated in healthy Japanese subjects. Two Japanese subjects in each group and 5 white subjects experienced adverse events (AEs). Alanine aminotransferase increase was the most common AE in Japanese subjects, also seen with placebo, and diarrhea was the most common AE in white subjects. The maximum plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were observed 5-6 hours postdose. The pharmacokinetic profiles of EPA and DHA after administration of OM3-CA were comparable between Japanese and white subjects. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  17. A single-dose, randomized, two-way crossover study comparing two olanzapine tablet products in healthy adult male volunteers under fasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafeey, Ahmed H; Elsherbiny, Mohamed A; Fathallah, Mohsen M

    2009-03-01

    Olanzapine is a psychotropic agent that belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of 2 commercial 10-mg tablet formulations of olanzapine by statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), AUC from 0 to 72 hours after dosing (AUC(0-72)), and AUC(0-infinity) as required by the Egyptian health authority for the marketing of a generic product. This bioequivalence study was carried out in healthy male volunteers using a single-dose, randomized, 2-way crossover design under fasting conditions. Statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), AUC(0-72), and AUC(0-infinity) was conducted to determine bioequivalence (after log-transformation of data using analysis of variance and 90% CIs) and to gain marketing approval in Egypt. The formulations were considered to be bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of the 3 pharmacokinetic parameters were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (ie, 80%-125%), as established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Both the test product (Trademark: Integrol((R)) [Global Napi Pharmaceuticals, Cairo, Egypt]) and the reference product (Trademark: Zyprexa((R)) [Eli Lilly and Company, Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom]) were administered as 10-mg tablets with 240 mL of water after an overnight fast on 2 treatment days, separated by a 2-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for 72 hours. Plasma samples were analyzed using a sensitive, reproducible, and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method capable of quantitating olanzapine in the range of 0.167 to 16.7 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.167 ng/mL. Adverse events were reported by the volunteers as instructed or observed by the resident physician, and were recorded, tabulated, and evaluated. Twenty-four healthy adult male volunteers participated in this study. Their mean (SD) age was 24.7 (6.2) years (range, 19

  18. Comparable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two epoetin alfa formulations Eporon® and Eprex® following a single subcutaneous administration in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sumin Yoon,1 Su-jin Rhee,1 Sun Ju Heo,2 Tae Young Oh,2 Seo Hyun Yoon,1 Joo-Youn Cho,1 SeungHwan Lee,1,3 Kyung-Sang Yu1,3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, 2Dong-A ST Co. Ltd., Seoul, 3Clinical Trials Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: This study aimed to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties following a single subcutaneous injection of epoetin alfa (Eporon® with those of the comparator (Eprex® in healthy male subjects. Subjects and methods: A randomized, double-blind, two-sequence, crossover study was conducted. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a single dose, that is, 4,000 IU, of the test or comparator epoetin alfa. After 4 weeks, all subjects received the alternative formulation. The primary PK parameters, maximum observed concentration (Cmax and area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf, were calculated with the serum erythropoietin (EPO concentrations from blood samples collected for 144 h after dosing. The reticulocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell counts were measured up to 312 h as PD markers. The primary PD parameters, maximum observed effect (Emax and area under the effect curve (AUEC, were obtained from the baseline-corrected reticulocyte count. The serum EPO concentration and the reticulocyte count were used to assess the concentration–response relationship. The tolerability and immunogenicity profiles were assessed together. Results: Forty-two subjects completed the study. The mean EPO concentration–time profiles were comparable between the two formulations. The geometric mean ratios (90% CI of the Cmax and AUCinf were 0.908 (0.843–0.978 and 1.049 (0.999–1.101, respectively, both of which were within the regulatory range of 0.80–1.25. Additionally, the PD and tolerability profiles were similar between the two

  19. The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) protects the kidney from damage produced by a single and low dose of carbon tetrachloride in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Morales, R M; Jaramillo-Juárez, F; Rodríguez-Vázquez, M L; Martínez-Saldaña, M C; Del Río, F A Posadas; Garfias-López, J A

    2017-09-05

    Gingko biloba leaves have been used as herbal medicine in China for 5000 years, and the standardized leaf extract (GB-STE) has some beneficial effects in the treatment of age-related, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of the Gingko biloba extract (GbE) against the toxicity of a single and relatively low dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). In male adult Wistar rats, we determined the urine flux, the concentration of total proteins in urine, the concentration of glucose in urine, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in renal cortex as well as two markers of renal function (clearance of inulin and p-aminohippurate); we also compared the histological lesions caused by CCl 4 . Carbon tetrachloride increased the urinary concentration of total proteins, and the renal concentration of MDA; however, it did not modify the urine flux, urinary concentration of glucose, nor the inuline or the p-aminohipurate clearances. Morphologically, CCl 4 generated some tubular damage that was more intense in the inner cortex of kidneys. The GbE extract counteracted the effects of CCl 4 on the concentration of total proteins in urine, the concentration of renal MDA, and the renal histological changes. In conclusion the main toxic effects produced by CCl 4 were prevented by the GbE, probably due to their antioxidant properties and the inhibition of the main P450 isoenzyme (CYP2E1) that metabolize CCl 4 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Single Nucleotide Polymorphism 2 and Peptide Transporter 2*2 Haplotype May Differentially Mediate Lead Exposure in Male Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Natali; Schaub, Tanner; Gutierrez, Marisela; Ortega, Alma X.

    2011-01-01

    Child low-level lead (Pb) exposure is an unresolved public health problem and an unaddressed child health disparity. Particularly in cases of low-level exposure, source removal can be impossible to accomplish, and the only practical strategy for reducing risk may be primary prevention. Genetic biomarkers of increased neurotoxic risk could help to identify small subgroups of children for early intervention. Previous studies have suggested that, by way of a distinct mechanism, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase single nucleotide polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and/or peptide transporter 2*2 haplotype (hPEPT2*2) increase Pb blood burden in children. Studies have not yet examined whether sex mediates the effects of genotype on blood Pb burden. Also, previous studies have not included blood iron (Fe) level in their analyses. Blood and cheek cell samples were obtained from 306 minority children, ages 5.1 to 12.9 years. 208Pb and 56Fe levels were determined with inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. General linear model analyses were used to examine differences in Pb blood burden by genotype and sex while controlling for blood Fe level. The sample geometric mean Pb level was 2.75 µg/dl. Pb blood burden was differentially higher in ALAD2 heterozygous boys and hPEPT2*2 homozygous boys. These results suggest that the effect of ALAD2 and hPEPT2*2 on Pb blood burden may be sexually dimorphic. ALAD2 and hPEPT2*2 may be novel biomarkers of health and mental health risks in male children exposed to low levels of Pb. PMID:21327641

  1. Effects of fluoxetine on the amygdala and the hippocampus after administration of a single prolonged stress to male Wistar rates: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Xiao, Bing; Wen, Lili; Shi, Yuxiu

    2015-05-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety- and memory-based disorder. The hippocampus and amygdala are key areas in mood regulation. Fluoxetine was found to improve the anxiety-related symptoms of PTSD patients. However, little work has directly examined the effects of fluoxetine on the hippocampus and the amygdala. In the present study, male Wistar rats received fluoxetine or vehicle after exposure to a single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was performed -1, 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after SPS to examine the effects of fluoxetine on neurometabolite changes in amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus. SPS increased the N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline moieties (Cho)/Cr ratios in the bilateral amygdala on day 4, decreased the NAA/Cr ratio in the left hippocampus on day 1, and increased both ratios in the right hippocampus on day 14. But no significant change was found in the thalamus. Fluoxetine treatment corrected the SPS increases in the NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr levels in the amygdala on day 4 and in the hippocampus on day 14, but it failed to normalise SPS-associated decreases in NAA/Cr levels in the left hippocampus on day 1. These results suggested that metabolic abnormalities in the amygdala and the hippocampus were involved in SPS, and different effects of fluoxetine in correcting SPS-induced neurometabolite changes among the three areas. These findings have implications for fluoxetine treatment in PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioequivalence of lamotrigine 50-mg tablets in healthy male volunteers: a randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, S; Olmos, L; de Mena, F; Pieczanski, P; Rodriguez Moncalvo, J J

    2012-10-01

    OBEJCTIVE: To compare the bioavailability of two 50-mg lamotrigine dispersible tablet formulations (Epilepax®, Ivax-TEVA Argentina Laboratories, Argentina, as a test formulation, and Lamictal®, GlaxoSmithKline, UK, as a reference formulation) in 24 healthy male volunteers. This study was a randomized, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover design that was open for subjects and investigators, but blind for the bioanalytical lab. Serum samples were obtained over a 120-h interval. A 9-day wash-out period was allowed between treatments. The concentrations of lamotrigine were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by ultraviolet-visible detection. Lamotrigine time-concentrations curves were obtained and the following pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated: AUC0-t, AUC0-inf and Cmax. Bioequivalence was declared if the 90% confidence interval (CI) of the mean test/reference ratios for AUC0-t, AUC0-inf and Cmax were within 80.00-125.00%. The geometric mean and respective 90% CI of test/reference percent ratios were 100.83% (92.53-107.88%) for AUC0-t, 99.91% (93.79-108.40%) for AUC0-inf, and 95.62% (90.91-100.57%) for Cmax. No serious adverse events were observed. 1 patient reported a mild rash following the administration of each formulation. This single dose study found that the test and reference products met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence in this sample of fasting healthy volunteers. These results suggest that bioequivalence studies evaluating 50-mg doses of Lamotrigine are feasible and recommended, since such doses may minimize the risk of severe rash or Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. This study was registered at the Argentinean Clinical Trials National Registry (www.anmat.gov.ar), No 1666/2008. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. A behavioral syndrome linking courtship behavior toward males and females predicts reproductive success from a single mating in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Logue; Sandeep Mishra; David McCaffrey; Deborah Ball; William H. Cade

    2009-01-01

    Suites of correlated behaviors, or "behavioral syndromes," have been shown to occur throughout the animal kingdom. Behavioral syndromes involving sexual selection are expected to have significant evolutionary ramifications, but few studies have linked behavioral syndromes to sexual selection. We measured the behavior of male hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa) during male--male competition, female choice, and 3 other ecologically relevant contexts and quantified between-context co...

  4. Subjective and psychophysiological indexes of listening effort in a competing-talker task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackersie, Carol L; Cones, Heather

    2011-02-01

    The effects of noise and other competing backgrounds on speech recognition performance are well documented. There is less information, however, on listening effort and stress experienced by listeners during a speech-recognition task that requires inhibition of competing sounds. The purpose was (a) to determine if psychophysiological indexes of listening effort were more sensitive than performance measures (percentage correct) obtained near ceiling level during a competing speech task, (b) to determine the relative sensitivity of four psychophysiological measures to changes in task demand, and (c) to determine the relationships between changes in psychophysiological measures and changes in subjective ratings of stress and workload. A repeated-measures experimental design was used to examine changes in performance, psychophysiological measures, and subjective ratings in response to increasing task demand. Fifteen adults with normal hearing participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 27 (range: 24-54). Psychophysiological recordings of heart rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were obtained during listening tasks of varying demand. Materials from the Dichotic Digits Test were used to modulate task demand. The three levels of task demand were single digits presented to one ear (low-demand reference condition), single digits presented simultaneously to both ears (medium demand), and a series of two digits presented simultaneously to both ears (high demand). Participants were asked to repeat all the digits they heard, while psychophysiological activity was recorded simultaneously. Subjective ratings of task load were obtained after each condition using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index questionnaire. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were completed for each measure using task demand and session as factors. Mean performance was higher than 96% for all listening tasks. There

  5. Design and Assessment of a Real Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Method to Genotype Single-Stranded RNA Male-Specific Coliphages (Family Leviviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    A real-time, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was developed to differentiate the four genogroups of male-specific ssRNA coliphages (FRNA) (family Leviviridae). As FRNA display a trend of source-specificity (human sewage or animal waste) at the genogroup level, this assa...

  6. English sentence recognition in speech-shaped noise and multi-talker babble for English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate English sentence recognition in quiet and two types of maskers, multi-talker babble (MTB) and long-term speech-shaped noise (LTSSN), with varied signal-to-noise ratios, for English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native listeners. Results showed that first, sentence recognition for non-native listeners was affected more by background noise than that for native listeners; second, the masking effects of LTSSN were similar between Chinese and Korean listeners, but the masking effects of MTB were greater for Chinese than for Korean listeners, suggesting possible interaction effects between the non-native listener's native language and speech-like competing noise in sentence recognition.

  7. Motoneuronal location of the external urethral and anal sphincters : A single and double labeling study in the male and female golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Sie, Judith A.M.L.; Holstege, Gerrit

    1997-01-01

    The location of external urethral (EUS) and anal sphincter (EAS) motoneurons was investigated in the golden hamster using the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase and cholera toxin B-subunit. Single and double labeling studies revealed that the motoneurons of the EUS and EAS were present in the

  8. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative...... stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral...... arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period ten young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples...

  9. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PTC124, a nonaminoglycoside nonsense mutation suppressor, following single- and multiple-dose administration to healthy male and female adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirawat, Samit; Welch, Ellen M; Elfring, Gary L; Northcutt, Valerie J; Paushkin, Sergey; Hwang, Seongwoo; Leonard, Eileen M; Almstead, Neil G; Ju, William; Peltz, Stuart W; Miller, Langdon L

    2007-04-01

    Nonsense (premature stop codon) mutations are causative in 5% to 15% of patients with monogenetic inherited disorders. PTC124, a 284-Dalton 1,2,4-oxadiazole, promotes ribosomal readthrough of premature stop codons in mRNA and offers therapeutic potential for multiple genetic diseases. The authors conducted 2 phase I studies of PTC124 in 62 healthy adult volunteers. The initial, single-dose study evaluated doses of 3 to 200 mg/kg and assessed fed-fasting status on pharmacokinetics following a dose of 50 mg/kg. The subsequent multiple-dose study evaluated doses from 10 to 50 mg/kg/dose twice per day (bid) for up to 14 days. PTC124 administered orally as a liquid suspension was palatable and well tolerated through single doses of 100 mg/kg. At 150 and 200 mg/kg, PTC124 induced mild headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal events. With repeated doses through 50 mg/kg/dose bid, reversible transaminase elevations Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  10. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M; Hoffman, Gary M; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2012-08-15

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1h. For metabolite identification by (19)F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M.; Hoffman, Gary M.; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1 h. For metabolite identification by 19 F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. -- Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► No differences in metabolic pattern between pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. ► Rapid and similar metabolite

  12. Estrogenic response in male bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) hepatocytes after single or combined exposure to cadmium (Cd) and 17beta-estradiol (E2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Woo; Chang, Ziwei; Oh, Beom-Seok; Lu, Ming; Park, Jang-Su

    2010-11-01

    Contamination by heavy metals and sex hormones in a water environment is an important health issue. In this study, we investigated the estrogenic effects of cadmium (Cd) administration alone and in combination with 17beta-estradiol (E2) on the hepatocytes of male Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Their vitellogenin (VTG) expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed upon exposure to Cd alone or to both Cd and E2. Our results suggest that the VTG levels induced by the co-treatment of 100 nM E2 and 100 nM CdCl(2) were significantly higher than those induced by 100 nM E2 alone (p < 0.05), and were comparable to vitellogenin induction observed with 1 μM E2. A similar result was observed by western blot analysis in the culture medium of hepatocytes. Meanwhile, Cd (but not E2) increased the ROS levels. These results suggest that Cd has a cooperative effect with E2 in the induction of VTG, thus acting as an estrogenic disruptor. Cd also causes oxidative stress that occurs with the enhanced vitellogenesis.

  13. Male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Male Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K.

    2016-01-01

    NARRATIVE ABSTRACT Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women cannot use them due to health conditions or side effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancy, of which 80–90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper will briefly review the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies, and then discuss the research directed towards the development of novel methods of male contraception. PMID:27678037

  15. Condoms - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... Contact your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE ...

  16. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an abnormality affecting other hormonal systems including the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male ... Testosterone replacement therapy, long-term anabolic steroid use, cancer medications (chemotherapy), certain antifungal medications, some ulcer drugs ...

  17. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  18. Novel word learning: An eye-tracking study. Are 18-month-old late talkers really different from their typical peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erica M; Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L; Evans, Julia L

    2015-01-01

    Infants, 18-24 months old who have difficulty learning words compared to their peers are often referred to as "late talkers" (LTs). These children are at risk for continued language delays as they grow older. One critical question is how to best identify which LTs will have language disorders, such as Specific Language Impairment (SLI) at school age, in order to maximize the opportunity for early and appropriate intervention and support. Recent research suggests that LTs are not only slower to learn and speak words than their peers, but are also slower to recognize and interpret known words in real time. This investigation examined online moment-by-moment processing of novel word learning in 18-month-olds. A low vocabulary, late talking group (LT, N=14) and an age and cognitive-level matched typical group (TYP, N=14) of infants participated in an eye-tracked novel word learning task and completed standardized testing of vocabulary and cognitive ability. Infants were trained on two novel word-picture pairs and then were tested using an adaptation of the looking while listening paradigm. Results suggest that there are differences between groups in the time-course of looking to the novel target picture during testing. These findings suggest that LTs and typical infants developed strong enough representations to recognize novel words using traditional measures of accuracy and reaction time, however interesting group differences emerge when using additional fine-grained processing measures. Implications for differences in emerging knowledge and learning patterns are discussed. The reader will be able to understand many benefits of using eye-tracking methods to study young infant and toddler populations with and without language disorders. Readers will learn that examining moment-by-moment time course of novel word learning allows additional insight into different learning patterns. Finally, readers should understand the data from this article suggest late talkers may

  19. RNA sequencing for global gene expression associated with muscle growth in a single male modern broiler line compared to a foundational Barred Plymouth Rock chicken line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Hudson, Nicholas; Seo, Dongwon; Lee, Seok; Khatri, Bhuwan; Lassiter, Kentu; Cook, Devin; Piekarski, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Anthony, Nicholas; Bottje, Walter

    2017-01-13

    Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR). The RNAseq analysis was carried out using Ilumina Hiseq (2 x 100 bp paired end read) and raw reads were assembled with the galgal4 reference chicken genome. With normalized RPM values, genes showing >10 average read counts were chosen and genes showing 1.3 fold change were considered as differentially expressed (DE) between PeM and BPR. DE genes were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) for bioinformatic functional interpretation. The results indicate that 2,464 DE genes were identified in the comparison between PeM and BPR. Interestingly, the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in chicken are significantly biased towards the BPR group, suggesting a lowered mitochondrial content in PeM chicken muscles compared to BPR chicken. This result is inconsistent with more slow muscle fibers bearing a lower mitochondrial content in the PeM. The molecular, cellular and physiological functions of DE genes in the comparison between PeM and BPR include organismal injury, carbohydrate metabolism, cell growth/proliferation, and skeletal muscle system development, indicating that cellular mechanisms in modern broiler lines are tightly associated with rapid growth and differential muscle fiber contents compared to the unselected BPR line. Particularly, PDGF (platelet derived

  20. Male circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct

  1. The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N and Kochi, Japan (32° N. Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2 and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2. Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations.

  2. Relative bioavailability of two formulations of nevirapine 200-mg tablets in healthy Chinese male volunteers: a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yubing; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Cuixia; Zou, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Hu, Yunfang

    2010-12-01

    Nevirapine was the first member of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor class to be approved for the treatment of HIV infection. It binds directly to the allosteric site on the reverse transcriptase and inhibits the activity of both RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerases. This study compared the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a test and reference formulation of nevirapine 200-mg tablets after single oral doses in healthy Chinese men to meet regulatory criteria for marketing of the new generic formulation. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-way crossover study was conducted at the Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Healthy male Chinese volunteers were randomized in a 1∶1 ratio to receive a single 200-mg (3.2-mg/kg) tablet of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 2-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 10-hour overnight fast. Concentrations of nevirapine were assayed using an HPLC-UV method. For analysis of nevirapine pharmacokinetic parameters, blood samples were obtained before dosing and at regularly scheduled intervals over 168 hours after administration. The 2 formulations would be assumed to be bioequivalent for regulatory purposes if the 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of nevirapine AUC and C(max) were within the range established by the US Food and Drug Administration (0.80-1.25). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study based on vital signs, physical examinations, 12-lead ECGs, and subject interviews concerning adverse events (AEs). Twenty Chinese male subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Their mean age was 23 years (range, 21-25 years), mean weight was 63 kg (range, 56-70 kg), and mean height was 171 cm (range, 166-176 cm). No period or sequence effect was observed. The mean (SD) t(½) was 38.12 (2.23) hours for the test tablet and 36.79 (5.06) hours for the

  3. Male Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiess, Wieland; Wagner, Isabel V; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Körner, Antje

    2015-12-01

    Many cross-sectional analyses and longitudinal studies have examined the association between adiposity and pubertal development. In addition, the impact of an increased fat mass on reproduction and fertility in human obese men and in male animal models of obesity has been studied. A trend toward earlier pubertal development and maturation in both sexes has been shown, and the notion that obese boys might progress to puberty at a slower pace than their nonobese peers can no longer be substantiated. Impaired fertility markers and reduced reproductive functions have been observed in obesity. Obesity affects both pubertal development and fertility in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of multiple pregnancies in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility: randomised controlled trial of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in modified natural cycle compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensdorp, A J; Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; Bossuyt, P M M; Koks, C A M; Oosterhuis, G J E; Hoek, A; Hompes, P G A; Broekmans, F J M; Verhoeve, H R; de Bruin, J P; van Golde, R; Repping, S; Cohlen, B J; Lambers, M D A; van Bommel, P F; Slappendel, E; Perquin, D; Smeenk, J M; Pelinck, M J; Gianotten, J; Hoozemans, D A; Maas, J W M; Eijkemans, M J C; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W J; van Wely, M

    2015-01-09

    To compare the effectiveness of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle with that of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in terms of a healthy child. Multicentre, open label, three arm, parallel group, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. 17 centres in the Netherlands. Couples seeking fertility treatment after at least 12 months of unprotected intercourse, with the female partner aged between 18 and 38 years, an unfavourable prognosis for natural conception, and a diagnosis of unexplained or mild male subfertility. Three cycles of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer (plus subsequent cryocycles), six cycles of in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, or six cycles of intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation within 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcome was birth of a healthy child resulting from a singleton pregnancy conceived within 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were live birth, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, time to pregnancy, complications of pregnancy, and neonatal morbidity and mortality 602 couples were randomly assigned between January 2009 and February 2012; 201 were allocated to in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer, 194 to in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, and 207 to intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Birth of a healthy child occurred in 104 (52%) couples in the in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer group, 83 (43%) in the in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle group, and 97 (47%) in the intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation group. This corresponds to a risk, relative to intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation, of 1.10 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.34) for in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer and 0.91 (0

  5. Relative bioavailability of generic and branded acetylcysteine effervescent tablets: A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover study in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Mei; Liu, Yun; Lu, Chuan; Jia, Jing-Ying; Liu, Gang-Yi; Weng, Li-Ping; Wang, Jia-Yan; Li, Guo-Xiu; Wang, Wei; Li, Shui-Jun; Yu, Chen

    2010-11-01

    Acetylcysteine may be used as a muco- lytic agent for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other pulmonary diseases complicated by the production of viscous mucus. However, little is known of its pharmacokinetic properties when given orally in healthy volunteers, particularly in a Chinese Han population. This study was conducted to provide support for the marketing of a generic product in China. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a generic test formulation and a branded reference formulation of acetylcysteine in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2-period crossover design with a 7-day washout period between doses was used in this study. Healthy Chinese male nonsmokers aged 18 to 40 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 19 to 25 kg/m(2) were selected. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned to receive acetylcysteine 600 mg PO as either the test formulation (3 tablets of 200 mg each) or reference formulation (1 tablet of 600 mg) under fasting conditions. A total of 15 serial blood samples were collected over a 24-hour interval, and total plasma acetylcysteine concentrations were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), t(½) AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were calculated and analyzed statistically. The 2 formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the log-transformed ratios (test/reference) of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence ranges (70%-143% for C(max); 80%-125% for AUC), as established by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Tolerability was determined by vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, physical examinations, and interviews with the subjects about adverse events (AEs). A total of 24 healthy Chinese Han male volunteers were enrolled in and

  6. Comparative bioavailability of ferrous succinate tablet formulations without correction for baseline circadian changes in iron concentration in healthy Chinese male subjects: a single-dose, randomized, 2-period crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guo-Ying; Li, Ke-Xin; Jin, Peng-Fei; Yue, Xiang-Yang; Yang, Chen; Hu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Ferrous succinate is used for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Determining the bioavailability of iron products is a challenge, because iron is naturally present in the blood and some tissues. Therefore, bioequivalence evaluation of ferrous formulations can be affected by the presence of endogenous iron species. Little information regarding the pharmacokinetics of ferrous supplements is available in the healthy Chinese population. The aim of the study was to assess the comparative bioavailability of 200-mg of a test (ferrous succinate,100 mg × 2, Hunan Huana Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Hunan, China) and reference (Sulifei, 100 mg × 2, Nanjing Jinling Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nanjing, China) formulation in healthy Chinese male subjects. The study was conducted to meet Chinese State Food and Drug Administration regulatory requirements for approval of a generic formulation of ferrous succinate. This study utilized a single-dose randomized, 2-period, crossover design with alternate assignment of subjects to treatment (a single 200-mg [100 mg × 2]) or reference formulation groups. Both groups underwent a 4-day diet equilibration before 2 days of treatment and, finally, a 4-day washout period for the bioequivalence study. Blood samples were collected at 8:00 am on every diet equilibration day, 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 hours after drug administration. Iron concentrations were determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Subjects in both groups were given a standardized diet, with known amounts of iron and calories. The formulations were assumed to be bioequivalent if the 90% CI ratios for C(max) were within 70% to 143% and AUC(0-last) were within 80% to 125%-criteria established by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration. Tolerability was monitored throughout the study by assessing clinical parameters (vital signs, chemistry laboratory) and subject reports. Twenty healthy Han Chinese male subjects (mean age, 26

  7. Relation between peak knee flexion angle and knee ankle kinetics in single-leg jump landing from running: a pilot study on male handball players to prevent ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Mariam A; Muaidi, Qassim I

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between knee kinematics and knee-ankle kinetics during the landing phase of single leg jumping has been widely studied to identify proper strategies for preventing non-contact ACL injury. However, there is a lack of study on knee-ankle kinetics at peak knee flexion angle during jumping from running. Hence, the purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, ankle plantar flexion moment and ground reaction force in handball players in order to protect ACL from excessive stress during single leg jumping. In addition, the study also clarifies the role of calf muscles in relieving part of ACL stresses with different knee flexion angles during landing. Fifteen active male elite handball players of Saudi Arabia have participated in this study (Age = 22.6 ± 3.5years, Height = 182 ± 3.7 cm, Weight = 87.5 ± 10.2 kg). The players performed three successful landings of single-leg jump following running a fixed distance of about 450cm. The data were collected using a 3D motion capture and analysis system (VICON). Pearson product moment correlation coefficients showed that greater peak knee flexion angle is related significantly to both lesser knee extension moment (r = -.623, P = .013) and vertical component of ground reaction force (VGRF) (r = -.688, P = .005) in landing phase. Moreover, increasing the peak knee flexion angle in landing phase tends to increase the ankle plantar flexion moment significantly (r = .832, P = .000). With an increase of the peak knee flexion angle during single leg jump landing from running, there would be less knee extension moment, low impact force and more plantar flexion moment. As such, the clinical implication of this study is that there may be a possible protective mechanism by increasing the knee flexion angle during landing phase, which tends to protect the ACL from vigorous strain and injuries.

