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Sample records for single majors ucas

  1. Writing Your UCAS Personal Statement.

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Tess

    2010-01-01

    The personal statement on the UCAS form is your best opportunity to "sell" yourself to the universities of your choice. Here, Tess Parkinson, a psychology admissions tutor, gives inside advice on how to approach what may seem a daunting task.

  2. Inhibition of long non-coding RNA UCA1 by CRISPR/Cas9 attenuated malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shuai; Hua, Ling; Liu, Yun-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Min; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Le; Li, Xu

    2017-02-07

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a novel and effective genome editing technique, but its application is not widely expanded to manipulate long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression. The lncRNA urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) is upregulated in bladder cancer and promotes the progression of bladder cancer. Here, we design gRNAs specific to UCA1 and construct CRISPR/Cas9 systems targeting UCA1. Single CRISPR/Cas9-UCA1 can effectively inhibit UCA1 expression when transfected into 5637 and T24 bladder cancer cells, while the combined transfection of the two most effective CRISPR/Cas9-UCA1s can generate more satisfied inhibitory effect. CRISPR/Cas9-UCA1s attenuate UCA1 expression via targeted genome-specific DNA cleavage, resulting in the significant inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms associated with the inhibitory effect of CRISPR/Cas9-UCA1 on malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer are attributed to the induction of cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, a substantial increase of apoptosis, and an enhanced activity of MMPs. Additionally, urinary UCA1 can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic marker for bladder cancer as revealed by a meta-analysis. Collectively, our data suggest that CRISPR/Cas9 technique can be used to down-modulate lncRNA expression, and urinary UCA1 may be used as a non-invasive marker for diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  3. Knockdown of Long Non-Coding RNA UCA1 Increases the Tamoxifen Sensitivity of Breast Cancer Cells through Inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Liu

    Full Text Available Acquired resistance to tamoxifen remains a major obstacle in breast cancer (BC treatment, since the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1 has been recently shown to be dysregulated and plays important roles in progression of breast cancer. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the biological role and clinical significance of UCA1 in BC drug resistance. Hence, we used quantitative PCR assay to evaluate the UCA1 expression in tissues from patients with BC as well as established tamoxifen-resistant BC cell lines in vitro. We tested the viability, invasive ability and apoptosis rate in MCF-7 and T47D cells using MTT assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry assay, respectively. The influence of UCA1 on tumorigenesis was monitored by in vivo mice xenograft model. The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was evaluated by immunofluorescence assay, western blot assay and luciferase reporter assay, respectively. We found that the expression of UCA1 positively correlated with the pathological grade and mortality of breast cancer patients, moreover, expressions of UCA1 was increased significantly in the tamoxifen-resistant cell lines compared with the wild type parental cells. Ectopic expression of UCA1 promoted cell survival and resistance to tamoxifen treatment, whereas inhibition of UCA1 enhanced tamoxifen sensitivity of BC cells and induced more apoptotic cells. In addition, tamoxifen-resistant cells exhibited increased Wnt signaling activation as measured by the TOP/FOP Wnt luciferase reporter assay and β-catenin protein level compared with parental MCF-7 and T47D cells, respectively. In line with these data, UCA1 depletion attenuated the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation and the tumorigenicity of the tamoxifen-resistant BC cells. Taken together, our data highlights the pivotal role of UCA1-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the

  4. Adult Uca spp. (fiddler crab) Chemical Cue Presence and Effect on Molting Rate of Uca spp. Megalopae into Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, E.

    2016-02-01

    Past research has shown that adult conspecific chemical cues of brachyuran crabs stimulate molting in their megalopae. This study hypothesized that adult fiddler crab (genus Uca) chemical cues would stimulate metamorphosis in their conspecific megalopae, which would demonstrate that adult conspecifics indicate proper settlement sites for their megalopae. Field-caught megalopae were placed in individual vials of seawater, U. minax water, U. pugilator water, or U. pugnax water and the time each took to metamorphose was recorded. Both U. pugilator and U. pugnax megalopae did not molt equally across the four different water treatments (U. pugilator: χ23=16.87, p<0.005; U. pugnax: χ23=31.16, p<<0.001). They favored molting in their conspecific odor water, as did U. minax. No statistical tests were run for U. minax due to the small sample size. The average molt time for each of the three species was not the shortest in their respective conspecific odor water; however, U. pugilator did molt faster in Uca water than seawater (t149=6.22; p=0.0137). This study concluded that when using field-caught megalopae, it is more important to observe which water treatment stimulated the most molts for each Uca spp. rather than the amount of time each took to molt; therefore, it was observed that U. pugilator, U. pugnax, and U. minax have the highest molting response in either conspecific or Uca scented water, revealing that adult Uca chemical cue presence signals ideal settlement sites for the megalopae to join their adult conspecifics and molt into juveniles.

  5. Biochemical contents of the ovary and hepatopancreas of Uca longisignalis and Uca nr. minaxContenido bioquímico del ovario y hepatopáncreas de Uca longisignalis y Uca nr. minax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. Hasek

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available P align=justify>Biochemical composition of ovary and hepatopancreas tissues in wild populations of Uca longisignalis and Uca nr. minax were monitored during the reproductive season. Total lipid (concentration and content, C (carbon, N (nitrogen, and C:N ratios of the ovary and hepatopancreas were quantified over the course of ovarian maturation. Ovary lipid and C concentration varied significantly over the course of ovarian maturation for both species, but there was no relationship between lipid concentration or hepatopancreas content and the stage of ovarian development in females. Hepatopancreatic lipid and C concentration did not differ between sexes of U. nr. minax. Lipid demands of ovarian maturation thus appear to be met in large part by increased dietary intake and not purely by translocating lipid stores from the hepatopancreas. In both Uca longisignalis and U. nr. minax, the color of the hepatopancreas may be used as an indicator of the lipid and C levels of the hepatopancreas. Cadmium-yellow and lemon-yellow hepatopancreas tissues had the highest lipid concentrations. No evidence could be found to demonstrate depletion of lipid or C concentrations in the hepatopancreas concomitant with ovarian maturation.

  6. The prognostic significance of UCA1 for predicting clinical outcome in patients with digestive system malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Teng; Dong, Qing; Gao, Hui; Zhu, Zheng-Ming

    2017-06-20

    Urothelial Carcinoma Associated 1 (UCA1) was an originally identified lncRNA in bladder cancer. Previous studies have reported that UCA1 played a significant role in various types of cancer. This study aimed to clarify the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. The meta-analysis of 15 studies were included, comprising 1441 patients with digestive system cancers. The pooled results of 14 studies indicated that high expression of UCA1 was significantly associated with poorer OS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR: 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.52-2.26). In addition, UCA1 could be as an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS of patients (HR: 1.85, 95 % CI: 1.45-2.25). The pooled results of 3 studies indicated a significant association between UCA1 and DFS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR = 2.50; 95 % CI = 1.30-3.69). Statistical significance was also observed in subgroup meta-analysis. Furthermore, the clinicopathological values of UCA1 were discussed in esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. A comprehensive retrieval was performed to search studies evaluating the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. Many databases were involved, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang database. Quantitative meta-analysis was performed with standard statistical methods and the prognostic significance of UCA1 in digestive system cancers was qualified. Elevated level of UCA1 indicated the poor clinical outcome for patients with digestive system cancers. It may serve as a new biomarker related to prognosis in digestive system cancers.

  7. Struktur Komunitas Uca Sp Di Kawasan Teluk Benoa Pada Karakteristik Substrat Yang Berbeda

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    Ni Wayan Loviasari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove ecosystem is home to a variety of fauna, ranging from water animals to primates, as a breeding ground for a variety of aquatic animals such as fish, crustaceans, crabs and mollusks, as well as a place to feed a number of wildlife such as reptiles and mammals. Uca sp is one of the fauna that utilizes and helps mangrove in its ecological balance. This research was conducted on 3 mangrove areas with the purpose of knowing the types and structure of Uca sp community on different substrate characteristics, where in Mertasari mangrove have the type of sandy substrate, Muara Waduk Nusa Dua Denpasar has kind of sandy loam substrate and Tanjung Benoa has kind sandy substrate. The sampling time was conducted in December 2016 when the lowest tide of the month. Determination of stations taken at each research location (station using purposive sampling method. From the results of the study found Uca sp as many as 5 types, namely Uca cryptica, Uca dussumieri, Uca rosea, Uca cryptica and Uca crassipes. The highest density of Uca sp that is at station 2 located in Muara Waduk Nusa Dua Denpasar is 52,75 ind/m2 and lowest at station 3 in Tanjung Benoa get 32,25 ind /m2. The index values ??of the diversity of the three research stations are categorized into low diversity. In all three research stations categorized into uniformity index with depressed community or low uniformity. Based on the calculation on the three stations have a high dominance index.

  8. Gut-Associated Microbial Symbionts of the Marsh Fiddler Crab, Uca Pugnax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunman, Lara K

    2004-01-01

    .... The overarching goal of this thesis was to characterize the ecology and genetic diversity of resident gut microbes to advance our understanding of their interactions with their host, the marsh fiddler crab, Uca pugnax...

  9. Courtship herding in the fiddler crab Uca elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Martin J; Hemmi, Jan M

    2008-12-01

    Male and female animals are not always complicit during reproduction, giving rise to coercion. One example of a system that is assumed to involve sexual coercion is the mate herding behaviour of fiddler crabs: males push females towards the home burrow with the goal of forcing copulation at the burrow entrance. We recorded and analysed in detail the courtship behaviour of a North Australian species of fiddler crab Uca elegans. Courtship was composed of four main phases: broadcast waving, outward run, herding and at burrow display. During interactions males produced claw-waving displays which were directed posteriorly towards the female and which varied in timing and structure depending on the courtship phase. We suggest that courtship herding in U. elegans is driven primarily by mate choice for the following reasons, (1) females can evade herding, (2) no other reproductive strategies were observed, (3) males broadcast their presence and accompany courtship with conspicuous claw waves, and (4) the behaviour ends with the female leading the male into the home burrow. As an alternative function for herding in U. elegans we suggest that the behaviour represents a form of courtship guiding, in which males direct complicit females to the correct home burrow.

  10. Estructura del aparato reproductor masculino de Uca uruguayensis (Decapoda, Ocypodidae Structure of the male reproductive tract of Uca uruguayensis (Decapoda, Ocypodidae

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    Elena Irene Cuartas

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las estructuras del sistema reproductor de machos de Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 y estudiar los cambios relacionados con la madurez sexual. Se trabajó con observación estereoscópica de material fresco, técnica histológica de rutina y observaciones en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido. Se incluyó la caracterización de los gonopodos 1 (G1 y 2 (G2. El tracto reproductor del macho se compone de un par de testículos (T, un vaso deferente (VD tubular y sinuoso y una ampolla terminal (AT. El VD tiene tres secciones, la anterior (VDA, la media (VDM y la posterior (VDP. El VDA y VDM están conformadas por un epitelio simple de células cúbicas. El epitelio del VDP es columnar y con núcleos basales y alongados. El diseño tubular se modifica al ocuparse el lumen del VDP con líquido espermático durante el verano y la musculatura circular se hace más evidente. La porción terminal del VDP se ensancha formando una ampolla (AT que comprende cuatro cámaras interconectadas. Todas las estructuras están rodeadas de una capa de tejido conectivo de poco espesor. Se identifican las modificaciones observadas en la histología de T y VD, definiendo como mas relevantes las observadas desde el mes de noviembre hasta marzo. Estas modificaciones sugieren que U. uruguayensis tiene, en la localidad estudiada, una única estación reproductiva durante el verano en esta latitud. La AT, tal como es descripta, es una estructura que hasta el momento no ha sido mencionada para los Brachyura.The structure of the male reproductive tract was described in Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901, by using histological methods, scanning electron microscopy techniques, and stereoscopic observations of fresh material. The aim of this work was to establish the functional changes associated with sexual maturation. The morphology of the first (G1 and second (G2 pair of gonopods was described. The male reproductive tract consists of paired

  11. Habitat selection and energetics of the fiddler crab ( Uca tangeri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Marcel; Ens, Bruno J.

    We tried to unravel the possible links between the skewed predation risk in Uca tangeri (where large individuals are more at risk from avian predators) and size-dependent changes in the physiology and habitat choice of this fiddler crab species. Over a transect running from low to high in the tidal zone of a beach in Mauritania, the temperature profile at various depths in the substrate, the water-table level of seep water, salt concentration of seep water, depth of the aerobic level, operative temperatures on the surface, and size distribution of crabs were assessed. In addition, resting metabolic rates, Q 10 and thermal and starvation tolerances were estimated. Going from low to high in the tidal zone, crab size and burrow depth increased. At the preferred burrowing depth, microclimatological conditions appeared to be equally favourable at all sites. At the surface, conditions were more favourable low in the tidal zone, where also food availability is sufficient to enable small crabs to forage in the vicinity of their burrows. Large crabs have higher energy requirements and are thereby forced to forage in flocks low in the tidal zone where food is probably more abundant. Low in the tidal zone, digging deeply is impossible as the aerobic layer is rather thin. Large crabs prefer living high in the tidal zone as (1) deep burrows ensure better protection against predators, (2) more time is available for digging holes and (3) the substrate is better suited for reproduction. Energy reserves in late summer ensured an average of 34 days of survival. It is argued that the allotment of energy to growth must be considerable even in reproducing animals; the rewards of growth being the disproportional increase in reproductive output with size.

  12. Participatory Methods and UCA Project: understanding technologies as culture

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    Magda Pischetola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the complex and changing context of digital culture, the media become an important space of relation, as they have the crucial role of articulating new cultural logics that lead to disruptions in the school environment. To understand this change, new methods of analysis and research have been created, the so-called Participatory Methodologies. They are action research strategies aimed at intervening in a given social situation. In the analysis proposed here, such methodologies will help us to address the challenge of involving digital technologies in school culture, through the participation of different individuals involved. Two qualitative case studies about the project Um Computador por Aluno – the Brazilian One Laptop per Child -, carried out in 2012 in the schools of Santa Catarina and Bahia, are the first of two phases of the research presented. The results concern a "vertical" form of technology insertion in schools, which led to frustration and de-motivation at several levels. Starting from these considerations, the second stage of research proposes a pedagogical intervention in one of four schools in the field. The methodologies of participatory video and photography are chosen as possibilities of action-reflection-action on the sociocultural reality of students through the experience of sharing. The results show the importance of carrying out creative activities, appropriate to a social conception of learning, as well as the centrality of children and youth as agency and a broader need to redefine the relationship between teacher and student, in a more "horizontal" perspective process of teaching and learning. Keywords: Projeto UCA. Participatory Research Method. Innovative teaching-learning.

  13. Appraisal of diagnostic ability of UCA1 as a biomarker of carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A K; Singh, P K; Rath, S K; Dalela, D; Goel, M M; Bhatt, M L B

    2014-11-01

    Initial diagnosis of carcinoma of the urinary bladder remains to be a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1) is a novel non-coding RNA gene, which plays a pivotal role in bladder cancer progression. Our aim is to investigate the significance of urinary UCA1 for the non-invasive diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. We examined UCA1 expression in a bladder cancer cell line (T24) and in urine of 28 healthy individuals, 46 patients of non-malignant disorders, and 117 cases (69 primary and 48 recurrent cases) of histologically proven TCC prior to transurethral resection by using real-time PCR and compared it with voided urinary cytology. UCA1 expression was found in T24 cell line and also found to be significantly higher in the cancer group as compared to the controls (p0.05). UCA1 can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC bladder as an adjunct to cytology in the early diagnosis of primary urinary bladder cancer.

  14. Artesunate suppresses the viability and mobility of prostate cancer cells through UCA1, the sponge of miR-184.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Xiuju; Zhang, Jianjun; He, Aina; Wang, Ya Ling; Han, Kun; Su, Yang; Yin, Junyi; Lv, Xiaobin; Hu, Haiyan

    2017-03-14

    Artesunate (ART) is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the leafy portions of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Here, we evaluated the effect of ART on the prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines DU145 and LNCaP and explored its potential mechanisms. ART inhibited the viability and mobility of DU145 and LNCaP cells. Mechanistically, we found that UCA1, one of the most important lncRNAs in malignancies of the urinary system, may be a potential mediator contributing to the tumor suppressor function of ART. First, the UCA1 level was reduced significantly after being exposed to ART. In addition, UCA1 was up-regulated in prostate cancer tissues compared to hyperplastic prostatic tissues, and a higher UCA1 level predicted poor prognosis in PCa patients. Furthermore, reintroduction of UCA1 into PCa cells reversed the effect of ART on apoptosis and metastatic ability. Then we determined that the miR-184/Bcl-2 axis might be the downstream signaling pathway of UCA1 upon ART treatment. UCA1 binds to miR-184 through its seed sequences and may function as a sponge for miR-184.

  15. LncRNA UCA1 promotes proliferation and cisplatin resistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma by sunppressing miR-184 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng; Zhao, Junfang; Xie, Weihong; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Haibin; Qiao, Bin

    2017-12-01

    Chemotherapy resistance has become the main obstacle for the effective treatment of human cancers. Long non-coding RNA urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1) is generally regarded as an oncogene in some cancers. However, the function and molecular mechanism of UCA1 implicated in cisplatin (CDDP) chemoresistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still not fully established. UCA1 expression in tumor tissues and cells was tested by qRT-PCR. MTT, flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity analysis were explored to evaluate the CDDP sensitivity in OSCC cells. Western blot analysis was used to measure BCL2, Bax and SF1 protein expression. Luciferase reporter assay was conducted to investigate the molecular relationship between UCA1, miR-184, and SF1. Nude mice model was used to confirm the functional role of UCA1 in CDDP resistance in vivo. UCA1 expression was upregulated in OSCC tissues, cell lines, and CDDP resistant OSCC cells. Function analysis revealed that UCA1 facilitated proliferation, enhanced CDDP chemoresistance, and suppressed apoptosis in OSCC cells. Mechanisms investigation indicated that UCA1 could interact with miR-184 to repress its expression. Rescue experiments suggested that downregulation of miR-184 partly reversed the tumor suppression effect and CDDP chemosensitivity of UCA1 knockdown in CDDP-resistant OSCC cells. Moreover, UCA1 could perform as a miR-184 sponge to modulate SF1 expression. The OSCC nude mice model experiments demonstrated that depletion of UCA1 further boosted CDDP-mediated repression effect on tumor growth. UCA1 accelerated proliferation, increased CDDP chemoresistance and restrained apoptosis partly through modulating SF1 via sponging miR-184 in OSCC cells, suggesting that targeting UCA1 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for OSCC patients. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Crude oil toxicity to fiddler crabs (Uca longisignalis and Uca panacea) from the northern Gulf of Mexico: Impacts on bioturbation, oxidative stress, and histology of the hepatopancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marco E; Felgenhauer, Bruce E; Klerks, Paul L

    2018-02-01

    The intensive drilling and extraction of fossil fuels in the Gulf of Mexico result in a considerable risk of oil spills impacting its coastal ecosystems. Impacts are more likely to be far-reaching if the oil affects ecosystem engineers like fiddler crabs, whose activities modify biogeochemical processes in the sediment. The present study investigated effects of oil on the fiddler crabs Uca longisignalis and Uca panacea, which are important as ecosystem engineers and as prey for a wide variety of species. The present study used mesocosms and microcosms to investigate the effects of crude oil on fiddler crab burrowing and to assess cellular and tissue damage by the oil. Fiddler crabs were exposed for periods of 5 or 10 d to oil concentrations up to 55 mg/cm 2 on the sediment surface. Their burrowing was delayed, their burrows were smaller, and they transported less sediment in the presence of oil. The hepatopancreas had elevated levels of oxidative stress and a higher abundance of blister cells, which play a role in secretory processes. Interspecific differences were observed; most effects were strongest in U. panacea, though burrowing was more strongly affected in U. longisignalis. The present study demonstrates that crude oil is likely to impact fiddler crabs and many species that depend on them for their diet or for the ecological changes that result from their burrowing. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:491-500. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Effects of applying realistic channel conditions on performance prediction of UCA-VBLAST-MIMO systems

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    Mohab A. Mangoud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many realistic spatially and temporally clustered channel models were developed to be applied in the simulations of multiple input multiple output (MIMO systems. IEEE 802.11n standard channel model includes spatio-temporal fading correlation effects and accounts for six various real propagation profiles. These profiles represent variety of propagation scenarios for indoor environments. This paper presents the impact of applying various channel model conditions on the link performance of Vertical Bell Laboratories Space-Time detection (VBLAST-MIMO systems that employ Uniform Circular array (UCA. Also, capacity and channel estimation accuracy for this system are investigated under different channel conditions. The effect of varying the SNR on the Channel State Information (CSI error and capacity for UCA-MIMO systems are included. Training based techniques such as Least Square (LS, scaled least square (SLS and minimum mean square error (MMSE methods and relaxed MMSE (RMMSE are considered for estimating channel properties. It is found that the presence of spatial correlation can help to improve the Channel estimation accuracy at low SNR for UCA-VBLAST-MIMO system under different spatial correlation conditions.

  18. Physiologic sexual maturity of the fiddler crab Uca rapax (Smith, 1870 (Crustacea, Ocypodidae from two mangroves in Ubatuba, Brazil

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    Daniela da Silva Castiglioni

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The gonad development of Uca rapax was studied to achieve the size at onset of its sexual maturity. Crabs were sampled from April/2001 to March/2002 in the Itamambuca and Ubatumirim mangroves in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The specimens were grouped in 10 size classes. Juveniles and adult crabs frequencies were assessed for each class. The size of carapace width in which 50% of males and females were considered mature was 14.8 and 12.1 mm (Itamambuca and 13.6 and 11.4 mm (Ubatumirim, respectively for males and females. Males matured at higher sizes than females, probably due to a major investment in their somatic growth, while females spend their energy in the reproductive process, saving energy for eggs' production.A determinação do tamanho em que os caranguejos atingem sua maturidade sexual é um importante instrumento em estudos da dinâmica populacional e na determinação do potencial reprodutivo de uma espécie. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar aspectos fisiológicos como o desenvolvimento gonadal para a determinação do tamanho na primeira maturação de Uca rapax. Os caranguejos foram coletados durante um ano (abril de 2001 a março de 2002 nos manguezais de Itamambuca e Ubatumirim, Ubatuba, SP. Os exemplares capturados foram mensurados quanto à largura da carapaça e o sexo e os estágios de desenvolvimento gonadal registrados. Os caranguejos com gônadas imaturas e rudimentares foram considerados jovens e os caranguejos nos demais estágios gonadais foram classificados como adultos. Os exemplares foram separados em 10 classes de tamanhos, sendo que para cada classe foram obtidas as freqüências de caranguejos jovens e adultos. A determinação da maturidade sexual foi obtida através de equação logística e o ajuste desta equação foi efetuado pelo método dos mínimos quadrados. O tamanho da largura da carapaça no qual 50% da população de Uca rapax foi considerada madura foi de 14,8 mm para machos e 12,1 mm de LC para

  19. The Martyrs of the UCA: demand and grace. Social commitment of the Catholic University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Sobrino, SJ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hace veinte años asesinaron a mis hermanos jesuitas de la UCA, a Julia Elba y a Celina. Yo me encontraba en Tailandia, y a mi regreso a El Salvador tenía que pasar por San Francisco. En el aeropuerto me esperaban –con rostros impávidos- Steve Prevett y Peggy O’Grady. En las calles de San Francisco, con un parlante en la mano, Paul Locatelli condenaba los asesinatos, Tessa Rouverol le acompañaba.

  20. Long non-coding RNA UCA1 promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and migration via microRNA-193a/HMGB1 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongyu; Zhou, Caicun

    2018-02-05

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs have been documented aberrantly expressed and exerted crucial role in variety of cancers. Urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1) is a potential new type of biomarkers for tumor diagnosis and exerts oncogenic effect on various human cancers. However, the mechanism of oncogenic role of UCA1 in lung cancer remains unclear. In this study, we firstly confirmed the role of UCA1 in lung cancer and found that UCA1 down-regulation inhibited cell proliferation and migration in both SKMES-1 and H520 lung cancer cells. Then we demonstrated that repressed UCA1 promoted the miR-193a expression and miR-193a could bind to the predicted binding site of UCA1. We then dissected the role of miR-193a in lung cancer and proved the anti-tumor role of miR-193a. Furthermore, we found that miR-193a displayed its role in lung cancer via modulating the HMGB1 expression. In addition, we found that over-expression of HMGB1 could restore the UCA1 knockdown induced repression of cell proliferation and migration. In summary, our study demonstrated that UCA1 exerts oncogenes activity in lung cancer, acting mechanistically by upregulating HMGB1 expression through 'sponging' miR-193a. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidermal collagenase activity and its induction by 20-hydroxyecdysone in the fiddler crab Uca pugilator

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    Erin A. TOUPS

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal collagenase activity and its induction by 20-hydroxyecdysone in Uca pugilator were investigated. Zymographic electrophoresis showed four bands of collagenase activity, 16, 19, 22 and 29 kDa in molecular weight, with the former two accounting for 60% and 36%, respectively, of the total collagenase activity. The collagenase activity varies during the molting cycle. Among the molt stages tested, Premolt Stage D0 exhibited the highest epidermal collagenase activity for both the 16 and 19 kDa isoenzymes and, as the molt stage proceeded, the enzymatic activity of these two isoenzymes decreased, with the lowest activity for both found in Premolt Stage D3–4. Injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone significantly induced the activity of the 16 kDa collagenase in the epidermis of Uca pugilator, suggesting that the activity of this isoenzyme is under molting hormone control. Although 20-hydroxyecdysone injection did not result in a statistically significant increase in the activity of the 19 kDa isoenzyme, a tendency of the induction was nonetheless demonstrated. This is the first report on epidermal collagenase activity and its induction by the molting hormone in a crustacean [Current Zoology 55(1: 75–80, 2009].

  2. Single-session treatment of a major complication of dens invaginatus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldari, Mauro; Monaco, Carlo; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto

    2006-05-01

    Dens invaginatus is a dental malformation that may give rise to several complications. Caries of the invagination can severely weaken the whole tooth, making it susceptible to fracture. Subgingival fractures are major complications threatening tooth survival and usually require periodontal/orthodontic/prosthetic treatment if long-term viability is to be ensured. This article describes a case of single-session restoration of a fractured invaginated tooth by means of endodontic treatment followed by fragment reattachment.

  3. Alometria no crescimento de Uca mordax (Smith (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Allometric growth in the fiddler crab Uca mordax (Smith (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae from Guaratuba Bay, Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setuko Masunari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo do crescimento relativo da maior quela do macho e do abdome da fêmea foi realizado numa população do caranguejo chama-maré Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 ocorrente no extremo oeste da Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, sul do Brasil. O comprimento da maior quela (CMQ foi medido em 319 machos, e a largura do abdome (LAB em 356 fêmeas. Adicionalmente, seis chama-marés sexualmente indiferenciados foram analisados. A largura da carapaça (LC foi escolhida como dimensão de referência para ambos os sexos, a qual variou de 1,94 a 20,0 mm para machos, de 2,50 a 18,85 mm para fêmeas, e de 1,94 a 3,15 para os indivíduos sexualmente indiferenciados. A relação entre o LC e CMQ mostrou um ponto de inflexão em 11,70 mm LC nos machos, e entre LC e LAB, em 8,77 mm LC dentre as fêmeas. Os machos (média LC = 14,24 mm atingiram tamanhos pouco maiores do que as fêmeas (média LC = 13,97 mm. O crescimento foi alométrico positivo durante toda a ontogênese de ambos os sexos, isto é, antes e depois da muda puberal. As equações das relações entre LC e CMQ nos machos foram: logCMQ = -0,542265 + 1,51.logLC para machos juvenis e logCMQ = -1,446281 + 2,37.logLC para machos adultos. Nas fêmeas, a relação entre LC e LAB foi: logLAB = -0,607282 + 1,22.logLC e logLAB = -0,912074 + 1,60.logLC, respectivamente, para juvenis e adultas. Estas dimensões estão relacionadas com as atividades reprodutivas da espécie. O nível de alometria do CMQ dos machos adultos de U. mordax foi o mais alto dentre as espécies do gênero, cujo crescimento relativo desta dimensão foi estudado. A proporção de machos destros foi estatisticamente a mesma daqueles sinistros (1:1.Relative growth of the male major chela and female abdomen was studied in a population of the fiddler crab Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 from Guaratuba Bay, Parana, Southern Brazil. Major chela length (CMQ was measured from 319 males, and abdomen width (LAB from 356 females. Also six small sexually

  4. Wind power communication design and implementation of test environment for IEC61850/UCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, A.; Svensson, J.

    2002-04-01

    Elforsk has sponsored a joint Swedish-Danish project aiming at finding and recommend a common solution for communication with wind power plants. The first stage of the work resulted in a requirement specification Functional Requirements on Communication System for Wind Turbine Applications. During the project a number of possible communication solutions were identified. The two most promising solutions have been tested in order to verify to what extent they fulfil the requirements in the specification. A version of the IEC 61850 standard based on the communication protocol MMS, has been tested at a wind power plant at Gotland, Sweden, and an OPC-interface has been tested in Denmark. This report includes a description of the design choices made for the test implementation of MMS, as well as a detailed description of the implementation of the IEC 61850/UCA2 software including information models and information exchange services. (BA)

  5. Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in major psychiatric disorders: From basics to clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Amburanjan; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a well-established and reliable method to assess brain function through measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). It can be used to define a patient's pathophysiological status when neurological or psychiatric symptoms cannot be explained by anatomical neuroimaging findings. Though there is ample evidence validating brain SPECT as a technique to track human behavior and correlating psychiatric disorders with dysfunction of specific brain regions, only few psychiatrists have adopted brain SPECT in routine clinical practice. It can be utilized to evaluate the involvement of brain regions in a particular patient, to individualize treatment on basis of SPECT findings, to monitor the treatment response and modify treatment, if necessary. In this article, we have reviewed the available studies in this regard from existing literature and tried to present the evidence for establishing the clinical role of brain SPECT in major psychiatric illnesses

  6. Feelings of worthlessness during a single complicated major depressive episode predict postremission suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J C; Schmitz, M F

    2016-04-01

    To establish which symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE) predict postremission suicide attempts in complicated single-episode cases. Using the nationally representative two-wave National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data set, we identified wave 1 lifetime single-episode MDE cases in which the episode remitted by the beginning of the wave 2 three-year follow-up period (N = 2791). The analytic sample was further limited to 'complicated' cases (N = 1872) known to have elevated suicide attempt rates, defined as having two or more of the following: suicidal ideation, marked role impairment, feeling worthless, psychomotor retardation, and prolonged (>6 months) duration. Logistic regression analyses showed that, after controlling for wave 1 suicide attempt which significantly predicted postremission suicide attempt (OR = 10.0), the additional complicated symptom 'feelings of worthlessness' during the wave 1 index episode significantly and very substantially predicted postremission suicide attempt (OR = 6.96). Neither wave 1 psychomotor retardation nor wave 1 suicidal ideation nor any of the other wave 1 depressive symptoms were significant predictors of wave 2 suicide attempt. Among depressive symptoms during an MDE, feelings of worthlessness is the only significant indicator of elevated risk of suicide attempt after the episode has remitted, beyond previous suicide attempts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Single-molecule analysis of the major glycopolymers of pathogenic and non-pathogenic yeast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Alsteens, David; Sarazin, Aurore; Jouault, Thierry; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-05-01

    Most microbes are coated with carbohydrates that show remarkable structural variability and play a crucial role in mediating microbial-host interactions. Understanding the functions of cell wall glycoconjugates requires detailed knowledge of their molecular organization, diversity and heterogeneity. Here we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) with tips bearing specific probes (lectins, antibodies) to analyze the major glycopolymers of pathogenic and non-pathogenic yeast cells at molecular resolution. We show that non-ubiquitous β-1,2-mannans are largely exposed on the surface of native cells from pathogenic Candida albicans and C. glabrata, the former species displaying the highest glycopolymer density and extensions. We also find that chitin, a major component of the inner layer of the yeast cell wall, is much more abundant in C. albicans. These differences in molecular properties, further supported by flow cytometry measurements, may play an important role in strengthening cell wall mechanics and immune interactions. This study demonstrates that single-molecule AFM, combined with immunological and fluorescence methods, is a powerful platform in fungal glycobiology for probing the density, distribution and extension of specific cell wall glycoconjugates. In nanomedicine, we anticipate that this new form of AFM-based nanoglycobiology will contribute to the development of sugar-based drugs, immunotherapeutics, vaccines and diagnostics.

  8. Distribuição e abundância dos caranguejos Uca Leach (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs Uca Leach (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setuko Masunari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre distribuição espacial e abundância dos chama-marés Uca Leach, 1814 foi realizado na Baía de Guaratuba, Estado do Paraná. Foram coletados chama-marés de dez biótopos ao longo de um gradiente de salinidade de zero a 32 dentro da Baía de Guaratuba. Foram obtidas sete espécies, entre as quais, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 que foi registrada somente em biótopos inundados por águas de baixas salinidades (de zero a 16. As demais espécies mostraram tolerância a uma ampla variação de salinidade, mas Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 e Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominaram em águas mais salinas, de 14 a 32, enquanto U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 e Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 foram coletadas em mais de três biótopos e mostraram uma tendência ao eurihalismo, suportando salinidades de 4 a 32. Entretanto, outras características do substrato tais como porcentagem relativa de cascalho/areia/silte/argila, teor de matéria orgânica e presença de marismas, também, influenciaram a distribuição espacial destes caranguejos. U. leptodactyla foi registrada com densidade máxima de 240 ind.m-2, o mais alto valor conhecido.A study of the spatial distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs was carried out in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil. Fiddler crabs were collected from 10 biotopes located along a salinity gradient from zero to 32 inside Guaratuba Bay (between 48°30'W-25°50'S and 48°45'W-25°54'S. Seven species were found, among which, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 occurred only in biotopes inundated by low salinity water, from zero to 16. Remaining species tolerated wide range of salinity oscillation, but Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 and Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominated in saltier waters, from 14 to 32, while U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900, and Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 were collected in more

  9. Effects of seawater pH on growth and skeletal U/Ca ratios of Acropora digitifera coral polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Mayuri; Suwa, Ryota; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2011-06-01

    The impact of ocean acidification caused by the increasing atmospheric CO2 has been studied in marine calcifiers, including hermatypic corals. However, the effect of elevated pCO2 on the early developmental life-cycle stage of corals has been little studied. In this study, we reared polyps of Acropora digitifera in seawater at pHT 6.55, 7.31, 7.64, 7.77, and 8.03, controlled by CO2 bubbling. We measured the dry weights of polyp skeletons after the 40-d experiment to investigate the relationship between the seawater aragonite saturation state and polyp growth. In addition, we measured skeletal U/Ca ratio to estimate their pH dependence. Skeletal weights of coral polyps increased with the aragonite saturation state and reached an apparent saturation plateau above pH 7.77. U/Ca ratios had a strong inverse relationship with pH and a negligible relationship with skeletal growth rate (polyp weight), suggesting that skeletal U/Ca could be useful for reconstructing paleo-pH.

  10. Influence of temperature on daily locomotor activity in the crab Uca pugilator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M Mat

    Full Text Available Animals living in the intertidal zone are exposed to prominent temperature changes. To cope with the energetic demands of environmental thermal challenges, ectotherms rely mainly on behavioral responses, which may change depending on the time of the day and seasonally. Here, we analyze how temperature shapes crabs' behavior at 2 different times of the year and show that a transition from constant cold (13.5°C to constant warm (17.5°C water temperature leads to increased locomotor activity levels throughout the day in fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator collected during the summer. In contrast, the same transition in environmental temperature leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the daily locomotor activity rhythm in crabs collected during the winter. In other words, colder temperatures during the cold season favor a more prominent diurnal behavior. We interpret this winter-summer difference in the response of daily locomotor activity to temperature changes within the framework of the circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis, which predicts that a less favorable energetic balance would promote a more diurnal activity pattern. During the winter, when the energetic balance is likely less favorable, crabs would save energy by being more active during the expected high-temperature phase of the day-light phase-and less during the expected low-temperature phase of the day-dark phase. Our results suggest that endogenous rhythms in intertidal ectotherms generate adaptive behavioral programs to cope with thermoregulatory demands of the intertidal habitat.

  11. Effects of acidified seawater on coral calcification and variations of U/Ca ratio in their skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M.; Ozaki, S.; Iguchi, A.; Sakai, K.; Suzuki, A.; Kawahata, H.

    2011-12-01

    The rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is changing the carbonate chemistry of the ocean. Elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) has caused significant decrease in surface seawater pH and carbonate ion concentration. Therefore, ocean acidification has a negative effect on calcification of marine calcifying organisms. Especially, hermatypic corals are dominant organisms in coral reef ecosystems, so their calcificication is a key to determine the health of reef ecosystems. On the other hand, recent study has suggested that there is a negative correlation between U/Ca ratio in coral skeleton and seawater pH, based on the culture experiment using primary polyps of Acropora digitifera. In this study, primary polyps and adult colonies of A. digitifera and adult colonies of Porites australiensis, which are the dominant species around the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, were reared in seawater with different pCO2 (300, 400, 600, 800, 1000ppm) and pH (7.4, 7.6, 8.0) settings controlled by CO2 bubbling. Calcification rate of adult coral was estimated by buoyant method, while skeletal growth of polyps was evaluated by measuring the dry weight of each skeleton after the experiments. In order to evaluate the relationship between U/Ca ratios in coral skeletons and seawater pH, U/Ca ratios in reared corals were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of A. digitifera showed that the growth rate of adult corals had no significant correlation against pCO2, but dry weight of polyp skeletons decreased with increase in pCO2. Growth rate of P. australiensis typically showed a positive correlation with pH. However, growth rates were different among colonies, suggesting that their responses to acidification may vary among the colonies. Regarding the variations of U/Ca ratios, there were positive correlations between U/Ca ratios in adults of A. digitifera and P. australiensis and seawater pCO2 (pH), while no relation was observed in polyp corals.

  12. Dense cranial electroacupuncture stimulation for major depressive disorder--a single-blind, randomized, controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that electroacupuncture possesses therapeutic benefits for depressive disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dense cranial electroacupuncture stimulation (DCEAS could enhance the antidepressant efficacy in the early phase of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: In this single-blind, randomized, controlled study, patients with MDD were randomly assigned to 9-session DCEAS or noninvasive electroacupuncture (n-EA control procedure in combination with fluoxetine (FLX for 3 weeks. Clinical outcomes were measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17, Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S, and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS as well as the response and remission rates. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients were randomly assigned to n-EA (n = 35 and DCEAS (n = 38, of whom 34 in n-EA and 36 in DCEAS group were analyzed. DCEAS-treated patients displayed a significantly greater reduction from baseline in HAMD-17 scores at Day 3 through Day 21 and in SDS scores at Day 3 and Day 21 compared to patients receiving n-EA. DCEAS intervention also produced a higher rate of clinically significant response compared to n-EA procedure (19.4% (7/36 vs. 8.8% (3/34. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: DCEAS is a safe and effective intervention that augments the antidepressant efficacy. It can be considered as an additional therapy in the early phase of SSRI treatment of depressed patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN88008690.

  13. Performance Analysis of Two-Dimensional Maximum Likelihood Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Algorithm Using the UCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Seong Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the performance analysis of the maximum likelihood (ML direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation algorithm in the case of azimuth/elevation estimation of two incident signals using the uniform circular array (UCA. Based on the Taylor series expansion and approximation, we get explicit expressions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs of the azimuths and elevations. The validity of the derived expressions is shown by comparing the analytic results with the simulation results. The derivation in this paper is further verified by illustrating the consistency of the analytic results with the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB.