  8. Bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic evaluation of two formulations of risperidone 2 mg : an open-label, single-dose, fasting, randomized-sequence, two-way crossover study in healthy male Chinese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Meng-qi; Jia, Jing-ying; Liu, Yan-mei; Liu, Gang-yi; Li, Shui-jun; Wang, Wei; Weng, Li-ping; Yu, Chen

    2013-03-01

    Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivate and is effective in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses in adults and children. Although there are a few reports in the literature regarding the pharmacokinetic characteristics of risperidone, insufficient data on its pharmacokinetic properties in a Chinese population are available. To meet the requirements for marketing a new generic product, this study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two 2 mg tablet formulations of risperidone: a newly developed generic formulation (test) and a branded formulation (reference) in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2 × 2 crossover study was conducted in fasted healthy male Chinese volunteers. Eligible participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive 1 tablet (2 mg each) of the test formulation (Risperidone tablet; Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd., Hyderabad, India) or the reference formulation (Risperdal(®) tablet; Xian-Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd., Xi-an, China), followed by a 2-week washout period and subsequent administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 10-hour overnight fast. Plasma samples were collected over 96 hours. Plasma concentrations of the parent drug, risperidone, and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, were analyzed by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The formulations would be considered bioequivalent if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the natural log-transformed values were within the predetermined 80-125% equivalence range for the maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), in accordance with guidelines issued by the US Food and Drug Administration. Assessment of tolerability was based on recording of adverse events (AEs), monitoring of vital signs, electrocardiograms, and laboratory tests at baseline

  9. Bioequivalence of two film-coated tablets of imatinib mesylate 400 mg: a randomized, open-label, single-dose, fasting, two-period, two-sequence crossover comparison in healthy male South American volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrillo-Campiglia, Susana; Ercoli, Mónica Cedres; Umpierrez, Ofelia; Rodríguez, Patricia; Márquez, Sara; Guarneri, Carolina; Estevez-Parrillo, Francisco T; Laurenz, Marilena; Estevez-Carrizo, Francisco E

    2009-10-01

    Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been established as a highly effective therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A new generic, once-daily 400-mg tablet of imatinib has been developed by a pharmaceutical company in Argentina, where the regulatory standard for marketing authorization of an imatinib generic is in vitro dissolution testing. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of a new generic film-coated test tablet formulation versus a film-coated reference tablet formulation of imatinib 400 mg. The local manufacturer seeks to validate the in vitro performance of this new formulation with a bioequivalence study. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, fasting, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover design with a 2-week washout period was used in this study. The study population consisted of healthy male South American (Uruguayan) volunteers, who were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to a randomized sequence (test-reference or reference-test). In each period, the test or reference formulation was administered after an overnight fast. During the 72-hour follow-up period, participants were monitored for vital signs and symptoms. Blood samples were collected at 15 time points, including baseline, until 72 hours. Physical examination and laboratory tests (blood, urine) were repeated 1 week after study completion. A noncompartmental model was used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of imatinib. The 90% CIs of the test/reference ratios for AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were determined; the test and reference formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs were between 0.80 and 1.25. Adverse events were assessed by a nurse who administered a questionnaire while the healthy volunteers were admitted in the unit. The bioequivalence study was conducted in 30 Uruguayan male volunteers. Demographic characteristics (mean [SD]) included age, 27.8 (6.5) years; weight, 71.2 (9.8) kg; height, 1.71 (0.09) m; and body

  10. Effect of a single injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on testicular blood flow measured by color doppler ultrasonography in male Shiba goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Haney; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Ahmed, Eman; Karen, Aly; Nagaoka, Kentaro; El Sayed, Mohamed; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-05-01

    Although color Doppler ultrasonography has been used to evaluate testicular blood flow in many species, very little has been done in goat. Eight male Shiba goats were exposed to a single intramuscular injection of either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH group; 1 µg/kg BW) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG group; 25 IU/kg BW). Plasma testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and inhibin (INH) were measured just before (0 hr) and at different intervals post injection by radioimmunoassay. Testis volume (TV) and Doppler indices, such as resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the supratesticular artery, were measured by B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. The results indicated an increase in testicular blood flow in both groups, as RI and PI decreased significantly (P<0.05), but this increase was significant higher and earlier in hCG group (1 hr) than in the GnRH group (2 hr). A high correlation was found for RI and PI with both T (RI, r= -0.862; PI, r= -0.707) and INH in the GnRH group (RI, r=0.661; PI, r=0.701). However, a significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between E2 and both RI (r= -0.610) and PI (r= -0.763) in hCG group. In addition, TV significantly increased and was highly correlated with RI in both groups (GnRH, r= -0.718; hCG, r= -0.779). In conclusion, hCG and GnRH may improve testicular blood flow and TV in Shiba goats.

  11. Pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two compound formulations of 1500 mg ampicillin (1167 mg)/probenecid (333 mg): a randomized-sequence, single-dose, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huizhe; Liu, Mingyan; Wang, Shuang; Feng, Wanyu; Yao, Weifan; Zhao, Haishan; Wei, Minjie

    2010-03-01

    Ampicillin/probenecid is an antimicrobial formulation indicated for the treatment of respiratory, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal infections. Ampicillin sodium is the active antimicrobial ingredient that can act on the phase of bacterial breeding and inhibit the biosynthesis of bacterial mucopeptide in the cell wall. Probenecid acts synergistically by competitively inhibiting an organic anion transporter in renal tubules, increasing the plasma concentrations, and thus extending the plasma elimination t(1/2). The aim of this study was to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, bioavailability, and bioequivalence of a newly developed dispersible tablet formulation (test) of ampicillin/ probenecid with those of an established branded capsule formulation (reference) in healthy Chinese male volunteers. A randomized-sequence, single-dose, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in fasted healthy Chinese male volunteers. Eligible participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive 6 dispersible tablets (test) or branded capsules (reference) (1500 mg total; 250 mg each containing ampicillin 194.5 mg and probenecid 55.5 mg), followed by a 7-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Plasma samples were collected over a 24-hour period following administration and analyzed for ampicillin and probenecid content by HPLC. PK parameters such as C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity) were also determined. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the geometric mean ratios of the log-transformed C(max) and AUC values were within the equivalence range (80%-125%) predetermined by the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of the People's Republic of China. Tolerability was based on the observation of adverse events (AEs), monitoring of vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, electrocardiography) and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, urinalysis), and subject

  12. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Male Reproductive System KidsHealth / For Parents / Male Reproductive System What's in ... your son's reproductive health. About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  13. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence evaluation of two different atorvastatin calcium 10-mg tablets: A single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy fasted Chinese adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Mei; Pu, Hua-Hua; Liu, Gang-Yi; Jia, Jing-Ying; Weng, Li-Ping; Xu, Rong-Jing; Li, Guo-Xiu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Lu, Chuan; Yu, Chen

    2010-07-01

    Atorvastatin calcium is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor indicated for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Information on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin in a Chinese population is lacking, and regulatory requirements necessitate a bioequivalence study for the marketing of a generic product in China. The aim of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of a test and branded reference formulation of atorvastatin calcium 10-mg tablets in healthy fasted Chinese male volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study with a 2-week washout period between doses. Healthy Chinese males were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg of either the test or reference formulation, and 13 blood samples were obtained over a 48-hour interval. Plasma concentrations of parent atorvastatin and ortho-hydroxy-atorvastatin (primary active metabolite) were simultaneously determined using a validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including C(max), T(max), t((1/2)), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity)), were calculated. The 2 formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if 90% CIs for the log transformed ratios of AUC and C(max) of atorvastatin were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (0.80-1.25 for AUC and 0.70-1.43 for C(max)) as established by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study by vital signs monitoring, physical examinations, 12-lead ECGs, and subject interviews on adverse events (AEs). A total of 66 subjects were assessed for inclusion; 20 were excluded prior to study initiation. Of the 46 healthy subjects (mean [SD] age, 24.1 [2.5] years; height, 170.8 [5.1] cm; weight, 64.6 [6.4] kg; body mass index (BMI), 22.1 [1.7] kg/m(2)) who completed the study, 45 subjects (mean [SD] age, 24.1 [2.5] years; height, 171.1 [4

  14. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae: Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Beatty

    Full Text Available In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a "scramble". An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i similar to an unaltered male (blue, (ii different from a male (orange and (iii more similar to a female (black. When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal.

  15. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of ticlopidine: an open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, single-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Hyung; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Lee, Yong-Oh; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Jang, In-Jin; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2010-02-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract is an herbal medicine used in the treatment of vascular disorders that may be coadministered with antiplatelet agents such as ticlopidine. Regulatory authorities requested evaluation of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between these entities, according to the drug-development guidance for fixed-dose combination formulations in Korea. This study was performed to evaluate the potential pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between ticlopidine and Ginkgo biloba extract. An open-label, randomized, 2-period, 2-treatment, 2-sequence, single-dose crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male volunteers. All volunteers were randomly assigned to a sequence group for the 2 treatments, which consisted of ticlopidine 250 mg alone and ticlopidine 250 mg with Ginkgo biloba extract 80 mg, separated by a 1-week washout period between the treatments. Bleeding time was determined just before dosing and at 5, 12, and 48 hours after dosing. Platelet aggregation was evaluated before dosing and at 4, 8, 26, and 48 hours after dosing. Blood samples (8 mL) from each of the volunteers were collected from an indwelling intravenous cannula inserted into a forearm vein before dosing and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after dosing. Ticlopidine concentrations were determined by a validated method using HPLC and ultraviolet detection. Adverse events were identified using general health-related questions, vital signs, physical examinations, ECGs, and laboratory tests. A total of 24 healthy men participated in the study (mean [SD] age, 24.1 [4.3] years; weight, 66.6 [7.4] kg; height, 174.7 [5.0] cm). The baseline corrected bleeding times were not significantly different between the ticlopidine-alone and ticlopidine/ Ginkgo biloba groups, and changes in platelet aggregation were not significantly different between the groups. Likewise, the pharmacokinetic parameters of ticlopidine were not significantly different

  16. Perceived gender in clear and conversational speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booz, Jaime A.

    Although many studies have examined acoustic and sociolinguistic differences between male and female speech, the relationship between talker speaking style and perceived gender has not yet been explored. The present study attempts to determine whether clear speech, a style adopted by talkers who perceive some barrier to effective communication, shifts perceptions of femininity for male and female talkers. Much of our understanding of gender perception in voice and speech is based on sustained vowels or single words, eliminating temporal, prosodic, and articulatory cues available in more naturalistic, connected speech. Thus, clear and conversational sentence stimuli, selected from the 41 talkers of the Ferguson Clear Speech Database (Ferguson, 2004) were presented to 17 normal-hearing listeners, aged 18 to 30. They rated the talkers' gender using a visual analog scale with "masculine" and "feminine" endpoints. This response method was chosen to account for within-category shifts of gender perception by allowing nonbinary responses. Mixed-effects regression analysis of listener responses revealed a small but significant effect of speaking style, and this effect was larger for male talkers than female talkers. Because of the high degree of talker variability observed for talker gender, acoustic analyses of these sentences were undertaken to determine the relationship between acoustic changes in clear and conversational speech and perceived femininity. Results of these analyses showed that mean fundamental frequency (fo) and f o standard deviation were significantly correlated to perceived gender for both male and female talkers, and vowel space was significantly correlated only for male talkers. Speaking rate and breathiness measures (CPPS) were not significantly related for either group. Outcomes of this study indicate that adopting a clear speaking style is correlated with increases in perceived femininity. Although the increase was small, some changes associated

  17. Male contraception: history and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Paul; Wald, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Although the twentieth century has seen great strides in the development of female contraception, not a single new agent has been introduced as an approved method for common use for male contraception. Condoms (considered uncomfortable by some) and vasectomy (a permanent invasive procedure) are the only options provided to men, leaving an undue burden on women to bear contraceptive responsibility. Significant developments have, however, been made with regard to hormonal and nonhormonal contraception, and minor, reversible, procedural contraception. This article reviews the currently available, soon to be available, and theoretically possible methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A DOSE–RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF A SINGLE GESTATIONAL DOSE OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN IN MALE LONG EVANS HOODED RAT OFFSPRING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male rats exposed in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) display reduced fertility as a consequence of the direct action of TCDD on the epididymides, as well as delayed puberty and altered reproductive organ weights. The current study provides dose-response data f...

  19. Prevention of multiple pregnancies in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility : randomised controlled trial of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in modified natural cycle compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, A. J.; Tjon-Kon-Fat, R. I.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Koks, C. A. M.; Oosterhuis, G. J. E.; Hoek, A.; Hompes, P. G. A.; Broekmans, F. J. M.; Verhoeve, H. R.; de Bruin, J. P.; van Golde, R.; Repping, S.; Cohlen, B. J.; Lambers, M. D. A.; van Bommel, P. F.; Slappendel, E.; Perquin, D.; Smeenk, J. M.; Pelinck, M. J.; Gianotten, J.; Hoozemans, D. A.; Maas, J. W. M.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.; van Wely, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effectiveness of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle with that of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in terms of a healthy child. Design Multicentre, open label, three arm,

  20. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by ...

  1. Aging male syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Valer Donca; Antonia Macarie; Luminiţa Paşca; Elena Buzdugan; Constantin Bodolea; Dan Rădulescu; Sorin Crişan; Laurenţiu Stoicescu; Bogdan Neacşu; Steliana Donca

    2012-01-01

    Aging Male Syndrome is a medical condition through which men could pass between the ages of 35 and 65, when testosterone levelsin their body decline considerably. Androgen deficiency in the aging male has become a topic of increasing interest and debate throughout theworld. In contrast to female menopause, the process of aging in the male genital system is slow and highly variable between individuals. Thecharacteristic symptoms of Aging Male Syndrome include weakness, depression, fatigue and ...

  2. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  3. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used...... logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...... and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily...

  4. 46,XX Male Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Uçan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 46, XX male syndrome – testicular disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD is a rare condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from ambiguous to normal male genitalia. These cases are diagnosed more easily in childhood. In adults, the diagnosis can be difficult due to the current normal gender development. Here, we report hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic results in an adult male patient with primary hypogonadism who was diagnosed with 46, XX male syndrome in our clinic. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 46-8

  5. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  6. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  7. Male depression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W

    2001-03-01

    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  8. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  9. stem bark in male Wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity effects of aqueous stem bark extract in male. Wistar rats. Methods: For the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extract was orally administered to the animals by oral gavage and the rats thereafter were observed for mortality and toxicity ...

  10. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  11. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  12. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Chlamydial infections - male URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  13. Genital sores - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Genital sores - male URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  14. Self catheterization - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Self catheterization - male URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/ ...

  15. Male hypogonadism (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  16. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baldness. Medicines that treat male pattern baldness include: Minoxidil (Rogaine), a solution that is applied directly to ... slows hair loss. It works slightly better than minoxidil. Hair loss returns when you stop using this ...

  17. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  18. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  19. Obesogens and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A M; Alves, M G; Mathur, P P; Oliveira, P F; Cavaco, J E; Rato, L

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, several studies evidenced a decrease in male fertility in developed countries. Although the aetiology of this trend in male reproductive health remains a matter of debate, environmental compounds that predispose to weight gain, namely obesogens, are appointed as contributors because of their action as endocrine disruptors. Obesogens favour adipogenesis by an imbalance of metabolic processes and can be found virtually everywhere. These compounds easily accumulate in tissues with high lipid content. Obesogens change the functioning of male reproductive axis, and, consequently, the testicular physiology and metabolism that are pivotal for spermatogenesis. The disruption of these tightly regulated metabolic pathways leads to adverse reproductive outcomes. Notably, adverse effects of obesogens may also promote disturbances in the metabolic performance of the following generations, through epigenetic modifications passed by male gametes. Thus, unveiling the molecular pathways by which obesogens induce toxicity that may end up in epigenetic modifications is imperative. Otherwise, a transgenerational susceptibility to metabolic diseases may be favoured. We present an up-to-date overview of the impact of obesogens on testicular physiology, with a particular focus on testicular metabolism. We also address the effects of obesogens on male reproductive parameters and the subsequent consequences for male fertility. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Male genital cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, F D; Key, C R

    1995-01-01

    The estimated 165,000 cancers of the male genital system that will occur in the United States during 1993 represent one fourth of the expected 600,000 newly diagnosed cancers in American males for the year. Data were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. This paper examines histologic data collected by the SEER program from 1973-1987 and focuses on incidence, stage at diagnosis, and survival for the dominant histologic types of cancer that occur in the four major topographic divisions of the male genital system: prostate gland, testis, penis, and scrotum. Some less common histologic types within each organ are also discussed. The incidence of male genital cancer has increased rapidly over the period of study. Cancers of the prostate, most of which are adenocarcinomas, represent more than 92% of all male genital cancers. Among adolescents and young men, germ cell cancers of the testis predominate, but decline rapidly in occurrence after 40 years of age. Blacks had higher incidence rates for prostate cancer than whites; however, the situation was reversed for testicular cancer. Survival increased dramatically for testicular cancer. Cancers of the penis and scrotum of any histologic type are uncommon in the United States. The increased incidence of prostate adenocarcinomas and testis germ cell tumors indicates the need for further etiologic studies as a basis for prevention efforts.

  1. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  2. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  3. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  4. Male mating tactics in spider monkeys: sneaking to compete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, K Nicole

    2010-09-01

    I investigated the mating system and male mating tactics for a population of wild spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth chamek), to identify the behaviors males used to achieve and maintain access to sexually receptive females, and to examine if some males used more tactics than other males and/or had differential access to females. Results show that the mating system mostly involved scramble competition polygyny and that males used a range of mating tactics and behaviors, previously unreported for spider monkeys. The most unusual feature of spider monkey mating behavior was the secretive nature of copulations-nearly all copulations were clandestine, but a few were in the presence of other group members. Fifteen sexually mature males were observed to copulate 43 times. These data provide the first opportunity to evaluate how female availability influences male-male competition. First, the operational sex ratio was highly skewed toward males because usually only one female was receptive in each community per month. Second, females only mated with a few males in their community in any one mating period, but some females mated over the course of multiple consecutive mating periods, eventually mating with most or all of the males in their community. Across all communities, 9 (21%) of the 43 copulations involved a single male-female partner, 20 (47%) involved four males mating with the same female, and males mated with from one to four different females. Fourteen of the 16 total adult males and 1 subadult male (10 total) copulated. One or two males in each community were successful in monopolizing access to receptive females, and these males did not usually have the highest rates of copulation. In this system, clandestine copulations are one behavioral solution to the complex problem of gaining mating exclusivity and, probably, exercising mate choice. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  6. TRICHOMONAS URETHRITIS IN MALES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Ector

    1955-01-01

    Trichomonas urethritis in the male should be suspected in all chronic cases of urethritis. The diagnosis is easily established by the hanging-drop method of examining the urethral discharge, or the first-glass urine specimen. Curative treatment is readily accomplished by the use of urethral instillations of Carbarsone suspension using 1 capsule of Carbarsone per ounce of distilled water. PMID:13270111

  7. Quantifying male attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I; Marques Dos Santos, Miguel; Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Genetic models of sexual selection are concerned with a dynamic process in which female preference and male trait values coevolve. We present a rigorous method for characterizing evolutionary endpoints of this process in phenotypic terms. In our phenotypic characterization the mate-choice strategy of female population members determines how attractive females should find each male, and a population is evolutionarily stable if population members are actually behaving in this way. This provides a justification of phenotypic explanations of sexual selection and the insights into sexual selection that they provide. Furthermore, the phenotypic approach also has enormous advantages over a genetic approach when computing evolutionarily stable mate-choice strategies, especially when strategies are allowed to be complex time-dependent preference rules. For simplicity and clarity our analysis deals with haploid mate-choice genetics and a male trait that is inherited phenotypically, for example by vertical cultural transmission. The method is, however, easily extendible to other cases. An example illustrates that the sexy son phenomenon can occur when there is phenotypic inheritance of the male trait. PMID:14561306

  8. Male versus Female Breast Cancer : differences hidden behind similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacle, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer in males is a rare disease. Due to its rarity, little research has been conducted on male breast cancer (MBC), especially when compared to its female counterpart. Knowledge on MBC is therefore based on small single institutional studies, as large series are lacking. The optimal

  9. The Modern Male Rhytidectomy: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Stuzin, James M; Ramanadham, Smita; Costa, Christopher; Dauwe, Phillip B

    2017-02-01

    Cosmetic surgery among male patients has become increasingly popular. The face-lift technique is different in male patients, specifically regarding preservation of hair follicles, restoration of a youthful and well appearance, and reduction of the risk of hematoma. A retrospective review of a single surgeon's past 20 years of consecutive male rhytidectomies revealed a cohort of 83 patients. A control group was created by random selection of 83 age-matched female rhytidectomy patients during the same period. Data were collected and analyzed critically for factors contributing to complications, including hematoma, seroma, skin sloughing, alopecia, infection, and nerve injury. The evolution in the senior author's technique in male rhytidectomy is described. Differences in facial analysis and rhytidectomy technique in male patients and female patients are highlighted. Five male patients (6.0 percent) and no female patients in the control group developed postoperative hematoma (p = 0.0587). No other complications occurred. Respecting the patterns of hair growth in incision design, avoiding damage to follicles during dissection, and exercising standard of care (especially avoidance of hypotensive anesthesia) in prevention of postoperative hematoma have delivered safe and consistently reproducible aesthetic outcomes and acceptable complication rates. Therapeutic, IV.

  10. Advances in Male Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  11. Endometriosis in the male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J D; Hauck, A E

    1985-07-01

    An 83-year-old man with an endometrioma of the lower abdominal wall has been reported. This occurred following the administration of 25 mg of TACE for a period of about 10 years for what was thought to be carcinoma of the prostate. A second transurethral resection done by Dr. R. C. Thompson proved to be adenocarcinoma. Subsequent to this he was continued on TACE. A review of the more commonly accepted theories of the development of endometriosis in the female has been presented. It is pointed out that the separation between the male and female urogenital systems occurs in the embryo between the eighth week and the fourth month. There is always a possibility for remnants of the opposite sex to remain in individuals. No such was seen in the case which is herein reported. Normal phenotype male was demonstrated in the chromosomal evaluation. A review of the literature on endometriosis in the male reveals several cases which have occurred; the origin of which is though to be from the prostatic utricle which is a remnant of the uterus existing in the male. After a prolonged course the patient reported was followed until he died in 1979. There was no recurrence of the abdominal wall mass but persistent low grade carcinoma of the prostate remained. The terminal process was related to cardiovascular disease and not carcinoma of the prostate. There was delay in publication of this unusual case. The original plan was to await final confirmation of the exact pathologic nature of this condition; unfortunately this was never done since a postmortem examination was not performed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Male Body Contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient.

  13. Selfish partners: resource partitioning in male coalitions of Asiatic lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Stotra

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Behavioral plasticity within species is adaptive which directs survival traits to take multiple pathways under varying conditions. Male–male cooperation is an evolutionary strategy often exhibiting an array of alternatives between and within species. African male lions coalesce to safeguard territories and mate acquisition. Unique to these coalitions is lack of strict hierarchies between partners, who have similar resource securities possibly because of many mating opportunities within large female groups. Skewed mating and feeding rights have only been documented in large coalitions where males were related. However, smaller modal prey coupled with less simultaneous mating opportunities for male Asiatic lions in Gir forests, India would likely result in a different coalition structure. Observations on mating events (n = 127) and feeding incidents (n = 44) were made on 11 male coalitions and 9 female prides in Gir, to assess resource distribution within and among different sized male coalitions. Information from 39 males was used to estimate annual tenure-holding probabilities. Single males had smaller tenures and appropriated fewer matings than coalition males. Pronounced dominance hierarchies were observed within coalitions, with one partner getting more than 70% of all matings and 47% more food. Competition between coalition partners at kills increased with decline in prey size, increase in coalition size and the appetite states of the males. However, immediate subordinates in coalitions had higher reproductive fitness than single males. Declining benefits to partners with increasing coalition size, with individuals below the immediate subordinates having fitness comparable to single males, suggest to an optimal coalition size of 2 lions. Lions under different competitive selection in Gir show behavioral plasticity to form hierarchical coalitions, wherein partners utilize resources asymmetrically, yet coalesce for personal gains. PMID:29622932

  14. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of a new 30 mg modified-release tablet formulation of metoclopramide for once-a-day administration versus 10 mg immediate-release tablets: a single and multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel study in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Escudero, Roberto; Alonso-Campero, Rosalba; Francisco-Doce, María Teresa de Jesús; Cortés-Fuentes, Myriam; Villa-Vargas, Miriam; Angeles-Uribe, Juan

    2012-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics of a new, modified-release metoclopramide tablet, and compare it to an immediate-release tablet. A single and multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel, pharmacokinetic study was conducted. Investigational products were administered to 26 healthy Hispanic Mexican male volunteers for two consecutive days: either one 30 mg modified-release tablet every 24 h, or one 10 mg immediate-release tablet every 8 h. Blood samples were collected after the first and last doses of metoclopramide. Plasma metoclopramide concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Safety and tolerability were assessed through vital signs measurements, clinical evaluations, and spontaneous reports from study subjects. All 26 subjects were included in the analyses [mean (SD) age: 27 (8) years, range 18-50; BMI: 23.65 (2.22) kg/m², range 18.01-27.47)]. Peak plasmatic concentrations were not statistically different with both formulations, but occurred significantly later (p 0.05)]. One adverse event was reported in the test group (diarrhea), and one in the reference group (headache). This study suggests that the 30 mg modified-release metoclopramide tablets show features compatible with slow-release formulations when compared to immediate-release tablets, and is suitable for once-a-day administration.

  15. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  16. Imaging of male urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlica, Pietro; Barozzi, Libero; Menchi, Ilario

    2003-01-01

    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  17. Imaging of male urethra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlica, Pietro [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital M. Malpighi, Via Palagi 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Barozzi, Libero [Department of Emergency Radiology, Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Menchi, Ilario [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital S. Maria Nuova, 55100 Florence (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  18. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  19. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified.

  20. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Lethal intragroup aggression by adult male spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christina J

    2006-12-01

    I report three cases of coalitionary aggression by adult male black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) against subadult males within their community on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Two of these cases were followed by the disappearance and presumed death of the victim. Similar behavior was recently reported by Valero et al. [in press], who suggested that this behavior may be the result of intense male reproductive competition. Like the single instance they reported, the cases I report all occurred when the operational sex ratio was approximately 1:1, which suggests that intense competition among males for access to reproductively viable females may be a contributing factor. Additionally the very low density of spider monkeys on BCI may play a significant role in the occurrence of this lethal aggression. Large numbers of adult males are not necessary to protect a territorial boundary against neighboring groups, and additional males may act merely as mating competition. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Left-handed sperm removal by male Calopteryx damselflies (Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kaori; Hayashi, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Male genitalia in several insect species are asymmetry in right and left shape. However, the function of such asymmetric male genitalia is still unclear. We found that the male genitalia of the damselfly Calopteryx cornelia (Odonata: Calopterygidae) are morphologically symmetric just after emergence but asymmetric after reproductive maturation. Males remove rival sperm stored in the female bursa copulatrix (single spherical sac) and the following spermatheca (Y-shaped tubular sac) prior to their own ejaculation to prevent sperm competition. Males possess the aedeagus with a recurved head to remove bursal sperm and a pair of spiny lateral processes to remove spermathecal sperm. The right lateral process is less developed than the left, and sperm stored in the right spermathecal tube are rarely removed. Experiments involving surgical cutting of each lateral process demonstrated that only the left process functions in spermathecal sperm removal. Thus, males of C. cornelia are left-handed in their sperm removal behaviour at copulation.

  3. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  4. Sport and male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  5. [Obesity and male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  6. [The female brain and the male brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Sato, Kosei

    2013-10-01

    Sex differences in the nervous system are prevalent throughout the animal kingdom. In humans, the corpus callosum and anterior commissure are larger in females, whereas some hypothalamic nuclei and associated structures are larger in males. Numerous studies in rodents have demonstrated that when these nuclei are exposed to circulating androgens during the critical period around birth, they develop into male-typical structures. In addition to this organizational effect, androgens exert an activational effect during adulthood. For example, sexually dimorphic gene expression in the hypothalamus and amygdala depends on circulating androgen levels. Cckar encodes a G protein-coupled receptor and its expression is sexually dimorphic. The major of Cckar-expressing neurons in the ventrolateral division of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) also express progesterone receptor (PR), with a female-biased expansion of arborizations in the anteroventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Selective ablation of these PR-positive neurons in the VMHvl results in a marked reduction in female sexual receptivity and male aggression, demonstrating that these sexually dimorphic neurons contribute to gendered behavior in mammals. Remarkable sex differences in single neurons have been documented in the fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster). The fruitless (fru) gene in the fruitfly is considered as a major regulator of male courtship circuitry; a male specific fru-expressing neuron cluster, P1, can initiate male courtship when artificially activated even in the absence of courtship target (e.g., a female). The fru gene encodes a set of putative transcription factors that appear to orchestrate the transcription of ~100 genes by recruiting chromatin regulators, histone deacetylase 1 or heterochromatin protein 1a, to the target sites. These studies have unraveled the causal link among genes, brain sexual dimorphisms and gendered behaviors.

  7. Varicocele and male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.

    2017-01-01

    in semen quality after varicocelectomy do not always result in spontaneous pregnancy. Studies regarding possible pathophysiological mechanisms behind varicocele-induced infertility have tried to address these controversies. Oxidative stress seems to be a central mechanism; however, no single theory is able...... to explain the differential effect of varicoceles on infertility. As a consequence, careful patient selection for treatment based on couple fertility status, varicocele grade, and semen quality is critical for achieving a chance of a subsequent pregnancy. A substantial amount of data on the effects...

  8. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (AB), maintainer S 1 (C-S 1 ) and either maintainer or restorer S 1 s(D-S 1 , E-S 1 ) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S 2 (D-S 2 ) are produced. In the case that D-S 2 seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F 1 (DE) should be produced from D-S 1 x E-S 1 . These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F 1 (ABCD) or hybrid F 1 (ABCDE) are for practical use. (Kaihara, S.)

  9. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated

  10. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah A; Simpson, Deborah M; Armstrong, Stuart D; Davidson, Amanda J; Robertson, Duncan H; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2010-06-03

    Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals.See associated Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/71.

  11. Heterogeneous individual growth of Macrobrachium rosenbergii male morphotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjeet, K.; Kurup, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a single cohort of small freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the size range of females in the population is rather small. However, among the males, three major morphotypes are found and each has a distinct size category. The differential growth pattern in males, termed "heterogeneous individual growth" (HIG), is a major bottleneck confronting the profitability of farming this species. An attempt is made to understand the cause and impact of HIG on the culture system and ...

  12. Dermatoglyphic pattern in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, B R; Talhar, S; Ingole, I V; Shende, M R; Pal, A K; Bhattacharaya, T

    2013-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics in infertile male patients were studied and compared with that of age matched controls to see whether any specific dermatoglyphic pattern exists in infertile male patients. Infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile were referred to Cytogenetic Laboratory for karyotyping. We selected twenty-four infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile. Out of twenty-four infertile male patients, nineteen were with normal Karyotype and five patients were with abnormal Karyotype. Loop was the commonest pattern observed in the infertile male patients. All these fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic findings were compared with that of result on finger and palmar dermatoglyphics of equal number of age matched controls. Statistical evaluation was done with software "EPI- info, version-6.04 d". Infertile males had reduced number of loops as compared to that of controls which was statistically significant. Total whorls were increased in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. Percentage of true palmar pattern in I 3 and I 4 areas was reduced in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant.

  13. "Promotores'" Perspectives on a Male-to-Male Peer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers ("promotores") networks. The experiences of "promotores" can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male "promotores" in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of "promotores" who participated in a male…

  14. Learning and male-male sexual competition in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, G; Domjan, M

    1996-06-01

    Male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were trained individually to discriminate between 2 sounds presented at opposite ends of an outdoor aviary. One of the sounds (the positive conditioned stimulus [CS+]) was associated with the release of a female, and the other (the negative CS [CS-]) was presented alone. Which of the 2 sounds served as the CS+ (and which served as the CS-) was counterbalanced across subjects. The subjects came to approach their CS+ but did not move away from their CS-. After having been conditioned individually, the subjects were tested in pairs, with a single female released after the presentation of a stimulus that was the CS+ for one of the males and the CS- for the other male. During most of these tests, the male for whom the prefemale stimulus was the CS+ copulated with the female before the male for whom the prefemale stimulus was the CS-. These results indicate that learning can have an important role in competition for access to a reproductive partner.

  15. The aging male project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  16. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    not have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...

  17. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  18. Peripubertal exposure to male chemosignals accelerates vaginal opening and induces male-directed odor preference in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie eJouhanneau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive physiology in female mouse is profoundly affected by male odor. A well-known effect of male odor is the acceleration of puberty onset in prepubertal female mice exposed to male urine. Whether peripubertal exposure to male odor also influences female sexual behavior in adulthood is poorly known. Recently, we reported that female mice exposed to male-soiled bedding showed advanced vaginal opening associated with early expression of male-directed odor preference in adulthood. The aim of the present study is to determine whether peripubertal exposure to male urinary chemosignals affects both occurrence of vaginal opening and attraction to male odor at older age in female mice. Therefore, we exposed female mice to (1R, 5S, 7R-3,4-dehydro-exo-brevicomin (DHB, 6-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-heptanone (HMH and (S-2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (SBT, individually or in mixture, from postnatal day (PD 21 to PD38 and monitored the occurrence of vaginal opening. We measured then the time that the female mice spent sniffing male and female mouse urinary volatiles at PD45. As expected, peripubertal exposure to DHB, HMH or SBT accelerated vaginal opening in female mice. In addition, we showed that exposure to a mixture of these three compounds induced expression of male-directed odor preference at PD45, contrary to the single exposure to each of these molecules. In conclusion, the volatile compounds DHB, HMH and SBT in urine of male mice influence both occurrence of vaginal opening and adult expression of male-directed odor preference in female mice.

  19. MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND MALE FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Semen is a complex mixture containing a variety of organic and inorganic compounds. While the production and functions of semen are well understood, studies focused on the macro- and micronutrients necessary for male fertility are constantly appearing with new information. Chemical elements play a crucial role in male reproduction, as an unbalance in their amounts may lead to defective spermatogenesis, reduced libido, and consequently, male fertility impairment. Dietary and feeding supplementation has the ability to increase male reproductive performance which is why the effects of minerals in diet cannot be ignored. This review will provide recent information to a better understanding of the positive as well as negative roles of selected macro- and micronutrients on male fertility.

  20. MicroRNA and Male Infertility: A Potential for Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Khazaie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding single stranded RNA molecules that are physiologically produced in eukaryotic cells to regulate or mostly down-regulate genes by pairing with their complementary base-sequence in related mRNA molecules in the cytoplasm. It has been reported that other than its function in many physiological cell processes, dysregulation of miRNAs plays a role in the development of many diseases. In this short review, the association between miRNAs and some male reproductive disorders is surveyed. Male factor Infertility is a devastating problem from which a notable percentage of couples suffer. However, the molecular mechanism of many infertility disorders has not been clearly elucidated. Since miRNAs have an important role in numerous biological cell processes and cellular dysfunctions, it is of interest to review the related literature on the role of miRNAs in the male reproductive organs. Aberrant expression of specific miRNAs is associated with certain male reproductive dysfunctions. For this reason, assessment of expression of such miRNAs may serve as a suitable molecular biomarker for diagnosis of those male infertility disorders. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the miRNAs’ binding site in its targeted mRNA has been reported to have an association with idiopathic male infertility. Also, a relation with male infertility has been shown with SNP in the genes of the factors necessary for miRNA biogenesis. Therefore, focusing on the role of miRNAs in male reproductive disorders can further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of male infertility and generate the potential for locating efficient biomarkers and therapeutic agents for these disorders.

  1. Sexual conflict and ecology: Species composition and male density interact to reduce male mating harassment and increase female survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Llano, Miguel A; Bensch, Hanna M; Svensson, Erik I

    2018-02-21

    Sexual conflict is a pervasive evolutionary force that can reduce female fitness. Experimental evolution studies in the laboratory might overestimate the importance of sexual conflict because the ecological conditions in such settings typically include only a single species. Here, we experimentally manipulated conspecific male density (high or low) and species composition (sympatric or allopatric) to investigate how ecological conditions affect female survival in a sexually dimorphic insect, the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens). Female survival was strongly influenced by an interaction between male density and species composition. Specifically, at low conspecific male density, female survival increased in the presence of heterospecific males (C. virgo). Behavioral mating experiments showed that interspecific interference competition reduced conspecific male mating success with large females. These findings suggest that reproductive interference competition between con- and heterospecific males might indirectly facilitate female survival by reducing mating harassment from conspecific males. Hence, interspecific competitors can show contrasting effects on the two sexes thereby influencing sexual conflict dynamics. Our results call for incorporation of more ecological realism in sexual conflict research, particularly how local community context and reproductive interference competition between heterospecific males can affect female fitness. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. [Cutaneous manifestations of male breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hali, Fouzia; Khadir, Khadija; Idhammou, Wassima; Bensardi, Fatima-Zahra; Lefriyekh, Mohamed-Rachid; Benider, Abdelatif; Zamiati, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2011-11-01

    The appearance of skin symptoms in male breast is the main reason for consultation in our context. The aim of this study is to describe the various cutaneous manifestations of male breast cancer through a series of cases collected in a dermatology department. A retrospective study was conducted in the dermatology department at the CHU Ibn Rochd January 1988 to December 2009. All cases of male breast cancer initially diagnosed in dermatology were included. The various epidemiological, clinical, histological and therapeutic data were collected from medical records. Twenty cases were collected. The mean age was 61.25 years. Skin invasion by tumor was found in all patients, and it was the reason for consultation. It was a cutaneous involvement at the nipple and areola (17 cases) and at the periareolar skin (three cases). The clinical appearance of skin involvement was vegetative type in 12 cases, infiltrating with nipple retraction in five cases and nodule with skin change in three cases. The average period of consultation was 25 months. The axillary lymph nodes were noted in 11 patients and distant metastases in eight patients. The cutaneous metastases outside breast were noted in six patients. The histological types were: infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 15 cases (75%), papillary carcinoma in two cases (10%) and non-specific carcinoma in three cases (15%). The treatment was surgery in 14 patients and consisted of radical mastectomy with complete axillary nodal dissection according to Patey. Complementary therapies, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, were indicated in 14 patients. Our single-center study with dermatological recruitment illustrates the frequency and variety of skin disease in male breast cancer and demonstrates that they are still the main reason for consultation in our context. Better information for public and practitioners would allow earlier diagnosis and a more favourable prognosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol (1 ...

  4. Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Gonococcal Urethritis in Males by Rosoxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Tiwari

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight male patients with acute gonococcal, urethritis were treated, with rosoxacin 300 mg capsule, (Eradacil as a single- dose oral therapy. Twenty six patients were cured, while two patients did not improve. Four patients developed post-gonococcal urethritis (PGU.

  5. Patterns of male parentage in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Boomsma, JJ

    2003-01-01

    Ant queens from eight species, covering three genera of lower and two genera of higher attine ants, have exclusively or predominantly single mating. The ensuing full-sib colonies thus have a strong potential reproductive conflict between the queen and the workers over male production...

  6. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the time? Drinking too much? These unhealthy coping strategies may be clues that you have male depression. ... Engage in activities you enjoy, such as ball games, fishing or a hobby. Health. Live a healthy ...

  7. Takayasu arteritis in young male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-23

    Sep 23, 2012 ... Primary aldosteronism. Cushing's syndrome. Pheochromocytoma. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism. Pregnancy-induced hypertension. Drugs and toxins: Examples-cocaine, amphetamines, alcohol. How to cite this article: Patil BS, Rajoor UG. Takayasu arteritis in young male.

  8. Triadic male-infant-male interaction serves in bond maintenance in male Assamese macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Kalbitz

    Full Text Available While the ultimate consequences of social bonds start to be better understood, the proximate behavioural mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of these close affiliative relationships have received less attention. We investigated the possible function of male-infant-male interactions (MIMIs in male-male social bonding processes by analysing about 9000h of focal animal observations collected on two groups of wild Assamese macaques. In support of an agonistic buffering function of MIMIs, after engaging in a MIMI upon approach, subordinates stayed longer in close proximity of a dominant male. Overall, the frequency of MIMIs increased the stronger the affiliative relationship between two males, suggesting that MIMIs like grooming function in relationship maintenance. We did not find support for a role of MIMIs in bond formation as the frequency of MIMIs did not affect the time a male dyad spent in proximity in the consecutive year. Our results contribute to the general debate on behaviours influencing social dynamics in group living mammals.

  9. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  10. Hormonal approaches to male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2010-11-01

    Condoms and vasectomy are male-controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be well tolerated. The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or nongovernment organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and well tolerated for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic and gonadotropin suppressive actions.

  11. Pleomorphic Lobular Carcinoma in a Male Breast: A Rare Occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia Rohini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of male breast is uncommon as it accounts for 0.7% of total breast cancer. The pathology of male breast cancer is remarkably similar to that of cancers seen in women. The same histological subtypes of invasive cancer are present, although papillary carcinomas (both invasive and in situ are more common and lobular carcinomas are less common. The predominant histological type, in males, as in females, reported in large series has been infiltrating ductal carcinoma with scattered reports of infiltrating lobular carcinoma, all of them of classical type except for a single case of pleomorphic infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Herein, we describe a case of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma occurring in male breast.

  12. Bilateral male breast cancer with male potential hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Yasushi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a comparatively rare disease, and simultaneous bilateral male breast cancer is considered to be an extremely rare event. Risk factors are said to be genetic factors and hormonal abnormalities due to obesity or testicular diseases. Case presentation The patient was a 47-year-old Japanese male. His family had no history of female breast cancer. This patient also had hypospadias and hormonal examination indicated the presence of primary testicular potential hypogonadism, and these hormonal abnormalities seemed to be present since childhood or the fetal period. The bilateral breast cancer developed in this man at a comparatively young age, and histopathological studies of multiple sections showed that there was almost no normal epithelial cell in the ducts, while the ducts were almost completely filled with breast cancer cells. Conclusion It is thought that male breast cancer is caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone. We cannot rule out the possibility that the breast cancer developed due to the effect of the slight elevation of estrogen over a long period of time, but the actual causative factors in this patient were unable to be definitively identified. In the future, we hope to further elucidate the causes of male breast cancer.

  13. Rapid diversification of male genitalia and mating strategies in Ohomopterus ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Y; Sota, T

    2007-07-01

    We analysed evolutionary diversification and covariation in male genitalia and four mating traits related to sexual selection, i.e. testis size, spermatophore size, copulation duration and post-copulatory guarding duration, in Ohomopterus ground beetles using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Male genital size and mating duration have evolved more rapidly than body size and the other traits studied. Male genital size was negatively correlated with copulation duration, suggesting that elongated male genitalia may enable decreased time investment in a single copulation because it is more effective at facilitating spermatophore deposition. Male genital size was positively correlated with spermatophore size, suggesting coevolution between offensive and defensive male mating tactics because the elongated male genitalia may be advantageous in displacement of rivals' plug-like spermatophores, and decreased mating duration may intensify sperm competition. Thus, the remarkable diversity of male genitalia in Ohomopterus may have been facilitated by the interplay between inter- and intrasexual selection processes.

  14. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context.

  15. Male genital self-mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilsheimer, H; Groves, J E

    1979-04-01

    Men who intentionally mutilate or remove their own genitals are likely to be psychotic at the time of the act, to have a number of goals and aims relating to conflicts about the male role, and to be vulnerable to sociocultural and psychological forces in a causal network as yet unknown. However, from a review of the cases of 53 male self-mutilators, it appears that a significant number involve individuals not psychotic at the time of the act but rather having character disorders and rageful feelings toward themselves or women, and transsexual males who premeditate their own gender conversion surgery. The psychiatric consultant's role in the management of such an individual in the general hospital setting includes not only care of a patient with a psychotic or impulse disorder but also involves support of the house staff, who are distressed by the fear, guilt, hopelessness, anger, and revulsion that the patient's act of genital self-mutilation causes.

  16. Lifestyle causes of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. Materials and method: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. Results: In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. Conclusion: The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking

  17. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vested

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.

  18. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  19. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  20. Why do female migratory birds arrive later than males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Gunnarsson, Tómas G; Morrell, Lesley J; Gill, Jennifer A

    2006-11-01

    1. In migratory birds males tend to arrive first on breeding grounds, except in sex-role reversed species. The two most common explanations are the rank advantage hypothesis, in which male-male competition for breeding sites drives stronger selection for early arrival in males than females, and the mate opportunity hypothesis, which relies on sexual selection, as early arrival improves prospects of mate acquisition more for males than for females. 2. To date, theoretical work has focused on selection for early arrival within a single sex, usually male. However, if fitness depends on territory quality, selection for early arrival should operate on both sexes. Here we use two independent modelling approaches to explore the evolution of protandry (male-first arrival) and protogyny (female-first arrival) under the rank advantage and mate opportunity hypotheses. 3. The rank advantage hypothesis, when operating alone, fails to produce consistent patterns of protandry, despite our assumption that males must occupy territories before females. This is because an individual of either sex benefits if it out-competes same-sex competitors. Rather than promoting protandry, the rank advantage mechanism can sometimes result in protogyny. Female-female competition is stronger than male-male competition early in the season, if females compete for a resource (territories occupied by males) that is initially less common than the resource of interest to males (unoccupied territories). 4. Our results support the mate opportunity hypothesis as an explanation of why protandry is the norm in migratory systems. Male-biased adult sex ratios and high levels of sperm competition (modelled as extra-pair young: EPY) both produce protandry as a result of sexual selection. Protogyny is only observed in our models with female-biased sex ratios and low EPY production. 5. We also show that the effects of sex ratio biases are much stronger than those of EPY production, explore the evidence for sex

  1. Extreme costs of mating for male two-spot ladybird beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Perry

    Full Text Available Male costs of mating are now thought to be widespread. The two-spot ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata has been the focus of many studies of mating and sexual selection, yet the costs of mating for males are unknown. The mating system of A. bipunctata involves a spermatophore nuptial gift ingested by females after copulation. In this study, we investigate the cost to males of mating and of transferring spermatophores in terms of lifespan, ejaculate production and depletion of nutritional reserves. We found that males faced a strong trade-off between mating and survival, with males that were randomly assigned to mate a single time experiencing a 53% reduction in post-mating lifespan compared to non-mating males. This is among the most severe survival costs of a single mating yet reported. However, spermatophore transfer did not impact male survival. Instead, the costs associated with spermatophores appeared as a reduced ability to transfer spermatophores in successive matings. Furthermore, males ingested more food following spermatophore transfer than after matings without spermatophores, suggesting that spermatophore transfer depletes male nutritional reserves. This is to our knowledge the first report of an effect of variation in copulatory behaviour on male foraging behaviour. Overall, our study highlights the advantages of assessing mating costs using multiple currencies, and suggests that male A. bipunctata should exhibit mate choice.

  2. Imperfect chemical female mimicry in males of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Drijfhout, Falko P.; Sledge, Matthew F.; Turillazzi, Stefano; Heinze, Jürgen

    2008-11-01

    Winged and wingless males coexist in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior. Wingless (“ergatoid”) males never leave their maternal colony and fight remorselessly among each other for the access to emerging females. The peaceful winged males disperse after about 10 days, but beforehand also mate in the nest. In the first 5 days of their life, winged males perform a chemical female mimicry that protects them against attack and even makes them sexually attractive to ergatoid males. When older, the chemical profile of winged males no longer matches that of virgin females; nevertheless, they are still tolerated, which so far has been puzzling. Contrasting this general pattern, we have identified a single aberrant colony in which all winged males were attacked and killed by the ergatoid males. A comparative analysis of the morphology and chemical profile of these untypical attacked winged males and the tolerated males from several normal colonies revealed that normal old males are still performing some chemical mimicry to the virgin queens, though less perfect than in their young ages. The anomalous attacked winged males, on the other hand, had a very different odour to the females. Our study thus exemplifies that the analysis of rare malfunctioning can add valuable insight on functioning under normal conditions and allows the conclusion that older winged males from normal colonies of the ant C. obscurior are guarded through an imperfect chemical female mimicry, still close enough to protect against attacks by the wingless fighters yet dissimilar enough not to elicit their sexual interest.

  3. Male Partner Reproductive Coercion among Women Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Elian A.; Miller, Elizabeth; Zhao, Xinhua; Sileanu, Florentina E.; Mor, Maria K.; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-01-01

    Background Male partner reproductive coercion is defined as male partners' attempts to promote pregnancy through interference with women’s contraceptive behaviors and reproductive decision making. Male partners may try to promote pregnancy through birth control sabotage such as taking away or destroying their partners' contraceptives, refusing to wear condoms, and/or verbally pressuring their partners to abstain from contraceptive use. Reproductive coercion is associated with an elevated risk for unintended pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence, racial/ethnic minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status, are more likely to experience reproductive coercion. Women veterans who use Veterans Affairs (VA) for health care may be particularly vulnerable to reproductive coercion as they are disproportionally from racial/ethnic minority groups and experience high rates of intimate partner violence. Objectives We sought to examine the prevalence, correlates, and impact of reproductive coercion among women veterans served by the VA healthcare system. Study Design We analyzed data from a national telephone survey of women veterans aged 18–44, with no history of sterilization or hysterectomy, who had received care within VA in the prior 12 months. Participants who had sex with men in the last year were asked if they experienced male partner reproductive coercion. Adjusted logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between participant characteristics and male partner reproductive coercion and the relationship between reproductive coercion and the outcomes of contraceptive method used at last sex, and pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in the last year. Results Among the 1,241 women veterans in our study cohort, 11% reported experiencing male partner reproductive coercion in the past year. Black women, younger women, and single women were more likely to report reproductive coercion than their white, older, and married counterparts. Women

  4. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  5. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D L Umbers

    Full Text Available Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders. Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  6. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  7. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases (STDs) NICHD News Spotlights Couples with obesity may take longer to achieve pregnancy, NIH study suggests Getting to Know the New NICHD Director High levels of urinary paracetamol may impair male fertility, NIH study suggests All related news BACK TO ...

  8. Comparison of reproductive traits of regular and irradiated male desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Evidence of last-male sperm precedence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin Dushimirimana

    2012-02-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT is increasingly used to control pest insect populations. The success of SIT control programs depends on the ability to release sterile males and on the capacity of sterile males to compete with wild males to inseminate wild females. In this study, we evaluated the mating performance of Schistocerca gregaria (Försk. males irradiated with 4 Gray. We compared reproductive traits, such as duration of precopulation time, mating duration, quantity of sperm stored by females after copulation, number of females mated successively and postmating competition of irradiated males with non-irradiated males. Irradiated males were able to mate but the resulting number of offspring was dramatically reduced compared to the average number of offspring observed during a regular mating. During a single copulation, irradiated males transferred fewer sperm than regular males but, theoretically, this quantity is enough to fertilize all the eggs produced by a female during its reproductive life. Irradiated males also had the ability to remove sperm from a previous mating with unirraditated males. This new information on the mating strategies helps explain the post-copulation guarding behaviour of S. gregaria.

  9. Peptidergic modulation of male sexual behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis: structural and functional characterization of -FVamide neuropeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.; van Kesteren, R.E.; van Minnen, J.; van Golen, F.A.; Jimenez, C.R.; Li, K.W.