  14. The prospective association between obesity and major depression in the general population : does single or recurrent episode matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T.; Bultmann, Ute; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD) are important public health problems. MDD is a heterogeneous disorder and the direction of its association with obesity remains unclear. Evidence grows that recurrent MDD (MDD-R) differs in etiology and prognosis from single episode MDD

  15. Estimating the Genetic Variance of Major Depressive Disorder Due to All Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Walters, Raymond; Laurin, Charles; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Jan H.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of psychiatric disorders have been criticized for their lack of explaining a considerable proportion of the heritability established in twin and family studies. Genome-wide association studies of major depressive disorder in particular have so far been unsuccessful in

  16. XRF determination of trace and major elements using a single-fused disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.R.; Haukka, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    A new fusion method using lithium metaborate, suitable for the determination of major and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), has proven to be of comparable accuracy to other XRF methods for the ten major rock-forming oxides. The very low dilution allows determination of trace elements with a decrease in sensitivity of about a factor of 2 compared with XRF determination using pressed-powder pellets. A feature of the method is the flexibility of sample preparation allowed: the matrix-correction parameters may be used for a wide range of dilutions (sample/flux ratios), no 'Loss' correction is necessary, and imperfect or inhomogeneous discs may be crushed and pressed pellets made of the glass powder when required. Considerable savings in the time during preparation, analysis and correction of results are possible with current automation because of streamlining procedures

  17. Endocrinopathies in Turkish children with Beta thalassemia major: results from a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Pamir; Yarali, Nese; Tavil, Betül; Demirel, Fatma; Karacam, Gülşah Bayram; Sac, Rukiye Unsal; Fettah, Ali; Ozkasap, Serdar; Kara, Abdurrahman; Tunc, Bahattin

    2014-10-01

    The endocrinological complications in β-thalassemia major patients do affect the life quality to a large extend. In this study, the endocrinological complications of 47 β-thalassemia patients, who have been followed-up at our hospital's pediatric hematology department, were evaluated. Out of β-thalassemia major cases included to this study, the 55.3% was male and 44.7% was female. The patients' mean levels of ferritin, whose mean age was 10.0 ± 4.5 years (2-20 years), were 2497 ± 1469 ng/mL (472-8558 ng/mL). At least one endocrinological pathology in 27 out of 47 (57.4%) and more than one endocrinological pathology in 14 out of 47 (29.7%) thalassemia patients were observed. The most frequently observed complication in followed-up cases was vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency (78.2%). The other complications in decreasing order were pubertal failure (41.6%), growth retardation (25.5%), decreased bone-mineral density (22.2%), secondary hyperparathyroidism (11.5%), overt hypothyroidism (4.25%), subclinical hypothyroidism (2.12%), and impaired glucose tolerance (2.12%). There was no statistically significant difference between serum mean ferritin level and endocrin complications (P > .05). Four patients (8.5%) had decreased signal intensity in pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but this finding was not associated with ferritin levels (P = .87). MRI parameters were similar between patients with and without gonadal dysfunction. Mean height of the pituitary gland was 4.98 ± 1.1 mm (3-9 mm) and this was similar to those normal values in the literature. Ferritin levels were not correlated with pituitary height (P > .05). Beta thalassemia major, having the potential of leading to multisystemic complications, is a chronic disease that should be treated and followed-up by a multidisciplinary approach. Due to frequently encountered endocrinological complications, beta thalassemic patients should be followed-up regularly by hematology and endocrinology

  18. Relative growth in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 (Brachyura, Ocypodidae from Garças River mangrove, Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salise Brandt Martins

    Full Text Available A study on the relative growth was carried out in a population of the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis from the mangrove of Garças River, Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, southern Brazil. The dimensions analyzed were the length of the major chela (LMC of males and width of the abdomen (AW of females, because they are related to reproductive activities of waving (males and egg incubation (females. The cheliped handedness in males was also analyzed. The LMC was measured in 480 males, the AW in 566 females, and all crabs had the carapace width (CW measured that was considered as the reference dimension for both sexes. The inflection point in the graphs between each the dimensions and CW was calculated with the aid of the software REGRANS. The CW ranged from 2.33 to 8.33 mm in males and from 1.65 to 7.79 mm in females. The relationship between CW and LMC showed an inflection point at 4.14 mm CW among males, and between CW and AW at 3.52 mm CW among females. The allometric growth was positive for both dimensions throughout the entire ontogeny of both sexes, before and after the puberty. The equations describing the relationship between CW and LMC in males were: logLMC = - 0.695960 + 1.72.logCW for juveniles and logLMC = - 1.212513 + 2.5.logCW for adults. In females, the equations were logAW = - 0.519071 + 1.02.logCW and logAW = - 0.902874 + 1.73.logCW, respectively for juveniles and adults. The population of U. uruguayensis from Guaratuba Bay is composed of the smallest crabs, and it also attains morphological sexual maturity at smallest CW. The frequency of occurrence of right and left handed males was statistically the same (1:1 as in most population of fiddler crabs.

  19. The Prevalence and Distribution of Spina Bifida in a Single Major Referral Center in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adibah Sahmat

    2017-11-01

    UMMC is as according to international statistics which is in the range of 0.5–10 per 1,000 live births. Majority of the reported cases were males, Malays, full term babies, and of the myelomeningocele phenotype located at the lumbar region.

  20. The Prevalence and Distribution of Spina Bifida in a Single Major Referral Center in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmat, Adibah; Gunasekaran, Renuka; Mohd-Zin, Siti W; Balachandran, Lohis; Thong, Meow-Keong; Engkasan, Julia P; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Omar, Zaliha; Azizi, Abu Bakar; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M

    2017-01-01

    international statistics which is in the range of 0.5-10 per 1,000 live births. Majority of the reported cases were males, Malays, full term babies, and of the myelomeningocele phenotype located at the lumbar region.

  1. Comparative analysis of the relative growth of Uca rapax (Smith (Crustacea, Ocypodidae from two mangroves in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Silva Castiglioni

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the relative growth of two populations of Uca rapax (Smith, 1870 was performed primarily to determine the size at onset sexual maturity. The species was sampled monthly in Itamambuca (23º24'43"S and 45º00'73"W and Ubatumirim (23º20'17.8"S and 44º53'2.2"W mangroves. Carapace width (CW and length (CL, abdomen width (AW, major cheliped propodus length (PL and height (PH for each sex, and gonopod length (GL for males were measured with a calliper (0.01 mm. Allometric analyses were used to estimate size at maturity. The relationships that most precisely indicated the size at onset of sexual maturity were AW vs. CW, for females and PL vs. CW, for males. Males and females are mature, respectively at 15.2 and 12.1 mm CW in samples from Itamambuca and 13.5 and 11.2 mm CW in samples from Ubatumirim mangrove. Positive allometric growth of females abdominal width is likely related to the incubation process, while positively allometry growth of male's cheliped almost certainly relates to reproductive behaviour.O estudo do crescimento relativo foi utilizado para determinar quais dimensões evidenciam melhor a maturidade sexual morfológica de Uca rapax (Smith, 1870. Os caranguejos foram coletados mensalmente nos manguezais de Itamambuca (23º24'43"S e 45º00'73"W e Ubatumirim (23º20'17,8"S e 44º53'2,2"W, em período de maré baixa. Os caranguejos de ambos os sexos foram mensurados com um paquímetro (0,01 mm quanto à largura da carapaça (LC, comprimento da carapaça (CC e largura do abdome (LA. Nos machos mensurou-se ainda o comprimento e altura do própodo do quelípodo maior (CPQ e APQ e comprimento do gonopódio (CG e, no caso das fêmeas, comprimento e altura do própodo do quelípodo direito (CPQ e APQ. As análises alométricas foram utilizadas para estimar o tamanho da maturidade sexual morfológica. As relações que melhor evidenciaram o tamanho da maturidade foram LA vs. LC para fêmeas e CPQ vs. LC para machos. Machos e f

  2. Formação de Professores que Ensinam Matemática no Contexto da Cibercultura: Estudo em uma Escola UCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennys Leite Maia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, com o advento das tecnologias digitais, a sociedade tem passado por uma reconfiguração. As relações entre tais tecnologias e a cultura contemporânea é definida como Cibercultura. Nessa perspectiva, este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar de que forma as interações mediadas pelas tecnologias digitais contribuem para o desenvolvimento profissional do professor de Matemática, particularmente sobre o laptop educacional, do Projeto Um Computador por Aluno (UCA. Como método de pesquisa, utilizamos elementos da Pesquisa Colaborativa. A pesquisa foi realizada em uma escola de Ensino Fundamental, participante do Projeto UCA, localizada em Fortaleza-CE.

  3. Ingested microplastics (>100 μm) are translocated to organs of the tropical fiddler crab Uca rapax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, Dennis; Ferreira, Erica C; Costa, Tarso M M; Appel, Daniel; da Gama, Bernardo A P; Lenz, Mark

    2015-07-15

    Microplastics, which are accumulating in marine sediments, are assumed to pose a risk for deposit feeding invertebrates. We tested whether the fiddler crab Uca rapax ingests and retains microplastics in its body. Furthermore, we investigated whether retention rates depend on (a) the quality of the marine environment in which the plastics were pre-weathered and on (b) their abundance. For this, polystyrene pellets were submersed at a polluted and a pristine site near Niterói, Brazil, for 2 weeks. Then specimens of U. rapax were, in laboratory experiments, exposed to fragments (180-250 μm) derived from these pellets for 2 months. After this period, microplastics were observed in the gills, stomach and hepatopancreas of the animals. However, fragment retention was not influenced by the two factors that we manipulated. The presence of microplastics in different organs of the crab supports the assumption that these particles have the potential to harm marine invertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Personality in remitted major depressive disorder with single and recurrent episodes assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Matsuo, Junko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Ishida, Ikki; Nagashima, Anna; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies consistently reported increased harm avoidance (HA) assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, such findings may have been related with depression severity and number of depressive episodes. The aims of the present study were twofold: to examine TCI personality profile in remitted MDD (DSM-IV) patients and to compare TCI personality between MDD patients with single episode (SGL-MDD) and those with recurrent episodes (REC-MDD) in order to elucidate personality profile associated with recurrence. TCI was administered to 86 outpatients with remitted SGL-MDD (12 male and 17 female patients; mean age 43.2 ± 12.1 years) and REC-MDD (26 male and 31 female patients; 40.3 ± 11.6 years), and 529 healthy controls (225 men and 304 women; 43.4 ± 15.5 years), matched for age, sex and education years. Logistic regression analyses were performed in which single/recurrent episodes of depression were the dependent variable and age, sex, age of onset, family history of psychiatric disease and TCI scores were entered as possible predictors. The remitted MDD patients had significantly higher scores on HA (P personality profile between remitted MDD patients and controls, and between remitted REC-MDD and SGL-MDD patients, suggesting that they are trait markers. HA and fatigability might be useful to assess risk for recurrence of depression. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Multi-institutional Experience in Laparoendoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS): For Major Extirpative and Reconstructive Procedures in Pediatric Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Ronak A; Long, Christopher J; Shukla, Aseem R; Kirsch, Andrew J; Perez-Brayfield, Marcos; Srinivasan, Arun K

    2016-02-01

    To review peri-procedural outcomes from a large, multi-institutional series of pediatric urology patients treated with laparaendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for major extirpative and reconstructive procedures. Consecutive LESS cases between January 2011 and May 2014 from three free-standing pediatric referral centers were reviewed. Data include age, sex, operative time, blood loss, length of stay, and complications according to the modified Clavien-Dindo classification. Hasson technique was used for peritoneal entry, GelPOINT advanced access platform was inserted, and standard 5mm laparoscopic instruments were used. Fifty-nine patients (median age 5 years, 4 months-17 years) met inclusion criteria: 29 nephrectomies, 9 nephroureterectomies, 3 bilateral nephrectomies, 5 heminephrectomies, 5 renal cyst decortications, 3 bilateral gonadectomies, 2 Malone antegrade continence enema, 2 calyceal diverticulectomy, and 1 ovarian detorsion with cystectomy. Median operative times for each case type were comparable to published experiences with traditional laparoscopy. Overall mean and median length of stay was 36.2 hours and 1 day, respectively. There were two complications: port site hernia requiring surgical repair (Clavien IIIb) and a superficial port site infection that resolved with antibiotics (Clavien II). Cosmetic outcomes were subjectively well received by patients and their parents. Operative time was significantly shorter between the first half of the experience and the second half (102 vs 70 minutes, P  <  .05). LESS approach can be broadly applied across many major extirpative and reconstructive procedures within pediatric urology. Our series advances our field's utilization of this technique and its safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Laboratory estimate of the regional shortwave refractive index and single scattering albedo of mineral dust from major sources worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, C.; Formenti, P.; Caponi, L.; Cazaunau, M.; Pangui, E.; Journet, E.; Nowak, S.; Caquineau, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Kandler, K.; Saeed, T.; Piketh, S.; Seibert, D.; Williams, E.; Balkanski, Y.; Doussin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most abundant aerosol species in the atmosphere and strongly contributes to the global and regional direct radiative effect. Still large uncertainties persist on the magnitude and overall sign of the dust direct effect, where indeed one of the main unknowns is how much mineral dust absorbs light in the shortwave (SW) spectral range. Aerosol absorption is represented both by the imaginary part (k) of the complex refractive index or the single scattering albedo (SSA, i.e. the ratio of the scattering to extinction coefficient). In this study we present a new dataset of SW complex refractive indices and SSA for mineral dust aerosols obtained from in situ measurements in the 4.2 m3 CESAM simulation chamber at LISA (Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques) in Créteil, France. Investigated dust aerosol samples were issued from major desert sources worldwide, including the African Sahara and Sahel, Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Southern Africa, Australia, and the Americas, with differing iron oxides content. Results from the present study provide a regional mapping of the SW absorption by dust and show that the imaginary part of the refractive index largely varies (by up to a factor 6, 0.003-0.02 at 370 nm and 0.001-0.003 at 950 nm) for the different source areas due to the change in the particle iron oxide content. The SSA for dust varies between 0.75-0.90 at 370 nm and 0.95-0.99 at 950 nm, with the largest absorption observed for Sahelian and Australian dust aerosols. Our range of variability for k and SSA is well bracketed by already published literature estimates, but suggests that regional‒dependent values should be used in models. The possible relationship between k and the dust iron oxides content is investigated with the aim of providing a parameterization of the regional‒dependent dust absorption to include in climate models.

  7. A Cross-Reactive Human Single-Chain Antibody for Detection of Major Fish Allergens, Parvalbumins, and Identification of a Major IgE-Binding Epitope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merima Bublin

    Full Text Available Fish allergy is associated with moderate to severe IgE-mediated reactions to the calcium binding parvalbumins present in fish muscle. Allergy to multiple fish species is caused by parvalbumin-specific cross-reactive IgE recognizing conserved epitopes. In this study, we aimed to produce cross-reactive single chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies for the detection of parvalbumins in fish extracts and the identification of IgE epitopes. Parvalbumin-specific phage clones were isolated from the human ETH-2 phage display library by three rounds of biopanning either against cod parvalbumin or by sequential biopanning against cod (Gad m 1, carp (Cyp c 1 and rainbow trout (Onc m 1 parvalbumins. While biopanning against Gad m 1 resulted in the selection of clones specific exclusively for Gad m 1, the second approach resulted in the selection of clones cross-reacting with all three parvalbumins. Two clones, scFv-gco9 recognizing all three parvalbumins, and scFv-goo8 recognizing only Gad m 1 were expressed in the E. coli non-suppressor strain HB2151 and purified from the periplasm. scFv-gco9 showed highly selective binding to parvalbumins in processed fish products such as breaded cod sticks, fried carp and smoked trout in Western blots. In addition, the scFv-gco9-AP produced as alkaline phosphatase fusion protein, allowed a single-step detection of the parvalbumins. In competitive ELISA, scFv-gco9 was able to inhibit binding of IgE from fish allergic patients' sera to all three β-parvalbumins by up to 80%, whereas inhibition by scFv-goo8 was up to 20%. 1H/15N HSQC NMR analysis of the rGad m 1:scFv-gco9 complex showed participation of amino acid residues conserved among these three parvalbumins explaining their cross-reactivity on a molecular level. In this study, we have demonstrated an approach for the selection of cross-reactive parvalbumin-specific antibodies that can be used for allergen detection and for mapping of conserved epitopes.

  8. A Cross-Reactive Human Single-Chain Antibody for Detection of Major Fish Allergens, Parvalbumins, and Identification of a Major IgE-Binding Epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublin, Merima; Kostadinova, Maria; Fuchs, Julian E; Ackerbauer, Daniela; Moraes, Adolfo H; Almeida, Fabio C L; Lengger, Nina; Hafner, Christine; Ebner, Christof; Radauer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R; Valente, Ana Paula; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Fish allergy is associated with moderate to severe IgE-mediated reactions to the calcium binding parvalbumins present in fish muscle. Allergy to multiple fish species is caused by parvalbumin-specific cross-reactive IgE recognizing conserved epitopes. In this study, we aimed to produce cross-reactive single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies for the detection of parvalbumins in fish extracts and the identification of IgE epitopes. Parvalbumin-specific phage clones were isolated from the human ETH-2 phage display library by three rounds of biopanning either against cod parvalbumin or by sequential biopanning against cod (Gad m 1), carp (Cyp c 1) and rainbow trout (Onc m 1) parvalbumins. While biopanning against Gad m 1 resulted in the selection of clones specific exclusively for Gad m 1, the second approach resulted in the selection of clones cross-reacting with all three parvalbumins. Two clones, scFv-gco9 recognizing all three parvalbumins, and scFv-goo8 recognizing only Gad m 1 were expressed in the E. coli non-suppressor strain HB2151 and purified from the periplasm. scFv-gco9 showed highly selective binding to parvalbumins in processed fish products such as breaded cod sticks, fried carp and smoked trout in Western blots. In addition, the scFv-gco9-AP produced as alkaline phosphatase fusion protein, allowed a single-step detection of the parvalbumins. In competitive ELISA, scFv-gco9 was able to inhibit binding of IgE from fish allergic patients' sera to all three β-parvalbumins by up to 80%, whereas inhibition by scFv-goo8 was up to 20%. 1H/15N HSQC NMR analysis of the rGad m 1:scFv-gco9 complex showed participation of amino acid residues conserved among these three parvalbumins explaining their cross-reactivity on a molecular level. In this study, we have demonstrated an approach for the selection of cross-reactive parvalbumin-specific antibodies that can be used for allergen detection and for mapping of conserved epitopes.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Single-Ascending Doses of Desvenlafaxine Administered to Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L; Groark, James; Tourian, Karen A; Ramaker, Sara A; Chiles, Deborah; Yang, Lingfeng; Nichols, Alice I

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of ascending doses of desvenlafaxine in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. Assessment of the effect of desvenlafaxine on depression symptoms was exploratory. The 8-week, open-label study included an initial 3.5-day inpatient period followed by a 7.5-week outpatient period. Children (7-11 years) received a single desvenlafaxine dose of 10, 25, 50, or 100 mg on day 1; adolescents (12-17 years) received desvenlafaxine 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/day. Plasma and urine samples were collected over the initial 72-hour inpatient period. Evaluations included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), physical examinations (including Tanner Staging), vital signs, laboratory assessments, 12-lead electrocardiogram, Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, and the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R). In all, 29 children and 30 adolescents took at least one dose of desvenlafaxine and were included in the safety population (children: 10 mg, n = 6; 25 mg, n = 7; 50 mg, n = 9; 100 mg, n = 7; adolescents: 25 mg, n = 7; 50 mg, n = 7; 100 mg, n = 8; 200 mg, n = 8). Total area under the drug concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC) appeared to increase linearly with increasing dose. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) AUC ranged from 628 (346) ng/mL (desvenlafaxine 10 mg) to 6732 (3031) ng/mL (100 mg) in children and from 1123 (361) ng/mL (25 mg) to 11,730 (3113) ng/mL (200 mg) in adolescents. During the combined inpatient and outpatient period, 16/29 (55%) children and 21/30 (70%) adolescents reported at least one TEAE. One serious adverse event (suicidal behavior) was reported. Mean (SD) change from baseline in CDRS-R total scores at week 8 was -19.00 (9.87) for children and -21.57 (11.50) for adolescents. Desvenlafaxine AUC values increased linearly with dose; body weight alone provided an adequate prediction for dose-normalized AUC

  10. Estrutura populacional de Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná Population structure of Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae from the tidal flat of Baixio Mirim, Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Di Benedetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre a flutuação anual da abundância, composição de tamanho dos indivíduos, proporção de sexos, período reprodutivo e de recrutamento dos juvenis de uma população de Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 foi realizado no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Os animais foram coletados mensalmente, de fevereiro/2005 a janeiro/2006, durante as marés baixas de sizígia, e a sua largura da carapaça (LC medida. A temperatura pontual do ar variou de 17 a 29ºC, a luminosidade de 8.740 a 151.300 lux, a salinidade de 8 a 25 e a temperatura do solo (superfície, 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm e 20 cm de profundidade de 18,3 a 28,9ºC. Foram analisados 7.120 indivíduos, dos quais, 2.578 juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2.377 machos e 2.165 fêmeas. A abundância da população variou de 341 (abril a 994 indivíduos (janeiro, mas a sua flutuação anual não esteve relacionada com a das variáveis abióticas estudadas. A proporção de sexos foi de 1:1 e a reprodução da espécie é do tipo contínuo, com dois picos de intensidade: um em abril e outro em novembro. O recrutamento de juvenis, também, é contínuo com dois períodos mais intensos no ano, um em julho e outro em dezembro-janeiro. A LC da população variou de 1,14 a 2,62 mm para juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2,58 a 17,83 mm para machos juvenis, 2,60 a 11,72 mm para fêmeas juvenis, 17,85 a 35,81 mm para machos maduros e 11,75 a 31,76 mm para fêmeas maduras. Os machos atingem tamanhos maiores do que as fêmeas.A study about the annual fluctuation of the abundance, size composition, sexual proportion, reproductive period and juvenile recruitment of the fiddler crab Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 was carried out in a population living in a tidal flat at Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Crabs were obtained from February 2005 to January 2006, during low spring tides, in monthly collections, and their carapace width was measured

  11. DARPA/USAF/USN J-UCAS X-45A System Demonstration Program: A Review of Flight Test Site Processes and Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Unmanned Combat Air Systems (J-UCAS) program is a collaborative effort between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), the US Air Force (USAF) and the US Navy (USN). Together they have reviewed X-45A flight test site processes and personnel as part of a system demonstration program for the UCAV-ATD Flight Test Program. The goal was to provide a disciplined controlled process for system integration and testing and demonstration flight tests. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) acted as the project manager during this effort and was tasked with the responsibilities of range and ground safety, the provision of flight test support and infrastructure and the monitoring of technical and engineering tasks. DFRC also contributed their engineering knowledge through their contributions in the areas of autonomous ground taxi control development, structural dynamics testing and analysis and the provision of other flight test support including telemetry data, tracking radars, and communications and control support equipment. The Air Force Flight Test Center acted at the Deputy Project Manager in this effort and was responsible for the provision of system safety support and airfield management and air traffic control services, among other supporting roles. The T-33 served as a J-UCAS surrogate aircraft and demonstrated flight characteristics similar to that of the the X-45A. The surrogate served as a significant risk reduction resource providing mission planning verification, range safety mission assessment and team training, among other contributions.

  12. Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Patients with β-Thalassemia Major: A Single Center Study from Southern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Skeletal complications in β-homozygous thalassemic patients are uncommon but often debilitating, even amongst children and adolescent patients with well maintained transfusion and chelation therapy. The aim is to evaluate the biochemical markers of bone turnover in regularly transfused thalassemic patients and its possible correlations with demographic data and hematological and biochemical markers. Methods. In this prospective cross-sectional study, 36 β-thalassemia major patients were enrolled from March 2012 to March 2014. All patients underwent complete blood counts, LFTs, serum ferritin, serum calcium, phosphorus, serum albumin, alkaline phosphatase, 25-OH vitamin D, and parathormone (PTH levels. Results. There were 17 males and 19 females with mean age of 12.56 ± 5.9 years. Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia were seen in 66.6% and 19.4%, respectively, while 25-OH vitamin D deficiency was present in 72.2% of thalassemic children and adolescents. Hypoparathyroidism was seen in 13.8% while hyperparathyroidism was detected in 8.3% of patients. There was direct correlation between serum phosphorus and ferritin levels (P0.05. Conclusions. Biochemical profile is significantly altered in patients with β-thalassemia major and bone associated biochemical abnormalities like hypocalcaemia, 25-OH vitamin D deficiency, and hypophosphatemia are not uncommon in Pakistani patients with thalassemia major.

  13. Benefit of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in major burns after stun grenade explosion: Experience from a single military medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Shun; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Chen, Cheng-Jung; Chen, Jia-Lin; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2017-05-01

    Explosion injury is very common on the battlefield and is associated with major burn and inhalation injuries and subsequent high mortality and morbidity rates. Here we report six victims who suffered from explosion injuries caused by stun grenade; all were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as salvage therapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the indications and efficacy of ECMO in acute and critically ill major burn patients. This was a retrospective analysis of six patients from Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center in Taiwan. All suffered from major burns with 89.0±19.1% average of total body surface area over second degree (TBSA; range, 50-99%). ECMO was used due to inhalation injury in five patients and cardiogenic shock in one patient. The average interval to start ECMO was 26.5±19.0h (range, 14-63h). Venoarterial ECMO was used on in four patients due to unstable hemodynamic status, whereas venovenous ECMO was used in two patients for sustained hypoxemia. All patients had rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure. The average duration of ECMO was 169.6±180.9h (range, 27-401h). All patients developed coagulopathy and needed debridement surgery during ECMO support, and five underwent torso escharotomy due to inspiratory compromise. Only one patient whose second and third degree burns covered 50% TBSA was successfully weaned from ECMO and survived; he was discharged after 221 hospital days. All patients who died had second and third degree burns covering over 90% of their TBSA. Three patients died of multiple organ failure, one died of septic shock, and the other died of cardiogenic shock. Overall survival rate was 16.7%. In acute and critically ill major burn patients, ECMO could be considered as a salvage therapy, particularly in those with inhalation injury and burn-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, ECMO does not seem to provide benefits for circulatory support in those with hemodynamic

  14. Microsatellite and mitochondrial data provide evidence for a single major introduction for the Neartic leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus in Europe.

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    Daciana Papura

    Full Text Available Scaphoideus titanus, a leafhopper native to North America and invasive in Europe, is the vector of the Flavescence dorée phytoplasma, the causal agent of the most important form of grapevine yellows in European vineyards. We studied 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a 623 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene in native S. titanus from north-eastern America and introduced European populations, to elucidate the colonization scenario. Consistent with their recent history, invasive European populations were less genetically diverse than American populations for both types of markers, suggesting a recent bottleneck. Significant isolation by distance was detected between American populations but not between European populations. None of the European mitochondrial haplotypes was found in the American vineyards, from which they are assumed to have originated. The precise source of the invasive S. titanus populations therefore remains unclear. Nevertheless, the high heterozygosity of North-East American populations (which contained 92% of the observed alleles suggests that this region is part of the native range of S. titanus. Clustering population genetics analyses with microsatellite and mitochondrial data suggested that European populations originated from a single introduction event. Most of the introduced populations clustered with populations from Long Island, the Atlantic Coast winegrowing region in which Vitis aestivalis occurs.

  15. Single Breath-Hold Physiotherapy Technique; Effective tool for T2* magnetic resonance imaging in young patients with thalassaemia major

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    Surekha T. Mevada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging using T2* (MRI T2* is a highly sensitive and non-invasive technique for the detection of tissue iron load. Although the single breath-hold multi-echo T2* technique has been available at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH, Muscat, Oman, since 2006, it could not be performed on younger patients due to their inability to hold their breath after expiration. This study was carried out between May 2007 and May 2015 and assessed 50 SQUH thalassaemic patients aged 7‒17 years old. Seven of these patients underwent baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans before receiving physiotherapy training. Subsequently, all patients were trained by a physiotherapist to hold their breath for approximately 15‒20 seconds at the end of expiration before undergoing baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans. Failure rates for the pre- and post-training groups were 6.0% and 42.8%, respectively. These results indicate that the training of thalassaemic patients in breathhold techniques is beneficial and increases rates of compliance for MRI T2* scans.

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies a single major locus contributing to survival into old age; the APOE locus revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deelen, Joris; Beekman, Marian; Uh, Hae-Won

    2011-01-01

    (LLS) and 1670 younger population controls. The strongest candidate SNPs from this GWAS have been analyzed in a meta-analysis of nonagenarian cases from the Rotterdam Study, Leiden 85-plus study and Danish 1905 cohort. Only one of the 62 prioritized SNPs from the GWAS analysis (P ... genome-wide significance with survival into old age in the meta-analysis of 4149 nonagenarian cases and 7582 younger controls (OR = 0.71 (95% CI 0.65-0.77), P = 3.39 x 10(-17) ). This SNP, rs2075650, is located in TOMM40 at chromosome 19q13.32 close to the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene. Although...... of the nonagenarian cases from the LLS and their partners. In addition, we observed a novel association between this locus and serum levels of IGF-1 in females (P = 0.005). In conclusion, the major locus determining familial longevity up to high age as detected by GWAS was marked by rs2075650, which tags...

  17. Prevalence of hepatitis C infection among children with β-thalassaemia major in Mid Delta, Egypt: a single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shanshory, Mohamed R; Kabbash, Ibrahim A; Soliman, Hanan H; Nagy, Hala M; Abdou, Said H

    2013-04-01

    Transfusion dependant patients are at a higher risk of acquiring bloodborne infections even under conditions of safe transfusion. This study was designed to determine sero-prevalence of hepatitis C infection and possible associated risk factors in thalassaemic children. One hundred and twenty five children with β thalassaemia major (β-TM) were recruited from the Haematology/Oncology Unit, Paediatric Department, Tanta University Hospital, Egypt, between April 2010 and October 2011. Patients underwent history taking, full clinical examination, routine investigations and venous blood sampling. Serum was stored at -20°C till tested for hepatitis C (HCV Ab) and B (HBsAg) by ELISA. HCV Ab positive cases were confirmed by PCR. All patients were HBsAg negative. HCV Ab ELISA was positive in 76%, negative in 20% and equivocal in 4%. Fifty patients (40%) had positive PCR for HCV. PCR showed low viraemia in 78%, moderate viraemia in 20% and high viraemia in 2%. A positive family history of HCV, history of minor operative intervention and/or dental procedures were significantly associated with higher frequency of HCV infection in thalassaemic children, while amount and frequency of transfused blood, age at transfusion and chelation state were not. HCV infection is highly prevalent in children with β-TM in Egypt despite strict pre-transfusion blood testing. This should arouse the attention for environmental and community acquired factors. Quality management to insure infection control in minor operative procedures and adding more sensitive tests for blood screening are recommended.

  18. A single mutation in the GSTe2 gene allows tracking of metabolically based insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron, Jacob M; Yunta, Cristina; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Irving, Helen; Menze, Benjamin D; Ismail, Hanafy M; Hemingway, Janet; Ranson, Hilary; Albert, Armando; Wondji, Charles S

    2014-02-25

    Metabolic resistance to insecticides is the biggest threat to the continued effectiveness of malaria vector control. However, its underlying molecular basis, crucial for successful resistance management, remains poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the single amino acid change L119F in an upregulated glutathione S-transferase gene, GSTe2, confers high levels of metabolic resistance to DDT in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Genome-wide transcription analysis revealed that GSTe2 was the most over-expressed detoxification gene in DDT and permethrin-resistant mosquitoes from Benin. Transgenic expression of GSTe2 in Drosophila melanogaster demonstrated that over-transcription of this gene alone confers DDT resistance and cross-resistance to pyrethroids. Analysis of GSTe2 polymorphism established that the point mutation is tightly associated with metabolic resistance to DDT and its geographical distribution strongly correlates with DDT resistance patterns across Africa. Functional characterization of recombinant GSTe2 further supports the role of the L119F mutation, with the resistant allele being more efficient at metabolizing DDT than the susceptible one. Importantly, we also show that GSTe2 directly metabolizes the pyrethroid permethrin. Structural analysis reveals that the mutation confers resistance by enlarging the GSTe2 DDT-binding cavity, leading to increased DDT access and metabolism. Furthermore, we show that GSTe2 is under strong directional selection in resistant populations, and a restriction of gene flow is observed between African regions, enabling the prediction of the future spread of this resistance. This first DNA-based metabolic resistance marker in mosquitoes provides an essential tool to track the evolution of resistance and to design suitable resistance management strategies.

  19. A single mutation in the GSTe2 gene allows tracking of metabolically based insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic resistance to insecticides is the biggest threat to the continued effectiveness of malaria vector control. However, its underlying molecular basis, crucial for successful resistance management, remains poorly characterized. Results Here, we demonstrate that the single amino acid change L119F in an upregulated glutathione S-transferase gene, GSTe2, confers high levels of metabolic resistance to DDT in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Genome-wide transcription analysis revealed that GSTe2 was the most over-expressed detoxification gene in DDT and permethrin-resistant mosquitoes from Benin. Transgenic expression of GSTe2 in Drosophila melanogaster demonstrated that over-transcription of this gene alone confers DDT resistance and cross-resistance to pyrethroids. Analysis of GSTe2 polymorphism established that the point mutation is tightly associated with metabolic resistance to DDT and its geographical distribution strongly correlates with DDT resistance patterns across Africa. Functional characterization of recombinant GSTe2 further supports the role of the L119F mutation, with the resistant allele being more efficient at metabolizing DDT than the susceptible one. Importantly, we also show that GSTe2 directly metabolizes the pyrethroid permethrin. Structural analysis reveals that the mutation confers resistance by enlarging the GSTe2 DDT-binding cavity, leading to increased DDT access and metabolism. Furthermore, we show that GSTe2 is under strong directional selection in resistant populations, and a restriction of gene flow is observed between African regions, enabling the prediction of the future spread of this resistance. Conclusions This first DNA-based metabolic resistance marker in mosquitoes provides an essential tool to track the evolution of resistance and to design suitable resistance management strategies. PMID:24565444

  20. Transcriptomes of major renal collecting duct cell types in mouse identified by single-cell RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihe; Lee, Jae Wook; Chou, Chung-Lin; Nair, Anil V; Battistone, Maria A; Păunescu, Teodor G; Merkulova, Maria; Breton, Sylvie; Verlander, Jill W; Wall, Susan M; Brown, Dennis; Burg, Maurice B; Knepper, Mark A

    2017-11-14

    Prior RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) studies have identified complete transcriptomes for most renal epithelial cell types. The exceptions are the cell types that make up the renal collecting duct, namely intercalated cells (ICs) and principal cells (PCs), which account for only a small fraction of the kidney mass, but play critical physiological roles in the regulation of blood pressure, extracellular fluid volume, and extracellular fluid composition. To enrich these cell types, we used FACS that employed well-established lectin cell surface markers for PCs and type B ICs, as well as a newly identified cell surface marker for type A ICs, c-Kit. Single-cell RNA-seq using the IC- and PC-enriched populations as input enabled identification of complete transcriptomes of A-ICs, B-ICs, and PCs. The data were used to create a freely accessible online gene-expression database for collecting duct cells. This database allowed identification of genes that are selectively expressed in each cell type, including cell-surface receptors, transcription factors, transporters, and secreted proteins. The analysis also identified a small fraction of hybrid cells expressing aquaporin-2 and anion exchanger 1 or pendrin transcripts. In many cases, mRNAs for receptors and their ligands were identified in different cells (e.g., Notch2 chiefly in PCs vs. Jag1 chiefly in ICs), suggesting signaling cross-talk among the three cell types. The identified patterns of gene expression among the three types of collecting duct cells provide a foundation for understanding physiological regulation and pathophysiology in the renal collecting duct.

  1. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in major and candidate genes for production traits in Nero Siciliano pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zumbo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nero Siciliano (NS; Sicilian Black is a local pig breed reared on the island of Sicily mainly under extensive management.The breed is well adapted to marginal conditions and is appreciated for its reproductive performance, disease resistanceand production of tasty meat. For a genetic characterization of this breed we analyzed the allele frequencies of singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in eight major or candidate genes (ryanodine receptor 1, RYR1; Na+, K+ ATPase subunitα 2, ATP1A2; myosin heavy chain 2B, MYH4; sarcolipin, SLN; cathepsin B, CTSB; cystatin B, CSTB; estrogen receptor,ESR; melanocortin receptor 1, MC1R for performance and phenotypic traits. The animals that were sampled andanalyzed represent about 6-8% of the total NS pig population. PCR-RFLP or PCR-SSCP techniques were used to type theDNA markers in the selected loci. Exact test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was computed for each locus, Fis statisticsand heterozygosity were calculated for each locus and over all loci. Allele frequencies obtained in NS breed were comparedto the frequencies already available in literature for the Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Belgian Landrace, Piétrain,Hampshire and Meishan breeds. For the ESR locus, as no information on the distribution of the two alleles were available,we typed a sample of unrelated pigs from the considered breeds.Even if only eight loci were studied in NS breed, important elements were obtained from the data. The 1843T (n alleleat the RYR1 locus is present in NS breed, thus the molecular test to identify the carriers of this allele should be adoptedto avoid its spreading in the population. Moreover, other studies are needed to clarify the allelic structure of the MC1Rgene, which affects coat color, in order to evaluate if this gene could be used in genetic tests for the traceability of themeat products of this breed. Finally, the present work represents an attempt to evaluate data on mutations within majorand candidate genes

  2. The number of cores taken in patients diagnosed with a single microfocus at initial biopsy is a major predictor of insignificant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Luca; Capitanio, Umberto; Briganti, Alberto; Abdollah, Firas; Suardi, Nazareno; Salonia, Andrea; Gallina, Andrea; Freschi, Massimo; Russo, Andrea; Castiglione, Fabio; Bianchi, Marco; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco; Scattoni, Vincenzo

    2013-03-01

    Patients with a single microfocus of prostate cancer at initial biopsy represent the ideal candidates for active surveillance. We investigate whether the number of cores taken affects the concordance rate between microfocus of prostate cancer and the confirmation of a pathologically insignificant prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. Data were analyzed from 233 patients with a single microfocus of prostate cancer at initial transrectal prostate biopsy (a single focus of Gleason 6 involving 5% or less of the core) subsequently treated with radical prostatectomy. The chi-square test, cubic spline analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to depict the relationship between the number of cores taken and the probability of confirming the presence of an indolent disease (pathologically confirmed insignificant prostate cancer defined as radical prostatectomy Gleason score 6 or less, tumor volume 0.5 ml or less and organ confined disease). Overall 65 patients (27.9%) showed pathologically confirmed insignificant prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. The rate of pathologically confirmed insignificant prostate cancer was 3.8%, 29.6% and 39.4% in patients who underwent biopsy of 12 or fewer cores, 13 to 18 cores and 19 or more cores, respectively (p number of cores taken (p cancer. Of patients diagnosed with a single microfocus of prostate cancer the number of biopsy cores taken was a major independent predictor of having pathologically confirmed insignificant prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. Therefore, when active surveillance is considered as a possible alternative in patients with microfocus of prostate cancer, the number of cores taken should be taken into account in decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fecundity of Uca uruguayensis and Chasmagnathus granulatus (Decapoda, Brachyura from the "Refugio de Vida Silvestre" Bahía Samborombón, Argentina

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    II. César

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work conducted at the Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón is to analyse the most relevant aspects of the fecundity of Chasmagnathus granulatus and Uca uruguayensis. Samplings were carried out from March 2001 to February 2003. Ovigerous females of U. uruguayensis (N = 13 and C. granulatus (N = 25 were found during spring and summer, their sizes (CW varied from 9.1 to 11.7 µm for the former species and from 22.8 to 32.4 mm for the latter. The egg diameter in U. uruguayensis ranged from 245 to 260 µm for embryos in the early stage of development and from 250 to 345 µm for those in mid-developmental stage, while in C. granulatus from 250t o 345 µm and from 260 to 365 µm respectively. Fecundity varied from 1126 to 6745 eggs/brood in U. uruguayensis and 15688-57418 eggs/brood in C. granulatus. For those females with broods in mid-developmental stage, several relationships were made. For U. uruguayensis the best correlation coefficients were obtained for the relationships: female weight vs. egg mass weight and carapace width vs. egg mass weight; for C. granulatus the best association was obtained between female size and the egg number and the egg mass weight.

  4. Early relapse after single auto-SCT for multiple myeloma is a major predictor of survival in the era of novel agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Zepeda, V H; Reece, D E; Trudel, S; Chen, C; Tiedemann, R; Kukreti, V

    2015-02-01

    The role of auto-SCT in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) in the era of novel agents continues to evolve. It is now clear that the depth of response and clinical outcomes have significantly improved as a result of the combination of these strategies. However, not all patients with MM who undergo auto-SCT are able to sustain a meaningful response and 20% of patients relapse shortly after auto-SCT. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of early relapse (ER) after auto-SCT on OS for MM patients undergoing single auto-SCT who had received novel agent-based induction regimens. All consecutive patients with MM undergoing single auto-SCT from January 2002 to September 2012 who had novel induction therapy were evaluated. A total of 184 patients were identified. The median OS and PFS for the group of transplanted patients were 93 and 25.4 months, respectively. Median time to relapse was 17.2 months with 40% having relapsed at the time of analysis. ER (SCT) was seen in 27 (36%) out of 75 patients who had relapsed, and median OS was significantly shorter than in those with non-ER. Multivariate analysis showed ER as the major independent prognostic factor for OS. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that not only attainment of a good response, but sustainability of it, appears to be a major prognostic variable in MM in the era of novel therapy. Patients with ER post auto-SCT should biologically be characterized in prospective studies to better understand the mechanisms of resistance associated with this particular entity.

  5. Assessment of changes in regional cerebral blood flow in patients with major depression using the 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission tomography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, K.; Kapucu, Oe.; Erbas, B.; Varoglu, E.; Guelec, C.; Bekdik, C.F.; Hacettepe Univ., Ankara

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was investigated in 14 patients with major depression diagnosed according to the DSM-III-R criteria (six patients with single and eight patients with recurrent episodes) and in ten healthy volunteers. The mean ages of the patients and the controls were 33.5±2.7 and 31.6±2.6 years, respectively. The severity of the depression was assessed using the 17-item Hamiltonian Depression Scale (mean: 23.2±1.5). None of the patients was under medication. After administration of 500 MBq technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime, a single photon emission tomography study was performed and then transaxial, sagittal and coronal slices were obtained. For the semiquantitative analysis of the data, the ratios of the mean counts/pixel to the whole slice were calculated for 24 regions on three consecutive transaxial slices in the orbitomeatal plane. Additionally, left/right and frontal/occipital ratios were calculated. Both sides of the temporal region had a significantly decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) when compared to the controls. The left/right ratio of the prefrontal region was also significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. The Hamilton score had a negative correlation with blood flow in the anterofrontal and left prefrontal regions. According to our results, regional CBF seems to be decreased in the left prefrontal and in both temporal regions in major depression. The severity of depression is correlated with the reduction in CBF in the regions of the anterofrontal and left prefrontal cortex. (orig.)