    2003-01-01

    In the simultaneous hermaphrodite snail Lymnaea stagnalis, copulation as a male is controlled by neurons that send axons to the male copulatory organs via a single penis nerve. Using direct mass spectrometry of a penis nerve sample, we show that one of the molecular ions has a mass corresponding to

  10. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  11. A comparison of vowel normalization procedures for language variation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Smits, Roel; van Hout, Roeland

    2004-11-01

    An evaluation of vowel normalization procedures for the purpose of studying language variation is presented. The procedures were compared on how effectively they (a) preserve phonemic information, (b) preserve information about the talker's regional background (or sociolinguistic information), and (c) minimize anatomical/physiological variation in acoustic representations of vowels. Recordings were made for 80 female talkers and 80 male talkers of Dutch. These talkers were stratified according to their gender and regional background. The normalization procedures were applied to measurements of the fundamental frequency and the first three formant frequencies for a large set of vowel tokens. The normalization procedures were evaluated through statistical pattern analysis. The results show that normalization procedures that use information across multiple vowels (``vowel-extrinsic'' information) to normalize a single vowel token performed better than those that include only information contained in the vowel token itself (``vowel-intrinsic'' information). Furthermore, the results show that normalization procedures that operate on individual formants performed better than those that use information across multiple formants (e.g., ``formant-extrinsic'' F2-F1). .

  12. Promotores’ perspectives on a male-to-male peer network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores’ learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores. 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor. We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores’ training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. PMID:27102810

  13. Promotores' perspectives on a male-to-male peer network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores' learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores' training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Angiogenesis in male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a rare but aggressive and devastating disease. This disease presents at a later stage and in a more advanced fashion than its female counterpart. The immunophenotype also appears to be distinct when compared to female breast cancer. Angiogenesis plays a permissive role in the development of a solid tumor and provides an avenue for nutrient exchange and waste removal. Recent scrutiny of angiogenesis in female breast cancer has shown it to be of significant prognostic value. It was hypothesized that this holds true in invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast. In the context of male breast cancer, we investigated the relationship of survival and other clinico-pathological variables to the microvascular density of the tumor tissue. Methods Seventy-five cases of primary male breast cancer were identified using the records of the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency over a period of 26 years. Forty-seven cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast had formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks that were suitable for this study. All cases were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the angiogenic markers (cluster designations 31 (CD31, 34 (CD34 and 105 (CD105, von Willebrand factor (VWF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Microvascular density (MVD was determined using average, centre, and highest microvessel counts (AMC, CMC, and HMC, respectively. Statistical analyses compared differences in the distribution of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD, tumor size, node status and age at diagnosis. In addition, MVD values were compared within each marker, between each marker, and were also compared to clinico-pathological data. Results Advanced age and tumor size were related to shorter survival times. There were no statistically significant differences in distributions of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD variables. There was no

  15. The physiology and timing of male puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing.......To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing....

  16. Childhood indicators of male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitam, F L

    1977-03-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 206 male homosexuals and 78 male heterosexuals. The most important aspects of the questionnaire dealt with six "childhood indicators" of later adult homosexuality: (1) interest in dolls, (2) cross-dressing, (3) preference for company of girls rather than boys in childhood games, (4) preference for company of older women rather than older men, (5) being regarded by other boys as a sissy, (6) sexual interest in other boys rather than girls in childhood sex play. Significant differences were found between homosexuals and heterosexuals with respect to all six indicators. Moreover, it was found that the stronger one's homosexual orientation the greater was the number of childhood indicators. It is concluded that there are behavioral aspects related to one's sexual orientation which may begin to emerge early in childhood.

  17. Monochrome Males and Colorful Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Wright

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Influences of educational level and gender were examined through free drawings. A total of 216 participants were recruited ranging from nursery school to university students. Using an adaptation of Turgeon’s methodology, participants were given a standardized set of colored pens and asked to draw a picture. Pictures were analyzed for the area of the page covered, colors used, number of colors used, and content. Overall, females covered more of the page, and used more colors than males. Females drew significantly more sky, flowers/trees and buildings (in most cases houses, and males drew more people and vehicles. In relation to educational level, nursery children used fewer colors than the other groups and secondary school children used more colors than primary school children. It was concluded that gender differences in content, and color, of drawings exist and these differences remain stable into adulthood. Results are discussed in terms of social and evolutionary theory.

  18. Satisfaction in male homosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R W; Bates, J E

    1978-01-01

    Little information exists regarding factors in the satisfaction and stability of male homosexual relationships. On the basis of interviews with 14 male couples an open-ended questionnaire was developed concerning gay couples' relationships. This questionnaire and a modified version of the Marital Relationship Inventory, called here the Couples Relationship Inventory (CRI), were administered to 28 couples who described themselves as in a primary, relatively long-term relationship. Couples' descriptions of the successfulness of their relationships in conventional, heterosexual-oriented terms on the CRI were similar to their descriptions on the more homosexual-oriented, open-ended questionnaire. The study is seen as providing a point of departure for future research on gay relationships and the behavior transactions that may differentiate satisfying from unsatisfying relationships.

  19. Ginseng and male reproductive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kar Wah; Wong, Alice ST

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is often referred to as the King of all herbs, and is found to be a promising agent to improve general well-being. Ginseng has also been reputed as an aphrodisiac, and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior in traditional Chinese medical practices. Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in human. In addition, ginseng is found to improve the sperm quality and count of healthy individuals as well as patients with treatment-related infertility. These actions are mostly attributed to ginsenosides, the major pharmacological active components of ginseng. This review compiles the current knowledge about the multifaceted effects of ginseng on male reproductive function, and also focuses on its mechanisms of action that may represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of male reproductive diseases or disorders. PMID:24381805

  20. Some dynamics of male chauvinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S M

    1976-01-01

    Male chauvinism was studied in the psychoanalytic therapy of 11 men. It refers to the maintenance of fixed beliefs and attitudes of male superiority, associated with overt or covert depreciation of women. Challenging chauvinist attitudes often results in anxiety or other symptoms. It is frequently not investigated in psychotherapy because it is ego-syntonic, parallels cultural attitudes, and because therapists often share similar bias or neurotic conflict. Chauvinism was found to represent an attempt to ward off anxiety and shame arising from one or more of four prime sources: unresolved infantile strivings and regressive wishes, hostile envy of women, oedipal anxiety, and power and dependency conflicts related to masculine self-esteem. Mothers were more important than fathers in the development of chauvinism, and resolution was sometimes associated with decompensation in wives.

  1. Staying put or leaving home: endocrine, neuroendocrine and behavioral consequences in male African striped mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten; Kenkel, Wiliam; Krackow, Sven; Carter, C Sue

    2013-01-01

    Social flexibility occurs when individuals of both sexes can change their social and reproductive tactics, which in turn can influence the social system of an entire population. However, little is known regarding the extent to which individuals of socially flexible species vary in their social behavior and in the underlying physiological mechanisms that support different social tactics. The present study in African striped mice modeled in captivity three male tactics described from the field: (a) philopatric males remaining in the family; (b) solitary roamers; or (c) group-living breeding males. Sixteen pairs and their offspring were kept in captivity, while one male offspring from the family remained as singly housed after he reached 21 days of age. Differences in behavior, morphology, hormone and neuropeptide levels were tested, and physiological measurements were correlated with behavioral measurements. In standardized arena experiments group-living males (philopatrics and breeders) were significantly more aggressive than singly housed males, in agreement with previous data suggesting that group-living, but not roaming males, are territorial. Philopatric males showed signs of reproductive suppression, small testes, lower testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than their singly housed brothers. Higher levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were measured in the PVN and BNST of singly housed males compared to group-living males. Based on these findings we hypothesize that roamers are physiologically primed, and capable, if the opportunity to mate arises, to release AVP, form social bonds and become territorial, thus quickly adopting the tactic as breeding male which would yield a higher reproductive success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Leptin levels in infertile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, S.; Bibi, R.; Ahmed, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the leptin levels in the serum of normal, sub fertile and infertile men. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Sciences Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad and Dr. Salma and Kafeel Medical Centre, Islamabad, from April to December 2009. Methodology: Serum leptin levels hormonal concentrations (LH, FSH and testosterone) were determined by EIA in 154 males including 24 (15.58%) fertile, 19 (12.34%) polyzoospermic (PZs), 26 (16.88%) teratozoospermic (TZs), 27 (17.53%) astheno-teratozoospermic (ATZs), 18 (11.69%) oligozoospermic (OZs), 18 (11.69%) oligo-astheno-teratozoospermic (OATZs), 11 (7.14%) obstructive azoospermic (OBST-AZOOs) and 11 (7.14%) non-obstructive azoospermic (NON-OBST-AZOOs). BMI was also determined, divided into groups of greater than 24. Hormonal concentrations were compared by ANOVA and correlation was performed by using Graph pad prism version 5. Results: Significantly high levels of leptin concentrations were found in fertile (p 24 compared to fertile and infertile male patients with BMI 24. Leptin showed a significant positive correlation with LH (p < 0.01) and FSH (p < 0.002) and a significant negative correlation with testosterone (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Abnormal leptin level was significantly associated with fertility problems in males. Providing a link between leptin and reproduction factors contributing in control of testosterone and gonadotropins secretion in many aspects depending on fertility status in male subjects. BMI appears to have significant association with serum leptin levels. (author)

  3. Male Spine Motion During Coitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkewicz, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Repeated measures design. Objective. To describe male spine movement and posture characteristics during coitus and compare these characteristics across 5 common coital positions. Summary of Background Data. Exacerbation of pain during coitus due to coital movements and positions is a prevalent issue reported by low back pain patients. A biomechanical analysis of spine movements and postures during coitus has never been conducted. Methods. Ten healthy males and females engaged in coitus in the following preselected positions and variations: QUADRUPED, MISSIONARY, and SIDELYING. An optoelectronic motion capture system was used to measure 3-dimensional lumbar spine angles that were normalized to upright standing. To determine whether each coital position had distinct spine kinematic profiles, separate univariate general linear models, followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc analysis were used. The presentation of coital positions was randomized. Results. Both variations of QUADRUPED, mQUAD1 and mQUAD2, were found to have a significantly higher cycle speed than mSIDE (P = 0.043 and P = 0.034, respectively), mMISS1 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively), and mMISS2 (P = 0.001 and P spine movement varied depending on the coital position; however, across all positions, the majority of the range of motion used was in flexion. Based on range of motion, the least-to-most recommended positions for a male flexion-intolerant patient are mSIDE, mMISS2, mQUAD2, mMISS1, and mQUAD1. Conclusion. Initial recommendations—which include specific coital positions to avoid, movement strategies, and role of the partner—were developed for male patients whose low back pain is exacerbated by specific motions and postures. Level of Evidence: N/A PMID:25208042

  4. Growth hormone in male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is expressed in a variety of tissues, including the testes, and has autocrine and paracrine functions as well. This, along with other factors, exerts autocrine and paracrine control over spermatogenesis. GH, used as an adjuvant therapy, induces spermatogenesis in non-responder patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, who are not responding to gonadotropin or pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH therapy. GH has an important physiological role to play in spermatogenesis and male fertility.

  5. Male contraception: another Holy Grail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Fern E; Goldberg, Erwin

    2014-01-15

    The idea that men should participate in family planning by playing an active role in contraception has become more acceptable in recent years. Up to the present the condom and vasectomy have been the main methods of male contraception. There have been and continue to be efforts to develop an acceptable hormonal contraceptive involving testosterone (T) suppression. However the off target affects, delivery of the analogs and the need for T replacement have proven difficult obstacles to this technology. Research into the development of non-hormonal contraception for men is progressing in several laboratories and this will be the subject of the present review. A number of promising targets for the male pill are being investigated. These involve disruption of spermatogenesis by compromising the integrity of the germinal epithelium, interfering with sperm production at the level of meiosis, attacking specific sperm proteins to disrupt fertilizing ability, or interfering with the assembly of seminal fluid components required by ejaculated sperm for acquisition of motility. Blocking contractility of the vas deferens smooth muscle vasculature to prevent ejaculation is a unique approach that prevents sperm from reaching the egg. We shall note the lack of interest by big pharma with most of the support for male contraception provided by the NIH. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. [Social freezing - the male perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromoll, J; Tüttelmann, F; Kliesch, S

    2016-01-01

    In Germany there is an emerging trend for postponing parenthood due to non-medical, sociocultural reasons. This clearly impacts on the reproductive success due to an age-dependent decrease in fertility. Thus, strategies and techniques are currently discussed which could preserve the female fertility status, among which social freezing (cryopreservation of oocytes) for later fertilization is the most realistic one; however, while there is an intensive discussion on the procedure and timing of oocyte cryopreservation, virtually no attention has been paid to the male side and the aging effects on the male germ cells. To evaluate the risk paternal age poses for the integrity of germ cells. For this review a literature search using PubMed, data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, the German in vitro fertilization (IVF) register as well as own data were used. Sperm cell integrity is clearly affected by age both at the genetic as well as at the epigenetic levels. The estimated mutation rate for spermatozoa doubles every 16.5 years. Monogenic and multifactorial diseases are strongly associated with paternal age. Men aged >40 years have an increased risk of passing age-related mutations to their children. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa is an option for men who postpone planning a family. Genetic counseling is recommended for couples undertaking social freezing and a male age of >40 years.

  7. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Stacy; Hirwa, Jean Paul; Silk, Joan B.; Vigilant, Linda; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund’s Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants <1 year old spent more time near and affiliated more with males than females without young infants. In multi-male groups, where infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females’ social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2–3 years) in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers’ preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were <1 year old. Observed discrepancies between female behavior in single and multi-male groups likely reflect different levels of postpartum intersexual conflict; in groups where paternity certainty and infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle. PMID:26863300

  8. Effect of Soybean on Male Reproductive Physiology in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Modaresi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Soybean (Soja hispida Moench is a member of Fabaceae family. It is a species of legume native to East Asia. Soy contains significant amount of all the essential amino acids for humans therefore, is a good source of protein .Soy has an important role in the improvement and treatment of some cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybeans on reproductive system in male mice. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Isfahan Payam e Noor University in 2009. In this research, 32 male mice were randomly grouped into four experimental groups. The control group was fed with soy-free basic diet. The experimental groups 1, 2, and 3 were fed with a diet containing 20%, 30% and 50% soy diet respectively.At the end of 9 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected and serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS software using one way ANOVA with Dunnett's post test and Duncan test. Results : In the experimental group which received 20% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful decrease in comparison with the control group (P<0.05, but in the experimental group which received a 50% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful increase (P<0.05 .The LH level in 30% and 50% groups had a meaningful increase but no significant differences were observed in FSH level & weight of testicles (P<0.05.The number of sperms in all of the treatment regimes had a meaningful decrease (P0.05 Conclusion: Results of this research indicated that the 20, 30, and 50 percent soy diet had a negative effect on the male reproductive system in mice.

  9. Polymorphism in male genitalia of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) scapularis Rondani, 1848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, V; Virginio, F; Suesdek, L

    2018-02-01

    Morphology of male genitalia of culicids is generally species-specific and often used as a taxonomic marker. However, some characters of the male genitalia vary intraspecifically and are not taxonomically diagnostic. This might be the case of Aedes scapularis, a Neotropical culicid with vector competence for arboviruses and filarial worms. Males of this species may or not present a retrorse process (RP) in the genitalic claspette filaments, which led authors to suspect that this variance might be indicative of population divergence or incipient speciation process. This suspicion has not been investigated hitherto and it is not known if there are variable patterns of RPs. We hypothesized that the presence of the RP varies intraspecifically in Ae. scapularis and then we statistically evaluated the variability of this character in a single population. To this study the genitalia of 73 males of Ae. scapularis were prepared, and their RPs were meristically quantified and categorized according to the phenotypes observed. We noted that the presence or RPs is a polymorphic character because it varied inter and intra-individually. The presence of a single RP on each claspette filament was the predominant pattern (77%), but absent or multiple RPs in each filament were also found either in bilateral symmetry or asymmetry. Thus, we conclude that the presence of RPs owing to its high variability is not indicative of populational divergence or diagnostic of species complex within Ae. scapularis.

  10. Size Dependent Male Reproductive Tactic in the Two-Spotted Goby (Gobiusculus flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utne-Palm, A C; Eduard, K; Jensen, K H; Mayer, I; Jakobsen, P J

    2015-01-01

    Male investment in testes and sperm duct gland in the polygamous nest breeding two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens (Fabricius) was investigated in relation to time in reproductive season and individual physical parameters. This small teleost fish is most likely the most abundant species found along the rocky shores of the North East Atlantic. The two-spotted goby has a single reproductive season, during which nest-caring males can raise several clutches of offspring. According to the literature the males are on average larger than the females. Here we report for the first time a population showing a reversal of this trend, with males on average being smaller than females, a difference likely caused by a large proportion of small males. Early in the breeding season these small males have typical sneaker characters, with relatively large testes and small seminal duct glands compared to the larger dominant territorial males. The presence of these two alternative male reproductive tactics is confirmed by histological studies, which shows the presence of sperm in the sperm duct glands (SDG) of smaller males, but not in the SDG of intermediate and larger males. To our knowledge, males with typical sneaker characters have not been reported in earlier studied populations of two-spotted goby. Interestingly we found that testes investment declined significantly over the course of the breeding season, and that this reduction was significantly more pronounced in small compared to the large males. Further, a significant increase in seminal duct gland (SDG) mass was observed for the smaller males over the breeding season. We propose that this indicates a possible shift in mating tactic by smaller males from a parasitic to a nest-holding tactic over the course of the breeding season. Thus, the observed size dependent plasticity in investment in SDG over time suggests that the reproductive tactic of G. flavescens is conditional, and possibly influenced by mate availability and

  11. Size Dependent Male Reproductive Tactic in the Two-Spotted Goby (Gobiusculus flavescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Utne-Palm

    Full Text Available Male investment in testes and sperm duct gland in the polygamous nest breeding two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens (Fabricius was investigated in relation to time in reproductive season and individual physical parameters. This small teleost fish is most likely the most abundant species found along the rocky shores of the North East Atlantic. The two-spotted goby has a single reproductive season, during which nest-caring males can raise several clutches of offspring. According to the literature the males are on average larger than the females. Here we report for the first time a population showing a reversal of this trend, with males on average being smaller than females, a difference likely caused by a large proportion of small males. Early in the breeding season these small males have typical sneaker characters, with relatively large testes and small seminal duct glands compared to the larger dominant territorial males. The presence of these two alternative male reproductive tactics is confirmed by histological studies, which shows the presence of sperm in the sperm duct glands (SDG of smaller males, but not in the SDG of intermediate and larger males. To our knowledge, males with typical sneaker characters have not been reported in earlier studied populations of two-spotted goby. Interestingly we found that testes investment declined significantly over the course of the breeding season, and that this reduction was significantly more pronounced in small compared to the large males. Further, a significant increase in seminal duct gland (SDG mass was observed for the smaller males over the breeding season. We propose that this indicates a possible shift in mating tactic by smaller males from a parasitic to a nest-holding tactic over the course of the breeding season. Thus, the observed size dependent plasticity in investment in SDG over time suggests that the reproductive tactic of G. flavescens is conditional, and possibly influenced by mate

  12. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-23

    Male homosexual behaviour-although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom-remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment.

  13. Sensory integration regulating male courtship behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Krstic

    Full Text Available The courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster serves as an excellent model system to study how complex innate behaviors are controlled by the nervous system. To understand how the underlying neural network controls this behavior, it is not sufficient to unravel its architecture, but also crucial to decipher its logic. By systematic analysis of how variations in sensory inputs alter the courtship behavior of a naïve male in the single-choice courtship paradigm, we derive a model describing the logic of the network that integrates the various sensory stimuli and elicits this complex innate behavior. This approach and the model derived from it distinguish (i between initiation and maintenance of courtship, (ii between courtship in daylight and in the dark, where the male uses a scanning strategy to retrieve the decamping female, and (iii between courtship towards receptive virgin females and mature males. The last distinction demonstrates that sexual orientation of the courting male, in the absence of discriminatory visual cues, depends on the integration of gustatory and behavioral feedback inputs, but not on olfactory signals from the courted animal. The model will complement studies on the connectivity and intrinsic properties of the neurons forming the circuitry that regulates male courtship behavior.

  14. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men...... with severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...

  15. Male-male competition and large size mating advantage in European earwigs, Forficula auricularia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund

    2000-04-01

    European earwigs are sexually dimorphic in forceps shape and length. Male forceps are thought to be weapons in male contests for access to females, but recent findings suggest that females choose males on the basis of their forceps length. I investigated sexual selection on forceps length and body size and the occurrence of male-male competition. When I controlled for forceps length experimentally and statistically, relatively heavy males had greater copulation success than relatively light males. When I controlled for body size, males with relatively longer forceps had no tendency for greater copulation success than males with shorter forceps. Relatively heavy males more often took over copulations from smaller males than vice versa. Male contests were important for the outcome of mate competition, as males commonly interrupted and took over copulations. My results therefore suggest that intrasexual selection is significant in competition for copulations in male earwigs, and acts on body size. This contrasts with previous findings, which have shown intersexual selection on forceps length to be important. However, both modes of sexual selection may be acting through a two-stage process, where male-male competition first determines which males have access to females, and then through female choice among available males. Morphological measurements supported the conclusion that forceps length and body size are male secondary sexual characters, as these characters had large variance and skewed distributions in males, but were normally distributed in females. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  16. Performance capacity, fighting tactics and the evolution of life-stage male morphs in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Herrel, Anthony; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Meyers, Jay J; Irschick, Duncan J

    2004-12-07

    The evolution of alternative male phenotypes is probably driven by male-male competition for access to reproductive females, but few studies have examined whether whole-organism performance capacities differ between male morphs, and if so whether any such differences affect fighting ability. We show how ontogenetic changes in performance and morphology have given rise to two distinct life-stage male morphs exhibiting different fighting tactics within the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis). Field studies show a bimodal distribution of adult males within a single population: larger 'heavyweight' males have relatively large heads and high bite forces for their size, whereas smaller 'lightweight' males have smaller heads and lower bite forces. In staged fights between size-matched heavyweight males, males with greater biting ability won more frequently, whereas in lightweight fights, males with greater jumping velocity and acceleration won more often. Because growth in reptiles is indeterminate, and the anole males examined are sexually mature, we propose that the heavyweight morph arose through selection against males with small heads and poor bite forces at the lightweight-heavyweight size transition. Our findings imply that one may not be able to predict male fighting success (and hence potential mating success) by examining aspects of male 'quality' at only one life stage.

  17. Variation in Male Fertilities and Pairwise Mating Probabilities in Picea glauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, D J; Stewart, S C

    1987-05-01

    Frequencies of multilocus male gametes in seeds collected from clones in several blocks of a white spruce seed orchard were analyzed as part of a 2-yr study of mating system variation in this species. Observed frequencies of male gamete types departed significantly from those expected assuming equal male fertilities among clones. Male gamete frequencies in seed crops were significantly heterogeneous among clones within blocks, and among blocks within clones. Clonal male fertilities were estimated from male gamete frequency data. These estimates were highly skewed, with a small proportion of the clones contributing male gametes to the majority of the seed. The estimates were significantly heterogeneous among clones within blocks, and among blocks within clones. Between-year variation in clonal male fertilities was also pronounced, with male fertilities of some clones changing by as much as three orders of magnitude. Clonal male fertility was significantly correlated with clonal male cone production in both years. These results are important with regard to assumptions made for the estimation of general combining ability, average genetic correlation among progeny from single parents, and expected response to selection in open-pollinated plant populations.

  18. Single dose pharmacokinetics of mefloquine in healthy Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single dose pharmacokinetics of mefloquine was determined in SJ ic healthy Nigerian male subjects. Mefloquine 500mg single dose was administered and blood sa mples were collected 11t intervals. Plasma concentrations were determined by RP-HPLC method after sample pretreated step by solid phase extraction ...

  19. single dose pharmacokinetics of mefloquine in healthy nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Single dose pharmacokinetics of mefloquine was determined in SJ ic healthy Nigerian male subjects. Mefloquine 500mg single dose was administered and blood samples were collected. 11t intervals. Plasma concentrations were determined by RP-HPLC method after sample pre- treated step by solid phase extraction ...

  20. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  1. single dose pharmacokinetics of mefloquine in healthy nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    University of Jos, Jos Nigeria. Single dose pharmacokinetics of mefloquine was determined in SJ ic healthy Nigerian male subjects. ... INTRODUCTION. Mefloquine is a quinolinemethanol antimalarial found to be effective as single dose therapy for all species ..... ·ographic using electron capture. LB. a'"lrl Rcmbo L., (1993).

  2. Male-male clasping may be part of an alternative reproductive tactic in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Heather J; Stevenson, Rachel J; Ego, Courtney L

    2014-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs have been observed to clasp other males in a sustained, amplectant position, the purpose of which is unknown. We examined three possible hypotheses for this counter-intuitive behavior: 1) clasping males fail to discriminate the sex of the frogs they clasp; 2) male-male clasping is an aggressive or dominant behavior; or 3) that males clasp other males to gain proximity to breeding events and possibly engage in sperm competition. Our data, gathered through a series of behavioral experiments in the laboratory, refute the first two hypotheses. We found that males did not clasp indiscriminately, but showed a sex preference, with most males preferentially clasping a female, but a proportion preferentially clasping another male. Males that clasped another male when there was no female present were less likely to "win" reproductive access in a male-male-female triad, indicating that they did not establish dominance through clasping. However, those males did gain proximity to oviposition by continued male-male clasping in the presence of the female. Thus, our findings are consistent with, but cannot confirm, the third hypothesis of male-male clasping as an alternative reproductive tactic.

  3. Hypersexual desire in males: are males with paraphilias different from males with paraphilia-related disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Martin P; Hennen, John

    2003-10-01

    The assessment of current sexual behavior (fantasies, urges, and activities) and sexual preoccupation (measured in min/day) associated with both conventional (i.e., adult relationship-associated) or unconventional (paraphilia and paraphilia-related) sexual behavior were ascertained from a sample of 120 consecutively evaluated males with paraphilias (PA; n = 88, including sex offender paraphiliacs; n = 60) and paraphilia-related disorders (PRD; n = 32). In addition, an assessment of hypersexual desire, defined as the highest sustained period (at least 6 months minimum duration) of persistently enacted sexual behavior (total sexual outlet/week [TSO] after age 15) was assessed. In almost all measures, the PA and PRD groups were not statistically significantly different. The average PA or PRD reported a mean hypersexual TSO of 11.7 +/- 7.3, a mean age of 21.6 +/- 7.1 years at onset of peak hypersexual behavior, and a mean duration of 6.2 +/- 7.6 years of hypersexual TSO. When the sample was stratified into three subgroups on the basis of the lifetime number of PAs + PRDs as a proxy measure of the severity of sexual impulsivity, the "high" group, with at least 5 lifetime PAs and PRDs, consisted of all paraphilic males, predominantly sex offenders, who self-reported the highest hypersexual desire (14.3 +/- 7.9), the highest current TSO/week (9.9 +/- 8.1), the most current sexual preoccupation (2-4 hr/day), and the highest likelihood of incarceration secondary to paraphilic sex-offending behavior. Although hypersexual desire, a quantitative measure of enacted sexual behaviours, may be a meaningful construct for clinically derived samples, the incidence and prevalence of hypersexual desire in community samples of males with paraphilias and paraphilia-related disorders is unknown.

  4. Male traits, mating tactics and reproductive success in the buff-breasted sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Weatherhead, Patrick J.; Kempenaers, Bart; Scribner, Kim T.

    1998-01-01

    Buff-breasted sandpipers use a variety of mating tactics to acquire mates, including remaining at a single lek for most of the breeding season, attending multiple leks during the season, displaying solitarily or displaying both on leks and solitarily. We found that differences in body size, body condition, fluctuating asymmetry scores, wing coloration, territory location and behaviour (attraction, solicitation and agonistic) did not explain the observed variation in mating tactics used by males. Which males abandoned versus returned to leks was also not related to morphology or behaviour, and there was no tendency for males to join leks that were larger or smaller than the lek they abandoned. These results suggest that male desertion of leks was not dependent on a male's characteristics nor on the size of the lek he was presently attending. Males did join leks with larger males than their previous lek, perhaps to mate with females attracted to these larger 'hotshot' males. Males at both leks and solitary sites successfully mated. Lek tenure did not affect mating success, although lekking males appeared to mate more frequently than solitary males. Courtship disruption and to a lesser extent, female mimicry, were effective at preventing females from mating at leks, and may offer a partial explanation for female mating off leks. Our analysis that combined all males together within a year (regardless of mating tactic) indicated that males that attended leks for longer periods of time and that had fewer wing spots were significantly more likely to mate. Given some evidence that wing spotting declines with age, and that females inspect male underwings during courtship, the latter result suggests that female choice may play some role in determining male success. We suggest that male buff-breasted sandpipers may use alternative mating tactics more readily than males in other 'classic' lek-breeding species because: (1) unpredictable breeding conditions in this species' high

  5. Violence between Couples: Profiling the Male Abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)

  6. Are male reproductive disorders a common entity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, K A; Main, K M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2001-01-01

    Growing evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies points to a synchronized increase in the incidence of male reproductive problems, such as genital abnormalities, testicular cancer, reduced semen quality, and subfertility. Together these male reproductive problems may reflect the existen...

  7. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasjleti, Maria

    1980-01-01

    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  8. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include ...

  9. Does the "Negro" "Still" Need Separate Schools? Single-Sex Educational Settings as Critical Race Counterspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Clarence L., Sr.; Flennaugh, Terry K.; Blackmon, Samarah M.; Howard, Tyrone C.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether contemporary educators should consider single-sex educational settings as viable interventions in educating African American males. Using qualitative data from a 2-year study of single-sex educational spaces in two Los Angeles County high schools, the authors argue that when all-male spaces effectively function as…

  10. Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dåderman, Anna M; Edman, Gunnar; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2012-04-01

    The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to "calm down" before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, "Criminal versatility", was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical

  11. Psychobiology of Male Homosexuality: Recent Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Annicchiarico Iseda, Ivan Darío; Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, empirical and theoretical reports which question the causes of male homosexuality are examined. According to these reports, male homosexuality differs from female homosexuality in some respects. Additionally, evidence favouring the consideration of male homosexuality as a biological condition is shown: there are brain differences between gay men and heterosexual men, there are genetic and perinatal factors associated to male homosexuality, there are cognitive and behavioral dif...

  12. Male sexuality with advancing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Andreas; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard

    2004-04-15

    People aged 60 years or older are commonly given the image of grandparents who are sexually rather inactive. However, a high percentage of men over 60 years have sexual desires and are sexually active. Aging men need more time and more direct stimulation of the penis to achieve full erection. The risk of developing erectile dysfunction increases with age. Almost one man in 22 aged 60-69 years without previous erection problems develops erectile dysfunction within 1 year. Hormone replacement therapy is only indicated if testosterone deficiency is combined with the syndrome of the "aging male" and lack of other disorders that are possibly causative and could be treated. For hormone replacement therapy testosterone gel preparations are preferable because they have a short half-time and can be immediately discontinued in the event that a pre-existing occult prostate carcinoma is stimulated.

  13. Foreskin Morbidity in Uncircumcised Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, Ida; Thorup, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As a consequence of the discussion on whether the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks and the discrepancies in reported figures of complications, we evaluated the incidence and morbidity of foreskin surgery due to medical indications in boys from the Capital...... Region of Denmark in 2014. METHODS: Medical records from all boys operated on the foreskin due to medical reasons in the Capital Region in 2014 were reviewed. Patients with hypospadias, ritual circumcision, and redo-surgery because of complications to nontherapeutic circumcision were excluded. RESULTS......-17). Phimosis was the most frequently reported indication (95.0%). The remaining 5.0% underwent surgery because of frenulum breve causing problems during erection. Before surgery, 27.1% had foreskin-related voiding problems and 17.1% had at least 1 episode of balanitis. Circumcision was initially performed...

  14. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  15. Male Puberty Rites: A Path Analytic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Michio

    1982-01-01

    Studies two determinants of male puberty rites: communitywide exclusive male work groups and polygyny which act as an extension of male subculture; and sexual integration in the division of labor and distant father-child relationship which act to reduce the distance between the sexes. (Author/RC)

  16. Malignant cysts of the male breast.

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbings, W. S.; George, B. D.; Boyle, S.; Plowman, P. N.; Gilmore, O. J.

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of male breast carcinoma presenting as cystic swellings are reported. Cysts of the male breast are rare, but unlike cysts in female breasts are more likely to represent significant pathology. We recommend consideration of excision biopsy of isolated cysts in male breasts.

  17. Male reproductive suppression: not a social affair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zizzari, Z.V.; Jessen, A.; Koene, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the animal kingdom there are countless strategies via which males optimize their reproductive success when faced with male–male competition. These male strategies typically fall into two main categories: pre- and post-copulatory competition. Within these 2 categories, a set of behaviors, referred

  18. The Changing Occupational Structure of Amish Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, George M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveys of businesses and adult Amish males in Holmes and Wayne counties (Ohio) indicate that farming is declining as the primary occupation for Amish males and that the Amish occupational structure is becoming more complex as more Amish males work away from home. Possible impacts on Amish society, such as increased need for formal education, are…

  19. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  20. The Lumbar Lordosis in Males and Females, Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Hay

    Full Text Available Whether differences exist in male and female lumbar lordosis has been debated by researchers who are divided as to the nature of variations in the spinal curve, their origin, reasoning, and implications from a morphological, functional and evolutionary perspective. Evaluation of the spinal curvature is constructive in understanding the evolution of the spine, as well as its pathology, planning of surgical procedures, monitoring its progression and treatment of spinal deformities. The aim of the current study was to revisit the nature of lumbar curve in males and females.Our new automated method uses CT imaging of the spine to measure lumbar curvature in males and females. The curves extracted from 158 individuals were based on the spinal canal, thus avoiding traditional pitfalls of using bone features for curve estimation. The model analysis was carried out on the entire curve, whereby both local and global descriptors were examined in a single framework. Six parameters were calculated: segment length, curve length, curvedness, lordosis peak location, lordosis cranial peak height, and lordosis caudal peak height.Compared to males, the female spine manifested a statistically significant greater curvature, a caudally located lordotic peak, and greater cranial peak height. As caudal peak height is similar for males and females, the illusion of deeper lordosis among females is due partially to the fact that the upper part of the female lumbar curve is positioned more dorsally (more backwardly inclined.Males and females manifest different lumbar curve shape, yet similar amount of inward curving (lordosis. The morphological characteristics of the female spine were probably developed to reduce stress on the vertebral elements during pregnancy and nursing.

  1. Single Incision Laparoscopic Splenectomy: Our First Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Barbaros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most laparoscopic surgeons have attempted to reduce incisional morbidity and improve cosmetic outcomes by using less and smaller trocars. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy is a new laparoscopic procedure. Herein we would like to present our experiences.Material and Methods: Between January 2009 and June 2009, data of the 7 patients who underwent single incision laparoscopic splenectomy were evaluated retrospectively.Results: There were 7 patients (5 females and 2 males with a mean age of 29.9 years. The most common splenectomy indication was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy was performed successfully in 6 patients. In one patient the operation was converted to an open procedure.Conclusion: With surgeons experienced in minimally invasive surgery, single incision laparoscopic splenectomy could be performed successfully. However, in order to demonstrate the differneces between standard laparoscopic splenectomy and SILS splenetomy, prospective randomized comparative studies are required.

  2. Population density does not influence male gonadal investment in the Least Killifish, Heterandria formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Matthew; Apodaca, Joseph J; Macrae, Pamela S D; Travis, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Comparative studies documenting a relationship between male gonadal investment and the degree of sperm competition (SC) have usually considered the association between these traits to be driven by qualitative differences in the mating system, such as whether spawning occurs in pairs or groups. However, ecological and demographic differences between conspecific populations may also generate variation in the importance of SC that can drive the evolution of male gonadal investment. In this study, we examined whether variation in population density, which is predicted to influence the level of SC in many animals, is correlated with male gonadal investment among populations of the least killifish, Heterandria formosa, a species with internal fertilization in which multiple mating is common. We complemented this field study by testing whether males respond plastically to experimentally increased levels of SC by increasing investment in testis. This experiment involved two treatments. In the first, we eliminated the potential for sperm competition (NSC) by housing a single male with a single female. In the second, we created a high risk of SC by housing five males with two females. In the field survey, we found significant differences among populations in density and relative testis mass. However, there was no evidence for a correlation between population density and relative testis mass. In our lab experiment, males did not adjust their gonadal investment in response to experiencing different levels of SC for 4 weeks. Our combined results indicate that gonadal investment in male H. formosa is not related to variation in population density.

  3. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  4. Single photon from a single trapped atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingjan, J.; Jones, M.P.A.; Beugnon, J.; Darquiee, B.; Bergamini, S.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum treatment of the interaction between atoms and light usually begins with the simplest model system: a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light wave. Here we demonstrate an elegant experimental realization of this system using an optically trapped single rubidium atom illuminated by resonant light pulses. We observe Rabi oscillations, and show that this system can be used as a highly efficient triggered source of single photons with a well-defined polarisation. In contrast to other sources based on neutral atoms and trapped ions, no optical cavity is required. We achieved a flux of single photons of about 10 4 s -1 at the detector, and observe complete antibunching. This source has potential applications for distributed atom-atom entanglement using single photons. (author)

  5. Male genital modification : A sexual selection interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowanchilde, R

    1996-06-01

    By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection, male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual signal in both male competition and female mate choice. The reliability of the signal correlates with the cost of acquiring the trait. Women use a variety of cues to assess male quality. Male genital modification is one way that some women assess their mates. Extreme male genital modifications not only honestly advertise status, sexual potency, and ability to provide sexual satisfaction, they may provide a reliable index of male-female cooperation through the male's commitment to endure pain and risk.

  6. Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Pavković-Lučić

    Full Text Available Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature? Sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster, related to body size and fluctuating asymmetry in wing length and number of sex comb teeth in males, was tested in natural conditions. Males collected in copula were significantly larger than those collected as a single, while no difference in mean number of sex comb teeth between copulating and single males was observed. On the other hand, single males had greater asymmetry both for wing length and number of sex comb teeth than their mating counterparts. It looks like that symmetry of these bilateral traits also may play a role in sexual selection in this dipteran species in nature.

  7. Hierarchical chemosensory regulation of male-male social interactions in Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Liming; Han, Xiaoqing; Mehren, Jennifer; Hiroi, Makoto; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert; Levine, Joel D; Anderson, David J

    Pheromones regulate male social behaviors in Drosophila, but the identities and behavioral role(s) of these chemosensory signals, and how they interact, are incompletely understood. We found that (z)-7-tricosene, a male-enriched cuticular hydrocarbon that was previously shown to inhibit male-male

  8. Microwave heating for male contraception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, H.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study at Sichuan University investigated microwave irradiation as a reversible male contraception. In the first phase of the study, the testes of rabbits were exposed to 2450 MHz microwaves with intensity of 15-35 mW/cm/sup 2/ for 15-20 minutes. The animals' sperm count was reduced from 5.86 x 10/sup 8/ +- 1.67 x 10/sup 8//ml (S.D.), to 0.273 x 10/sup 8/ +- 0.385 x 10/sup -8//ml 35 days after exposure. The impregnation ability was lost for about two months, even though the animals retained a normal sexual desire and physical condition. In the second phase, a group of 200 human volunteers received 2450 MHz microwave exposure with an intensity of 80-100 mW/cm/sup 2/ at the surface of the scrotum for 40-60 minutes. The volunteers' sperm counts were reduced from 7511 x 10/sup 4/ +- 2758 x 10/sup 4//ml to 366 x 10/sup 4/ +- 352 x 10/sup 4//ml at 39 +- 5.4 days after exposure; reduction amounting to approximately 95 percent. The viability and motility of the sperm were also reduced. Two months after the last exposure, the sperm counts of the volunteers recovered to 4625 x 10/sup 4/ +- 1897 x 10/sup 4//ml. No obvious changes were found either in medical examinations or in the daily lifestyles of the volunteers

  9. Male homosexuality: the adolescent's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remafedi, G

    1987-03-01

    Although homosexual activity is prevalent among US teenagers, adolescent homosexuality per se has been a poorly understood phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the meaning and experience of homosexuality from the adolescent's perspective. Twenty-nine male teenagers, self-described as gay (79%) or bisexual (21%), volunteered to participate in a structured interview, the purpose of which was to examine the definition of homosexuality, the acquisition of a gay identity, and the impact of sexuality on family, peers, and community. The youths demonstrated well-established sexual identities by the consistency of their sexual fantasies, interests, and behaviors over time. Homosexuality was more frequently described as a general attraction to men (48%) and an indicator of positive personal attributes (33%) than as an isolated sexual behavior. The subjects reported strong negative attitudes from parents (43%) and friends (41%) toward their sexualities. Discrimination (37%), verbal abuse from peers (55%), and physical assaults (30%) were frequently cited problems. These stressors may place the boys at high risk for physical and psychosocial dysfunction.

  10. Male Hypogonadism. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Hernández Madrazo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 26 years old male patient who attended the Internal Medicine consultation at the La Fortaleza Integral Diagnostic Center in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela because of decreased external genitalia size, with poor development from childhood and swelling of the breasts is presented. Physical examination showed a trunk of feminoid configuration caused by adipose tissue accumulated in the lower abdomen, breast and pubic; wide pelvis; lower limb dominance over higher limbs; enucoid proportions; volume diffusely  increased in both breasts (gynecomastia; deposit of fatty tissue at the pelvic girdle, and absent or sparse facial, axillary and pubic hair. We observed decreased size, poor pigmentation, and soft consistency in penis and testicles. Exam was performed on plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, thus concluding, by the Endocrinology Service at the Maracaibo University Hospital, to be the case of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism of improvable cause. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism in adults is unusual in medical practice, a fact that provides with relevance the case we present.

  11. Male Participation in Contraception in an Eastern Province of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Hotun Sahin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. Results: The most commonly used contraceptives were condom (36.8% and withdrawal (27.3% methods in single men. Married men reported relying more on female methods and they were more satisfied with the method they used. The idea of shared responsibility in family planning was more appreciated by single men. The role of family as a source of knowledge about family planning was low in both groups. Married men were more against vasectomy and condom while single men had more negative attitudes towards using hormone pills for men if produced in the future.Conclusion: Comprehensive projects are needed to improve male participation in family planning, especially in male dominant cultures. This must be seen as a golden key in the reproductive health programs.

  12. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  13. Dominant lethals following administration of tritium (THO) to rat males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagova, A.; Baev, I.; Bajrakova, A.

    1976-01-01

    Adult rat males were given a single intraperitoneal tritium (THO) injection at 0,01 or 0,001 mCi/g body weight (1/100 or 1/1000 of LDsub(50/30), respectively). Twelve days after treatment each male was mated to 3-5 intact females, and the latter were replaced by fresh ones every 12 following days over a 120-day period. Mated females were killed to score conceptions, corpora lutea, and live and dead embryos. Estimations were made of F 1 prenatal death rate (according to Bateman, 1958) and the frequency of induction of dominant lethal mutations (according to Roehrborn, 1970). The results observed indicated paternal exposure to tritium (THO) to produce dominant lethals both in pre- and post-meiotic germ cells in the rat. The extent of the genetic damage studied was found to depend on the amount of activity administered as well as on the time interval between treatment and conception. (author)

  14. The evolution of postpairing male mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Nan; Servedio, Maria R; Lloyd, Huw; Sun, Yue-Hua

    2017-06-01

    An increasing number of empirical studies in animals have demonstrated male mate choice. However, little is known about the evolution of postpairing male choice, specifically which occurs by differential allocation of male parental care in response to female signals. We use a population genetic model to examine whether such postpairing male mate choice can evolve when males face a trade-off between parental care and extra-pair copulations (EPCs). Specifically, we assume that males allocate more effort to providing parental care when mated to preferred (signaling) females, but they are then unable to allocate additional effort to seek EPCs. We find that both male preference and female signaling can evolve in this situation, under certain conditions. First, this evolution requires a relatively large difference in parental investment between males mated to preferred versus nonpreferred females. Second, whether male choice and female signaling alleles become fixed in a population versus cycle in their frequencies depends on the additional fecundity benefits from EPCs that are gained by choosy males. Third, less costly female signals enable both signaling and choice alleles to evolve under more relaxed conditions. Our results also provide a new insight into the evolution of sexual conflict over parental care. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Urogenital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Male Patients with Infertility in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State

    OpenAIRE

    Ibadin, K. O.; Osemwenkha, A. P.; Ibeh, I. N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Urogenital tract infection (UTI) contributes to the commonest single defined cause of infertility worldwide. To evaluate the role of urogenital tract infection in male with infertility and its association with sperm quality. Methodology and Results: Three hundred and twenty three (323) samples from infertile male subject were screened microbiologically for microorganisms associated with urogenital tract infection with seventy-two (72) age-matched male as controls using microbiological s...

  17. Androgenic Regulation of Male Sexual Behavior and Physiology in the Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Piekarski, David John

    2012-01-01

    The androgen testosterone (T) and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), are released from the gonads and act in the brain and periphery to control many male-typical traits, including male sexual behavior (MSB). The classical model of androgenic action asserts that T, or DHT binds to a single species of intracellular androgen receptor (AR), that acts as a transcription factor to induce transactivation of androgen-regulated genes. Accordingly, androgens may take hours or days to assert t...

  18. "To Sleep, Perchance to Dream": The Role of Sleep Disturbance in the Multidimensional Treatment of a Male Bulimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Daniel J.; Levitt, John

    Eating disorders within males are relatively uncommon, with estimates suggesting incidence rates of only five percent of the sample. This single-subject, reversal design case study examines the etiological variables of a 22-year-old male bulimic patient. Consultation for treatment was made by the patient's parents. Family assessment made in the…

  19. Longitudinal evidence that fatherhood decreases testosterone in human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettler, Lee T; McDade, Thomas W; Feranil, Alan B; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2011-09-27

    In species in which males care for young, testosterone (T) is often high during mating periods but then declines to allow for caregiving of resulting offspring. This model may apply to human males, but past human studies of T and fatherhood have been cross-sectional, making it unclear whether fatherhood suppresses T or if men with lower T are more likely to become fathers. Here, we use a large representative study in the Philippines (n = 624) to show that among single nonfathers at baseline (2005) (21.5 ± 0.3 y), men with high waking T were more likely to become partnered fathers by the time of follow-up 4.5 y later (P < 0.05). Men who became partnered fathers then experienced large declines in waking (median: -26%) and evening (median: -34%) T, which were significantly greater than declines in single nonfathers (P < 0.001). Consistent with the hypothesis that child interaction suppresses T, fathers reporting 3 h or more of daily childcare had lower T at follow-up compared with fathers not involved in care (P < 0.05). Using longitudinal data, these findings show that T and reproductive strategy have bidirectional relationships in human males, with high T predicting subsequent mating success but then declining rapidly after men become fathers. Our findings suggest that T mediates tradeoffs between mating and parenting in humans, as seen in other species in which fathers care for young. They also highlight one likely explanation for previously observed health disparities between partnered fathers and single men.

  20. Estrogens and male reproduction: a new concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carreau

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian testis serves two main functions: production of spermatozoa and synthesis of steroids; among them estrogens are the end products obtained from the irreversible transformation of androgens by a microsomal enzymatic complex named aromatase. The aromatase is encoded by a single gene (cyp19 in humans which contains 18 exons, 9 of them being translated. In rats, the aromatase activity is mainly located in Sertoli cells of immature rats and then in Leydig cells of adult rats. We have demonstrated that germ cells represent an important source of estrogens: the amount of P450arom transcript is 3-fold higher in pachytene spermatocytes compared to gonocytes or round spermatids; conversely, aromatase activity is more intense in haploid cells. Male germ cells of mice, bank voles, bears, and monkeys express aromatase. In humans, we have shown the presence of a biologically active aromatase and of estrogen receptors (alpha and ß in ejaculated spermatozoa and in immature germ cells in addition to Leydig cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the amount of P450arom transcripts is 30% lower in immotile than in motile spermatozoa. Alterations of spermatogenesis in terms of number and motility of spermatozoa have been described in men genetically deficient in aromatase. These last observations, together with our data showing a significant decrease of aromatase in immotile spermatozoa, suggest that aromatase could be involved in the acquisition of sperm motility. Thus, taking into account the widespread localization of aromatase and estrogen receptors in testicular cells, it is obvious that, besides gonadotrophins and androgens, estrogens produced locally should be considered to be physiologically relevant hormones involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.

  1. [Myocardial reinfarction in male and female].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotberg, T; Segovia, E; Gorodezky, M

    1978-01-01

    1). In 1001 patients with acute myocardial infarction 403 cases were found (40.2%) showing possible relapse. A study was made of 125 cases (12.5%) with positive diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction relapse, and among them, 12 were found to be occurring for the third time. Is possible for the real frequency of the iterative infarction to be even higher, because many cases were dismissed (27.7%) for lacking of conclusive electrocardiographic data pointing to myocardial transmural infarction. 2). Investigations were conducted about the evolutive condition of the danger factors in the coronary profile as well in the male as in the female group. Besides, a comparative study was made about symptoms, complications, morbidity and mortality. Clinical, enzimatic and electrocardiographic proofs were found, in every case, of a new myocardial transmural necrosis which was in evolution, with waves of injury and ischemia. Thirty eight deaths were registered in hospitals (30.4%) and in 25 of these, a necropsic study was conducted. 3). This illness is more frequent among men than among women, in a 3.5 to 1 proportion. The recurrent myocardial necrosis tends to be more frequently present during the first year following the first episode. In women, the first myocardial infarction as well as the iterative infarction occur at an older age than in men. 4). The influence of personality and stress is a very important factor of danger in the iterative infarction. Familiar antecedents of ischemic cardiopathy constitute a danger factor in patients presenting a single episode of myocardial infarction; nevertheless they don't seem to have a determining influence in this group of relapsing infarction. Although this study confirms with statistics that smoking has a decisive influence in the first myocardial infarction, neither frequency nor mortality of the relapsing infarction are in any way modified by the diminishing or suppression of the smoking habit.

  2. Are male reproductive disorders a common entity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, K A; Main, K M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2001-01-01

    Growing evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies points to a synchronized increase in the incidence of male reproductive problems, such as genital abnormalities, testicular cancer, reduced semen quality, and subfertility. Together these male reproductive problems may reflect the existence...... affecting genetically susceptible individuals. We recommend that future epidemiological studies on trends in male reproduction do not focus on one symptom only, but take all aspects of TDS into account. The potential impact of adverse environmental factors and the role of genetic polymorphisms involved...

  3. Male weaponry in a fighting cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Judge

    Full Text Available Sexually selected male weaponry is widespread in nature. Despite being model systems for the study of male aggression in Western science and for cricket fights in Chinese culture, field crickets (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllinae are not known to possess sexually dimorphic weaponry. In a wild population of the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, we report sexual dimorphism in head size as well as the size of mouthparts, both of which are used when aggressive contests between males escalate to physical combat. Male G. pennsylvanicus have larger heads, maxillae and mandibles than females when controlling for pronotum length. We conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis that relatively larger weaponry conveys an advantage to males in aggressive contests. Pairs of males were selected for differences in head size and consequently were different in the size of maxillae and mandibles. In the first experiment, males were closely matched for body size (pronotum length, and in the second, they were matched for body mass. Males with proportionately larger weaponry won more fights and increasing differences in weaponry size between males increased the fighting success of the male with the larger weaponry. This was particularly true when contests escalated to grappling, the most intense level of aggression. However, neither contest duration nor intensity was related to weaponry size as predicted by models of contest settlement. These results are the first evidence that the size of the head capsule and mouthparts are under positive selection via male-male competition in field crickets, and validate 800-year-old Chinese traditional knowledge.

  4. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  5. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues de Souza

    Full Text Available Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  6. Sperm production and mating potential of males after a cold shock on pupae of the parasitoid wasp Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoume, Sandrine; Bressac, Christophe; Chevrier, Claude

    2007-10-01

    For ectothermic species, temperature is a key environmental factor influencing several aspects of their physiology and ecology, acting particularly on reproduction. To measure the consequences of a severe thermal stress during development on male reproduction, a cold shock (1h at -18 degrees C) was tested on Dinarmus basalis pupae. D. basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a parasitoid wasp in which sperm management in both male and female is of prime importance. After a cold shock, developmental success was reduced, with a quarter of cold-shocked males not emerging correctly. The stress effects were estimated at the level of sperm stock in seminal vesicles of males at different ages and on the ability of 2-day-old males to access females in single and multiple mating and in male-male competition. Cold-shocked males had a reduced sperm stock compared to control males and this difference persisted with age. The rate of sperm production was similar in both groups. The consequences of a cold shock on male reproductive ability were perceptible in multiple mating and male-male competition but not in single mating. Cold-shocked males were at a disadvantage, inseminating fewer females and copulating less frequently. Finally, male pupae of D. basalis were able to withstand severe temperature stresses and their reproductive functions were partially preserved.

  7. Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M Wayne; Hopkins, Christopher E

    2008-01-01

    developed a method that inserts a single copy of a transgene into a defined site. Mobilization of a Mos1 transposon generates a double-strand break in noncoding DNA. The break is repaired by copying DNA from an extrachromosomal template into the chromosomal site. Homozygous single-copy insertions can...... be obtained in less than 2 weeks by injecting approximately 20 worms. We have successfully inserted transgenes as long as 9 kb and verified that single copies are inserted at the targeted site. Single-copy transgenes are expressed at endogenous levels and can be expressed in the female and male germlines....