  6. A single-component multidrug transporter of the major facilitator superfamily is part of a network that protects Escherichia coli from bile salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Stephanie; Alegre, Kamela O; Holdsworth, Scarlett R; Rice, Matthew; Brown, James A; McVeigh, Paul; Kelly, Sharon M; Law, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to high concentrations of bile salts in the human intestinal tract is vital for the survival of enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Although the tripartite AcrAB-TolC efflux system plays a significant role in this resistance, it is purported that other efflux pumps must also be involved. We provide evidence from a comprehensive suite of experiments performed at two different pH values (7.2 and 6.0) that reflect pH conditions that E. coli may encounter in human gut that MdtM, a single-component multidrug resistance transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, functions in bile salt resistance in E. coli by catalysing secondary active transport of bile salts out of the cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, assays performed on a chromosomal ΔacrB mutant transformed with multicopy plasmid encoding MdtM suggested a functional synergism between the single-component MdtM transporter and the tripartite AcrAB-TolC system that results in a multiplicative effect on resistance. Substrate binding experiments performed on purified MdtM demonstrated that the transporter binds to cholate and deoxycholate with micromolar affinity, and transport assays performed on inverted vesicles confirmed the capacity of MdtM to catalyse electrogenic bile salt/H(+) antiport. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Three-Year Major Clinical Outcomes of Angiography-Guided Single Stenting Technique in Non-Complex Left Main Coronary Artery Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Her, Ae-Young; Rha, Seung-Woon; Choi, Byoung Geol; Shim, Minsuk; Choi, Se Yeon; Byun, Jae Kyeong; Li, Hu; Kim, Woohyeun; Kang, Jun Hyuk; Choi, Jah Yeon; Park, Eun Jin; Park, Sung Hun; Lee, Sunki; Na, Jin Oh; Choi, Cheol Ung; Lim, Hong Euy; Kim, Eung Ju; Park, Chang Gyu; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo

    2017-10-12

    There is limited long-term comparative clinical outcome data concerning angiography- versus intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in non-complex left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease treated with the single stenting technique in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era.The aim of this study was to investigate whether angiography-guided stenting is comparable to IVUS-guided stenting during 3-year clinical follow-up periods in patients with non-complex LM disease treated with the single stenting technique.A total of 196 patients treated with either angiography-guided (n = 74) or IVUS-guided (n = 122) PCI were included. The primary outcome was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as total death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and non-target vessel revascularization (Non-TVR). To adjust for any potential confounders, propensity score (PS) adjusted analysis was performed.During 3-year follow-up, the PS adjusted Cox-proportional hazard ratio (HR) was not significantly different between the two groups for total death, cardiac death, and MI. Also, TLR and the combined rates of TVR and non-TVR were not significantly different. Finally, MACE was not significantly different between the two groups (HR: 0.63, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.33-1.17; P = 0.149).Angiography-guided PCI for non-complex LMCA diseases treated with the single stenting technique showed comparable results compared with IVUS-guided PCI in reducing clinical events during 3-year clinical follow-up in the DES era. Although IVUS guided PCI is the ideal strategy, angiography-guided PCI can be an option for LMCA PCI in some selected cases.

  8. Association of a specific major histocompatibility complex class IIβ single nucleotide polymorphism with resistance to lactococcosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, S; Prearo, M; Bertuzzi, S A; Scanzio, T; Peletto, S; Favaro, L; Modesto, P; Maniaci, M G; Ru, G; Desiato, R; Acutis, P L

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci encode glycoproteins that bind to foreign peptides and initiate immune responses through their interaction with T cells. MHC class II molecules are heterodimers consisting of α and β chains encoded by extremely variable genes; variation in exon 2 is responsible for the majority of observed polymorphisms, mostly concentrated in the codons specifying the peptide-binding region. Lactococcus garvieae is the causative agent of lactococcosis, a warm-water bacterial infection pathogenic for cultured freshwater and marine fish. It causes considerable economic losses, limiting the profitability and development of fish industries in general and the intensive production of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in particular. The disease is currently controlled with vaccines and antibiotics; however, vaccines have short-term efficacy, and increasing concerns regarding antibiotic residues have called for alternative strategies. To explore the involvement of the MHC class II β-1 domain as a candidate gene for resistance to lactococcosis, we exposed 400 rainbow trout to naturally contaminated water. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and one haplotype were associated with resistance (P trout resistant to lactococcosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Single i.v. ketamine augmentation of newly initiated escitalopram for major depression: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled 4-week study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y-D; Xiang, Y-T; Fang, J-X; Zu, S; Sha, S; Shi, H; Ungvari, G S; Correll, C U; Chiu, H F K; Xue, Y; Tian, T-F; Wu, A-S; Ma, X; Wang, G

    2016-02-01

    While oral antidepressants reach efficacy after weeks, single-dose intravenous (i.v.) ketamine has rapid, yet time-limited antidepressant effects. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram in major depressive disorder (MDD). Thirty outpatients with severe MDD (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score ⩾ 24) were randomized to 4 weeks double-blind treatment with escitalopram 10 mg/day+single-dose i.v. ketamine (0.5 mg/kg over 40 min) or escitalopram 10 mg/day + placebo (0.9% i.v. saline). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report (QIDS-SR). Suicidal ideation was evaluated with the QIDS-SR item 12. Adverse psychopathological effects were measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)-positive symptoms, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS). Patients were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 4, 24 and 72 h and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Time to response (⩾ 50% MADRS score reduction) was the primary outcome. By 4 weeks, more escitalopram + ketamine-treated than escitalopram + placebo-treated patients responded (92.3% v. 57.1%, p = 0.04) and remitted (76.9% v. 14.3%, p = 0.001), with significantly shorter time to response [hazard ratio (HR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.22, p escitalopram + placebo, escitalopram + ketamine was associated with significantly lower MADRS scores from 2 h to 2 weeks [(peak = 3 days-2 weeks; effect size (ES) = 1.08-1.18)], QIDS-SR scores from 2 h to 2 weeks (maximum ES = 1.27), and QIDS-SR suicidality from 2 to 72 h (maximum ES = 2.24). Only YMRS scores increased significantly with ketamine augmentation (1 and 2 h), without significant BPRS or CADSS elevation. Single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram was safe and effective in severe MDD, holding promise for speeding up

  10. The single and synergistic effects of the major tea components caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and L-theanine on rat sperm viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Casal, Susana; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and L-theanine are the major components of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and the main representatives of the classes of methylxanthines, catechins and free amino acids present in this beverage. There are many studies reporting tea's health benefits, however it is not clear if those effects are mediated by a single component or a synergistic action. This study aimed to evaluate the individual and synergistic effects of tea's major components on rat epididymal spermatozoa survival and oxidative profile during 3-day storage at room temperature (RT). For that, spermatozoa were incubated with caffeine (71 μg mL(-1)), EGCG (82 μg mL(-1)), or L-theanine (19 μg mL(-1)), alone or in combination. Spermatozoa viability was assessed by the eosin-nigrosin staining technique. The oxidative profile was established by evaluating the levels of carbonyl groups, protein nitration and lipid peroxidation. Supplementation of sperm storage medium with the three compounds together improved sperm viability, after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, relative to the control and the groups incubated with each component individually. However, at the end of the 72 h of incubation, there was an increase in protein oxidation in the group exposed to the three compounds, illustrating that the combined treatment triggers different alterations in sperm proteins during their maturational process in the epididymis. This study highlights the importance of the synergism between tea components for the beneficial effects usually attributed to this beverage, particularly in sperm storage at RT.

  11. Temporal distribution in the abundance of the fiddler crab Uca (Leptuca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 (Decapoda: Ocypodidae from Garças River mangrove, Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salise Brandt Martins

    Full Text Available A study on the temporal distribution, sex ratio, reproductive period, recruitment of juveniles and size composition of individuals of the fiddler crab Uca (Leptuca uruguayensis was carried out in a population living in the Garças River mangrove, Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil. Eight square samples of 0.25 m² (0.50 m side were obtained on a monthly basis, from April/2011 to March/2012. The crabs were collected through the excavation of burrows and their carapace width (CW was measured. Air and water temperatures varied from 19.0 to 29.5ºC and 17.0 to 27.0ºC, respectively, the salinity from 7 to 23 and the soil temperature from 19.0 to 29.2ºC. A total of 1,099 fiddler crabs were collected, being 529 males, 520 females (of these, 9 ovigerous and 50 sexually undifferentiated individuals. The average density of the population ranged from 12 (June/11 to 71 ind.m-² (May/11, but its annual fluctuation was not correlated to abiotic variables. The sex ratio was 1:1 all year round and in all CW classes. Although in low abundance, ovigerous females were recorded in six months and juvenile crabs were present all year round, indicating a continuous reproduction and recruitment of the species. The CW of males ranged from 2.33 to 8.33 mm and that of females, from 2.52 to 7.79 mm: these data showed that this population is composed of smallest individuals among those studied

  12. A Single CRISPR-Cas9 Deletion Strategy that Targets the Majority of DMD Patients Restores Dystrophin Function in hiPSC-Derived Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Courtney S; Hicks, Michael R; Ermolova, Natalia V; Nakano, Haruko; Jan, Majib; Younesi, Shahab; Karumbayaram, Saravanan; Kumagai-Cresse, Chino; Wang, Derek; Zack, Jerome A; Kohn, Donald B; Nakano, Atsushi; Nelson, Stanley F; Miceli, M Carrie; Spencer, Melissa J; Pyle, April D

    2016-04-07

    Mutations in DMD disrupt the reading frame, prevent dystrophin translation, and cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9 platform applicable to 60% of DMD patient mutations. We applied the platform to DMD-derived hiPSCs where successful deletion and non-homologous end joining of up to 725 kb reframed the DMD gene. This is the largest CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion shown to date in DMD. Use of hiPSCs allowed evaluation of dystrophin in disease-relevant cell types. Cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle myotubes derived from reframed hiPSC clonal lines had restored dystrophin protein. The internally deleted dystrophin was functional as demonstrated by improved membrane integrity and restoration of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miR31 was reduced upon reframing, similar to observations in Becker muscular dystrophy. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a single CRISPR pair to correct the reading frame for the majority of DMD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk stratifying chest pain patients in the emergency department using HEART, GRACE and TIMI scores, with a single contemporary troponin result, to predict major adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaney, Peter D W; Elliot, Hamish I; Noman, Awsan; Cooper, Jamie G

    2018-04-05

    The majority of patients presenting to the ED with cardiac sounding chest pain have a non-diagnostic ECG and the problem of differentiating those suffering an acute coronary syndrome from those without is familiar to all ED clinical staff. To stratify risk in these patients, specific scores have been developed. Recent work has focused on incorporating newer high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays; however, issues regarding performance and availability of these assays remain. Prospectively compare HEART, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) scores, using a single contemporary cTn at admission, to predict a major adverse cardiac event (MACE) at 30 days. Prospective observational cohort study performed in a UK tertiary hospital in patients with suspected cardiac chest pain and no significant ST elevation on initial ECG. Data collection took place 2 December 2014 to 8 February 2016. The treating clinician recorded risk score data real time and a single contemporary cTn taken at presentation was used in score calculation. The primary endpoint was 30-day MACE. C-statistic was determined for each score and diagnostic characteristics of high-risk and low-risk cut-offs were calculated. 189/1000 patients in the study developed a 30-day MACE. The c-statistic of HEART for 30-day MACE (0.87 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.90)) was higher than TIMI (0.78 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.81)) and GRACE (0.74 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.78)).HEART score ≤3 identified low-risk patients with sensitivity 99.5% (95% CI 97.1% to 99.9%) and negative predictive value (NPV) 99.6% (95% CI 97.3% to 99.9%) exceeding TIMI 0 (sensitivity 97.4% (95% CI 93.9% to 99.1%) and NPV 97.8% (95% CI 94.8% to 99.1%)) and GRACE score 0-55 (sensitivity 95.2% (95% CI 91.1% to 97.8%) and NPV 95.8% (95% CI 92.2% to 97.7%)). HEART outperformed both TIMI and GRACE in overall discriminative capacity for 30-day MACE. Using a single contemporary cTn at presentation, a HEART score

  14. Produção de biomassa de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e Plantago major L. em cultivo solteiro e consorciado Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Plantago major L. biomass production in single culture and intercropped

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Xavier do Nascimento

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade produtiva da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e de Plantago major L., em cultivo solteiro e consorciado. Os tratamentos em estudo foram três e quatro fileiras de plantas de tansagem por canteiro, duas fileiras de fáfia espaçadas de 36 cm ou de 54 cm, três fileiras de tansagem alternadas com duas fileiras de fáfia (36 cm-T3F36 e quatro fileiras de tansagem alternadas com duas fileiras de fáfia (54 cm-T4F54. Foi utilizado o delineamento blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os espaçamentos entre plantas foram de 40 cm para fáfia e de 30 cm para tansagem. O tipo de cultivo e os espaçamentos entre fileiras não influenciaram significativamente a produção de massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e das raízes da fáfia. Na tansagem foi observado efeito significativo da forma de cultivo em todas as características avaliadas e do número de fileiras para o número de pendões. As alturas máximas das plantas de fáfia foram de 185 cm e 183 cm, aos 172 e 164 dias após o transplante, sob cultivo solteiro, nos espaçamentos de 54 cm e 36 cm, respectivamente. A razão de área equivalente (RAE, para o consórcio T3F36 foi de 1,07 e para o T4F54 foi de 1,50. No caso de recomendação agronômica, optar-se-ía pelo consórcio T4F54.This study aimed to evaluate the production of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Plantago major biomass in sole culture and intercropped. The treatments in study were three and four rows of plants of common plant for plat, two rows of Pfaffia glomerata spaced of 36 cm or 54 cm, three rows of common plant alternated with two rows of Pfaffia glomerata (36 cm-T3F3(6 and four alternated rows of common plant with two rows of Pfaffia glomerata (54 cm-T4F54. The experimental was desigm randomized blocks, with four replications. The spacing between plants was 40 cm for Pfaffia glomerata and 30 cm for common plant. The culture type and spacing between rows did not

  15. The effect of a single blood meal on the phenotypic expression of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus

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    Coetzee Maureen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector in southern Africa. Vector control relies on the use of insecticide chemicals to significantly reduce the number of malaria vectors by targeting that portion of the female population that takes blood meals and subsequently rests indoors. It has been suggested that the intake of a blood meal may assist female mosquitoes to tolerate higher doses of insecticide through vigour tolerance. It is hypothesized that during the process of blood digestion, detoxification mechanisms required for the neutralizing of harmful components in the blood meal may also confer an increased ability to tolerate insecticide intoxication through increased enzyme regulation. Methods Bottle bioassays using a range of concentrations of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin were performed on pyrethroid susceptible and resistant laboratory strains of An. funestus in order to detect differences in insecticide susceptibility following a single blood meal. Based on these results, a discriminating dosage was identified (double the lowest dosage that resulted in 100% mortality of the susceptible strain. Blood-fed and unfed females drawn from the resistant strain of An. funestus were then assayed against this discriminating dose, and the percentage mortality for each sample was scored and compared. Results In the insecticide dose response assays neither the fully susceptible nor the resistant strain of An. funestus showed any significant difference in insecticide susceptibility following a blood meal, regardless of the stage of blood meal digestion. A significant increase in the level of resistance was however detected in the resistant An. funestus strain following a single blood meal, based on exposure to a discriminating dose of permethrin. Conclusion The fully susceptible An. funestus strain did not show any significant alteration in susceptibility to insecticide following a blood meal suggesting that vigour

  16. The effect of a single blood meal on the phenotypic expression of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillings, Belinda L; Coetzee, Maureen; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Brooke, Basil D

    2008-01-01

    Background Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector in southern Africa. Vector control relies on the use of insecticide chemicals to significantly reduce the number of malaria vectors by targeting that portion of the female population that takes blood meals and subsequently rests indoors. It has been suggested that the intake of a blood meal may assist female mosquitoes to tolerate higher doses of insecticide through vigour tolerance. It is hypothesized that during the process of blood digestion, detoxification mechanisms required for the neutralizing of harmful components in the blood meal may also confer an increased ability to tolerate insecticide intoxication through increased enzyme regulation. Methods Bottle bioassays using a range of concentrations of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin were performed on pyrethroid susceptible and resistant laboratory strains of An. funestus in order to detect differences in insecticide susceptibility following a single blood meal. Based on these results, a discriminating dosage was identified (double the lowest dosage that resulted in 100% mortality of the susceptible strain). Blood-fed and unfed females drawn from the resistant strain of An. funestus were then assayed against this discriminating dose, and the percentage mortality for each sample was scored and compared. Results In the insecticide dose response assays neither the fully susceptible nor the resistant strain of An. funestus showed any significant difference in insecticide susceptibility following a blood meal, regardless of the stage of blood meal digestion. A significant increase in the level of resistance was however detected in the resistant An. funestus strain following a single blood meal, based on exposure to a discriminating dose of permethrin. Conclusion The fully susceptible An. funestus strain did not show any significant alteration in susceptibility to insecticide following a blood meal suggesting that vigour tolerance through increased body

  17. Single Strand Annealing Plays a Major Role in RecA-Independent Recombination between Repeated Sequences in the Radioresistant Deinococcus radiodurans Bacterium.

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    Solenne Ithurbide

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is one of the most radioresistant organisms known. It is able to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Our work aims to highlight the genes involved in recombination between 438 bp direct repeats separated by intervening sequences of various lengths ranging from 1,479 bp to 10,500 bp to restore a functional tetA gene in the presence or absence of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. The frequency of spontaneous deletion events between the chromosomal direct repeats were the same in recA+ and in ΔrecA, ΔrecF, and ΔrecO bacteria, whereas recombination between chromosomal and plasmid DNA was shown to be strictly dependent on the RecA and RecF proteins. The presence of mutations in one of the repeated sequence reduced, in a MutS-dependent manner, the frequency of the deletion events. The distance between the repeats did not influence the frequencies of deletion events in recA+ as well in ΔrecA bacteria. The absence of the UvrD protein stimulated the recombination between the direct repeats whereas the absence of the DdrB protein, previously shown to be involved in DNA double strand break repair through a single strand annealing (SSA pathway, strongly reduces the frequency of RecA- (and RecO- independent deletions events. The absence of the DdrB protein also increased the lethal sectoring of cells devoid of RecA or RecO protein. γ-irradiation of recA+ cells increased about 10-fold the frequencies of the deletion events, but at a lesser extend in cells devoid of the DdrB protein. Altogether, our results suggest a major role of single strand annealing in DNA repeat deletion events in bacteria devoid of the RecA protein, and also in recA+ bacteria exposed to ionizing radiation.

  18. A Phase II, Multicenter, Single-Arm Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Deferasirox after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children with β-Thalassemia Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilipek, Mehmet Akif; Karasu, Gulsun; Kaya, Zuhre; Kuskonmaz, Baris B; Uygun, Vedat; Dag, Ilkiz; Ozudogru, Onur; Ertem, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a prospective, phase II, multicenter, single-arm study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in patients age >2 to 1000 µg/L; cardiac MRI T2* deferasirox at an initial dose of 10 mg/kg/day, with up-titration to a maximum of 20 mg/kg/day. The study continued for 52 weeks and included a total of 27 patients (mean age, 9.1 ± 3.8 years; 70.4% male). One patient (3.7%) was lost to follow-up. The majority of patients (n = 20; 74.1%) were able to achieve the intended dose of 20 mg/kg/day. No deaths occurred. A total of 134 adverse events (AEs) were reported in 25 patients (92.6%) during the study. The majority of patients had grade 1 or 2 AEs, with only 8 patients (29.6%) experiencing grade 3 AEs. Only 10 AEs occurring in 4 patients (14.8%) were suspected to be related to deferasirox (ALT/AST increase, n = 4; urinary tract infection, n = 1). The deferasirox dose had to be adjusted or interrupted for 6 AEs occurring in 4 patients (14.8%). A total of 6 serious AEs occurred in 3 patients (11.1%), none of which were suspected to be related to deferasirox. From baseline to week 52, there were decreases in median concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), from 30.0 to 17.0 IU/L, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), from 35.5 to 26.0 IU/L. Median serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations were similar at baseline and week 52. There was a continuous and significant decrease in median serum ferritin level from 1718.0 µg/L at baseline to 845.3 µg/L following 52 weeks of therapy (P deferasirox treatment at doses up to 20 mg/kg/day reduces the iron burden in children with TM post-HSCT, with a manageable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography study in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutus, A.; Kibar, M.; Sofuoglu, S.; Basturk, M.; Goenuel, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    We have not encountered any brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) study performed in adolescent depressed patients in the literature. Therefore, we used technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) to examine the possible changes in cerebral perfusion and the possible association between perfusion indices and clinical variables. Fourteen adolescent out-patients (nine females, five males; mean±SD age: 13.11±1.43 years; range: 11-15 years) fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for MDD and 11 age-matched healthy control subjects (six females, five males; mean±SD age: 13.80±1.60 years; range: 12-15 years) were included in the study. 99 Tc-HMPAO brain SPET was performed twice in the patient group and once in the control group. The first SPET investigation was performed under non-medicated conditions and the second was performed after depressive symptoms had subsided. A relative perfusion index (PI) was calculated as the ratio of regional cortical activity to the whole brain activity. We found significant differences between the PI values of the untreated depressed patients and those of the controls, indicating relatively reduced perfusion in the left anterofrontal and left temporal cortical areas. No significant differences in regional PI values were found between the remitted depressed patients and the controls. Our study suggests that adolescent patients with MDD may have regional cerebral blood flow deficits in frontal regions and a greater anterofrontal right-left perfusion asymmetry compared with normal subjects. The fact that these abnormalities in perfusion indices have a trend toward normal values with symptomatic improvement suggests that they may be state-dependent markers for adolescent MDD. (orig.)

  20. Characterization of Fine Airborne Particulate Collected in Tokyo and Major Atmospheric Emission Sources by Using Single Particle Measurement of SEM-EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Iijima, A.; Furuta, N.

    2008-12-01

    In our long-term monitoring of size-classified Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) in Tokyo since 1995, it had been demonstrated that toxic elements such as As, Se, Cd, Sb and Pb were extremely enriched in fine APM (PM2.5). However, in that study, total sampled APM on a filter was digested with acids, and thus only averaged elemental composition in fine APM could be obtained. One of the effective methods to determine the origin of APM is single particle measurement by using SEM-EDX. By using characteristic shapes observed by SEM and marker elements contained in APM measured by EDX, detailed information for source identification can be obtained. In this study, fine APM (PM2.5) was collected at various locations such as roadside, diesel vehicle exhaust, a heavy oil combustion plant and a waste incineration plant as well as ambient atmosphere in Tokyo, and characteristics of fine particles that will be utilized for identification of emission sources are elucidated. Fine particles can be classified into 3 main characteristic shape groups; edge-shaped, cotton-like and spherical. Shape of particles collected in a heavy oil combustion plant and a waste incineration plant was mostly spherical, and these particles may be associated with thermal process. Diesel exhaust particles were predominantly cotton-like which may consist of coagulated nano-sized particles. Most of brake abrasion dusts were edge-shaped, which may be associated with mechanical abrasion of brake pads. In the elemental analysis of fine particles, high concentrations of Sb, Cu, Ti and Ba were detected in brake abrasion dusts. Since these elements are major constituents of brake pads, these can be used for marker elements of brake abrasion dusts. High concentration of C was detected in diesel exhaust particles and oil combustion particles, and thus C can be used for marker elements of their origin. Furthermore, high concentrations of C, Ca and K were detected in fly ash from a waste incineration plant, which

  1. An Exploratory Investigation of the Relationship between Turnover Intentions, Work Exhaustion and Disengagement among IT Professionals in a Single Institution of Higher Education in a Major Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Valerie F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that turnover is a major issue in IT environments (Armstrong & Riemenschneider, 2011; Carayon, Schoepke, Hoonakker, Haims, & Brunette, 2006; Moore, 2000a; Rigas, 2009). In fact, the research literature in IT and the popular press suggest that IT professionals are particularly vulnerable to burnout (Armstrong &…

  2. A single point in protein trafficking by Plasmodium falciparum determines the expression of major antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes targeted by human antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jo-Anne; Howell, Katherine B; Langer, Christine; Maier, Alexander G; Hasang, Wina; Rogerson, Stephen J; Petter, Michaela; Chesson, Joanne; Stanisic, Danielle I; Duffy, Michael F; Cooke, Brian M; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Bull, Peter C; Marsh, Kevin; Fowkes, Freya J I; Beeson, James G

    2016-11-01

    Antibodies to blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum play a pivotal role in human immunity to malaria. During parasite development, multiple proteins are trafficked from the intracellular parasite to the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs). However, the relative importance of different proteins as targets of acquired antibodies, and key pathways involved in trafficking major antigens remain to be clearly defined. We quantified antibodies to surface antigens among children, adults, and pregnant women from different malaria-exposed regions. We quantified the importance of antigens as antibody targets using genetically engineered P. falciparum with modified surface antigen expression. Genetic deletion of the trafficking protein skeleton-binding protein-1 (SBP1), which is involved in trafficking the surface antigen PfEMP1, led to a dramatic reduction in antibody recognition of IEs and the ability of human antibodies to promote opsonic phagocytosis of IEs, a key mechanism of parasite clearance. The great majority of antibody epitopes on the IE surface were SBP1-dependent. This was demonstrated using parasite isolates with different genetic or phenotypic backgrounds, and among antibodies from children, adults, and pregnant women in different populations. Comparisons of antibody reactivity to parasite isolates with SBP1 deletion or inhibited PfEMP1 expression suggest that PfEMP1 is the dominant target of acquired human antibodies, and that other P. falciparum IE surface proteins are minor targets. These results establish SBP1 as part of a critical pathway for the trafficking of major surface antigens targeted by human immunity, and have key implications for vaccine development, and quantifying immunity in populations.

  3. Assessment of the financial implications for laparoscopic liver surgery: a single-centre UK cost analysis for minor and major hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hilal, Mohammed; Di Fabio, Francesco; Syed, Shareef; Wiltshire, Robert; Dimovska, Eleonora; Turner, David; Primrose, John N; Pearce, Neil W

    2013-07-01

    Laparoscopic hepatectomy is progressively gaining popularity. However, it is still unclear whether the laparoscopic approach offers cost advantages compared with the open approach, especially when major hepatectomies are required. Data providing useful insights into the costs of the laparoscopic approach for clinicians and hospitals are needed. The aim of this study is to assess the financial implications of the laparoscopic approach for two standardized minor and major hepatectomies: left lateral sectionectomy and right hepatectomy. A cost comparison analysis of patients undergoing laparoscopic right hepatectomy (LRH) and laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (LLLS) versus the open counterparts was performed. Data considered for the comparison analysis were operative costs (theatre cost, consumables and surgeon/anaesthetic labour cost), postoperative costs (hospital stay, complication management and readmissions) and overall costs. A total of 149 patients were included: 38 patients underwent LRH and 46 open right hepatectomy (ORH); 46 patients underwent LLLS and 19 open left lateral sectionectomy (OLLS). For LRH the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £10,181, £4,037 and £14,218; for ORH the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £6,483 (p costs were £5,460, £2,599 and £8,059; for OLLS the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £5,841 (p = 0.874), £5,796 (p cost advantage of the laparoscopic approach for left lateral sectionectomy and the cost neutrality for right hepatectomy.

  4. A single nucleotide polymorphism in cBIM is associated with a slower achievement of major molecular response in chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with imatinib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Augis

    Full Text Available BIM is essential for the response to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML patients. Recently, a deletion polymorphism in intron 2 of the BIM gene was demonstrated to confer an intrinsic TKI resistance in Asian patients. The present study aimed at identifying mutations in the BIM sequence that could lead to imatinib resistance independently of BCR-ABL mutations.BIM coding sequence analysis was performed in 72 imatinib-treated CML patients from a French population of our centre and in 29 healthy controls (reference population as a case-control study. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT qPCR was performed to assess Bim expression in our reference population.No mutation with amino-acid change was found in the BIM coding sequence. However, we observed a silent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c465C>T (rs724710. A strong statistical link was found between the presence of the T allele and the high Sokal risk group (p = 0.0065. T allele frequency was higher in non responsive patients than in the reference population (p = 0.0049. Similarly, this T allele was associated with the mutation frequency on the tyrosine kinase domain of BCR-ABL (pT SNP of BIM could be useful for predicting the outcome of imatinib-treated CML patients.

  5. Applying meta-pathway analyses through metagenomics to identify the functional properties of the major bacterial communities of a single spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc

    2015-09-01

    A high-resolution functional metagenomic analysis of a representative single sample of a Brazilian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process was carried out to gain insight into its bacterial community functioning. By reconstruction of microbial meta-pathways based on metagenomic data, the current knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of bacterial members involved in the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem was extended. Functional meta-pathway analysis revealed the distribution of the metabolic pathways between the bacterial members involved. The metabolic capabilities of the lactic acid bacteria present were most associated with the heterolactic fermentation and citrate assimilation pathways. The role of Enterobacteriaceae in the conversion of substrates was shown through the use of the mixed-acid fermentation and methylglyoxal detoxification pathways. Furthermore, several other potential functional roles for Enterobacteriaceae were indicated, such as pectinolysis and citrate assimilation. Concerning acetic acid bacteria, metabolic pathways were partially reconstructed, in particular those related to responses toward stress, explaining their metabolic activities during cocoa bean fermentation processes. Further, the in-depth metagenomic analysis unveiled functionalities involved in bacterial competitiveness, such as the occurrence of CRISPRs and potential bacteriocin production. Finally, comparative analysis of the metagenomic data with bacterial genomes of cocoa bean fermentation isolates revealed the applicability of the selected strains as functional starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gonad development in females of fiddler crab Uca rapax (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae using macro and microscopic techniques Desenvolvimento da gônada em fêmeas do caranguejo-violinista Uca rapax (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae utilizando técnicas macro e microscópicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Silva Castiglioni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the ovaries in Uca rapax (Smith, 1870 was described based on macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Females were collected in Itamambuca mangrove, Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. In the laboratory, 18 females had their ovaries removed and prepared for histology. Each gonad developmental stage was previously determined based on external and macroscopic morphology and afterwards each stage was microscopically described. The ovaries of U. rapax showed a pronounced macroscopic differentiation in size and coloration with the maturation of the gonad, with six ovarian developmental stages: immature, rudimentary, developing, developed, advanced and spent. During the vitellogenesis, the amount of oocytes in secondary stage increases in the ovary, resulting in a change in coloration of the gonad. Oogonias, primary oocytes, secondary oocytes and follicular cells were histologically described and measured. In female’s ovaries of U. rapax the modifications observed in the oocytes during the process of gonad maturation are similar to descriptions of gonads of other females of brachyuran crustaceans. The similarities are specially found in the morphological changes in the reproductive cells, and also in the presence and arrange of follicle cells during the process of ovary maturation. When external morphological characteristics of the gonads were compared to histological descriptions, it was possible to observe modifications that characterize the process in different developmental stages throughout the ovarian cycle and, consequently, the macroscopic classification of gonad stages agree with the modifications of the reproductive cells.A morfologia dos ovários de Uca rapax foi descrita baseada nas análises macroscópica e microscópica. As fêmeas foram coletadas no manguezal de Itamambuca, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. No laboratório, os ovários de 18 fêmeas foram retirados e preparados para histologia. Os est

  7. S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Augmentation in Patients with Stage II Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Label, Fixed Dose, Single-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico De Berardis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the efficacy of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe augmentation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder (TRD. Thirty-three outpatients with major depressive episode who failed to respond to at least 8 weeks of treatment with two adequate and stable doses of antidepressants were treated openly with fixed dose of SAMe (800 mg for 8 weeks, added to existing medication. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in total score on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. The Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I was rated at the endpoint. Patients with a reduction of 50% or more on HAM-D total score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 at endpoint were considered responders; remission was defined as a HAM-D score ≤7. Secondary outcome measures included the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS. At 8 weeks, a significant decrease in HAM-D score was observed with response achieved by 60% of the patients and remission by 36%. Also a statistically significant reduction in SHAPS and SDS was observed. Our findings indicate that SAMe augmentation may be effective and well tolerated in stage II TRD. However, limitations of the present study must be considered and further placebo-controlled trials are needed.

  8. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility and major clones of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex isolates from a single hospital in Korea over 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Kyoung; Jung, Sook-In; Park, Kyong-Hwa; Kim, Dae Hun; Choi, Ji Young; Kim, Su Hwan; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter species have emerged as opportunistic nosocomial pathogens in intensive care units. Epidemic spread and outbreaks of multidrug-resistant or carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections have been described worldwide. Species distribution, antimicrobial resistance and genotypes were investigated for Acinetobacter species isolates collected from a single institution in Korea over 7 years. Two hundred and eighty-seven Acinetobacter species isolates were collected from patients with bloodstream infections in one Korean hospital from 2003 to 2010. Most of them belonged to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex (94.4 %). The most frequently isolated species was A. baumannii (44.2 %), followed by Acinetobacter nosocomialis (formerly Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU) (34.1 %). The proportion of A. baumannii increased significantly from 2008 to 2010 (40.4 to 50.0 %). From 2008, imipenem and meropenem resistance rates increased significantly compared with 2003-2007 (12.9 % and 20.5 %, respectively, to 41.4 % and 41.5 %, respectively). An increased carbapenem resistance rate between the two periods was identified more clearly amongst A. baumannii isolates. Polymyxin-resistant A. baumannii isolates emerged in 2008-2010, despite the availability of few isolates. The increase of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii might be due to the substitution of main clones. Although ST92 and ST69 were the most prevalent clones amongst A. baumannii in 2003-2007 (47.8 % and 15.9 %, respectively), ST75 and ST138 had increased in 2008-2010 (39.7 % and 25.9 %, respectively). Although ST92 showed moderate resistance to carbapenems, most ST75 and ST138 isolates were resistant to carbapenems. All ST75 and ST138 isolates, but only one ST92 isolate, contained the bla(OXA-23-like) gene. Increased carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter species and A. baumannii isolates might be due to the expansion of specific carbapenem-resistant clones.

  9. Implementation of a split-bolus single-pass CT protocol at a UK major trauma centre to reduce excess radiation dose in trauma pan-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, V.; Sastry, A.; Woo, T.D.; Jones, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To quantify the dose reduction and ensure that the use of a split-bolus protocol provided sufficient vascular enhancement. Materials and methods: Between 1 January 2014 and 31 May 2014, both split bolus and traditional two-phase scans were performed on a single CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition AS+, Siemens Healthcare) using a two-pump injector (Medrad Stellant). Both protocols used Siemens' proprietary tube current and tube voltage modulation techniques (CARE dose and CARE kV). The protocols were compared retrospectively to assess the dose–length product (DLP), aortic radiodensity at the level of the coeliac axis and radiodensity of the portal vein. Results: There were 151 trauma CT examinations during this period. Seventy-eight used the split-bolus protocol. Seventy-one had traditional two-phase imaging. One patient was excluded as they were under the age of 18 years. The radiodensity measurements for the portal vein were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the split-bolus protocol. The mean aortic enhancement in both protocols exceeded 250 HU, although the traditional two-phase protocol gave greater arterial enhancement (p<0.001) than the split-bolus protocol. The split-bolus protocol had a significantly lower (p<0.001) DLP with 43.5% reduction in the mean DLP compared to the traditional protocol. Conclusion: Split-bolus CT imaging offers significant dose reduction for this relatively young population while retaining both arterial and venous enhancement. -- Highlights: •We implemented a split bolus pan-CT protocol for trauma CT. •We compared the radiation dose and vascular enhancement of the split bolus protocol to a traditional two phase protocol. •The split bolus protocol had a 43.5% reduction in mean DLP

  10. Preoperative Radiotherapy and Wide Resection for Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Achieving a Low Rate of Major Wound Complications with the Use of Flaps. Results of a Single Surgical Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester Wai Mon Chan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSurgery in combination with radiotherapy (RT has become the standard of care for most soft tissue sarcomas. The choice between pre- and postoperative RT is controversial. Preoperative RT is associated with a 32–35% rate of major wound complications (MWC and 16–25% rate of reoperation. The role of vascularized soft tissue “flaps” in reducing complications is unclear. We report the outcomes of patients treated with preoperative RT, resection, and flap reconstruction.Patients and methods122 treatment episodes involving 117 patients were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were treated with 50.4 Gy of external beam radiation. Surgery was performed at 4–8 weeks after completion of RT by the same combination of orthopedic oncology and plastic reconstructive surgeon. Defects were reconstructed with 64 free and 59 pedicled/local flaps.Results30 (25% patients experienced a MWC and 17 (14% required further surgery. 20% of complications were exclusively related to the donor site. There was complete or partial loss of three flaps. There was no difference in the rate of MWC or reoperation for complications with respect to age, sex, tumor site, previous unplanned excision, tumor grade, depth, and type of flap. Tumor size ≥8 cm was associated with a higher rate of reoperation (11/44 vs 6/78; P = 0.008 but the rate of MWC was not significant (16/44 vs 14/78; P = 0.066.ConclusionThe use of soft tissue flaps is associated with a low rate of MWC and reoperation. Our results suggest that a high rate of flap usage may be required to observe a reduction in complication rates.

  11. Preoperative Radiotherapy and Wide Resection for Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Achieving a Low Rate of Major Wound Complications with the Use of Flaps. Results of a Single Surgical Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lester Wai Mon; Imanishi, Jungo; Grinsell, Damien Glen; Choong, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Surgery in combination with radiotherapy (RT) has become the standard of care for most soft tissue sarcomas. The choice between pre- and postoperative RT is controversial. Preoperative RT is associated with a 32-35% rate of major wound complications (MWC) and 16-25% rate of reoperation. The role of vascularized soft tissue "flaps" in reducing complications is unclear. We report the outcomes of patients treated with preoperative RT, resection, and flap reconstruction. 122 treatment episodes involving 117 patients were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were treated with 50.4 Gy of external beam radiation. Surgery was performed at 4-8 weeks after completion of RT by the same combination of orthopedic oncology and plastic reconstructive surgeon. Defects were reconstructed with 64 free and 59 pedicled/local flaps. 30 (25%) patients experienced a MWC and 17 (14%) required further surgery. 20% of complications were exclusively related to the donor site. There was complete or partial loss of three flaps. There was no difference in the rate of MWC or reoperation for complications with respect to age, sex, tumor site, previous unplanned excision, tumor grade, depth, and type of flap. Tumor size ≥8 cm was associated with a higher rate of reoperation (11/44 vs 6/78; P  = 0.008) but the rate of MWC was not significant (16/44 vs 14/78; P  = 0.066). The use of soft tissue flaps is associated with a low rate of MWC and reoperation. Our results suggest that a high rate of flap usage may be required to observe a reduction in complication rates.

  12. Prolonged increase of cis-urocanic acid levels in human skin and urine after single total-body ultraviolet exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Pavel, S.; Asghar, S. S.; Bos, J. D.; Teunissen, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA), a mediator of immunosuppression, is formed from trans-UCA upon UV-exposure of the skin. This study describes a liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of cis- and trans-UCA in skin, urine and plasma of nonirradiated volunteers. It also describes

  13. Psychological benefits 2 and 4 weeks after a single treatment with near infrared light to the forehead: a pilot study of 10 patients with major depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teicher Martin H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported beneficial effects from the application of near-infrared (NIR light photobiomodulation (PBM to the body, and one group has reported beneficial effects applying it to the brain in stroke patients. We have reported that the measurement of a patient's left and right hemispheric emotional valence (HEV may clarify data and guide lateralized treatments. We sought to test whether a NIR treatment could 1. improve the psychological status of patients, 2. show a relationship between immediate psychological improvements when HEV was taken into account, and 3. show an increase in frontal pole regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, and 4. be applied without side effects. Methods We gave 10 patients, (5 M/5 F with major depression, including 9 with anxiety, 7 with a past history of substance abuse (6 with an opiate abuse and 1 with an alcohol abuse history, and 3 with post traumatic stress disorder, a baseline standard diagnostic interview, a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, a Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A, and a Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS. We then gave four 4-minute treatments in a random order: NIR to left forehead at F3, to right forehead at F4, and placebo treatments (light off at the same sites. Immediately following each treatment we repeated the PANAS, and at 2-weeks and at 4-weeks post treatment we repeated all 3 rating scales. During all treatments we recorded total hemoglobin (cHb, as a measure of rCBF with a commercial NIR spectroscopy device over the left and the right frontal poles of the brain. Results At 2-weeks post treatment 6 of 10 patients had a remission (a score ≤ 10 on the HAM-D and 7 of 10 achieved this on the HAM-A. Patients experienced highly significant reductions in both HAM-D and HAM-A scores following treatment, with the greatest reductions occurring at 2 weeks. Mean rCBF across hemispheres increased from 0.011 units in the off condition to 0.043 units in

  14. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  15. A randomised, double-blind study in adults with major depressive disorder with an inadequate response to a single course of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor treatment switched to vortioxetine or agomelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stuart A; Nielsen, Rebecca Z; Poulsen, Lis H; Häggström, Lars

    2014-09-01

    This randomised, double-blind, 12-week study compared efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose treatment with vortioxetine(10-20 mg/day) versus agomelatine (25-50 mg/day) in major depressive disorder patients with inadequate response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) monotherapy. Patients were switched directly from SSRI/SNRI to vortioxetine or agomelatine. Primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 8 in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score analysed by mixed model for repeated measurements, using a noninferiority test followed by a superiority test. Secondary endpoints included response and remission rates, anxiety symptoms(Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), Clinical Global Impression, overall functioning (Sheehan Disability Scale), health-related quality of life(EuroQol 5 Dimensions), productivity (work limitation questionnaire) and family functioning (Depression and Family Functioning Scale). Primary endpoint noninferiority was established and vortioxetine (n = 252) was superior to agomelatine (n = 241) by 2.2 MADRS points (pDepression and Family Functioning Scale at weeks 8 and 12. Fewer patients withdrew because of adverse events with vortioxetine (5.9% vs 9.5%). Adverse events (incidence ≥5%) were nausea, headache, dizziness and somnolence. Vortioxetine was noninferior and significantly superior to agomelatine in major depressive disorder patients with previous inadequate response to a single course of SSRI/SNRI monotherapy. Vortioxetine was safe and well tolerated.