  8. Intergenomic arms races: detection of a nuclear rescue gene of male-killing in a ladybird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsin M O Majerus

    Full Text Available Many species of arthropod are infected by deleterious inherited micro-organisms. Typically these micro-organisms are inherited maternally. Consequently, some, particularly bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, employ a variety of strategies that favour female over male hosts. These strategies include feminisation, induction of parthenogenesis and male-killing. These strategies result in female biased sex ratios in host populations, which lead to selection for host factors that promote male production. In addition, the intra-genomic conflict produced by the difference in transmission of these cytoplasmic endosymbionts and nuclear factors will impose a pressure favouring nuclear factors that suppress the effects of the symbiont. During investigations of the diversity of male-killing bacteria in ladybirds (Coccinellidae, unexpected patterns of vertical transmission of a newly discovered male-killing taxon were observed in the ladybird Cheilomenes sexmaculata. Initial analysis suggested that the expression of the bacterial male-killing trait varies according to the male(s a female has mated with. By swapping males between females, a male influence on the expression of the male-killing trait was confirmed. Experiments were then performed to determine the nature of the interaction. These studies showed that a single dominant allele, which rescues male progeny of infected females from the pathological effect of the male-killer, exists in this species. The gene shows typical Mendelian autosomal inheritance and is expressed irrespective of the parent from which it is inherited. Presence of the rescue gene in either parent does not significantly affect the inheritance of the symbiont. We conclude that C. sexmaculata is host to a male-killing gamma-proteobacterium. Further, this beetle is polymorphic for a nuclear gene, the dominant allele of which rescues infected males from the pathogenic effects of the male-killing agent. These findings represent the first

  9. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  10. Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson P Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius. We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation. Results Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation, among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame. Conclusion Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits.

  11. A high aggression strategy for smaller males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Andreas Svensson

    Full Text Available Male-male conflict is common among animals, but questions remain as to when, how and by whom aggression should be initiated. Factors that affect agonistic strategies include residency, the value of the contested resource and the fighting ability of the two contestants. We quantified initiation of aggression in a fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, by exposing nest-holding males to a male intruder. The perceived value of the resource (the nest was manipulated by exposing half of the residents to sexually receptive females for two days before the trial. Resident male aggression, however, was unaffected by perceived mating opportunities. It was also unaffected by the absolute and relative size of the intruder. Instead resident aggression was negatively related to resident male size. In particular, smaller residents attacked sooner and with greater intensity compared to larger residents. These results suggest that resident desert goby males used set, rather than conditional, strategies for initiating aggression. If intruders are more likely to flee than retaliate, small males may benefit from attacking intruders before these have had an opportunity to assess the resident and/or the resource.

  12. Male teachers' experiences of own aggression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meyer (2003) describes an incident where a male teacher grabbed learners by the neck and then pushed one of ..... were critical of the attitude of the young teachers coming from the universities: “… for them (the young ... Male teachers need to develop social skills and self-control techniques so they can avoid aggressive ...

  13. Exogenous melatonin administration is beneficial for male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A concern in the use of exogenous melatonin as a therapeutic intervention is that it may interfere with reproductive function. Herein, we report that chronic exogenous melatonin administration does not impair male reproductive function during ageing and at old age in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: ...

  14. Exogenous melatonin administration is beneficial for male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: A concern in the use of exogenous melatonin as a therapeutic intervention is that it may interfere with reproductive function. Herein, we report that chronic exogenous melatonin administration does not impair male reproductive function during ageing and at old age in male Sprague Dawley rats.

  15. Family planning--male responsibility campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    At a press conference on March 29, 1982, the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong launched a 1-year campaign to encourage men to assume more responsibility in family planning. The campaign will publicize the message that "real men" share family planning responsibilities with their wives. The campaign was developed in response to the Association's recognition that its male clinics were underutilized. Although the Association established its 1st male clinic in 1960, only 1.3% of the Association's clients in 1981 were men. Futhermore, the number of vasectomies performed in recent years had not increased. The campaign will seek to overcome the prevailing attitude that family planning is a women's issue, the reluctance of men to discuss fertility with their physicians, and various misconceptions about male methods. Activities initiated during the 1st few months of the campaign included 1) broadcasting a 30-second television spot to promote the male responsibility message; 2) setting up a mobile exhibit in railway stations and commercial complexes to inform the public about male birth control methods and about the services offered at the Association's male clinics; 3) giving away items which publicize the male clinics such as stickers, match boxes, condom samples, and literature; and 4) selling T-shirts which promote 2 as the ideal family size. In addition, a contest aimed at publicizing male birth control was undertaken jointly by a television magazine, Durex Products, and the Association. The contest engendered considerable interest and 2600 entries were received from men.

  16. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  17. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  18. A review of eating disorders in males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Recent findings Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th

  19. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in

  20. The Changing Experiences of Bisexual Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Max; McCormack, Mark; Anderson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 openly bisexual male youth from sixth forms across the UK, this article documents positive experiences of bisexual male youth in school: participants had positive coming out experiences and did not encounter significant discrimination or harassment because of their sexual identity. Participants attribute this…

  1. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  2. Educating African American Males: A Dream Deferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    This document presents recommendations of the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) African American Male Task Force (MAAMTF), which reviewed from January through April of 1990 current educational efforts and recommended strategies by which schools could better address African American males' needs. The MAAMTF recommendations are to be implemented in two phases.…

  3. Male-female differences in diabetic retinopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Glen Y; Bearse, Marcus A; Adams, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review male-female differences in the incidence and prevalence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. These differences will be established primarily through results from our present research and a review of related literature. Previously, we have demonstrated that neuroretinal dysfunction can be used to predict the location of future retinopathy up to three years before it is manifest. Our current research suggests that, for type 2 diabetes, the normal differences in neuroretinal function between nondiabetic males and females under 50 years of age are altered in patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, local neuroretinal function in type 2 diabetes is more abnormal in adult males compared with adult females. The literature also suggests that there are male-female differences in the occurrence of diabetes. In adolescence, the incidence of type 1 diabetes is greater in males, whereas in type 2 diabetes, the incidence is greater in females. This excess of females in type 2 diabetes shifts to a more equal incidence between the two sexes in adults. In addition, advanced retinopathy in type 1 diabetes appears to be more common in males, and the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy at the time of diagnosis in type 2 diabetes appears to be more associated with male sex. Although the reasons for male-female differences identified in this review are unknown, sex appears to be a significant factor in certain aspects of diabetes incidence and diabetic retinopathy.

  4. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To review the research findings on the expression of endogenous retroviruses and retroviral-related particles in male mammalian reproductive tissues, and to discuss their possible role in normal cellular events and association with disease conditions in male reproductive tissues. Data sources: Published ...

  5. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  6. Male-Female Sexuality: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Janice

    This annotated bibliography contains over 500 sources on the historical and contemporary development and expression of male and female sexuality. There are 68 topic headings which provide easy access for subject areas. A major portion of the bibliography is devoted to contemporary male-female sexuality. These materials consist of research findings…

  7. Recruiting and Retaining Male Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Craig J.; Goessling, Deborah Peters

    2005-01-01

    The percentage of male students who complete an undergraduate degree in the field of special education continues to be much lower than that of female graduates. Low status, low salaries, the perception of teaching as women's work, potential complaints of child abuse and sexual harassment, and a lack of male peer groups factor into this low…

  8. 66 Male Circumcision and HIV in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-12-02

    Dec 2, 2006 ... evidence has now been followed by one randomized control trial. The results of two further trials are awaited. In the interim , interest has grown in the question of how male circumcision can be operationalised in a real clinical setting should the two ongoing trials confirm the efficacy of male circumcision.

  9. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  10. A review of eating disorders in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W

    2014-11-01

    Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition has outlined more sex-neutral diagnostic criteria for eating disorders. Data of socioeconomic factors, prenatal influences, clinical characteristics, assessment, and mortality for eating disorders have been reported independently for males. Unlike in females, higher parental education showed no association with eating disorders in males, but twin or triplet status and lower gestational age at birth had an independent association with anorexia nervosa in males. Contrary to earlier suggestions, no differences in eating disorder symptoms such as binging, vomiting, or laxative abuse were observed between the sexes. Yet, males tended to score lower on eating disorder symptom measures than females. High rates of premorbid overweight and higher BMIs at various stages of eating disorders have been confirmed repeatedly. Higher age and lower BMI at admission, and restrictive anorexia nervosa subtype predicted fatal outcome for anorexia nervosa in males. Contemporary research provides grounds for improved recognition, diagnosis, and treatment for males suffering from eating disorders.

  11. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Miyamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  12. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Theoretically, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to disrupt male fertility; however, the topic remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To describe the possible association between STDs and male infertility and to explore possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. EVIDENCE...... performed in men and published in English. Studies were included if they contained original data on a possible association or a cause-and-effect relationship between STD and male infertility. Studies were considered only if they included an appropriate control group and/or comprehensive laboratory data. Due...... an association between STDs and male infertility is also of inadequate quality. The data regarding possible pathophysiologic mechanisms are inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: There may be an association between STDs and male infertility of unknown genesis and possibly with different pathogenic mechanisms for different...

  13. A Consumer Study of Entire Male Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Godt, J.; Kristensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study...

  14. Multiple paternity does not depend on male genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-07-01

    Polyandry is common in many species and it has been suggested that females engage in multiple mating to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring (genetic diversity hypothesis). Multiple paternity occurs in 30% of litters in wild populations of house mice, Mus musculus musculus , and multiple-sired litters are genetically more diverse than single-sired ones. Here, we aimed to test whether female house mice produce multiple-sired litters when they have the opportunity to produce genetically diverse litters. We assessed the rates of multiple paternity when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically dissimilar to each other (i.e. nonsiblings and MHC dissimilar) compared with when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically similar to each other (i.e. siblings and shared MHC alleles). Multiple mating may depend upon a female's own condition, and, therefore, we also tested whether inbred (from full-sibling matings) females were more likely to produce multiple-sired progeny than outbred controls. Overall we found that 29% of litters had multiple sires, but we found no evidence that females were more likely to produce multiple-sired litters when they had the opportunity to mate with genetically dissimilar males compared with controls, regardless of whether females were inbred or outbred. Thus, our findings do not support the idea that female mice increase multiple paternity when they have the opportunity to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring, as expected from the genetic diversity hypothesis.

  15. Hypothalamic control of male aggression-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Annegret L; Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Lin, Dayu

    2016-04-01

    In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat-provoking cues. Although several brain areas have been implicated in the generation of attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or 'voluntary' aggression-seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilized an aggression-seeking task in which male mice self-initiated aggression trials to gain brief and repeated access to a weaker male that they could attack. In males that exhibited rapid task learning, we found that the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl), an area with a known role in attack, was essential for aggression-seeking. Using both single-unit electrophysiology and population optical recording, we found that VMHvl neurons became active during aggression-seeking and that their activity tracked changes in task learning and extinction. Inactivation of the VMHvl reduced aggression-seeking behavior, whereas optogenetic stimulation of the VMHvl accelerated moment-to-moment aggression-seeking and intensified future attack. These data demonstrate that the VMHvl can mediate both acute attack and flexible seeking actions that precede attack.

  16. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule spectroscopy. (SMS), confocal microscopy,. FCS, sm-FRET, FLIM. 1 High-resolution spectrum re- fers to a spectrum consisting of very sharp lines. The sharp lines clearly display transitions to ...

  17. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE. February 2015. GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule ..... Resonance Energy. Transfer (FRET) is an elegant technique to measure the distance between a donor and an acceptor molecule. FRET refers to the.

  18. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct. Keywords. Nonlocality; single particle; hidden variables. PACS Nos 03.67.Ba; 03.65.Ta; 32.80.Lg; 07.79.Fc. 1. Introduction. Quantum nonlocality [2] for single particle is a subject of debate since the origin.

  19. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  20. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  1. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  2. The Evolving Puzzle of Autosomal Versus Y-linked Male Determination in Musca domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Ronda L.; Meisel, Richard P.; Scott, Jeffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination is one of the most rapidly evolving developmental pathways, but the factors responsible for this fast evolution are not well resolved. The house fly, Musca domestica, is an ideal model for studying sex determination because house fly sex determination is polygenic and varies considerably between populations. Male house flies possess a male-determining locus, the M factor, which can be located on the Y or X chromosome or any of the five autosomes. There can be a single M or multiple M factors present in an individual male, in heterozygous or homozygous condition. Males with multiple copies of M skew the sex ratio toward the production of males. Potentially in response to these male-biased sex ratios, an allele of the gene transformer, Md-traD, promotes female development in the presence of one or multiple M factors. There have been many studies to determine the linkage and frequency of these male determining factors and the frequency of Md-traD chromosomes in populations from around the world. This review provides a summary of the information available to date regarding the patterns of distribution of autosomal, X-linked and Y-linked M factors, the relative frequencies of the linkage of M, the changes in frequencies found in field populations, and the fitness of males with autosomal M factors vs. Y-linked M. We evaluate this natural variation in the house fly sex determination pathway in light of models of the evolution of sex determination. PMID:25552607

  3. The decline in Australian young male suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Page, Andrew N; Taylor, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Since the late 1990s there has been a sharp downward trend in Australian young male suicide. It is possible that a major government youth suicide prevention initiative, the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NYSPS), implemented during 1995-1999 may have influenced the decline. In this article, we examine time trends in age- and means-specific male and female Australian suicide rates in relation to unemployment rates and the NYSPS. Based on Australian suicide data over the period 1966-2003, we assess secular changes in the 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide rate ratio in relation to the NYSPS, using interrupted time series analysis (ARIMA), since this was previously found to be significantly associated with the 20-24 year male unemployment to total employment ratio. Results show that a dramatic reduction in Australian young male (aged 20-34 years) suicide has occurred since 1997-1998, declining from approximately 40 per 100,000 in 1997-1998 to approximately 20 per 100,000 in 2003. Most of the decline is due to a decrease in suicide by hanging and to a lesser extent from motor vehicle carbon monoxide and other gases. Further, the previously established strong secular association (lasting over 3 decades from 1966) between the rate ratio of 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide, and the rate ratio of 20-24 year male unemployment to total unemployment, appears to have been disrupted. ARIMA modelling of the suicide ratio against the initiative indicates a highly significant statistical association between the NYSPS and the suicide ratio reduction but not between the NYSPS and the unemployment indicator trend, suggesting a break in the link between young male suicide and unemployment. The recent sudden turnaround in Australian young male suicide trends and its extent appears to preclude explanations centring on slow-moving social indices traditionally associated with suicide, or on possible cohort effects. This sudden decrease

  4. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  5. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  6. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  7. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different...... structures and properties have been proposed in the literature. The main aim of this paper is to provide a review of these PLLs. To this end, the single-phase PLLs are first classified into two major categories: 1) power-based PLLs (pPLLs), and 2) quadrature signal generation-based PLLs (QSG......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  8. Exploring the Relevance of Single-Gender Group Formation: What We Learn from a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeck, Rebecca Yvonne; Hristova, Adelina; Jablokow, Kathryn W.; Bonafini, Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exploratory study on participants' perception of the importance of single-gender grouping in a massive open online course (MOOC) delivered through the Coursera platform. Findings reveal that female and male learners' perception of single-gender grouping differs. Female students more than males indicated less…

  9. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Indiscriminate polyandry and male parental effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Stone, Lewi

    2004-01-01

    Extrapair paternity involves cooperation between mated females and extrapair males. On the other hand, mated males exhibit a spectrum of anti-cuckolding strategies. Hence, extrapair attributes of diverse species and populations reported in the literature are particular solutions of evolutionary games involving gender-specific cuckolding/anti-cuckolding strategies. Here we use game theoretical methods to study the effect of male paternal effort conserving strategies in situations where females seek extrapair fertilizations (EPF) for reasons of genetic compatibility and/or in pursuit of genetic diversity for their offspring. In such cases, females cannot make a pre-copulatory selection of the optimal genetic partners, and therefore combine promiscuous copulation with the use of in copula and/or post-copulatory selection mechanisms to optimize the genetic endowment of their offspring-indiscriminate polyandry. Our results indicate that, when indiscriminate polygamy is constrained by the availability of extrapair male partners, there are three possible (parameter regime wise) evolutionary stable strategy solutions. (1). All females seek EPF, while all males restrict parental care. (2). All females seek EPF, while all males are unconditionally parental. (3). Females use a combination strategy where pursuit of EPF is mixed-on either a population, or an individual level-with genetic monogamy, while all males use a conditional paternal care strategy, which involves adjusting their parental efforts according to their certainty of paternity.

  11. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William F N; Gurnot, Cécile; Montine, Thomas J; Sonnen, Joshua A; Guthrie, Katherine A; Nelson, J Lee

    2012-01-01

    In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus). Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26), or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33). We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59) tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03) and concentration (p=0.06) of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  12. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Camperio Ciani

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness, accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  13. The health profile of incarcerated male youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, C B; Tambor, E; Riley, A W; Ensminger, M E; Starfield, B

    2000-01-01

    To identify the health needs of adolescent males incarcerated in a juvenile justice facility and to compare their health profiles with those of male adolescents in the community. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted of incarcerated (N = 202) and school (N = 379) samples of male youths. Questionnaires were self-administered and completed before admission health screens (incarcerated youth) or in classrooms (school sample). Health status was assessed by the Child Health and Illness Profile, Adolescent Edition, using scale and item means and by categorizing each youth's pattern of health into 1 of 13 mutually exclusive health profile types. Compared with school counterparts, incarcerated male youths had significantly worse health status as demonstrated by poorer health and functioning scores in perceived well being, self-esteem, physical discomfort, acute, chronic, and psychosocial disorders, family involvement, physical activity, interpersonal problem-solving, risk behaviors, and academic performance. Three profile types-High Risks, High Risks/Low Resilience, and Worst Health-accounted for patterns of health for 69.8% of incarcerated youth versus 37.3% of an age-matched school sample. Just 6.4% of incarcerated males were in the Excellent/Good Health profile types, which contrasted with 34.2% of the age-matched school sample. The health profiles of incarcerated male youths were worse than those of male youths in school. Our results indicate that rehabilitation programs will need to address incarcerated youth's basic health needs as well as modifying their risk and antisocial behaviors.

  14. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  15. Developmental relationship between language and joint attention in late talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Bjekic, Jovana

    2013-08-01

    The article examines the relationship between expressive and receptive language and joint attention (JA) bids during language acquisition in late-talking children. The research was designed to be a longitudinal study with a first test followed by two retests every five months for a period of 10 months, in which we compared late-talking (LT) children aged 26 months (N=25) to a group of five-month-younger typically developing (TD) children (N=25). The results showed that LT children did not differ from TD children in frequency of JA bids at any time point. However, in contrast to TD children, in which a positive relationship between JA bids of high levels and language function was found, in the LT group, JA bids were not related to language comprehension and production. These data indicate that TD children use nonverbal and verbal means jointly for communication purposes, whereas LT children switch between nonverbal and verbal means in concrete communicational acts. The results are discussed within the development of language as a semiotic functional framework. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dyslexia Limits the Ability to Categorize Talker Dialect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gayle Beam; Fox, Robert Allen; Jacewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying phonological impairment in dyslexia is associated with a deficit in categorizing regional dialects. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia, 20 school-age children with dyslexia, and 40 corresponding control listeners with average reading ability listened to sentences produced…

  17. Conflict over male parentage in social insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Hammond

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutual policing is an important mechanism that maintains social harmony in group-living organisms by suppressing the selfish behavior of individuals. In social insects, workers police one another (worker-policing by preventing individual workers from laying eggs that would otherwise develop into males. Within the framework of Hamilton's rule there are two explanations for worker-policing behavior. First, if worker reproduction is cost-free, worker-policing should occur only where workers are more closely related to queen- than to worker-produced male eggs (relatedness hypothesis. Second, if there are substantial costs to unchecked worker reproduction, worker-policing may occur to counteract these costs and increase colony efficiency (efficiency hypothesis. The first explanation predicts that patterns of the parentage of males (male parentage are associated with relatedness, whereas the latter does not. We have investigated how male parentage varies with colony kin structure and colony size in 50 species of ants, bees, and wasps in a phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis. Our survey revealed that queens produced the majority of males in most of the species and that workers produced more than half of the males in less than 10% of species. Moreover, we show that male parentage does not vary with relatedness as predicted by the relatedness hypothesis. This indicates that intra- and interspecific variation in male parentage cannot be accounted for by the relatedness hypothesis alone and that increased colony efficiency is an important factor responsible for the evolution of worker-policing. Our study reveals greater harmony and more complex regulation of reproduction in social insect colonies than that expected from simple theoretical expectations based on relatedness only.

  18. Male reproductive suppression: not a social affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzari, Z Valentina; Jessen, Andrea; Koene, Joris M

    2017-10-01

    In the animal kingdom there are countless strategies via which males optimize their reproductive success when faced with male-male competition. These male strategies typically fall into two main categories: pre- and post-copulatory competition. Within these 2 categories, a set of behaviors, referred to as reproductive suppression, is known to cause inhibition of reproductive physiology and/or reproductive behavior in an otherwise fertile individual. What becomes evident when considering examples of reproductive suppression is that these strategies conventionally encompass reproductive interference strategies that occur between members of a hierarchical social group. However, mechanisms aimed at impairing a competitor's reproductive output are also present in non-social animals. Yet, current thinking emphasizes the importance of sociality as the primary driving force of reproductive suppression. Therefore, the question arises as to whether there is an actual difference between reproductive suppression strategies in social animals and equivalent pre-copulatory competition strategies in non-social animals. In this perspective paper we explore a broad taxonomic range of species whose individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same individuals in networks and yet, depress the fitness of rivals. Examples like alteration of male reproductive physiology, female mimicry, rival spermatophore destruction, and cementing the rival's genital region in non-social animals, highlight that male pre-copulatory reproductive suppression and male pre-copulatory competition overlap. Finally, we highlight that a distinction between male reproductive interference in animals with and without a social hierarchy might obscure important similarities and does not help to elucidate why different proximate mechanisms evolved. We therefore emphasize that male reproductive suppression need not be restricted to social animals.

  19. Psychobiology of Male Homosexuality: Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Annicchia rico

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, empirical and theoretical reports which question the causes ofmale homosexuality are examined. According to these reports, male homosexualitydiffers from female homosexuality in some respects. Additionally,evidence favouring the consideration of male homosexuality as a biologicalcondition is shown: there are brain differences between gay men and heterosexualmen, there are genetic and perinatal factors associated to malehomosexuality, there are cognitive and behavioral differences between gayand heterosexual men, there are animal models for studying homosexuality;finally, there are negative findings concerning the psychosocial factorsassociated to male homosexuality.

  20. Finasteride treatment and male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Green, Anders

    2018-01-01

    A potential link has been suggested between dispensed finasteride and increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). Due to the rare occurrence of MBC, it remains to be established if such a relationship exists. The purpose of this study was to combine nationwide registers in four countries to assess...... the potential association between dispensed finasteride and MBC. A cohort of all males with dispensed finasteride in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden (1,365,088 person years) was followed up for up to 15 years for breast cancer, and compared to a cohort of males unexposed to finasteride. Individual...

  1. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  2. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  3. Spontaneous ovulation or male effect in alpacas and llamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumar JB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New discoveries in ovulation induced mammals, researchers considered the question of whether spontaneous and induced ovulations are distinct entities or individual parts of a single continuum of a “malefacilitated oestrus and ovulation”. This rigid classification should be taken with precaution, because is possible that the various mechanisms involved in the spontaneous ovulation can, under specific conditions coexist in some determined species. It is possible that male hormones can provoke the ovulation by masculine pheromones. The “Ram Effect” can be used to synchronize ewes naturally, for artificial insemination. Pheromones are specialized hormones released by the ram and smelled by the ewes; they are found in the wool and wax, in such a way that synchronized the heat and the advancement of the breeding season Also, using artificial vaginal-cervical stimulation (AVS with a glass rod, ovulation has been induced in the mink, shrews and felids. This form of tactile stimulation (AVS has found no ability for induction of ovulation in SAC. Additional stimuli/cues are often necessary to facilitate the ovulatory response. They include olfactory, visual, auditory or posture, more of them very common in SAC. Few research studies in alpacas and llamas showed a variable number of females ovulating by the sole proximity of the male to the female, by adopting the copulatory position (posture (sitting or prone position, female to female mounting (tactile, males mounting females covered with aprons to avoid penis intromission (tactile and auditory, interrupted matings, sitting close to a male copulating to a female (visual, olfactory?, the guttural sound (orgling made by the copulating male (auditory, and probably other non-identified cues. The rate of spontaneous ovulation in alpacas and llamas, increase up to 50% during the breeding season. These spontaneous ovulation has been diagnosed by sexual behavior (female rejection to the male, by

  4. Assessment of rival males through the use of multiple sensory cues in the fruitfly Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris P Maguire

    Full Text Available Environments vary stochastically, and animals need to behave in ways that best fit the conditions in which they find themselves. The social environment is particularly variable, and responding appropriately to it can be vital for an animal's success. However, cues of social environment are not always reliable, and animals may need to balance accuracy against the risk of failing to respond if local conditions or interfering signals prevent them detecting a cue. Recent work has shown that many male Drosophila fruit flies respond to the presence of rival males, and that these responses increase their success in acquiring mates and fathering offspring. In Drosophila melanogaster males detect rivals using auditory, tactile and olfactory cues. However, males fail to respond to rivals if any two of these senses are not functioning: a single cue is not enough to produce a response. Here we examined cue use in the detection of rival males in a distantly related Drosophila species, D. pseudoobscura, where auditory, olfactory, tactile and visual cues were manipulated to assess the importance of each sensory cue singly and in combination. In contrast to D. melanogaster, male D. pseudoobscura require intact olfactory and tactile cues to respond to rivals. Visual cues were not important for detecting rival D. pseudoobscura, while results on auditory cues appeared puzzling. This difference in cue use in two species in the same genus suggests that cue use is evolutionarily labile, and may evolve in response to ecological or life history differences between species.

  5. Public Perceptions and the Situation of Males in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, Mumin

    2018-01-01

    The main focus areas of this research are pointing out the public perceptions and beliefs about male preschool teachers, fear of child sexual molestation, moral panic, and power relations in the society. The sample of the study composed of one white, female preschool teacher with a single interview transcript, working in the city of Tempe,…

  6. An Unexamined Life: White Male Racial Ignorance and the Agony of Education for Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Corces-Zimmerman, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This article critically analyzes the narratives of 62 White male undergraduates at a single institution about their views on race and experiences with racism. It is framed by Mills' (1997) conception of Whiteness that is founded upon an inverted epistemology or an "epistemology of ignorance." Therefore, this analysis centers the ways in…

  7. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  8. Single photon ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)

  9. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  10. Myosin heavy chain composition of single fibres from m. biceps brachii of male body builders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, H; Zhou, M.-Y.; Richter, Erik

    1990-01-01

    expression of MHC isoforms within histochemical type II fibres of human skeletal muscle with body building. Furthermore, in human skeletal muscle differences in expression of MHC isoforms may not always be reflected in the traditional histochemical classification of types I, IIa, IIb and IIc fibres....

  11. Assessment of the awareness of male and female singles on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Federal Ministry of Health in Nigeria also declared TB a national emergency and inaugurated the National TB-HIV Working Group in 2006. Every year, 8-10 million people contact the disease and 2 million die from it.Although there are effective antimicrobial agents for the control and cure of TB, there remains an ...

  12. Single Large Bladder Stone in a Young Male Adult with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Halalsheh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bladder stones are caused when minerals are built up in the bladder, especially if the bladder is incompletely emptied. These stones will pass while they are small. Otherwise, they get stuck to the bladder wall or ureter. If this happens, they gradually gather more mineral crystals, becoming larger over time. Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by a tumor within the parathyroid gland, and elevated calcium levels can cause digestive symptoms, psychiatric abnormalities, bone disease and multiple kidney stones.

  13. Integrative data analysis of male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edsgard, Stefan Daniel

    During the last decades a decline in male reproductive health has been observed in Nordic countries, and particularly in Denmark. Testicular cancer is the most fatal form of male reproductive disorders, and despite high remission rates it is typically accompanied with infertility. The main topic...... of this thesis is the identification of the molecular basis of male reproductive disorders, with a special focus on testicular cancer. To this end, clinical samples were characterized by microarraybased transcription and genomic variation assays and molecular entities were identified by computational analysis...... of such data in conjunction with data from publicly available repositories. This thesis presents an introduction to disease genetics and molecular systems biology, followed by four studies that each provide detailed clues to the etiology of male reproductive disorders. Finally, a fifth study illustrates...

  14. God as Father: The maleness of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Williams

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available It is fashionable today to try to avoid sexist language in theology, despite the Bible’s consistent use of the masculine pronoun when referring to God. Although such an attempt has largely been engendered by modem culture, the maleness of God is not simply a hangover from a patriarchal society, but reflects a fundamental maleness in God’s dealing with man. It emphasises the idea of redemption by grace alone over against creation, and such aspects as the adoption of Christians as sons. The maleness of Christ likewise has not simply been cultural, but is significant theologically. This is not to deny any femininity in God, but to assert that male features predominate. Such an idea does not reduce the status of women, but rather an emphasis on redemption raises it. Raising the status of women in society would in fact reduce the pressure to demasculinize God.

  15. New frontiers in nonhormonal male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C Yan; Mruk, Dolores D

    2010-11-01

    The world's population is nearing 6.8 billion, and we are in need of a male contraceptive that is safe, effective, reversible and affordable. Hormonal approaches, which employ different formulations of testosterone administered in combination with other hormones, have shown considerable promise in clinical trials, and they are currently at the forefront of research and development. However, the long-term effects of using hormones throughout a male's reproductive life for contraception are unknown, and it may take decades before this information becomes available. Because of this, many investigators are aiming to bring a nonhormonal male contraceptive to the consumer market. Indeed, there are several distinct but feasible avenues in which fertility can be regulated without affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. In this review, we discuss several approaches for fertility control involving the testis that one day may lead to the development of a nonhormonal male contraceptive. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male attendees of primary health care centres in Eastern Saudi Arabia. ... incidence of morbidity and mortality. ... characteristics, misconceptions of PHCC attendees about DM regarding the aetiology, general concepts, diabetic diet, treatment and herbal treatment.

  17. A Profile Gonococcal Uretheritis in Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Ganguli

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 125 uncomplicated urethritis in males were selected at and analysed from different angles in view the changing facets of gonococcal infection and its impact at the present time.

  18. Male Fertility After Inguinal Hernia Mesh Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Andreas Pagh; Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To determine whether patients who receive an inguinal hernia repair father the same number of children as the background population. BACKGROUND:: Although the effect of inguinal hernia repair on male fertility has previously been investigated through indirect measures, no previous...... studies have evaluated the final measure of male fertility, which is the number of children fathered by patients. METHODS:: Prospectively collected data on 32,621 male patients between the ages of 18 and 55 years who received 1 or more inguinal hernia repairs during the years 1998 to 2012 were found in 5...... hernia repair using Lichtenstein technique or laparoscopic approach did not father fewer children than expected. Thus, inguinal hernia repair using Lichtenstein or laparoscopic approach did not impair male fertility....

  19. Sociodemographic Findings in an Infertile Male Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Güngör

    2008-08-01

    CONCLUSION: This study claims that the previously established risk factors which are considered to be associated with infertility might influence less or interfere with male infertility in more subtle ways.

  20. The Male Gender Role and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Although depression is a common mental health disorder, less research has been devoted to men's experience with depression compared to women's experiences. Although men may exhibit similar patterns of depression as women, men often have unique pattern of exhibiting depression characterized by substance abuse, irritability, aggression, and interpersonal conflict. The paper presents a review of the relevant literature on male depression and, in particular, how it is potentially affected by male...

  1. Role of Ultrasound in Male Infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    US evaluation is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging of infertile men. In this editorial, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss the way in which US imaging studies can be used for evaluation of male infertility, and illustrate characteristic US imaging features that allow for specific diagnosis. The discussion will be divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment of sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.

  2. Ectopic ureterocele in the male infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekloef, O.; Loehr, G.; Ringertz, H.; Thomasson, B.

    1978-01-01

    An account is given of a series of ectopic ureterocele present in 14 male infants. The malformation is found to be more complex than in the female. The ipsilateral renal function is severely impaired or abolished and obstruction to the bladder outflow common. Associated dilatation and elongation of the posterior urethra during micturition may result in a valvelike appearance. Eversion of the male ureterocele is common and possible mechanisms to account for this event are discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Pharmacologic development of male hormonal contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M Y; Amory, J K

    2011-01-01

    The world population continues to increase dramatically despite the existence of contraceptive technology. The use of male hormonal contraception may help in preventing un intended pregnancies and managing future population growth. Male hormonal contraception relies on the administration of exogenous hormones to suppress spermatogenesis. Clinical trials have tested several regimens using testosterone, alone or in combination with a progestin. These regimens were shown to be >90% effective in preventing conception and were not associated with serious adverse events.

  4. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...

  5. A Single Atom Antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinter, Florian; Williams, Joshua B; Weller, Miriam; Waitz, Markus; Pitzer, Martin; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Schober, Carl; Kastirke, Gregor; Müller, Christian; Goihl, Christoph; Burzynski, Phillip; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus S; Jahnke, Till; Dörner, Reinhard; Chiang, Ying-Chih; Gokhberg, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the smallest possible implementation of an antenna-receiver complex which consists of a single (helium) atom acting as the antenna and a second (neon) atom acting as a receiver. (paper)

  6. Single Beam Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan; Ruterbusch, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how holography can be used as part of undergraduate physics laboratories. The authors propose a single beam technique of holography, which will reduce the recording scheme as well as relax the isolation requirements. (HM)

  7. Bilateral breast uptake of radioiodine in a male patient with gynecomastia: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, Lebriz; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Vatankulu, Betul; Sonmezoglu, Kerim

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old male patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma was given radioiodine for the treatment of persistent disease. Post radioiodine whole body scan revealed uptake at the thyroidal region and bilateral uptake at the upper thoracic region. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) confirmed uptake at the left thyroid lobe, and additional symmetrical mammary gland uptake was observed at both breasts. The patient had obesity-related gynecomastia, but he did not have any history of breast cancer, mastitis, hyperprolactinemia, or galactorrhea. Although breast uptake of radioiodine is a common finding in postpartum or lactating women, it is uncommon in male patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a male patient with breast uptake of radioiodine documented with SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT is useful in male patients in the differentiation of benign breast uptake with lung metastases or axillary metastases of thyroid cancer

  8. Association analysis between the tag SNP for sonic hedgehog rs9333613 polymorphism and male sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Zhou, Sirui; Hong, Fuchang; Wang, Jing; Liu, Xiaoli; Cai, Yumao; Wang, Feng; Feng, Tiejian; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Male sexual orientation has been proposed to have genetic components, but previously suggested candidate genes have all received negative results. The human sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene is located in the 7q36 region, which was linked to male sexual orientation in a previous genome-wide association study. SHH is known to play an important role in embryo patterning, and there is evidence connecting it to sexual orientation. In this study, we performed an association analysis of the SHH tag single nucleotide polymorphism rs9333613 in 361 subjects and 319 Chinese male controls. We find a significant difference in genotype and allele distribution between identified homosexuals and heterosexual control subjects, suggesting that the SHH gene could potentially be associated with male sexual orientation.

  9. Visual Adaptations for Mate Detection in the Male Carpenter Bee Xylocopa tenuiscapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Somanathan

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in eye structure is attributed to sexual selection in animals that employ vision for locating mates. In many male insects, large eyes and eye regions of higher acuity are believed to facilitate the location of females. Here, we compare various features of male and female eyes in three sympatric carpenter bee species, which include two diurnal species (Xylocopa tenuiscapa and X. leucothorax as well as a nocturnal species (X. tranquebarica. In X. tenuiscapa, males have larger eyes than females, while in the nocturnal X. tranquebarica, males have slightly smaller eyes and in X. leucothorax, the eyes are of similar size in both sexes. X. tenuiscapa males detect females by perching near nest sites (resource defence or along fly-ways and other open areas with good visibility. Males of the other two species search for females by patrolling. We postulate that the larger eyes of male X. tenuiscapa are beneficial to their mode of mate detection since perching males may benefit from a larger visual area of high resolution detecting moving stimuli across the sky, and which may be germane to the more social and gregarious nesting behaviour of this species, compared to the other solitary bees. We tested the performance of the eyes of male X. tenuiscapa behaviourally and find that a perching male can detect a flying female at a distance of 20 m, which darkens the visual field of a single ommatidium by just 2%. This, together with the bee's high spatial resolution permits detection of moving stimuli at least as well or even better than achieved by honey bee drones.

  10. Efficacy of various single-dose regimens of ceftriaxone in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-18

    Aug 18, 1990 ... The therapeutic efficacy of single intramuscular doses of ceftriaxone (Rocephin; Roche) (62,S, 125 and 250 mg), admini- stered without probenecid, was evaluated in 167 adult males with uncomplicated acute gonococcal urethritis. Cure rates of 100% were achieved at 62,5 mg and 250 mg. In the 125 mg.

  11. Efficacy of various single-dose regimens of ceftriaxone in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The therapeutic efficacy of single intramuscular doses of ceftriaxone (Rocephin; Roche) (62,S, 125 and 250 mg), administered without probenecid, was evaluated in 167 adult males with uncomplicated acute gonococcal urethritis. Cure rates of 100% were achieved at 62,5 mg and 250 mg. In the 125 mg dose group, ...

  12. Face validity of the single work ability item

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jensen, Bjørn Søvsø; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the face validity of the self-reported single item work ability with objectively measured heart rate reserve (%HRR) among blue-collar workers. METHODS: We utilized data from 127 blue-collar workers (Female = 53; Male = 74) aged 18-65 years fro...

  13. Single visit root canal treatment: A prospective study | Edionwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teeth having irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis or periapical periodontitis were included in the study. RCT and obturation was done at a single visit. The patients were monitored over 6 months. Results: Forty.five teeth were treated in 21 females and 24 males, aged 18.56 years (34.4+/.12.7). Preoperatively, pain was present ...

  14. Interactions between males guppies facilitates the transmission of the monogenean ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, E L; van Oosterhout, C; Cable, J

    2012-12-01

    In a previous study we found that female guppies shoaled more than males and that there was greater transmission of the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli between females. Here, to test for a possible sex bias in parasite transmission, we conducted a similar experiment on single sex shoals of male and female guppies, observing host behaviour before and after the introduction of an infected shoal mate. The initial parasite burden was considerably lower in the present experiment (30 worms versus >100 worms previously) and we used a different stock of ornamental guppies (Green Cobra variety versus a Tuxedo hybrid previously). Contrary to our previous finding, males aggregated significantly more than females. Males performed 'sigmoid' displays towards each other, a courtship behaviour that is more generally directed towards females. Due to the high rate of male-male interactions, parasite transmission was 10 times higher between males than between females. Furthermore, shoaling intensity was highest for the most parasitised fish indicating that these infected fish were not avoided by non-parasitised conspecifics. These studies show that certain social behaviours including shoaling and courtship displays, appear to facilitate the transmission of gyrodactylid parasites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Nationwide Speech Project: A new corpus of American English dialects☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual and acoustic research on dialect variation in the United States requires an appropriate corpus of spoken language materials. Existing speech corpora that include dialect variation are limited by poor recording quality, small numbers of talkers, and/or small samples of speech from each talker. The Nationwide Speech Project corpus was designed to contain a large amount of speech produced by male and female talkers representing the primary regional varieties of American English. Five male and five female talkers from each of six dialect regions in the United States were recorded reading words, sentences, passages, and in interviews with an experimenter, using high quality digital recording equipment in a sound-attenuated booth. The resulting corpus contains nearly an hour of speech from each of the 60 talkers that can be used in future research on the perception and production of dialect variation. PMID:21423815

  16. Paternity in the Addo elephant population, South Africa. Is a single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypothesis that a single dominant male (GAA) monopolized all matings within the elephant population of South Africa's Addo Elephant National Park between 1982 and 1996 was tested using microsatellite analysis. In addition, behavioural data on male musth periods, female oestrous periods, and observations of ...

  17. Comparison of PASS Assessment Scores in Single-Gender and Heterogeneous Middle Schools in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Patricia Oxendine

    2012-01-01

    In response to the mandates of No Child Left Behind, (NCLB), educators across the country struggle to close the gaps between males and females. Some of the physiological differences existing between the male and female brain suggest support for single-gender instruction, which is on the rise within this country as well as other parts of the world.…

  18. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  19. Autopsy Findings in Conjoined Twin with Single Heart and Single Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Asaranti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracoomphalopagus is the commonest type of conjoined twin where the bodies are fused from upper chest to lower chest. The autopsy done can help counsil the parents for further pregnancies and determine the prognosis depending upon the type of cardiac anomaly by Seo classification when detected antenatally. We describe the detail pathological autopsy of such a case with single heart and single liver. A detail autopsy was done on the twin fetus. The twins shared a single heart and sometimes the liver and part of digestive system. The combined weight was 4.1 KG. Both were full-term male babies joined from below the nipple till umbilicus. Autopsy in conjoined twins helps in deciding the type of fusion of the body and also of the heart and great vessels. It can help in counseling parents about future pregnancies that there is no chance of recurrence of this abnormality and no need to be scared.

  20. Final height in elite male artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Koukkou, Eftychia; Leglise, Michel; Markou, Kostas B

    2012-01-01

    Elite male artistic gymnasts (AG) are exposed to high levels of physical and psychological stress during adolescence and experience a significant late maturation in both linear growth and pubertal development. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of intensive physical training on the adult final height in elite male AG. This study is unique in character, as all variables were measured on the field of competition. The study was prospective and longitudinal; however, the current analysis of data is cross-sectional. Data from 86 elite male AG were obtained during the gymnastics competitions of European and World Championships. Clinical evaluation included height and weight measurements, as well as assessment of pubic hair and genital development according to Tanner's stages of pubertal development. The laboratory investigation included determination of skeletal maturation. All athletes completed a questionnaire that included questions on personal (onset and intensity of training, number of competitions per year) and family data (paternal and maternal heights). Male AG were below the 50th percentile for both final height and weight. Elite male AG had final height standard deviation score (SDS) lower than their genetic predisposition. Final height SDS was correlated positively with target height SDS (r = 0.430, p research project, the International Federation of Gymnastics has increased the age limit for participants in international gymnastics competitions by 1 year.

  1. Male pregnancy and biparental immune priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Olivia; Klein, Verena; Beemelmanns, Anne; Scharsack, Jörn P; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2012-12-01

    In vertebrates, maternal transfer of immunity via the eggs or placenta provides offspring with crucial information on prevailing pathogens and parasites. Males contribute little to such transgenerational immune priming, either because they do not share the environment and parasite pressure of the offspring or because sperm are too small for transfer of immunity. In the teleost group of Syngnathids (pipefish, seahorses, and sea dragons), males brood female eggs in a placenta-like structure. Such sex-role-reversed species provide a unique opportunity to test for adaptive plasticity in immune transfer. Here, males and females should both influence offspring immunity. We experimentally tested paternal effects on offspring immunity by examining immune cell proliferation and immune gene expression. Maternal and paternal bacterial exposure induced offspring immune defense 5 weeks after hatching, and this effect persisted in 4-month-old offspring. For several offspring immune traits, double parental exposure (maternal and paternal) enhanced the response, whereas for another group of immune traits, the transgenerational induction already took place if only one parent was exposed. Our study shows that sex role reversal in connection with male pregnancy opens the door for biparental influences on offspring immunity and may represent an additional advantage for the evolution of male pregnancy.

  2. Does Halitosis Effect Sexual Life in Males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Soylu Ozler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Halitosis is an unpleasant alteration of the halitus. The aim of the study is to assess the quality of sexual life of males with and without halitosis. Material and Method: Males between 20-50 years old; with a complaint of halitosis; married and able to complete the study were included in the study. The control group were healthy, adult, married males who have normal otorhinolaryngologic examination. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire(IIEF were used to assess the quality of sexual life  of males with halitosis and the results were compared with a similar group of healthy men. Results: A total of 80 adult subjects completed the study. When the groups were compared in terms of age, body mass index(BMI and duration of marriage, they were similar (p=0.65, p= 0.20, p= 0.08 respectively.The halitosis group had significantly lower scores for all function domains (p=0.0001.There was no correlation between degree of halitosis and the scores of IIEF (p< 0.05. Discussion: This is the first study investigating the sexual health of males with halitosis. Halitosis not only effects oral health status but also strongly declines quality of life. The otorhinolaryngologist must not only treat halitosis but also help the patient to stand up to social and sexual problems concomitting halitosis.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  4. Recent scenario of obesity and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, K K; Chambial, S; Dwivedi, S; Misra, S; Sharma, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this review was to provide current scenario linking obesity and male fertility. Obesity has been linked to male fertility because of lifestyle changes, internal hormonal environment alterations, and sperm genetic factors. A few studies assessing the impact of obesity on sperm genetic factor have been published, but they did not lead to a strong consensus. Our objective was to explore further the relationship between sperm genetic factor and obesity. There are emerging facts that obesity negatively affects male reproductive potential not only by reducing sperm quality, but in particular it alters the physical and molecular structure of germ cells in the testes and ultimately affects the maturity and function of sperm cells. Inhibition of microRNA in the male pronucleus of fertilized zygotes produces offspring of phenotypes of variable severity depending on miRNAs ratios. Hence, these RNAs have a role in the oocyte development during fertilization and in embryo development, fetal survival, and offspring phenotype. It has been reported that the miRNA profile is altered in spermatozoa of obese males, however, the impact of these changes in fertilization and embryo health remains as yet not known. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  6. Single-Photon Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, A.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.

    2011-08-01

    Optomechanics experiments are rapidly approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. We show that in this limit the power spectrum has multiple sidebands and that the cavity response has several resonances in the resolved-sideband limit. Using master-equation simulations, we also study the crossover from the weak-coupling many-photon to the single-photon strong-coupling regime. Finally, we find non-Gaussian steady states of the mechanical oscillator when multiphoton transitions are resonant. Our study provides the tools to detect and take advantage of this novel regime of optomechanics.

  7. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  8. Biocatalytic Single Enzyme Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kim, Jungbae

    2004-03-31

    As an innovative way of enzyme stabilization, we recently developed a new enzyme composite of nano-meter scale that we call "single-enzyme nanoparticles (SENs)" (9). Each enzyme molecule is surrounded with a porous composite organic/inorganic network of less than a few nanometers think. This approach represents a new type of enzyme-containing nanostructure. In experiments with perotease (chymotrypsin, CT), the activity of single enzyme nanoparticle form of the enzyme was greatly stabilized compared to the free form, without imposing a serious mass transfer limitation of substrates. In this chapter we will describe the synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of the new SENs.

  9. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions......LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...

  10. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common......Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...

  11. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J.; Larsen, John Christian; Christiansen, Pia

    1996-01-01

    that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common......Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. in the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time. incidences of hypospadias...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...

  12. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  13. New frontiers in nonhormonal male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2015-01-01

    The world’s population is nearing 6.8 billion, and we are in need of a male contraceptive that is safe, effective, reversible and affordable. Hormonal approaches, which employ different formulations of testosterone administered in combination with other hormones, have shown considerable promise in clinical trials, and they are currently at the forefront of research and development. However, the long-term effects of using hormones throughout a male’s reproductive life for contraception are unknown, and it may take decades before this information becomes available. Because of this, many investigators are aiming to bring a nonhormonal male contraceptive to the consumer market. Indeed, there are several distinct but feasible avenues in which fertility can be regulated without affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. In this review, we discuss several approaches for fertility control involving the testis that one day may lead to the development of a nonhormonal male contraceptive. PMID:20933122

  14. Sexual Homicide by Older Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y; Safarik, Mark E; Geberth, Vernon J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified. Murders by older SHOs accounted for only 0.5% of US sexual homicides. Unlike typical SHOs that generally target young adult females, over two-thirds of older SHO victims were ≥40 years, and one-third were ≥55 years. Sexual homicides by older SHOs, like sexual homicide in general, decreased over the study period. These crimes, while exceedingly rare, do occur, warranting special consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio; Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  16. Male and Female Differences in Nonconscious Mimicry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehane, Christine Marie

    2015-01-01

    , thus neglecting a discussion regarding the role of sex or gender as a moderator of nonconscious mimicry. This article reviews the research on nonconscious mimicry – facial, behavioural, and verbal, in order to identify whether or not there are male and female differences. The results indicate...... that mimicry may be moderated by participant sex or gender depending upon, among others, choice of mimicry measurement, stimulus exposure length, and social context. However, few studies address male and female differences in mimicry and many have methodological limitations. The review concludes......Previous research on nonconscious mimicry suggests that females mimic their communication partners more often than males. Many studies have investigated the association between mimicry, emotion recognition, and empathy. However, there is a trend in this research area to recruit same-sex samples...

  17. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2005-11-01

    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration.

  18. The impact of obesity on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Thomas J G; Richard, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in men of reproductive age is globally on the increase. There is clear evidence from epidemiological studies that obesity impacts negatively on male fertility; it is associated with hypogonadism, although it is less consistently linked to impaired spermatogenesis and tests of sperm function, including DNA fragmentation. Sperm from obese men used for in vitro fertilisation/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection is associated with a greater number of pregnancy losses and is less likely to result in live births. There are also increasing data from animal studies that paternal obesity may impact negatively on the reproductive and metabolic health of offspring and grand-offspring. It has been suggested that high-fat dietary exposures could affect the epigenetic content of sperm or the endocrine content of seminal fluid and thus impact early fetal development. Experimental and epidemiological data show that male fertility, and offspring health, can be improved by weight loss in obese and overweight males.

  19. Insect sex chromosomes. VI. A presumptive hyperactivation of the male X chromosome in Acheta domesticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S R; Ali, S

    1982-01-01

    The functional status of the X chromosome in Acheta domesticus has been analysed at the whole chromosome level on the basis of (1) 3H-thymidine autoradiography, (2) 5-BrdU/AO fluorescence microscopy (3) in vivo 5-BrdU incorporation and (4) 3H-UdR induced aberrations. The rationale of these techniques in relation to the functional aspect of the X chromosome is that the inactive X chromosome would (1) show asynchrony in DNA synthesis, (2) show differential fluorescence, (3) respond differentially to in vivo 5-BrdU treatment and (4) the active X chromosome would show aberrations when treated with 3H-Uridine. From the results, it appears that the X chromosomes in both male (XO) and female (XX) somatic cells of Acheta are euchromatic (active). Further, the single X in the male is transcriptionally as active as the two X chromosomes in the female. In other words, the single X in the male is hyperactive when compared with the single X in the female. From this it is inferred that the male X chromosome is differentially regulated in order to bring about an equalization of it's gene product(s) to that produced by both Xs in the female. Drosophila melanogaster has a comparable system of dosage compensation. Thus, Acheta is yet another insect showing evidence for an X chromosome regulatory mechanism of dosage compensation. Additionally, it is surmised that sex determination in Acheta is based on an autosomes/X chromosome balance mechanism.

  20. Male parasitism and intrasexual competition in a burrowing barnacle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Spivey, Henry R

    1992-10-01

    In sexually dimorphic animals, large male body size is often associated with direct interference competition among males for access to females or resources used in reproduction. In constrast, small male body size may be associated with indirect scramble competition among males for temporal or spatial access to females. Minute, "parasitic" males of the acrothoracican barnacleTrypetesa lampas (Hancock) appear to compete with one another for permanent attachment sites on the external body of the female. Several spatial patterns suggest indirect male-male competition: 1) males were consistently aggregated on the anterior surface of the female ovarian disc; 2) the average distance from attached males to the site of insemination correlated positively with local male density; 3) average male body size on a female decreased as a function of male density; 4) the distribution of males on the left and right hand sides of the female ovarian disc was more even than expected, suggesting that males avoided crowded settlement sites. The number of males attached to a female increased with female body size and matched a null model in which males colonized female "targets" of differing areas. These results suggest that competition between males primarily affected settlement sites and male body sizes within, rather than among, females. Male parasitism may have evolved through both sexual selection for efficient access to females (Ghiselin 1974) and natural selection for reduced burrow density in a space-limited habitat (Turner and Yakovlev 1983).