  16. Adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with major cerebral artery steno-occlusive diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hideo; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Taro; Kuroda, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Yoshida, Kenji; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were prospectively investigated in 100 patients with major cerebral artery, atherosclerotic, and steno-occlusive diseases. All patients underwent two SPECT studies (with and without acetazolamide challenge) at an interval of 2 or 3 days, received a questionnaire immediately after each SPECT study, and returned the answered questionnaire within 7 days after the study. None of the 100 patients studied experienced any symptoms during the SPECT study without acetazolamide challenge. Sixty-three patients (63%) developed symptoms during the SPECT study with acetazolamide challenge, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, tinnitus, numbness of the extremities, motor weakness of the extremities, and general malaise 1-3 hours (mean 1.6 hours) after administration of acetazolamide, and these symptoms lasted for 0.5-72 hours (mean 7.9 hours). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that younger age (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.896-0.980, p=0.0047) and female sex (95% CI 1.178-16.129, p=0.0274) were significantly associated with development of symptoms with acetazolamide challenge. The incidences of the development of symptoms with acetazolamide challenge were 91% (21/23) and 41% (12/29) in subgroups of women <70 years and men ≥70 years, respectively. Patients should be informed of such adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration prior to the acetazolamide challenge test for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity. (author)

  17. Histofisiología branquial : respiración, regulación iónica y equilibrio ácido-base en el Cangrejo Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Decapoda, Grapsidae); con notas comparativas en Uca uruguayensis (Nobili,1901)(Ocypodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Luquet, Carlos Marcelo

    1997-01-01

    Se describen, a nivel estructural y ultraestructural, las branquias de Chasmagnathus granulata y Uca uruguayensis, en relación a su participación en los procesos de respiración, regulación iónica y del equilibrio ácido-base, en medios de distinta concentración iónica y durante la respiración acuática y aérea. Las branquias de ambas especies presentan tejido ionoregulador, el cual cambia su ultraestructura como respuesta al cambio de salinidad. Las diferencias anatómicas se discuten en función...

  18. Epidermal cis-urocanic acid levels correlate with lower specific cellular immune responses after hepatitis B vaccination of ultraviolet B-exposed humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijffers, Annemarie; Kammeyer, Arthur; de Gruijl, Frank R.; Boland, Greet J.; van Hattum, Jan; van Vloten, Willem A.; van Loveren, Henk; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.; Garssen, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Urocanic acid (UCA) is a major UV-absorbing chromophore in the epidermis and has been suggested to act as one of the initiators of UV-induced immunosuppression. cis-UCA, the isomer from UCA that is formed upon UV exposure, has been shown to impair some cellular immune responses. cis-UCA levels were

  19. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Sato, Makito; Sano, Hirokazu; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Toyoshi; Nakahara, Takehiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 min/ml per 1.73 m 2 ] undergoing stress 99m Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected or possible ischemic heart disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD. (orig.)

  20. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and its association with serotonin 2A-1438 G/A single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiran, Ruziana; Sidi, Hatta; Mohamed, Zahurin; Mohd Nazree, Nur Elia; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Midin, Marhani; Das, Srijit; Mohamed Saini, Suriati

    2014-04-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known for their sexual side effects. Different SSRIs may affect different areas of sexual function at different rates. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), its clinical correlates, and association with 5HT2A (rs6311) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who were on SSRI therapy. This was a cross-sectional study on 95 female outpatients with MDD treated with SSRI. The patients were in remission as determined by Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Genomic DNA was isolated from buccal swabs and samples were processed using a real time polymerase chain reaction. The presence or absence of FSD as measured by the Malay Version of Female Sexual Function Index and 5HT2A-1438 G/A (rs6311) SNP. The overall prevalence of FSD was 32.6%. After controlling for age, number of children, education level, total monthly income, SSRI types, and SSRI dosing, being employed significantly enhanced FSD by 4.5 times (odds ratio [OR] = 4.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 20.30; P = 0.05). Those having marital problems were 6.7 times more likely to have FSD (OR = 6.67; 95% CI 1.57, 28.34). 5HT2A-1438 G/A (rs6311) SNP was not significantly associated with FSD. There was no significant association between FSD and the 5HT2A (rs6311) SNP in patients with MDD on SSRI therapy. Employment status and marital state were significantly associated with FSD among these patients. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi (Japan); Sato, Makito [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Tatebayashi Kosei Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Sano, Hirokazu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Isesaki Municipal Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Isesaki (Japan); Ueda, Tetsuya [Fujioka General Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Fujioka (Japan); Sasaki, Toyoshi [Takasaki General Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, Takasaki (Japan); Nakahara, Takehiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 min/ml per 1.73 m{sup 2}] undergoing stress {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected or possible ischemic heart disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD. (orig.)

  2. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Sato, Makito; Sano, Hirokazu; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Toyoshi; Nakahara, Takehiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD.

  3. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  4. A single-chain fusion molecule consisting of peptide, major histocompatibility gene complex class I heavy chain and beta2-microglobulin can fold partially correctly, but binds peptide inefficiently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester-Hvid, C; Buus, S

    1999-01-01

    of a recombinant murine MHC-I molecule, which could be produced in large amounts in bacteria. The recombinant MHC-I protein was expressed as a single molecule (PepSc) consisting of the antigenic peptide linked to the MHC-I heavy chain and further linked to human beta2-microglobulin (hbeta2m). The PepSc molecule...... electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Serological analysis revealed the presence of some, but not all, MHC-I-specific epitopes. Biochemically, PepSc could bind peptide, however, rather ineffectively. We suggest that a partially correctly refolded MHC-I has been obtained....

  5. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. For some individuals, major depression can result in severe impairments that interfere with ...

  6. The safety of addition of nitrous oxide to general anaesthesia in at-risk patients having major non-cardiac surgery (ENIGMA-II): a randomised, single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Paul S; Leslie, Kate; Chan, Matthew T V; Forbes, Andrew; Peyton, Philip J; Paech, Michael J; Beattie, W Scott; Sessler, Daniel I; Devereaux, P J; Silbert, Brendan; Schricker, Thomas; Wallace, Sophie

    2014-10-18

    Nitrous oxide is commonly used in general anaesthesia but concerns exist that it might increase perioperative cardiovascular risk. We aimed to gather evidence to establish whether nitrous oxide affects perioperative cardiovascular risk. We did an international, randomised, assessor-blinded trial in patients aged at least 45 years with known or suspected coronary artery disease having major non-cardiac surgery. Patients were randomly assigned via automated telephone service, stratified by site, to receive a general anaesthetic with or without nitrous oxide. Attending anaesthetists were aware of patients' group assignments, but patients and assessors were not. The primary outcome measure was a composite of death and cardiovascular complications (non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, or cardiac arrest) within 30 days of surgery. Our modified intention-to-treat population included all patients randomly assigned to groups and undergoing induction of general anaesthesia for surgery. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00430989. Of 10,102 eligible patients, we enrolled 7112 patients between May 30, 2008, and Sept 28, 2013. 3543 were assigned to receive nitrous oxide and 3569 were assigned not to receive nitrous oxide. 3483 patients receiving nitrous oxide and 3509 not receiving nitrous oxide were assessed for the primary outcome. The primary outcome occurred in 283 (8%) patients receiving nitrous oxide and in 296 (8%) patients not receiving nitrous oxide (relative risk 0·96, 95% CI 0·83–1·12; p=0·64). Surgical site infection occurred in 321 (9%) patients assigned to nitrous oxide, and in 311 (9%) patients in the no-nitrous oxide group (p=0·61), and severe nausea and vomiting occurred in 506 patients (15%) assigned to nitrous oxide and 378 patients (11%) not assigned to nitrous oxide (pnitrous oxide use in major non-cardiac surgery. Nitrous oxide did not increase the risk of death and cardiovascular complications or

  7. Morphosedimentary features from a major flood on a small, lower-sinuosity, single-thread river: The unknown quantity of overbank deposition, historical-change context, and comparisons with a multichannel river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Tucker, S. T.; McMullin, J. D.

    2016-08-01

    This study details overbank sedimentation on a single-thread, bedload stream, the Little Blue River (southeastern Nebraska and northeastern Kansas, USA), which experienced exceptional floods during May-June 2015. Downvalley elongate splays left deposits as thick as 1.2 m and attained areas as great as 156 ha. Splays consisted of fields of large, gravel-covered dunes 0.1 to 0.3 m in height and extensive sand sheets with current ripples or current ripples atop low-relief, long-wavelength dunes. Erosion occurred chiefly in the heads of splays. Levee-floodplain channel complexes were more architecturally complicated, with channel-channel-fringing deposits deposited within 110 m of the banks of the channel. These complexes consisted of two amalgamated components: (1) sediment shadows (vegetation-induced sedimentary structures), as long as 6 m and as high as 0.6 m at their heads, which were produced by the interaction of direct overbank flow with rooted trees; and (2) indistinct, flat-topped bars (some of which were built around eroded remnants of sediment shadows) shaped chiefly by downvalley flood flow. Changes on in-channel bars, the erosion of bank crevasses as large as 70 m in width, and the deposition of large woody debris also occurred during the floods. The earliest aerial photographs (1938) of the study area, taken after multiple low-flow years, show no evidence for recent overbank deposition. Increases in channel-belt area, the number of bars, and the sizes of bars in the Little Blue River took place after 1938, and most rapidly during 1938 to 1950, when annual discharge was increasing. Annual discharge has decreased since ca. 1990, and yet there has been a long-term increase in annual peak from since the 1930s. We surmise that increasing annual peak flows have led to larger floods and, since 1938, serial overbank deposition, as well a wider channel and numerous, large compound bars.

  8. April 2006. 32 Major Orthopaedic Procedures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-04-01

    @yahoo.com,. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the trends in the proportions of major ..... Potter MA, Nixon SJ, Aitken RJ. A 10-year analysis of caseload and weighted workload in a single Health board. Ann R ...

  9. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  10. Renal tubular dysfunction in pediatric patients with beta-thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction in children with β-thalassemia (β-T major, we studied the glomerular and tubular function in 140 children with β-T major and compared them to a healthy control group at our center from May 2007 to April 2008. Fresh first morning samples were collected from each patient and analyzed for sodium, potassium, calcium (Ca, protein, uric acid (UA, creatinine (Cr, urine osmolality and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG activity. Blood samples were also collected for complete blood count, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, fasting blood sugar, serum creatinine (SCr, electrolytes, and ferritin before transfusion. Among the study patients, 72 were males, and the mean age was 11.5 (ranging 7-16 years. SCr levels were all within normal limits and all of them had normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR. The mean UNAG was 17.8 IU/L in the study patients (normal 0.15-11.5 IU/L and 3.2 IU/L in the control group (P 0.21 (P = 0.006. Nine (6.4% thalassemic patients with a mean age of 12 years had proteinuria (Upr/UCr > 0.2. Sixty-nine (49.3% out of the 140 patients and 45 (65.2% of the patients having UNAG had uricosuria also (UUA/UCr > 0.26. Ten (7% patients had microscopic hematuria and 10 (7% patients with a mean age of 13.5 years had glucosuria or diabetes mellitus. We conclude that tubular dysfunction is a relative common complication of the β-T major; UNAG and its index are the best to detect renal tubular dysfunction in these patients. Currently, periodic measurement of UCa/UCr and UUA/UCr ratios as well as urinalysis are recommended.

  11. Societal risk and major disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    A disaster can be defined as an event, or a series of events, in which a large number of people is adversely affected by a single cause. This definition includes man-made accidents, like that at Chernobyl, as well as the natural disasters that insurance companies are sometimes pleased to describe as Acts of God. In 1986 alone, 12,000 people died and 2.2 million were made homeless by 215 major accidents or disasters. The nature of risk is examined in this paper. (author)

  12. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  13. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different...... structures and properties have been proposed in the literature. The main aim of this paper is to provide a review of these PLLs. To this end, the single-phase PLLs are first classified into two major categories: 1) power-based PLLs (pPLLs), and 2) quadrature signal generation-based PLLs (QSG......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  14. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  15. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  16. [Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvattum, Mari

    2016-07-01

    The psychiatrist Herman Wedel Major planned Gaustad asylum in collaboration with his brother-in-law, the architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer. The planning of Gaustad took place in parallel with the preparation of the first Norwegian Mental Health Act, adopted by the Storting on 30 July 1848, and Gaustad's architecture provides a good illustration of the ideals behind the mental health reform of the 19th century. In particular, Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad represents a break with Frederik Holst's ideal of the panoptic institution. Whereas Holst and his architect Christian Heinrich Grosch promoted a radial plan institution based on the type used for penitentiaries, Schirmer and Major designed a modern, pavilion-style hospital with wards placed independently in the landscape.

  17. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  18. Prehabilitation Before Major Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Francis

    2018-01-01

    Prehabilitation is a new term for preoperative rehabilitation before major surgery. Some authors use the short form 'Prehab', though it is not so widely used. Prehabilitation involves measures to improve the physical, physiological, metabolic and psychosocial reserves in preparation for an elective surgery. This involves exercise, nutrition, education and psychosocial interventions.

  19. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  20. Major SSC tunneling begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In Texas, work has been completed on the first on the Superconducting Supercollider's major shafts. Now a boring machine has started driving the fifty-four mile elliptical accelerator tunnel. To date, contracts let for the tunnel have come in far below preliminary estimates. Five of the main fourteen foot diameter tunnel contracts have been awarded for a total of 107.4 million dollars, about forty million dollars below estimates. These contracts represent %60 percent of the total tunneling project

  1. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  2. The Ursa Major supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  4. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  5. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Methods for Analyzing Pathways through a Physics Major

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, John M.; Caballero, Marcos D.

    2016-01-01

    Physics Education Research frequently investigates what students studying physics do on small time scales (e.g. single courses, observations within single courses), or post-education time scales (e.g., what jobs do physics majors get?) but there is little research into how students get from the beginning to the end of a physics degree. Our work attempts to visualize students paths through the physics major, and quantitatively describe the students who take physics courses, receive physics deg...

  7. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  8. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  9. Interdisciplinary Project Experiences: Collaboration between Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…

  10. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Major depression with psychotic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression References American Psychiatric Association. Major depressive disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013; ...

  12. Majorization uncertainty relations for mixed quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Krawiec, Aleksandra; Życzkowski, Karol

    2018-04-01

    Majorization uncertainty relations are generalized for an arbitrary mixed quantum state ρ of a finite size N. In particular, a lower bound for the sum of two entropies characterizing the probability distributions corresponding to measurements with respect to two arbitrary orthogonal bases is derived in terms of the spectrum of ρ and the entries of a unitary matrix U relating both bases. The results obtained can also be formulated for two measurements performed on a single subsystem of a bipartite system described by a pure state, and consequently expressed as an uncertainty relation for the sum of conditional entropies.

  13. Majorization and extremal PH distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Q.M.; Zhang, H.; Vera, J.C.; Latouche, G.; Ramaswami, V.; Sethuraman, J.; Sigman, K.; Squillante, M.S.; Yao, D.D.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents majorization results for PH generators. Based on the majorization results, bounds on the moments and Laplace–Stieltjes transforms of phase-type distributions are found. Exponential distributions and Coxian distributions are identified to be extremal PH distributions with

  14. Do You Have Major Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  15. Stenting of major airway constriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaomei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures

  16. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  17. Cake Division by Majority Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Gersbach; Bernhard Pachl

    2006-01-01

    We consider a collective choice process where three players make proposals sequentially on how to divide a given quantity of resources. Afterwards, one of the proposals is chosen by majority decision. If no proposal obtains a majority, a proposal is drawn by lot. We establish the existence of the set of subgame perfect equilibria, using a suitable refinement concept. In any equilibrium, the first agent offers the whole cake to the second proposal-maker, who in turn offers the whole cake back ...

  18. The SNARE protein family of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottram Jeremy C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania major is a protozoan parasite with a highly polarised cell shape that depends upon endocytosis and exocytosis from a single area of the plasma membrane, the flagellar pocket. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor adaptor proteins receptors are key components of the intracellular vesicle-mediated transports that take place in all eukaryotic cells. They are membrane-bound proteins that facilitate the docking and fusion of vesicles with organelles. The recent availability of the genome sequence of L. major has allowed us to assess the complement of SNAREs in the parasite and to investigate their location in comparison with metazoans. Results Bioinformatic searches of the L. major genome revealed a total of 27 SNARE domain-containing proteins that could be classified in structural groups by phylogenetic analysis. 25 of these possessed the expected features of functional SNAREs, whereas the other two could represent kinetoplastid-specific proteins that might act as regulators of the SNARE complexes. Other differences of Leishmania SNAREs were the absence of double SNARE domain-containing and of the brevin classes of these proteins. Members of the Qa group of Leishmania SNAREs showed differential expressions profiles in the two main parasite forms whereas their GFP-tagging and in vivo expression revealed localisations in the Golgi, late endosome/lysosome and near the flagellar pocket. Conclusion The early-branching eukaryote L. major apparently possess a SNARE repertoire that equals in number the one of metazoans such as Drosophila, showing that the machinery for vesicle fusion is well conserved throughout the eukaryotes. However, the analysis revealed the absence of certain types of SNAREs found in metazoans and yeast, while suggesting the presence of original SNAREs as well as others with unusual localisation. This study also presented the intracellular localisation of the L. major SNAREs from the Qa group

  19. Dual Interlocked Logic for Single-Event Transient Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Dual Interlocked Logic for Single -Event Transient Mitigation Jeffrey Maharrey, Jeffrey Kauppila, Dennis Ball, Timothy Holman, Lloyd Massengill...is shown to be robust to single event transients. Keywords: SET; CVSL; DIL; single event transient; hardened logic; cascode voltage switch; dual...interlocked Introduction Single event transients (SETs) generated in combinational logic are a major, often dominant, contributor to soft errors in

  20. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  1. Pectoralis major fascia in rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Fascia is frequently used in rhinoplasty, for several different purposes. The deep temporalis fascia is most often chosen, though harvesting this fascia requires a separate surgical field that adds surgical time to the procedure and morbidity to the patient. In augmentation rhinoplasty cases as well as in many revision rhinoplasty cases, costal cartilage may be required. In these cases, when costal cartilage is harvested from the 5(th) to 7(th) ribs, pectoralis major fascia is in the surgical field and must be incised to provide access to the costal cartilage. Pectoralis major fascia is similar to the deep temporalis fascia, sharing many physical and histological characteristics with it. Pectoralis major fascia can be harvested from the same surgical field as costal cartilage and used in the nose whenever autologous costal cartilage is harvested, thus precluding the need for a separate surgical field for fascia harvest. The surgical technique for harvesting pectoralis major fascia is demonstrated, and two clinical cases of patients in whom this fascia was harvested and used in the nose are presented. Pectoralis major fascia may be considered an alternative option for use in rhinoplasty cases whenever autologous costal cartilage is used. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  2. Personality, academic majors and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...

  3. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  4. Dirichlet polynomials, majorization, and trumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Rajesh; Plosker, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Majorization and trumping are two partial orders which have proved useful in quantum information theory. We show some relations between these two partial orders and generalized Dirichlet polynomials, Mellin transforms, and completely monotone functions. These relations are used to prove a succinct generalization of Turgut’s characterization of trumping. (paper)

  5. Endocrinopathies in thalassemia major patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, D. A.; Yunir, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    Advanced in chelation therapy and regular blood transfusion have marked improvements in the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia major, however these patients still have to deal with several complications. We report a 19-year-old male, presented with multiple endocrine complication-related thalassemia; hypogonadism, short stature, osteoporosis with history of fracture, and subclinical hypothyroid.

  6. Major purchasers view customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, H; Kerr, V; Lynn, D

    1998-01-01

    While managed care organizations may select a variety of strategies toward customer service, the most successful will be adapting their approach to the expectation and requirements of major purchasers. In order to better understand the perspective of the individuals who are responsible for policy decisions at that level, Managed Care Quarterly (MCQ) conducted interviews with three highly respected representatives.

  7. Physics momentum 'stars' draw majors

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindström, I

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of University of Arizona students declaring physics as their major has doubled, amid a national decline. According to a recent report by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, it is the university's dedication to its undergraduate physics program which draws students in (1 page).

  8. Advances in biomarkers of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tiao-Lai; Lin, Chin-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by mood, vegetative, cognitive, and even psychotic symptoms and signs that can cause substantial impairments in quality of life and functioning. Biomarkers are measurable indicators that could help diagnosing MDD or predicting treatment response. In this chapter, lipid profiles, immune/inflammation, and neurotrophic factor pathways that have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD are discussed. Then, pharmacogenetics and epigenetics of serotonin transport and its metabolism pathway, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and abnormality of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis also revealed new biomarkers. Lastly, new techniques, such as proteomics and metabolomics, which allow researchers to approach the studying of MDD with new directions and make new discoveries are addressed. In the future, more data are needed regarding pathophysiology of MDD, including protein levels, single nucleotide polymorphism, epigenetic regulation, and clinical data in order to better identify reliable and consistent biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment choice, and outcome prediction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurobiology of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Villanueva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We survey studies which relate abnormal neurogenesis to major depressive disorder. Clinically, descriptive gene and protein expression analysis and genetic and functional studies revised here show that individual alterations of a complex signaling network, which includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; the production of neurotrophins and growth factors; the expression of miRNAs; the production of proinflammatory cytokines; and, even, the abnormal delivery of gastrointestinal signaling peptides, are able to induce major mood alterations. Furthermore, all of these factors modulate neurogenesis in brain regions involved in MDD, and are functionally interconnected in such a fashion that initial alteration in one of them results in abnormalities in the others. We highlight data of potential diagnostic significance and the relevance of this information to develop new therapeutic approaches. Controversial issues, such as whether neurogenesis is the basis of the disease or whether it is a response induced by antidepressant treatments, are also discussed.

  10. Hypogonadism in thalassemia major patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasima Srisukh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in iron chelation therapy, excess iron deposition in pituitary gonadotropic cells remains one of the major problems in thalassemic patients. Hypogonadism, mostly hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is usually detected during puberty. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for normal pubertal development and to reduce the complications of hypogonadism. The risks and benefits of hormonal replacement therapy, especially regarding the thromboembolic event, remain a challenge for providers caring for thalassemic patients.

  11. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Cancers of major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Aru; Kozel, Jessica A; Lydiatt, William M

    2015-07-01

    Major salivary gland malignancies are a rare but histologically diverse group of entities. Establishing the diagnosis of a malignant salivary neoplasm may be challenging because of the often minimally symptomatic nature of the disease, and limitations of imaging modalities and cytology. Treatment is centered on surgical therapy and adjuvant radiation in selected scenarios. Systemic therapy with chemotherapeutic agents and monoclonal antibodies lacks evidence in support of its routine use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent advances in urocanic acid photochemistry, photobiology and photoimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Neil K; Tye, Joanne; Norval, Mary

    2008-06-01

    Urocanic acid (UCA), produced in the upper layers of mammalian skin, is a major absorber of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Originally thought to be a 'natural sunscreen', studies conducted a quarter of a century ago proposed that UCA may be a chromophore for the immunosuppression that follows exposure to UVR. With its intriguing photochemistry, its role in immunosuppression and skin cancer development, and skin barrier function, UCA continues to be the subject of intense research effort. This review summarises the photochemical, photobiological and photoimmunological findings regarding UCA, published since 1998.

  14. Dynamic maintenance of majority information in constant time per update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Skyum, Sven

    1997-01-01

    We show how to maintain information about the existence of a majority colour in a set of elements under insertion and deletion of single elements using O(1) time and at most 4 equality tests on colours per update. No ordering information is used....

  15. Transfusion transmitted malaria in three major blood banks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimates the risk of acquiring malaria from a single unit of blood in North of Pakistan. A prospective study was conducted to investigate transfusion transmitted malaria in three major blood banks of Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 1558 (1534 males and 24 females) healthy volunteer blood donors were screened for ...

  16. A Review Of Pectoralis Major Musculocutaneous Island Flap In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like microvascular free flaps, pectoralis major flaps can be transferred in a single stage and have largely replaced deltepectoral (Bakanjiam) flap in head and neck reconstruction. This retrospective study was carried out to highlight the usefulness of this flap in different situations. Ten patients, aged six to 55 years operated ...

  17. Developmentally regulated sphingolipid degradation in Leishmania major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Zhang

    Full Text Available Leishmania parasites alternate between extracellular promastigotes in sandflies and intracellular amastigotes in mammals. These protozoans acquire sphingolipids (SLs through de novo synthesis (to produce inositol phosphorylceramide and salvage (to obtain sphingomyelin from the host. A single ISCL (Inositol phosphoSphingolipid phospholipase C-Like enzyme is responsible for the degradation of both inositol phosphorylceramide (the IPC hydrolase or IPCase activity and sphingomyelin (the SMase activity. Recent studies of a L. major ISCL-null mutant (iscl(- indicate that SL degradation is required for promastigote survival in stationary phase, especially under acidic pH. ISCL is also essential for L. major proliferation in mammals. To further understand the role of ISCL in Leishmania growth and virulence, we introduced a sole IPCase or a sole SMase into the iscl(- mutant. Results showed that restoration of IPCase only complemented the acid resistance defect in iscl(- promastigotes and improved their survival in macrophages, but failed to recover virulence in mice. In contrast, a sole SMase fully restored parasite infectivity in mice but was unable to reverse the promastigote defects in iscl(-. These findings suggest that SL degradation in Leishmania possesses separate roles in different stages: while the IPCase activity is important for promastigote survival and acid tolerance, the SMase activity is required for amastigote proliferation in mammals. Consistent with these findings, ISCL was preferentially expressed in stationary phase promastigotes and amastigotes. Together, our results indicate that SL degradation by Leishmania is critical for parasites to establish and sustain infection in the mammalian host.

  18. Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ted R; Brady, Seán G

    2008-04-08

    Agriculture is a specialized form of symbiosis that is known to have evolved in only four animal groups: humans, bark beetles, termites, and ants. Here, we reconstruct the major evolutionary transitions that produced the five distinct agricultural systems of the fungus-growing ants, the most well studied of the nonhuman agriculturalists. We do so with reference to the first fossil-calibrated, multiple-gene, molecular phylogeny that incorporates the full range of taxonomic diversity within the fungus-growing ant tribe Attini. Our analyses indicate that the original form of ant agriculture, the cultivation of a diverse subset of fungal species in the tribe Leucocoprineae, evolved approximately 50 million years ago in the Neotropics, coincident with the early Eocene climatic optimum. During the past 30 million years, three known ant agricultural systems, each involving a phylogenetically distinct set of derived fungal cultivars, have separately arisen from the original agricultural system. One of these derived systems subsequently gave rise to the fifth known system of agriculture, in which a single fungal species is cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Leaf-cutter ants evolved remarkably recently ( approximately 8-12 million years ago) to become the dominant herbivores of the New World tropics. Our analyses identify relict, extant attine ant species that occupy phylogenetic positions that are transitional between the agricultural systems. Intensive study of those species holds particular promise for clarifying the sequential accretion of ecological and behavioral characters that produced each of the major ant agricultural systems.

  19. Major gene mutations in fruit tree domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1989-01-01

    Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive

  20. Vanpooling: the three major approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, P.M.

    1979-08-01

    The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

  1. Majority rule on heterogeneous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiotte, R

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the majority rule (MR) applied on heterogeneous networks. When the underlying topology is homogeneous, the system is shown to exhibit a transition from an ordered regime to a disordered regime when the noise is increased. When the network exhibits modular structures, in contrast, the system may also exhibit an asymmetric regime, where the nodes in each community reach an opposite average opinion. Finally, the node degree heterogeneity is shown to play an important role by displacing the location of the order-disorder transition and by making the system exhibit non-equipartition of the average spin

  2. Immunotoxic effects of cis-urocanic acid exposure in C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, M Renee; Gogal, Robert M; De Fabo, Edward C; Longstreth, Janice; Holladay, Steven D

    2003-04-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation results in increased levels of intradermal cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) and alters cutaneous immunity by interfering with processing and presentation of antigen by Langerhans cells. Reports on effects of systemic immunotoxicity with 30 day cUCA exposure in laboratory rodents include thymic atrophy, thymic hypocellularity and decreased T-cell-mediated immunity; however, immune effects of single exposure or 5 day cUCA administration, which may better mimic human exposures, are poorly defined. The present study initially evaluated immune effects of single, 5 day, and 4 week cUCA exposure in C57BL/6N mice. Single administration of intradermal cUCA resulted in decreased splenocyte phagocytosis that persisted for 30 days after cUCA exposure. Five day consecutive cUCA exposure decreased numbers of phenotypically mature CD4(+)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) (single positive) thymocytes, increased CD4(+)CD8(+) (double positive) immature thymocytes and increased splenocyte proliferation. Prolonged cUCA exposure (4 weeks) caused profound thymic hypocellularity and splenic hypercellularity and increased splenic macrophage chemiluminescence. Because of this apparent sensitivity of C57BL/6N mice to cUCA, thymic hypocellularity was compared between C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice dosed with cUCA, and was found to be more pronounced in the C57BL/6N strain. These results are an extension of previous conclusions on immune modulation caused by cUCA in the spleen and thymus. Further, the observed variation in sensitivity between the mouse strains is consistent with known genetic susceptibility of these strains to the immunomodulatory effects of exposure to sunlight.

  3. Screening of urocanic acid isomers in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma tumors compared with tumor periphery and healthy skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decara, Juan Manuel; Aguilera, José; Abdala, Roberto; Sánchez, Purificación; Figueroa, Félix L; Herrera, Enrique

    2008-10-01

    Trans-urocanic acid is a major chromophore for ultraviolet (UV) radiation in human epidermis. The UV induces photoisomerization of trans-urocanic acid (tUCA) form to cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) and has been reported as an important mediator in the immunosuppression induced by UV. This immunomodulation has been recognized as an important factor related to skin cancer development. This is the first time that UCA isomers have been measured in epidermis of skin biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with the tumor periphery and biopsies of healthy photoexposed and non-photoexposed skin as controls. The UCA isomers were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of UCA in healthy skin showed significant increase in total UCA content in non-photoexposed body sites compared with highly exposed skins. In contrast, the percentage of cUCA was higher in photoexposed body sites. Maximal levels of cUCA were found in cheek, forehead and forearm and lower levels in abdomen and thigh. No differences were found in total UCA concentration between the tumor samples and healthy photoexposed skin. However, differences were found in relation between isomers. Higher levels of cUCA were detected in SCC biopsies (44% of total UCA) compared with samples of BCC and that of healthy photoexposed skin (30%). These results suggest that the UV radiation exposure, a main factor in development of SCC can be mediated, apart from direct effect to cells (DNA damage), by immunosuppression pathways mediated by high production of cUCA.

  4. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a new......((lg n/(α lglg n)). For constant values of α, this improved query time matches an existing lower bound, for any data structure with polylogarithmic update time. We also generalize our data structure to handle sets of points in d-dimensions, for d ≥ 2, as well as dynamic arrays, in which each entry...

  5. Major plasma disruptions in TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onega, R.J.; Becraft, W.R.; Bettis, E.S.

    1979-02-01

    Evaluation of the instrumentation and control of a power producing tokamak fusion reactor such as The Next Step (TNS) requires an assessment of the consequences of a major plasma disruption during reactor operation. The most important consequence of a disruption will be damage to the first wall from thermal and magnetic stress. Severe temperature gradients will cause thermal stress, placing a limit on the number of disruptions that can occur before the integrity of the wall is lost, and eddy currents induced in the wall will interact with the magnetic energy of the plasma and the →B/sub T/ field to create mechanical forces. Consequences to the ohmic heating (OH) coils, their power supplies, and other coils must also be taken into account

  6. Psychosocial implications of Thalassemia Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinok, Yesim; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagihan; Yilmaz, Deniz; Solak, Ufuk

    2005-02-01

    Many causes including the chronicity of disease, burden of treatment modalities, morbidities, and the expectation of early death resulting from the disease complications, may lead to psychosocial burden in Thalassemia Major (TM) patients. A total of 38 patients with TM and their mothers were recruited to evaluate the psychosocial burden as well as to disclose whether the psychological status of the patients contribute to the compliance with the therapy or to the contrary. Demographic and disease variables were obtained. Child Behavior Check-list (CBCL) was completed by the mothers of the patients. A detailed psychiatric interview based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria was performed for each patient. Symptom Distress Checklist 90 (SCL-90) scale was given to all mothers for evaluating their psychopathology. Although CBCL scores remained between the normal ranges, desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO)-compliant patients and the patients with lower ferritin values had significantly higher scores. A total of 24% of the patients had a psychiatric diagnosis including major depression, anxiety disorder, tic disorder, and enuresis nocturnal. The psychiatric diagnosis was significantly higher in the patients who were compliant with desferrioxamine compared with the non-compliant group (P = 0.007). The SCL-90 scores indicated that the mothers who had a child with good adherence to DFO had higher scale scores than the mothers with a poor adherent child. The increase risk of psychosocial and behavioral problems in thalassemics and their parents indicated the importance of a lifelong psychosocial support for the prevention of mental health issues. The patients and their parents, who were more conscious of the illness, were more worried but more compliant with the therapy and need stronger psychiatric support.

  7. Thalassaemia major and the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malcolm Walker

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of haemoglobin synthesis are the commonest monogenetic disorders worldwide. When first described, thalassaemia was universally fatal in childhood, but after the adoption of regular blood transfusion survival until early teenage and adulthood was to be expected. At that stage in the life of these affected individuals organ failure followed, due to accumulated iron, for which the human has no excretory capacity. Principal amongst the tissues affected by iron overload is the heart and even to the present day, heart disease accounts for the overwhelming majority of premature deaths in this population. Managing transfusion derived iron overload was the next hurdle for clinicians and the families of the patients. For nearly four decades the only available treatment was the demanding regime of parenteral chelation therapy, required on a daily basis, to achieve growth, development and survival with limited or no organ damage. Despite the adoption of these treatment strategies the outlook for thalassaemia patients remained poor, with a 30% to 40% mortality occurring between late teenage and 30 years of age, even in well organised health care systems, such as in the UK, where regular transfusion and desferioxamine treatment were readily available. This dreadful early mortality, largely as a consequence of myocardial iron overload, (1,2 is now improving so that in the UK and other developed nations, heart failure in thalassaemic patients has become uncommon and premature death a much rarer tragedy. This editorial reviews, from a personal viewpoint of a cardiologist involved in the care of these patients for the last 20 years, the progress in the management of the cardiovascular complications of thalassaemia major (TM, which has followed better techniques of identifying those thalassaemic individuals at greatest risk, improved chelation strategies making best use of the three chelating agents that are now available and improved co

  8. [Beta thalassemia major in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Feliu Aurora; Bonduel, Mariana; Sciuccati, Gabriela; del Pozo, Ana; Roldán, Ariel; Ciaccio, Marta; Orazi, Virginia; Fano, Virginia; Ozuna, Blanca; Lejarraga, Horacio; Muriel, Sackmann Federico

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of beta thalassemia major patients seen at Hospital Juan P. Garrahan was carried out in order to determine the characteristics and outcome of the population. From August 1987 to July 2000, 45 patients were admitted (27 males-18 females). The most common beta globin gene defects were C-39 (30.7%); IVS-I nt 110 (20%); IVS-I nt 6 (13.3%); IVS-I nt 1(4%). alpha globin genes were normal in 42 patients, 1 patient had triplicate and cuadriplicate alpha globin genes and 2 patients were not analyzed. Six patients of 5 families were heterozygous for -158G gamma mutation. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was performed in 7 patients, with an identical sibling. Transfusion-related infections and alloantibodies were detected in 6.7% patients. Growth assessment showed no significant difference in the stature of girls compared to the reference population, but 5 boys had short stature. There is a tendency to short trunk. Growth velocity was normal at prepubertal age. No X-ray lesions related to desferrioxamine were observed. Delayed puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were found in 35.7% and abnormalities in GH/IGF-I axis in 12.5% of the patients. Impaired glucose tolerance was found in 2 patients. No patient developed diabetes mellitus, thyroid or adrenal insufficiency. One patient had cardiac complications. Forty-two patients are alive and 3 died (cardiac failure 1, central nervous system bleeding 1, sepsis 1). We conclude that beta thalassemia major, originated mainly from Italian immigrants, has a cumbersome treatment and is severely hindered by the lack of adequate economic resources in our patients.

  9. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  10. Single photon from a single trapped atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingjan, J.; Jones, M.P.A.; Beugnon, J.; Darquiee, B.; Bergamini, S.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum treatment of the interaction between atoms and light usually begins with the simplest model system: a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light wave. Here we demonstrate an elegant experimental realization of this system using an optically trapped single rubidium atom illuminated by resonant light pulses. We observe Rabi oscillations, and show that this system can be used as a highly efficient triggered source of single photons with a well-defined polarisation. In contrast to other sources based on neutral atoms and trapped ions, no optical cavity is required. We achieved a flux of single photons of about 10 4 s -1 at the detector, and observe complete antibunching. This source has potential applications for distributed atom-atom entanglement using single photons. (author)

  11. Academic Major as a Perceived Stress Indicator: Extending Stress Management Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ross W.; Casazza, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research that has explored stress differences between "hard" and "soft" academic majors did not provide clear criteria for categorizing "hard" and "soft" majors, used a single item to measure reported stress, and reported contradictory stress differences between academic majors (Myrtek, Hilgenberg,…

  12. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.444 Identification of major cuts of poultry products. The major cuts of single-ingredient, raw...

  13. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of single-ingredient, raw...

  14. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  15. [Extrapair paternity in Parus major].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li-Xian; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Peng; Li, Jing; Wan, Dong-Mei

    2013-02-01

    Mating systems, as an evolutionary stable strategy, play an important role in animal reproductive process and result from an animal's adaption to their environment, including their inter-specific environment. In the 1980s, extrapair paternity (EPP) was first noted in the eurychoric species, the Great Tit, Parus major. As earlier studies indicated, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecological characteristics and mating systems of eurychoric species differ greatly between areas or populations. Accordingly, we analyzed the mating system of the Great Tit (P.m.minor) in Fairy Cave National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China. We collected total parent-offspring blood samples from 22 broods. We used 8 hypervariable loci, which were selected from 11 reported microsatellite loci for paternity test. In conjunction with the known genetic pattern of the female parent, the accuracy of the paternity testing reached 99.98% with this genetic data. Results of paternity testing showed that 7 of 22 broods (31.8%) had extra-pair nestling, with 16 of 197 nestlings (8.12%) a result of extra-pair fertilizations. The EPP rate of the Great Tit we noted in Liaoning is obviously lower than those in other passerine forest birds (less than 10%). Though between 55.6% and 9.1% extrapair offspring were found among the different nests, we were, however, unable to find any explanatory rule.

  16. Tilecal meets two major milestones

    CERN Multimedia

    Cavalli-Sforza, M.

    Over the last two months the Tile Calorimeter passed not one but two major milestones. In early May, the last of the 64 modules that make up one of the two Extended Barrels arrived at CERN from IFAE-Barcelona, equipped with optical components and tested. And during the Overview Week in Clermont-Ferrand, the last of the 64 Barrel modules, mechanically assembled, arrived from JINR-Dubna. Just a brief reminder: the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is composed of 3 cylinders ("barrels") of steel, scintillating tiles and optical fibers, altogether about 12 m long, with an outer diameter of 8.4 m, and weighing about 2700 tons. The central cavity will contain the Liquid Argon cryostats, and the whole calorimetry system will measure the direction and energy of jets produced at the LHC, as well as the missing transverse energy, which as everyone knows is one of the telltale signals of new and exciting physics. Each of the three cylinders is divided azimuthally into 64 modules - much like the slices of an orange. The modules ar...

  17. Major transitions in information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    When looking at the history of technology, we can see that all inventions are not of equal importance. Only a few technologies have the potential to start a new branching series (specifically, by increasing diversity), have a lasting impact in human life and ultimately became turning points. Technological transitions correspond to times and places in the past when a large number of novel artefact forms or behaviours appeared together or in rapid succession. Why does that happen? Is technological change continuous and gradual or does it occur in sudden leaps and bounds? The evolution of information technology (IT) allows for a quantitative and theoretical approach to technological transitions. The value of information systems experiences sudden changes (i) when we learn how to use this technology, (ii) when we accumulate a large amount of information, and (iii) when communities of practice create and exchange free information. The coexistence between gradual improvements and discontinuous technological change is a consequence of the asymmetric relationship between complexity and hardware and software. Using a cultural evolution approach, we suggest that sudden changes in the organization of ITs depend on the high costs of maintaining and transmitting reliable information. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431527

  18. The construct validity of the Major Depression Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Germund; Ørnbøl, Eva; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the measurement properties of the ten-item Major Depression Inventory when used on clinical suspicion in general practice by performing a Rasch analysis. Methods General practitioners asked consecutive persons to respond to the web-based Major Depression Inventory...... on clinical suspicion of depression. We included 22 practices and 245 persons. Rasch analysis was performed using RUMM2030 software. The Rasch model fit suggests that all items contribute to a single underlying trait (defined as internal construct validity). Mokken analysis was used to test dimensionality...... for gender, age, work status and education. The Rasch and Mokken analyses revealed two dimensions, but the Major Depression Inventory showed fit to one scale if items 9 and 10 were excluded. Conclusion Our study indicated scalability problems in the current version of the Major Depression Inventory...

  19. Major histocompatibility complex genomics and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowsdale, John; Knight, Julian C

    2013-01-01

    Over several decades, various forms of genomic analysis of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been extremely successful in picking up many disease associations. This is to be expected, as the MHC region is one of the most gene-dense and polymorphic stretches of human DNA. It also encodes proteins critical to immunity, including several controlling antigen processing and presentation. Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation now permit the screening of large sample sets, a technique further facilitated by high-throughput sequencing. These methods promise to yield more precise contributions of MHC variants to disease. However, interpretation of MHC-disease associations in terms of the functions of variants has been problematic. Most studies confirm the paramount importance of class I and class II molecules, which are key to resistance to infection. Infection is likely driving the extreme variation of these genes across the human population, but this has been difficult to demonstrate. In contrast, many associations with autoimmune conditions have been shown to be specific to certain class I and class II alleles. Interestingly, conditions other than infections and autoimmunity are also associated with the MHC, including some cancers and neuropathies. These associations could be indirect, owing, for example, to the infectious history of a particular individual and selective pressures operating at the population level.

  20. The University as Agent of Social Transformation: The Case of the University of Central America in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Orfilio Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    In 1965, the Jesuit-run Central American University (UCA) was launched in El Salvador as the wealthy family's educational alternative to the increasingly leftist National University. But within a decade, the UCA would shift its focus to the inequalities and injustice experienced by the country's popular majorities and to its own role as society's…

  1. Unusual forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M; Greenberger, S; Baum, S; Pavlotsky, F; Barzilai, A; Schwartz, E

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania major (L. major) is common in the Middle East; however, this skin infection may be under-diagnosed when it presents atypically. To highlight the occurrence of uncommon presentations of CL that may elude diagnosis. A retrospective study was performed among patients who presented at The Sheba Medical Center between 2005 and 2014 with atypical clinical presentations of CL due to L. major. Twelve patients with unusual clinical presentations of L. major CL were identified. All infections were acquired in L. major - endemic areas of Israel. The average age was 37 years. The average number of lesions was 2. Nine patients presented with a form that mimicked other forms of CL, such as lupoid, giant ulcer, sporotrichoid and recidivans, and three had a variant resembling other infectious skin diseases, such as erysipeloid and verruciform. All patients required systemic therapy. Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major can masquerade as many other infectious and inflammatory diseases. In addition, it can mimic clinical forms of New World CL. We suggest that in endemic countries or in travellers returning from countries where L. major is endemic, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leishmania-specific DNA should be performed routinely in cases of unusual presentations of dermatitis with a single or a few lesions, even if a diagnosis of CL was not considered by the referring clinician. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. [Oromaxillofacial changes in thalassemia major].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattia, D; Pettini, P L; Sabato, V; Rubini, G; Laforgia, A; Schettini, F

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients (31 male and 29 female) with thalassemia major, aged between 6 and 26 years, 18 of which were splenectomized, were observed in this study evaluating the oro-maxillo-facial alterations and correlating them to transfusion indexes, serum ferritin levels, splenectomy and age. For each patient a haematologic and odontostomatologic card was filed with a view to report the medical and clinical history regarding: the haematologic picture, the prevention of caries and parodontal disease, the facies characteristics, the odonto-stomatologic examination, the orthodontic diagnosis, the skull X-rays and the orthopantomography. Poor oral hygiene as well as misknowledge of prevention were generally observed. All the patients showed carious lesions but most of them had never seen a dentist for therapy. The disharmonious growth of splanchnocranium, with the enlargement of the jaw and of its alveolar process, induced by the bone marrow hyperplasia, produced various and serious malocclusion stages (Angle's II class, deep bite, open bite), gnathologic alterations, hypodiaphanous paranasal sinuses and orbital hypertelorism, with a typical oriental-like facies. Malocclusion and the poor oral hygienic conditions determined the occurrence of marginal gingivitis, mainly localized at the level of the lower frontal teeth. In only 3 patients the oral mucous membrane was pale and atrophic. During this investigation agenesia and dental retention were reported in 30% and in 26% of the examined cases respectively, while no patients had supernumerary teeth. Tooth volume, position and shape abnormalities rarely occurred. Only in two patients was enamel hypoplasia described. The caries frequency greatly varied in number and in degree. Only five patients did not show any carious lesions. The caries index (DMF) for the permanent teeth calculated in all the 60 subjects was 5, 12 +/- 4.76. By utilizing Spearman's rank test the number of teeth with caries in the permanent dentition (DFM

  3. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  4. Single-cell western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Syed M S

    2015-01-01

    Cell heterogeneity is a variation in cellular processes in functionally similar cells. Cells from the same tissue which are considered genetically identical may have difference in size, structure, and level of protein expression which can lead to major impact on the functions of cell leading to difference in physiological consequences. Single-cell proteome-wide studies are used to detect cell heterogeneity. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry do play an important role in evaluating cell heterogeneity. However, these methods are based on separation by antibodies with limited specificity. Cross-reactivity can occur leading to bias in result. Western blot is done to separate the proteins according to molecular weight. Therefore, off-target and on-target signals can be discriminated. Detection of protein expression from a tissue can be done with the help of western blot. However, it is unable to differentiate protein expression of individual cells. For detection of this cell-to-cell variation, a highly advanced technique termed "single-cell western blotting" is carried out. Single-cell western blot has enabled us to detect protein expression at cellular level at a fairly advanced high resolution using a western blot designed to assess cell heterogeneity.

  5. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia. III. Mathematical models for mixture toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset concerns the development of models for describing the acute toxicity of major ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia using data from single salt tests and binary...

  6. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule spectroscopy. (SMS), confocal microscopy,. FCS, sm-FRET, FLIM. 1 High-resolution spectrum re- fers to a spectrum consisting of very sharp lines. The sharp lines clearly display transitions to ...

  7. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE. February 2015. GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule ..... Resonance Energy. Transfer (FRET) is an elegant technique to measure the distance between a donor and an acceptor molecule. FRET refers to the.

  8. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct. Keywords. Nonlocality; single particle; hidden variables. PACS Nos 03.67.Ba; 03.65.Ta; 32.80.Lg; 07.79.Fc. 1. Introduction. Quantum nonlocality [2] for single particle is a subject of debate since the origin.

  9. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  10. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  11. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  12. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  13. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  14. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  15. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  16. Success in major transport infrastructure projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, M.

    2009-01-01

    Major transport infrastructure projects have a calamitous history of cost overruns, delays, and overestimated travel demand forecasts. Costs and construction periods for major transport infrastructure projects are frequently underestimated, and benefits overestimated. This leads to suboptimal

  17. The Relevance of Chemistry to Nonscience Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bal Ram

    1995-01-01

    Provides examples and a summary of the results of a survey completed by nonscience majors (n=57). Students provided information about the importance of chemistry to their majors and argued their point of view in a paper. (DDR)

  18. Major Highway Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Major Highways for the United States. The Major Highways layer contains Road Network features based on the Functional Class attribute value on each link...

  19. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  20. Single photon ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)

  1. Why It Pays to Major in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas; Assane, Djeto; Busker, Jared

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a large, recent, and accessible data set to examine the effect of economics major on individual earnings. They find a significant positive earnings gain for economics majors relative to other majors, and this advantage increases with the level of education. Their findings are consistent with Black, Sanders, and…

  2. Single- and double-island ferromagnetic single-electron transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnas, J.; Weymann, I.; Wisniewska, J.; Kowalik, M.; Kunert, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    Electronic transport in a ferromagnetic single-electron transistor has been considered theoretically in the sequential tunneling regime. The device consists of two external leads and one or two islands as the central part, connected to the leads by tunneling barriers. External gates are additionally attached to the islands. Generally, the two external electrodes and the islands can be ferromagnetic with arbitrary orientation of the corresponding magnetic moments. We have carried out detailed theoretical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics and spin-valve magnetoresistance in the limit of fast spin relaxation on the islands. Asymmetry in tunneling probabilities of spin-majority and spin-minority electrons leads to interesting features in the transport characteristics, like for instance magnetoresistance oscillations with the bias and gate voltages, negative differential resistance, and others

  3. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...

  4. A Single Atom Antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinter, Florian; Williams, Joshua B; Weller, Miriam; Waitz, Markus; Pitzer, Martin; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Schober, Carl; Kastirke, Gregor; Müller, Christian; Goihl, Christoph; Burzynski, Phillip; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus S; Jahnke, Till; Dörner, Reinhard; Chiang, Ying-Chih; Gokhberg, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the smallest possible implementation of an antenna-receiver complex which consists of a single (helium) atom acting as the antenna and a second (neon) atom acting as a receiver. (paper)

  5. Single Beam Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan; Ruterbusch, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how holography can be used as part of undergraduate physics laboratories. The authors propose a single beam technique of holography, which will reduce the recording scheme as well as relax the isolation requirements. (HM)

  6. Choosing Double: The Relationship between Successful AP® Exams and College Double Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Jagesic, Sanja; Wyatt, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    Students who double major have higher earnings and are more satisfied with their educational experience in college than those who graduate with a single major. In this study, the authors examine the extent to which a student's experience with academic acceleration programs in high school, specifically successful participation in the Advanced…

  7. The Prototypical Majority Effect Under Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv-Mashinsky, Shiri; Undorf, Monika; Schwarz, Norbert

    2018-05-01

    Majority views are reported with greater confidence and fluency than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. This Prototypical Majority Effect (PME) was attributed generally to conformity pressure, but Koriat et al. showed that it can arise from the processes underlying decision and confidence independent of social influence. Here we examined the PME under conditions that differ in social influence. In Experiment 1, a robust PME emerged in the absence of information about the majority views, but the provision sof that information increased the choice of the majority view and magnified the PME. In Experiment 2, a PME emerged in a minority-biased condition that misled participants to believe that the majority view was the minority view, but the PME was stronger in a majority-biased condition. The results were discussed in terms of a dual-process view: The PME observed under social influence may contain externally driven and internally driven components.

  8. Coronary vasodilatory action after a single dose of nicorandil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Suryapranata (Harry); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractCoronary hemodynamics and vasodilatory effects on major epicardial arteries were investigated after a single dose of nicorandil in 22 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for suspected coronary artery disease. Nicorandil, 20 mg, was administered sublingually to 11 consecutive

  9. Synthesis of Laboratory Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemin Oh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound Contrast Agents (UCAs were developed to maximize reflection contrast so that organs can be seen clearly in ultrasound imaging. UCAs increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR by linear and non-linear mechanisms and thus help more accurately visualize the internal organs and blood vessels. However, the UCAs on the market are not only expensive, but are also not optimized for use in various therapeutic research applications such as ultrasound-aided drug delivery. The UCAs fabricated in this study utilize conventional lipid and albumin for shell formation and perfluorobutane as the internal gas. The shape and density of the UCA bubbles were verified by optical microscopy and Cryo SEM, and compared to those of the commercially available UCAs, Definity® and Sonovue®. The size distribution and characteristics of the reflected signal were also analyzed using a particle size analyzer and ultrasound imaging equipment. Our experiments indicate that UCAs composed of spherical microbubbles, the majority of which were smaller than 1 um, were successfully synthesized. Microbubbles 10 um or larger were also identified when different shell characteristics and filters were used. These laboratory UCAs can be used for research in both diagnoses and therapies.

  10. Teleneonatology: a major tool for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Stephen; Allan, Mark; Valdes, Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Hospitals have, for centuries, maintained a central position in the health care system, providing care for critically ill patients. Despite being a cornerstone of health care delivery, we are witnessing the beginning of a major transformation in their function. There are several forces driving this transformation, including health care costs, shortage of health care professionals, volume of people with chronic diseases, consumerism, health care reform, and hospital errors. The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Utah Valley Regional Medical Center in Provo, Utah, began an aggressive redesign/quality improvement effort in 1990. It became obvious that our care processes were designed for health care deliverers and not for the families. An ongoing revamp of our care delivery processes was undertaken using significant input from a parent focus meeting, parental interviews, and development of a parent-to-parent support group. As a result of this work, it became obvious we needed a new model to truly empower parents. The idea of "NICU is Home" was born. We elected to make a mind shift, not to focus on what families think, but rather on how they think. Web cams and other video apparatus have been used in a number of NICUs across the country. We decided our equipment requirements would need to include high-resolution cameras, full high-definition video recording, autofocus, audio microphones, automatic noise reduction, and automatic low-light correction. Our conferencing software needed to accommodate multiple users and have multiple-picture capabilities, low band width, and inexpensive technology. It was recognized that a single video camera feed was insufficient to adequately capture the desired amount of information. Verbal communication between parents and their babies' principal care providers is critical. Parents loved the idea of expanding the remote NICU web cam of their baby to a two-way physician-parent communication bedside monitor. Doctors at Utah Valley

  11. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  12. Large negative differential conductance in single-molecule break junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrin, Mickael L.; Frisenda, Riccardo; Koole, Max; Seldenthuis, Johannes S.; Gil, Jose A. Celis; Valkenier, Hennie; Hummelen, Jan C.; Renaud, Nicolas; Grozema, Ferdinand C.; Thijssen, Joseph M.; Dulic, Diana; van der Zant, Herre S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular electronics aims at exploiting the internal structure and electronic orbitals of molecules to construct functional building blocks(1). To date, however, the overwhelming majority of experimentally realized single-molecule junctions can be described as single quantum dots, where transport

  13. Single-Sex Schools, the Law, and School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the history of single-sex schools and analyzes the legal status of these schools, reviewing constitutional dimensions of gender-based discrimination and the leading cases that have been litigated on these issues. Offers reflections on why single-sex schools are not likely to hold a major place in the future of urban U.S. public schools.…

  14. Gender Equality in Muslim-Majority Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouda, Moamen; Potrafke, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination has been documented against women in Muslim-majority countries. Constitutions differ among Muslim-majority countries. By using women’s rights indicators and exploiting cross-country variation, we find that discrimination against women is more pronounced in countries where Islam is the source of legislation. Constitutions changed in only four Muslim-majority countries since 1980. We discuss anecdotal evidence to what extent women’s rights changed as a consequence of new constitu...

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  16. Contract miner is a major producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, P.C.; Chironis, N.P.

    1983-10-01

    Morrison-Knudsen Co., Inc. is a major construction company and a major coal producer. It is now broadening its engineering capabilities, moving into other coal areas, and is aiming to shift into midwestern and eastern USA coalfields, as well as expanding into foreign markets. The major subsidiaries of the company are given, illustrating its diversity. The organization of Morrison-Knudsen's Mining Group is discussed. Three major computer systems for geologic modelling, mine planning and operation monitoring are outlined, and, the operation of some of its mines, including brown coal mines in Texas, is detailed.

  17. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report.

  18. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  19. Single-Photon Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, A.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.

    2011-08-01

    Optomechanics experiments are rapidly approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. We show that in this limit the power spectrum has multiple sidebands and that the cavity response has several resonances in the resolved-sideband limit. Using master-equation simulations, we also study the crossover from the weak-coupling many-photon to the single-photon strong-coupling regime. Finally, we find non-Gaussian steady states of the mechanical oscillator when multiphoton transitions are resonant. Our study provides the tools to detect and take advantage of this novel regime of optomechanics.

  20. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  1. Biocatalytic Single Enzyme Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kim, Jungbae

    2004-03-31

    As an innovative way of enzyme stabilization, we recently developed a new enzyme composite of nano-meter scale that we call "single-enzyme nanoparticles (SENs)" (9). Each enzyme molecule is surrounded with a porous composite organic/inorganic network of less than a few nanometers think. This approach represents a new type of enzyme-containing nanostructure. In experiments with perotease (chymotrypsin, CT), the activity of single enzyme nanoparticle form of the enzyme was greatly stabilized compared to the free form, without imposing a serious mass transfer limitation of substrates. In this chapter we will describe the synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of the new SENs.

  2. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions......LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...

  3. Frequency of short stature in - thalassemia major patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.S.; Roshan, E.; Shahid, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of short stature in children with - thalassemia major receiving multiple transfusions at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Military Hospital from 1st January 2010 to 30th June 2010. Subjects and Methods: Total 100 multi-transfused cases of - thalassemia major were included in the study. The height of every child was measured in centimeters using the same free-standing standard stadiometer, and the same technique by a single pediatrician. Results: Out of 100 patients of - thalassemia major 57.0% (n=57) were male while 43% (n=43) were female. Mean age was 9.94 years (SD +- 2.93) with range of 6 to 14 years. Mean height was 115.77 cm (SD +- 13.79) with range of 72.00 to 148.00 cm. 57.0% (n=57) were found to be short statured while 43.0% (n=43) were with normal height. Mean age of short statured patients was 11.61 +- 2.34 years and mean age of patients with normal height was 7.73 +- 2.05 years. Conclusion: The frequency of short stature in our patients with - thalassemia major receiving multiple transfusions is high. There is need to monitor the height of thalassemic children regularly and to improve the quality of care being provided to them so as to improve their quality of life. (author)

  4. Total magnetic reconnection during a tokamak major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, J.A.

    1990-09-01

    Magnetic reconnection has long been considered to be the cause of sawtooth oscillations and major disruptions in tokamak experiments. Experimental confirmation of reconnection models has been hampered by the difficulty of direct measurement of reconnection, which would involve tracing field lines for many transits around the tokamak. Perhaps the most stringent test of reconnection in a tokamak involves measurement of the safety factor q. Reconnection arising from a single helical disturbance with mode numbers m and n should raise q to m/n everywhere inside of the original resonant surface. Total reconnection should also flatten the temperature and current density profiles inside of this surface. Disruptive instabilities have been studied in the Tokapole 2, a poloidal divertor tokamak. When Tokapole 2 is operated in the material limiter configuration, a major disruption results in current termination as in most tokamaks. However, when operated in the magnetic limiter configuration current termination is suppressed and major disruptions appear as giant sawtooth oscillations. The objective of this thesis is to determine if total reconnection is occurring during major disruptions. To accomplish this goal, the poloidal magnetic field has been directly measured in Tokapole 2 with internal magnetic coils. A full two-dimensional measurement over the central current channel has been done. From these measurements, the poloidal magnetic flux function is obtained and the magnetic surfaces are plotted. The flux-surface-averaged safety factor is obtained by integrating the local magnetic field line pitch over the experimentally obtained magnetic surface

  5. Work Values and College Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  6. Writing and Rhetoric Majors, Disciplinarity, and "Techne"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Blake; Meloncon, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    How we argue for, create, and mobilize around writing and rhetoric majors will continue to shape our field's disciplinarity in crucial ways, including our recognition, resources, and relationships. The range of such majors and their institutional contexts, and the disparate field-level efforts to track and build consensus around them, generate…

  7. Inflammatory mechanisms in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedler, Thomas J

    2011-11-01

    As the 'monoamine hypothesis of depression' fails to explain all aspects of major depression, additional causes are being investigated. Several observations suggest that inflammatory mechanisms pay a role in the cause of major depressive disorder (MDD). This article reviews their role in major depression. Recent studies support the concept that inflammatory mechanisms play a crucial role in the pathomechanisms of major depression. Major depression shares similarities with 'sickness behavior', a normal response to inflammatory cytokines. Elevations in proinflammatory cytokines and other inflammation-related proteins in major depression were found in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as in postmortem studies. Elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines persist after clinical symptoms of depression are in remission and can also predict the onset of a depressive episode. Antidepressant treatment can lead to a normalization of elevated cytokine levels in major depression. Finally, we understand how inflammatory mechanisms affect the metabolism of tryptophan and how nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can interfere with the effects of antidepressants. Further studies are needed to fully understand the role of inflammatory mechanisms in major depression and the potential treatment implications.

  8. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Single Item Inventory Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  10. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...

  11. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by fo- cussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a

  12. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis; Camurri, Antonio; Costa, Cristina

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer and

  13. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Reidsma, Dennis; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Volpe, G; Kolkmeier, Jan; Camurri, A.; Kolkmeier, Jan; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer

  14. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  15. Single reusable spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design of a my single person reusable spacecraft. It can carry one person and it has to be dropped from an aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 - 45,000 feet. Can be...

  16. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! ... Author Affiliations. Kankan Bhattacharyya1. Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 India.

  17. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  18. Beyond the Single Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Yekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of world literature have the opportunity to help students explore the more complex reality behind the stereotypes that they often see in the media. If we don't encourage students to challenge one-dimensional "single stories" that characterize an entire people--whether Muslims, Russians, Mexicans, African Americans, Chinese,…

  19. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected. (d) For extended-range fuel tanks installed within the passenger compartment or a baggage... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recording of Major Repairs and Major... to Part 43—Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b...

  20. Keynote on lessons from major radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, P.; Oresegun, M.; Wheatley, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria)

    2000-05-01

    Generic lessons have been learned from a relatively large number of accidents in the most relevant practices (a set of analysis have been made on about 90 radiotherapy events, 43 industrial radiography and nine from industrial irradiations); more specific lessons have been drawn from in-depth investigations of individual accidents. The body of knowledge is grouped as follows: a) radiotherapy is very unique in that humans (patients) are purposely given very high radiation doses (20-75 Gy) by placing them in the radiation beam or by placing radioactive sources in contact with tissues. Intended deterministic effects are the essence of the normal radiotherapy practice and relatively small deviation from the intended doses, i.e,, slightly higher or lower than intended may cause increased rate of severe complication or reduce probability of cure. Consequences of major accidents have been devastating, affecting tens, even hundreds of patients and causing death (directly or indirectly) to a large number of them; b) accidents involving industrial radiography are the most frequent cause of overexposure to workers (radiographers); c) accidents with industrial irradiators have lower probability of occurrence, however, they are deemed to be fatal, especially when whole body exposure to panoramic gamma irradiators occur; partial body irradiation from industrial or research accelerator beams has led to amputation of hands and legs; d) when control of sources was relinquished ('orphan' sources) this has resulted in severe injuries, in some cases death and widespread contamination of the environment. A tool for further dissemination of lessons will be an international reporting system of unusual radiation events (RADEV), being introduced world-wide. Accidents were rarely due to a single human error or isolated equipment failure. In most cases there was a combination of elements such as: a) unawareness of the potential for an accident, b) poor education, which usually did

  1. Keynote on lessons from major radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, P.; Oresegun, M.; Wheatley, J.

    2000-01-01

    Generic lessons have been learned from a relatively large number of accidents in the most relevant practices (a set of analysis have been made on about 90 radiotherapy events, 43 industrial radiography and nine from industrial irradiations); more specific lessons have been drawn from in-depth investigations of individual accidents. The body of knowledge is grouped as follows: a) radiotherapy is very unique in that humans (patients) are purposely given very high radiation doses (20-75 Gy) by placing them in the radiation beam or by placing radioactive sources in contact with tissues. Intended deterministic effects are the essence of the normal radiotherapy practice and relatively small deviation from the intended doses, i.e,, slightly higher or lower than intended may cause increased rate of severe complication or reduce probability of cure. Consequences of major accidents have been devastating, affecting tens, even hundreds of patients and causing death (directly or indirectly) to a large number of them; b) accidents involving industrial radiography are the most frequent cause of overexposure to workers (radiographers); c) accidents with industrial irradiators have lower probability of occurrence, however, they are deemed to be fatal, especially when whole body exposure to panoramic gamma irradiators occur; partial body irradiation from industrial or research accelerator beams has led to amputation of hands and legs; d) when control of sources was relinquished ('orphan' sources) this has resulted in severe injuries, in some cases death and widespread contamination of the environment. A tool for further dissemination of lessons will be an international reporting system of unusual radiation events (RADEV), being introduced world-wide. Accidents were rarely due to a single human error or isolated equipment failure. In most cases there was a combination of elements such as: a) unawareness of the potential for an accident, b) poor education, which usually did not

  2. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in unipolar major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Kai G; Greggersen, Wiebke; Schweiger, Ulrich; Cordes, Joachim; Balijepalli, Chakrapani; Lösch, Christian; Moebus, Susanne

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on the association between affective disorders and the metabolic syndrome yielded inconclusive results. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in 230 men and women with unipolar major depressive disorder during inpatient treatment and compared it to 1,673 subjects from primary care from a similar region in northern Germany. We used the AHA/NHBLI criteria to determine the rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and each single criterion of MetS in both groups. The age-standardized prevalence of MetS was 2.4× as high in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared with data from comparison subjects (41.0% vs. 17.0%). With respect to the single criteria, elevations were found in MDD patients for fasting glucose and triglycerides in both genders, and waist circumference in women. Men in the patient and the comparison groups were found to have higher rates of increased fasting glucose and triglycerides than women in the respective groups. Factors associated with the MetS in MDD patients comprise body mass index and the severity of depression. Our results demonstrate an increased prevalence of the MetS in men and women with MDD. Interventions for the frequently untreated metabolic abnormalities and careful screening for physical health conditions among people with MDD are warranted.

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine year-to-year developments in the operations of 26 major US energy companies on a corporate level and also by major line of energy business and by major functions within each line of business. The period covered is 1977 to 1979. Comparisons of income and investment flow are featured and related to functionally allocated net investment in place. The presentation seeks to identify similarities and dissimilarities in results across lines-of-business activity or by firm size

  4. Inequalities theory of majorization and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Olkin, Ingram

    1980-01-01

    Although they play a fundamental role in nearly all branches of mathematics, inequalities are usually obtained by ad hoc methods rather than as consequences of some underlying ""theory of inequalities."" For certain kinds of inequalities, the notion of majorization leads to such a theory that is sometimes extremely useful and powerful for deriving inequalities. Moreover, the derivation of an inequality by methods of majorization is often very helpful both for providing a deeper understanding and for suggesting natural generalizations.Anyone wishing to employ majorization as a tool in applicati

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  6. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  7. Single sheet iron oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Zhou

    activity. LDH single sheets have been reported to be effective sorbents, catalysts in electrochemical and photochemical reactions, and building thin films together with other nanomaterials for designing new functionalities. Here we focus on the delamination of FeII-FeIII LDHs into single sheet iron oxide...... was rapid compared to other iron oxides, reaching equilibrium within 60 minutes. Arsenic sorption and acid-base titration data could be successfully described with a 1pk Basic Stern Model (BSM). The point of zero charge was around 8. The intrinsic surface complexation equilibrium constants (log K...... became abundant at low pH. (3) Electrochemical reduction of chlorinated compounds using an SSI modified electrode. Here, the electrochemical reactivity of SSIs coated on indium tin oxide coated glass electrodes was investigated. Iron on the SSI modified electrode showed a typical Cyclic Voltammetry...

  8. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  9. Watching single molecules dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amit Dinesh

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy, from ATP hydrolysis or ion flow, into mechanical motion. A variety of increasingly precise mechanical probes have been developed to monitor and perturb these motors at the single molecule level. Several outstanding questions can be best approached at the single molecule level. These include: how far does a motor progress per energy quanta consumed? how does its reaction cycle respond to load? how many productive catalytic cycles can it undergo per diffusional encounter with its track? and what is the mechanical stiffness of a single molecule connection? A dual beam optical trap, in conjunction with in vitro ensemble motility assays, has been used to characterize two members of the myosin superfamily: muscle myosin II and chick brain myosin V. Both move the helical polymer actin, but myosin II acts in large ensembles to drive muscle contraction or cytokinesis, while myosin V acts in small numbers to transport vesicles. An optical trapping apparatus was rendered sufficiently precise to identify a myosin working stroke with 1nm or so, barring systematic errors such as those perhaps due to random protein orientations. This and other light microscopic motility assays were used to characterize myosin V: unlike myosin II this vesicle transport protein moves through many increments of travel while remaining strongly bound to a single actin filament. The step size, stall force, and travel distance of myosin V reveal a remarkably efficient motor capable of moving along a helical track for over a micrometer without significantly spiraling around it. Such properties are fully consistent with the putative role of an organelle transport motor, present in small numbers to maintain movement over long ranges relative to cellular size scales. The contrast between myosin II and myosin V resembles that between a human running on the moon and one walking on earth, where the former allows for faster motion when in larger ensembles but for less

  10. Single Purpose Satellite Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Warren

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the need for tactically responsive space systems capable of supporting battlefield and fleet commanders. Terminology used to describe this category of satellite system varies according to organization or agency. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Lightsat, the Naval Space Command's SPINSAT, and the Air Force Space Command s TACSAT, are reviewed. The United State Space Command's space support mission IS addressed and the role single-purpose satellites can play ...

  11. Single rotor turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  12. Management of major blood loss: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R; Secher, N H

    2010-01-01

    Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved, prioritizing...

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  14. Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 16, 2014 Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis For a disease that affects an estimated 6 ... 10% of women, surprisingly little is known about endometriosis — a disorder that causes uterine tissue to grow ...

  15. Rupture of pectoralis major muscle: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guity MR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rupture of pectoralis major muscle is a very rare and often athletic injury. These days in our country this injury occurs more frequently. This could be due to increase in professional participation of amateur people in different types of sport, like body building and weight-lifting (especially bench-pressing without adequate preparation, training and taking necessary precautions. In this article, we have tried to review several aspects of complex anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, epidemiology, mechanism, clinical presentations, imaging modalities, surgical indications and techniques of its rupture. Complex and especial anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, in its humeral insertion particularly, have a major role of its vulnerability to sudden and eccentric contraction as the main mechanism of rupture. Also, restoration of this complex anatomy seems to be important during surgical repair to have normal function of the muscle again.

  16. Data Sets from Major NCI Initiaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Data Catalog includes links to data collections produced by major NCI initiatives and other widely used data sets, including animal models, human tumor cell lines, epidemiology data sets, genomics data sets from TCGA, TARGET, COSMIC, GSK, NCI60.

  17. Major Benno Leesiku mälestuseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Järelehüüe 2006. aastal surnud Kaitseliidu juhile, Eesti Laskurliidu asepresidendile ja võimlemistreenerite klubi Kartek presidendile major Benno Leesikule, kes oleks 17. jaanuaril 2010. aastal saanud 50-aastaseks

  18. Atmospheric pollution from the major mobile telecommunication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT The extent of pollution from five major mobile telephone companies in Tanzania was investigated. ... with the mobile telecommunication companies' .... Measurement site. Function. House holds. Living, resting and socializing. Schools. Learning. Health centres. Providing and acquiring health services. Hotels.

  19. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  1. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs

  2. Characterizing the epistemological development of physics majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gire

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Students in introductory physics courses are likely to have views about physics that differ from those of experts. However, students who continue to study physics eventually become experts themselves. Presumably these students either possess or develop more expertlike views. To investigate this process, the views of introductory physics students majoring in physics are compared with the views of introductory physics students majoring in engineering. In addition, the views of physics majors are assessed at various stages of degree progress. The Colorado learning attitudes about science survey is used to evaluate students’ views about physics, and students’ overall survey scores and responses to individual survey items are analyzed. Beginning physics majors are significantly more expertlike than nonmajors in introductory physics courses, and this high level of sophistication is consistent for most of undergraduate study.

  3. Total intravenous anesthesia for major burn surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Cuenca, Phillip B; Walker, Stephen C; Shepherd, John M

    2013-01-01

    Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is frequently used for major operations requiring general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. We reviewed our experience with this approach. Methods: During a 22-month period, 547 major burn surgeries were performed in this center’s operating room and were staffed by full-time burn anesthesiologists. The records of all 123 TIVA cases were reviewed; 112 records were complete and were included. For comparison, 75 cases were selected at random from a t...

  4. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit

    2011-08-01

    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions.

  5. The pectoralis major footprint: An anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio de Figueired

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon to the humerus, through knowledge of its dimensions in the coronal and sagittal planes. Methods: Twenty shoulders from 10 cadavers were dissected and the pectoralis major tendon insertion on the humerus was identified and isolated. The dimensions of its "footprint" (proximal to distal and medial to lateral borders and the distance from the top edge of the pectoralis major tendon to apex of the humeral head structures were measured. Results: The average proximal to distal border length was 80.8 mm (range: 70 -90 and the medial-to-lateral border length was 6.1 mm (5 -7. The average distance (and range from the apex of the pectoralis major tendon to the humeral head was 59.3 mm. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon is laminar, and the pectoralis major tendon has an average footprint height and width of 80.8 mm and 6.1 mm, respectively.

  6. Personality disorders in dysthymia and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garyfallos, G; Adamopoulou, A; Karastergiou, A; Voikli, M; Sotiropoulou, A; Donias, S; Giouzepas, J; Paraschos, A

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the comorbidity of personality disorders in patients with primary dysthymia compared to those with episodic major depression. A total of 177 out-patients with primary dysthymia and 187 outpatients with episodic major depression were administered a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-III-R Axis II disorders. In addition, all of these patients completed the BDI, and those with the appropriate level of education also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). A significantly higher proportion of dysthymic patients than patients with major depression met the criteria for a personality disorder, for borderline, histrionic, avoidant, dependent, self-defeating types and for personality disorders of clusters B and C. Further analysis revealed that the above differences were mainly due to the subgroup of patients with 'early-onset dysthymia'. Finally, patients with a personality disorder, both dysthymics and those with major depression, had significantly higher scores on the BDI and on the majority of the MMPI scales compared to those without a personality disorder. The data indicated that (i) dysthymia--mainly that of early onset--is associated with significantly higher personality disorder comorbidity than episodic major depression, and (ii) the presence of a personality disorder is related to more severe overall psychopathology.

  7. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  8. Always single and single again women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K G; Moon, S

    1997-04-01

    What is it like to be a single woman today? Are the experiences of women who have always been single different from those who find themselves single again after having been married? How can family therapists promote the development of single women both individually and relationally? The purpose of this phenomenological, multiple-case study was to investigate perceptions of being single among heterosexual single women between the ages of 30 and 65. Nine focus group interviews and a semistructured, mailed questionnaire were used to collect the data. Constant comparative analyses were used to develop the findings. The findings were organized around the most salient theme that emerged from the analyses: single women have unresolved or unrecognized ambivalences about being single. This overarching theme was supported by three subassertions: (a) single women are aware of both the advantages and the drawbacks of being single; (b) single women are ambivalent about the reasons for their singleness; (c) although content with being single, many women simultaneously experience feelings of loss and grief. Implications for the clinical practice of family therapy and future research on single women are discussed.

  9. Microorganism characterization by single particle mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Scott C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a major effort by several groups has been undertaken to identify bacteria by mass spectrometry at the single cell level. The intent of this review is to highlight the recent progress made in the application of single particle mass spectrometry to the analysis of microorganisms. A large portion of the review highlights improvements in the ionization and mass analysis of bio-aerosols, or particles that contain biologically relevant molecules such as peptides or proteins. While these are not direct applications to bacteria, the results have been central to a progression toward single cell mass spectrometry. Developments in single particle matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) are summarized. Recent applications of aerosol laser desorption/ionization (LDI) to the analysis of single microorganisms are highlighted. Successful applications of off-line and on-the-fly aerosol MALDI to microorganism detection are discussed. Limitations to current approaches and necessary future achievements are also addressed. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Psychology Degree Beliefs and Stereotypes: Differences in the Perceptions of Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.

    2016-01-01

    Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…

  11. Identifying single copy orthologs in Metazoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Creevey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of single copy (1-to-1 orthologs in any group of organisms is important for functional classification and phylogenetic studies. The Metazoa are no exception, but only recently has there been a wide-enough distribution of taxa with sufficiently high quality sequenced genomes to gain confidence in the wide-spread single copy status of a gene.Here, we present a phylogenetic approach for identifying overlooked single copy orthologs from multigene families and apply it to the Metazoa. Using 18 sequenced metazoan genomes of high quality we identified a robust set of 1,126 orthologous groups that have been retained in single copy since the last common ancestor of Metazoa. We found that the use of the phylogenetic procedure increased the number of single copy orthologs found by over a third more than standard taxon-count approaches. The orthologs represented a wide range of functional categories, expression profiles and levels of divergence.To demonstrate the value of our set of single copy orthologs, we used them to assess the completeness of 24 currently published metazoan genomes and 62 EST datasets. We found that the annotated genes in published genomes vary in coverage from 79% (Ciona intestinalis to 99.8% (human with an average of 92%, suggesting a value for the underlying error rate in genome annotation, and a strategy for identifying single copy orthologs in larger datasets. In contrast, the vast majority of EST datasets with no corresponding genome sequence available are largely under-sampled and probably do not accurately represent the actual genomic complement of the organisms from which they are derived.

  12. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  13. Majorities and voting in the Finance Committee

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    At the Finance Committee meeting of 12 November 1999 three issues were raised concerning the Organization's voting and majority rules: 1) the definition of voting majorities in force in the Organization; 2) the interpretation of the double majority rule laid down in the Council Resolution set out in document CERN/2074 of 16 December 1994; 3) the relationship between the ordinary rules of procedure and those laid down by document CERN/RTG/8. At its December 1999 meeting the Committee of Council agreed to examine these issues at its meeting in March 2000. This document sets out the various points that constitute the necessary basis for that discussion. The Committee of Council is invited to take note of the list of majorities in force within the Organization and to decide on the proposal to revise Resolution CERN/2074 relating to the double majority. It is also invited to decide on the proposed clarification of the relationship between the normal rules of procedure applicable to the Finance Committee and the pr...

  14. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  15. Exercise for patients with major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    is to investigate the beneficial and harmful effects of exercise, in terms of severity of depression, lack of remission, suicide, and so on, compared with treatment as usual with or without co-interventions in randomized clinical trials involving adults with a clinical diagnosis of major depression. A meta......BACKGROUND: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is estimated to affect 17% of the population and is considered the second largest health-care problem globally in terms of the number of years lived with disability. The effects of most antidepressant treatments are poor; therefore, exercise...... has been assessed in a number of randomized clinical trials. A number of reviews have previously analyzed these trials; however, none of these reviews have addresses the effect of exercise for adults diagnosed with major depression. METHODS/DESIGN: The objective of this systematic review...

  16. Crystal ball single event display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A.; Allgower, C.; Alyea, J.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1997-01-01

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about π o 's and η's formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer

  17. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangier, P.; Abram, I.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  18. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de

  19. Major economies Forum on energy and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Major Economies Forum is intended to facilitate an open dialogue among major developed and developing economies, help generate the political leadership necessary to achieve a successful outcome at the United Nations climatic change conference in Copenhagen, and advance the exploration of concrete initiatives and joint ventures that increase the supply of clean energy while cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The Forum's second preparatory meeting was held in Paris in May 2009, mainly focused on greenhouse gas emissions reduction actions and objectives, the diffusion of clean technologies, the financing of activities for climate protection and adaptation to climatic change impacts

  20. Heralded single-photon absorption by a single atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, N.; Rohde, F.; Schuck, C.; Almendros, M.; Huwer, J.; Ghosh, J.; Haase, A.; Hennrich, M.; Dubin, F.; Eschner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission and absorption of single photons by single atoms is a fundamental limit of matter-light interaction, manifesting its quantum mechanical nature. As a controlled process, it is also a key tool in quantum optical information technology . Controlled single-photon emission is well advanced ; for controlled single-photon absorption by a single atom, proposals exist but only preliminary experimental steps have been taken . Here we report the absorption of single photons by a single trapped ion: employing a photon pair source, detection of the quantum-correlated partner photon heralds the presence of the resonant photon at the atom. We find clear correlations between the detection of the herald and the absorption process in the atom; we also demonstrate polarization control of this process. Our experiment evidences previously unexplored interaction between a single absorber and a quantum light source; with improved control over the coupling, it will open up new avenues in quantum technology.

  1. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-13] Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice... is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Lenders use the Single Family Premium...

  2. Migraine symptomatology and major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Lannie; Penninx, Brenda; Nyholt, Dale R.; Distel, Marijn A.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    Introduction and objective: Migraine and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur, but it is unclear whether depression is associated with a specific subtype of migraine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether migraine is qualitatively different in MDD patients (N = 1816)

  3. 5 CFR 9701.311 - Major features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.311 Major features. Through the...

  4. 5 CFR 9901.311 - Major features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT... (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9901.311 Major features. Through the issuance...) Policies on base salary administration, including movement between career groups, positions, pay schedules...

  5. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  6. Major Greenwood (1880–1949): the biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background is provided on the discovery of an unpublished biography of Major Greenwood written by one of his sons. The motivation and preparation for online publication of the biography in Statistics in Medicine are outlined. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27654632

  7. Minerals in thalassaemia major patients: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Zeynep; Genc, Gizem Esra; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2017-05-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) is a hereditary blood disease characterised by reduced or absent production of beta globin chains. Erythrocyte transfusions are given to raise the haemoglobin level in patients with thalassaemia major. However, transfusions have been related to increased risk of iron overload and tissue damage related to excess iron. Both elevated oxidative stress due to iron overload and increased hemolysis lead to over utilisation of minerals required for antioxidant enzymes activities. Iron chelators have been used to prevent iron overload in thalassaemia major patients, but these chelators have the possibility of removing minerals from the body. Thalassaemia patients are more at risk for mineral deficiency because of increased oxidative stress and iron chelation therapies. Growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis are the complications of thalassaemia. Minerals may play a particular role to prevent these complications. In the current review, we provide an overview of minerals including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in thalassaemia major patients. We, also, underline that some complications of thalassaemia can be caused by an increased need for minerals or lack of the minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Major development communication paradigms and practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modernization, Dependency, and Multiplicity are three major concepts of development, which have occasioned the use of hierarchical and/or participatory communication practices in our society today. These significantly impact on the mediation role of the graphic encoder during media production process that could either ...

  9. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  10. Preparing for major incidents in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Wachira*

    2013-12-01

    This report provides a review of some of the major incidents in Kenya for the period 2000–2012, with the hope of highlighting the importance of developing an integrated and well-trained Ambulance and Fire and Rescue service appropriate for the local health care system.

  11. Majorization in Euclidean Geometry and Beyond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 466, 1 February (2015), s. 233-240 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Majorization * Doubly stochastic matrix * Euclidean simplex * Star * Regular simplex * Volume of a simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2015

  12. Major hindrance to the dev't

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. In order to find out the major hindrances to the development of autonomy among Grade. Nine students at Baso General Secondary School in learning English, necessary data were collected from one hundred-fifty students, three English teachers and ten students through questionnaire, semi-structured interview ...