  1. Noninvasive Body Contouring: A Male Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wat, Heidi; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive body contouring is an attractive therapeutic modality to enhance the ideal male physique. Men place higher value on enhancing a well-defined, strong, masculine jawline and developing a V-shaped taper through the upper body. An understanding of the body contour men strive for allows the treating physician to focus on areas that are of most concern to men, thus enhancing patient experience and satisfaction. This article discusses noninvasive body contouring techniques, taking into account the unique aesthetic concerns of the male patient by combining an analysis of the existing literature with our own clinical experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2010-11-01

    Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Decline in male circumcision in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, DaiSik; Koo, Sung-Ae; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2012-12-11

    To investigate the changing circumcision rate in South Korea in the last decade and to propose underlying causes for this change, in the context of the present fluctuating world-wide trends in circumcision. From 2009 to 2011, 3,296 South Korean males (or their parents) aged 0-64 years were asked about their circumcision status, their age at circumcision, and their information level regarding circumcision. We employed non-probability sampling considering the sensitive questions on the study theme. Currently the age-standardized circumcision rate for South Korean males aged 14-29 is found to be 75.8%. In an earlier study performed in 2002, the rate for the same age group was 86.3%. Of particular interest, males aged 14-16 show a circumcision rate of 56.4%, while the same age group 10 years ago displayed a much higher percentage, at 88.4%. In addition, the extraordinarily high circumcision rate of 95.2% found 10 years ago for the 17-19 age group is now reduced to 74.4%. Interestingly, of the circumcised males, the percentage circumcised in the last decade was only 25.2%; i.e., the majority of the currently circumcised males had undergone the operation prior to 2002, indicating that the actual change in the last decade is far greater. Consistent with this conjecture, the 2002 survey showed that the majority of circumcised males (75.7%) had undergone the operation in the decade prior to that point. Focusing on the flagship age group of 14-16, this drop suggests that, considering the population structure of Korean males, approximately one million fewer circumcision operations have been performed in the last decade relative to the case of non-decline. This decline is strongly correlated with the information available through internet, newspapers, lectures, books, and television: within the circumcised population, both the patients and their parents had less prior knowledge regarding circumcision, other than information obtained from person to person by oral communication

  4. Decline in male circumcision in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim DaiSik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the changing circumcision rate in South Korea in the last decade and to propose underlying causes for this change, in the context of the present fluctuating world-wide trends in circumcision. Methods From 2009 to 2011, 3,296 South Korean males (or their parents aged 0–64 years were asked about their circumcision status, their age at circumcision, and their information level regarding circumcision. We employed non-probability sampling considering the sensitive questions on the study theme. Results Currently the age-standardized circumcision rate for South Korean males aged 14–29 is found to be 75.8%. In an earlier study performed in 2002, the rate for the same age group was 86.3%. Of particular interest, males aged 14–16 show a circumcision rate of 56.4%, while the same age group 10 years ago displayed a much higher percentage, at 88.4%. In addition, the extraordinarily high circumcision rate of 95.2% found 10 years ago for the 17–19 age group is now reduced to 74.4%. Interestingly, of the circumcised males, the percentage circumcised in the last decade was only 25.2%; i.e., the majority of the currently circumcised males had undergone the operation prior to 2002, indicating that the actual change in the last decade is far greater. Consistent with this conjecture, the 2002 survey showed that the majority of circumcised males (75.7% had undergone the operation in the decade prior to that point. Focusing on the flagship age group of 14–16, this drop suggests that, considering the population structure of Korean males, approximately one million fewer circumcision operations have been performed in the last decade relative to the case of non-decline. This decline is strongly correlated with the information available through internet, newspapers, lectures, books, and television: within the circumcised population, both the patients and their parents had less prior knowledge regarding circumcision, other than

  5. Psychiatric disorder in male veterans and nonveterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norquist, G S; Hough, R L; Golding, J M; Escobar, J I

    1990-05-01

    Prevalences of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-III psychiatric disorders for male veterans and nonveterans from four war eras were estimated using data from over 7500 male community respondents interviewed by the Epidemiologic Catchment Area program at five geographic areas across the country. Veterans serving after Vietnam (Post-Vietnam era) had greater lifetime and 6-month prevalences of psychiatric disorder than their nonveteran counterparts, whereas the reverse tended to be the case for the Vietnam, Korean, and World War II war eras. Comparisons across war eras revealed a trend for more psychiatric disorder, especially substance abuse, in younger veterans and nonveterans than in older respondents.

  6. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal......Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...

  7. Sexual selection in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2007-12-21

    Research on sexual selection shows that the evolution of secondary sexual characters in males and the distribution of sex differences are more complex than was initially suggested but does not undermine our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved. However, the operation of sexual selection in females has still received relatively little attention. Recent studies show that both intrasexual competition between females and male choice of mating partners are common, leading to strong sexual selection in females and, in extreme cases, to reversals in the usual pattern of sex differences in behavior and morphology.

  8. Vulnerable discipline: experiences of male competitive bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnestad, Jone; Kandal, Øyvind; Anderssen, Norman

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to understand experiences of male competitive bodybuilders from a non-pathologizing perspective. Six male Norwegian competitive bodybuilders were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using a meaning condensation procedure resulting in five themes: being proud of capacity for discipline, seeing a perfectionist attitude as a necessary evil, experiencing recognition within the bodybuilding community, being stigmatized outside the bodybuilding community and going on stage to display a capacity for willpower and discipline. We suggest that bodybuilders may be stigmatized for breaking social norms: by their distinctive appearance, by the way they handle suspected drug use and by challenging gender norms. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Systemic lupus erythematosus in a male patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibarani, H.; Zubir, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations. Female to male ratio is approximately 9:1.A 20 years old male was admitted to HAM Hospital 3 months ago with chief complaint pain in both knees joint. After anamneses, physical examination and laboratory test the patient was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient tested positive for ANA and anti-ds-DNA antibody test. The patient was with giving non-biologic DMARDS @myfortic 360mg, methylprednisolone, chloroquine and other symptomatic drugs.

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of olprinone in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisawa T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hidefumi Kasai,2 Makoto Suda,2 Manabu Yoshimura,3 Ami Sugawara,3 Yuki Izumi,3 Takafumi Iida,3 Atsushi Kurosawa,3 Hiroshi Iwasaki3 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Clinical Study Management Division, Bell Medical Solutions Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Olprinone decreases the cardiac preload and/or afterload because of its vasodilatory effect and increases myocardial contractility by inhibiting phosphodiesterase III. Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of olprinone after a single continuous infusion in healthy male volunteers. Methods: We used 500 plasma concentration data points collected from nine healthy male volunteers for the study. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® software. Results: The time course of plasma concentration of olprinone was best described using a two-compartment model. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were total clearance (7.37 mL/minute/kg, distribution volume of the central compartment (134 mL/kg, intercompartmental clearance (7.75 mL/minute/kg, and distribution volume of the peripheral compartment (275 mL/kg. The interindividual variability in the total clearance was 12.4%, and the residual error variability (exponential and additive were 22.2% and 0.129 (standard deviation. The final pharmacokinetic model was assessed using a bootstrap method and visual predictive check. Conclusion: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of olprinone in healthy male adults. The bootstrap method and visual predictive check showed that this model was appropriate. Our results might be used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model in patients. Keywords: phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, men, pharmacokinetic model

  11. Delayed Single Stage Perineal Posterior Urethroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Shahnawaz; Shahzad, I.; Baloch, M. U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the delayed single stage perineal posterior urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture/distraction defect. Study Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: Patients were selected for delayed single stage perineal posterior urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture / distraction defect. All were initially suprapubically catheterized followed by definitive surgery after at least 3 months. Results: Thirty male patients were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 10 months, 2 patients were excluded as they developed failure in first 3 months postoperatively. Mean patients age was 26.25 ± 7.9 years. On follow-up, 7 patients (23.3 percentage) experienced recurrent stricture during first 10 months. Five (16.6 percentage) patients were treated successfully with single direct visual internal urethrotomy. Two patients (6.6 percentage) had more than one direct visual internal urethrotomy and considered failed. Re-do perineal urethroplasty was eventually performed. The overall success rate was 93.3 percentage with permissive criteria allowing single direct visual internal urethrotomy and 76.6% with strict criteria allowing no more procedures postoperatively. Conclusion: Posterior anastomotic urethroplasty offers excellent long-term results to patients with posterior urethral trauma and distraction defect even after multiple prior procedures. (author)

  12. Dysfunctional feedback processing in adolescent males with conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yidian; Chen, Haiyan; Jia, Huiqiao; Ming, Qingsen; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in neural feedback-processing systems may play a role in the development of dysfunctional behavior in individuals diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD). The present study investigated the relation between CD adolescents and feedback processing by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in a single outcome gambling task, which included reward valence (loss and gain) and reward magnitude (10 and 50cents) as outcomes. N2 and P3 components have been established as effective indicators in studies of behavioral disinhibition, reward processing, and decision-making. Eighteen adolescent males (age: 13-17years) diagnosed with CD and 19 healthy age-matched male controls were recruited. Compared to healthy controls, CD individuals exhibited reduced N2 amplitudes in response to loss condition. There was also a significant decreased P3 amplitude in all conditions. The amplitudes of P3 were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores across both groups, and the amplitudes of N2 were positively correlated with impulsivity scores across both groups. Our findings suggest that adolescents with CD may be impaired in neural sensitivity feedback and the processing of environmental cues compared to healthy controls. Moreover, N2 and P3 may be reliable indices to detect different sensitivity in reward and punishment feedback processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Turkish junior male physicians' exposure to mobbing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bayram; Cetin, Mehmet; Cimen, Mesut; Yildiran, Nuri

    2012-08-01

    To determine the extent of Turkish junior male physicians' exposure to mobbing behavior and its correlation with physicians' characteristics. The study included physicians recruited for compulsory military service in April 2009. No sampling method was used, questionnaires were delivered to all physicians, and 278 of 292 (95%) questionnaires were returned. We used Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror including 45 items for data collection and structural equation model for data analysis. A total of 87.7% of physicians experienced mobbing behavior. Physicians who worked more than 40 hours a week, single physicians, physicians working in university hospitals and private hospitals, and physicians who did not have occupational commitment were more exposed to mobbing (PMobbing was not associated with specialty status, service period, age, and personality variables (P>0.05). All goodness-of- fit indices of the model were acceptable (χ(2)=1.449, normed fit index=0.955, Tucker Lewis index=0.980, comparative fit index=0.985, and root mean square error of approximation=0.040). Workplace mobbing is a critical problem for junior male physicians in Turkey. We suggest an introduction of a reporting system and education activities for physicians in high-risk groups.

  14. Assessment of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bayram; Cetin, Mehmet; Cimen, Mesut; Yildiran, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the extent of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior and its correlation with physicians' characteristics. Methods The study included physicians recruited for compulsory military service in April 2009. No sampling method was used, questionnaires were delivered to all physicians, and 278 of 292 (95%) questionnaires were returned. We used Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror including 45 items for data collection and structural equation model for data analysis. Results A total of 87.7% of physicians experienced mobbing behavior. Physicians who worked more than 40 hours a week, single physicians, physicians working in university hospitals and private hospitals, and physicians who did not have occupational commitment were more exposed to mobbing (P Mobbing was not associated with specialty status, service period, age, and personality variables (P > 0.05). All goodness-of- fit indices of the model were acceptable (χ2 = 1.449, normed fit index = 0.955, Tucker Lewis index = 0.980, comparative fit index = 0.985, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.040). Conclusions Workplace mobbing is a critical problem for junior male physicians in Turkey. We suggest an introduction of a reporting system and education activities for physicians in high-risk groups. PMID:22911529

  15. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Single Item Inventory Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  17. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...

  18. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by fo- cussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a

  19. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis; Camurri, Antonio; Costa, Cristina

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer and

  20. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Reidsma, Dennis; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Volpe, G; Kolkmeier, Jan; Camurri, A.; Kolkmeier, Jan; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer

  1. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  2. Single reusable spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design of a my single person reusable spacecraft. It can carry one person and it has to be dropped from an aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 - 45,000 feet. Can be...

  3. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! ... Author Affiliations. Kankan Bhattacharyya1. Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 India.

  4. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  5. Beyond the Single Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Yekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of world literature have the opportunity to help students explore the more complex reality behind the stereotypes that they often see in the media. If we don't encourage students to challenge one-dimensional "single stories" that characterize an entire people--whether Muslims, Russians, Mexicans, African Americans, Chinese,…

  6. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…

  7. Male-male aggression peaks at intermediate relatedness in a social spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Y.; Egas, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Mochizuki, A.

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that when individuals live in groups or colonies, male-male aggression peaks at intermediate levels of local average relatedness. Assuming that aggression is costly and directed toward nonrelatives and that competition for reproduction acts within the colony, benefits of aggressive

  8. Drosophila melanogaster males increase the number of sperm in their ejaculate when perceiving rival males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbaczewska, Martyna; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D.

    It is is common for females from many species to mate with multiple males within one reproductive cycle. As a result, sperm from different males come into contact in the female reproductive organs, where they compete for ova fertilization. This sperm competition appears to drive the ejaculation of a

  9. Why Are Males Bad for Females? Models for the Evolution of Damaging Male Mating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    One explanation for the cost to mating for females caused by damaging male mating behavior is that this causes the females to adaptively modify their subsequent life histories in a way that also increases male fitness. This might occur because the reduction in residual reproductive value of the

  10. Self-Concept and Psychological Adjustment Differences Between Self-Identified Male Transexuals and Male Homosexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, Howard B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Self-concept and adjustment data from anatomical males seeking sexual reassignment surgery were compared with that from a male homosexual group. Findings indicated that the homosexual group had a better self-image and was better adjusted than the sex change group. (Author)

  11. Bodice Rippers without the Bodice: Ten Male-on-Male Romances for a Core Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Devon

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest growing segments of the romance genre is male-on-male (M/M) romance--gay romantic fiction mostly written and read by straight women. Featuring traditional romance conventions, including mistaken identities, star-crossed lovers, and happy endings, these stories show both physical and emotional intimacy between men. M/M builds on…

  12. Sperm competition games: A general model for precopulatory male-male competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, G.A.; Lessells, C.M.; Simmons, L.W.

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive males face a trade-off between expenditure on precopulatory male–male competition—increasing the number of females that they secure as mates—and sperm competition—increasing their fertilization success with those females. Previous sperm allocation models have focused on scramble

  13. Sexual cooperation in two male-diphenic Cardiocondyla species

    OpenAIRE

    Füßl, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterised by a remarkable male diphenism, with "normal" winged males that often co-occur with "worker-like" (ergatoid) males, which is extraordinary in social insects. These male phenes represent different reproductive tactics. The peaceful winged males are the disperser phene, even though they got lost in some Cardiocondyla species. Ergatoid males mate intranidal and are in many species aggressive fighters that show a striking adaptation to their behaviour....

  14. Variation in tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene is not associated to male completed suicide in Estonian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Anne; Tasa, Gunnar; Lang, Aavo; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev; Maron, Eduard; Väli, Marika

    2009-04-03

    Dysfunction of the central serotonergic system has been related to a spectrum of psychiatric disorders, including suicidal behavior. Tryptophan hydroxylase isoform 2 (TPH2) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of serotonin, being expressed in serotonergic neurons of raphe nuclei. We investigated genetic variation in TPH2 gene in two samples of male subjects: 288 suicide completers and 327 volunteers, in order to reveal any associations between 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms and completed suicide. No associations were revealed neither on allelic nor haplotype level. Our finding does not support the hypothesis of TPH2 being a susceptibility factor for completed suicide in males of Estonian origin.

  15. MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

  16. Polymorphisms in Protamine 1 and Protamine 2 predict the risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Weijun; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qing; Wu, Qiuyue; Li, Tianfu; Zhang, Cui; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingchao; Xia, Xinyi

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the association between polymorphisms in protamine 1 and 2 genes and male infertility risk, with inconsistent results to date. This meta-analysis based on the 13 published case-control studies, including 7350 cases and 6167 controls, was performed to further establish the potential association between the 6 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs35576928, rs737008, rs35262993, rs2301365, rs1646022, rs2070923) in protamines 1 and 2 and male infertility. The...

  17. Male tolerance and male–male bonds in a multilevel primate society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H.; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male–male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several “units” of males with their associated females form “parties,” which team up as “gangs.” Several gangs of the same “community” use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male–male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior. PMID:25201960

  18. Relationship between blood groups and male infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Naeem, M.; Samad, A.; Nasir, A.; Aman, Z.; Ahmed, S.; Manan, F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Blood is man's complete and unchangeable identity. The ABO and Rh groups are recognised as major and clinically significant blood groups. Blood group antigens are not only important in relation to blood transfusion and organ transplantation, but also have been utilised in genetic research, anthropology and tracing ancestral relation of humans. The objective the present study is to examine the blood group antigens in infertile men for assessing the relationship to male infertility and to know the frequency of various blood groups among infertile males in our population. Method: A total of 1,521 patients along with 460 proven fathers as controls were recruited for the present study from both rural and urban areas of Pakistan and referred to Department of Reproductive Physiology/Health, Public Health Divisions, NIH, Islamabad, during 2002 to 2006. Blood grouping (ABO) and Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test. Results: Overall distribution of blood groups in the studied population of 1,521 subjects was 35.50%, 28.27%, 26.89% and 9.34% for blood groups O, B, A and AB respectively. The ratio of control to patient was 1:3.3. Conclusions: The present preliminary study revealed that in our population the prevalence of male infertility in blood group O is invariably higher than in all other ABO blood groups, showing a strong relationship between blood group O and male infertility. (author)

  19. Osteoporosis in the aging male: Treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Tuck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stephen P Tuck1, Harish K Datta21Departments of Rheumatology, James Cook University Hospital, Marton Road, Middlesbrough, Cleveland, UK; 2School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, The Medical School, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: In elderly women, loss in bone mass and micro-architectural changes are generally attributed to the onset of menopause. Men do not experience menopause, they do, however, experience age-related acceleration in bone loss and micro-architecture deterioration. The incidence of osteoporotic fractures in elderly men, just as in aged women, increases exponentially with age; the rise in men, however, is some 5–10 years later than in women. Up to 50% of male osteoporotics have no identifiable etiology; however elderly males have much higher likelihood of having an identifiable secondary cause than younger men. Therefore, clinical and laboratory evaluation of aged male osteoporotics must be thorough and should be aimed at identifying lifestyle or conditions contributing to bone loss and fragility. It is essential to identify and treat secondary causes and ensure adequate vitamin D and calcium intake before embarking upon treatment with pharmacological agents. The evidence from a limited number of trials suggests that bisphosphonates, especially alendronate and risedronate, are effective in improving BMD, and seem to be the treatments of choice in aged men with osteoporosis. In cases where bisphosphonates are contra-indicated or ineffective, teriparatide or alternatives such as strontium should be considered.Keywords: male osteoporosis, bone mineral density, fracture risk, bisphosphonates, PTH

  20. Intra-uterine insemination for male subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, A. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Heineman, M. J.; Vandekerckhove, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. Its use, especially when combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been subject of discussion. Although the treatment itself is less invasive and expensive

  1. Epidemiologic methods for investigating male fecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Olsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertility is a couple concept that has been measured since the beginning of demography, and male fecundity (his biological capacity to reproduce is a component of the fertility rate. Unfortunately, we have no way of measuring the male component directly, although several indirect markers can be used. Population registers can be used to monitor the proportion of childless couples, couples who receive donor semen, trends in dizygotic twinning, and infertility diagnoses. Studies using time-to-pregnancy (TTP may identify couple subfecundity, and TTP data will correlate with sperm quality and quantity as well as sexual activity and a number of other conditions. Having exposure data available for couples with a fecund female partner would make TTP studies of interest in identifying exposures that may affect male fecundity. Biological indicators such as sperm quality and quantity isolate the male component of fertility, and semen data therefore remain an important source of information for research. Unfortunately, often over half of those invited to provide a sperm sample will refuse, and the study is then subject to a selection that may introduce bias. Because the most important time windows for exposures that impair semen production could be early fetal life, puberty, and the time of ejaculation; longitudinal data over decades of time are required. The ongoing monitoring of semen quality and quantity should continue, and surveys monitoring fertility and waiting TTP should also be designed.

  2. How to diagnose and treat male subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cissen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of subfertile couples still have a chance to conceive naturally and the most important thing is to assess whether any form of medical assistance will increase their chance of pregnancy over continuing natural conception. In couples with male subfertility, IUI, IVF and ICSI are

  3. Assisted reproductive technologies for male subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cissen, Maartje; Bensdorp, Alexandra; Cohlen, Ben J.; Repping, Sjoerd; de Bruin, Jan Peter; van Wely, Madelon

    2016-01-01

    Intra-uterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. The use of these treatments has been subject of discussion. Knowledge on the effectiveness of fertility treatments

  4. Field performance of engineered male mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angela F; Nimmo, Derric; McKemey, Andrew R; Kelly, Nick; Scaife, Sarah; Donnelly, Christl A; Beech, Camilla; Petrie, William D; Alphey, Luke

    2011-10-30

    Dengue is the most medically important arthropod-borne viral disease, with 50-100 million cases reported annually worldwide. As no licensed vaccine or dedicated therapy exists for dengue, the most promising strategies to control the disease involve targeting the predominant mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. However, the current methods to do this are inadequate. Various approaches involving genetically engineered mosquitoes have been proposed, including the release of transgenic sterile males. However, the ability of laboratory-reared, engineered male mosquitoes to effectively compete with wild males in terms of finding and mating with wild females, which is critical to the success of these strategies, has remained untested. We report data from the first open-field trial involving a strain of engineered mosquito. We demonstrated that genetically modified male mosquitoes, released across 10 hectares for a 4-week period, mated successfully with wild females and fertilized their eggs. These findings suggest the feasibility of this technology to control dengue by suppressing field populations of A. aegypti.

  5. Improving voluntary medical male circumcision standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of HIV by 60%. Scaling up VMMC services requires that they be of high quality, socially accepted, and effective. We evaluated an intervention aimed at improving VMMC standards adherence and patient follow-up rates in nine ...

  6. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, P; Giwercman, A; Grandjean, P; Guillette, L J; Jégou, B; Jensen, T K; Jouannet, P; Keiding, N; Leffers, H; McLachlan, J A; Meyer, O; Müller, J; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Scheike, T; Sharpe, R; Sumpter, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-08-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention.

  7. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male reproductive developmental defects. The present study established the links between environmental chemicals, molecular targets, and adverse outcomes using U.S. EPA animal study (ToxRefDB) and high-throughput screening (ToxCast) databases. This systems-based approach revealed a phenotypic hierarchy across 63 chemicals and a pleiotropic in vitro bioactivity profile. Although estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities have been extensively studied in male reproductive developmental toxicity, the present study showed these receptor targets to be only a subset of the potential landscape of molecular targets. A variety of chemical (e.g. phthalates, conazoles, carbamates, and phenol compounds) and bioactivity (e.g. nuclear receptors, vascular remodeling proteins, and cytochrome-P450 reductases) clusters further suggested multiple pathways leading to the adverse outcomes. This points to the need for multi-scale systems models to predict whether the occurrence of one adverse outcome may predict the risk of another. Imbalances in androgen and estrogen signaling have been a general focus in male reproductive toxicology research. While a number of recent studies have demonstrated that both hormonal

  8. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  9. Causes of Male Dropout Rate in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Dad, Hukam; Iqbal, Javid; Shah, Syed Shafqat Ali; Niazi, Muhammad Imran

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to seek the cause of male students' dropout rate at the primary level of F.R. Peshawar. The main objectives of the study were: 1) to study the teacher problems and attitudes of the dropouts, 2) to determine the factors that cause dropouts, 3) to study the government's strategy of dropouts, and 4) to provide suggestions to overcome…

  10. sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... phosphate buffered solution; TEM, transmission electron microscope; CMS, cytoplasmic male sterile; FPR, first photo reaction; SPR, second photo reaction. production of cytotoxins which instigate apoptosis. For example in Caenorhabditis elegans, the ced genes code for cystein proteases Ced-3 and Ced-4 ...

  11. endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-02

    Jan 2, 2002 ... the human genome. Because of such hypotheses, in this communication, we discuss the findings of various studies that have demonstrated expression of endogenous retrovirus-like particles in male mammalian reproductive tissues. In addition, we discuss the biological implications of the presence of these ...

  12. Breaking Male Dominance in Old Democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlerup, D.; Leyenaar, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Has male dominance in political life been broken? Will gender balance in elected assemblies soon be reached? This book analyses the longitudinal development of women’s political representation in eight old democracies, in which women were enfranchised before and around World War I: Denmark, Iceland,

  13. Brief Report: Trichotillomania in an Autistic Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Allen, Ghada

    1991-01-01

    This report describes trichotillomania (the irresistible urge to pull one's own body hair) in a young male with autism who was treated successfully with Fluoxetine, a serotonergic antidepressant. The possible etiologic interrelations and treatment implications of this kind of comorbidity are presented. (JDD)

  14. FEASIBILITY OF MEDICAL MALE CIRCUMCISION IN NYANZA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... and supplies to safely perform male circumcisions. Though most clinicians reported training about circumcision, most lacked sufficient knowledge to perform the procedure, and few were familiar with the process ... compelling hypothesis is related to the high density of. HIV target cells, namely Langerhans' ...

  15. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle fibers in their wall, commonly encountered in adults, and involve the posterior urethra. Differential diagnosis for UD includes syringoceles (cystic dilatation of the Cowper's gland), sequestration cysts, epidermoid and epithelial inclusion cysts. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones. Mohanty D, Garg PK, ...

  16. Surgically Correctable Morbidity from Male Circumcision: Indications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Circumcision, the surgical removal of the prepuce, is probably the most commonly performed procedure in the neonatal period.[1]. It remains the commonest surgical operation in males in West. Africa as only very few cultures do not observe it in the subregion.[2]. While the indication for the procedure is often sociocultural[1].

  17. MALE BREAST CANCER IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Carcinoma of the male breast is generally rare and constitutes 1% of all breast cancers. They often present late in developing countries and therefore has poor prognosis. The aim of this paper is to highlight the pattern of presentation and problems associated with management of this disease in Maiduguri, ...

  18. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...

  19. Endogenous antispermatogenic agents: prospects for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L L; Robaire, B

    1978-01-01

    A review of endogenous antispermatogenic agents as prospects for male contraception is reported. It is demonstrated that endogenous compounds exert regulatory influences at 4 major levels in the male: 1) between germ cells; 2) between Sertoli and germ cells; 3) between Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules; and 4) between the central nervous system and the testis. Efforts to interrupt spermatogenesis have failed to find application as male contraceptives for various reasons: 1) some investigators ignored the vulnerable control points by utilizing nonspecific agents; 2) others attacked a vulnerable control point but used synthetic drugs that had deleterious side effects; and 3) still others attacked a vulnerable control point with a relatively innocuous drug but used an impractical mode of drug administration. The potential for devising innovative techniques for administering relatively innocuous drugs at dosages sufficient to produce sterility without causing deleterious side effects is demonstrated. The most promising solution for the development of an antispermatogenic male contraceptive is the interference with the adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis via the subcutaneous sustained release of steroid formulations containing either androgen-danazol, androgen-progestin, or androgen-estrogen formulations. Another promising agent would be luteinizing releasing hormone agonist-androgen formulation.

  20. Zambian male adolescents' perceptions about premarital sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role adolescent boys play in premarital sexual activities, gender power relations, and the reproductive health risks they are exposed to, has received little attention in research. This qualitative study has aimed to explore Zambian male adolescents' perceptions and expectations about premarital sexual relationships.