  13. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  14. European Regulation on Major Shareholdings and Takeovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jul Clausen, Nis; Engsig Sørensen, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    Even though the rules on disclosure of major shareholdings in listed companies has been partly harmonised in the EU large difference remains. This is documented in the article and it is further debated whether these difference are acceptable, especially in light of the ongoing efforts to harmonise...

  15. Students Facing Poverty: The New Majority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitts, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Low-income students are now a majority in U.S. public schools. Steve Suitts, formerly of the Southern Education Foundation, reviews statistics showing that the percentage of students in K-12 schools coming from low-income families has increased to 52 percent. Meanwhile, state funding for K-12 schools has increased much more modestly, so that…

  16. Associating an ionospheric parameter with major earthquake ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With time, ionospheric variation analysis is gaining over lithospheric monitoring in serving precursors for earthquake forecast. The current paper highlights the association of major (Ms ≥ 6.0) and medium (4.0 ≤ Ms > 6.0) earthquake occurrences throughout the world in different ranges of the Ionospheric Earthquake ...

  17. Major and minor form of hereditary hyperekplexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Vergouwe, MN; van Dijk, JG; Rees, M; Frants, RR; Brown, P

    Hyperekplexia is a hereditary neurological disorder characterized by excessive startle responses. Within the disorder two clinical forms can be distinguished. The major form is characterized by continuous generalized stiffness in the first year of life and an exaggerated startle reflex, accompanied

  18. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  19. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 1. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry from a hard rockterrain – A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. K Srinivasamoorthy S Chidambaram M V Prasanna John Peter P Anandhan. Volume 117 Issue ...

  20. 75 FR 39492 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 [Docket No. FTA-2010-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Public meetings on ANPRM. SUMMARY: This document announces the date, time, and location of an...

  1. 77 FR 3847 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 611 Major Capital Investment Projects; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77... Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Proposed... the project justification and local financial commitment criteria specified in statute and this...

  2. 75 FR 33757 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 [Docket No. FTA-2010-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Public meetings on ANPRM. SUMMARY: This document announces the dates, times, and locations of...

  3. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  4. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, Jakob

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable

  5. Atmospheric pollution from the major mobile telecommunication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of pollution from five major mobile telephone companies in Tanzania was investigated. These companies are Airtel, tIGO, Zantel, Sasatel and Vodacom. The parameters measured were the noise levels, NOx concentrations, and Particulate matter. The noise levels and exhaust gases were determined at 10 ...

  6. Major dicaffeoylquinic acids from Artemisia vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnat, A; Heitz, A; Fraisse, D; Carnat, A P; Lamaison, J L

    2000-09-01

    The two major caffeoylquinic acids, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were new-isolated from the flowering tops of Artemisia vulgaris (yield 2.0% and 0.3% on dry weight, respectively) and characterized by spectroscopic analysis.

  7. Rank reduction of correlation matrices by majorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pietersz (Raoul); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a novel method is developed for the problem of finding a low-rank correlation matrix nearest to a given correlation matrix. The method is based on majorization and therefore it is globally convergent. The method is computationally efficient, is straightforward to implement,

  8. Physics for the Medical Science Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one professor makes his physics course relevant to pharmacy majors. The course emphasizes the relation of basic physics concepts (like forces and thermodynamics) to the human body and uses problems drawn from the medical profession. Student course evaluations show a favorable view of content learned and its relevance. (DB)

  9. Acoustics for Music Majors-- A Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Perry F.

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions of several of the laboratory experiments which have been incorporated into an acoustics course for music majors. Includes vibratory motion and sound generation, nature, speed, and pitch of sound, spectrum analysis and electronic synthesis of musical sound and some conventional sound experiments. (Author/TS)

  10. International Program for Undergraduate Business Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Tom

    This report describes a project to create an interdisciplinary specialization in international business for undergraduate business majors and to internationalize the existing business program at Mercy College (New York). Objectives were to help students acquire a working knowledge of the international dimension of business, appreciate…

  11. Major depressive disorder in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming M; Kessing, Lars V; Sørensen, Tine M

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) were at an increased risk of developing major depression compared with patients having other medical illnesses with a comparable degree of disability. METHOD: Case register linkage study of Danish Psychiatric Central Register...

  12. Minor and major health: a Nietzschean reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biato, Emília Carvalho Leitão; Costa, Luciano Bedin da; Monteiro, Silas Borges

    2017-03-01

    This paper aims to discuss the concept of health, understood as multiple and plural. We use Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical thought as an analytical tool, allowing us to reach a typology involving minor and major health. While the first is normative and sustained by an ideal of healing, the second is an expanding strength, a condition constantly achieved. If minor health follows a preset life moralization script, major health relates to the expanded living being, which affirms its creative nature and transcends established rules. The notion of major health embraces the overcoming of imperative models rooted in biomedicine-based practices and approaches to health collective actions. Nevertheless, on the one hand, if this movement extends the co-participatory nature between staff and users of the health system, on the other hand, it lacks more radical actions to break with the moral nature of health-disease processes. Not refusing life's own vicissitudes, major health understands the need to incorporate pain and suffering involved in individuation movements.

  13. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    Abstract. Modernization, Dependency, and Multiplicity are three major concepts of development, which have occasioned the use of hierarchical and/or participatory communication practices in our society today. These significantly impact on the mediation role of the graphic encoder during media production process that ...

  14. Major and chronic diseases, report 2007.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giampaoli, S.; Oyen, H. van; Devillé, W.; Verschuuren, M.

    2008-01-01

    Blind spots in European health information On June 6th 2008 the European Commission has published the Major and Chronic Diseases Report 2007. This report describes the state of the art of health information in Europe on 13 prevalent chronic conditions. Large differences between the Member States of

  15. China English and ELT for English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a general study of one of varieties of English--China English and its influence on English Language Teaching (ELT) for English majors. The status of English as an International language breaks the situation in which British English or American English is the sole standard. English becomes World Englishes, taking on a plural form,…

  16. Production rates of major regional Floras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polhill, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The ambitious programme of major regional Floras for developing countries initiated in the late 1940’s to 1960’s is now mostly under serious reappraisal because of the slow rates of progress, coupled with political changes, financial restrictions and evolving technology. From our present viewpoint

  17. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 5. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity - Humoral Immunity. Asma Ahmed Banishree Saha Anand Patwardhan Shwetha Shivprasad Dipankar Nandi. General Article Volume 14 Issue 5 May 2009 pp 455-471 ...

  18. Major ions in spitsbergen snow samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semb, A.; Braekkan, R.; Joranger, E.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical analysis of Spitsbergen snow cores sampled in spring 1983, reveals a spatial pattern consistent with orographic deposition of major anthropogenic pollutants with air movements from southeast towards northwest. The highest concentrations of pollutant species were found at an altitude of 700 metres above sea level, and are higher than for any other recorded snow samples from the Arctic

  19. Involvement of Leishmania donovani major surface glycoprotein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The major surface glycoprotein gp63 of the kinetoplastid protozoal parasite Leishmania is implicated as a ligand mediating uptake of the parasite into, and survival within, the host macrophage. By expressing gp63 antisense RNA from an episomal vector in L. donovani promastigotes, gp63-deficient transfectants were ...

  20. Sex segregation in undergraduate engineering majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzler, Elizabeth

    Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher education, I explore gender stratification within one field: engineering. This dissertation investigates why some engineering disciplines have a greater representation of women than other engineering disciplines. I assess the individual and institutional factors and conditions associated with women's representation in certain engineering departments and compare the mechanisms affecting women's and men's choice of majors. I use national data from the Engineering Workforce Commission, survey data from 21 schools in the Project to Assess Climate in Engineering study, and Carnegie Foundation classification information to study sex segregation in engineering majors from multiple perspectives: the individual, major, institution, and country. I utilize correlations, t-tests, cross-tabulations, log-linear modeling, multilevel logistic regression and weighted least squares regression to test the relative utility of alternative explanations for women's disproportionate representation across engineering majors. As a whole, the analyses illustrate the importance of context and environment for women's representation in engineering majors. Hypotheses regarding hostile climate and discrimination find wide support across different analyses, suggesting that women's under-representation in certain engineering majors is not a question of choice or ability. However, individual level factors such as having engineering coursework prior to college show an especially strong association with student choice of major. Overall, the analyses indicate that institutions matter, albeit less for women, and women's under-representation in engineering is not

  1. 75 FR 82148 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... poultry products inspection regulations to require nutrition labeling of the major cuts of single... cuts: This final rule requires nutrition labeling of the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat and... in the voluntary nutrition labeling program to provide nutrition labeling for the major cuts of...

  2. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  3. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs, and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures – an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and...

  4. Coronary single vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbach, M.; Kober, G.; Satter, P.; Gruentzig, A.; Myler, R.; Sterzer, S.

    1980-01-01

    The seven-years-survival rate is about 80 percent with respect to the most favourable long-time prognosis for coronary single vessel diseases under conservative therapy. In this contribution the control angiography of 76 patients after aorto-coronary bypass operation or transluminal angioplastic is reported. Only two patients subjected to a bypass operation. The recidivity rate is 10 percent after an operation, whereby it is not possible to make a recidivity prognosis. If a recidivity shows up it is being developped during the first three months. If the control angiography three months after the operation shows a good result, then a favourable steady state result can be expected. A comparison of the result with four different centers is given. (APR) [de

  5. Single-Molecule Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2010-04-01

    Single-molecule magnets straddle the classical and quantum mechanical worlds, displaying many fascinating phenomena. They may have important technological applications in information storage and quantum computation. We review the physical properties of two prototypical molecular nanomagnets, Mn12-acetate and Fe8: Each behaves as a rigid, spin-10 object and exhibits tunneling between up and down directions. As temperature is lowered, the spin-reversal process evolves from thermal activation to pure quantum tunneling. At low temperatures, magnetic avalanches occur in which the magnetization of an entire sample rapidly reverses. We discuss the important role that symmetry-breaking fields play in driving tunneling and in producing Berry-phase interference. Recent experimental advances indicate that quantum coherence can be maintained on timescales sufficient to allow a meaningful number of quantum computing operations to be performed. Efforts are under way to create monolayers and to address and manipulate individual molecules.

  6. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    and briefly describe the methods that are preferred for SNP typing in forensic genetics. In addition, we will illustrate how SNPs can be used as investigative leads in the police investigation by discussing the use of ancestry informative markers and forensic DNA phenotyping. Modern DNA sequencing......Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... technologies (also called next generation sequencing or NGS) have the potential to completely transform forensic genetic investigations as we know them today. Here, we will make a short introduction to NGS and explain how NGS may combine analysis of the traditional forensic genetic markers with analysis...

  7. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jinkui; Zhang, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2015-10-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures - an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and explore new directions.

  8. Biological substrates underpinning diagnosis of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Etienne; French, Beverly

    2013-09-01

    Major depression is characterized by low mood, a reduced ability to experience pleasure and frequent cognitive, physiological and high anxiety symptoms. It is also the leading cause of years lost due to disability worldwide in women and men, reflecting a lifelong trajectory of recurring episodes, increasing severity and progressive treatment resistance. Yet, antidepressant drugs at best treat only one out of every two patients and have not fundamentally changed since their discovery by chance >50 yr ago. This status quo may reflect an exaggerated emphasis on a categorical disease classification that was not intended for biological research and on oversimplified gene-to-disease models for complex illnesses. Indeed, genetic, molecular and cellular findings in major depression suggest shared risk and continuous pathological changes with other brain-related disorders. So, an alternative is that pathological findings in major depression reflect changes in vulnerable brain-related biological modules, each with their own aetiological factors, pathogenic mechanisms and biological/environment moderators. In this model, pathological entities have low specificity for major depression and instead co-occur, combine and interact within individual subjects across disorders, contributing to the expression of biological endophenotypes and potentially clinical symptom dimensions. Here, we discuss current limitations in depression research, review concepts of gene-to-disease biological scales and summarize human post-mortem brain findings related to pyramidal neurons, γ-amino butyric acid neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, as prototypical brain circuit biological modules. Finally we discuss nested aetiological factors and implications for dimensional pathology. Evidence suggests that a focus on local cell circuits may provide an appropriate integration point and a critical link between underlying molecular mechanisms and neural network dysfunction in major depression.

  9. Current understanding of the neurobiology of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriţă, Anca Livia; Gheorman, Victor; Bondari, Dan; Rogoveanu, Ion

    2015-01-01

    Depression is highly prevalent worldwide and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately 340 million people worldwide suffer from depression at any given time. Based on estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is responsible for the greatest proportion of burden associated with non-fatal health outcomes and accounts for approximately 12% total years lived with disability. Probably no single risk factor can be completely isolated in major depressive disorder (MDD), as interactions between many sources of vulnerability are the most likely explanation. Buttressing the identification of grief, demoralization, hopelessness and styles of psychological coping of the depressed patient are vital, ongoing scientific developments that flow from an increased understanding of this interplay amongst the immune system, endocrine system and brain. The rapidly accumulating body of neurobiological knowledge has catalyzed fundamental changes in how we conceptualize depressive symptoms and has important implications regarding the treatment and even prevention of depressive symptoms in patients.

  10. Phage display of peptide / major histocompatibility class I complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vest Hansen, N; Ostergaard Pedersen, L; Stryhn, A

    2001-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules sample peptides from the intracellular environment and present them to cytotoxic T cells (CTL). To establish a selection system, and, thereby, enable a library approach to identify the specificities involved (that of the MHC-I for peptides...... and subsequently that ot the T cell receptor for peptide-MHC-I complex), we have fused a single chain peptide-MHC-I complex to the phage minor coat protein, gpIII, and displayed it on filamentous phage. Expression of peptide-MHC-I complexes was shown with relevant conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies and......, more importantly, with a unique "T cell receptor-like" (i. e. peptide-specific, MHC-I-restricted) antibody. Thus, properly assembled and folded peptide-MHC-I complexes can be displayed on filamentous phage. Despite the successful display, interaction with T cells could not be demonstrated....

  11. A review of fiddler crabs (genus Uca Leach, 1814) in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological and ecological aspects including life cycle and reproduction, feeding ecology, biotic interactions and tolerance to environmental fluctuations and pollution are discussed. The systematics and distribution of the five fiddler crab species that occur in South Africa is provided. The St Lucia estuarine lake is presented ...

  12. Gut-Associated Microbial Symbionts of the Marsh Fiddler Crab, Uca Pugnax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    insect alimentary canal. J. Exp. Biol. 85: 227-237. Madigan, M. T., J. M. Martinko, and J. Parker. 2003. Brock Biology of Microorganisms , 10th ed...Microbiol. Ecol. 43: 455-466. Madigan, M. T., J. M. Martinko, and J. Parker. 2003. Brock Biology of Microorganisms , 10th ed. Prentice Hall. Maidak, B. L...and J. Parker. 2003. Brock Biology of Microorganisms , 10th ed. Prentice Hall. Mayer, L. M., P. A. Jumars, M. J. Bock, V.-A. Vetter, and J. L. Schmidt

  13. Flocking and feeding in the fiddler crab (UCA tangeri) : Prey availability as risk-taking behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, B; KLAASSEN, M; ZWARTS, L

    1993-01-01

    For a full understanding of prey availability, it is necessary to study risk-taking behaviour of the prey. Fiddler crabs are ideally suited for such a study, as they have to leave their safe burrow to feed on the surface of the intertidal flats during low tide, thereby exposing themselves to avian

  14. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Warner Henning

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28 than nonmusic majors (0/35 exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage.

  15. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Bautista Solis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  16. On detecting selective sweeps using single genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eSinha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the genetic basis of human adaptation has remained a central focal point of modern population genetics. One major area of interest has been the use of polymorphism data to detect so-called 'footprints' of selective sweeps - patterns produced as a beneficial mutation arises and rapidly fixes in the population. Based on numerous simulation studies and power analyses, the necessary sample size for achieving appreciable power has been shown to vary from a few individuals to a few dozen, depending on the test statistic. And yet, the sequencing of multiple copies of a single region, or of multiple genomes as is now often the case, incurs considerable cost. Enard et al. (2010 have recently proposed a method to identify patterns of selective sweeps using a single genome - and apply this approach to human and non¬human primates (chimpanzee, orangutan and macaque. They employ essentially a modification of the Hudson, Kreitman and Aguade (HKA test - using heterozygous single nucleotide poly¬morphisms (SNPs from single individuals, and divergence data from two closely related spe¬cies (human-chimpanzee, human-orangutan and human-macaque. Given the potential importance of this finding, we here investigate the properties of this statistic. We demonstrate through simulation that this approach is neither robust to demography nor background selection; nor is it robust to variable recombination rates.

  17. Preparation of single phase molybdenum boride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurlu, Hasan Erdem

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Formation of Mo and a mixture of molybdenum boride phases take place in preparation of molybdenum borides. → It is intricate to prepare single phase molybdenum borides. → Formation of single phase MoB from MoO 3 + B 2 O 3 + Mg mixtures has not been reported previously. → Single phase MoB was successfully prepared through a combination of mechanochemical synthesis and annealing process. - Abstract: The formation of MoB through volume combustion synthesis (VCS), and through mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) followed by annealing has been investigated. MoO 3 , B 2 O 3 and Mg were used as reactants while MgO and NaCl were introduced as diluents. Products were leached in dilute HCl solution and were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations. Mo was the major phase component in the VCS products under all the experimental conditions. Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo 2 B 5 were found as minor phases. Products of MCS contained a mixture of Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo. After annealing the MCS product at 1400 deg. C for 3 h, single phase α-MoB was obtained.

  18. Single event phenomena in atmospheric neutron environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossett, C.A.; Hughlock, B.W.; Katoozi, M.; LaRue, G.S.; Wender, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    As integrated circuit technology achieves higher density through smaller feature sizes and as the airplane manufacturing industry integrates more sophisticated electronic components into the design of new aircraft, it has become increasingly important to evaluate the contribution of single event effects, primarily Single Event Upset (SEU), to the safety and reliability of commercial aircraft. In contrast to the effects of radiation on electronic systems in space applications for which protons and heavy ions are of major concern, in commercial aircraft applications the interactions of high energy neutrons are the dominant cause of single event effects. These high energy neutrons are produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays, principally protons and heavy ions, in the upper atmosphere. This paper will describe direct experimental measurements of neutron-induced Single Event Effect (SEE) rates in commercial high density static random access memories in a neutron environment characteristic of that at commercial airplane altitudes. The first experimental measurements testing current models for neutron-silicon burst generation rates will be presented, as well as measurements of charge collection in silicon test structures as a function of neutron energy. These are the first laboratory SEE and charge collection measurements using a particle beam having a continuum energy spectrum and with a shape nearly identical to that observed during flight

  19. Major gene mutations and domestication of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    1989-01-01

    From the approximately 200,000 species of flowering plants known, only about 200 have been domesticated. The process has taken place in many regions over long periods. At present there is great interest in domesticating new species and developing new uses for existing ones in order to supply needed food, industrial raw materials, etc. It is proposed that major gene mutations were important in domestication; many key characters distinguishing cultivated from related wild species are controlled by one or very few major genes. The deliberate effort to domesticate new species requires at least the following: identification of needs and potential sources, establishment of suitable niches, choice of taxa to be domesticated, specification of the desired traits and key characters to be modified, as well as the potential role of induced mutations. (author). 14 refs

  20. Electromagnetic safety analysis during major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunming; Wang Yafei; Chen Zhi; Feng Kaiming

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic safety analysis during major disruption is important for safety analysis of the CH HCSB TBM. In this paper, using finite element method, the electromagnetic safety analysis of the CH HCSB TBM is carried out in consideration of major disruption. First, the finite element models of the CH HCSB TBM and its sub-module are established; second, the distributions of the induced eddy currents and electromagnetic forces on the whole CH HCSB TBM module and its sub-module are calculated; third, the torquemoment on whole CH HCSB TBM module and its sub-module are calculated from the distributions of the electromagnetic forces. Comparing the maximum allowable values of the parameters of the materials with the calculated data, the electromagnetic safety of the CH HCSB TBM is investigated. (authors)

  1. Major congenital anomalies in a Danish region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Birkelund, Anne Sofie

    2014-01-01

    congenital anomaly, 13.9% had a chromosomal anomaly and 7.7% were multiple congenital anomalies. The combined foetal and infant mortality in the study area was 11.6 per 1,000 births. 19% (2.2 per 1,000) of these deaths were foetuses and infants with major congenital anomalies. Combined foetal and infant......INTRODUCTION: This study describes the prevalence of congenital anomalies and changes over time in birth outcome, mortality and chronic maternal diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was based on population data from the EUROCAT registry covering the Funen County, Denmark, 1995......-2008. The registry covers live births, foetal deaths with a gestational age (GA) of 20 weeks or more, and terminations of pregnancy due to congenital anomalies (TOPFA). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of congenital anomalies was 2.70% (95% confidence interval: 2.58-2.80). The majority of cases had an isolated...

  2. Modelling and Simulation for Major Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pacciani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a rise in Major Incidents with big impact on the citizens health and the society. Without the possibility of conducting live experiments when it comes to physical and/or toxic trauma, only an accurate in silico reconstruction allows us to identify organizational solutions with the best possible chance of success, in correlation with the limitations on available resources (e.g. medical team, first responders, treatments, transports, and hospitals availability and with the variability of the characteristic of event (e.g. type of incident, severity of the event and type of lesions. Utilizing modelling and simulation techniques, a simplified mathematical model of physiological evolution for patients involved in physical and toxic trauma incident scenarios has been developed and implemented. The model formalizes the dynamics, operating standards and practices of medical response and the main emergency service in the chain of emergency management during a Major Incident.

  3. Major depressive disorder: reification and (maybe) rheostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, S B

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneity of clinical syndromes subsumed by diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) is regarded by some as a reason to abandon or modify the criteria. However, heterogeneity may be unavoidable because of the biopsychosocial complexity of depression. MDD may be characterised by complexities that cannot be distilled down to any brief set of diagnostic criteria. Psychiatrists and psychiatric epidemiologists may need to revise their expectations of this diagnosis in order to avoid over-estimating its ability to guide the selection of treatments and prediction of prognosis. An opposing perspective is that of reification, in which the diagnosis is viewed as being more real than it really is. The concept of rheostasis may help to explain some features of this condition, such as why major depressive episodes sometimes seem understandable or even adaptive (e.g. in the context of bereavement) whereas at other times such episodes are inexplicable and maladaptive.

  4. Statistical mechanics of the majority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, P; Marsili, M

    2003-01-01

    The majority game, modelling a system of heterogeneous agents trying to behave in a similar way, is introduced and studied using methods of statistical mechanics. The stationary states of the game are given by the (local) minima of a particular Hopfield-like Hamiltonian. On the basis of replica symmetric calculations, we draw the phase diagram, which contains the analogue of a retrieval phase. The number of metastable states is estimated using the annealed approximation. The results are confronted with extensive numerical simulations

  5. Mechanical components: fabrication of major reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the validity of criticisms of quality assurance of mechanical plant and welded products within major reactor structures, taking into account experience gained on the AGR's. Various constructive recommendations are made aimed at furthering the objectives of quality assurance in the nuclear industry and making it more cost-effective. Current levels of quality related costs in the fabrication industry are provided as a basis for discussion. (U.K.)

  6. Information support for major public events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the IAEA illicit trafficking database is used to provide information on and assesment of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials to national authorities in charge of nuclear security of major public events. The information communicated to state parties cooperating with IAEA is on incidences confirmed to the agency on illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and also incidences reported in open sources which have not been confirmed.

  7. Frequent flyer business travelers: major exposure hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Olga S; Randolph, Susan A; Ostendorf, Judith S

    2005-02-01

    Bagshaw (2004) notes "the modern commercial aircraft cabin is maintained with adequate environmental control for the comfort of most healthy individuals" (p. 417). Occupational health nurses frequently deal with a population that may include unhealthy individuals or those with pre-existing conditions. It is critical for occupational health nurses to stay current with major hazards faced by frequent flyer business travelers to assist in identifying and preventing adverse health effects associated with these exposures.

  8. Single atom spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M. R.; Armstrong, J. N.; Hua, S. Z.; Chopra, H. D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Single atom spintronics (SASS) represents the ultimate physical limit in device miniaturization. SASS is characterized by ballistic electron transport, and is a fertile ground for exploring new phenomena. In addition to the 'stationary' (field independent) scattering centers that have a small and fixed contribution to total transmission probability of electron waves, domain walls constitute an additional and enhanced source of scattering in these magnetic quantum point contacts (QPCs), the latter being both field and spin-dependent. Through the measurement of complete hysteresis loops as a function of quantized conductance, we present definitive evidence of enhanced backscattering of electron waves by atomically sharp domain walls in QPCs formed between microfabricated thin films [1]. Since domain walls move in a magnetic field, the magnitude of spin-dependent scattering changes as the QPC is cycled along its hysteresis loop. For example, as shown in the inset in Fig. 1, from zero towards saturation in a given field direction, the resistance varies as the wall is being swept away, whereas the resistance is constant upon returning from saturation towards zero, since in this segment of the hysteresis loop no domain wall is present across the contact. The observed spin-valve like behavior is realized by control over wall width and shape anisotropy. This behavior also unmistakably sets itself apart from any mechanical artifacts; additionally, measurements made on single atom contacts provide an artifact-free environment [2]. Intuitively, it is simpler to organize the observed BMR data according to all possible transitions between different conductance plateaus, as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 1; the solid circles show experimental data for Co, which follows the predicted scheme. Requisite elements for the observation of the effect will be discussed in detail along with a review of state of research in this field. Practically, the challenge lies in making

  9. A single particle energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  10. A single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the binding energies of Λ hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A ≤ 89 and for orbital angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei Λ A Z with baryon number A in which a single Λ hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus A Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The Λ hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = -1, isospin I = O and a mass M Λ = 1116 MeV/c 2 . Although the Λ interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V ΛN ∼ 0.5 V NN . As a result, the two-body ΛN system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton Λ 3 H in which the Λ is bound to a deuteron with the Λ-d separation energy being only ∼ 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius ∼ 15 fm exclamation point In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the Λ is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the Λ which can decay either via ''free'' pionic decay Λ → N + π or via induced decay Λ + N → N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime ∼ 10 -10 s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free Λ. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time ∼ 10 -22 s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei

  11. Plasma fibronectin in patients undergoing major surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin in patients undergoing major surgery had been determined before and after operation. The study was done on 15 patients and 15 normal healthy individuals. The study revealed that patients subjected to major operation, their fibronectin level was normal before operation followed by reduction one day post-operation. After one week, fibronectin level raised again nearly to the pre-operations levels. The probable mechanisms of fibronectin in healing processes were discussed. Fibronectin (FN) is a family of structurally and immunologically related high molecular weight glycoproteins that are present in many cell surfaces, in extracellular fluids, in connective tissues and in most membranes. Interaction with certain discrete extracellular substances, such as a glucosaminoglycans (e.g. heparin), fibrin and collagen and with cell surface structure seem to account for many of its biological activities, among which are regulation of adhesion, spreading and locomotion (Mosesson and amrani, 1980). The concentration of Fn in human plasma decreases after extensive destruction such as that occurs in major surgery, burns or other trauma. This decrease has been generally though to be due to increased consumption of soluble plasma Fn in opsonization of particulate and soluble debris from circulation by the reticuloendothelial (RE) system. Fn rapidly appears in injury areas, in experimentally induced blisters, wounded and epithelium tissues (Petersen et al., 1985). Fn accumulates at times of increased vascular permeability and it is produced by cell of blood vessels in response to injury

  12. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  13. The single entity option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, M.C.; Roberts, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, an owner hires an engineer to design a power facility or other project and then circulates the completed plans to several contractors for competitive bidding. Although there are many variations on this theme, there is an alternative method which is growing in popularity--the design-build concept. In this construction method, the same entity designs and constructs the facility. The design builder may be a single firm with both design and construction capacity in-house, or it may be a combination of two or more firms with complementary abilities. If there are multiple firms, they may be structured as a joint venture or with one of the firms prime and the others in a subcontracting role. The critical aspect is that the owner contracts with one entity which has the responsibility for both designing and constructing the facility. According to statistics compiled by the Design-Build Institute of America and F.W. Dodge DATALINE2, a national reporter of construction statistics and information, from April 1995 to April 1996 the number of design-build contracts increased 103 percent over the previous year. Of a total $212 billion construction market, about $37.2 billion--18 percent--was design build. The strongest growth was in the category of industrial--plants, refineries, factories and warehouses--in which the concept use was up more than 300 percent from the previous year

  14. A Study of the Structure of Colleges of Arts and Sciences at Five Major Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Jones, Larry G.

    1978-01-01

    This study of organizational structure, administrative structure, and governance of colleges of arts and sciences at five major universities summarizes the issues involved and identifies some common concepts and arrangements. From the information obtained it seems unlikely that a single organizational structure exists or could be designed to serve…

  15. Telephone-Based Physical Activity Counseling for Major Depression in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Kraft, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48).…

  16. Prospective assessment of stereotactic ablative surgery for intractable major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Donald C; Asaad, Wael; Eskandar, Emad N; Jain, Felipe A; Cosgrove, G Rees; Flaherty, Alice W; Cassem, Edwin H; Price, Bruce H; Rauch, Scott L; Dougherty, Darin D

    2008-09-15

    Despite therapeutic advances for major depression, a subset of patients with this disorder does not respond to conventional treatment. Stereotactic ablative procedures such as anterior cingulotomy have been performed in severely affected, treatment-resistant patients, but the long-term results of such procedures are not fully understood. Findings are reported for 33 patients with severe treatment-resistant major depression who underwent ablative stereotactic procedures (dorsal anterior cingulotomy followed if necessary by subcaudate tractotomy). Preoperative and long-term postoperative Beck Depression Inventory scores were obtained along with postoperative Clinical Global Improvement values. Both were analyzed to evaluate patients' responses to the surgical procedure(s). At mean follow-up of 30 months after one or more stereotactic ablative procedures, 11 patients (33.3%) were classified as responders, 14 (42.4%) were partial responders, and 8 (24.2%) did not respond to the surgical procedure(s). Among those (17) who underwent only one procedure, seven (41.2%) responded, whereas six (35.3%) and four (23.5%) showed partial or no response, respectively. Among patients who required multiple surgical procedures, four patients (25%) responded, whereas eight (50%) and four (25%) patients demonstrated partial or no responses, respectively, at long-term follow-up evaluations. Approximately 75% of depression patients previously resistant to antidepressant therapies received partial or substantial benefit from stereotactic ablative procedures. Those requiring only a single anterior cingulotomy tended to demonstrate more pronounced responses than patients who underwent multiple surgical procedures.

  17. Major customer accounts - strategic alliances for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, R.G.; Ricker, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities look to the future, they are forecasting a need for increased power supply capacity to meet load requirements. But rather than focus solely on the construction of new generating capacity, many utilities facing supply shortages have sought to develop and apply peak shaving and load shifting techniques. They commonly evaluate both new generation and demand side management (DSM) as alternative options in an integrated, least-cost planning approach. Demand side management poses new challenges for utilities because for demand side management to be successful, the product needs to be sold to customers. Gone are the days when a utility simply had to market a single product - electricity. Today, supply planning and marketing organizations need to form an integrated approach to furthering a company's DSM objectives and to bring marketing concepts to this process. This paper does not attempt to argue the pros and cons of demand side management, nor to identify the right DSM alternatives. Rather, the authors focus on issues utilities must address in implementing DSM: (1) value and means of forming strategic alliances with major utility customers if a utility is going to be able to perform in an increasingly competitive environment in the future; (2) critical success factors for an effective DSM program targeted at major utility customers; and (3) necessity of applying key marketing principles to DSM program design and implementation

  18. Music Piracy--Differences in the Ethical Perceptions of Business Majors and Music Business Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan Lee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the ethical perceptions of business majors and music business majors from a private university and observed whether the taking of a business ethics course affected students' perceptions regarding the ethical aspects of downloading, sharing, copying, and selling copyrighted music from Internet and non-Internet…

  19. Age at Menarche and Choice of College Major: Implications for STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner-Shuman, Anna; Waren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Even though boys and girls in childhood perform similarly in math and spatial thinking, after puberty fewer young women pursue majors that emphasize abilities such as science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in college. If postpubertal feminization contributes to a lower likelihood of choosing STEM majors, then young women who enter…

  20. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  1. Biological characterization of venom peptides from the neotropical social waps Polistes major major (Dominican Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Borovičková, Lenka; Čeřovský, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 151, S1 (2007), s. 87-89 ISSN 1213-8118. [Pharmacological Days. Czech and Slovak Pharmacological Meeting /57./. Olomouc, 12.09.2007-14.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : venom peptides * Polistes major major Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  2. Risk factors for and perinatal outcomes of major depression during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räisänen, Sari; Lehto, Soili M; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2014-01-01

    for 1996-2010. PARTICIPANTS: All singleton births (n=511,938) for 2002-2010 in Finland. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, risk factors and consequences of major depression during pregnancy. RESULTS: Among 511,938 women, 0.8% experienced major depression during pregnancy, of which 46.9% had a history...... of depression prior to pregnancy. After history of depression, the second strongest associated factor for major depression was fear of childbirth, with a 2.6-fold (adjusted OR (aOR=2.63, 95% CI 2.39 to 2.89) increased prevalence. The risk profile of major depression also included adolescent or advanced maternal...... age, low or unspecified socioeconomic status (SES), single marital status, smoking, prior pregnancy terminations, anaemia and gestational diabetes regardless of a history of depression. Outcomes of pregnancies were worse among women with major depression than without. The contribution of smoking...

  3. Single-dopant resonance in a single-electron transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Golovach, V. N.; Jehl, X.; Houzet, M.; Pierre, M.; Roche, B.; Sanquer, M.; Glazman, L. I.

    2011-01-01

    Single dopants in semiconductor nanostructures have been studied in great details recently as they are good candidates for quantum bits, provided they are coupled to a detector. Here we report coupling of a single As donor atom to a single-electron transistor (SET) in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Both capacitive and tunnel coupling are achieved, the latter resulting in a dramatic increase of the conductance through the SET, by up to one order of magnitude. The experimental resu...

  4. Thyroid activity in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipcević, Tamara; Pivac, Nela; Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica; Mück-Seler, Dorotea

    2008-09-01

    Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis dysfunction has been associated with pathophysiology of major depression. The aim of the study was to determine serum levels of total 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH) in patients with major depression and healthy controls. The study included 53 medication-free patients with depression and 49 healthy controls. Exclusion criteria for patients was: other axis-I and axis-II diagnoses, intensive psychotherapy or electroconvulsive therapy, prior clinical and/or laboratory evidence of hypo- or hyperthyroidism, alcohol or nicotine dependence, pregnancy, hormone supplement therapy, somatic illnesses (diabetes, renal or hepatic disorders), infections or autoimmune diseases, recent surgical treatment or significantly changed body weight. For controls: the presence of psychiatric disorders and/or thyroid dysfunctions. The diagnosis of major depression was made using structured clinical interview based on DSM-IV criteria. The results showed significantly lower T3 and TSH levels in patients compared to controls. There was no significant difference in T4 values between patients with depression and control subjects. The results showing altered levels of thyroid hormones in depression indicate that further research on thyroid hormone activity can contribute to the better understanding of the biological basis of depression. Based on the high frequency of the subtle neuroendocrine disorders coexisting with depression, the association of thyroid abnormalities and depression should not be underestimated. Future research should identify different behavioral endophenotypes characteristic for depression, which would greatly facilitate delineating the biological phenomena associated with this psychiatric illness.

  5. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  6. Access to major overseas research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolderman, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will describe four schemes which have been established to permit Australian researchers access to some of the most advanced overseas research facilities. These include, access to Major Research Facilities Program, the Australian National Beamline Facility at the Photon Factory, the Australian Synchrotron Research Program and the ISIS Agreement. The details of each of these programs is discussed and the statistics on the scientific output provided. All programs are managed on behalf of the Department of Industry, Science and Tourism by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. One hundred and thirteen senior scientists plus forty, one postgraduate, students were supported through these schemes during the 1996-1997 financial year

  7. Enhancing the Accounting Major with Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershey Friedman Ph.D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accounting majors who wish to be successful in life must learn to acquire knowledge using all kinds of platforms. The belief that the only way people can learn is by classroom instruction is not supported by research. The authors show how online learning is an important tool for achieving the various goals of accounting education that should include creativity, collaboration, communication, critical thinking and problem solving. The authors conclude that the optimal method to teach accounting is by combining face-to-face learning with on-line learning.

  8. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prediction of Major Vascular Events after Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Goldstein, Larry B.; Amarenco, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) at high risk of major vascular events (MVEs; stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death) may help optimize the intensity of secondary preventive interventions. We evaluated the relationships between...... were analyzed. Hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox regression models were used to determine the risk of subsequent MVEs based on the FCRS predicting 20% or more 10-year coronary heart disease risk. The novel risk model was derived based on multivariable modeling with backward selection. Model discrimination...

  10. Women's decision to major in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Stephanie

    This paper explores the lived experiences of high school female students who choose to enter into STEM fields, and describes the influencing factors which steered these women towards majors in computer science, engineering and biology. Utilizing phenomenological methodology, this study seeks to understand the essence of women's decisions to enter into STEM fields and further describe how the decision-making process varies for women in high female enrollment fields, like biology, as compared with low enrollment fields like, computer science and engineering. Using Bloom's 3-Stage Theory, this study analyzes how relationships, experiences and barriers influenced women towards, and possibly away, from STEM fields. An analysis of women's experiences highlight that support of family, sustained experience in a STEM program during high school as well as the presence of an influential teacher were all salient factors in steering women towards STEM fields. Participants explained that influential teacher worked individually with them, modified and extended assignments and also steered participants towards coursework and experiences. This study also identifies factors, like guidance counselors as well as personal challenges, which inhibited participant's path to STEM fields. Further, through analyzing all six participants' experiences, it is clear that a linear model, like Bloom's 3-Stage Model, with limited ability to include potential barriers inhibited the ability to capture the essence of each participant's decision-making process. Therefore, a revised model with no linear progression which allows for emerging factors, like personal challenges, has been proposed; this model focuses on how interest in STEM fields begins to develop and is honed and then mastered. This study also sought to identify key differences in the paths of female students pursuing different majors. The findings of this study suggest that the path to computer science and engineering is limited. Computer

  11. India opens 12th major port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, S.

    2001-05-01

    It has been a long time coming, but Ennore has become the first Indian port to be corporatised. Its inauguration provides a benchmark for turnkey projects. Most of the major components such as the construction of the breakwaters and the two berths for coal handling and dredging works at the port basin and approach channel have been completed. The article describes the origins of the project and its costing, the construction of breakwaters, equipment for conveying and unloading coal, the port infrastructure, and a planned second expansion phase. 4 photos.

  12. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T

    1996-01-01

    The preoperative and postoperative wound-healing capacity of 23 patients undergoing elective major abdominal, thoracic or urological surgery was tested objectively by the subcutaneous accumulation of hydroxyproline and proline in an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) tube. Before scheduled...... surgery two ePTFE tubes were implanted for removal after 5 and 10 days. This was repeated for each patient immediately after surgery. After 10 days a higher amount of hydroxyproline was measured before than after operation (median 2.91 (range 0.37-14.45) versus 1.45 (range 0.26-6.94) micrograms/cm, P = 0...

  13. Anatomy and biomechanics of psoas major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogduk, N; Pearcy, M; Hadfield, G

    1992-05-01

    The fascicular anatomy of the psoas major was determined by dissection in three cadavers. Its actions on the lumbar spine in the sagittal plane were modelled on erect, flexion, and extension radiographs of ten adult males. Calculations revealed that psoas exerts only very small moments that tend to extend the upper lumbar spine and to flex the lower lumbar spine, but at maximum contraction the psoas exerts severe compression forces on the lumbar segments, and large shear forces. Copyright © 1992. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Venous Thromboembolism Following Major Orthopedic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    CIONAC FLORESCU, Simona; ANASTASE, Denisa-Madalina; MUNTEANU, Ana-Maria; STOICA, Ioan Cristian; ANTONESCU, Dinu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication of major orthopedic surgery (total hip arthroplasty-THA, total knee arthroplasty-TKA, hip fracture surgery-FHS) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite this, not all patients receive an appropriate prophylaxis, often due to a disproportionate fear of bleeding complications. A challenge in the management of VTE prophylaxis is to balance the benefits of the treatment with the risk of bleeding. In this article, we review the latest guidelines recommendations regarding prevention of postoperative VTE in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. PMID:24371484

  15. Placebo and antidepressant treatment for major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressant medication is generally considered the primary treatment for major depressive disorders (MDD), but antidepressant treatment has recently approached a crisis with shrinking specific effects and growing placebo responses in current trials. The aim of the paper is to review the placebo...... problem within antidepressant treatment for MDD, and to draw lines to similar problems within the field of psychotherapy. Although clinicians might profit from the large placebo response in their treatment of MDD, the small differences between active treatment and placebo groups found in controlled...

  16. Single molecule force spectroscopy: methods and applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yi; Hu Jun

    2012-01-01

    Single molecule measurements have transformed our view of biomolecules. Owing to the ability of monitoring the activity of individual molecules, we now see them as uniquely structured, fluctuating molecules that stochastically transition between frequently many substrates, as two molecules do not follow precisely the same trajectory. Indeed, it is this discovery of critical yet short-lived substrates that were often missed in ensemble measurements that has perhaps contributed most to the better understanding of biomolecular functioning resulting from single molecule experiments. In this paper, we give a review on the three major techniques of single molecule force spectroscopy, and their applications especially in biology. The single molecular study of biotin-streptavidin interactions is introduced as a successful example. The problems and prospects of the single molecule force spectroscopy are discussed, too. (authors)

  17. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  18. Restless legs syndrome associated with major diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard; Högl, Birgit; Paulus, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Recent publications on both the genetics and environmental factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) defined as a clinical disorder suggest that overlapping genetic risk factors may play a role in primary (idiopathic) and secondary (symptomatic) RLS. Following a systematic literature search of RLS associated with comorbidities, we identified an increased prevalence of RLS only in iron deficiency and kidney disease. In cardiovascular disease, arterial hypertension, diabetes, migraine, and Parkinson disease, the methodology of studies was poor, but an association might be possible. There is insufficient evidence for conditions such as anemia (without iron deficiency), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, headache, stroke, narcolepsy, and ataxias. Based on possible gene–microenvironmental interaction, the classifications primary and secondary RLS may suggest an inappropriate causal relation. We recognize that in some conditions, treatment of the underlying disease should be achieved as far as possible to reduce or eliminate RLS symptoms. RLS might be seen as a continuous spectrum with a major genetic contribution at one end and a major environmental or comorbid disease contribution at the other. PMID:26944272

  19. Major Depression as a Complex Dynamic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique O J Cramer

    Full Text Available In this paper, we characterize major depression (MD as a complex dynamic system in which symptoms (e.g., insomnia and fatigue are directly connected to one another in a network structure. We hypothesize that individuals can be characterized by their own network with unique architecture and resulting dynamics. With respect to architecture, we show that individuals vulnerable to developing MD are those with strong connections between symptoms: e.g., only one night of poor sleep suffices to make a particular person feel tired. Such vulnerable networks, when pushed by forces external to the system such as stress, are more likely to end up in a depressed state; whereas networks with weaker connections tend to remain in or return to a non-depressed state. We show this with a simulation in which we model the probability of a symptom becoming 'active' as a logistic function of the activity of its neighboring symptoms. Additionally, we show that this model potentially explains some well-known empirical phenomena such as spontaneous recovery as well as accommodates existing theories about the various subtypes of MD. To our knowledge, we offer the first intra-individual, symptom-based, process model with the potential to explain the pathogenesis and maintenance of major depression.

  20. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.. These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers. Methods In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Results Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Conclusion Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.

  1. Biomarkers for Major Depressive Disorder: Economic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Lakic, Dragana

    2016-11-01

    Preclinical Research Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major psychiatric illness and it is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 with a lifetime prevalence of about 13%. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly used therapeutic class for MDD. However, response to SSRI treatment varies considerably between patients. Biomarkers of treatment response may enable clinicians to target the appropriate drug for each patient. Biomarkers need to have accuracy in real life, sensitivity, specificity, and relevance to depression. Introduction of MDD biomarkers into the health care system can increase the overall cost of clinical diagnosis of patients. Because of that, decisions to allocate health research funding must be based on drug effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The assessment of MDD biomarkers should include reliable evidence of associated drug effectiveness, adverse events and consequences (reduced productivity and quality of life, disability) and effectiveness of alternative approaches, other drug classes or behavioral or alternative therapies. In addition, all the variables included in an economic model (probabilities, outcomes, and costs) should be based on reliable evidence gained from the literature-ideally meta-analyses-and the evidence should also be determined by informed and specific expert opinion. Early assessment can guide decisions about whether or not to continue test development, and ideally to optimize the process. Drug Dev Res 77 : 374-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Global Occurrence of Major Elements in Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, M.

    2003-12-01

    Major dissolved ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, and CO32-) and dissolved silica (SiO2) in rivers have been studied for more than a hundred years for multiple reasons: (i) geochemists focus on the origins of elements and control processes, and on the partitioning between dissolved and particulate forms; (ii) physical geographers use river chemistry to determine chemical denudation rates and their spatial distribution; (iii) biogeochemists are concerned with the use of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silica species, and other nutrients by terrestrial and aquatic biota; (iv) oceanographers need to know the dissolved inputs to the coastal zones, for which rivers play the dominant role; (v) hydrobiologists and ecologists are interested in the temporal and spatial distribution of ions, nutrients, organic carbon, and pH in various water bodies; (vi) water users need to know if waters comply with their standards for potable water, irrigation, and industrial uses.The concentrations of the major ions are commonly expressed in mg L-1; they are also reported in meq L-1 or μeq L-1, which permits a check of the ionic balance of an analysis: the sum of cations (Σ+ in eq L-1) should equal the sum of anions (Σ- in eq L-1). Dissolved silica is generally not ionized at pH values commonly found in rivers; its concentration is usually expressed in mg L-1 or in μmol L-1. Ionic contents can also be expressed as percent of Σ+ or Σ- (%Ci), which simplifies the determination of ionic types. Ionic ratios (Ci/Cj) in eq eq-1 are also often tabulated (Na+/Cl-, Ca2+/Mg2+, Cl-/SO42-, etc.). As a significant fraction of sodium can be derived from atmospheric sea salt and from sedimentary halite, a chloride-corrected sodium concentration is commonly reported (Na#=Na+-Cl- (in meq L-1)). The export rate of ions and silica, or the yield (YCa2+, YSiO2) at a given station is the average mass transported per year divided by the drainage area: it is expressed in units of t km-2 yr-1

  3. Advances in single chain technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A

    2015-10-07

    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses.

  4. Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.

  5. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder : findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D. J.; van Erp, T. G. M.; Saemann, P. G.; Frodl, T.; Jahanshad, N.; Loehrer, E.; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W. J.; Vernooij, M. W.; Ikram, M. A.; Wittfeld, K.; Grabe, H. J.; Block, A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Voelzke, H.; Hoehn, D.; Czisch, M.; Lagopoulos, J.; Hatton, S. N.; Hickie, I. B.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Kraemer, B.; Gruber, O.; Couvy-Duchesne, B.; Renteria, M. E.; Strike, L. T.; Mills, N. T.; de Zubicaray, G. I.; McMahon, K. L.; Medland, S. E.; Martin, N. G.; Gillespie, N. A.; Wright, M. J.; Hall, G.B.; MacQueen, G. M.; Frey, E. M.; Carballedo, A.; van Velzen, L. S.; van Tol, M. J.; van der Wee, N. J.; Veer, I. M.; Walter, H.; Schnell, K.; Schramm, E.; Normann, C.; Schoepf, D.; Konrad, C.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical

  6. Human major histocompatibility complex contains genes for the major heat shock protein HSP70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, C.A.; Dunham, I.; Campbell, R.D.; Trowsdale, J.

    1989-01-01

    Little is known as to why a large number of human diseases are influenced by the major histocompatibility complex. In some cases, a direct involvement of the products of the polymorphic class I and class II, as well as the less variable products of the class III, genes has been proposed. During characterization of the class III region for the presence of additional loci, the authors have located a duplicated locus encoding the major heat shock protein HSP70 between the complement and tumor necrosis factor genes. The HSP70 loci are 12 kilobases apart and lie 92 kilobases telomeric of the C2 gene. As HSP70 proteins have been linked with a protective role during and after cellular stress, and HSP70 analogues are often presented as antigens in bacterial and protozoal infections, this finding may have major implications with regard to the major histocompatibility complex and associated diseases

  7. Human major histocompatibility complex contains genes for the major heat shock protein HSP70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, C.A.; Dunham, I.; Campbell, R.D. (Medical Research Council Immunochemistry Unit , Oxford (England)); Trowsdale, J. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England))

    1989-03-01

    Little is known as to why a large number of human diseases are influenced by the major histocompatibility complex. In some cases, a direct involvement of the products of the polymorphic class I and class II, as well as the less variable products of the class III, genes has been proposed. During characterization of the class III region for the presence of additional loci, the authors have located a duplicated locus encoding the major heat shock protein HSP70 between the complement and tumor necrosis factor genes. The HSP70 loci are 12 kilobases apart and lie 92 kilobases telomeric of the C2 gene. As HSP70 proteins have been linked with a protective role during and after cellular stress, and HSP70 analogues are often presented as antigens in bacterial and protozoal infections, this finding may have major implications with regard to the major histocompatibility complex and associated diseases.

  8. Implementing Major Trauma Audit in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Conor; Cronin, Marina; Cahill, Fiona; Geary, Una; Houlihan, Patricia; Woodford, Maralyn; Lecky, Fiona; Mealy, Ken; Crowley, Philip

    2016-01-01

    There are 27 receiving trauma hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. There has not been an audit system in place to monitor and measure processes and outcomes of care. The National Office of Clinical Audit (NOCA) is now working to implement Major Trauma Audit (MTA) in Ireland using the well-established National Health Service (NHS) UK Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN). The aim of this report is to highlight the implementation process of MTA in Ireland to raise awareness of MTA nationally and share lessons that may be of value to other health systems undertaking the development of MTA. The National Trauma Audit Committee of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, consisting of champions and stakeholders in trauma care, in 2010 advised on the adaptation of TARN for Ireland. In 2012, the Emergency Medicine Program endorsed TARN and in setting up the National Emergency Medicine Audit chose MTA as the first audit project. A major trauma governance group was established representing stakeholders in trauma care, a national project co-ordinator was recruited and a clinical lead nominated. Using Survey Monkey, the chief executives of all trauma receiving hospitals were asked to identify their hospital's trauma governance committee, trauma clinical lead and their local trauma data co-ordinator. Hospital Inpatient Enquiry systems were used to identify to hospitals an estimate of their anticipated trauma audit workload. There are 25 of 27 hospitals now collecting data using the TARN trauma audit platform. These hospitals have provided MTA Clinical Leads, allocated data co-ordinators and incorporated MTA reports formally into their clinical governance, quality and safety committee meetings. There has been broad acceptance of the NOCA escalation policy by hospitals in appreciation of the necessity for unexpected audit findings to stimulate action. Major trauma audit measures trauma patient care processes and outcomes of care to drive quality improvement at hospital and

  9. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Morgan, Craig D.; Bon, Roger L.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall production of

  10. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented...

  11. Do single women value early retirement more than single men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Anne Møller; Ejrnæs, Mette; Husted, Leif

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to analyse why a large fraction of single elderly people choose to retire early. A structural model directly based on the individual decision of labour supply is estimated on a sample of singles, where singles are defined as those who are living alone. We find that inco...... are willing to reduce the income to 81%. Men's retirement decision is mainly influenced by income and health, whereas women's retirement decision is also affected by education and unemployment experience...... and health are important determinants of the retirement decision. Furthermore, we find substantial gender differences in the retirement pattern. Healthy single women value retirement more than healthy single men and are willing to reduce their disposable income to 74% of their previous income while men...

  12. Single-Molecule Interfacial Electron Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, H. Peter [Bowling Green State Univ., Bowling Green, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Center for Photochemical Sciences

    2017-11-28

    This project is focused on the use of single-molecule high spatial and temporal resolved techniques to study molecular dynamics in condensed phase and at interfaces, especially, the complex reaction dynamics associated with electron and energy transfer rate processes. The complexity and inhomogeneity of the interfacial ET dynamics often present a major challenge for a molecular level comprehension of the intrinsically complex systems, which calls for both higher spatial and temporal resolutions at ultimate single-molecule and single-particle sensitivities. Combined single-molecule spectroscopy and electrochemical atomic force microscopy approaches are unique for heterogeneous and complex interfacial electron transfer systems because the static and dynamic inhomogeneities can be identified and characterized by studying one molecule at a specific nanoscale surface site at a time. The goal of our project is to integrate and apply these spectroscopic imaging and topographic scanning techniques to measure the energy flow and electron flow between molecules and substrate surfaces as a function of surface site geometry and molecular structure. We have been primarily focusing on studying interfacial electron transfer under ambient condition and electrolyte solution involving both single crystal and colloidal TiO2 and related substrates. The resulting molecular level understanding of the fundamental interfacial electron transfer processes will be important for developing efficient light harvesting systems and broadly applicable to problems in fundamental chemistry and physics. We have made significant advancement on deciphering the underlying mechanism of the complex and inhomogeneous interfacial electron transfer dynamics in dyesensitized TiO2 nanoparticle systems that strongly involves with and regulated by molecule-surface interactions. We have studied interfacial electron transfer on TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces by using ultrafast single

  13. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Grant C. Willis

    2003-09-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to

  14. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.; Morgan, Craig D.; McClure, Kevin; Willis, Grant C.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to Arizona. Outcrop analogs are

  15. Progress on resolution of major surety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.R.; Boudreau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the major surety issues (safety, environmental protection, sageguards, reliability, quality assurance) that have been identified during Phase I of the SP-100 Program and the progress that has been made in analyzing the most important of these issues in the context of the conceptual design effort. These issues have been identified as inadvertent criticality, toxic material release and dispersion, radiation exposure following end-of-life reentry, potential diversion of special nuclear material, failure to achieve end-of-life neutronic shutdown, and structural predictability for end-of-life re-entry or boost. Because of the complexity of these issues, a simplified conservative approach was taken during Phase I. Progress on these issues has been mainly in the area of increased understanding of the issues, identification of design features to resolve the issues, and quantitative evaluations of the surety characteristics of the various design concepts

  16. Neuroinflammatory Hypothesis in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfizar Sozeri-Varma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Faced with stress and acute instances, brain cells trigger neuroinflammation and increase inflam-mation response and can cause cell damage, cell death and thereby functional insufficiencies, behavioral disorders and autonomic imbalances. Cytokines that play an important role in inflamma-tory processes affect neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine functions and synaptic plasticity. It has been proven that inflammatory activity increases in depression. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF- and #945; along with acute phase reactants increase in depression. If the inflammatory response becomes chronic and cannot be balanced, inflammation and cytokines may cause behavioral symptoms and neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression and anxiety disorders. In this article, the changes that occur in inflammatory processes in depressive disorder will be summarized; the effects of pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic approaches on these changes will be reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 1-9

  17. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Saavedra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  18. p-Democracy a Pervasive Majority Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniades, Kyriacos A.

    Today, group decision making in our democratic society uses the non-ranked method. What we need is an improved method that allows decision makers to indicate not only their chosen alternative, but also their order of preference by which all alternatives will be placed. We classify this as a particular Social Choice Function, where choice is a group decision-making methodology in an ideal democratic society that gives the expression of the will of the majority. We use the Eigenvector Function to obtain individual priorities of preferences and Borda's Function to obtain the Ranking or otherwise, the Group Choice. Our conclusions give rise to new directions for pervasive democracy with an innovative degenerative quantum scale to allow even for strong to very strong preferences.

  19. Coping with ecological catastrophe: crossing major thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of human population growth and resource depletion makes catastrophes highly probable. No long-term solutions to the problems of humankind will be discovered unless sustainable use of the planet is achieved. The essential first step toward this goal is avoiding or coping with global catastrophes that result from crossing major ecological thresholds. Decreasing the number of global catastrophes will reduce the risks associated with destabilizing ecological systems, which could, in turn, destabilize societal systems. Many catastrophes will be local, regional, or national, but even these upheavals will have global consequences. Catastrophes will be the result of unsustainable practices and the misuse of technology. However, avoiding ecological catastrophes will depend on the development of eco-ethics, which is subject to progressive maturation, comments, and criticism. Some illustrative catastrophes have been selected to display some preliminary issues of eco-ethics.

  20. International gas trade: Potential major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haamsoe, B.; Mashayekhi, A.; Razavi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper reviews some key factors affecting continued expansion of the use and trade of natural gas, with a particular focus on a group of major gas trade and transport projects now in various stages of consideration. The paper begins by outlining the distribution of potential gas supplies, it also sketches the sectorial and regional structures of potential demand for natural gas. It continues by considering current and emerging trends in the international trade of natural gas by pipeline and as liquefied natural gas (LNG). Within the context thus provided, the paper then details a number of significant potential gas trade and transportation projects individually. Finally, the paper comments on the challenges in financing and implementing gas projects, especially with regard to economic, political, and institutional issues in the producing, transit, and consuming countries

  1. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport contribution from both protein and biomimetic support matrix. Also the biomimetic matrix must be encapsulated in order to protect it and make....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...... it sufficiently stable in a final application. Here, I specifically discuss the feasibility of developing osmotic biomimetic MIP membranes, but the technical issues are of general concern in the design of biomimetic membranes capable of supporting selective transmembrane fluxes....

  2. Emerging antidepressants to treat major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Samantha G; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2014-12-01

    Depression is a common disorder with an annual risk of a depressive episode in the United States of 6.6%. Only 30-40% of patients remit with antidepressant monotherapy, leaving 60-70% of patients who do not optimally respond to therapy. Unremitted depressive patients are at increased risk for suicide. Considering the prevalence of treatment resistant depression and its consequences, treatment optimization is imperative. This review summarizes the latest treatment modalities for major depressive disorder including pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and psychotherapy. Through advancements in research to better understand the pathophysiology of depression, advances in treatment will be realized. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission...... databases in May 2014 augmented by hand searches of reference lists. We included original articles in which MDD participants (or their healthy first-dregree relatives) and a healthy control group were compared on standard measures of emotional processing or reward/ punishment processing as well...

  4. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission and to subtle 'hot...... databases in May 2014 augmented by hand searches of reference lists. We included original articles in which MDD participants (or their healthy first-degree relatives) and a healthy control group were compared on standard measures of emotional processing or reward/ punishment processing as well as systematic...

  5. MAJOR PROJECTS THAT INFLUENCE WORLD TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1869, with the opening of the Suez Canal, world trade entered a new era of development. The commercial routes linking the Far East to the western countries were shortened considerably as compared to the maritime corridor around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1914, the opening of the Panama Canal sealed the new deal in world trade, opening for business the shortest commercial routes around the world. After 145 years from the inauguration of the Suez Canal, world trade is on the eve of a new expansion. Two major projects: the expansion of both the Suez and Panama canals, planned to be completed in the next two years, will double their transit capacity. This paper does a comparative analysis of these two strategic projects, underlining the main benefits for Egypt, Panama and world trade, based on the available statistical data, reports and literature in the field.

  6. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    open psychiatric wards. Only a few patients were re-cruited through advertisements (in the PEMF and Chronos studies). Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria were major depression according to the DSM-IV, including a depressive episode as part of a bipolar disorder. For the PEMF study, treatment...... The results from the Pindolol study showed that pindolol did not augment the effect of venlafaxine for the whole sample. However, for those patients classified as slow metabolizers, based on their O-desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine ratio (ODV/V), pindolol did augment the antidepressant effect. For patients...... classified as fast metabolizers, pindolol worsened the outcome. This interaction between ODV/V ratio and treatment group was statistically significant (p = 0.01). Results from the PEMF study The results from the PEMF Study showed that treatment with active versus sham PEMF augmented the effect of the ongoing...

  7. Cognitive hypnotherapy for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladin, Assen

    2012-04-01

    Since the publication of the special issue on cognitive hypnotherapy in the Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly (1994), there have been major developments in the application of hypnosis to the treatment of depression. However, there is no "one-size-fits-all" treatment for depressive disorders as the conditions represent a complex set of heterogeneous symptoms, involving multiple etiologies. It is thus important for therapists to promote a multimodal approach to treating depressive disorders. This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), an evidence-based multimodal psychological treatment that can be applied to a wide range of depressed patients. CH combines hypnosis with cognitive behavior therapy as the latter provides the best integrative lodestone for assimilating empirically supported treatment techniques derived from various psychotherapies.

  8. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission...... and to subtle 'hot' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression....

  9. Tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    A new tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts in the past millennium that may have contributed to the decline of some pre-Hispanic civilizations. Although there is other evidence of droughts during the past millennium, the paleoclimate record had gaps. Stahle et al. used core samples from Montezuma bald cypress trees found in Barranca de Amealco, Querétaro, Mexico, to develop a 1238-year tree ring chronology. They reconstructed the soil moisture record from the tree ring growth patterns. The new record provides the first dated, annually resolved climate record for Mexico and Central America spanning this time period.(Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046472, 2011)

  10. Forensic odontology, part 2. Major disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-03-26

    We have only to look back over the last 12 months to realise that time and time again, an incident occurs where there are mass fatalities. These incidents have instant and long-lasting impact on families, communities and sometimes whole countries. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the need for an efficient and sensitive response to assist in the identification of victims of such incidents and the necessity for trained team responses. Many countries now have Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams that are multi-disciplinary, and plans and protocols in place in readiness. The paper can only hope to give a brief overview of the disaster situation for the reader: whole books have been written on this topic. The forensic odontologist has a major role in disaster incidents when there are accurate and available antemortem dental records.

  11. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized......-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute to the perpetuation......' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression....

  12. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ingar; Hajishengallis, George

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil–P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. PMID:26993626

  13. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil–P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  14. [Sequence learning in major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbély-Ipkovich, Emöke; Németh, Dezsö; Janacsek, Karolina; Gonda, Xénia

    2014-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses, accompanied by several psychological, behavioural and emotional symptoms, and in addition to the symptoms affecting the quality of life, it can lead to severe consequences, including suicide. Sequence learning plays a key role in adapting to the environment, neural plasticity, first language acquisition, social learning and skills, at the same time it defines the behaviour of the patient and also therapeutic possibilities. The aim of this paper is to review sequence learning and its consolidation in MDD. We know little about the effects of mood disorders on sequence learning; the results are contradictory, therefore, further studies are needed to test the effects of MDD on sequence learning and on the consolidation of implicitly acquired sequence knowledge.

  15. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... reviews and meta-analyses. A total of 116 articles met the inclusion criteria of which 97 were original studies. Negative biases in perception, attention and memory for emotional information, and aberrant reward/punishment processing occur in MDD. Imbalanced responses to negative stimuli in a fronto......-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute to the perpetuation...

  16. The Major Histocompatibility Complex in Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Ayala García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplant of organs is one of the greatest therapeutic achievements of the twentieth century. In organ transplantation, the adaptive immunity is considered the main response exerted to the transplanted tissue, since the principal target of the immune response is the MHC (major histocompatibility complex molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. However, we should not forget that the innate and adaptive immunities are closely interrelated and should be viewed as complementary and cooperating. When a human transplant is performed, HLA (human leukocyte antigens molecules from a donor are recognized by the recipient's immune system triggering an alloimmune response Matching of donor and recipient for MHC antigens has been shown to have a significant positive effect on graft acceptance. This paper will present MHC, the innate and adaptive immunities, and clinical HLA testing.

  17. The Major Histocompatibility Complex in Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala García, Marco Antonio; González Yebra, Beatriz; López Flores, Andrea Liliana; Guaní Guerra, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The transplant of organs is one of the greatest therapeutic achievements of the twentieth century. In organ transplantation, the adaptive immunity is considered the main response exerted to the transplanted tissue, since the principal target of the immune response is the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. However, we should not forget that the innate and adaptive immunities are closely interrelated and should be viewed as complementary and cooperating. When a human transplant is performed, HLA (human leukocyte antigens) molecules from a donor are recognized by the recipient's immune system triggering an alloimmune response Matching of donor and recipient for MHC antigens has been shown to have a significant positive effect on graft acceptance. This paper will present MHC, the innate and adaptive immunities, and clinical HLA testing. PMID:22778908

  18. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively

  19. Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots

  20. Species specificity in major urinary proteins by parallel evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren W Logan

    Full Text Available Species-specific chemosignals, pheromones, regulate social behaviors such as aggression, mating, pup-suckling, territory establishment, and dominance. The identity of these cues remains mostly undetermined and few mammalian pheromones have been identified. Genetically-encoded pheromones are expected to exhibit several different mechanisms for coding 1 diversity, to enable the signaling of multiple behaviors, 2 dynamic regulation, to indicate age and dominance, and 3 species-specificity. Recently, the major urinary proteins (Mups have been shown to function themselves as genetically-encoded pheromones to regulate species-specific behavior. Mups are multiple highly related proteins expressed in combinatorial patterns that differ between individuals, gender, and age; which are sufficient to fulfill the first two criteria. We have now characterized and fully annotated the mouse Mup gene content in detail. This has enabled us to further analyze the extent of Mup coding diversity and determine their potential to encode species-specific cues.Our results show that the mouse Mup gene cluster is composed of two subgroups: an older, more divergent class of genes and pseudogenes, and a second class with high sequence identity formed by recent sequential duplications of a single gene/pseudogene pair. Previous work suggests that truncated Mup pseudogenes may encode a family of functional hexapeptides with the potential for pheromone activity. Sequence comparison, however, reveals that they have limited coding potential. Similar analyses of nine other completed genomes find Mup gene expansions in divergent lineages, including those of rat, horse and grey mouse lemur, occurring independently from a single ancestral Mup present in other placental mammals. Our findings illustrate that increasing genomic complexity of the Mup gene family is not evolutionarily isolated, but is instead a recurring mechanism of generating coding diversity consistent with a species

  1. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in

  2. Single-cavity SLED device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, B.A.

    1984-09-01

    The conventional SLED device used at SLAC requires two cavities. However, the same effect can be obtained with a single cavity; the theory and operation of the device is the same, only the hardware is changed. The single-cavity device is described here

  3. Single top t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Faltermann, Nils

    2017-01-01

    The production of single top quarks allows to study the interplay of top quark physics and the electroweak sector of the standard model. Deviations from predictions can be a hint for physics beyond the standard model. The t-channel is the dominant production mode for single top quarks at the LHC. This talk presents the latest measurements from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  4. Quantum transport through single molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Oliveros, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes three-terminal transport measurements through single molecules. The interest in this field stems from the dream that single molecules will form the building blocks for future nanoscale electronic devices. The advantages are their small size -nanometers-, and their synthetic

  5. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Markus

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range

  6. Single-dopant resonance in a single-electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovach, V. N.; Jehl, X.; Houzet, M.; Pierre, M.; Roche, B.; Sanquer, M.; Glazman, L. I.

    2011-02-01

    Single dopants in semiconductor nanostructures have been studied in great detail recently as they are good candidates for quantum bits, provided they are coupled to a detector. Here we report the coupling of a single As donor atom to a single-electron transistor (SET) in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Both capacitive and tunnel coupling are achieved, the latter resulting in a dramatic increase of the conductance through the SET, by up to one order of magnitude. The experimental results are well explained by the rate-equation theory developed in parallel with the experiment.

  7. State and trait olfactory markers of major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Naudin

    Full Text Available Nowadays, depression is a major issue in public health. Because of the partial overlap between the brain structures involved in depression, olfaction and emotion, the study of olfactory function could be a relevant way to find specific cognitive markers of depression. This study aims at determining whether the olfactory impairments are state or trait markers of major depressive episode (MDE through the study of the olfactory parameters involving the central olfactory pathway. In a pilot study, we evaluated prospectively 18 depressed patients during acute episodes of depression and 6 weeks after antidepressant treatment (escitalopram against 54 healthy volunteers, matched by age, gender and smoking status. We investigated the participants' abilities to identify odors (single odors and in binary mixture, to evaluate and discriminate the odors' intensity, and determine the hedonic valence of odors. The results revealed an "olfactory anhedonia" expressed by decrease of hedonic score for high emotional odorant as potential state marker of MDE. Moreover, these patients experienced an "olfactory negative alliesthesia", during the odor intensity evaluation, and failed to identify correctly two odorants with opposite valences in a binary iso-mixture, which constitute potential trait markers of the disease. This study provides preliminary evidence for olfactory impairments associated with MDE (state marker that are persistent after the clinical improvement of depressive symptoms (trait marker. These results could be explained by the chronicity of depression and/or by the impact of therapeutic means used (antidepressant treatment. They need to be confirmed particularly the ones obtained in complex olfactory environment which corresponds a more objective daily life situation.

  8. State and trait olfactory markers of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Marine; El-Hage, Wissam; Gomes, Marlène; Gaillard, Philippe; Belzung, Catherine; Atanasova, Boriana

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, depression is a major issue in public health. Because of the partial overlap between the brain structures involved in depression, olfaction and emotion, the study of olfactory function could be a relevant way to find specific cognitive markers of depression. This study aims at determining whether the olfactory impairments are state or trait markers of major depressive episode (MDE) through the study of the olfactory parameters involving the central olfactory pathway. In a pilot study, we evaluated prospectively 18 depressed patients during acute episodes of depression and 6 weeks after antidepressant treatment (escitalopram) against 54 healthy volunteers, matched by age, gender and smoking status. We investigated the participants' abilities to identify odors (single odors and in binary mixture), to evaluate and discriminate the odors' intensity, and determine the hedonic valence of odors. The results revealed an "olfactory anhedonia" expressed by decrease of hedonic score for high emotional odorant as potential state marker of MDE. Moreover, these patients experienced an "olfactory negative alliesthesia", during the odor intensity evaluation, and failed to identify correctly two odorants with opposite valences in a binary iso-mixture, which constitute potential trait markers of the disease. This study provides preliminary evidence for olfactory impairments associated with MDE (state marker) that are persistent after the clinical improvement of depressive symptoms (trait marker). These results could be explained by the chronicity of depression and/or by the impact of therapeutic means used (antidepressant treatment). They need to be confirmed particularly the ones obtained in complex olfactory environment which corresponds a more objective daily life situation.

  9. Thermal Radiation Anomalies Associated with Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Kafatos, Menas C.; Taylor, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments of remote sensing methods for Earth satellite data analysis contribute to our understanding of earthquake related thermal anomalies. It was realized that the thermal heat fluxes over areas of earthquake preparation is a result of air ionization by radon (and other gases) and consequent water vapor condensation on newly formed ions. Latent heat (LH) is released as a result of this process and leads to the formation of local thermal radiation anomalies (TRA) known as OLR (outgoing Longwave radiation, Ouzounov et al, 2007). We compare the LH energy, obtained by integrating surface latent heat flux (SLHF) over the area and time with released energies associated with these events. Extended studies of the TRA using the data from the most recent major earthquakes allowed establishing the main morphological features. It was also established that the TRA are the part of more complex chain of the short-term pre-earthquake generation, which is explained within the framework of a lithosphere-atmosphere coupling processes.

  10. Potentialities of robots in major accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, M.

    2013-01-01

    The INTRA group was founded in 1988, 2 years after the Chernobyl accident with the purpose of a cooperation between EDF, Cogema and CEA in order to develop and operate a fleet of robots able to intervene and replace man in a nuclear facility in case of major accident. Now INTRA disposes of 5 types of equipment: first, robots for the inside of buildings (they can overcome 40 cm high obstacles, open doors, go upstairs) they are wire-guided and enjoy a battery life of 6 to 8 hours. Secondly, robots for the open air that are able to move in very degraded grounds, they are remote controlled through radio-waves and their autonomy range nears 5 km. Thirdly, public works vehicles, INTRA has developed an excavator and a dump truck, both are remote controlled, they allow the making of any earth work. Fourthly, INTRA has developed 2 systems of contamination measurement: Skylink and Helinuc. Skylink is a system of 20 radiation monitors that can be dispatched on the contaminated zone, their data is collected through radio waves. Helinuc is a kind of gamma spectrometer that is helicopter-borne and can draw a map of the contamination around the installation. Fifthly, 2 drones are being tested, they will be fitted with radiation monitors. (A.C.)

  11. Major new sources of biological ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T.; Henderson-Begg, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all research on biological ice nucleation has focussed on a limited number of bacteria. Here we characterise several major new sources of biogenic ice nuclei. These include mosses, hornworts, liverworts and cyanobacteria. Ice nucleation in the eukaryotic bryophytes appears to be ubiquitous. The temperature at which these organisms nucleate is that at which the difference in vapour pressure over ice and water is at or close to its maximum. At these temperatures (-8 to -18 degrees C) ice will grow at the expense of supercooled water. These organisms are dependent for their water on occult precipitation - fog, dew and cloudwater which by its nature is not collected in conventional rain gauges. Therefore we suggest that these organism produce ice nuclei as a water harvesting mechanism. Since the same mechanism would also drive the Bergeron-Findeisen process, and as moss is known to become airborne, these nuclei may have a role in the initiation of precipitation. The properties of these ice nuclei are very different from the well characterised bacterial nuclei. We will also present DNA sequence data showing that, although related, the proteins responsible are only very distantly related to the classical bacterial ice nuclei.

  12. Contraction of online response to major events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szell, Michael; Grauwin, Sébastian; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation--the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users.

  13. Pharmacotherapy of major depressive disorder in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Liboni, Francesca; Brovedani, Paola

    2010-02-01

    At any one time, major depressive disorder (MDD) affects 4 - 6% of adolescents. When untreated, MDD leads to a high immediate and subsequent suicide risk, long-term chronicity and a poor psychosocial outcome. Whereas psychotherapy can be effective in mild depression, it seems to be less effective in moderate and severe depression. However, although the use of antidepressants increased markedly during the 1990s, in recent years it has decreased as a result of concerns regarding the emergence of suicidality during antidepressant treatment. Are antidepressants truly effective? What is the relationship between different treatments for depression - psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy - alone or in combination? Can antidepressants increase the risk of suicide in some adolescents? Can antidepressants reduce suicide risk in suicidal adolescents? There is evidence that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can improve adolescent depression better than placebo, although the magnitude of the antidepressant effect is 'small to moderate', because of a high placebo response. The SSRI with the best rate of response compared to placebo is fluoxetine. The increased risk of suicidality in adolescents, compared to adults, is weak but consistent across most studies. However, epidemiological studies do not support a relationship between use of antidepressants and suicide rate. A cautious and well-monitored use of antidepressant medications is a first-line treatment option in adolescents with moderate to severe depression. Low rates of remission with current treatment strategies indicate that further research in both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy is warranted.

  14. Successful Control of Major Project Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Lichtenberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper differs from scientific papers describing current research. In line with the theme of this special issue, it challenges conventional risk management practice against the background of former research results successfully finished decades ago. It is well-known that conventional practice frequently results in budget overruns of large projects. International reviews document that. Severe delays of schedules are also well-known. This paper describes successful research results from almost three decades ago, which successfully challenges this severe problem and has led to new practices. The research involved is an unusual mix: Scandinavian researchers from psychology, statistical theory and engineering economy. The resulting procedure has been widely used since around 1990 and challenges conventional procedures. The procedure is documented to be able to yield statistically correct prognoses, when the “rules of the game” have been correctly followed. After a short summary of the basic situation, this paper summarizes the research, followed by some resulting experiences, focusing on two recent studies each of 40 infrastructures and other major projects. In both sets, the actual final cost largely equaled the expected project cost. This result is a marked change from international past and present experience. Finally, the need for further research and progress is discussed.

  15. Corruption – A Major Global Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Pană

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCorruption in the public sector is seen by citizens and public authorities as a major problem for the of system integrity across Europe.The aim of the work was to perform a comparative analysis in terms of corruption in EU globally in 2014, with emphasis on institutionalized corruption. Variables were used on the dynamics of corruption, such as the index of perception of corruption and the corruption level  in public institutions. In this regard, we used surveys initiated by Transparency International, Global Integrity and the European Commission and DNA. It is not to be neglected the answer to the question Why have you not reported an incident of corruption? 58% of Romanians said it would not make any difference, and 20% of respondents said they fear the consequences.Comprehensive anti-corruption policy is expressed in the most efficient manner, through a national program to prevent corruption, articulated in sector prevention strategies directed towards the most vulnerable targets: politics, administration and justice.Keywords: public institutions, transparency, corruption, perception index of corruption, the corruption level in institutions.

  16. The Chernobyl Forum: major findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    2007-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the affected land is now safe for life and economic activities. However, in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in some limited areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine some restrictions on land-use should be retained for decades to come. Most of the 600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed at a young age and some increase of leukaemia and solid cancer in most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation

  17. Contraction of online response to major events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Szell

    Full Text Available Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation--the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users.

  18. Immunoenhancing properties of Plantago major leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Flores, R; Calderon, C L; Scheibel, L W; Tamez-Guerra, P; Rodriguez-Padilla, C; Tamez-Guerra, R; Weber, R J

    2000-12-01

    Plantago major (PM), also known as plantain, is a weed found in temperate zones worldwide. PM leaves have been associated with various biological properties ranging from antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumour to wound healing. However, its mechanism of action associated with boosting of the immune function remains to be elucidated. We found that endotoxin-free methanol extracts from PM leaves, at doses of 50, 100, 250, and 500 microg/mL, were associated with 4.4 +/- 1, 6 +/- 1, 12 +/- 0.4, and 18 +/- 0.4-fold increases of nitric oxide (NO) production, and increased TNF-alpha production (621 +/- 31, 721 +/- 36, 727 +/- 36, and 1056 +/- 52 U/mL, respectively) by rat peritoneal macrophages, in the absence of IFN-gamma or LPS. NO and TNF-alpha production by untreated macrophages was negligible. In addition, PM extracts potentiated Con A-induced lymphoproliferation (3- to 12-fold increases) in a dose-dependent fashion, compared with the effect of Con A alone. The regulation of immune parameters induced by plant extracts may be clinically relevant in numerous diseases including chronic viral infections, tuberculosis, AIDS and cancer.

  19. Osteoporosis Syndrome in Thalassaemia Major: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meropi Toumba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in thalassaemia major (TM represents a prominent cause of morbidity. The mechanism of pathogenesis of bone disease (BD in TM is multifactorial and complicated. Peak bone mass is achieved shortly after completion of puberty and normally remains stable until the third decade of life when age-related bone mass begins. Growth hormone (GH and sex steroids play a crucial role in bone remodeling and in the maintenance of skeletal architecture during adult life. GH and insulin growth factors (IGFs have anabolic effect in bone formation. Sex steroids act probably by increasing the expression of RANKL by osteoblastic cells and alterations in the RANK/RANKL/OPG system in favor of osteoclasts. Impaired GH secretion and lack of sex steroids in thalassemic patients due to pituitary damage, contribute to failure of achieving optimal peak bone mass. Other endocrine complications such as hypoparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency have also a detrimental role on bones in TM. It is still questionable whether the international criteria for defining osteopenia and osteoporosis are relevant to patients with TM; also a question arises for the diagnostic methods such as DEXA scan and management of osteoporosis with known treatment protocols, in the thalassaemic patient.

  20. Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-07-14

    Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology.

  1. Perceptive biases in major depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Marine; Carl, Tatiana; Surguladze, Simon; Guillen, Catherine; Gaillard, Philippe; Belzung, Catherine; El-Hage, Wissam; Atanasova, Boriana

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE), and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale), an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors), and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant), facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions), and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant). In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.

  2. Perceptive biases in major depressive episode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Naudin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE, and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. METHODS: We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale, an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors, and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. RESULTS: MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant, facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions, and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant. In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.

  3. Trochleoplasty in major trochlear dysplasia: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaufils Philippe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trochleoplasty is the theoretical solution to persistent symptoms (pain and/or instability related to trochlear dysplasia where there is not only a trochlear flatness but also a trochlear prominence. The threshold of prominence indicating surgical intervention has as yet not been determined. A bump of 5 mm is generally accepted as the inferior limit. Given the interventional nature of this demanding procedure, it should be proposed in selected cases after considerable discussion with the patient. Trochleoplasty is indicated as a primary procedure for major trochlear dysplasia with a prominence > 5 mm. Stabilization is obtained in most of the cases with the risk of residual mild anterior knee pain. It is also indicated as a salvage procedure when a previous surgery failed. Despite the reputation of the procedure, the published results are encouraging in terms of prevention of re-dislocation, satisfaction index, and radiological outcomes. Post-operative stiffness is the main complication, which may require manipulation under anaesthesia or arthroscopic arthrolysis. There are few other complications reported and to date secondary necrosis of the trochlea has not been reported. Technically speaking, the deepening trochleoplasty is a difficult procedure without reliable landmarks. We propose a recession wedge trochleoplasty which is an easier procedure. It is never undertaken as an isolated procedure, but always in conjunction with other realignment procedures of the extensor apparatus according to the "a la carte" surgery concept.

  4. Resource Demand Scenarios for the Major Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshkaki, Ayman; Graedel, T E; Ciacci, Luca; Reck, Barbara K

    2018-03-06

    The growth in metal use in the past few decades raises concern that supplies may be insufficient to meet demands in the future. From the perspective of historical and current use data for seven major metals-iron, manganese, aluminum, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead-we have generated several scenarios of potential metal demand from 2010 to 2050 under alternative patterns of global development. We have also compared those demands with various assessments of potential supply to midcentury. Five conclusions emerge: (1) The calculated demand for each of the seven metals doubles or triples relative to 2010 levels by midcentury; (2) The largest demand increases relate to a scenario in which increasingly equitable values and institutions prevail throughout the world; (3) The metal recycling flows in the scenarios meet only a modest fraction of future metals demand for the next few decades; (4) In the case of copper, zinc, and perhaps lead, supply may be unlikely to meet demand by about midcentury under the current use patterns of the respective metals; (5) Increased rates of demand for metals imply substantial new energy provisioning, leading to increases in overall global energy demand of 21-37%. These results imply that extensive technological transformations and governmental initiatives could be needed over the next several decades in order that regional and global development and associated metal demand are not to be constrained by limited metal supply.

  5. Burkholderia glumae: next major pathogen of rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C

    2011-05-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of cis-urocanic acid and permethrin-induced alterations in cutaneous immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, M R; Blaylock, B L; Holladay, S D

    2003-12-01

    Cutaneous cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) or ultraviolet B exposure has been shown to cause diminished cutaneous contact hypersensitivity (CH) and to induce systemic tolerance (increased regulatory T lymphocytes) in mice. Permethrin is also a known CH inhibitor, but the molecular mechanisms are currently poorly understood. In this study, CH was evaluated in four strains of mice: an immunosensitive strain (C57BL/6N), an immunoresistant strain (SvImJ), a strain developed from C57BL/6N mice but genetically altered at both the tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors (TNFalphap55R and p75R), and a strain developed from C57BL/6N but genetically deleted at the interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) locus. CH was evaluated in each group via oxazolone challenge following a 5-day exposure to intradermal (ID) cUCA or a single exposure to topical permethrin, or co-exposure to both chemicals in 5-week-old female C57BL/6N, SvImJ, and C57BL/6N mice genetically altered at the TNFalpha or IFNgamma locus. A 5-day exposure to ID cUCA or a single exposure to topical permethrin resulted in diminished CH response in C57BL/6N mice, and this effect was exacerbated with concurrent exposure to both chemicals. CH in SvImJ was both cUCA- and permethrin-resistant relative to C57BL/6N mice, as 5-day cUCA or a single exposure to permethrin did not diminish CH, nor did concurrent exposure to cUCA and permethrin. Mice deleted at both TNFalphaR loci displayed similar but somewhat blunted diminished CH responses to cUCA or permethrin. This trend became significant with combined chemical exposure. IFNgamma knockout mice displayed similar diminished CH responses to cUCA or permethrin alone. Unlike C57BL/6N mice, the IFNgamma knockout mice did not show a further reduction in CH with combined chemical exposure. These results suggest the following: (1)Mouse strains show variable susceptibility to permethrin- and cUCA-induced immunomodulation. (2)TNFalpha may be involved in the immunomodulatory effects of cUCA and permethrin

  7. Communication Apprehension: A Comparison between English Majors and Non-majors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi-Yong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the scale of communication apprehension developed by McCroskey, a comparative study has been conducted between English majors and non-majors of different English learning experiences in a Chinese university. Whereas all the subjects remain at the medium level of communication apprehension, no significant difference was found across different communication scenarios among students of different majors as well as different grades. The results imply that the cause of communication apprehension might not be necessarily associated with differences in learning experience, syllabi or even teaching approaches. The characteristics of the high-contextual Chinese culture may be interpretable to this non-difference result. Thus, we may hypothesize with confidence that psychological approaches may be more effective to reduce the phenomenon of mute English of Chinese learners and their reticence in English class.

  8. Changing attitudes toward marriage and single life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A; Freedman, D

    1982-01-01

    Attitudes about the primacy of marriage as a way of life have changed markedly over the past two decades. The legitimacy of singleness as a life-style is increasingly recognized by young people and their parents; most Americans no longer regard getting married as necessarily better than remaining single and do not disapprove of those who eschew marriage. Although most young people interviewed in the 1980 Study of American Families say that they would be bothered at least a little by failure to marry, relatively few say they would be greatly bothered by that outcome. It is somewhat surprising that the mothers of these young people also report fairly evenhanded attitudes regarding marriage for their children, suggesting that the younger generation will probably not experience much parental pressure to marry. Although the imperative to marry has weakened and the perceived advantages of marriage as compared to single life have declined, marriage continues to be valued by the majority of young Americans as shown in several studies of attitudes toward marriage. More than 90 percent expect to marry and there has been almost no decline in that proportion since 1960. What is more, despite the high levels of divorce, most young people say that they expect their marriages to be lasting. What has changed about marriage plans has been the rising age at which young people, especially young women, expect to marry--an expectation reflected in the increasing age at which Americans are actually marrying. There also seems to be a widespread desire not to let marriage interfere with education and to obtain some work experience before marriage. Marriage continues to be more important to young women than young men, despite recent trends toward more egalitarian sex roles. There is some evidence that experience with divorce increases negative attitudes about marriage and favorable ones about singleness as a way of life.

  9. Human major histocompatibility complex contains genes for the major heat shock protein HSP70.

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent, C A; Dunham, I; Trowsdale, J; Campbell, R D

    1989-01-01

    Little is known as to why a large number of human diseases are influenced by the major histocompatibility complex. In some cases, a direct involvement of the products of the polymorphic class I and class II, aas well as the less variable products of the class III, genes has been proposed. During characterization of the class III region for the presence of additional loci, we have located a duplicated locus encoding the major heat shock protein HSP70 between the complement and tumor necrosis f...

  10. Single banking supervision and the single supervisory mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, C. A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A resolution seems to have been found for the banking crisis. The first steps have been made towards the construction of the Economic and Monetary Union, steps involving the single supervision of banks, in order to avoid the discount of a new financial crisis on the expense of the EU state members. The Single Supervisory Mechanism – SSM is to become effective as of March 1, 2014, at the earliest.

  11. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area

  12. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  13. Photoinactivation of major bacterial pathogens in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyong Jin Roh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant increases in the bacterial resistance to various antibiotics have been found in fish farms. Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases in aquaculture are needed. In recent years, light-emitting diode technology has been applied to the inactivation of pathogens, especially those affecting humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of blue light (wavelengths 405 and 465 nm on seven major bacterial pathogens that affect fish and shellfish important in aquaculture. Results We successfully demonstrate inactivation activity of a 405/465-nm LED on selected bacterial pathogens. Although some bacteria were not fully inactivated by the 465-nm light, the 405-nm light had a bactericidal effect against all seven pathogens, indicating that blue light can be effective without the addition of a photosensitizer. Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio anguillarum, and Edwardsiella tarda were the most susceptible to the 405-nm light (36.1, 41.2, and 68.4 J cm−2, respectively, produced one log reduction in the bacterial populations, whereas Streptococcus parauberis was the least susceptible (153.8 J cm−2 per one log reduction. In general, optical density (OD values indicated that higher bacterial densities were associated with lower inactivating efficacy, with the exception of P. damselae and Vibrio harveyi. In conclusion, growth of the bacterial fish and shellfish pathogens evaluated in this study was inactivated by exposure to either the 405- or 465-nm light. In addition, inactivation was dependent on exposure time. Conclusions This study presents that blue LED has potentially alternative therapy for treating fish and shellfish bacterial pathogens. It has great advantages in aspect of eco-friendly treating methods differed from antimicrobial methods.

  14. Major depression and secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Woolf, Benjamin; Wang, Jian Li; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently linked smoking to poor mental health. Among non-smokers, some studies have also reported associations between secondhand smoke exposure and psychological symptoms. However, an association between secondhand smoke exposure and depressive disorders has not been well established. This analysis used cross-sectional data from a series of 10 population surveys conducted in Canada between 2003 and 2013. The surveys targeted the Canadian household population, included a brief structured interview for past year major depressive episode (MDE) and included items assessing secondhand smoke exposure. We used two-stage individual-level random-effects meta-regression to synthesize results from these surveys. Over the study interval, about 20% of non-smokers reported substantial exposure to secondhand smoke. In this group, the pooled annual prevalence of MDE was 6.1% (95% CI 5.3-6.9) compared to 4.0% (95% CI 3.7-4.3) in non-smokers without secondhand smoke exposure. The crude odds ratio was 1.5 (95% CI 1.4-1.7). With adjustment for a set of potential confounding variables the odds ratio was unchanged, 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 - 1.6). These results provide additional support for public health measures aimed at reducing secondhand smoke exposure. A causal connection between secondhand smoke exposure and MDEs cannot be confirmed due to the cross-sectional nature of the data. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish temporal sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Major advances in fundamental dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackley, J K; Donkin, S S; Reynolds, C K

    2006-04-01

    Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major advances have been made at all levels of biological organization, including the whole animal, organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules. At the whole-animal level, progress has been made in delineating metabolism during late pregnancy and the transition to lactation, as well as in whole-body use of energy-yielding substrates and amino acids for growth in young calves. An explosion of research using multicatheterization techniques has led to better quantitative descriptions of nutrient use by tissues of the portal-drained viscera (digestive tract, pancreas, and associated adipose tissues) and liver. Isolated tissue preparations have provided important information on the interrelationships among glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and mammary gland, as well as the regulation of these pathways during different physiological states. Finally, the last 25 yr has witnessed the birth of "molecular biology" approaches to understanding fundamental nutrition. Although measurements of mRNA abundance for proteins of interest already have provided new insights into regulation of metabolism, the next 25 yr will likely see remarkable advances as these techniques continue to be applied to problems of dairy cattle biology. Integration of the "omics" technologies (functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) with measurements of tissue metabolism obtained by other methods is a particularly exciting prospect for the future. The result should be improved animal health and well being, more efficient dairy production, and better models to predict nutritional requirements and provide rations to meet

  16. Entropy vs. Majorization: What Determines Complexity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Seitz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of a microcanonical statistical ensemble of states of isolated systems from order to disorder as determined by increasing entropy, is compared to an alternative evolution that is determined by mixing character. The fact that the partitions of an integer N are in one-to-one correspondence with macrostates for N distinguishable objects is noted. Orders for integer partitions are given, including the original order by Young and the Boltzmann order by entropy. Mixing character (represented by Young diagrams is seen to be a partially ordered quality rather than a quantity (See Ruch, 1975. The majorization partial order is reviewed as is its Hasse diagram representation known as the Young Diagram Lattice (YDL.Two lattices that show allowed transitions between macrostates are obtained from the YDL: we term these the mixing lattice and the diversity lattice. We study the dynamics (time evolution on the two lattices, namely the sequence of steps on the lattices (i.e., the path or trajectory that leads from low entropy, less mixed states to high entropy, highly mixed states. These paths are sequences of macrostates with monotonically increasing entropy. The distributions of path lengths on the two lattices are obtained via Monte Carlo methods, and surprisingly both distributions appear Gaussian. However, the width of the path length distribution for diversity is the square root of the mixing case, suggesting a qualitative difference in their temporal evolution. Another surprising result is that some macrostates occur in many paths while others do not. The evolution at low entropy and at high entropy is quite simple, but at intermediate entropies, the number of possible evolutionary paths is extremely large (due to the extensive branching of the lattices. A quantitative complexity measure associated with incomparability of macrostates in the mixing partial order is proposed, complementing Kolmogorov complexity and Shannon entropy.

  17. Generalized Anxiety and Major Depressive syndrome ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause generalized anxiety (GA) and major depression (MD) in residents living in Mn-exposed areas. Marietta and East Liverpool are two Ohio towns identified as having elevated levels of Mn. The objective was to determine if levels of Mn exposure were associated with levels of GA and MD.Participants and methods: 186 participants (Mean age: 55.0 ± 10.80) were examined. Levels of air-Mn were assessed over a period of ten years using U.S. EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model. Average air-Mn exposure was 0.53 μg/m3 in the two towns. The GA syndrome was comprised of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and phobic scales from the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). The MD syndrome was comprised of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism scales also from the SCL-90-R. Linear regression models were used to determine the relationship between Mn and GA, MD and the specific components of each.Results: Elevated air-Mn was associated with GA (β= 0.240, p=0.002), and MD (β= 0.202, p=0.011). Air-Mn was associated with specific components of GA anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), phobic anxiety (β= 0.159, p=0.046), and obsessive-compulsive (β= 0.197, p=0.013). Similarly, components of MD syndrome suggested an association as well: depression (β= 0.180, p=0.023), anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), and psychoticism (β= 0.188, p=0.018). Conclusions: The results suggest that residents with elevated exposure to environmental Mn have elevated levels of

  18. Cambodia's recent history has major population impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article describes major demographic patterns and programs for reducing fertility in Cambodia, based on the 1996 Demographic Survey. A population census will be undertaken in 1998. Cambodia has a very low sex ratio among persons aged 40-44 years, and a loss of population aged 35-39 years. This population pattern is accounted for by the number of men who died during the war period of 1975-79. Over 24% of households are headed by women. Population is about 10.8 million. Population will double in about 25 years. The rate of natural increase was 2.6% annually. The Royal Government Public Investment Program for 1996-2000, will increase investment in family planning and birth spacing to increase contraceptive supplies, improve distribution, and expand the scope of IEC. In 1995, a KAP survey estimated that the total fertility rate was 4.9 children/woman. The 1996 Demographic Survey estimated a rate of 5.2 children/woman. Only 12.6% of currently married women used contraception, and only 6.9% were using modern contraception. With a child mortality rate of 181/1000, Cambodia is a country with one of the highest rates in the world. A national maternal mortality survey based on the sisterhood method estimated maternal mortality at 473 maternal deaths/100,000 live births. The National Maternal and Child Health Centers offers birth spacing services nationwide. The UNFPA funded program offers birth spacing and sexually transmitted disease services in 13 provinces and extensive technical and management training. Regular meetings are held between governmental and nongovernmental groups.

  19. Aspergillus flavus: the major producer of aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, Maren A

    2007-11-01

    SUMMARY Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of crops. It is important because it produces aflatoxin as a secondary metabolite in the seeds of a number of crops both before and after harvest. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen that is highly regulated in most countries. In the field, aflatoxin is associated with drought-stressed oilseed crops including maize, peanut, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under the right conditions, the fungus will grow and produce aflatoxin in almost any stored crop seed. In storage, aflatoxin can be controlled by maintaining available moisture at levels below that which will support growth of A. flavus. A number of field control measures are being utilized or explored, including: modification of cultural practices; development of resistant crops through molecular and proteomic techniques; competitive exclusion using strains that do not produce aflatoxin; and development of field treatments that would block aflatoxin production. Aspergillus flavus Link (teleomorph unknown) kingdom Fungi, phyllum Ascomycota, order Eurotiales, class Eurotiomycetes, family Trichocomaceae, genus Aspergillus, species flavus. Aspergillus flavus has a broad host range as an opportunistic pathogen/saprobe. It is an extremely common soil fungus. The major concern with this fungus in agriculture is that it produces highly carcinogenic toxins called aflatoxins which are a health hazard to animals. In the field, A. flavus is predominantly a problem in the oilseed crops maize, peanuts, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under improper storage conditions, A. flavus is capable of growing and forming aflatoxin in almost any crop seed. It also is a pathogen of animals and insects. In humans it is predominantly an opportunistic pathogen of immunosuppressed patients. http://www.aspergillusflavus.org, http://www.aflatoxin.info/health.asp, plantpathology.tamu.edu/aflatoxin, http://www.aspergillus.org.uk.

  20. Berkeley's Advanced Labs for Undergraduate Astronomy Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiles, C.

    1998-12-01

    We currently offer three advanced laboratory courses for undergraduate majors: optical, IR, and radio. These courses contain both intellectual and practical content; in this talk we focus on the radio lab as a representative example. The first half of the semester concentrates on fundamentals of microwave electronics and radio astronomy techniques in four formal laboratory exercises which emphasize hands-on use of microwave devices, laboratory instruments, and computer-controlled data taking. The second half of the course emphasizes astronomy, using a horn with ~ 1 m(2) aperture to map the HI in the Galaxy and a two-element interferometer composed of ~ 1 m diameter dishes on a ~ 10 m baseline to measure accurate positions of radio sources and accurate diameters for the Sun and Moon. These experiments and observations offer ideal opportunities for teaching coordinates, time, rotation matrices, data reduction techniques, least squares, signal processing, image processing, Fourier transforms, and laboratory and astronomical instrumentation. The students can't get along without using computers as actually used by astronomers. We stay away from packaged software such as IRAF, which are ``black boxes''; rather, students learn far more by writing their own software, usually for the first time. They use the IDL language to take and reduce data and prepare them for the lab reports. We insist on quality reports---including tables, postscript graphs and images, correct grammar, spelling, and all the rest---and we strongly urge (successfully!) the students to use LATEX. The other two lab courses have the same emphasis: the guiding spirit is to place the students in a real-life research-like situation. There is too much to do, so students perform the work in small groups of 3 or 4 and groups are encouraged to share their knowledge. Lab reports are written individually. These courses are very demanding, requiring an average of 20 hours per week from the students (and probably

  1. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juling, Katrin; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Williams, John L; Fries, Ruedi

    2006-01-01

    Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively). The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent. PMID:17014722

  2. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams John L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively. The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent.

  3. Dichotomy of major genes and polygenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to facilitate domestication and breeding of new or underexploited crop species, the genetic basis of many traits must be critically investigated, and both naturally occurring and induced mutations should be utilized. Classically, most breeding procedures have invoked the dichotomy of major genes versus polygenes (or discrete versus continuously varying traits) which is briefly reviewed here from several viewpoints. Clearly, the evidence for two distinct classes of genes (or gene effects on phenotype) and traits is largely a product of different forms of genetic analyses and their primary objectives as well as of researchers' expectations. Superimposed on the simplest Mendelian ratios and genome maps are numerous sources of molecular variation and gene expression at many levels of phenotypic description. Many attempts to delineate developmental pathways and to identify genes controlling discrete vs. quantitative phenotypic variation have resulted in emphasis on multigenic models with specific gene effects at mappable loci but nonetheless modified by small effects. Thus, quantitative genetic variation may arise from multi-genic and multi-allelic systems of both structural and regulatory gene action and gene interactions which, from an empirical breeding perspective, might be adequately described by the biometrical and evolutionary models. Polygenic analyses were conceptually based on genetic parameters in these models (as caricatures of reality) but efforts to modify or reject them by identifying and mapping sources of phenotypic variation through newer genetic methods are likely to enrich and not displace biometrical methods. Domestication programmes, in particular, should employ the entire array of genetic discoveries and methodologies. (author). 71 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. On Linear Maps Preserving g-Majorization from to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armandnejad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Let and be the usual spaces of n-dimensional column and m-dimensional row vectors on , respectively, where is the field of real or complex numbers. In this paper, the relations gs-majorization, lgw-majorization, and rgw-majorization are considered on and . Then linear maps preserving lgw-majorization or gs-majorization and linear maps , preserving rgw-majorization are characterized.

  5. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Evidence for a major gene influence on persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Nagalapura; Lee, Hee Suk; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2004-06-01

    Stuttering is a complex developmental speech disorder of unknown etiology. There is a substantial aggregation of stuttering in families, suggesting a genetic component to the disorder. However, the exact mode of transmission is still unknown. An earlier study of 56 multigenerational pedigrees ascertained through single adult probands (38 males and 18 females) found that biological relatives of persistent developmental stutterers have an approximately 10-fold higher risk than in the general population; risk is higher for male relatives, and proband's sex does not affect recurrence and relative risks. In the present paper we conduct a complex segregation analysis of the same data, using the logistic regression model of the SAGE software. Based on the comparisons of model likelihoods, the Mendelian model was selected over all other nongenetic models and the general transmission model. This model was further refined into the most parsimonious model, which shows an autosomal dominant major gene effect influenced by two covariates: sex and affection status of parents. With this model applied to 47 informative multiplex pedigrees, a power calculation based on linkage simulation produced an average lod score of 6.8 for 10-cM density genome scan markers. These results give impetus for a genomewide linkage analysis of susceptibility to persistent developmental stuttering.

  7. Crenothrix are major methane consumers in stratified lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Kirsten; Graf, Jon S; Littmann, Sten; Tienken, Daniela; Brand, Andreas; Wehrli, Bernhard; Albertsen, Mads; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael; Kuypers, Marcel Mm; Schubert, Carsten J; Milucka, Jana

    2017-09-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria represent a major biological sink for methane and are thus Earth's natural protection against this potent greenhouse gas. Here we show that in two stratified freshwater lakes a substantial part of upward-diffusing methane was oxidized by filamentous gamma-proteobacteria related to Crenothrix polyspora. These filamentous bacteria have been known as contaminants of drinking water supplies since 1870, but their role in the environmental methane removal has remained unclear. While oxidizing methane, these organisms were assigned an 'unusual' methane monooxygenase (MMO), which was only distantly related to 'classical' MMO of gamma-proteobacterial methanotrophs. We now correct this assignment and show that Crenothrix encode a typical gamma-proteobacterial PmoA. Stable isotope labeling in combination swith single-cell imaging mass spectrometry revealed methane-dependent growth of the lacustrine Crenothrix with oxygen as well as under oxygen-deficient conditions. Crenothrix genomes encoded pathways for the respiration of oxygen as well as for the reduction of nitrate to N 2 O. The observed abundance and planktonic growth of Crenothrix suggest that these methanotrophs can act as a relevant biological sink for methane in stratified lakes and should be considered in the context of environmental removal of methane.

  8. The Discouraged-Business-Major Hypothesis Revisited: Could Economics Be the Encouraged-Business-Major?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarta, Carlos J.; Butters, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    The term "Discouraged-Business-Major" (DBM) describes students who become discouraged with the rigorous standards of colleges of business and migrate to colleges of arts and sciences to complete a degree in economics under relaxed requirements (Salemi and Eubanks 1996). Following Salemi and Eubanks, the present authors examine a decade…

  9. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  10. Majoring in Information Systems: Reasons Why Students Select (or Not) Information Systems as a Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Johnny; Slauson, Gayla Jo

    2014-01-01

    Filling the pipeline for information systems workers is critical in the information era. Projected growth rates for jobs requiring information systems expertise are significantly higher than the projected growth rates for other jobs. Why then do relatively few students choose to major in information systems? This paper reviews survey results from…

  11. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and control surfaces. (xxviii) Repairing, including rebottoming, of removable or integral fuel tanks and oil tanks. (2) Powerplant major repairs. Repairs of the following parts of an engine and repairs... of fuel tank filler openings provided the specific device has been made a part of the aircraft type...

  12. Cis-urocanic acid increases immunotoxicity and lethality of dermally administered permethrin in C57BL/6N mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, M R; Gogal, R M; Blaylock, B L; Holladay, S D

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of a single topical permethrin exposure, 5-day exposure to cis-urocanic acid (cUCA), or a combination of the two chemicals were evaluated in 4- to 5-week-old female C57BL/6N mice. Permethrin alone decreased thymic weight and cellularity. Although cUCA alone did not affect thymic end points, coexposure to topical permethrin and cUCA exacerbated the thymolytic effects of permethrin. The single topical dose of permethrin also depressed several immune responses in isolated splenic leukocytes. This included splenic T-cell proliferative response to mitogen, splenic macrophage hydrogen peroxide production, and splenic B lymphocyte-specific antibody production. Unlike the effect of coexposure to these agents on thymic end points, cUCA did not exacerbate permethrin's adverse effect on any of the splenic end points examined. These results appear to suggest divergent mechanisms by which these compounds affect precursor and functionally mature T cells. At the doses used in this study, permethrin caused neurotoxic effects, including lethality, in a portion of the mice. For undetermined reasons, cUCA significantly increased the rate of lethality caused by permethrin. Although the permethrin doses used in this study exceed that typically used in human medicine, these results raise some concerns about the possibility that sunlight, via cUCA, may increase the risk of adverse central nervous system and immune effects caused by permethrin alone.

  13. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  14. 2016 Status Report on Major Equipment Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Department of National Defence made some progress in procurement in 2016 despite obstacles that included a continued drop in spending, the advent of a new federal Liberal government and uncertainty over the outcome of the Defence Policy Review. Four trends affected defence acquisitions in 2016. These include an ongoing slippage in recapitalizing the Canadian Armed Forces, some encouraging moves made on the shipbuilding and fighter jet files, mixed progress on implementing the 2014 Defence Procurement Strategy, and uncertainty over the Defence Policy Review. It is also too early to tell how the Trudeau government’s Policy on Results, known as the “deliverology” approach, will play out for defence procurement. However, Budget 2016’s major focus was not on defence, and it shifted some funding for capital equipment to a new endpoint of 2045. This suggests that delay in the overall defence procurement program continues. While the Liberals kept their pledge to make investment in the Royal Canadian Navy a priority, they also made good last year on a negative promise – not to purchase the F-35 stealth fighter bomber. However, further slowing things is the Liberals’ refusal to launch a competition to replace it until the Defence Policy Review is published. The government has made this situation more fraught with its intention to buy 18 Boeing Super Hornet fighter jets as interim aircraft, since Liberal policy requires the Royal Canadian Air Force to be capable of meeting both NORAD’s and NATO’s operational needs simultaneously. Prior to the release of the new defence policy, both the interim and permanent fighter aircraft projects lacked adequate funding. They were among several large projects that have been approved, but have not yet moved to the contract stage, and whose budgets were inadequate to move forward. Adding to this mix is the fact that a government-wide effort initiated in 2014 to streamline the defence procurement

  15. Single-electron thermal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Ono, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Akira

    2014-07-11

    We report the observation of thermal noise in the motion of single electrons in an ultimately small dynamic random access memory (DRAM). The nanometer-scale transistors that compose the DRAM resolve the thermal noise in single-electron motion. A complete set of fundamental tests conducted on this single-electron thermal noise shows that the noise perfectly follows all the aspects predicted by statistical mechanics, which include the occupation probability, the law of equipartition, a detailed balance, and the law of kT/C. In addition, the counting statistics on the directional motion (i.e., the current) of the single-electron thermal noise indicate that the individual electron motion follows the Poisson process, as it does in shot noise.

  16. Single-employer Pension Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  17. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinical...... problems. In this thesis lab on a chip systems for rare single cell analysis are investigated. The focus was to develop a commercial, disposable device for circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis. Such a device must be able to separate rare cells from blood samples and subsequently capture the specific...... cells, and simultaneously be fabricated and operated at low costs and be user-friendly. These challenges were addressed through development of two microfluidic devices, one for rare cell isolation based on pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and one for single cell capture based on hydrodynamic trapping...

  18. Single Sign On Internal (SSOi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides single sign-on solution for internal facing VA applications. Allows internal users access to a variety of VA systems and applications using a reduced set of...

  19. Allographic Agraphia for Single letters

    OpenAIRE

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a se...

  20. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haw [Moraga, CA; Cang, Hu [Berkeley, CA; Xu, Cangshan [Berkeley, CA; Wong, Chung M [San Gabriel, CA

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  1. Single--stranded DNA mycoplasmaviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniloff, J.; Das, J.; Nowak, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two general types of single--stranded DNA bacteriophases have been described, icosahedral virions (e.g., 0X174) and filamentous virions (e.g., M13). Mycoplasmavirus MVL51 appears to represent another type of single--stranded DNA phage, with a genome size close to that of 0X174 and a nonlytic mode of infection like that of filamentous phages. The bullet shaped MVL51 morphology is unlike that of other known phages.

  2. Analysis of single biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of elemental information from single cultured cells using nuclear microscopy is an area of great potential because it can provide both quantitative information on the uptake of elements by the cell, and also its elemental response to a wide variety of external stimuli. A recent technique based on nuclear physics technology enables the analysis of single cells down to the parts per million level to be achieved

  3. Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P

    2017-12-01

    In the USA, local governments have the primary responsibility to manage MSW. However, local governments lack the authority to explicitly shift costs or responsibility back onto the producer for specific problem wastes. A particularly problematic waste for local governments is the single-use plastic bag. In 2014, in the USA, 103.465 billion single-use plastic shopping bags were consumed. Because of their extremely low recyclability rate, plastic bags remain a significant source of land-based litter and marine debris and impair stormwater management systems. They also reduce the effectiveness of automated recycling systems. In response, local governments increasingly have adopted a variety of measures specifically intended to reduce the store-level consumption of single-use shopping bags in 5 major categories: bans, imposition of fees and taxes, establishing minimum product design of bags, requiring consumer education, and mandating retailer take-back programs. As of September 2017, there were 271 local governments in the USA with plastic bag ordinances covering 9.7% of the nation's population. The majority (95%) of the ordinances is a ban on single-use plastic bags; 56.9% of these bans also include a mandatory fee on paper and/or reusable bags. For the fee-based ordinances, the mode is $0.10 per bag; every tax/fee ordinance allows retailers to retain some or all the collected fee. As local governments continue to increase their actions on plastic bags, 11 states have enacted laws to prohibit local governments from regulating single-use plastic bags. Because of the success with single-use bags, local governments are also enacting similar ordinances on single-use expanded polystyrene consumer products and other single-use plastic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Renoprotective Effect of Plantago Major Against Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizgar, Soghra; Hosseinian, Sara; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Alireza; Mohebbati, Reza; Naji Ebrahimi Yazd, Zohreh; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible renoprotective effect of Plantago major extract against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups. The first group was the control, group 2 was treated with cisplatin (7 mg/kg, single dose), and groups 3 to 6 received cisplatin with vitamin E (100 mg/kg) and Plantago major  extract at doses of 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg, and 1200 mg/kg, for 20 days. On day12, serum concentration of urea, creatinine, and potassium significantly increased and sodium concentration significantly decreased in the cisplatin group compared with the control rats. However, serum creatinine, urea, and potassium concentrations were significantly lower in all of the Plantago major groups compared to the cisplatin group. Also, there was a significant elevation in serum sodium concentration in the Plantago major 600 mg/kg group compared to the cisplatin group on day12. Injection of cisplatin caused a significant elevation in malondialdehyde concentration but a significant decrease in catalase activity and total thiol content compared to the control group. Plantago major extract at 1200 mg/kg significantly improved malondialdehyde concentration and total thiol content compared to the cisplatin group. Catalase activity with Plantago major significantly increased at all doses compared to the cisplatin group. The current study suggests that Plantago major extract and vitamin E are able to improve kidney function as well as oxidative stress in cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in the rat.

  5. Immunity to alpha-Gal: Toward a Single-Antigen Pan-Vaccine To Control Major Infectious Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 11 (2017), s. 1140-1142 ISSN 2374-7943 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma cruzi * trypomastigotes * carbohydrate Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 7.481, year: 2016

  6. Analysis of major histocompatibility complex class II gene in water voles using capillary electrophoresis-single stranded conformation polymorphism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Galan, M.; Charbonnel, N.; Cosson, J.-F.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2005), s. 173-176 ISSN 1471-8278 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : water vole * population genetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.219, year: 2005

  7. Single-Base Resolution Map of Evolutionary Constraints and Annotation of Conserved Elements across Major Grass Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pingping; Saqib, Hafiz Sohaib Ahmed; Zhang, Xingtan; Zhang, Liangsheng

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) are evolutionarily conserved DNA sequences that do not encode proteins but may have potential regulatory roles in gene expression. CNS in crop genomes could be linked to many important agronomic traits and ecological adaptations. Compared with the relatively mature exon annotation protocols, efficient methods are lacking to predict the location of noncoding sequences in the plant genomes. We implemented a computational pipeline that is tailored to the comparisons of plant genomes, yielding a large number of conserved sequences using rice genome as the reference. In this study, we used 17 published grass genomes, along with five monocot genomes as well as the basal angiosperm genome of Amborella trichopoda. Genome alignments among these genomes suggest that at least 12.05% of the rice genome appears to be evolving under constraints in the Poaceae lineage, with close to half of the evolutionarily constrained sequences located outside protein-coding regions. We found evidence for purifying selection acting on the conserved sequences by analyzing segregating SNPs within the rice population. Furthermore, we found that known functional motifs were significantly enriched within CNS, with many motifs associated with the preferred binding of ubiquitous transcription factors. The conserved elements that we have curated are accessible through our public database and the JBrowse server. In-depth functional annotations and evolutionary dynamics of the identified conserved sequences provide a solid foundation for studying gene regulation, genome evolution, as well as to inform gene isolation for cereal biologists. PMID:29378032

  8. Pleistocene mitochondrial genomes suggest a single major dispersal of non-Africans and a Late Glacial population turnover in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Posth, C.; Renaud, G.; Mittnik, A.; Drucker, D. G.; Rougier, H.; Cupillard, Ch.; Valentin, F.; Thevenet, C.; Furtwängler, A.; Wissing, Ch.; Francken, M.; Malina, M.; Bolus, M.; Lari, M.; Gigli, E.; Capecchi, G.; Crevecoeur, I.; Beauval, C.; Flas, D.; Germonpré, M.; Plicht van der, J.; Cottiaux, R.; Gély, B.; Ronchitelli, A.; Wehrberger, K.; Grigorescu, D.; Svoboda, Jiří; Semal, P.; Caramelli, D.; Bocherens, H.; Harvati, K.; Conard, N. J.; Haak, W.; Powell, A.; Krause, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, March 21 (2016), s. 827-833 ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : mitochondrial genome * Pleistocene * Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 8.851, year: 2016

  9. Modeling Single Occupant Vehicle Behavior in High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-14

    High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are in operation, under construction, and planned for in several major metropolitan areas. The premise behind HOT lanes is to allow single occupant vehicles (SOVs) to access high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes (and theo...

  10. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration. In the first five weeks of the study, patients were randomised to treatment with either 60 minutes of bright white or 30 minutes of dim red light (sham condition). In the four weeks follow-up period, patients were treated with sertraline alone. In the Pindolol study, all patients were treated with venlafaxine and randomised to augmentation with either active or placebo matching pindolol tablets. In the PEMF study patients were continued on ongoing medication and randomised to augmentation with active or inactive (sham) 30 minutes daily PEMF treatment on weekdays. In the Chronos study all patients were treated with duloxetine and randomized to either a combination of three wake therapies with daily bright light treatment and sleep time stabilisation (wake group) or to daily exercise of minimum 30 minutes as an active control intervention (exercise group). The Chronos study was divided into: (1) a one-week run-in phase where duloxetine were started (and continued for the whole 29 week study period), (2) a one-week inpatient intervention phase where patient in the wake group did three wake therapies (sleep abstinence for the whole night and the following day until evening) in combination with daily light therapy and guidance on sleep time stabilisation and patients in the exercise group started a daily exercise program, (3) a seven week continuation phase where

  11. Major Conference about Astronomical Technology in Munich

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Press Conference on Monday, March 27, 2000 Which are the latest astronomical discoveries made with the new 8-10 metre class astronomical telescopes? Will it be possible to construct even more powerful instruments on the ground and in space to explore the near and distant Universe at all wavelengths from gamma-rays to radio waves? Which research areas in this dynamical science are likely to achieve break-throughs with emerging new technologies? These are some of the central themes that will be discussed by more than 600 specialists from all over the world at an international conference in Munich (Germany), "Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments 2000" , beginning on Monday, March 27, 2000. During five days, the modern architecture of the new International Congress Center in the Bavarian capital will be the scene of lively exchanges about recent progress at the world's top-class astronomical research facilities and the presentation of inspired new ideas about future technological opportunities. The conference will be accompanied by numerous on-site exhibition stands by the major industries and research organisations in this wide field. This meeting is the latest in a series, organised every second year, alternatively in the USA and Europe by the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) , this year with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) as co-sponsor and host institution. The conference will be opened in the morning of March 27 by the Bavarian Minister of Science, Research and Arts, Hans Zehetmair . His address will be followed by keynote speeches by Massimo Tarenghi (European Southern Observatory), James B. Breckenridge (National Science Foundation, USA), Harvey Butcher (Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy) and Albrecht Ruediger (Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik, Germany). The conference is subtitled "Power Telescopes and Instrumentation into the New Millennium" and will be attended by leading scientists and engineers from all

  12. Mammography screening: A major issue in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is declining in most high-income countries. The role of mammography screening in these declines is much debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the incidence of number of advanced cancers with poor prognosis, while therapies and patient management impact cancer mortality through decreasing the fatality of cancers. The effectiveness of cancer screening is the ability of a screening method to curb the incidence of advanced cancers in populations. Methods for evaluating cancer screening effectiveness are based on the monitoring of age-adjusted incidence rates of advanced cancers that should decrease after the introduction of screening. Likewise, cancer-specific mortality rates should decline more rapidly in areas with screening than in areas without or with lower levels of screening but where patient management is similar. These two criteria have provided evidence that screening for colorectal and cervical cancer contributes to decreasing the mortality associated with these two cancers. In contrast, screening for neuroblastoma in children was discontinued in the early 2000s because these two criteria were not met. In addition, overdiagnosis - i.e. the detection of non-progressing occult neuroblastoma that would not have been life-threatening during the subject's lifetime - is a major undesirable consequence of screening. Accumulating epidemiological data show that in populations where mammography screening has been widespread for a long time, there has been no or only a modest decline in the incidence of advanced cancers, including that of de novo metastatic (stage IV) cancers at diagnosis. Moreover, breast cancer mortality reductions are similar in areas with early introduction and high penetration of screening and in areas with late introduction and low penetration of screening. Overdiagnosis is commonplace, representing 20% or more of all breast cancers among women invited to screening and 30-50% of screen

  13. Splenectomy for people with thalassaemia major or intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easow Mathew, Manu; Sharma, Akshay; Aravindakshan, Rajeev

    2016-06-14

    Thalassaemia is a genetic disease of the haemoglobin protein in red blood cells. It is classified into thalassaemia minor, intermedia and major, depending on the severity of the disease and the genetic defect. Thalassaemia major and intermedia require frequent blood transfusions to compensate for the lack of well-functioning red blood cells, although this need is significantly less in thalassaemia intermedia.Damaged or defective red blood cells are normally eliminated in the spleen. In people with thalassaemia there is a large quantity of defective red blood cells which results in an enlarged hyperfunctioning spleen (splenomegaly). Removal of the spleen may thus prolong red blood cell survival by reducing the amount of red blood cells removed from circulation and may ultimately result in the reduced need for blood transfusions. To assess the efficacy and safety of splenectomy in people with beta-thalassaemia major or intermedia. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Review Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from searches of electronic databases and the handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of the most recent search: 25 April 2016. We included randomised controlled studies and quasi-randomised controlled studies of people of any age with thalassaemia major or intermedia, evaluating splenectomy in comparison to conservative treatment (transfusion therapy and iron chelation) or other forms of splenectomy compared to each other (laparoscopic, open, radio-frequency). Two authors independently selected and extracted data from the single included study using a customised data extraction form and assessed the risk of bias. One study, including 28 participants was included in the review; the results were described, primarily, in a narrative manner. The study assessed the feasibility of splenectomy using laparoscopy in comparison to open

  14. Meta-Analysis of Molecular Imaging of Serotonin Transporters in Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Gryglewski, Gregor; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Kranz, Georg S.; Cumming, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The success of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors has lent support to the monoamine theory of major depressive disorder (MDD). This issue has been addressed in a number of molecular imaging studies by positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography of serotonin reuptake sites (5-HTT) in the brain of patients with MDD, with strikingly disparate conclusions. Our meta-analysis of the 18 such studies, totaling 364 MDD patients free from significant comorbidities or...

  15. It is not good to be alone; singleness and the Black Seventh-day Adventist Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard-Allan, V. Y.

    2016-01-01

    It is not good to be alone; singleness and the Black Seventh-day Adventist Woman Over the last decade the literature on adult singleness has highlighted the pervasiveness of constructions of singleness as an undesirable status. The great majority of the literature has focused on White women’s accounts of being single and few studies have examined Christian women’s views about their single identities. A notable exception is Aune’s (2004) study of British evangelical Christianity and gender whi...

  16. The effect of a single recombination event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Jensen, Thomas Mailund; Wiuf, Carsten

    We investigate the variance in how visible a single recombination event is in a SNP data set as a function of the type of recombination event and its age. Data is simulated under the coalescent with recombination and inference is by the popular composite likelihood methods. The major determinant...... of the effect of a recombination event is the genealogical type of the event and whether SNP variation is present that can reveal the genealogical consequences of the recombination event. Recombination events that only change some branch lengths in the genealogy have a very small, but detectable, effect....... The more lineages left when the recombination event occurs, the larger effect it has, implying that it is mainly young recombination events that we detect when estimating the rate. If the population is growing, though, more lineages are present back in time and relatively more ancient recombination events...

  17. Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) in plants: a complex gene family with major impacts on plant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Kerrie L; Bhave, Mrinal

    2007-10-01

    The ubiquitous cell membrane proteins called aquaporins are now firmly established as channel proteins that control the specific transport of water molecules across cell membranes in all living organisms. The aquaporins are thus likely to be of fundamental significance to all facets of plant growth and development affected by plant-water relations. A majority of plant aquaporins have been found to share essential structural features with the human aquaporin and exhibit water-transporting ability in various functional assays, and some have been shown experimentally to be of critical importance to plant survival. Furthermore, substantial evidence is now available from a number of plant species that shows differential gene expression of aquaporins in response to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold and clearly establishes the aquaporins as major players in the response of plants to conditions that affect water availability. This review summarizes the function and regulation of these genes to develop a greater understanding of the response of plants to water insufficiency, and particularly, to identify tolerant genotypes of major crop species including wheat and rice and plants that are important in agroforestry.

  18. Thalassemia major is a major risk factor for pediatric melioidosis in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Siew M; Wong, Ke J; Fukushima, Masako; Yeo, Tsin W

    2015-06-15

    Melioidosis is an important cause of community-acquired infection in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Studies from endemic countries have demonstrated differences in the epidemiology and clinical features among children diagnosed with melioidosis. This suggests that local data are needed to determine the risk factors and outcome in specific areas. This was a retrospective study of all children admitted to Likas Women's and Children Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, with a blood or clinical sample positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei from 2001 to 2012. Of 28 children with confirmed melioidosis, 27 records were reviewed including 11 (41%) children with thalassemia major. Twenty of the children had bacteremia, and 16 (59%) had a fatal outcome. Six children had chronic disease, and none died. Empiric use of antibiotics not specific for B. pseudomallei was associated with increased risk of death (P Sabah is associated with a high proportion of bacteremia and death. Thalassemia major was a major risk factor for melioidosis among children from 2001 to 2010, but infections decreased markedly from 2011 to 2012 after universal availability of iron chelation therapy. Inappropriate empiric therapy was associated with an increased risk of death. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Single VDTA Based Dual Mode Single Input Multioutput Biquad Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dual mode, single input multioutput (SIMO biquad filter configuration using single voltage differencing transconductance amplifier (VDTA, three capacitors, and a grounded resistor. The proposed topology can be used to synthesize low pass (LP, high pass (HP, and band pass (BP filter functions. It can be configured as voltage mode (VM or current mode (CM structure with appropriate input excitation choice. The angular frequency (ω0 of the proposed structure can be controlled independently of quality factor (Q0. Workability of the proposed biquad configuration is demonstrated through PSPICE simulations using 0.18 μm TSMC CMOS process parameters.

  20. Single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bräuchle, Christoph; Michaelis, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Closing a gap in the literature, this handbook gathers all the information on single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer. It covers all aspects of this hot and modern topic, from detecting virus entry to membrane diffusion, and from protein folding using spFRET to coupled dye systems, as well recent achievements in the field. Throughout, the first-class editors and top international authors present content of the highest quality, making this a must-have for physical chemists, spectroscopists, molecular physicists and biochemists.